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Sample records for adult mental illness

  1. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  2. Group treatment for parents of the adult mentally ill.

    PubMed

    McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C

    1982-07-01

    Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality. PMID:7106719

  3. Food Insecurity among Homeless Adults with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Parpouchi, Milad; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Russolillo, Angela; Somers, Julian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of food insecurity and food insufficiency is high among homeless people. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among a cohort of homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Data collected from baseline questionnaires in the Vancouver At Home study were analysed to calculate the prevalence of food insecurity within the sample (n = 421). A modified version of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Adult Food Security Survey Module was used to ascertain food insecurity. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential correlates of food insecurity. Results The prevalence of food insecurity was 64%. In the multivariable model, food insecurity was significantly associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99), less than high school completion (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35–0.93), needing health care but not receiving it (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.00–2.72), subjective mental health (aOR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96–0.99), having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.16–4.36), HIV/AIDS (aOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 1.36–12.96), heart disease (aOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16–0.97) and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01–2.68). Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity was extremely high in a cohort with longstanding homelessness and serious mental illness. Younger age, needing health care but not receiving it, poorer subjective mental health, having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month, HIV/AIDS and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank each increased odds of food insecurity, while less than high school completion and heart disease each decreased odds of food insecurity. Interventions to reduce food insecurity in this population are urgently needed. PMID:27437937

  4. Pilot Investigation of the Effectiveness of Respite Care for Carers of an Adult with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardim, Claudia; Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Informal carers of an adult with mental illness have asked that respite care be an integral component of mental health service provision. The present study involved a pilot investigation of the effectiveness of accessing respite care for carers of individuals with a mental illness. It was hypothesised that compared to carers who have not accessed…

  5. Listening to Older Adult Parents of Adult Children with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…

  6. Religious Coping Among Adults Caring for Family Members with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Michelle J; Medoff, Deborah; Lawrence, Ryan E; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of religious coping strategies among family members of adults with serious mental illness. A sample of 436 individuals caring for a family member with serious mental illness were recruited into a randomized clinical trial for the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family to Family Education Program. Relationships are reported between religious coping and caregiving, care recipient, and mental health services outcomes. Religious coping was associated with more objective caregiving burden, greater care recipient need, less mental health knowledge, and less receipt of mental health services after adjusting for non-religious types of coping. At the same time, religious coping was associated with a positive caregiving experience and greater religious support. Religious coping plays an important role for many caregivers of persons with serious mental illness. Caregivers who use more religious coping may have an especially high need for mental health education and mental health services.

  7. Perceptions of Biopsychosocial Services Needs among Older Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Met and Unmet Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cassie, Kimberly McClure

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to identify the psychiatric, physical, and social services needs experienced by older adults with severe mental illness (SMI) and to examine factors influencing their experience of need and service provision adequacy. Seventy-five older adults with SMI were recruited from a community mental health center to participate in the…

  8. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  9. New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

  10. Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael K.

    A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

  11. Utilization and perceptions of primary health care services in Australian adults with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2013-06-01

    Persons accessing inpatient mental health services generally experience reduced access to and quality of primary health care. The objective of this study was to compare health service utilization and perceptions, and receipt of specified health services, in Australian adults with and without a previous mental illness diagnosis. A cross-sectional survey was administered by computer-assisted telephone interviewing in 2011; the main outcome measures were receipt of services in the previous 12 months, satisfaction with health care services, and concerns regarding health care affordability. Participants included 1275 adults residing in Queensland, Australia; 292 (23%) participants reported a diagnosis of mental illness, largely depression and/or anxiety (87%). The mental illness group had higher scores for concerns regarding health care affordability (mean ranks 778 vs. 706, respectively; z=-2.90, P=0.004) and lower scores for perceptions of health care service quality and accessibility (mean ranks 631 vs. 701, respectively; z=-2.90, P=0.004). After adjustment for increased utilization of services, the mental illness group had an increased likelihood of having received only 5 of 19 services in the past 12 months (odds ratios: 1.54-1.71). Compared to those with no mental illness, Australians with a mental illness report increased dissatisfaction with health care affordability, accessibility, and quality, and generally have similar odds of primary care services per health care utilization despite being at significantly greater risk of chronic disease.

  12. Crime Victimization in Adults With Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Weiner, Dana A.

    2006-01-01

    Context Since deinstitutionalization, most persons with severe mental illness (SMI) now live in the community, where they are at great risk for crime victimization. Objectives To determine the prevalence and incidence of crime victimization among persons with SMI by sex, race/ethnicity, and age, and to compare rates with general population data (the National Crime Victimization Survey), controlling for income and demographic differences between the samples. Design Epidemiologic study of persons in treatment. Independent master’s-level clinical research interviewers administered the National Crime Victimization Survey to randomly selected patients sampled from 16 randomly selected mental health agencies. Setting Sixteen agencies providing outpatient, day, and residential treatment to persons with SMI in Chicago, Ill. Participants Randomly selected, stratified sample of 936 patients aged 18 or older (483 men, 453 women) who were African American (n = 329), non-Hispanic white (n = 321), Hispanic (n = 270), or other race/ethnicity (n = 22). The comparison group comprised 32449 participants in the National Crime Victimization Survey. Main Outcome Measure National Crime Victimization Survey, developed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Results More than one quarter of persons with SMI had been victims of a violent crime in the past year, a rate more than 11 times higher than the general population rates even after controlling for demographic differences between the 2 samples (P<.001). The annual incidence of violent crime in the SMI sample (168.2 incidents per 1000 persons) is more than 4 times higher than the general population rates (39.9 incidents per 1000 persons) (P<.001). Depending on the type of violent crime (rape/sexual assault, robbery, assault, and their subcategories), prevalence was 6 to 23 times greater among persons with SMI than among the general population. Conclusions Crime victimization is a major public health problem among persons with SMI who

  13. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

  14. Conceptualizing Social Integration among Formerly Homeless Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The multiple dimensions of social integration among formerly homeless adults with severe mental illness have not been well-studied. Previous studies have focused on clinical measures or narrow components of social integration. We used a multisite study of chronically homeless adults who were provided housing to (a) identify the main factors…

  15. The Overweight: Obesity and Plasma Lipids in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazizova, D.; Puri, B. K.; Singh, I.; Dhaliwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have reported a higher prevalence of obesity than in the general population, and a trend to an increase in the prevalence of excess weight. However, little information is available on body weight status and lipids levels of adults with ID and co-existing mental illness. The…

  16. HIV Testing Among Adults with Mental Illness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W.; Zack, Matthew M.; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E.; Blank, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33–2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39–1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25–1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed. PMID:25459230

  17. HIV testing among adults with mental illness in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E; Blank, Michael B

    2014-12-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33-2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39-1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25-1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed.

  18. General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness may use general or specialist psychiatric services. This review aims to assess if there is evidence for a difference in outcome between them. A literature review was conducted using a variety of electronic databases and hand-search strategies to identify all studies evaluating the outcome…

  19. Dysphagia is a common and serious problem for adults with mental illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Kristy J; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2012-03-01

    Adults with mental illness may experience a higher incidence of dysphagia and choking due to factors such as medication side effects and behavioural abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of dysphagia and the most effective interventions for this population. Studies published up to August 2010 were sought via a comprehensive electronic database search (CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase). Studies reporting dysphagia frequency or dysphagia intervention outcomes in adults with mental illness were included. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and quality, and the results were synthesised descriptively. Ten studies were identified, each describing dysphagia frequency or death due to choking asphyxiation. No studies evaluating intervention effectiveness were identified. Study quality was limited by subjective assessment of outcomes. Six studies presented dysphagia frequencies ranging from 9 to 42% in varying subgroups. Four studies presented the frequency of choking asphyxiation death, including a large survey that concluded that adults with organic mental illness were 43 times more likely to die of this cause than the general population. Dysphagia is a common and significant cause of morbidity and mortality in adults with mental illness and our review found that there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention techniques.

  20. An Examination of Stress and Coping among Adults Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Robilotta, Stephanie; Cueto, Ecena; Yanos, Philip T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the types of major life and chronic stressors that people with severe mental illness experience, and the coping strategies that are used in response to them. Twenty-eight adults with severe mental illness completed qualitative interviews focused on stress and coping in the prior six months. Participants reported experiencing disruptive major life events including the sudden death of a loved one, loss of housing, and criminal victimization, as well as chronic stressors such as psychiatric symptoms and substance abuse issues, substandard living conditions, legal problems, and health concerns. Results suggested that persons with severe mental illness frequently use problem-centered coping strategies in response to most types of stressors, including major life events, although this occurred after the initial application of avoidant coping strategies. Future research should explore whether or not the identified stressors and the coping strategies used in response to them are unique to this population. PMID:21149987

  1. An examination of stress and coping among adults diagnosed with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Robilotta, Stephanie; Cueto, Ecena; Yanos, Philip T

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the types of major life and chronic stressors that people with severe mental illness experience, and the coping strategies that are used in response to them. Twenty-eight adults with severe mental illness completed qualitative interviews focused on stress and coping in the prior six months. Participants reported experiencing disruptive major life events including the sudden death of a loved one, loss of housing, and criminal victimization, as well as chronic stressors such as psychiatric symptoms and substance abuse issues, substandard living conditions, legal problems, and health concerns. Results suggested that persons with severe mental illness frequently use problem-centered coping strategies in response to most types of stressors, including major life events, although this occurred after the initial application of avoidant coping strategies. Future research should explore whether or not the identified stressors and the coping strategies used in response to them are unique to this population.

  2. Exploring the work lives of adults with serious mental illness from a vocational psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Millner, Uma Chandrika; Rogers, Erna Sally; Bloch, Philippe; Costa, William; Pritchett, Sharon; Woods, Tracy

    2015-10-01

    Current vocational services for adults with serious mental illness remain largely atheoretical and disconnected from mainstream vocational psychology research and practice. This study explored the perspectives on work of adults with serious mental illness, compared perspectives of young and older adults, and assessed these perspectives for the applicability of a well-established theory of vocational psychology. A national sample of 76 individuals with mental illness engaged in the workforce completed a semistructured questionnaire. We applied the principles of a participatory approach to consensual qualitative research methodology in the study design and data analysis. Results yielded a large number of categories, which clustered under domains representative of the primary constructs of social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, 2013). These domains included the antecedents of self-efficacy, namely, personal accomplishments, vicarious learning, social persuasion, and physical or emotional states as well as additional constructs of outcome expectations, personal goals, and contextual barriers. The SCCT model will likely provide a useful framework to bridge the gap between career development theory and vocational services for individuals with mental illness. PMID:26460981

  3. Exploring the work lives of adults with serious mental illness from a vocational psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Millner, Uma Chandrika; Rogers, Erna Sally; Bloch, Philippe; Costa, William; Pritchett, Sharon; Woods, Tracy

    2015-10-01

    Current vocational services for adults with serious mental illness remain largely atheoretical and disconnected from mainstream vocational psychology research and practice. This study explored the perspectives on work of adults with serious mental illness, compared perspectives of young and older adults, and assessed these perspectives for the applicability of a well-established theory of vocational psychology. A national sample of 76 individuals with mental illness engaged in the workforce completed a semistructured questionnaire. We applied the principles of a participatory approach to consensual qualitative research methodology in the study design and data analysis. Results yielded a large number of categories, which clustered under domains representative of the primary constructs of social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, 2013). These domains included the antecedents of self-efficacy, namely, personal accomplishments, vicarious learning, social persuasion, and physical or emotional states as well as additional constructs of outcome expectations, personal goals, and contextual barriers. The SCCT model will likely provide a useful framework to bridge the gap between career development theory and vocational services for individuals with mental illness.

  4. Autovideography: The Lived Experience of Recovery for Adults with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Petros, Ryan; Solomon, Phyllis; Linz, Sheila; DeCesaris, Marissa; Hanrahan, Nancy P

    2016-09-01

    Mental health services have been transforming toward a recovery orientation for more than a decade, yet a robust understanding of recovery eludes many providers, and consensus on a conceptual definition has yet to be reached. This article examines mental health consumers' lived experience of recovery and evaluates the usefulness and comprehensiveness of CHIME, a major framework conceptually defining recovery for adults with serious mental illness. Researchers partnered with a mental health association in a major US city to engage in research with graduates of a recovery and education class for adults diagnosed with serious mental illness. Twelve participants were loaned video cameras and invited to "Tell us about your recovery" through autovideography. Of the 12 participants, six produced videos directly responding to the overall research question and were subsequently included in the present analysis. Data were analyzed thematically, and CHIME adequately represented the major domains presented in consumer videos with two notable modifications: subdomains of "reciprocity" within relationships and "contributing to others" were added to comprehensively represent consumer perspectives about recovery. Adding two subdomains to CHIME more effectively represents consumer narratives about recovery, contributes to the social construction of the personhood of people with serious mental illness, and offers a more robust description of the process of recovery.

  5. Supportive Versus Demanding Intervention Programs for Young Adults With Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Chen Chana; Catz, Or

    2015-11-01

    Two rehabilitation programs for young adults ages 18 to 30 with severe mental illness were launched in Israel in 2009. Both programs adhered to the Illness Management and Recovery approach, but one emphasized emotional support and containment (supportive model program), and the other emphasized practical support to promote independence (demanding model program). A formative and developmental evaluation of both programs was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated that both programs have merits, suggesting that they could be combined to formulate a best practice tailored for the unique needs of this population. PMID:26234335

  6. [The Discursive Analysis of Mental Health Promotion Efforts Targeting Community-Dwelling Young Adults at High Risk of Mental Illness].

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Der-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2015-08-01

    The mental health of adolescents and young adults is an issue of concern worldwide due to the increase in violent incidents that have been perpetrated by members of this age group. Young people at high-risk of mental disability are easily ignored. Therefore, social tensions in society have increased due to safety issues arising from the problems that are associated with mental disabilities in this population. This paper discusses the importance of early identification and early prevention of mental disabilities in high-risk young people, defines high-risk mental illness, and identifies the various subcategories of mental diseases. Based on our review of the literature, the present paper suggests targeting young people in high-risk categories with health promotion that addresses the following six health-promotion lifestyle habits: engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, managing stress, engaging in social relationships, taking responsibility for personal health, and fulfilling self-actualization. This discursive analysis discusses these strategies as safe and sustained interventions for adolescents and young adults that may improve self-awareness and thus maintain health and enhance opportunities to promote an ideal health status.

  7. Music therapy as grief therapy for adults with mental illness and complicated grief: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iliya, Yasmine A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, controlled, mixed-methods pilot study examined the effectiveness and experiences of grief-specific music therapy, in addition to standard care, with adults (N=10) who have complicated grief (CG) and mental illness, as compared to standard care alone. The study tested Worden's (2009) theories of grief therapy as well as a new grief-specific music therapy intervention, based on Shear, Frank, Houck, and Reynolds' (2005) imaginal dialogue intervention and Austin's (2008) method of vocal psychotherapy. Results demonstrated that participants in the experimental group had a greater decrease of grief symptoms, as measured by the ICG-R, as compared with the control group. PMID:25730407

  8. Music therapy as grief therapy for adults with mental illness and complicated grief: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iliya, Yasmine A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, controlled, mixed-methods pilot study examined the effectiveness and experiences of grief-specific music therapy, in addition to standard care, with adults (N=10) who have complicated grief (CG) and mental illness, as compared to standard care alone. The study tested Worden's (2009) theories of grief therapy as well as a new grief-specific music therapy intervention, based on Shear, Frank, Houck, and Reynolds' (2005) imaginal dialogue intervention and Austin's (2008) method of vocal psychotherapy. Results demonstrated that participants in the experimental group had a greater decrease of grief symptoms, as measured by the ICG-R, as compared with the control group.

  9. Transitional Support for Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Critical Time Intervention and Its Roots in Assertive Community Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Professional social workers and other mental health providers have for many years been involved in delivering treatment and support services focused on the needs of adults with severe mental illnesses living in the community. While some models have evolved largely through practice experience, others have developed through research paradigms in…

  10. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer treatment options. Search on the website of local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. ...

  11. Activating Older Adults With Serious Mental Illness for Collaborative Primary Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Stephen J.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Rolin, Stephanie A.; Hendrick, Delia Cimpean; Naslund, John A.; Faber, Marjan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Persons with serious mental illness frequently receive inadequate medical care and are more likely to experience difficulty navigating the health care system compared with the general population. To address this gap in quality, we developed a program of peer co-led collaborative activation training for primary care (CAT-PC) designed to improve “patient activation” and person-centered care in primary care visits for middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness and cardiovascular risk. This report presents pilot study feasibility and participant outcomes for CAT-PC. Method A pre-post pilot evaluation of CAT-PC included N = 17 adults (age ≥ 50) with serious mental illness and cardiovascular health risk conditions, and N = 6 primary care providers. CAT-PC consists of 9 weekly peer co-led patient education and skills training sessions and a 45-min video-based training for primary care providers. Pre-post measures included the Patient Activation Measure (PAM), Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions (PEPPI), Autonomy Preference Index (API) for preferred role in primary care encounters, and Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) role-play test for medical visits. Results All 17 participants attended 5 or more sessions. Post-intervention improvement was found for patient activation and simulated performance of medical visit communication skills. Trends were observed for improved self-efficacy in provider interactions and greater preference for a more collaborative role in decision-making. Conclusions and Implications CAT-PC is a brief, peer co-led education and skills training intervention potentially improving patient activation in primary care encounters and providing an important missing component in emerging models of “patient-centered behavioral health homes” for this high-risk group. PMID:24219769

  12. Empowerment effects of teaching leadership skills to adults with a severe mental illness and their families.

    PubMed

    Hess, R E; Clapper, C R; Hoekstra, K; Gibison, F P

    2001-01-01

    As consumers become proficient with advocacy skills, they are better able to impact the planning and provision of mental health and support services at the state and local levels. A Leadership Academy was conducted in Idaho to teach the basic skills necessary for adults with a mental illness and family members to become effective leaders in grassroots advocacy organizations. Participants learned to identify issues and develop and implement action plans to address those issues within the context of their local communities. While the first three sessions of the Academy were facilitated by professional instructors, the last two were led by consumers and family members who had graduated from the Academy. In the course of five sessions in three years, 160 consumers and family members graduated from the Leadership Academy. In a 27 months period, graduates took 1,345 action steps to address issues of concern, with 400 outcomes, ranging from the establishment of a speakers bureau to starting a respite facility.

  13. Persisting Barriers to Employment for Recently Housed Adults with Mental Illness Who Were Homeless.

    PubMed

    Poremski, Daniel; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Lemieux, Ashley J; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-02-01

    Adults with mental illness who are homeless experience multiple barriers to employment, contributing to difficulties securing and maintaining housing. Housing First programs provide quick, low-barrier access to housing and support services for this population, but their success in improving employment outcomes has been limited. Supported employment interventions may augment Housing First programs and address barriers to employment for homeless adults with mental illness. The present paper presents data from qualitative interviews to shed light on the persisting barriers to employment among people formerly homeless. Once housed, barriers to employment persisted, including the following: (1) worries about disclosing sensitive information, (2) fluctuating motivation, (3) continued substance use, and (4) fears about re-experiencing homelessness-related trauma. Nevertheless, participants reported that their experiences of homelessness helped them develop interpersonal strength and resilience. Discussing barriers with an employment specialist helps participants develop strategies to overcome them, but employment specialists must be sensitive to specific homelessness-related experiences that may not be immediately evident. Supported housing was insufficient to help people return to employment. Supported employment may help people return to work by addressing persisting barriers.

  14. A stress and coping model of adjustment to caring for an adult with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Christina; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the utility of a stress and coping framework for identifying factors associated with adjustment to informal caregiving to adults with mental illness. Relations between stress and coping predictors and negative (distress) and positive (positive affect, life satisfaction, benefit finding, health) carer adjustment outcomes were examined. A total of 114 caregivers completed questionnaires. Predictors included relevant background variables (carer and care recipient characteristics and caregiving context), coping resources (optimism, social support, carer-care recipient relationship quality), appraisal (threat, control, challenge) and coping strategies (problem-focused, avoidance, acceptance, meaning-focused). Results indicated that after controlling for relevant background variables (burden, caregiving frequency, care recipient symptom unpredictability), better caregiver adjustment was related to higher social support and optimism, better quality of carer-care recipient relationship, lower threat and higher challenge appraisals, and less reliance on avoidance coping, as hypothesised. Coping resources emerged as the most consistent predictor of adjustment. Findings support the utility of stress and coping theory in identifying risk and protective factors associated with adaptation to caring for an adult with mental illness.

  15. Persisting Barriers to Employment for Recently Housed Adults with Mental Illness Who Were Homeless.

    PubMed

    Poremski, Daniel; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Lemieux, Ashley J; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-02-01

    Adults with mental illness who are homeless experience multiple barriers to employment, contributing to difficulties securing and maintaining housing. Housing First programs provide quick, low-barrier access to housing and support services for this population, but their success in improving employment outcomes has been limited. Supported employment interventions may augment Housing First programs and address barriers to employment for homeless adults with mental illness. The present paper presents data from qualitative interviews to shed light on the persisting barriers to employment among people formerly homeless. Once housed, barriers to employment persisted, including the following: (1) worries about disclosing sensitive information, (2) fluctuating motivation, (3) continued substance use, and (4) fears about re-experiencing homelessness-related trauma. Nevertheless, participants reported that their experiences of homelessness helped them develop interpersonal strength and resilience. Discussing barriers with an employment specialist helps participants develop strategies to overcome them, but employment specialists must be sensitive to specific homelessness-related experiences that may not be immediately evident. Supported housing was insufficient to help people return to employment. Supported employment may help people return to work by addressing persisting barriers. PMID:26666250

  16. Reflections of Adults on Their School Experiences Growing up with a Severely Mentally Ill Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Marie A.

    2013-01-01

    More than five million children in the United States have a parent suffering from a severe mental illness and these children have specific experiences and needs, particularly in school. Children of mentally ill parents are at greater risk of being neglected and of developing psychological, social, emotional, and behavioral problems. They often…

  17. Maslow and mental health recovery: a comparative study of homeless programs for adults with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Derejko, Katie-Sue; Couture, Julie; Padgett, Deborah K

    2015-03-01

    This mixed-methods study uses Maslow's hierarchy as a theoretical lens to investigate the experiences of 63 newly enrolled clients of housing first and traditional programs for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced homelessness. Quantitative findings suggests that identifying self-actualization goals is associated with not having one's basic needs met rather than from the fulfillment of basic needs. Qualitative findings suggest a more complex relationship between basic needs, goal setting, and the meaning of self-actualization. Transforming mental health care into a recovery-oriented system will require further consideration of person-centered care planning as well as the impact of limited resources especially for those living in poverty. PMID:24518968

  18. Maslow and mental health recovery: a comparative study of homeless programs for adults with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Derejko, Katie-Sue; Couture, Julie; Padgett, Deborah K

    2015-03-01

    This mixed-methods study uses Maslow's hierarchy as a theoretical lens to investigate the experiences of 63 newly enrolled clients of housing first and traditional programs for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced homelessness. Quantitative findings suggests that identifying self-actualization goals is associated with not having one's basic needs met rather than from the fulfillment of basic needs. Qualitative findings suggest a more complex relationship between basic needs, goal setting, and the meaning of self-actualization. Transforming mental health care into a recovery-oriented system will require further consideration of person-centered care planning as well as the impact of limited resources especially for those living in poverty.

  19. Maslow and Mental Health Recovery: A Comparative Study of Homeless Programs for Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Derejko, Katie-Sue; Couture, Julie; Padgett, Deborah K.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study uses Maslow’s hierarchy as a theoretical lens to investigate the experiences of 63 newly enrolled clients of housing first and traditional programs for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced homelessness. Quantitative findings suggests that identifying self-actualization goals is associated with not having one’s basic needs met rather than from the fulfillment of basic needs. Qualitative findings suggest a more complex relationship between basic needs, goal setting, and the meaning of self-actualization. Transforming mental health care into a recovery-oriented system will require further consideration of person-centered care planning as well as the impact of limited resources especially for those living in poverty. PMID:24518968

  20. The Prevalence, Incidence, and Factors Predictive of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann; Smiley, Elita; Finlayson, Janet; Jackson, Alison; Allan, Linda; Williamson, Andrew; Mantry, Dipali; Morrison, Jillian

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no previous studies of the prevalence and incidence of mental ill-health in adults with profound intellectual disabilities. Method: In this population-based prospective cohort study, adults with profound intellectual disabilities underwent psychiatric assessment (n = 184), with further assessment after 2 years (n = 131).…

  1. Housing preferences and choices among adults with mental illness and substance use disorders: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Bond, Gary R; Salyers, Michelle P; Godfrey, Jenna L; Davis, Kristin E

    2010-08-01

    Housing is a crucial issue for adults with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders, as this population is particularly susceptible to housing instability and homelessness. We interviewed 40 adults with dual disorders, living in either supervised or independent housing arrangements, to examine housing preferences, decision making processes surrounding housing choices, and perceived barriers to housing. We found that many clients indicated their housing preferences had changed over time, and some clients related housing preferences to recovery. Although the majority of clients preferred independent housing, many also described benefits of supervised housing. Clients' current living situations appeared to be driven primarily by treatment provider recommendations and availability of housing. Common barriers to obtaining desired housing were lack of income and information. These findings have implications for supported housing models and approaches to providing housing for clients.

  2. Coping with the Personal Loss of Having a Parent with Mental Illness: Young Adults' Narrative Accounts of Spiritual Struggle and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunu, Aleisha; Stein, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the personal accounts of nine young adults who have parents living with mental illness. Adults' experience of personal loss due to their parents' mental illness and perceptions of their religious faith journey and spiritual struggles are described. Overall, young adults who reported experiencing more personal loss due to…

  3. Commentary: the forgotten older adult with serious mental illness: the final challenge in achieving the promise of Olmstead?

    PubMed

    Bartels, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Older adults with serious mental illness disproportionately reside in nursing homes despite the U.S. Supreme Court Olmstead decision supporting the rights of persons with disabilities to benefit from integrated services in the community. This commentary addresses the neglected policy debate on implementing Olmstead for this rapidly growing, older population with special needs. First, the author describes research findings on older adults with serious mental illness living in nursing homes who might more appropriately reside and receive services in the community. Second, the author summarizes the evidence base for effective psychosocial rehabilitation interventions and services facilitating independent living in community settings for this subgroup. Finally, he concludes with seven policy recommendations aimed at advancing the promise of the Olmstead decision with respect to older adults with serious mental illness.

  4. Housing outcomes for homeless adults with mental illness: results from the second-round McKinney program.

    PubMed

    Shern, D L; Felton, C J; Hough, R L; Lehman, A F; Goldfinger, S; Valencia, E; Dennis, D; Straw, R; Wood, P A

    1997-02-01

    In the early 1990s the National Institute of Mental Health sponsored projects in four cities that served a total of 896 homeless mentally ill adults. Each project tested the effectiveness of different housing, support, and rehabilitative services in reducing homelessness. Most homeless individuals resided in community housing after the intervention. The proportion in community housing varied between sites. A 47.5 percent increase in community housing was found for those in active treatment conditions. At final follow-up, 78 percent of participants in community housing were stably housed. The findings indicate that effective strategies are available for serving homeless individuals with severe mental illness. PMID:9021858

  5. Simulated Job Interview Improves Skills for Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    HUMM, Laura Boteler; OLSEN, Dale; BELL, Morris; FLEMING, Michael; SMITH, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Adults with serious mental illnesses (e.g., Autism Spectrum Disorder [ASD], schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) often have difficulties obtaining employment. The Job Interview Training System with Molly Porter, developed in collaboration with Yale and Northwestern Universities and vocational rehabilitation specialists with funding from The National Institutes of Health (R43/44MH080496), allows learners to practice job interviews on computers in a stress free environment. The system includes user-driven educational materials, an interactive job application, a practice simulation with a fictional interviewer (Molly Porter), and extensive feedback. SIMmersion’s PeopleSIM™ technology allows each conversation with Molly to provide a unique interview experience, enabling users to gain confidence while building skills. The on-screen coach provides insight during the conversation, and a comprehensive after-action review provides learners with feedback on the entire interview. In a randomized control trial, the system was proven effective at improving participants’ interview skills and confidence. Ninety-six (96) unemployed adults with ASD (n=26), schizophrenia/other (n=37) or PTSD (n=33) were recruited. Participants were randomized into control (n=32) and experimental (n=64) conditions. The control group was “wait-listed” to receive training, and the experimental group used the training system with Molly Porter. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention role-play interviews and self-assessment questionnaires. Analyses of covariance showed that the simulation provided a highly significant training effect, with experimental group participants scoring better in the role-play interviews and self-assessing higher than control group participants. By increasing skills and confidence, this system may ultimately reduce the length of unemployment for adults with mental illnesses. PMID:24875689

  6. Simulated job interview improves skills for adults with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Be, Morris; Fleming, Michael; Smith, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Adults with serious mental illnesses (e.g., Autism Spectrum Disorder [ASD], schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) often have difficulties obtaining employment. The Job Interview Training System with Molly Porter, developed in collaboration with Yale and Northwestern Universities and vocational rehabilitation specialists with funding from The National Institutes of Health (R43/44MH080496), allows learners to practice job interviews on computers in a stress free environment. The system includes user-driven educational materials, an interactive job application, a practice simulation with a fictional interviewer (Molly Porter), and extensive feedback. SIMmersion's PeopleSIM™ technology allows each conversation with Molly to provide a unique interview experience, enabling users to gain confidence while building skills. The on-screen coach provides insight during the conversation, and a comprehensive after-action review provides learners with feedback on the entire interview. In a randomized control trial, the system was proven effective at improving participants' interview skills and confidence. Ninety-six (96) unemployed adults with ASD (n=26), schizophrenia/other (n=37) or PTSD (n=33) were recruited. Participants were randomized into control (n=32) and experimental (n=64) conditions. The control group was "wait-listed" to receive training, and the experimental group used the training system with Molly Porter. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention role-play interviews and self-assessment questionnaires. Analyses of covariance showed that the simulation provided a highly significant training effect, with experimental group participants scoring better in the role-play interviews and self-assessing higher than control group participants. By increasing skills and confidence, this system may ultimately reduce the length of unemployment for adults with mental illnesses.

  7. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25336958

  8. Chronic illness histories of adults entering treatment for co-occurring substance abuse and other mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Chesher, Nicholas J; Bousman, Chad A; Gale, Maiken; Norman, Sonya B; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Heaton, Robert K; Everall, Ian P; Judd, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the medical status of individuals entering treatment for co-occurring substance abuse and other mental disorders (COD). We analyzed the medical histories of 169 adults entering outpatient treatment for CODs, estimating lifetime prevalence of chronic illness and current smoking, comparing these rates to the general population, and examining psychiatric and substance-related correlates of chronic illness. Results revealed significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, asthma, arthritis, and smoking compared to the general US population, and showed an association between chronic illness and psychiatric symptom distress and substance use severity. Findings support integration of chronic illness management into COD treatment. 

  9. [Mental illness and media].

    PubMed

    Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency. PMID:15248412

  10. Fathers' everyday experiences of having an adult child who suffers from long-term mental illness.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anita; Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta; Ahlin, Arne; Andershed, Birgitta

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the everyday life experiences of fathers of adult children who have various forms of long-term mental illness. Ten fathers were interviewed. Content analysis revealed one main theme: Maintaining a strong façade while balancing on a thin line, and two sub-themes: (1) A constant struggle and (2) A feeling of powerlessness. The fathers demonstrated great engagement and good will to participate in their child's life. A sense of powerlessness and frustration at not having or being allowed freedom of action emerged. Cooperation between children, parents, the care service providers, and the authorities could increase the parents' abilities to provide adequate support to the child as well as helping them to understand and make the incomprehensible manageable. PMID:22273345

  11. Cigarette smoking and interest in quitting among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness enrolled in a fitness intervention.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Brunette, Mary F; McElvery, Raleigh; Naslund, John A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    This study explored cigarette smoking, health status, and interest in quitting among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness enrolled in a fitness intervention. Baseline data from two studies of the In SHAPE fitness intervention were combined. A total of 341 overweight or obese adults with serious mental illness were assessed on smoking, interest in quitting, cardiovascular fitness, lipids, body mass index, readiness to change diet, and psychiatric symptoms. Thirty-six percent (n = 122) of participants were categorized as current smokers. The majority of smokers (84%) were interested in quitting. Smokers were more likely to be younger, male, and less educated than non-smokers. Smokers had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and were less ready to reduce dietary fat, after adjusting for age, gender, and education. Findings highlight the potential to address both fitness and smoking to reduce cardiovascular risk in individuals with serious mental illness.

  12. Roles of religious and spiritual advisors among adults in Singapore with mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Zhang, Yunjue; Chong, Siow Ann

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Information is limited concerning the role of religious and spiritual advisors in providing help to people with mental illnesses in Singapore. This study examined that role, as well as the satisfaction with and the perceived effectiveness of the services provided, among people with mental health problems. METHODS Data were collected as part of a nationally representative household survey of residents 18 years and older in Singapore. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0, was used to diagnose mental illness as well as to collect information about the mental health services respondents had sought. RESULTS A total of 6,616 respondents completed the survey; in the overall sample, 1.5% reported seeking help from religious or spiritual advisors. This rate increased to 6.6% among those with at least one mental illness, with the prevalence being higher among respondents with lifetime dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, or bipolar disorder. Sociodemographic correlates associated with a lower likelihood of consultation with a religious or spiritual advisor included reporting "other" race-ethnicity as well as faith in Buddhism, Hinduism, or Islam. Most respondents who sought help from a religious or spiritual advisor in the last 12 months were satisfied with the help they received, and about half reported it to be very useful. CONCLUSIONS Religious and spiritual advisors are an important source of help for people with mental illness, and a majority of respondents with a mental illness were satisfied with the support they received from these sources. PMID:23903293

  13. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  14. The Effects of Early Sexual Abuse on Adult Risky Sexual Behaviors among Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Mustillo, Sarah; Elbogen, Eric B.; Dorsey, Shannon; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: There were two aims: first, to examine the relationship between prior sexual abuse and three types of adult risky sexual behaviors [(1) ever traded sex for drugs or money, (2) had unprotected sex in the past 6 months, and (3) frequency of unprotected sex in the past 6 months] among persons with severe mental illness (SMI), and second,…

  15. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  16. [Prophecy and mental illness].

    PubMed

    Vishne, Tali; Harary, Eran

    2005-09-01

    It is a well known platitude that a mentally ill person may "think that he is God" or "believes that he is the Messiah". Despite the generalization and shallowness of this attitude, sometimes psychotic patients indeed have delusions with contents of divine revelation, messianic assignments or prophetic power. In this current article we examine the different connections between prophecy and mental condition, especially psychotic. We present sources that combine prophecy and insanity, and also possible psychiatric interpretation of these situations. Finally, we present the attitude of the Rambam to prophecy and the personality characteristics of the prophet, limiting the possibility of the mentally ill patient who pretends to be a prophet.

  17. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Adult Psychiatric Outpatients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; McKinnon, Karen; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Collins, Pamela Y.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the associations between perceived mental illness stigma and HIV risk and protective behaviors among adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We measured mental illness stigma across three domains (“Personal Experiences,” “Perceived Attractiveness,” and “Relationship Discrimination”), and examined the relationship between experiences of stigma in each domain and HIV risk and protective behaviors over the past three months in 98 outpatients with SMI. Those who reported greater “Relationship Discrimination” stigma were significantly more likely to be sexually active and to have unprotected sex; they were significantly less likely to report deliberately having fewer partners as a way to protect themselves from HIV. The role of stigma in unprotected sexual behavior should be examined further and considered in any HIV prevention intervention for people with SMI. PMID:19543974

  18. Perceived mental illness stigma and HIV risk behaviors among adult psychiatric outpatients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; McKinnon, Karen; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Collins, Pamela Y; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Wainberg, Milton L

    2010-02-01

    We examined the associations between perceived mental illness stigma and HIV risk and protective behaviors among adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We measured mental illness stigma across three domains ("Personal Experiences," "Perceived Attractiveness," and "Relationship Discrimination"), and examined the relationship between experiences of stigma in each domain and HIV risk and protective behaviors over the past 3 months in 98 outpatients with SMI. Those who reported greater "Relationship Discrimination" stigma were significantly more likely to be sexually active and to have unprotected sex; they were significantly less likely to report deliberately having fewer partners as a way to protect themselves from HIV. The role of stigma in unprotected sexual behavior should be examined further and considered in any HIV prevention intervention for people with SMI. PMID:19543974

  19. Improving medication adherence for severely mentally ill adults by decreasing coercion and increasing cooperation.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Graham; Rieger, Sarah M

    2016-01-01

    Severe mental illnesses, mainly schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, often go untreated until the afflicted persons become dangerous to themselves or others. In such states, they must be hospitalized and medicated, often involuntarily due to the stigma and low insight into need for treatment that can be considered characteristic of severe illnesses. Hospitalization and medications can help the mentally ill stabilize. But these options also can have a demoralizing effect on future engagement with providers. Accordingly, the process of involuntary hospitalization and medication treatment must be maximally dignified and respectful of patient autonomy, within the limits of manifest illnesses. Literature that was reviewed and synthesized suggests best practice strategies for helping involuntary mentally ill patients grow into voluntary consumers of medication. In turn, risk of relapse is lowered and quality of life is enhanced. Best practice strategies included decreasing usage of coercive tactics, helping patients cope with medication side effects, and emphasizing the necessity of family involvement. The authors conclude with a review of the limitations of arguing for involuntary hospitalization and treatment as restoring patient autonomy, along with implications for future practice focusing on increasing the medication adherence of severely mentally ill populations. PMID:27028337

  20. Evaluation of a Rural-Based Community Aged Intensive Recovery Program for Older Adults With Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Paul; McIlvena, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Community Aged Intensive Recovery (CAIR) programs are an integral part of Aged Persons Mental Health Services (APMHS); however, no study has investigated whether a rural-based intensive program benefits older clients with severe mental illness. The current sample comprised 119 older adults who were being managed by a CAIR program from July 2011 to June 2013. Three key results were found: (a) approximately three quarters of clients admitted to the CAIR program remained treated in the community; (b) the program assisted in significantly reducing the level of psychiatric symptom severity from CAIR entry to CAIR exit; and (c) the APMHS team with the CAIR program had a lower psychiatric inpatient rate compared to the APMHS team without the program. The current study highlights the importance of delivering effective rural-based CAIR programs to older adults experiencing severe mental illness.

  1. Assessing the Relationship between Physical Illness and Mental Health Service Use and Expenditures among Older Adults from Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Cook, Benjamin; Kim, Giyeon; Reynolds, Charles F.; Alegria, Margarita; Coe-Odess, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association of physical illness and mental health service use in older adults from racial/ethnic minority groups is an important area of study given the mental and physical health disparities and the low use of mental health services in this population. The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of comorbid physical illness on mental health service use and expenditures in older adults; and to evaluate disparities in mental health service use and expenditures among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of older adults with and without comorbid physical illness. Methods Data were obtained from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (years 2004–2011). The sample included 1563 whites, 519 African-Americans, and 642 Latinos and (N=2,724) aged 65+ with probable mental illness. Using two-part generalized linear models, we estimated and compared mental health service use among those with and without a comorbid physical illness. Results Mental health service use was greater for older adults with comorbid physical illness compared to those without a comorbid physical illness. Once mental health services were accessed, no differences in mental health expenditures were found. Comorbid physical illness increased the likelihood of mental health service use in older whites and Latinos. However, the presence of a comorbidity did not impact racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use. Conclusions This study highlighted the important role of comorbid physical illness as a potential contributor to using mental health services and suggests intervention strategies to enhance engagement in mental health services by older adults from racial/ethnic minority groups. PMID:25772763

  2. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  3. Parents' Grief in the Context of Adult Child Mental Illness: A Qualitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Meg; Cobham, Vanessa; Murray, Judith; McDermott, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that parents and other family members often grieve their child or relative's mental illness. This grief appears resultant from a profound sense of loss, which has been described as complicated and nonfinite (e.g., Atkinson in "Am J Psychiatry" 151(8):1137-1139, 1994; Davis and Schultz in "Soc Sci Med" 46(3):369-379, 1998; Jones…

  4. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  5. Quality of life and competitive work among adults with severe mental illness: moderating effects of family contact.

    PubMed

    Gold, Paul B

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Competitive employment may improve life quality for adults with severe mental illness, but it is not known for whom or under what circumstances. On the basis of previous research demonstrating benefits of family contact for African-American adults with severe mental illness, it was hypothesized that frequent family contact would moderate (enhance) a positive association between competitive employment and global quality of life for a rural sample of predominantly African-American adults. METHODS In a secondary analysis of data collected from a randomized trial of supported employment, a series of nested random regression analyses was conducted to test the hypothesized moderating effect of face-to-face family contact on the association between competitive employment and global quality of life, controlling for severity of psychiatric symptoms and satisfaction with family relations. RESULTS Most of the 143 study participants spent time with a family member at least once a month (80%)-and most at least weekly (60%). Participants who held a competitive job and had face-to-face contact with family members at least weekly reported higher global quality of life than all other study participants. CONCLUSIONS In this rural sample of African-American adults with severe mental illness, competitive work was associated with higher global quality of life only for those who frequently spent time with family members. Research is needed to test the generalizability of this finding to other geographic settings and cultures, as well as the feasibility and effectiveness of formal inclusion of family members in psychosocial rehabilitation interventions.

  6. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  7. The Medicare Part D coverage gap: implications for non-dually eligible older adults with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bakk, Louanne; Woodward, Amanda Toler; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how the Medicare Part D coverage gap impacts non-dually eligible older adults with a mental illness. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 case managers from community-based agencies serving persons, age 55 and over, with a mental disorder. Five themes illustrating the central difficulties associated with the Part D gap emerged: medication affordability, beneficiary understanding, administrative barriers, Low-Income Subsidy income and asset guidelines, and medication compliance. Although the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act gradually reduces cost sharing within the gap, findings suggest that medication access and adherence may continue to be impacted by the benefit's structure. PMID:24377835

  8. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p < 0.01). [Formula: see text]O2max was significantly improved in both genders (males: pre: 30.63 ± 2.06 vs. post: 33.19 ± 1.77 ml(.)kg(-1) min(-1), females: pre: 25.93 ± 1.01 vs. post: 29.51 ± 1.06 ml(.)kg(-1) min(-1), p < 0.01). A significant correlation was found between the change in [Formula: see text]O2max and the change in body weight and BMI (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the relative change in [Formula: see text]O2max explained approximately 26% of the variance in the changes for both BMI (p = 0.07) and body weight (p = 0.06). A treatment of exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  9. A Study to Examine the Uses of Personal Strength in Relation to Mental Health Recovery in Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huiting; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Song Song; Yen, Melissa Sng Siok

    2015-01-01

    This study will explore the relationships among strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness, stigma experience and mental health recovery in community-dwelling adults with serious mental illnesses. Mental health practices have focued on psychopathphysiology. Stigma heavily plagued clients with mental illnesses and is one of the greatest barriers to mental health recovery. Personal strengths like strengths self-efficacy, people’s confidence in using their personal strengths, and resourcefulness, the ability to carry out daily activities, have been linked to positive mental health. However, the linkage between strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and mental health recovery remains uncharted. A cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods study will be conducted. A funded study by the Sigma Theta Tau, Upsilon Eta Chapter, August 2013, involving a convenience sample of 100 participants is planned. Included are community dwelling adults between 21 to 65 years old having been diagnosed with serious mental illnesses. Clients with current co-occurring substance abuse will be excluded. Participants complete questionnaires and undergo an interview. Correlations among the study variables will be examined. Regression analysis will determine if recovery can be predicted by strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and stigma experience. Interview data will be transcribed and analyzed by thematic analysis. This study will look beyond clients’ disability to focus on their recovery and healing capacities such as strengths self-efficacy and resourcefulness. Findings will expand our knowledge about mental health recovery. Knowledge gained from this study may pave the way for future nursing strategies to aid recovery and inform the development of positive, strengths-based interventions. PMID:26973963

  10. A comparison of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the GAF among adults with mental retardation and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shedlack, Karen J; Hennen, John; Magee, Christine; Cheron, Daniel M

    2005-04-01

    Psychiatric assessment among individuals with a diagnosis of both mental retardation and mental illness presents a clinical challenge. This retrospective study compared two rating scales--the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)--to determine the scales' utility in a partial hospital setting. Although ABC and GAF ratings were weakly correlated, the ABC revealed symptom patterns consistent with recognizable features of psychiatric syndromes and differential improvement in symptoms within and between diagnostic subgroups. The ABC provided a more useful measure of treatment response than the GAF in this patient population.

  11. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  12. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  13. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. PMID:11579183

  14. Educating for wellness: a wellness education group intervention for adults with chronic severe mental illness living in the community.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, Laura; Chiappetta, Laurel; Siedel, Bethany; Fan, Tracy; Mitchell, Ann M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic severe mental illness (CSMI) is a common disorder in the United States associated with numerous adverse health effects. Health promotion educational interventions can be beneficial. The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate a community-based educational program for adults with CSMI. Analyses of quantitative and qualitative data showed overall satisfaction with the program and achievement of some specific consumer health modifications. Three primary areas of interest and benefit included socialization and support, education and information, and motivation to change. The Wellness Education Group Intervention (WEGI) can serve as a model for wellness education with adults in similar communities. PMID:21736463

  15. Hepatitis C Screening Rate Among Underserved Adults With Serious Mental Illness Receiving Care in California Community Mental Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Trager, Evan; Khalili, Mandana; Masson, Carmen L; Vittinghoff, Eric; Creasman, Jennifer; Mangurian, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Although HCV is more prevalent among people with severe mental illness (SMI; e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) than in the general population (17% vs 1%), no large previous studies have examined HCV screening in this population. In this cross-sectional study, we examined administrative data for 57 170 California Medicaid enrollees with SMI to identify prevalence and predictors of HCV screening from October 2010 through September 2011. Only 4.7% (2674 of 57 170) received HCV screening, with strongest predictors being nonpsychiatric health care utilization and comorbid substance abuse. PMID:26890183

  16. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adults with Severe Mental Illness: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Paul, Lisa; Egede, Leonard E.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is a great deal of research on the prevalence, correlates, and treatment of PTSD in the general population. However, we know very little about the manifestation and consequences of PTSD in more complicated patient populations. The purpose of the current paper is to provide a comprehensive review of PTSD within the context of severe mental illness (SMI; i.e., schizophrenia spectrum disorders, mood disorders). Extant data suggest that trauma and PTSD are highly prevalent among individuals with SMI relative to the general population, and both are associated with adverse clinical functioning and increased healthcare burden. However, trauma and PTSD remain overlooked in this population, with low recognition rates in public-sector settings. Additionally, there are few data on the clinical course and treatment of PTSD among individuals with SMI. Particularly lacking are longitudinal studies, randomized controlled treatment trials, and studies using ethno-racially diverse samples. Furthermore, there is a need to better understand the interplay between trauma, PTSD, and severe forms of mental illness and to further develop and disseminate evidence-based PTSD treatments in this population. The current state of the literature and future directions for practice are discussed. PMID:21596012

  17. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    PubMed

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences.

  18. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: Adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population. PMID:17968646

  19. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... adolescents in the United States suffer from serious emotional and mental disorders that cause significant functional impairment in their day-to-day lives at home, in school and with peers. The World Health Organization has ...

  20. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  1. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems.

  2. Health Risks and Changes in Self-Efficacy Following Community Health Screening of Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Judith A.; Razzano, Lisa A.; Swarbrick, Margaret A.; Jonikas, Jessica A.; Yost, Chantelle; Burke, Larisa; Steigman, Pamela J.; Santos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%), hypertension (32%), diabetes (14%), smoking (44%), nicotine dependence (62%), alcohol abuse (17%), drug abuse (11%), and coronary heart disease (10%). A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%). Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants’ self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care. PMID:25875181

  3. Health risks and changes in self-efficacy following community health screening of adults with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Cook, Judith A; Razzano, Lisa A; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Jonikas, Jessica A; Yost, Chantelle; Burke, Larisa; Steigman, Pamela J; Santos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%), hypertension (32%), diabetes (14%), smoking (44%), nicotine dependence (62%), alcohol abuse (17%), drug abuse (11%), and coronary heart disease (10%). A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%). Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants' self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care. PMID:25875181

  4. Epigenetic Basis of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J; Peña, Catherine J; Kundakovic, Marija; Mitchell, Amanda; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function as well as likely abnormalities in glial cells. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins, particularly for depression and other stress-related syndromes, clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Exposure to such environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental versus adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and the aberrant epigenetic regulation that underlies this dysregulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Here, we provide a progress report of epigenetic studies of the three major psychiatric syndromes, depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. We review the literature derived from animal models of these disorders as well as from studies of postmortem brain tissue from human patients. While epigenetic studies of mental illness remain at early stages, understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery within specific brain regions to cause lasting changes in disease susceptibility and pathophysiology is revealing new insight into the etiology and treatment of these conditions. PMID:26450593

  5. The Impact of a Substance Abuse Disorder on the Well-Being of Family Caregivers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    The impact that substance use has on an individual with mental illness has been documented; however, little is known about the impact that this may have for a family caregiver. Data was collected in a cross sectional study using mailed questionnaires to a convenience sample of family members of persons with mental illness (n = 110). Hierarchical…

  6. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-07-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  7. Predictors of delayed social maturation and mental health disorders in young adults chronically ill since childhood.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, E R; Kokkonen, J; Moilanen, I

    2001-01-01

    To ascertain the influence of juvenile-onset chronic physical diseases and associating factors of social environment on delayed social maturation and mental health disorders in young adults, we analysed a group of 407 (184 female, 223 male) subjects with these conditions and compared the results with those of 123 (63 female, 60 male) healthy controls studied at the age of 19-25 years. The social maturation index was formed on the basis of a demographic interview, which also reviewed the state of social development and the family situation during childhood. Mental health disorders were assessed with a Present State Examination (PSE) interview analysed with the CATEGO program. With regard to social maturation at least half of the patients and controls were doing well, whereas for 29% (CI(95), 25%-33%) of the patients and 17% (CI(95), 10%-24%) of the controls the index showed delayed maturation. Subjects with poor social maturation were found most often among the disabled patients but also among the patients without severe diseases. The prevalence of PSE-CATEGO-identified psychiatric syndromes was equal in the patients and the controls (22% versus 20%). However, the patients with severe or disabling diseases had more severe psychiatric syndromes. The prevalences of depressive syndromes were also equal, but the depression of the patients was more often a profound affective disorder. Male sex, poor scholastic and vocational success, and social problems in the family during childhood were significantly associated with poor social maturation. On the other hand, the most significant predictors of mental health problems in young adults were female sex, family distress during childhood, and a severe disease. Juvenile-onset physical disease was considered to delay social maturation in some subjects and to deepen or modulate the clinical picture of mental health disorders. It is concluded that juvenile-onset physical diseases combined with family-related factors affect in

  8. Associations Between Gender and Obesity Among Adults with Mental Illnesses in a Community Health Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Jonikas, Jessica A; Cook, Judith A; Razzano, Lisa A; Steigman, Pamela J; Hamilton, Marie M; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Santos, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associations with gender, clinical factors, and medical co-morbidities were examined among 457 adults attending public mental health programs in 4 U.S. states. BMI was measured directly and other information was gathered by interview. Over half (59%, n = 270) were obese including 18% (n = 83) who were morbidly obese. In hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis controlling for demographic, psychiatric, medical, smoking, and health insurance statuses, women were significantly more likely to be obese than men. Obesity also was more likely among those who were younger and not high school graduates, those with diabetes or hypertension, and those who did not smoke tobacco. Interaction effects were found between gender and diabetes, hypertension, tobacco smoking, education, race, and age. The high prevalence of obesity among women, coupled with interactions between gender and other factors, suggest that targeted approaches are needed to promote optimal physical health in this population. PMID:26711093

  9. A lot of mental illness starts in adolescence. Therefore should we shift some of the spending from adult to adolescent mental health services?

    PubMed

    Neal, David

    2015-09-01

    In May 2015 the UK elected a new government. In election campaigns, health is one of the most important areas of debate and over the preceding 12 months, the state of child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) had held a particularly high profile in the media and in political debate. Many had suggested that the rate of mental illness starting in adolescence is increasing and that service provision is not of sufficient quality or scale to meet this need. A brief review of the sources for these statistics reveals that whilst this may be true, there is a dearth of accurate and up to date data on the scale of the need for CAMHS or the extent to which it is being met. Nonetheless, members of all parties claimed to support improvements in mental health service provision for children and adolescents through increases in funding. A key question for policy makers has therefore become, from where any additional funding might be derived. One suggestion has been that funding be transferred from spending on adult mental health services. The exact practical nature of such a policy is yet to be explored in detail by government or stakeholders. The primary purpose of the present discussion is therefore to consider the possible ethical implications of such a policy in principle. The discussion forms part of a wider and evolving political and professional discourse on society's and government's attitude towards mental illness, towards the balance of individual and societal needs and towards the balance between preventative and supportive interventions to improve health. PMID:26417740

  10. A lot of mental illness starts in adolescence. Therefore should we shift some of the spending from adult to adolescent mental health services?

    PubMed

    Neal, David

    2015-09-01

    In May 2015 the UK elected a new government. In election campaigns, health is one of the most important areas of debate and over the preceding 12 months, the state of child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) had held a particularly high profile in the media and in political debate. Many had suggested that the rate of mental illness starting in adolescence is increasing and that service provision is not of sufficient quality or scale to meet this need. A brief review of the sources for these statistics reveals that whilst this may be true, there is a dearth of accurate and up to date data on the scale of the need for CAMHS or the extent to which it is being met. Nonetheless, members of all parties claimed to support improvements in mental health service provision for children and adolescents through increases in funding. A key question for policy makers has therefore become, from where any additional funding might be derived. One suggestion has been that funding be transferred from spending on adult mental health services. The exact practical nature of such a policy is yet to be explored in detail by government or stakeholders. The primary purpose of the present discussion is therefore to consider the possible ethical implications of such a policy in principle. The discussion forms part of a wider and evolving political and professional discourse on society's and government's attitude towards mental illness, towards the balance of individual and societal needs and towards the balance between preventative and supportive interventions to improve health.

  11. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  12. Prevalence of mental illness in a rehabilitation unit for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, D; Evans, M; King, D

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was studied in 78 elderly people in a rehabilitation unit for older adults. The patients were assessed using the Evans Liverpool depression rating scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and Mini-Mental State Examination. Twenty-eight (35.9%) patients were found to be depressed, 15 of these also had raised anxiety. Thirty-one (41.0%) patients had significant cognitive impairment and 14 of these had associated depression. Only 33 (42%) had no evidence of either cognitive impairment or mood disorder. On discharge, 20 (25.6%) patients were on antidepressant treatment but only 50% of those had this diagnosis recorded on the discharge summary. Our results showed higher prevalence of depression in this situation compared with the reported prevalence of 20-30% in the acute hospital setting. We recommend that all patients undergoing rehabilitation should be routinely screened for depression as it is common and treatment will improve the overall outcome.


Keywords: depression; elderly; rehabilitation; psychiatric morbidity; screening PMID:10684325

  13. Urban-Rural Differences in the Nature and Prevalence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiani, R.; Tyrer, F.; Hodgson, A.; Berkin, N.; Bhaumik, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the general population there are statistically significant urban-rural differences in the rate of common mental disorders. In people with intellectual disability (ID) no study has attempted to address this issue. Aims: To compare the prevalence of mental illness, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behaviour disorder in people with…

  14. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  15. Mental Illness, Behavior Problems, and Social Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…

  16. Caring for mentally ill people.

    PubMed Central

    van Os, J.; Neeleman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Despite legislation to harmonise mental health practice throughout Europe and convergence in systems of training there remains an extraordinary diversity in psychiatric practice in Europe. Approaches to tackling substance misuse vary among nations; statistics on psychiatric morbidity are affected by different approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders; attitudes towards mental illness show definite international differences. Everywhere, though, mental health care for patients with psychotic illnesses is a "cinderella service," and there is a general move towards care falling increasingly on the family and the community. PMID:7987157

  17. Behavioral Risk for HIV Infection Among Adults with a Severe and Persistent Mental Illness: Patterns and Psychological Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Gordon, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Behaviors associated with transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were measured in a sample of 60 adults with a severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). Results revealed that 68% had sex in the last year; 13% of men and 30% of women reported two or more male partners, and 24% of men also reported two or more female partners. Condom use was inconsistent. Sex partners were often met in a psychiatric clinic or bar, and a substantial number were injection drug users or known to be non-monogamous. Overall, 48% of men and 37% of women reported at least one risk factor. Hypothesized psychological antecedents of HIV-related risk behavior were also measured, including knowledge, motivation for risk reduction, and self-efficacy regarding risk-reduction. Many participants were misinformed regarding HIV transmission and risk reduction. Motivational indices indicated that attitudes toward condoms were slightly positive, and that social norms were generally supportive of condom use. However, participants tended to rate themselves at only slight risk for infection, undermining their motivation for condom use. Participants indicated only modest levels of self-efficacy in situations requiring sexual assertiveness. These findings, coupled with the elevated seroprevalence of HIV among persons having a SPMI, point to the need for risk assessment and counseling by mental health care providers. PMID:9145255

  18. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-07-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  19. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  20. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post

  1. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... talk therapy, that helps people change negative thinking styles and behaviors that may contribute to their depression. ... Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications Science Writing, Press, and Dissemination Branch 6001 Executive ...

  2. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895

  3. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  4. Mental Health and Mental Illness in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Statistics of mental illness in Maryland are provided in the areas of diagnostic distribution of admissions and resident patients, size and nature of patient population, percentage change in daily cost per patient, employee-patient ratios, length of hospitalization, diagnostic treatment trends, patient mortality, and Baltimore's specific problems…

  5. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  6. Health Literacy Among People with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Whitney; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Bill Baerentzen, M; Britigan, Denise H

    2016-05-01

    People diagnosed with a mental illness are at higher risk of developing preventable chronic diseases; thus, health literacy improvements may have great potential to impact health outcomes for this typically underserved population. However, there is a dearth of research on health literacy of persons with severe mental illness. The purpose of this research was to investigate aspects of health literacy and identify factors associated with low literacy among adults with severe mental illness using three literacy assessment tools. Seventy-one adults with serious mental illness were assessed and a high proportion had limited literacy levels: 42% with the Single Item Literacy Screener, 50% with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Short Form, and 67% with the Newest Vital Sign. Findings suggest that individuals with certain mental illnesses and lower functioning may have more difficulty understanding health information and have limited numerical literacy.

  7. Marriage, mental illness and law.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-07-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  8. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  9. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  10. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-18

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided.

  11. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  12. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  13. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  14. Exoneration of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Fields, L

    1987-12-01

    Mental illness may be manifested in the impairment of understanding or of volitional control. Impairment of understanding may be manifested in delusions. Impairment of volitional control is shown when a person is unable to act in accordance with good reasons that he himself accepts. In order for an impairment of understanding or of self-control to exculpate, the offence must be causally connected with the impairment in question. The rationale of exculpation in general, which applies also to the case of mental illness, is that the offence does not indicate a morally bad attitude in the offender. A consequence of this rationale is that Kenny is wrong to hold that no injustice would result from the elimination of the legal defence of diminished responsibility.

  15. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  16. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  17. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  18. Effects of Snoezelen room, Activities of Daily Living skills training, and Vocational skills training on aggression and self-injury by adults with mental retardation and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Molina, Enrique J; Sage, Monica; Brown, Stephen; Groeneweg, Jop

    2004-01-01

    Multi-sensory stimulation provided in a Snoezelen room is being used increasingly for individuals with mental retardation and mental illness to facilitate relaxation, provide enjoyment, and inhibit behavioral challenges. We observed aggressive and self-injurious behavior in three groups of 15 individuals with severe or profound mental retardation and mental illness before, during, and after being in a Snoezelen room. All participants were receiving psychotropic medication for their mental illness and function-derived behavioral interventions for aggression, self-injury, or both. Using a repeated measures counterbalanced design, each group of participants was rotated through three experimental conditions: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) skills training, Snoezelen, and Vocational skills training. All other treatment and training activities specified in each individual's person-centered plan were continued during the 10-week observational period. Both aggression and self-injury were lowest when the individuals were in a Snoezelen room, followed by Vocational skills training and ADL skills training. The levels in the Snoezelen room were significantly lower than in both the other conditions for aggression but only in ADL skills training for self-injury. The difference in levels before and after Snoezelen were statistically significant with self-injury but not with aggression. The order of conditions showed no significant effect on either behavior. Snoezelen may provide an effective context for reducing the occurrence of self-injury and aggression.

  19. The Other 23 Hours: A Qualitative Study of Fitness Provider Perspectives on Social Support for Health Promotion for Adults with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Mueser, Kim; Bartels, Stephen; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Pratt, Sarah; Barre, Laura; Naslund, John; Kinney, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Current efforts to reduce the increased risk of premature death from preventable cardiovascular disease among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) through lifestyle change have had limited success. Engaging informal support systems to promote healthy behaviors in everyday life may increase the effectiveness of health promotion interventions targeting this at-risk population. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 fitness trainers serving adults with SMI in a health promotion program at community mental health centers to explore their perspectives on the potential of enlisting support from significant others for health behavior change. Trainers reported that the majority of participants had a relative or significant other who influenced their health behaviors, and they saw potential value in involving them in efforts to improve health outcomes by extending support into participants' daily lives. They did not feel qualified to work with families of individuals with mental illness, but they were willing to partner with providers who had experience in this area. Social workers who practice with families could play a critical role on health promotion teams addressing cardiovascular risk in adults with SMI by using their skills and experiences to engage families in supporting a relative through the process of health behavior change. PMID:26027417

  20. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

  1. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner. PMID:26399492

  2. Childhood parental mental illness: living with fear and mistrust.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Peters, Kathleen; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents one major theme of findings from a doctorate study. The study used a narrative enquiry approach, to gather parenting narratives of adult children of parents with mental illness. A Partnership Model for a Reflexive Narrative for Participant and Researcher (Partnership Model) was used to invite participants into the study, while encouraging a space for reflection for both the adult children and researcher. In total, 13 adult children participants constructed their narratives of living with childhood parental mental illness, alongside their current parenting role. Their stories reflected childhood experiences of fear and emergence of mistrust of others, particularly their parent with mental illness. For some participants, fear and mistrust continued into adulthood. Many adult children reported their childhood experiences of feeling lonely and isolated. They felt unable to disclose their experiences of parental mental illness to others. In addition, participants were unable to access information about their parent's condition, leaving them feeling unprepared and unskilled, despite their childhood desire to help their parent. This furthermore, compounded their sense of fear and isolation. Early identification of children and families experiencing mental illness is important to facilitate dialogue, psychoeducation and support. Social and health professionals have an important opportunity to enhance the social integration and support for families experiencing parental mental illness, to reduce long-standing fear, isolation and mistrust.

  3. Ethics and mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  4. Ethics and mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  5. Assessing the need for a protected living environment among severely mentally ill adults in the republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Zavradashvili, N; Makhasvhili, N; Eliashvili, M; Zurlo, Karen; Chkonia, E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the need for a new mental health service called a Protected Living Environment (PLE) in the republic of Georgia. PLE intends to provide residential care for the severely mentally ill (SMI) in the community. Patients and staff members from all six long-term psychiatric hospitals (Tbilisi, Batumi, Rustavi, Khoni, Surami, Bediani) in Georgia have participated in the study. The study includes a quantitative (a structured survey) and a qualitative component (in-depth interviews), which together provide a more comprehensive data. The questionnaire and the questioning route for focus group interviews were self-designed according the recommendations of World Health organization and based on a health facility assessment tool SARA - The Service Availability and Readiness Assessment. The study revealed that consumers and mental health professionals have positive attitudes towards the development of protected residential institutions, which could be an important alternative for residential care and would promote deinstitutionalization and reintegration into society. PMID:24632647

  6. Serious Mental Illness in Florida Nursing Homes: Need for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Victor A.; Merritt, Stacy S.; Mills, Whitney L.; Chiriboga, David A.; Conboy, Ann; Hyer, Kathryn; Becker, Marion A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how the mental health needs of nursing home (NH) residents with serious mental illness (SMI) are addressed. Data were collected from three sources: interviews with 84 SMI stakeholders; surveys of 206 NH staff members; and focus groups at two psychiatry specialty NHs. Four common themes emerged: placement of older adults with…

  7. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 2: burden of illness, deficits of the German health care system and efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services].

    PubMed

    Karow, A; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Lambert, M

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use of children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than in adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the border of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health care structures are effective and efficient. Part 2 of the present review focuses on illness burden including disability and costs, deficits of the present health care system in Germany, and efficacy and efficiency of early intervention services.

  8. The role of cognitive appraisal in adaptation to traumatic stress in adults with serious mental illness: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sherrer, Margaret V

    2011-07-01

    A compelling body of literature suggests that negative appraisal may be associated with adverse reactions to traumatic stress. However, very few studies have examined how appraisal influences posttraumatic adaptation in people with serious mental illness (SMI) despite evidence of disproportionately high prevalence rates of trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical analysis of the theoretical and empirical literature on cognitive appraisal and psychological adaptation to traumatic stress with a specific focus on individuals diagnosed with SMI. It will be argued that appraisal is a key correlate that may partially account for higher rates of PTSD in people diagnosed with major mood and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, meriting special consideration for future research.

  9. Mental Illness, Work, and Income Support Programs

    PubMed Central

    Danziger, Sheldon; Frank, Richard G.; Meara, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Improved treatment makes it easier for individuals with mental illness to participate in mainstream society, including the labor force. Nevertheless, a diagnosis of a severe and persistent mental illness or a substance use disorder often coincides with reduced work activity and lower earnings. The Social Security Disability Insurance Program and the Supplemental Security Income program provide income support for increasing numbers of individuals with mental illness. A growing share of a third program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, which offers cash support to low-income single caregivers, is composed of individuals with mental illness, as new work requirements result in faster exits of those without mental health conditions. These programs have come under increasing scrutiny as the shares of recipients with mental illness increase. Some question whether these programs serve many individuals capable of working and supporting themselves. However, evidence on whether eligibility criteria for these income support programs are too stringent or too lax regarding individuals with mental illness is mixed. Appropriate income support policy for those with mental illness will differ dramatically depending on the source of the recent rise in individuals with mental illness using income support. PMID:19339364

  10. What predicts incarceration among urban adults with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Alison; Belstock, Johannes; Malmberg, Per; McHugo, Gregory; Drake, Robert E; Xie, Haiyi; Essock, Susan M.; Covell, Nancy H

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with a severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorder (i.e., co-occurring disorders) living in urban areas experience high rates of incarceration. This study examined socio-demographic, clinical, economic, and community integration factors as predictors of incarceration among people with co-occurring disorders. Methods The sample came from secondary data from a randomized controlled trial of assertive community treatment versus standard case management, in which researchers interviewed 198 people with co-occurring disorders from two urban mental health centers in Connecticut at baseline and every six months for three years. Researchers tracked incarceration, clinical engagement and status, employment, living situation, social relationships, and substance use. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression analyses compared individuals who were ever-incarcerated and never-incarcerated during the study period. Results The overall incarceration rate was 38% during the study period. In multivariate analyses, previous incarceration predicted incarceration during the study (OR = 3.26), while friendships with non-substance users (OR = 0.19), and substance use treatment engagement (OR = 0.60) were associated with reduced likelihood of incarceration. Conclusions Positive social relationships and engagement in treatment for substance use are promising service and policy targets to prevent incarceration in this high-risk population. PMID:25022703

  11. When a Student Is Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hover, Margot

    1995-01-01

    Highlights issues facing teachers who have mentally ill students in their classes and ways for teachers to address the issues. Discusses in-school interventions, out-of-school treatment, and the role of the teacher as mediator in helping students relate to other mentally ill students and in offering support to parents. (MAB)

  12. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  13. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  14. Community participation and belonging among formerly homeless adults with mental illness after 12 months of Housing First in Vancouver, British Columbia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2014-07-01

    This study examines community integration among homeless adults with mental illness 6 and 12 months after random assignment to Housing First (independent apartments or congregate residence) with support services or to treatment as usual (TAU). Residence in independent apartments was associated with increased 'psychological integration' for participants with less severe needs; however, no significant improvement in 'physical integration' was observed among any of the intervention groups. Analysis of individual items on the Psychological Integration subscale revealed that, compared to TAU, participants assigned to independent apartments were more likely to endorse statements related to the emotional components of community but not statements related to neighboring. Participants assigned to the congregate residence were more likely to endorse knowing their neighbors, but not interacting with neighbors or the emotional components of community. Findings are discussed in terms of housing program as well as broader contextual factors.

  15. Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness. PMID:22654383

  16. Trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness who participated in a randomised controlled trial of Housing First: a longitudinal, narrative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michelle L; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Currie, Lauren; Somers, Julian M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study used longitudinal, narrative data to identify trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness alongside the factors that contribute to positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories over time. We expected that participants who received Housing First (HF) would describe more positive trajectories of recovery than those who were assigned to Treatment as Usual (TAU; no housing or support provided through the study). Design Narrative interview data were collected from participants at baseline and 18 months after random assignment to HF or TAU. Setting Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants Fifty-four participants were randomly and purposively selected from the larger trial; 52 were interviewed at baseline and 43 were reinterviewed 18 months after randomisation. Method Semistructured interviews were conducted at both time points. For each participant, paired baseline and follow-up narratives were classified as positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories of recovery, and thematic analysis was used to identify the factors underlying different trajectories. Results Participants assigned to HF (n=28) were generally classified as positive or mixed trajectories; those assigned to TAU (n=15) were generally classified as neutral or negative trajectories. Positive trajectories were characterised by a range of benefits associated with good-quality, stable housing (eg, reduced substance use, greater social support), positive expressions of identity and the willingness to self-reflect. Negative, neutral and mixed trajectories were characterised by hopelessness (‘things will never get better’) related to continued hardship (eg, eviction, substance use problems), perceived failures and loss. Conclusions HF is associated with positive trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness. Those who did not receive housing or support continued to struggle across a

  17. California Firearms Law and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Barnhorst, Amy

    2015-06-01

    California provides numerous pathways by which people with mental illness can qualify for a state-level firearm prohibition. The state's involuntary detention for psychiatric treatment, or "5150" (CA W&I Code 5150) process, is often cited as one potential mechanism for reducing violence by dangerous people, though its use is limited to people whose dangerousness is due to a mental illness. Additionally, California has taken legislative steps to prohibit firearm ownership among other people who have an increased risk of violence, regardless of whether or not mental illness is a factor. This article compares the California firearm ownership disqualification system for mental illness with the federal system and those of other states, examines the strengths and weaknesses of this system, and reviews alternatives. PMID:25899250

  18. California Firearms Law and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Barnhorst, Amy

    2015-06-01

    California provides numerous pathways by which people with mental illness can qualify for a state-level firearm prohibition. The state's involuntary detention for psychiatric treatment, or "5150" (CA W&I Code 5150) process, is often cited as one potential mechanism for reducing violence by dangerous people, though its use is limited to people whose dangerousness is due to a mental illness. Additionally, California has taken legislative steps to prohibit firearm ownership among other people who have an increased risk of violence, regardless of whether or not mental illness is a factor. This article compares the California firearm ownership disqualification system for mental illness with the federal system and those of other states, examines the strengths and weaknesses of this system, and reviews alternatives.

  19. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... because of binge drinking, to someone’s symptoms of bipolar disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin ... your story Mental Illness ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Depression Dissociative Disorders Eating Disorders ...

  20. Mental Illness Sexual Stigma: Implications for Health and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, Milton L.; Cournos, Francine; Wall, Melanie M.; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Pinto, Diana; Pinho, Veronica; McKinnon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Among people in psychiatric care worldwide, the majority is sexually active, and sharply elevated rates of HIV infection compared to the general population have been shown. Recovery-oriented treatment does not routinely address sexuality. We examined the relationship between gender, severe mental illness diagnosis, and stigma experiences related to sexuality among people in psychiatric outpatient care. Method 641 sexually active adults attending eight public outpatient psychiatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed for psychiatric diagnosis and stigma experiences. Stigma mechanisms well established in the literature but not previously examined in relation to sexuality were measured with the Mental Illness Sex Stigma Questionnaire, a 27-item interview about stigma in sexual situations and activities. Results Experiences of stigma were reported by a majority of participants for 48% of questionnaire items. Most people reported supportive attitudes toward their sexuality from providers and family members. Those with severe mental illness diagnoses showed greater stigma on Individual Discrimination and Structural Stigma mechanisms than those with non-severe mental illness diagnoses, while there was no difference on the Social Psychological Processes (internalized stigma) mechanism. Regardless of diagnosis or gender, a majority of participants devalued themselves as sexual partners. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Adults in psychiatric outpatient care frequently reported stigma experiences related to aspects of their sexual lives. From the perspectives of both HIV prevention and recovery from mental illness, examining the consequences of stigma in the sexual lives of people in psychiatric care and improving their measurement would have wide applicability. PMID:27030909

  1. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  2. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  3. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  4. Public stigma of mental illness in the United States: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2013-09-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.

  5. Health Professionals' Attitudes and Emotions towards Working with Adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) and Mental Ill Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, N.; Kent, S.; Rose, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Mainstream mental health services are providing more care for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID); this has implications for staff and service users. Attitudes of staff towards people with ID in mental health services may be negative and negative staff attitudes may have a detrimental impact on service provision. Design: A…

  6. Religion and suicide in patients with mental illness or cancer.

    PubMed

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Spoerri, Adrian; Zwahlen, Marcel; Bopp, Matthias; Gutzwiller, Felix; Egger, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    In Switzerland, the highest rates of suicide are observed in persons without religious affiliation and the lowest in Catholics, with Protestants in an intermediate position. We examined whether this association was modified by concomitant psychiatric diagnoses or malignancies, based on 6,909 suicides (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) recorded in 3.69 million adult residents 2001-2008. Suicides were related to mental illness or cancer if codes F or C, respectively, were mentioned on the death certificate. The protective effect of religion was substantially stronger if a diagnosis of cancer was mentioned on the death certificate and weaker if a mental illness was mentioned.

  7. Mental illness among Bhutanese shamans in Nepal.

    PubMed

    van Ommeren, Mark; Komproe, Ivan; Cardeña, Etzel; Thapa, Suraj B; Prasain, Dinesh; de Jong, Joop T V M; Sharma, Bhogendra

    2004-04-01

    Despite efforts to promote traditional medicine, allopathic practitioners often look with distrust at traditional practices. Shamans in particular are often regarded with ambivalence and have been considered mentally ill people. We tested the hypothesis that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. In the Bhutanese refugee community in Nepal, a community with a high number of shamans, we surveyed a representative community sample of 810 adults and assessed ICD-10 mental disorders through structured diagnostic interviews. Approximately 7% of male refugees and 0.5% of female refugees reported being shamans. After controlling for demographic differences, the shamans did not differ from the comparison group in terms of 12-month and lifetime ICD-10 severe depressive episode, specific phobia, persistent somatoform pain, posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, or dissociative disorders. This first-ever, community-based, psychiatric epidemiological survey among shamans indicated no evidence that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. The study's finding may assist in rectifying shamans' reputation, which has been tainted by past speculation of psychopathology.

  8. Health Outcomes of HIV-Infected People with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Stephens-Shield, Alisa J; Momplaisir, Florence; Taylor, Lynne; Gross, Robert; Dubé, Benoit; Glanz, Karen; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-08-01

    Improving outcomes for people with HIV and mental illness will be critical to meeting the goals of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. In a retrospective analysis of the 2008-2010 cycles of the locally representative Philadelphia Medical Monitoring Project, we compared the proportions of HIV-infected adults with and without mental illness: (1) retained in care (≥2 primary HIV visits separated by ≥90 days in a 12-month period); (2) prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any point in a 12-month period; and (3) virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the 12-month period). Multivariable regression assessed associations between mental illness and the outcomes, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, alcohol abuse, injection drug use, CD4 count, and calendar year. Of 730 HIV-infected persons, representative of 9409 persons in care for HIV in Philadelphia, 49.0 % had mental illness. In adjusted analyses, there were no significant differences in retention (91.3 vs. 90.3 %; AOR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63-2.56) and prescription of ART (83.2 vs. 88.7 %; AOR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.49-1.25) between those with and without mental illness. However, mentally ill patients were less likely to achieve viral suppression than those without mental illness (65.9 vs. 74.4 %; AOR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.46-0.90). These findings argue for the need to optimize ART adherence in this population.

  9. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  10. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  11. A Bibliography for Schools on Mental Health/Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This bibliography for schools lists 49 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1989 through 1994. Resources are listed alphabetically by author within the categories of directories and bibliographies, and other print resources. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of the…

  12. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  13. Postsecondary education: kindling opportunities for people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Ennals, Priscilla; Fossey, Ellie M; Harvey, Carol A; Killackey, Eóin

    2014-06-01

    Education is recognized in many sectors of society as essential for empowerment and better lives, and postsecondary education is increasingly a prerequisite for many occupations. Given its onset in late adolescence and early adulthood, mental illness frequently disrupts secondary or tertiary education, and resulting lower educational attainment contributes to reduced lifetime employment and earning potential. Yet, supporting people with mental illnesses to pursue postsecondary education offers pathways to vocational qualifications and more diverse opportunities for employment and career advancement. While substantial efforts have been made to develop evidence-based interventions to improve employment outcomes for people with mental ill health, less is known about the best ways to enable people with mental illness to successfully return to study and to pursue their educational goals. This paper briefly discusses supported education, an approach designed to provide pathways and supports for reengagement in education; it highlights the potential of modeling educational support on Individual Placement and Support principles used in supported employment programs; and calls for greater efforts in research and practice to enable youth or adults with mental illness to reengage in education so as to improve their educational outcomes and career prospects.

  14. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a widely underrecognized and undertreated medical illness. Depression often co-occurs with other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Because many older adults face these illnesses as well as various social and ...

  15. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  16. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed.

  17. Clinical Outcomes of a Specialised Inpatient Unit for Adults with Mild to Severe Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Y.; White, S. E.; Palucka, A. M.; Weiss, J.; Bockus, S.; Gofine, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Limitations of general psychiatric services have led to the development of specialised psychiatric programmes for patients with intellectual disability (ID) and mental health needs. Few studies have examined treatment outcomes of specialised inpatient units, and no studies have explored how the effects of intervention may differ for…

  18. Law & psychiatry: Murder, inheritance, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gold, Azgad; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-07-01

    Should a murderer be allowed to inherit the victim's estate? The question dates from biblical times, but most jurisdictions today have statutes in place that bar inheritance by convicted murderers. However, a special problem arises when the killer has a severe mental illness and has been found not guilty by reason of insanity. Should such people, who have not been convicted of a crime, be permitted to collect their inheritance? Jurisdictions vary in their responses, with the rules reflecting a mix of practical and moral considerations influenced by different perspectives about what determines the behavior of persons with mental illness.

  19. Homelessness and the mentally ill offender.

    PubMed

    Richman, B J; Convit, A; Martell, D

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective analysis of the discharge summaries of 69 mentally ill offenders. The subjects were patients in a New York State Psychiatric Hospital for a two-year period between January 1988 and December 1989 who were referred by the courts under New York State Criminal Procedure Law (CPL). The subjects were further compared as to homelessness at the time of the instant offense to study the association of this variable and criminal behavior among the mentally ill. Statistical analyses demonstrated significant relationships between variables of homelessness, prior offense history, and substance abuse.

  20. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    PubMed

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness.

  1. Effectiveness of Housing First with Intensive Case Management in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Homeless Adults with Mental Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Gozdzik, Agnes; Misir, Vachan; Skosireva, Anna; Connelly, Jo; Sarang, Aseefa; Whisler, Adam; Hwang, Stephen W.; O’Campo, Patricia; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    experiencing problems due to alcohol use among foreign-born (vs. Canadian-born) HF participants at 24 months (ratio of rate ratios = 0.19 95% 0.04 to 0.88), relative to baseline. Compared to usual care, HF with ICM can improve housing stability and community functioning and reduce the days of alcohol related problems in an ethnically diverse sample of homeless adults with mental illness within 2-years. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42520374. PMID:26176621

  2. Relationships between World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" Constructs and Participation in Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Jennifer; Rosenthal, David A.; Chan, Fong; Brooks, Jessica; Bezyak, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF) constructs as correlates of community participation of people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). Methods: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlational techniques was used to…

  3. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  4. Patient Education for the Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Louise Harding

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophy of the rehabilitation services department at McLean Hospital on patient education for the mentally ill, noting patient library collection and recommended resources on marital problems, sex education, drug manuals, and diagnostic and research findings. A list of magazines subscribed to, color code classification, and 23…

  5. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  6. A Pilot Study of a Peer-Group Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With mHealth Technology and Social Media for Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Shevenell, Megan; Kinney, Elizabeth; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study examined the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-group lifestyle intervention enhanced with mobile health technology and social media for obese individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-two participants with a body mass index of 30 or higher received a 24-week intervention designed to facilitate peer support for lifestyle change through experiential learning and use of wearable activity tracking devices, smartphone applications, and Facebook to reinforce physical activity, healthy eating, and group participation between sessions. The primary outcome was weight loss. Secondary measures included fitness and participants' perceptions of peer-group support. Most participants (72%) lost weight, including 28% achieving clinically significant weight loss, and 17% of participants showed clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Weight loss was associated with perceived peer-group support. This evaluation demonstrated the preliminary effectiveness of a potentially scalable peer-group lifestyle intervention delivered in community mental health settings for obese individuals with serious mental illness.

  7. A Pilot Study of a Peer-Group Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With mHealth Technology and Social Media for Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Shevenell, Megan; Kinney, Elizabeth; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study examined the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-group lifestyle intervention enhanced with mobile health technology and social media for obese individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-two participants with a body mass index of 30 or higher received a 24-week intervention designed to facilitate peer support for lifestyle change through experiential learning and use of wearable activity tracking devices, smartphone applications, and Facebook to reinforce physical activity, healthy eating, and group participation between sessions. The primary outcome was weight loss. Secondary measures included fitness and participants' perceptions of peer-group support. Most participants (72%) lost weight, including 28% achieving clinically significant weight loss, and 17% of participants showed clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Weight loss was associated with perceived peer-group support. This evaluation demonstrated the preliminary effectiveness of a potentially scalable peer-group lifestyle intervention delivered in community mental health settings for obese individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:27233056

  8. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on identification,…

  9. Illness behaviour in mental ill-health in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    el-Islam, M F; Abu-Dagga, S I

    1990-09-01

    Two hundred and eight individuals were interviewed in order to study the behaviour they adopt in relation to the most common somatic and emotional symptoms of mental ill-health. Illness behaviour included ignoring, brooding, self-help and consultation of others. Older individuals tended more frequently to resort to meditation, native healers and doctors. Males consulted doctors more than females. Brooding was more frequent in well educated subjects. A group of married expatriates who left their wives in their original countries were the most likely to consult doctors. Education and marital status were the most predictive of brooding and self-help behaviour. Self-help was the most commonly adopted illness behaviour. The results are explained in terms of the social and cultural background of the individuals studied because this influences their methods of expressing distress and their action in relation to symptoms.

  10. A comparison of the dental status and treatment needs of older adults with and without chronic mental illness in Sevilla, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Córdoba-Arenas, Sara; Jiménez-Guerra, Alvaro; Monsalve-Guil, Loreto; López-López, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the dental status and treatment needs of institutionalized older adults with chronic mental illness compared to a non-psychiatric control sample. Study Design: The sample size was 100, in which 50 were psychogeriatric patients (study group; SG) classified according to DSM-IV, with a mean age of 69.6 ± 6.7 years, and 50 non-psychiatric patients (control group; CG), with a mean age of 68.3 ± 6.9 years. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted and caries were recorded clinically using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMFT). Results were analyzed statistically using the Student’s t-test or analysis of variance. Results: Caries prevalence was 58% and 62% in SG and CG, respectively. DMFT index was 28.3 ± 6.6 in SG and 21.4 ± 6.07 in CG (p < 0.01). Mean number of decayed teeth was higher in SG (3.1) compared to CG (1.8) (p=0.047). Mean number of missing teeth were 25.2 and 16.4 in SG and CG respectively (p<0.05). DMFT scores were higher in SG in all the age groups (p < 0.01). Mean number of teeth per person needing treatment was 3.4 in SG and 1.9 in CG (p= 0.037). The need for restorative dental care was significantly lower in the SG (0.8 teeth per person) than in the CG (1.7 teeth per person) (p = 0.043). Conclusions: Institutionalized psychiatric patients have significantly worse dental status and more dental treatment needs than non-psychiatric patients. Key words:Gerodontology, oral health, older adult, psychiatric patients, schizophrenia. PMID:23229258

  11. Victimization of the Mentally Ill: An Unintended Consequence of Deinstitutionalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of the problem of deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill to community settings, outlines characteristics of the homeless mentally ill, and discusses steps to create a more responsive clinical network to cope with the problem. (Author/KS)

  12. Mental illness in the nursing workplace: a collective autoethnography.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P

    2010-01-01

    Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness. PMID:21254820

  13. Mental illness in the nursing workplace: a collective autoethnography.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P

    2010-01-01

    Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness.

  14. American Christian Engagement With Mental Health and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Although religious belief and practice are relevant to mental health outcomes, many clinicians lack knowledge of particular religious traditions required to make informed judgments about referral to and collaboration with faith-based organizations and clinicians. This Open Forum examines five diverse American Christian approaches to mental health and mental illness-pastoral care and counseling, biblical counseling, integrationism, Christian psychology, and the work of the Institute for the Psychological Sciences--that are relevant for contemporary mental health service delivery. Each of these movements is briefly described and placed in historical, conceptual, and organizational context. Knowledge of the diverse and varied terrain of American Christian engagement with mental health care can inform clinicians' interactions with faith-based providers, clarify opportunities for responsible collaboration, and provide important insight into religious subcultures with faith-based concerns about contemporary psychiatric care.

  15. The Mental Capacity Act 2005: mental capacity and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dimond, Bridgit

    In this series of articles on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) the author now turns to the interrelation between mental capacity and mental disorder and between the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA) (as amended by the Mental Health Act 2007 [MHA, 2007]) and the Bournewood safeguards. The article explains how the MCA and the MHA are designed to cover distinct situations: the one mental capacity; the other mental disorder and the different definitions are considered. The article also looks at the different principles which apply and the different powers available under each Act. The different forms of protection under each Act are contrasted. Because of criticism of the UK by the European Court of Human Rights in the Bournewood case, amendments have been made by the MHA 2007 to the MCA to provide protection for those incapable of making decisions who suffer from mental disorder and whose best interests require a loss of liberty.

  16. Quality of life after housing first for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced chronic homelessness.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Matejkowski, Jason; Stefancic, Ana; Lukens, Jonathan M

    2014-12-15

    This 1-year longitudinal study of adults who have recently transitioned from homelessness to Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) focuses on quality of life as a primary outcome of interest. Eighty of 103 new tenants participated in structured interviews at the time of entry into their new home and at 12-months post-housing. t-tests assessed differences in community participation and quality of life measures at the 2 time points. Mixed effects models examined the impact of community participation on quality of life. Results show that time in independent housing was significantly associated with several domains of quality of life. Symptom severity was also significantly and negatively related to quality of life domains. Community participation was significantly related to frequency of social contacts only. These findings suggest that community participation is not critical to improving quality of life, and that despite concerns that individuals may feel isolated and lonely when living independently, satisfaction with one׳s living situation and family relationships nevertheless improves with housing tenure.

  17. Social Meanings Versus the Psychiatric Concept of Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dorothy L.

    1982-01-01

    According to the societal reaction perspective, mental illness develops when symptoms are molded and imputed by societal reaction into a stable and organized social role. Individuals are thrust into the role by being labeled mentally ill. In contrast, the psychiatric concept assumes that mental illness is a disease. Its purpose is to order, predict, and control the symptoms of mental disease. This paper examines some social theories of mental disorder and compares the societal reaction perspective to the psychiatric concept.

  18. [Hyperprolactinemia in mentally ill patients].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Manuel Maria de; Góis, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    prolactin-sparing antipsychotic or the use of a dopamine receptor agonist, such as bromocriptine, cabergoline and amantadine. Given the osteopenic and osteoporosis risk, combined oral contraceptives must be considered in female patients in fertile age which have amenorrhoea for at least a one year period. With the exception of the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines and the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, none of the current international psychiatric guidelines recommend a routine baseline prolactin determination, neither periodic prolactin levels without the presence of any hyperprolactinemia symptoms.

  19. Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

    2012-01-01

    Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood.

  20. Assessing spirituality in mentally ill African Americans.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon

    2006-01-01

    The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not.

  1. Characteristics and Attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers toward Individuals with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Mental health in children and adults has always been a controversial topic, however, recent mass shootings in schools have heightened the concern of many and raise questions for how to interact with the mentally ill. Schools, have the capacity to be one of the key stakeholders in delivering services to students with mental health concerns,…

  2. Integrating assertive community treatment and illness management and recovery for consumers with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Salyers, Michelle P; McGuire, Alan B; Rollins, Angela L; Bond, Gary R; Mueser, Kim T; Macy, Veronica R

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the integration of two evidence-based practices for adults with severe mental illness: Assertive community treatment (ACT) and illness management and recovery (IMR) with peer specialists as IMR practitioners. Two of four ACT teams were randomly assigned to implement IMR. Over 2 years, the ACT-IMR teams achieved moderate fidelity to the IMR model, but low penetration rates: 47 (25.7%) consumers participated in any IMR sessions and 7 (3.8%) completed the program during the study period. Overall, there were no differences in consumer outcomes at the ACT team level; however, consumers exposed to IMR showed reduced hospital use over time.

  3. How children stigmatize people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C

    2007-11-01

    Many advocates have called for more anti-stigma programs targeting the attitudes of children towards people with mental illness as a way to forestall subsequent prejudice and discrimination as they age and develop. In order to better understand how children stigmatize people with mental illness, we reviewed the substantial literature on social cognitive development and ethnic prejudice. This literature suggests a curvilinear relationship. Children as young as three show some endorsement of stereotypes about people of color, which slowly increases and seems to peak around age five to six. Older children, interestingly, show lower rates of ethnic prejudice. Differences between mental illness and ethnicity-related stigma may influence the form of this relationship and we provide some hypotheses representing this difference. We then summarize the literature on stigma change, focusing on how specific strategies interact with what is known about social cognitive development and prejudice. Strategies that are reviewed include education, contact, social cognitive skills training, role play for empathy, peer interaction, protest and consequences. Implications for continued research in this area are highlighted throughout the article. PMID:18181355

  4. Providing treatment to persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shore, M F; Cohen, M D

    1994-01-01

    The RWJF Program on Chronic Mental illness created centralized mental health authorities in nine cities as a demonstration project. Evaluation teams, selected after the project began, and a national program office, established to provide technical assistance and to communicate progress and results, worked in tandem with the program staff. The project was evaluated as "logic model" to determine the feasibility of centralized authorities and to estimate their effect on various outcomes. One finding was that service reorganization does not cancel out the need to supply funds or mental health care. The problems of delay in the publication of results and of public officials' reluctance to act without "definitive" research data are described, as are the remedies for these difficulties.

  5. Impact of a television film on attitudes toward mental illness.

    PubMed

    Wahl, O F; Lefkowits, J Y

    1989-08-01

    The possible impact of a prime time television film portraying a mentally ill killer was investigated. Groups of college students were shown the film with and without a film trailer reminding viewers that violence is not characteristic of mentally ill persons. A third group viewed a film not about mental illness. Postfilm responses to the Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill scale indicated that those who saw the target film expressed significantly less favorable attitudes toward mental illness and community care of mentally ill persons than did those who saw the control film, regardless of whether of not they received the trailer along with the target film. Results support concerns that media depictions add to mental illness stigma and also suggest that corrective information alone may be sufficient to counteract the stigmatizing impact of such audience-involving mass media portrayals.

  6. Legal "rites": criminalizing the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Treffert, D A

    1981-01-01

    1. Because of more stringent civil commitment criteria, persons formerly hospitalized on a civil commitment now enter the system on criminal observation orders, having been arrested, booked, and often jailed for minor offenses such as vagrancy, shoplifting, or disorderly conduct. This represents a criminalization of the mentally ill. 2. In a single forensic system (Wisconsin) there was an increase of 73% in such commitments following court decisions and legislative revisions setting forth new commitment criteria. This increase was principally in criminal observations, although this rise was evident as well in "unable to stand trial" commitments. It was not present in "not guilty by reason of insanity" adjudications. 3. Aside from the obvious untoward effects per se of criminalizing mentally ill persons, other untoward effects occur in terms of prolonging hospitalization, depriving those persons of prompt treatment, and putting unnecessary and inhumane pressures on the family and the community, as well as on the mentally ill person himself. 4. The "freedom" to the penniless, helpless, ill, and finally arrested, jailed and criminally committed is not freedom at all--it's abandonment. The "right" to be demented, agonized and terrorized in the face of treatment which cannot, because of legal prohibition, be applied is no right at all--it's a new form of imprisonment. The "liberty" to be naked in a padded cell, hallucinating, delusional, and tormented, is not liberty--it is a folie à deux between pseudo-sophisticated liberals and an unrealizing public. The delusion is that if one changes the name of something to something else, or if one substitutes a jail for a hospital or a preoccupation with legal rites for honest concern over patients' rights, he has done something significant, useful and important, or at least something.

  7. Beyond attributions: Understanding public stigma of mental illness with the common sense model.

    PubMed

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chong, Eddie S K; Wong, Celia C Y

    2014-03-01

    The present study applied the common sense model (i.e., cause, controllability, timeline, consequences, and illness coherence) to understand public attitudes toward mental illness and help-seeking intention and to examine the mediating role of perceived controllability between causal attributions with public attitudes and help seeking. Based on a randomized household sample of 941 Chinese community adults in Hong Kong, results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that people who endorsed cultural lay beliefs tended to perceive the course of mental illness as less controllable, whereas those with psychosocial attributions see its course as more controllable. The more people perceived the course of mental illness as less controllable, more chronic, and incomprehensible, the lower was their acceptance and the greater was mental illness stigma. Furthermore, those who perceived mental illness with dire consequences were more likely to feel greater stigma and social distance. Conversely, when people were more accepting, they were more likely to seek help for psychological services and felt a shorter social distance. The common sense model provides a multidimensional framework in understanding public's mental illness perceptions and stigma. Not only should biopsychosocial determinants of mental illness be advocated to the public, cultural myths toward mental illness must be debunked.

  8. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, S J

    1992-01-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772

  9. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed

    Gold, S J

    1992-09-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772

  10. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  11. Are the mentally ill homeless a distinct homeless subgroup?

    PubMed

    North, C S; Smith, E M; Pollio, D E; Spitznagel, E L

    1996-09-01

    The question has been raised whether it is useful or meaningful to dichotomize the homeless population by mental illness - i.e., to consider the mentally ill homeless as distinct from other homeless people. The current article presents evidence from a single data set to address this question empirically. Data from a randomly sampled population of 900 homeless men and women systemically interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were examined to determine associations of mental illness with the problems of homelessness, controlling for the presence of substance abuse in the analyses. Although a few clinically meaningful associations with mental illness were found that might suggest directions for appropriate interventions, mental illness did not differentiate individuals in many important demographic and biographic respects. Individual diagnoses did not perform much better in differentiating the homeless by mental illness. Schizophrenia and bipolar mania showed a few significant associations not identified by the "major mental illness" construct. Major depression, constituting the majority of nonsubstance Axis I disorder in the homeless, provided no association beyond that obtained with the "major mental illness" category. The data provide little support for conceptualizing homeless subgroups or homelessness in general on the basis of mental illness alone. To do so also risks neglecting the emotional distress of the majority without major mental illness and the other problems that homeless persons share regardless of psychiatric illness. While serious mental illness is overrepresented among the homeless, it represents just one of many important vulnerability factors for homelessness. Substance abuse is far more prevalent than other Axis I disorders. Media images equating homelessness with major mental illness unnecessarily stigmatize homeless people and encourage oversimplified and narrowly conceived psychiatric interventions. While continuing attention is

  12. Are the mentally ill homeless a distinct homeless subgroup?

    PubMed

    North, C S; Smith, E M; Pollio, D E; Spitznagel, E L

    1996-09-01

    The question has been raised whether it is useful or meaningful to dichotomize the homeless population by mental illness - i.e., to consider the mentally ill homeless as distinct from other homeless people. The current article presents evidence from a single data set to address this question empirically. Data from a randomly sampled population of 900 homeless men and women systemically interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were examined to determine associations of mental illness with the problems of homelessness, controlling for the presence of substance abuse in the analyses. Although a few clinically meaningful associations with mental illness were found that might suggest directions for appropriate interventions, mental illness did not differentiate individuals in many important demographic and biographic respects. Individual diagnoses did not perform much better in differentiating the homeless by mental illness. Schizophrenia and bipolar mania showed a few significant associations not identified by the "major mental illness" construct. Major depression, constituting the majority of nonsubstance Axis I disorder in the homeless, provided no association beyond that obtained with the "major mental illness" category. The data provide little support for conceptualizing homeless subgroups or homelessness in general on the basis of mental illness alone. To do so also risks neglecting the emotional distress of the majority without major mental illness and the other problems that homeless persons share regardless of psychiatric illness. While serious mental illness is overrepresented among the homeless, it represents just one of many important vulnerability factors for homelessness. Substance abuse is far more prevalent than other Axis I disorders. Media images equating homelessness with major mental illness unnecessarily stigmatize homeless people and encourage oversimplified and narrowly conceived psychiatric interventions. While continuing attention is

  13. The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

    2013-03-01

    The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness. PMID:23407209

  14. The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

    2013-03-01

    The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness.

  15. Statistical Analysis in Genetic Studies of Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heping

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the risk factors for mental illnesses is of significant public health importance. Diagnosis, stigma associated with mental illnesses, comorbidity, and complex etiologies, among others, make it very challenging to study mental disorders. Genetic studies of mental illnesses date back at least a century ago, beginning with descriptive studies based on Mendelian laws of inheritance. A variety of study designs including twin studies, family studies, linkage analysis, and more recently, genomewide association studies have been employed to study the genetics of mental illnesses, or complex diseases in general. In this paper, I will present the challenges and methods from a statistical perspective and focus on genetic association studies. PMID:21909187

  16. Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma

    PubMed Central

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, were assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives. PMID:20493559

  17. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders.

  18. Life circumstances of mothers with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, C T; Oyserman, D; Bybee, D; MacFarlane, P; Rueda-Riedle, A

    2001-01-01

    Individuals with a severe mental illness now have greater opportunities to pursue normal adult roles, including parenting. The research reported involved 379 women carrying out parenting responsibilities, recruited from the public mental health system in an urban area. The sample displayed great heterogeneity in educational levels, number of children, number of fathers for their children, and family living arrangements, except that most women were very poor. These women faced many significant stresses: living alone with their children, significant child behavior problems, and financial worries. Still, most of the women endorsed the significance of motherhood in their lives. Inattention by most mental health providers to parenting issues leaves many important needs unmet and is likely to have adverse consequences for these women and their children. Implications for psychosocial rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  19. Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela

    2015-12-01

    As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group.

  20. Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela

    2015-12-01

    As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group. PMID:26668226

  1. Common Representations of the Mentally Ill among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovina, I. B.; Panov, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    The study of mental diseases and the mentally ill is, no doubt, the job of psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, social psychology has also made a substantial contribution to research in this field in the past few decades. In this study, the authors describe and analyze the content and structure of representations of the mentally ill among…

  2. Offenders with Mental Illness in the Correctional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.; Schnell, Marissa J.

    2007-01-01

    The escalating mentally ill population in prisons has created unique challenges for correctional systems, Colorado being no exception with 25% of its incarcerated population having mental health needs. This study examined correctional offenders with mental illness (OMIs) and found a growing number of OMIs in Colorado's prison system. Not only is…

  3. Mental Illness in Offender Populations: Prevalence, Duty and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Irina R.

    2007-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…

  4. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  5. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  6. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline Program § 541.6 Mentally ill inmates. If it appears you are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health...

  7. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline Program § 541.6 Mentally ill inmates. If it appears you are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health...

  8. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline Program § 541.6 Mentally ill inmates. If it appears you are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health...

  9. 28 CFR 541.6 - Mentally ill inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Inmate Discipline Program § 541.6 Mentally ill inmates. If it appears you are mentally ill at any stage of the discipline process, you will be examined by mental health...

  10. The rights of americans with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Talbott, John A

    2011-08-01

    This contribution to the literature starts by summarizing the history of psychiatric services in America from the time of our colonization to the present. It then discusses the Bill of Rights and the subsequent "rights" gained by the mentally ill, largely through state legislative or legal actions. Finally, it concludes with a discussion of how the entire area of rights has been swept up in a larger attempt to achieve a federal Bill of Patients' Rights and then a Health Reform Act in 2010.

  11. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public’s stigma of mental illness. PMID:22833051

  12. Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-05-01

    Globally, more than 70% of people with mental illness receive no treatment from health care staff. Evidence suggests that factors increasing the likelihood of treatment avoidance or delay before presenting for care include (1) lack of knowledge to identify features of mental illnesses, (2) ignorance about how to access treatment, (3) prejudice against people who have mental illness, and (4) expectation of discrimination against people diagnosed with mental illness. In this article, we reviewed the evidence on whether large-scale anti-stigma campaigns could lead to increased levels of help seeking.

  13. Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E; Gross, Bruce H

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing number of severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system. This article first discusses the criminalization of persons with severe mental illness and its causes, the role of the police and mental health, and the treatment of mentally ill offenders and its difficulties. The authors then offer recommendations to reduce criminalization by increased coordination between police and mental health professionals, to increase mental health training for police officers, to enhance mental health services after arrest, and to develop more and better community treatment of mentally ill offenders. The necessary components of such treatment are having a treatment philosophy of both theory and practice; having clear goals of treatment; establishing a close liaison between treatment staff and the justice system; understanding the need for structure; having a focus on managing violence; and appreciating the crucial role of case management, appropriate living arrangements, and the role of family members. PMID:15168834

  14. What Does Mental Health Parity Really Mean for the Care of People with Serious Mental Illness?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John; Manderscheid, Ron

    2016-06-01

    Parity of mental health and substance abuse insurance benefits with medical care benefits, as well as parity in their management, are major ongoing concerns for adults with serious mental illness (SMI). The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 guaranteed this parity of benefits and management in large private insurance plans and privately managed state Medicaid plans, but only if the benefits were offered at all. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 extended parity to all persons receiving insurance through the state health insurance marketplaces, through the state Medicaid Expansions, and through new individual and small group plans. This article presents an analysis of how accessible parity has become for adults with SMI at both the system and personal levels several years after these legislative changes have been implemented. PMID:27216906

  15. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    PubMed

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles. PMID:26745309

  16. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    PubMed

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.

  17. Evaluating Explicit and Implicit Stigma of Mental Illness in Mental Health Professionals and Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Maciej; Suszek, Hubert; Bonar, Erin; Myszka, Maciej; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Ilgen, Mark; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students (non-professionals) with no previous contact with mentally ill patients and psychiatrists and psychotherapists (professionals) who had at least 2 years of professional contact with mentally ill patients. Explicit attitudes where assessed by self-report. Implicit attitudes were measured with the Go/No-Go Association Task, a variant of the Implicit Association Test that does not require the use of a comparison category. Compared to non-professionals, mental health professionals reported significantly higher approach emotions than non-professionals towards people with mental illness, showed a lesser tendency to discriminate against them, and held less restrictive attitudes. Both groups reported negative implicit attitudes towards mentally ill. Results suggest that both non-professionals and professionals display ambivalent attitudes towards people with mental illness and that professional, long-term contact with people with mental illness does not necessarily modify negative implicit attitudes.

  18. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

  19. "Head take you": causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Carlotta M; Whitley, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Causal attributions are a key factor in explanatory models of illness; however, little research on causal attributions of mental illness has been conducted in developing nations in the Caribbean, including Jamaica. Explanatory models of mental illness may be important in understanding illness experience and be a crucial factor in mental health service seeking and utilization. We explored causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica by conducting 20 focus groups, including 16 community samples, 2 patient samples, and 2 samples of caregivers of patients, with a total of 159 participants. The 5 most commonly endorsed causal attributions of mental illness are discussed: (a) drug-related causes, including ganja (marijuana); (b) biological causes, such as chemical imbalance, familial transmission, and "blood"; (c) psychological causes, including stress and thinking too much; (d) social causes, such as relationship problems and job loss; and (e) spiritual or religious causes, including Obeah.

  20. [Glutamate transporter dysfunction and major mental illnesses].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohichi

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and plays an important role in most aspects of normal brain function. In spite of its importance as a neurotransmitter, excess glutamate is toxic to neurons. Clearance of extracellular glutamate is critical for maintenance of low extracellular glutamate concentration, and occurs in large part through the activity of GLT1 (EAAT2) and GLAST (EAAT1), which are primarily expressed by astrocytes. Rare variants and down-regulation of GLT1 and GLAST, in psychiatric disorders have been reported. In this review, we demonstrate that various kinds of GLT1 and/or GLAST knockout mice replicate many aspects of the behavioral abnormalities seen in major mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, obsessive -compulsive disorders, autism, epilepsy and addiction. PMID:26793898

  1. Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

  2. Details for Manuscript Number SSM-D-06-00377R1 “Targeted Ethnography as a Critical Step to Inform Cultural Adaptations of HIV Prevention Interventions for Adults with Severe Mental Illness.”

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, M. Alfredo; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-01-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the U.S., we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n = 72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography characterized the institutional culture and identified: 1) patients’ risk behaviors; 2) the institutional setting; 3) intervention content; and 4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients’ sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients’ sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of “social responsibility” as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested U.S. HIV prevention interventions from the US for Brazilians with SMI. PMID:17475382

  3. Comorbidity of Mental Illness and Substance Use in Jail Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales-Portalatin, David

    1995-01-01

    Examines the incidence of substance use and mental illness among jail inmates by analyzing differences and similarities in demographic characteristics and detention status in a sample of 5,785 subjects. Significant associations were found between membership in one of the substance use and/or mental illness categories and variables reflecting…

  4. Resilience Factors in Families Living with People with Mental Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonker, Liezl; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, a substantial burden is placed on families living with people with mental illnesses. The aim of this study was to identify resilience factors in families living in an underprivileged area, caring for people with mental illnesses. Data was obtained from family representatives (N=34) using semistructured interviews and a set of…

  5. Perceived Mental Illness and Diminished Responsibility: A Study of Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadava, Stan W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perceived mental illness and attribution of responsibility. Subjects evaluated data from various accident cases. Although greater mental illness was attributed to alcoholism and paranoid cases, greater responsibility was attributed to the alcoholic. Only in the normal case was greater responsibility related to…

  6. Keeping the Peace: Police Discretion and Mentally Ill Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplin, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    In many urban centers, responding to mentally ill people has become a large part of the police peacekeeping function. This article highlights the police role in handling mentally ill persons. Law enforcement options are discussed, including both formal and informal options. It is noted that officers decisions to hospitalize, arrest, or deal with a…

  7. New Strategies for Representing Mental Illness on Canadian Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…

  8. Mental Illness as a Barrier to Marriage among Unmarried Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…

  9. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  10. Mental Illness and Length of Inpatient Stay for Medicaid Recipients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Donald R; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Walkup, James T; Crystal, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between comorbid mental illness and length of hospital stays (LOS) among Medicaid beneficiaries with AIDS. Data Source and Collection/Study Setting Merged 1992–1998 Medicaid claims and AIDS surveillance data obtained from the State of New Jersey for adults with ≥1 inpatient stay after an AIDS diagnosis from 1992 to 1996. Study Design Observational study of 6,247 AIDS patients with 24,975 inpatient visits. Severe mental illness (SMI) and other less severe mental illness (OMI) diagnoses at visits were ascertained from ICD–9 Codes. About 4 percent of visits had an SMI diagnosis; 5 percent had an OMI diagnosis; 43 percent did not have a mental illness diagnosis, but were patients who had been identified as having an SMI or OMI history; and 48 percent were from patients with no identified history of mental illness. Principal Findings The overall mean hospital LOS was 12.7 days. After adjusting for measures of HIV disease severity and health care access in multivariate models, patients presenting with primary and secondary severe mental illness (SMI) diagnoses had ∼32 percent and ∼11 percent longer LOS, respectively, than did similar patients without a mental illness history (p<0.001 for each). But in these adjusted models of length of stay: (1) diagnosis of OMI was not related to LOS, and (2) in the absence of a mental illness diagnosed at the visit, an identified history of either SMI or OMI was also not related to LOS. In adjusted models of time to readmission for a new visit, current diagnosis of SMI or OMI and in the absences of a current diagnosis, history of SMI or OMI all tended to be associated with quicker readmission. Conclusions This study finds greater (adjusted) LOS for AIDS patients diagnosed with severe mental illness (but not for those diagnosed with less severe mental comorbidity) at a visit. The effect of acute severe mental illness on hospitalization time may be comparable to that of an acute AIDS

  11. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706

  12. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706

  13. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed.

  14. Intensive case management for severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload <20) in comparison with non-Intensive Case Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials

  15. [Definition of mental illness and discoursive strategies in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hartman, J

    1998-01-01

    Defining mental illness was presented in the article both as a matter of medical knowledge and a political issue. This latter aspect cannot be successfully dealt with by psychiatry itself, since it is a branch of medicine, nevertheless bioethics offers here its competences and possibilities. The presentation of some elements of traditional strategies in defining mental illness introduces a draft of such a project of the definition procedure, which reinforces the constantly threatened (by the decrease of sovereignity) social and legal status of psychiatry, and--on the other hand--enables us to support the evidently handicapped status of psychiatric patients. This solitary definition strategy, which support both psychiatric circles and patients, assumes that a popular modern tendency to deny the very reality of the mental illness is to be avoided. The definition of mental illness proposed in the article is pragmatic in character and is based on a definition of mental illness as a kind of spiritual disorder. PMID:10816967

  16. Increasing US health plan coverage for exercise programming in community mental health settings for people with serious mental illness: a position statement from the Society of Behavior Medicine and the American College of Sports Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Sarah I; Jerome, Gerald J; Schneider, Kristin L; Craft, Lynette L; Buman, Matthew P; Stoutenberg, Mark; Daumit, Gail L; Bartels, Stephen J; Goodrich, David E

    2016-09-01

    Adults with serious mental illness die more than 10 years earlier than the average American. Premature mortality is due to the high prevalence of preventable diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Poor lifestyle behaviors including lack of exercise and physical inactivity contribute to the epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease observed among adults with serious mental illness. Not surprisingly, people with serious mental illness are among the most costly consumers of health services due to increased visits for poorly managed mental and physical health. Recent studies have demonstrated that exercise interventions based on community mental health settings can significantly improve physical and mental health in people with serious mental illness. However, current funding regulations limit the ability of community mental health settings to offer exercise programming services to people with serious mental illness. Policy efforts are needed to improve the dissemination and sustainability of exercise programs for people with serious mental illness.

  17. Mental illness and violence: lessons from the evidence.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard G

    2014-02-01

    The debate about addressing mental illness and violence often ignores key facts. Many people experience mental illnesses, so having had a diagnosed illness is not a very specific predictor of violent behavior. This means that many proposed policy approaches, from expanded screening to more institutionalization, are unlikely to be effective. Expanded access to effective treatments, although desirable, will have only modest impacts on violence rates. Most people with mental health problems do not commit violent acts, and most violent acts are not committed by people with diagnosed mental disorders. PMID:24328636

  18. Racial differences in the criminalization of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Grekin, P M; Jemelka, R; Trupin, E W

    1994-01-01

    "Criminalization," the hypothesis that mentally ill persons are diverted to the criminal justice system, has been difficult to confirm. The few relevant studies have examined aspects of the mental health or the criminal justice systems, but not both. This study compares state hospital admissions with the admission of mentally ill persons to state prisons. There was considerable variation between counties. Counties sent more mentally ill members of their largest minority group to prison than expected. These results suggest that jurisdictions differ in their use of these two systems and that race is a factor in this difference.

  19. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  20. Mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness: A descriptive survey

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; BIrudu, Raju; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite of growing evidence of mental disorders in developing countries, research on mental health literacy is limited from India. Aim: To examine mental health literacy among caregivers of persons with mental illness Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among 161 randomly selected caregivers of persons with mental illness at outpatient department of a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through face to face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Regarding the causes of mental illness, a majority agreed that genetic inheritance (69%), substance abuse (64%) and brain disease (59.6%) are main factors for developing mental illness. Although more than two-thirds agreed that anyone could suffer from mental illness, 61.5% also agreed that people with mental health problems are largely to blame for their condition. The majority of the participants also agreed that mentally ill are not able to maintain friendships (45.9%), are dangerous (54%), and not capable to work (59.1%). Just over half (55.9%) of the participants would not want people to know if they had a mental illness and nearly half of them also expressed that they would feel ashamed if a family member had a mental illness. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study researchers suggest that there is an urgent need to educate and change the attitudes of caregivers through mental health literacy programs specifically designed for them. PMID:26167019

  1. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

  2. Public stigma towards mental illness in the Greek culture.

    PubMed

    Tzouvara, V; Papadopoulos, C

    2014-12-01

    Mental illness stigma negatively affects the lives of individuals with mental health disorders. Studies have indicated that the type and degree of stigma significantly varies across cultures. This study aimed to add to this body of knowledge by examining the prevalence and the type of mental illness stigma among individuals who identified themselves as Greek. It also examined the influence of a range of potential within-culture stigma moderating factors, including levels of previous experience with mental illness and mental illness knowledge. A cross-sectional quantitative design was employed, and 111 participants living in England and Greece were sampled through the snowball sampling technique. Stigma prevalence was measured using the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness' questionnaire. The findings revealed that participants showed a high degree of sympathy for people with mental illness but also considered them to be inferior and of a lower social class, and needing strict societal control. Higher stigma was significantly associated with being educated in England (instead of Greece), higher religiosity, lower knowledge levels and lower levels personal experience of mental illness. Targeted antistigma campaigns specifically tailored for the Greek culture are required in order to help reduce stigmatizing attitudes.

  3. Migration to the Downtown Eastside neighbourhood of Vancouver and changes in service use in a cohort of mentally ill homeless adults: a 10-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Julian M; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Rezansoff, Stefanie N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little research has investigated the role of migration as a potential contributor to the spatial concentration of homeless people with complex health and social needs. In addition, little is known concerning the relationship between possible migration and changes in levels of service use over time. We hypothesised that homeless, mentally ill individuals living in a concentrated urban setting had migrated from elsewhere over a 10-year period, in association with significant increases in the use of public services. Setting Recruitment was concentrated in the Downtown Eastside neighbourhood of Vancouver, Canada. Participants Participants (n=433) met criteria for chronic homelessness and serious mental illness, and provided consent to access administrative data. Methods Linked administrative data were used to retrospectively examine geographic relocation as well as rates of health, justice, and social welfare service utilisation in each of the 10 years prior to recruitment. Generalised estimating equations were used to estimate the effect of migration on service use. Results Over a 10-year period there was significant movement into Vancouver's Downtown Eastside neighbourhood (from 17% to 52% of the cohort). During the same period, there were significant annual increases in community medical services (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) per year=1.08; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.10), hospital admissions (ARR=1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.11), criminal convictions (ARR=1.08; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.13), and financial assistance payments (ARR=1.04; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06). Migration was significantly associated with financial assistance, but not with other types of services. Conclusions Significant increases in service use over a 10-year period coincided with significant migration into an urban area where relevant services were concentrated. These results highlight opportunities for early intervention in spatially diverse neighbourhoods to interrupt trajectories marked by worsening health and

  4. Mental Health Promotion and Illness Prevention: A Challenge for Psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978

  5. Serving Mentally Ill Offenders through Community Corrections: Joining Two Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, K. Michael; Dziegielewski, Sophia F.; Sharp, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the policy of deinstitutionalization has resulted in the closing of many federal and state mental health facilities. This has caused many criminal justice professionals and social workers to question where the mentally ill are placed when they are no longer in a treatment facility. With the abundance of offenders with mental health…

  6. Physical health screening for people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    2016-09-28

    People with severe mental illness are at risk of chronic physical health conditions, but physical health screening for this patient group is rarely conducted at primary or mental healthcare facilities because of gaps in services. In this article in Mental Health Practice, Emerson and colleagues discuss a quality improvement project in the US that has been improving health outcomes for patients. PMID:27682574

  7. Physical health screening for people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    2016-09-28

    People with severe mental illness are at risk of chronic physical health conditions, but physical health screening for this patient group is rarely conducted at primary or mental healthcare facilities because of gaps in services. In this article in Mental Health Practice, Emerson and colleagues discuss a quality improvement project in the US that has been improving health outcomes for patients.

  8. Viewing Popular Films about Mental Illness through a Sociological Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses an exercise she uses requiring students to view a popular film that portrays a particular mental disorder or a character with a mental disorder. Students analyze the film and write two papers, one about the sociological model of mental illness and a second about possible links between media images and the…

  9. Actitudes Haci la Enfermedad Mental: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefani, Dorina

    In this work, some of the most important instruments used to measure attitudes toward mental illness were analysed. A revision of different experimental investigations which studied attitudes toward mental illness among general public, mental health professionals and patients and their relatives was made. Some of the strategies applied to change…

  10. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  11. Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Galanek, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men’s prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers’ discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates’ psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers’ observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison’s structures and values enable officers’ discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates’ behaviors. These officers’ responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison’s order. PMID:25219680

  12. How did a Housing First intervention improve health and social outcomes among homeless adults with mental illness in Toronto? Two-year outcomes from a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Nir, Pam; Levy, Matthew; Misir, Vachan; Chum, Antony; Arbach, Bouchra; Nisenbaum, Rosane; To, Matthew J; Hwang, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We studied the impact of a Housing First (HF) intervention on housing, contact with the justice system, healthcare usage and health outcomes among At Home/Chez Soi randomised trial participants in Toronto, a city with an extensive service network for social and health services for individuals who are experiencing homelessness and mental illness. Methods Participants identified as high needs were randomised to receive either the intervention which provided them with housing and supports by an assertive community treatment team (HF+ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU). Participants (N=197) had in-person interviews every 3 months for 2 years. Results The HF+ACT group spent more time stably housed compared to the TAU group with the mean difference between the groups of 45.8% (95% CI 37.1% to 54.4%, p<0.0001). Accounting for baseline differences, HF+ACT group showed significant improvements over TAU group for community functioning, selected quality-of-life subscales and arrests at some time points during follow-up. No differences between HF+ACT and TAU groups over the follow-up were observed for health service usage, community integration and substance use. Conclusions HF for individuals with high levels of need increased housing stability and selected health and justice outcomes over 2 years in a city with many social and health services. Trial registration number ISRCTN42520374. PMID:27619826

  13. Treatment engagement of individuals experiencing mental illness: review and update.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Lisa B; Holoshitz, Yael; Nossel, Ilana

    2016-02-01

    Individuals living with serious mental illness are often difficult to engage in ongoing treatment, with high dropout rates. Poor engagement may lead to worse clinical outcomes, with symptom relapse and rehospitalization. Numerous variables may affect level of treatment engagement, including therapeutic alliance, accessibility of care, and a client's trust that the treatment will address his/her own unique goals. As such, we have found that the concept of recovery-oriented care, which prioritizes autonomy, empowerment and respect for the person receiving services, is a helpful framework in which to view tools and techniques to enhance treatment engagement. Specifically, person-centered care, including shared decision making, is a treatment approach that focuses on an individual's unique goals and life circumstances. Use of person-centered care in mental health treatment models has promising outcomes for engagement. Particular populations of people have historically been difficult to engage, such as young adults experiencing a first episode of psychosis, individuals with coexisting psychotic and substance use disorders, and those who are homeless. We review these populations and outline how various evidence-based, recovery-oriented treatment techniques have been shown to enhance engagement. Our review then turns to emerging treatment strategies that may improve engagement. We focus on use of electronics and Internet, involvement of peer providers in mental health treatment, and incorporation of the Cultural Formulation Interview to provide culturally competent, person-centered care. Treatment engagement is complex and multifaceted, but optimizing recovery-oriented skills and attitudes is essential in delivery of services to those with serious mental illness.

  14. [Mental illness and stigma or how to become mentally ill for life.].

    PubMed

    Massé, J C; T-Brault, M M

    1979-01-01

    In this article mental illness is presented in a sociological perspective, giving prominence to social-interaction factors which, in many cases, are responsable for the permanence of this type of illness. Its thereotical base comes !form the psychology of social-interaction developped by G.H. Mead and his disciples. This perspective defines the social human being as derived from successive interactions, beginning, at birth, with maternal contacts and extending progressively to the entirety of the members of the community of which the individual is a part. This interactional network is comprised of messages, of responses, and of expectations which make up the norms and values which in turn from the basis for the distribution of roles and statuses- From these roles and statuses derive the behaviours acceptable to a given collectivity. Among other theoretical developments, interactionist sociology gave birth to formulations on deviance which became known, in american terminology as "labelling theory". In the case of mental illness many sociologists interested in the phenomenon have studied it, using the framework elaborated by the proponents of this approach to deviance. Thus, rather than considering the deviant as abnormal in himself, deviance is viewed as a process; that is, as the result of a series of interactions confronting the individual who is not, or does not behave like the collectivity as a whole and the milieu in which he lives. When the reaction of the entourage is negative, the so-called deviant is subjected to sanctions such as avoidance, rejection, exclusion, confinement, etc... This process terminates generally in stigmatization which wraps the deviant in a label from which he will probably never free himself. The studies cited demonstrate this interactional process at different stages of mental illness, these being; d) at the point of medical diagnosis, b) during hospitalisation, c) on leaving We psychiatric institution, d) and after the return to

  15. Estimating the true global burden of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Vigo, Daniel; Thornicroft, Graham; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the global burden of mental illness is underestimated and examine the reasons for under-estimation to identify five main causes: overlap between psychiatric and neurological disorders; the grouping of suicide and self-harm as a separate category; conflation of all chronic pain syndromes with musculoskeletal disorders; exclusion of personality disorders from disease burden calculations; and inadequate consideration of the contribution of severe mental illness to mortality from associated causes. Using published data, we estimate the disease burden for mental illness to show that the global burden of mental illness accounts for 32·4% of years lived with disability (YLDs) and 13·0% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), instead of the earlier estimates suggesting 21·2% of YLDs and 7·1% of DALYs. Currently used approaches underestimate the burden of mental illness by more than a third. Our estimates place mental illness a distant first in global burden of disease in terms of YLDs, and level with cardiovascular and circulatory diseases in terms of DALYs. The unacceptable apathy of governments and funders of global health must be overcome to mitigate the human, social, and economic costs of mental illness.

  16. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    PubMed

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  17. Reinforcing stigmatization: coverage of mental illness in Spanish newspapers.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Muntaner, Judit; Ceruelo, Santiago; Basora, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Because the media influences society's perceptions of reality, the treatment of mental illness in the news can have an effect on the societal stigma related to it. This study aimed to analyze the content and form of news items related to mental illness in Spanish newspapers in order to understand their role in propagating or attenuating stereotypes, prejudices, and stigma. The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on the basis of a review of news items related to mental illness appearing in the Spanish print media. A sample was taken from articles published on the subject in the 20 Spanish newspapers with the widest circulations over the course of the year 2010. Formal elements and content were analyzed by means of a structured evaluation system. The authors analyzed 695 news items. The content of 47.9% (n = 333) of the articles was not strictly related to mental illness, but rather clinical or psychiatric terms were used metaphorically, and frequently in a pejorative sense. The remaining 52.1% (n = 362) consisted of news items related specifically to mental illness. Of these, news items linking mental illness to danger were the most common (178 texts, 49.2%), specifically those associating mental illness with violent crime (130 texts, 35.9%) or a danger to others (126 texts, 34.8%). The results confirm the hypothesis that the press treats mental illness in a manner that encourages stigmatization. The authors appeal to the press's responsibility to society and advocate an active role in reducing the stigma towards mental illness. PMID:24708534

  18. Police Encounters, Mental Illness and Injury: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Amy N.; Morabito, Melissa; Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Police encounters are believed to be particularly dangerous for people with mental illness and police officers. Despite widespread concern among advocates, researchers and police professionals, little is known about the details of these interactions including the occurrence of injuries. In the current study, we explore injuries to people with mental illness and officers to determine the extent to which situational and individual factors predict injuries. Findings suggest that injuries during police calls involving persons with mental illness are infrequent and rarely require medical attention. Predictors of injuries in these calls are similar to those in police encounters with the general population. PMID:21113331

  19. Court-ordered treatment for serious offenders with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Scott, Russ

    2008-12-01

    The insanity defence was elaborated upon through case authority which paralleled the development of phenomenology and treatment of serious mental illnesses, particularly psychotic disorders. In 1843, the rules in McNaughton's Case established a clear formulation for determining whether a person with a mental illness may be held to have been not criminally responsible at the time of an offence. The current legislative scheme in Queensland incorporates the most modern application of the defence of insanity and diminished responsibility and provides the most efficient mechanism by which mentally ill offenders are diverted into care and treatment.

  20. The workplace and nurses with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Terry; McMillan, Margaret; Hazelton, Michael

    2009-12-01

    A qualitative approach was used to explore workplace experiences of nurses who have a mental illness. Interview transcripts from 29 nurses in New South Wales, Australia were subjected to discourse analysis. One significant finding was a theme depicting the need for support and trust. This superordinate theme encompassed four subelements: declaring mental illnesses, collegial support, managerial support, and enhancing support. Most of the participants portrayed their workplace as an unsupportive and negative environment. A number of colleagues were depicted as having little regard for the codes for professional nursing practice. This paper shows how nurses in the study dealt with the workplace support associated with mental illness.

  1. Factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness. A descriptive correlation design was used. A sample of 180 Taiwanese mental health nurses was recruited from mental health-care settings. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, Student's t-test, one-way anova, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Negative attitudes were found among mental health nurses, especially with respect to individuals with substance abuse compared with those with schizophrenia and major depression. Mental health nurses who were older, had more clinical experiences in mental health care, and demonstrated greater empathy expressed more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness. Mental health nurses working at acute psychiatric units demonstrated more negative attitudes towards mental illness compared with those working in psychiatric rehabilitation units and outpatient clinics or community psychiatric rehabilitation centres. Particularly, length of mental health nursing practice and empathy significantly accounted for mental health nurses' attitudes towards mental illness. Understanding nurses' attitudes and their correlates towards people with mental illness is critical to deliver effective mental health nursing care.

  2. Assessing illness- and non-illness-based motivations for violence in persons with major mental illness.

    PubMed

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-02-01

    Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly.

  3. Filicide: Mental Illness in Those Who Kill Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra M.; Shaw, Jenny J.; Abel, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. Method All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997–2006) were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. Results 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66%) perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27%) and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%), most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. Conclusion In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research. PMID:23593128

  4. Concepts of mental illness and medical pluralism in Harare.

    PubMed

    Patel, V; Musara, T; Butau, T; Maramba, P; Fuyane, S

    1995-05-01

    The Focus Group Discussions (FGD) described in this paper are the first step of a study aiming to develop an 'emic' case-finding instrument. In keeping with the realities of primary care in Zimbabwe, nine FGD were held with 76 care providers including 30 village community workers, 22 traditional and faith healers (collectively referred to as traditional healers in this paper), 15 relatives of patients and 9 community psychiatric nurses. In addition to the general facets of concepts of mental illness, three 'etic' case vignettes were also presented. A change in behaviour or ability to care for oneself emerged as the central definition of mental illness. Both the head and the heart were regarded as playing an important role in the mediation of emotions. The types of mental illness described were intimately related to beliefs about spiritual causation. Angered ancestral spirits, evil spirits and witchcraft were seen as potent causes of mental illness. Families not only bore the burden of caring for the patient and all financial expenses involved, but were also ostracized and isolated. Both biomedical and traditional healers could help mentally ill persons by resolving different issues relating to the same illness episode. All case vignettes were recognized by the care providers in their communities though many felt that the descriptions did not reflect 'illnesses' but social problems and that accordingly, the treatment for these was social, rather than medical. The data enabled us to develop screening criteria for mental illness to be used by traditional healers and primary care nurses in the next stage of the study in which patients selected by these care providers on the grounds of suspicion of suffering from mental illness will be interviewed to elicit their explanatory models of illness and phenomenology. PMID:7480429

  5. Concept analysis of recovery in mental illness in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C O; McKenna, H P; Keeney, S; McLaughlin, D F

    2015-10-01

    Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts. Rodgers's (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery's conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. This analysis has revealed the derivation of the term recovery does not convey its identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatization, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection. The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users.

  6. Knowledge of mental illnesses: Two studies using a new test.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Gee, Marcus; Weis, Laura

    2016-10-30

    While the benefits of public knowledge of physical diseases are widely recognised, knowledge about mental disorders (mental health literacy, MHL) has received much less attention. This paper reports on two studies using the new Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illness Test (MC-KOMIT), a 33 item test of MHL (Compton et al., 2011). In Study 1, we examined cross-cultural associations between country of origin and their MHL in an online sample of 250 adults. In line with previous findings, we demonstrate that British and American participants outperform respondents from India. Furthermore, males showed significantly lower MHL, but - contrary to expectations - age did not have a significant impact. Study 2 was conducted to validate and extend findings of study 1 concerning the impact of demographics and individual difference factors on MHL. Results of the second study, using American participants are consistent with findings of study 1. In addition we show that while religious beliefs may reduce MHL, higher levels of education and self-confidence are associated with higher levels of MHL.

  7. Knowledge of mental illnesses: Two studies using a new test.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Gee, Marcus; Weis, Laura

    2016-10-30

    While the benefits of public knowledge of physical diseases are widely recognised, knowledge about mental disorders (mental health literacy, MHL) has received much less attention. This paper reports on two studies using the new Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illness Test (MC-KOMIT), a 33 item test of MHL (Compton et al., 2011). In Study 1, we examined cross-cultural associations between country of origin and their MHL in an online sample of 250 adults. In line with previous findings, we demonstrate that British and American participants outperform respondents from India. Furthermore, males showed significantly lower MHL, but - contrary to expectations - age did not have a significant impact. Study 2 was conducted to validate and extend findings of study 1 concerning the impact of demographics and individual difference factors on MHL. Results of the second study, using American participants are consistent with findings of study 1. In addition we show that while religious beliefs may reduce MHL, higher levels of education and self-confidence are associated with higher levels of MHL. PMID:27525825

  8. [Legal status of persons with mental illness in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Aleksandar A

    2004-01-01

    In this study, legal status of the mentally ill has been discussed in the context of Serbian legislation. The topics covered are the following: 1) the admission of persons with mental illness to psychiatric institution, 2) general (legal) competence, 3) marital relations of persons with mental illness, 4) legal definitions of sanity and security measures of medical character. Serbia still has no general law on mental health which would be in accordance with European standards, and the existing legislation which deals with the rights of persons with mental illness is, to a large extent, incomplete and obsolete. The author appeals for passing the law on mental health which should: a) follow modern trends in psychiatry concerning the protection of human rights with the basic goal to protect society and mentally ill persons, b) to protect the professional and moral integrity of psychiatrists, c) to provide ethically and professionally acceptable authorization for the use of force, if necessary, in order to prevent criminal acts and/or self-injuries in patients suffering from severe psychical disorders, d) to conceptualize forensic psychiatric treatment (the security measures, corrective psychiatry) and the programs of rehabilitation as an integral part of the community mental health protection system.

  9. Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, M. J; McKenzie, K.; Harpham, T.; Huttly, S.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: The concept of social capital has influenced mental health policies of nations and international organisations despite its limited evidence base. This papers aims to systematically review quantitative studies examining the association between social capital and mental illness. Design and setting: Twenty electronic databases and the reference sections of papers were searched to identify published studies. Authors of papers were contacted for unpublished work. Anonymised papers were reviewed by the authors of this paper. Papers with a validated mental illness outcome and an exposure variable agreed as measuring social capital were included. No limitations were put on date or language of publication. Main results: Twenty one studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Fourteen measured social capital at the individual level and seven at an ecological level. The former offered evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and common mental disorders. There was moderate evidence for an inverse relation between cognitive social capital and child mental illness, and combined measures of social capital and common mental disorders. The seven ecological studies were diverse in methodology, populations investigated, and mental illness outcomes, making them difficult to summarise. Conclusions: Individual and ecological social capital may measure different aspects of the social environment. Current evidence is inadequate to inform the development of specific social capital interventions to combat mental illness. PMID:16020636

  10. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  11. Can Trauma Trigger Violent Crime in Mentally Ill?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159859.html Can Trauma Trigger Violent Crime in Mentally Ill? Short-term risk was ... events are more likely to engage in a violent crime in the week following the trauma, a ...

  12. Criminal recidivism in mentally ill offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Harris, V; Koepsell, T D

    1996-01-01

    Criminal recidivism in mentally ill offenders, In the context of a county jail, has not been extensively studied. This study compares the rate of criminal recidivism between those who suffered from a mental illness at the time of arrest and those who did not. In addition, the length of incarceration between these two groups was compared. Using survival analysis, a risk assessment model describing the key features involved in criminal recidivism among the mentally ill may be built. To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind and will suggest areas of intervention that could prevent criminal recidivism among mentally ill offenders. Due to the lack of literature on the subject, this pilot study provides estimates of key parameters, such as types of crimes and frequency of incarceration, needed to undertake a definitive study. Furthermore, the pilot study provides an opportunity to develop and field test a data abstraction form and computer matching methods.

  13. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  14. The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective.

  15. Mentally Ill Still Gain Illegal Possession of Guns, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk, added Swanson, a professor with Duke University School of Medicine's department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. Mental illness causes only a small fraction of gun violence in the United States, around 3 to 5 ...

  16. The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective. PMID:19031056

  17. Mentally ill offenders in prison: the Belgian case.

    PubMed

    Vandevelde, Stijn; Soyez, Veerle; Vander Beken, Tom; De Smet, Stefaan; Boers, Anja; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    According to the EUPRIS-study on mental health in prisons (2007), available data on mental disorders in prison are scarce. Therefore, this study aims at summarizing and discussing the available knowledge on incarcerated mentally ill offenders concerning: (1) the screening and assessment for detecting mental health; (2) the psychiatric expertise in order to evaluate the mental status; and (3) the development and provision of forensic psychiatric treatment and care. These findings will be applied to the current situation in Belgium, which is a particularly interesting case. Belgium is currently facing difficulties concerning a large population of interned mentally ill offenders residing in correctional establishments. Implications with regard to the penal code, general or mental health legislation, screening, assessment, and treatment could deliver interesting viewpoints on how this problem could be tackled more effectively. Therefore, the findings will be discussed with reference to the international scientific and policy debate, focusing on ethical implications.

  18. Attributions of Mental Illness: An Ethnically Diverse Community Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bignall, Whitney J Raglin; Jacquez, Farrah; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Although the prevalence of mental illness is similar across ethnic groups, a large disparity exists in the utilization of services. Mental health attributions, causal beliefs regarding the etiology of mental illness, may contribute to this disparity. To understand mental health attributions across diverse ethnic backgrounds, we conducted focus groups with African American (n = 8; 24 %), Asian American (n = 6; 18 %), Latino/Hispanic (n = 9; 26 %), and White (n = 11; 32 %) participants. We solicited attributions about 19 mental health disorders, each representing major sub-categories of the DSM-IV. Using a grounded theory approach, participant responses were categorized into 12 themes: Biological, Normalization, Personal Characteristic, Personal Choice, Just World, Spiritual, Family, Social Other, Environment, Trauma, Stress, and Diagnosis. Results indicate that ethnic minorities are more likely than Whites to mention spirituality and normalization causes. Understanding ethnic minority mental health attributions is critical to promote treatment-seeking behaviors and inform culturally responsive community-based mental health services. PMID:25536943

  19. Partnership in mental health and child welfare: social work responses to children living with parental mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprised just under thirty percent of all new child protection applications brought to the Court and referred to alternative dispute resolution, during the first half of 1998. This paper reports on the study findings, which are drawn from a descriptive survey of 228 Pre-Hearing Conferences. A data collection schedule was completed for each case, gathering information about the child welfare concerns, the parents' problems, including mental health problems, and the contribution by mental health professionals to resolving child welfare concerns. The study found that the lack of involvement by mental health social workers in the child protection system meant the Children's Court was given little appreciation of either a child's emotional or a parent's mental health functioning. The lack of effective cooperation between the adult mental health and child protection services also meant decisions made about these children were made without full information about the needs and the likely outcomes for these children and their parents. This lack of interagency cooperation between mental health social work and child welfare also emerged in the findings of the Icarus project, a cross-national project, led by Brunel University, in England. This project compared the views and responses of mental health and child welfare social workers to the dependent children of mentally ill parents, when there were child protection concerns. It is proposed that adult mental health social workers involve themselves in the assessment of, and interventions in, child welfare cases when appropriate, and share essential information about

  20. The impact of an educational mental health intervention on adolescents' perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, E; Sourander, A; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A; Leino-Kilpi, H

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, in many countries, mental health care is primarily community based. Community perceptions of mental illness are an essential issue for the quality of life of people with mental health problems and the promotion of mental health in general. The aim of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions of mental illness and to examine the extent to which those perceptions changed after an educational mental health intervention. The data were collected twice, before and after the educational mental health intervention. Fifty-nine pupils from two Greek secondary schools were individually interviewed, and data were analyzed by inductive content analysis. The findings show that adolescents can provide a rich description of mental illness in a multidimensional way. After the intervention, they provide different descriptions, identify various forms of mental illness and express opinions on what mentally ill people need and how they should be treated. It is concluded that mental health educational interventions in schools can be effective in changing adolescents' perceptions towards mental illness.

  1. The impact of an educational mental health intervention on adolescents' perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, E; Sourander, A; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A; Leino-Kilpi, H

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, in many countries, mental health care is primarily community based. Community perceptions of mental illness are an essential issue for the quality of life of people with mental health problems and the promotion of mental health in general. The aim of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions of mental illness and to examine the extent to which those perceptions changed after an educational mental health intervention. The data were collected twice, before and after the educational mental health intervention. Fifty-nine pupils from two Greek secondary schools were individually interviewed, and data were analyzed by inductive content analysis. The findings show that adolescents can provide a rich description of mental illness in a multidimensional way. After the intervention, they provide different descriptions, identify various forms of mental illness and express opinions on what mentally ill people need and how they should be treated. It is concluded that mental health educational interventions in schools can be effective in changing adolescents' perceptions towards mental illness. PMID:24673839

  2. Analysis of a support group for children of parents with mental illnesses: managing stressful situations.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Brenda M; McKeever, Patricia; Seeman, Mary; Boydell, Katherine M

    2014-09-01

    We report an ethnographic analysis of a psycho-education and peer-support program for school-aged children of parents with mental illnesses. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of the program manual and observed group interactions to understand whether children shared program goals predetermined by adults, and how, or if, the intervention was responsive to their needs. Children were expected to learn mental illness information because "knowledge is power," and to express difficult feelings about being a child of a mentally ill parent that was risky. Participants used humor to manage group expectations, revealing how they made sense of their parents' problems, as well as their own. Suggestions are made for determining good mental health literacy based on children's preferences for explaining circumstances in ways they find relevant, and for supporting children's competencies to manage relationships that are important to them.

  3. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress.

  4. Newspaper reporting of homicide-suicide and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983

  5. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Lara C; Stefancic, Ana; Cunningham, Amy T; Hurley, Katelyn E; Cabassa, Leopodo J; Wender, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    People with mental illness die decades earlier in the United States compared with the general population. Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. The authors conducted an integrative review to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. Although multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review identified only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. On the basis of a literature review and the experience and expertise of the authors, each section in this article concludes with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness.

  6. Hippocampal neurogenesis as a target for the treatment of mental illness: A critical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Over one-quarter of adult Americans are diagnosed with a mental illness like Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s Disease. In addition to the exceptional personal burden these disorders exert on patients and their families, they also have enormous cost to society. Although existing pharmacological and psychosocial treatments alleviate symptoms in many patients, the comorbidity, severity, and intractable nature of mental disorders strongly underscore the need for novel strategies. As the hippocampus is a site of structural and functional pathology in most mental illnesses, a hippocampal-based treatment approach has been proposed to counteract the cognitive deficits and mood dysregulation that are hallmarks of psychiatric disorders. In particular, preclinical and clinical research suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus, may be harnessed to treat mental illness. There are obvious applications and allures of this approach; for example, perhaps stimulating hippocampal neurogenesis would reverse the overt and noncontroversial hippocampal atrophy and functional deficits observed in Alzheimer’s Disease and schizophrenia, or the more controversial hippocampal deficits seen in MDD and PTSD. However, critical examination suggests that neurogenesis may only correlate with mental illness and treatment, suggesting targeting neurogenesis alone is not a sufficient treatment strategy. Here we review the classic and causative links between adult hippocampal neurogenesis and mental disorders, and provide a critical evaluation of how (and if) our basic knowledge of new neurons in the adult hippocampus might eventually help combat or even prevent mental illness. PMID:20060007

  7. A Psychoeducational Support Group for Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.

    2009-01-01

    The formation, structure, and goals of an open-ended psychoeducational support group for people with serious and persistent mental illnesses are described, differentiating psychoeducation from psychotherapy, and professional from peer-led support groups. Major goals are to provide education for illness management and help members combat social…

  8. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  9. Feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a knowledge-contact program to reduce mental illness stigma and improve mental health literacy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Myers, John A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this school-based cluster-randomized trial was to determine the initial acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of an existing community-based intervention, In Our Own Voice, in a sample of US adolescent girls aged 13-17 years (n = 156). In Our Own Voice is a knowledge-contact intervention that provides knowledge about mental illness to improve mental health literacy and facilitates intergroup contact with persons with mental illness as a means to reduce mental illness stigma. This longitudinal study was set in two public high schools located in a southern urban community of the U.S. Outcomes included measures of mental illness stigma and mental health literacy. Findings support the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention for adolescents who enrolled in the study. Findings to support the efficacy of In Our Own Voice to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy are mixed. The intervention did not reduce mental illness stigma or improve mental health literacy at one week follow up. The intervention did not reduce mental illness stigma at 4 and 8 weeks follow up. The intervention did improve mental health literacy at 4 and 8 weeks follow up. Previous studies have assessed the preliminary efficacy In Our Own Voice among young adults; rarely has In Our Own Voice been investigated longitudinally and with adolescents in the United States. This study provides initial data on the effects of In Our Own Voice for this population and can be used to further adapt the intervention for adolescents.

  10. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  11. Religious Education and Mental Illness: A Higher Education Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govig, Stewart D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a special curriculum that combines religious studies and social science resources to offer a better understanding and acceptance of persons suffering from long-term mental disorders. Utilizes recent scientific research and sacred texts to investigate biological causes of mental illness and the ensuing cultural stigmatization. (MJP)

  12. Seeking Professional Help: Etiology Beliefs about Mental Illness across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Mak, Winnie W. S.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the contributions of cultural beliefs about the etiology of mental illness to the seeking of help from mental health professionals among college students in 4 cultural groups, European Americans, Chinese Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese. Group differences were found in help-seeking…

  13. Ending lethal discrimination against people with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Taggart, Holly; Bailey, Sue

    2015-12-01

    Each year in England 33 000 people diagnosed with a serious mental illness (SMI) die from causes that could have been avoided. Our mental-health-specific Atlas of Variation is the first to demonstrate the extent to which these inequalities and inequities affect mortality nationally.

  14. From Discrimination to Internalized Mental Illness Stigma: The Mediating Roles of Anticipated Discrimination and Anticipated Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Weisz, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Internalizing mental illness stigma is related to poorer well-being, but less is known about the factors that predict levels of internalized stigma. This study explored how experiences of discrimination relate to greater anticipation of discrimination and devaluation in the future, and how anticipation of stigma, in turn predicts greater stigma internalization. Method Participants were 105 adults with mental illness who self-reported their experiences of discrimination based on their mental illness, their anticipation of discrimination and social devaluation from others in the future, and their level of internalized stigma. Participants were approached in several locations and completed surveys on laptop computers. Results Correlational analyses indicated that more experiences of discrimination due to one’s mental illness were related to increased anticipated discrimination in the future, increased anticipated social stigma from others, and greater internalized stigma. Multiple serial mediator analyses showed that the effect of experiences of discrimination on internalized stigma was fully mediated by increased anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Experiences of discrimination over the lifetime may influence not only how much future discrimination people with mental illness are concerned with but also how much they internalize negative feelings about the self. Mental health professionals may need to address concerns with future discrimination and devaluation in order to decrease internalized stigma. PMID:25844910

  15. Housing Stability among Homeless Individuals with Serious Mental Illness Participating in Housing First Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Carol; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Locke, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploratory study of three programs using the Housing First approach to provide permanent supportive housing for single, homeless adults with serious mental illness and often co-occurring substance-related disorders. This approach provides direct, or nearly direct, access to housing that is intended to be…

  16. A Survey Instrument for the Assessment of Popular Conceptions of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Gary; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A 190-item survey instrument, designed to assess subgroup differences in the behavioral criteria for mental illness labeling, was administered to 241 adults from two populations. The 190 items comprised 25 content homogeneous scales. The instrument was found to compress into 13 separate areas of attributed psychopathology. (Author)

  17. A PSYCHIATRIST'S PERSPECTIVES ON STRESS, STEROIDS AND MENTAL ILLNESS.

    PubMed

    Dunai, Magdolna

    2014-03-30

    The relationship between stress and mental illness has been extensively studied and there is a growing consensus that the occurrence of mental illness rather depends on a combination of factors than is caused by stressful external events. Significant hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis abnormalities were observed among others in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. In both disorders, the extent of change in cortisol level was related to the severity of illness and to cognitive changes. Exogenous use of synthetic steroids also frequently resulted in severe psychiatric symptoms. In conclusion changes in the level of steroid hormones may cause impairments in the brain.

  18. A review of the role of illness models in severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Lobban, Fiona; Barrowclough, Christine; Jones, Steve

    2003-03-01

    The ways in which people think about illness experiences have been associated with a variety of important behaviours and emotional responses in patients, carers, and professionals. Some of these responses have been shown to be related to outcome. Explicit models such as the self-regulation model (SRM) [Leventhal, H., Nerenz, D. R., & Steele, D. F. (1984). Illness representations and coping with health threats. In A. Baum & J. Singer (Eds.), A handbook of psychology and health. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 219-252.] have been shown to be useful in highlighting key beliefs across a wide range of different physical illnesses. The specific beliefs about mental illness that have been assessed have been varied and largely without a common theoretical framework. This has resulted in a literature from which it is difficult to draw firm conclusions. The central aim of this paper is to assess the applicability of the SRM to mental illness. To this end, we review studies to date that have examined the beliefs that people with a mental illness have about their experiences. In addition, we review studies that have examined the beliefs of relatives of people with a mental illness and professionals who work with this population. We assess to what extent these studies are consistent with the SRM before suggesting ways in which the model could be further developed and tested. The SRM is presented as a useful framework for more advanced investigations into the function of beliefs about mental illness and how these can be modified in order to effect outcome. Developing psychological theories common to both physical and mental health may eventually result in an integrated approach in which mental illness becomes less stigmatised within the treatment setting. PMID:12573669

  19. Attitudes towards mental illness in the Commonwealth of Dominica.

    PubMed

    Kohn, R; Sharma, D; Camilleri, C P; Levav, I

    2000-03-01

    Little is known about the perception of mental illness in the English-speaking Caribbean. This study was conducted in 1995 to determine the attitudes, knowledge, and help-seeking practices for emotional disorders in the Commonwealth of Dominica. Two groups in Dominica were surveyed: 67 community leaders, consisting of nurses, teachers, and police officers; and 135 community members grouped into five socioeconomic strata that were collapsed to three for the analysis. All the respondents were asked to identify and suggest management of individuals with psychosis, alcoholism, depression, and childhood hyperactivity, as depicted in case vignettes. The person in the psychosis vignette was diagnosed as suffering from mental illness by 84.0% of the leaders and by 71.2% of the community members. However, in each of the three other vignettes, fewer than 30% of the respondents thought that mental illness was present. The person with alcoholism was viewed as having a serious problem by only slightly more than half of the respondents. Fewer than half of the respondents thought that the individuals with depression or hyperactivity had serious problems. The community leaders did somewhat worse in recognizing mental illness than did the community members. Respondents were most likely to refer a family member with emotional problems to a medical practitioner. In conclusion, education about mental health problems is needed in Dominica. Especially disconcerting was the lack of knowledge on mental illness among nurses, teachers, and police officers, that is, professionals directly involved in the pathway to care.

  20. Assessing the knowledge of perinatal mental illness among student midwives.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise

    2015-11-01

    The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives.

  1. Serious mental illness and acute hospital readmission in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer S; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Goldberg, Richard; Langenberg, Patricia; Day, Hannah R; Morgan, Daniel J; Comer, Angela C; Harris, Anthony D; Furuno, Jon P

    2012-01-01

    Patients with serious mental illness (SMI), particularly those with other chronic illnesses, may be vulnerable to unplanned hospital readmission. The authors hypothesized that SMI would be associated with increased 30-day hospital readmission in a cohort of adult patients with comorbid diabetes admitted to a tertiary care facility from 2005 to 2009. SMI was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, discharge diagnosis codes for schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar, manic, or major depressive disorders, or other psychosis. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission to the index hospital. Among 26 878 eligible admissions, the prevalence of SMI was 6% and the incidence of 30-day hospital admission was 16%. Among patients aged <35 years, SMI was significantly associated with decreased odds of 30-day hospital readmission (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17, 0.91). However, among patients ≥35 years, SMI was not significantly associated with 30-day hospital readmission (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.86, 1.42). SMI may not be associated with increased odds of 30-day hospital readmission in this population.

  2. Serious mental illness and acute hospital readmission in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer S; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Goldberg, Richard; Langenberg, Patricia; Day, Hannah R; Morgan, Daniel J; Comer, Angela C; Harris, Anthony D; Furuno, Jon P

    2012-01-01

    Patients with serious mental illness (SMI), particularly those with other chronic illnesses, may be vulnerable to unplanned hospital readmission. The authors hypothesized that SMI would be associated with increased 30-day hospital readmission in a cohort of adult patients with comorbid diabetes admitted to a tertiary care facility from 2005 to 2009. SMI was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, discharge diagnosis codes for schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar, manic, or major depressive disorders, or other psychosis. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission to the index hospital. Among 26 878 eligible admissions, the prevalence of SMI was 6% and the incidence of 30-day hospital admission was 16%. Among patients aged <35 years, SMI was significantly associated with decreased odds of 30-day hospital readmission (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17, 0.91). However, among patients ≥35 years, SMI was not significantly associated with 30-day hospital readmission (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.86, 1.42). SMI may not be associated with increased odds of 30-day hospital readmission in this population. PMID:22539798

  3. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  4. Effects of a Unit in Mental Health on Rural Adolescents' Attitudes about Seeking Help and Concepts of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.; And Others

    One factor thought to contribute to the underutilization of mental health services, especially among rural Americans, is the stigma attached to mental illness and the associated help seeking process. This study investigated the effects of an instructional unit on mental illness and related issues on rural adolescents' concept of mental illness and…

  5. Beliefs towards mental illness in Turkish physiotherapy students.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Meric; Demirbuken, Ilksan; Balci, Birgul; Yurdalan, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a new area of specialization for physiotherapists. However, they usually meet patients with psychiatric co-morbidities secondary to other chronic diseases. It is important to explore the beliefs of future physiotherapists regarding mental illness in order to implement effective strategies to avoid possible stigmatizing attitudes that may interfere with the rehabilitation process. Moreover, the psychiatric field should be introduced to physiotherapists as a clinical and research area. Therefore, we aimed to question the beliefs of physiotherapy students regarding mental illness using the Beliefs towards Mental Illness Scale in two different universities in Turkey. The total score of 524 students was 46.5 ± 14.5 out of 105 while the Dangerousness Subscale score was 21.2 ± 5.8/40; Incurability and Poor Social and Interpersonal Skills Subscale score was 24.2 ± 9.3/55 and Shame Subscale score was 1.1 ± 1.9/10. Students who had a relationship with an individual having a mental problem and students who had consulted a psychiatrist/psychologist for any mental problem showed more positive beliefs. Future physiotherapists should be informed and trained regarding people with mental illness both to avoid stigma and to be aware of this area in physiotherapy settings. Therefore, it is important to implement new curricula for schools providing physiotherapy education including courses, lectures and clinical practices in the psychiatry field.

  6. [Legal responsibility of mentally ill persons].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Fabre, Isabelle

    2006-05-15

    In a long humanistic tradition, insanity is a cause of irresponsibility. An irresponsible patient has to be treated. Are responsibility and irresponsibility so contrasted? Where can we put the limits between judicial repression and mental care? What are the best means to treat mental patients? Debate remains open. This article is a clinical and practical reasoning.

  7. 250 labels used to stigmatise people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Diana; Thornicroft, Graham; Pinfold, Vanessa; Kassam, Aliya

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma against people with mental illness is a major barrier to help-seeking in young people for mental health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of stigma in relation to treatment avoidance in 14 year-old school students in England in relation to how they refer to people with mental illness. Methods This is a qualitative, cross-sectional study. The data were gathered as part of the baseline assessment for an intervention study intended to reduce stigma among 14 year old school students. The participating schools were two grammar (selective) schools and three comprehensive (non-selective) schools. At the start of the lesson, the students were asked 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' Words and terms used to refer to mental illness were enumerated. Using the grounded theory approach, words and terms were grouped in terms of their denotative and connotative meanings. Labels were then derived to capture the key themes attached by the students to the concepts of mental illness. The frequencies of occurrence for each word were also tabulated. Results 400 of the 472 participating students (85%) provided 250 words and terms to describe a person with mental illness. Five themes were identified from the data. The first theme called 'popular derogatory terms' (116 items) accounted for nearly half of the words examined. The second theme occurred less often and was described as 'negative emotional state' (61 items). The third theme demonstrated the confusion of young people between physical disabilities, learning difficulties and mental health problems (38 items). The use of psychiatric diagnoses (15 items) and terms related to violence (9 items) were unexpectedly uncommon. Conclusion Our findings suggest the hypothesis that help-seeking by mentally ill young people may be improved by interventions that address both their lack of factual information about

  8. Reducing Premature Mortality in the Mentally Ill Through Health Promotion Programs.

    PubMed

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, Joy A; Whaley, Cathy; Bowman, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Nearly half of the U.S. adult population will have a major mental illness during their lifetimes. At any point in time, almost a fifth of all American adults have a serious mental illness (SMI). Too many in our society do not understand mental illnesses, placing the blame for the illness on those with the illness, resulting in isolation, marginalization, or incarceration of individuals with SMIs. They may experience stigma, inadequate and delayed health and mental health care, and major socioeconomic disadvantages. They may struggle with activities of daily living, lose many of their resources, and spiral down into poverty. The disadvantages and decreased ability to function experienced by individuals with SMIs lead to increased unhealthy behaviors, reduced participation in wellness-related activities, and premature morbidity and mortality. The general and physical health of individuals with SMIs poses greater challenges from both practice and research standpoints. However, health educators are poised uniquely to provide health promotion programs, conduct research, and advocate for the health and well-being of individuals with SMIs. In this review, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for health promotion in individuals with SMIs. PMID:27307394

  9. Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…

  10. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  11. Psychiatric labelling, sex role stereotypes and beliefs about the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Cormack, S; Furnham, A

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of two main variables on specific attitudes and beliefs about mental illness. The first variable tested the labelling theory proposal that the label of mental illness per se is stigmatizing for those so labelled. The second tested the proposal of Rosenfield (1982) that males and females receive a more severe societal reaction for deviance when the deviant behaviour is inconsistent with traditional sex role norms. Questionnaires with vignettes describing four behaviour types were given to young adult respondents. The expected effect of a psychiatric diagnosis and of deviance from sex role stereotypes were not confirmed. It was concluded that while several variables combine to influence specific attitudes and beliefs about the mentally ill, the type of behaviour displayed is the crucial factor. PMID:10459508

  12. Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-09-01

    People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions.

  13. Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-09-01

    People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. PMID:24382318

  14. The status of the mentally ill in Jewish law.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Y A

    1993-01-01

    The Jewish law goes into great detail discussing the status of the mentally ill. There are many aspects to this question over and above the legal aspects of such a person's rights, obligations, doing business, etc. What is the Halachic approach to a mentally ill person in general? Is this person subject to the code of Jewish law the same as the normal Jew? Should we make an effort to help this type of person fulfil the commandments and prevent him or her from transgressing them or perhaps since such a person is incapable of controlling his or her behaviour, there is no purpose in these efforts? Marriage and divorce are other serious issues to which the Jewish law gives special attention in this context. Marriage must be entered into by a rational and judicious person or the act will not be valid. A very serious problem arises when a husband is mentally ill and due to that halachically cannot divorce his wife and she remains an Agunah. The situation is more complicated as the definition of mentally ill encompasses a broader spectrum of cases. Which psychiatric disorders come under the definition of a mentally ill person who is unable to control his or her behaviour? Which symptoms attest the inability of a person to enter into marriage or to grant a divorce? The Talmud discusses these matters in several places and the Halacha bases its rulings on their conclusions. PMID:8231701

  15. The status of the mentally ill in Jewish law.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Y A

    1993-01-01

    The Jewish law goes into great detail discussing the status of the mentally ill. There are many aspects to this question over and above the legal aspects of such a person's rights, obligations, doing business, etc. What is the Halachic approach to a mentally ill person in general? Is this person subject to the code of Jewish law the same as the normal Jew? Should we make an effort to help this type of person fulfil the commandments and prevent him or her from transgressing them or perhaps since such a person is incapable of controlling his or her behaviour, there is no purpose in these efforts? Marriage and divorce are other serious issues to which the Jewish law gives special attention in this context. Marriage must be entered into by a rational and judicious person or the act will not be valid. A very serious problem arises when a husband is mentally ill and due to that halachically cannot divorce his wife and she remains an Agunah. The situation is more complicated as the definition of mentally ill encompasses a broader spectrum of cases. Which psychiatric disorders come under the definition of a mentally ill person who is unable to control his or her behaviour? Which symptoms attest the inability of a person to enter into marriage or to grant a divorce? The Talmud discusses these matters in several places and the Halacha bases its rulings on their conclusions.

  16. Soles of the Feet: A Mindfulness-Based Self-Control Intervention for Aggression by an Individual with Mild Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Wahler, Robert G.; Adkins, Angela D.; Myers, Rachel E.

    2003-01-01

    A mindfulness-based, self-control strategy was developed for an adult with mental retardation and mental illness whose aggression had precluded successful community placement. He was taught a simple meditation technique that required him to shift his attention and awareness from the anger-producing situation to the soles of his feet. (Contains…

  17. Sociodemographic and clinical profile of homeless mentally ill inpatients in a north Indian medical university.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A; Nischal, A; Dalal, P K; Agarwal, V; Agarwal, M; Trivedi, J K; Gupta, B; Arya, A

    2013-10-01

    Homeless mentally ill (HMI) persons are a highly vulnerable and socially disadvantaged population, deprived of even the basic minimal human rights. Data on HMI in India is scarce. This retrospective chart review aimed to evaluate socio-demographic, socio-cultural and clinical profile of HMI patients, and to study reasons of homelessness and outcome related variables in these patients. One hundred and forty homeless persons were admitted to the department of psychiatry of a north Indian medical university from February 2005 to July 2011. Of these, one hundred and twenty-seven (90.7%) had psychiatric illness and six had only intellectual disabilities. The majority of HMI persons were illiterate/minimally literate, adult, male, and from low socioeconomic and rural backgrounds. Most of the patients (55.7%) had more than one psychiatric diagnosis. HMI had considerably high rates of co-morbid substance abuse (44.3%), intellectual disabilities (38.6%) and physical problems (75.4%). Most (84.3%) were mentally ill before leaving home and 54.3% left home themselves due to the illness. Most HMI responded to the treatment. After treatment of mental illness, it was possible to reintegrate about 70% of the patients into their families. Families were willing to accept and support them. Untreated/inadequately treated mental illness was the most common reason for homelessness. Easily accessible treatment and rehabilitation facilities at low cost can improve the plight of such patients. Further research in this area is required.

  18. Mental Illness and Prisoners: Concerns for Communities and Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The United States prison system is the largest in the world. Mental illness is disproportionately represented within this system where half of all incarcerated individuals have a mental illness, compared to 11% of the population. Four of 10 inmates released from prison recidivate and are re-incarcerated within three years. A social hypothesis suggests recidivism is the result of compounding social factors. Mentally ill individuals often find themselves in less than ideal circumstances of compounding social factors such as illicit substances and unemployment. Prison life may provide improved social situations and a rehabilitating environment, yet corrections often fall short of meeting acceptable standards of healthcare. This article provides a brief overview of healthcare in the corrections environment and discusses factors that affect mental healthcare in prisons, such as characteristics of the prison population and social policy. The article also addresses factors impacting mentally ill persons who are incarcerated, including access and barriers to mental health treatment and efforts to reduce recidivism. PMID:26824261

  19. Reducing hospitalisation among people living with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Shannon; Bruce, Jasmine; Muir, Kristy; Ramia, Ioana; Fisher, Karen R; Bullen, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Objective People with severe mental illness have high rates of hospitalisation. The present study examined the role that permanent housing and recovery-oriented support can play in reducing the number and length of psychiatric hospital admissions for people with severe mental illness. Methods The study examined de-identified, individual-level health records of 197 people involved in the New South Wales Mental Health Housing and Accommodation Support Initiative (HASI) to compare changes in hospitalisation over a continuous 4-year period. Results On average, HASI consumers experienced significant reductions in the number of psychiatric hospital admissions and length of stay after entering the HASI program, and these reductions were sustained over the first 2 years in HASI. Male consumers and consumers under 45 years of age experienced the largest reductions in the number and length of hospital admissions. Conclusions The findings of the present study add support to the hypothesis that supported housing and recovery-oriented support can be effective approaches to reducing hospital admissions for people with chronic mental illness, and that these changes can be sustained over time. What is known about this topic? People living with severe mental illness are heavy users of health and hospitalisation services. Research into the effects of partnership programs on preventing unnecessary admissions is limited because of short periods of comparison and small sample sizes. What does this paper add? The present study extends previous research by analysing de-identified individual-level health records over a continuous 4-year period and showing that reductions in hospitalisation among people with severe mental illness can be sustained over time. What are the implications for practitioners? These findings provide further evidence that community-based recovery-oriented supported housing programs can assist consumers to manage their mental health and avoid hospital admissions

  20. South African Hindu psychologists' perceptions of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, Priyanka; Laher, Sumaya

    2014-04-01

    Conceptualisations of mental illness are not universally applicable, as culture shapes the expression, perceptions and treatment preferences thereof. By focusing on the perceptions of Hindu psychologists regarding mental illness, this study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that religious beliefs have on such conceptualisations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six Hindu psychologists around the Johannesburg area, South Africa. Responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. From the findings, it was evident that religion plays a critical role in the understanding and treatment of mental illness. Hindu beliefs around psychological disturbances were salient. Additionally, it was found that a tension existed between psychologists' awareness of the influential function of religion, particularly amongst collectivistic communities such as the Hindu community, and their occupational understandings and practices, which are deeply rooted in Western thought. Furthermore, it was suggested that the fear of stigma prevented Hindu clients from reaping the benefits of seeking help from culturally competent psychologists. PMID:23054478

  1. Mental illness and mental health: is the glass half empty or half full?

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2012-11-01

    During the past century, the scope of mental health intervention in North America has gradually expanded from an initial focus on hospitalized patients with psychoses to outpatients with neurotic disorders, including the so-called worried well. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, is further embracing the concept of a mental illness spectrum, such that increasing attention to the softer end of the continuum can be expected in the future. This anticipated shift rekindles important questions about how mental illness is defined, how to distinguish between mental disorders and normal reactions, whether psychiatry is guilty of prevalence inflation, and when somatic therapies should be used to treat problems of living. Such debates are aptly illustrated by the example of complicated bereavement, which is best characterized as a form of adjustment disorder. Achieving an overarching definition of mental illness is challenging, owing to the many different contexts in which DSM diagnoses are used. Careful analyses of such contextual utility must inform future decisions about what ends up in DSM, as well as how mental illness is defined by public health policy and society at large. A viable vision for the future of psychiatry should include a spectrum model of mental health (as opposed to exclusively mental illness) that incorporates graded, evidence-based interventions delivered by a range of providers at each point along its continuum. PMID:23149280

  2. Educational interventions in secondary education aiming to affect pupils' attitudes towards mental illness: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, E; Leino-Kilpi, H; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A

    2011-03-01

    Dealing with persons who have mental health problems is an issue that many people are likely to face with, whether they are health professionals or not. Positive attitudes towards people with mental illness play a major factor in their quality of life and social inclusion. Since adolescents will become active adult members of their communities in the near future, this paper reviews educational interventions in secondary education and how they aim to affect adolescent attitudes towards mental illness. Twelve studies conducted on the relevant issue have been identified. The results indicate a positive impact on attitudes towards mental illness and improvements in the knowledge of mental health and illness among secondary school pupils. However, the limited number of studies highlights the need for further research.

  3. The criminal justice outcomes of jail diversion programs for persons with mental illness: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sirotich, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Diversion programs are initiatives in which persons with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system are redirected from traditional criminal justice pathways to the mental health and substance abuse treatment systems. This article is a review of the research literature conducted to determine whether the current evidence supports the use of diversion initiatives to reduce recidivism and to reduce incarceration among adults with serious mental illness with justice involvement. A structured literature search identified 21 publications or research papers for review that examined the criminal justice outcomes of various diversion models. The review revealed little evidence of the effectiveness of jail diversion in reducing recidivism among persons with serious mental illness. However, evidence was found that jail diversion initiatives can reduce the amount of jail time that persons with mental illness serve. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  4. Educational interventions in secondary education aiming to affect pupils' attitudes towards mental illness: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, E; Leino-Kilpi, H; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A

    2011-03-01

    Dealing with persons who have mental health problems is an issue that many people are likely to face with, whether they are health professionals or not. Positive attitudes towards people with mental illness play a major factor in their quality of life and social inclusion. Since adolescents will become active adult members of their communities in the near future, this paper reviews educational interventions in secondary education and how they aim to affect adolescent attitudes towards mental illness. Twelve studies conducted on the relevant issue have been identified. The results indicate a positive impact on attitudes towards mental illness and improvements in the knowledge of mental health and illness among secondary school pupils. However, the limited number of studies highlights the need for further research. PMID:21299729

  5. The case for involuntary hospitalization of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Chodoff, P

    1976-05-01

    The author examines three points of view on the question of society's right to involuntarily hospitalize a mentally ill individual. The "abolitionists" oppose involuntary hospitalization entirely; the medical model psychiatrists support the need for commitment under certain circumstances and so do the civil liberties lawyers, but by different standards. The author believes that with the current overreliance on the dangerousness standard, we are witnessing a pendular swing in which the rights of the mentally ill to be treated and protected are being set aside in the rush to give them their freedom. He favors a return to the use of medical criteria by psychiatrists, albeit with constructive legal safeguards.

  6. A qualitative study of undergraduates' conceptualizations of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Matteo, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined three stigma reduction interventions against mental illness stigma: education, video, and contact. Undergraduates (N = 69) in three introductory psychology classes from a small, Catholic, liberal arts university in the northeast United States participated. Responses to two open-ended questions revealed common negative and stereotypical themes associated with mental illness. The benefits of supplementing traditional social distance measures with a qualitative approach, as well as the importance of considering a social developmental approach to stigma education are discussed.

  7. Detecting disorder: the treatment of mental illness among jail detainees.

    PubMed

    Teplin, L A

    1990-04-01

    This article investigates the extent to which mentally ill jail detainees are treated while they are in the custody of the criminal justice system. A random sample of 728 subjects were administered the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule (NIMH-DIS) during jail intake and then followed up throughout their stay in jail. Of those subjects who met criteria for severe mental illness (psychosis or major affective disorder), only one third were given treatment within 1 week of intake. Log-linear analysis revealed that treatment decisions were influenced by treatment history (the strongest predictor), the type of mental disorder (schizophrenia vs. depression), type of crime, and whether symptoms were documented by jail intake personnel.

  8. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill

    PubMed Central

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic “hands-on” scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues. PMID:25642196

  9. Victimization of people with enduring mental illness in the community.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L S; McKenna, H P

    1997-06-01

    The deinstitutionalization of care for the mentally ill has been in vogue for about fifty years. Broadly speaking, this transition can be seen to exhibit the following main trends: a dramatic decline in the inpatient population of psychiatric hospitals, coupled with a corresponding increase in community facilities such as psychiatric units in general hospitals, day hospitals, and day centres. It has been claimed that deinstitutionalization ends previously enforced seclusion, enhances human dignity and allows individual privacy. The deinstitutionalization movement has inevitably led both to large numbers of former long-stay patients being cared for in the community and to significant numbers of individuals developing enduring mental illness in the community without ever having had a long inpatient tenure. The findings of recent studies (Gould 1992, Brockington et al. 1993) suggest that there is a positive public attitude towards the mentally ill. However, Kelly (1997), while carrying out Quality of Life research, found that over half of the community-based long-term mentally ill he surveyed reported that they had experienced harassment/victimization. This paper is not a report on the Quality of Life research but a discussion on the theme of victimization that has emerged from the study. The extent of the problem is discussed as are the implications for mental health professionals.

  10. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment of the Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Ruta J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the issue of involuntary outpatient commitment, and its implications for social workers working in the health system. Describes a nationwide movement to establish a new system of involuntary outpatient commitment to address the failure of deinstitutionalization, mandating mental health treatment in the community for persons ineligible for…

  11. Older adult mental health: Teaching senior-level baccalaureate nursing students what they need to know.

    PubMed

    Puentes, William J; Bradway, Christine K; Aselage, Melissa

    2010-07-01

    Within the older adult population, certain idiosyncratic aspects of mental illness add to the challenges of helping clients manage these disorders. Older adults are more likely than younger populations to experience physiologically based comorbidities, a dynamic that further strains coping capacities. Barriers to the provision of comprehensive mental health nursing care for older adults include myths and stigmas about aging and mental health. Nurse educators are challenged to move students toward a more positive, empirically based approach to the care of older adults' mental health. In this article, background information supporting the importance of working to improve students' knowledge of and attitudes toward mental illness in older adults is provided. Specific teaching strategies in the areas of older adult mental health, dementia, and delirium are discussed. Resources to support the incorporation of these strategies into nursing curricula are described.

  12. [The aging of the mentally ill].

    PubMed

    Bouckson, G

    1975-01-01

    The growing old of patients levels and reduces the affective impact of the mental diseases in the way of leucotomia (Muller). The author considers this problem of these patient's destiny. The fact of sending them to retreat-home may recreate new-focus of segregation. The chimiotherapy becomes illusory when treating old people (iatrogene pseudo-dementia. Irreversible tertiary effect of the medical treatments). The old psychotic dies more peacefully than the old person who has become psychotical late in life with a kind of serenity which evokes a bonze's wisdom, identification pattern for the young people. Is schizophrenia a chronic disease or is it made chronic by our society? Is there an analogy between the residual mental automatism and the Far-Eastern extasis?

  13. Genetic optimism: framing genes and mental illness in the news.

    PubMed

    Conrad, P

    2001-06-01

    Over the past two decades the pace and specificity of discoveries associating genetics with mental illness has accelerated, which is reflected in an increase in news coverage about the genetics of mental disorder. The news media is a major source of public understanding of genetics and a strong influence on public discourse. This paper examines the news coverage of genetics and mental illness (i.e., bipolar illness and schizophrenia) over a 25 year period, emphasizing the peak period of 1987-1994. Using a sample of 110 news stories from 5 major American newspapers and 3 news magazines, we identify the frame of "genetic optimism" which dominated the reporting of genetics and mental illness beginning in the mid- 1980s. The structure of the frame is comprised of 3 elements: a gene for the disorder exists; it will be found; and it will be good. New discoveries of genes were announced with great fanfare, but the most promising claims could not be replicated or were retracted in short order. Despite these disconfirmations, genetic optimism persisted in subsequent news stories. While the scientific accuracy of the gene stories is high, the genetic optimism frame distorts some of the findings, misrepresents and reifies the impact of genes on mental disorder, and leaves no space for critics or an examination of potential negative impacts. The stances of reporters, scientists and editors may all in different ways contribute to the perpetuation of genetic optimism. Genetic optimism presents an overly sanguine picture of the state of genetics; as we enter the genetic age it is important to balance the extraneous "hype and hope" contained in news stories of genetics and mental illness.

  14. Stigma, agency and recovery amongst people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that people with a severe mental illness still suffer high levels of stigma and discrimination. However little is known about how people with a severe mental illness manage such stigma. As such, the overall aim of this study is to document and analyze behavioral and psychological strategies of stigma management and control in a sample of people in recovery from a severe mental illness. To meet this aim, we conducted a five-year (2008-2012) qualitative longitudinal study in Washington D.C. Participants were recruited from small-scale congregate housing units ('recovery communities') for people in recovery, provided by a public mental health agency. We conducted regular focus groups at these communities, augmented by in-depth participant observation. Analysis was propelled by the grounded theory approach. A key finding of this study is that stigma and discrimination were not perceived as commonly experienced problems by participants. Instead, stigma and discrimination were perceived as omnipresent potential problems to which participants remained eternally vigilant, taking various preventive measures. Most notable among these measures was a concerted and self-conscious effort to behave and look 'normal'; through dress, appearance, conduct and demeanor. In this endeavor, participants possessed and deployed a considered degree of agency to prevent, avoid or preempt stigma and discrimination. These efforts appeared to have a strong semiotic dimension, as participants reported their developing 'normality' (and increased agentic power) was tangible proof of their ongoing recovery. Participants also routinely discussed severe mental illness in normative terms, noting its similarity to physical illnesses such as diabetes, or to generic mental health problems experienced by all. These behavioral and psychological strategies of normalization appeared to be consolidated within the recovery communities, which provided physical shelter and highly-valued peer

  15. Stigma, agency and recovery amongst people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that people with a severe mental illness still suffer high levels of stigma and discrimination. However little is known about how people with a severe mental illness manage such stigma. As such, the overall aim of this study is to document and analyze behavioral and psychological strategies of stigma management and control in a sample of people in recovery from a severe mental illness. To meet this aim, we conducted a five-year (2008-2012) qualitative longitudinal study in Washington D.C. Participants were recruited from small-scale congregate housing units ('recovery communities') for people in recovery, provided by a public mental health agency. We conducted regular focus groups at these communities, augmented by in-depth participant observation. Analysis was propelled by the grounded theory approach. A key finding of this study is that stigma and discrimination were not perceived as commonly experienced problems by participants. Instead, stigma and discrimination were perceived as omnipresent potential problems to which participants remained eternally vigilant, taking various preventive measures. Most notable among these measures was a concerted and self-conscious effort to behave and look 'normal'; through dress, appearance, conduct and demeanor. In this endeavor, participants possessed and deployed a considered degree of agency to prevent, avoid or preempt stigma and discrimination. These efforts appeared to have a strong semiotic dimension, as participants reported their developing 'normality' (and increased agentic power) was tangible proof of their ongoing recovery. Participants also routinely discussed severe mental illness in normative terms, noting its similarity to physical illnesses such as diabetes, or to generic mental health problems experienced by all. These behavioral and psychological strategies of normalization appeared to be consolidated within the recovery communities, which provided physical shelter and highly-valued peer

  16. EPA guidance on tobacco dependence and strategies for smoking cessation in people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Rüther, T; Bobes, J; De Hert, M; Svensson, T H; Mann, K; Batra, A; Gorwood, P; Möller, H J

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco dependence is the most common substance use disorder in adults with mental illness. The prevalence rates for tobacco dependence are two to four times higher in these patients than in the general population. Smoking has a strong, negative influence on the life expectancy and quality of life of mental health patients, and remains the leading preventable cause of death in this group. Despite these statistics, in some countries smokers with mental illness are disadvantaged in receiving intervention and support for their tobacco dependence, which is often overlooked or even tolerated. This statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) systematically reviews the current evidence on tobacco dependence and withdrawal in patients with mental illness and their treatment. It provides seven recommendations for the core components of diagnostics and treatment in this patient group. These recommendations concern: (1) the recording process, (2) the timing of the intervention, (3) counselling specificities, (4) proposed treatments, (5) frequency of contact after stopping, (6) follow-up visits and (7) relapse prevention. They aim to help clinicians improve the care, health and well-being of patients suffering from mental illness.

  17. Needs, expectations and consequences for children growing up in a family where the parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Zabłocka-Żytka, Lidia; Ryan, Peter; Poma, Stefano Zanone; Joronen, Katja; Viganò, Giovanni; Simpson, Wendy; Paavilainen, Eija; Scherbaum, Norbert; Smith, Martin; Dawson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The lack of pan-European guidelines for empowering children of parents with mental illness led to the EU project CAMILLE - Empowerment of Children and Adolescents of Mentally Ill Parents through Training of Professionals working with children and adolescents. The aim of this initial task in the project was to analyse needs, expectations and consequences for children with respect to living with a parent with mental illness from the perspective of professionals and family members. This qualitative research was conducted in England, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Scotland with 96 professionals, parents with mental illness, adult children and partners of parents with mental illness. A framework analysis method was used. Results of the study highlighted that the main consequences described for children of parental mental illness were role reversal; emotional and behavioural problems; lack of parent's attention and stigma. The main needs of these children were described as emotional support, security and multidisciplinary help. Implications for practice are that professionals working with parents with mental illness should be aware of the specific consequences for the children and encourage parents in their parental role; multi-agency collaboration is necessary; schools should provide counselling and prevent stigma.

  18. Needs, expectations and consequences for children growing up in a family where the parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Zabłocka-Żytka, Lidia; Ryan, Peter; Poma, Stefano Zanone; Joronen, Katja; Viganò, Giovanni; Simpson, Wendy; Paavilainen, Eija; Scherbaum, Norbert; Smith, Martin; Dawson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The lack of pan-European guidelines for empowering children of parents with mental illness led to the EU project CAMILLE - Empowerment of Children and Adolescents of Mentally Ill Parents through Training of Professionals working with children and adolescents. The aim of this initial task in the project was to analyse needs, expectations and consequences for children with respect to living with a parent with mental illness from the perspective of professionals and family members. This qualitative research was conducted in England, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Scotland with 96 professionals, parents with mental illness, adult children and partners of parents with mental illness. A framework analysis method was used. Results of the study highlighted that the main consequences described for children of parental mental illness were role reversal; emotional and behavioural problems; lack of parent's attention and stigma. The main needs of these children were described as emotional support, security and multidisciplinary help. Implications for practice are that professionals working with parents with mental illness should be aware of the specific consequences for the children and encourage parents in their parental role; multi-agency collaboration is necessary; schools should provide counselling and prevent stigma. PMID:27278508

  19. Mental Illness Discrimination in Mental Health Treatment Programs: Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Holley, Lynn C; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y; Stromwall, Layne K

    2016-04-01

    People with mental illnesses (PWMI) who are of color and/or lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) experience mental health disparities, including within mental health treatment programs (MHTPs). Informed by a critical framework with attention to intersectionality and microaggressions, this qualitative study asked 20 PWMI and family members who also are of color and/or LGB whether they had experienced mental illness discrimination in MHTPs, a possible factor in disparities. We also asked participants about aspects of MHTPs that supported recovery. Participants reported that they were ignored/not listened to, not viewed as complex individuals, experienced condescension/lack of respect and violations of privacy or other rights, and were presumed to lack intelligence. In addition, identifying mental illness discrimination was complex due to intersections of identities. Despite these perceptions of discrimination, participants described supportive aspects of MHTPs. Implications for practice and research are offered.

  20. "Idiots, infants, and the insane": mental illness and legal incompetence.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2005-02-01

    Prior to the second world war, most persons confined in insane asylums were regarded as legally incompetent and had guardians appointed for them. Today, most persons confined in mental hospitals (or treated involuntarily, committed to outpatient treatment) are, in law, competent; nevertheless, in fact, they are treated as if they were incompetent. Should the goal of mental health policy be providing better psychiatric services to more and more people, or the reduction and ultimate elimination of the number of persons in the population treated as mentally ill?

  1. Self-stigma in people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Watson, Amy C; Corrigan, Patrick; Larson, Jonathon E; Sells, Molly

    2007-11-01

    Persons with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia may internalize mental illness stigma and experience diminished self-esteem and self-efficacy. In this article, we describe a model of self-stigma and examine a hierarchy of mediational processes within the model. Seventy-one individuals with serious mental illness were recruited from a community support program at an outpatient psychiatry department of a community hospital. All participants completed the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale along with measures of group identification (GI), perceived legitimacy (PL), self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Models examining the steps involved in self-stigma process were tested. Specifically, after conducting preliminary bivariate analyses, we examine stereotype agreement as a mediator of GI and PL on stigma self-concurrence (SSC); SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-efficacy; and SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-esteem. Findings provide partial support for the proposed mediational processes and point to GI, PL, and stereotype agreement as areas to be considered for intervention.

  2. Self-Stigma in People With Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amy C.; Corrigan, Patrick; Larson, Jonathon E.; Sells, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Persons with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia may internalize mental illness stigma and experience diminished self-esteem and self-efficacy. In this article, we describe a model of self-stigma and examine a hierarchy of mediational processes within the model. Seventy-one individuals with serious mental illness were recruited from a community support program at an outpatient psychiatry department of a community hospital. All participants completed the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale along with measures of group identification (GI), perceived legitimacy (PL), self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Models examining the steps involved in self-stigma process were tested. Specifically, after conducting preliminary bivariate analyses, we examine stereotype agreement as a mediator of GI and PL on stigma self-concurrence (SSC); SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-efficacy; and SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-esteem. Findings provide partial support for the proposed mediational processes and point to GI, PL, and stereotype agreement as areas to be considered for intervention. PMID:17255118

  3. Analysis of a capitation plan for the chronically mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Plum, K C

    1989-01-01

    Overwhelming economic barriers to effective aftercare for the chronically mentally ill under the traditional health insurance model have led to the development of a unique demonstration project. A preliminary analysis of a clinical program developed in response to economic incentives under capitated funding illustrates the importance of case management, community outreach, and financial support for nonmedical costs.

  4. Cultivating Empathy for the Mentally Ill Using Simulated Auditory Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, William; Terpstra, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors address the issue of cultivating medical students' empathy for the mentally ill by examining medical student empathy pre- and postsimulated auditory hallucination experience. Methods: At the University of Utah, 150 medical students participated in this study during their 6-week psychiatry rotation. The Jefferson Scale of…

  5. The public image of the mentally ill and community care.

    PubMed

    Glasson, J

    Transferring the care of mentally ill patients to the community is not a new initiative. The first comprehensive Hospital Plan by the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS, 1962) recognized and recommended that areas of health care which did not need to take place in hospital should be carried out in the community. Some 30 years later, this transition is taking place. This transition has not been a smooth process and in certain cases it has failed. The public image of mental illness has played a significant role in delaying the transfer of care to the community, although this is not the sole hindering factor. Poor liaison between health and social services, closure of hospitals before development of community facilities, inadequate community support and resources, and sensationalized media coverage have all been cited. Community care of mentally ill patients is a reality and it has been demonstrated that it can be well planned and properly funded (Faugier, 1993). Rather than dwelling on the shortcomings surrounding the implementation of community care, the way forward is to learn from mistakes and to identify means of increasing public acceptance of people suffering from mental illness. PMID:8717828

  6. Resources and Supports for Mothers with Severe Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyserman, Daphna; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, with deinstitutionalization, women with severe mental illness (SMI) appear as likely to have children as women in general population. Presents systematic review of literature published in past decade that describes interventions for mothers with SMI. Critiques interventions, and draws implications for future interventions using…

  7. Child Custody Loss among Women with Persistent Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzed quantitative data from an NIMH-funded longitudinal study of 322 women with persistent severe mental illness (SMI) and qualitative data from semistructured interviews with 82 of the women who ever lost custody of a child. The purpose was to test the hypothesis, derived from human ecology theory, that individual and environmental…

  8. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  9. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  10. Exploring Mental Illness through a Poetry Writing Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    An atypical and challenging writing assignment for courses in general or abnormal psychology is to ask the students to write a poem about the experience of mental illness. The format, length, and topic are left entirely up to the student. While shocked at first, students rose to the challenge after being told they would be judged on content and…

  11. The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

  12. Ethical Considerations for People Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Richard; Markos, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an ethical analysis of the important issues surrounding the involuntary institutionalization of people who are homeless and mentally ill (HMI) in the United States. The legal, economic, and moral implications of state-sponsored involuntary institutionalization of people who are HMI are considered. An ethical decision-making…

  13. The Sylvia Plath Effect: Mental Illness in Eminent Creative Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies involving a total of 2149 writers and other eminent individuals found that female poets were significantly more likely to suffer from mental illness than female fiction writers, than male writers of any type, or than eminent individuals in other fields. This finding has been dubbed the "Sylvia Plath" effect. (Contains references.)…

  14. Creativity, self creation, and the treatment of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, A

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines how an understanding of systematic findings about creative processes involved in art, literature, and science can be applied to the effective treatment of mental illness. These findings and applications are illustrated by particular reference to the work of the poet Sylvia Plath and the treatment of a patient who aspired to become a writer.

  15. Smoking cessation and reduction in people with chronic mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mollie E

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of cigarette smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality in people with chronic mental illness is well documented. This review summarizes results from studies of smoking cessation treatments in people with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It also summarizes experimental studies aimed at identifying biopsychosocial mechanisms that underlie the high smoking rates seen in people with these disorders. Research indicates that smokers with chronic mental illness can quit with standard cessation approaches with minimal effects on psychiatric symptoms. Although some studies have noted high relapse rates, longer maintenance on pharmacotherapy reduces rates of relapse without untoward effects on psychiatric symptoms. Similar biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be involved in the initiation and persistence of smoking in patients with different disorders. An appreciation of these common factors may aid the development of novel tobacco treatments for people with chronic mental illness. Novel nicotine and tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and very low nicotine content cigarettes may also be used to improve smoking cessation rates in people with chronic mental illness. PMID:26391240

  16. Risky Business: Mental Illness, Disclosure and the TAFE Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental…

  17. Facts on Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Nancy; Reilly, Phyllis

    Individuals are considered mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) when they exhibit psychotic behaviors and are actively abusing alcohol and/or drugs; are actively psychotic with a history of alcohol or drug abuse; and/or are actively abusing alcohol or other drugs and have a history of severe psychiatric diagnoses. Although some practitioners use…

  18. The Depiction of Mental Illnesses in Children's Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Hanrahan, Erin; Karl, Kelly; Lasher, Erin; Swaye, Janel

    2007-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that negative attitudes toward people with mental illnesses begin to develop early in childhood. This study examines one of the possible sources of learning of such negative attitudes--children's television programs. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) hours of children's television programming were videotaped, viewed, and…

  19. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  20. Females’ Attitudes Toward Mental Illness: A Sample From Rural Istanbul, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Kamer; Kucuk, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Background The beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of the society toward mentally ill patients may prevent these people from seeking help and accessing a successful treatment. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate mental illness among Turkish females residing in rural areas and their attitudes toward mental illness. Patients and Methods The current study was inferential cross-sectional. The population of this study consisted of 1000 households registered at the primary healthcare centre in Ademyavuz area who met the study inclusion criteria. The sample size was 387 females. Using the simple random sample selection method, certain females living in these households were included in the study. The socioeconomic status of the population in this region is low and middle-class. The adult population of the region is 10,960. Females comprise 39.8% of Ademyavuz population. The prevalence of mental illness in the district is unknown. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a researcher made questionnaire and the opinions about mental illness scale (OMI) in autumn 2008. The interviews were conducted at the participants’ houses and lasted for 20 - 30 minutes. The females gave their informed consent and were assured that their information would be treated as strictly confidential. Results The females in the rural research area had negative attitudes and stigmas about mental illness. The subject of the current study exhibited a total mean score of 155.6 ± 24.5 in terms of their attitudes toward mental illness. Mean scores in the unsophisticated benevolence sub-scale were 42.5 ± 8.2, 34.2 ± 7.9 in the authoritarianism sub-scale, 25.5 ± 6.3 in the mental illness ideology sub-scale, 34.0 ± 7.4 in the social restrictiveness sub-scale, and 20.0 ± 6.0 for the interpersonal etiology sub-scale. The current study found that individuals exhibited more positive attitudes towards mental illnesses as they got older (Kvx2 = 19.42; P < 0.0001), married people

  1. Severe Mental Illness, Somatic Delusions, and Attempted Mass Murder.

    PubMed

    Sarteschi, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness. PMID:26224045

  2. From sin to science: fighting the stigmatization of mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather

    2012-08-01

    Our paper provides an overview of current stigma discourse, the origins and nature of the stigma associated with mental illnesses, stigmatization by health providers, and approaches to stigma reduction. This is a narrative review focusing on seminal works from the social and psychological literature, with selected qualitative and quantitative studies and international policy documents to highlight key points. Stigma discourse has increasingly moved toward a human rights model that views stigma as a form of social oppression resulting from a complex sociopolitical process that exploits and entrenches the power imbalance between people who stigmatize and those who are stigmatized. People who have a mental illness have identified mental health and health providers as key contributors to the stigmatization process and worthy targets of antistigma interventions. Six approaches to stigma reduction are described: education, protest, contact-based education, legislative reform, advocacy, and stigma self-management. Stigma denigrates the value of people who have a mental illness and the social and professional support systems designed to support them. It creates inequities in funding and service delivery that undermine recovery and full social participation. Mental health professionals have often been identified as part of the problem, but they can redress this situation by becoming important partners in antistigma work. PMID:22854027

  3. A study of psychiatrists' concepts of mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Harland, R.; Antonova, E.; Owen, G. S.; Broome, M.; Landau, S.; Deeley, Q.; Murray, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background There are multiple models of mental illness that inform professional and lay understanding. Few studies have formally investigated psychiatrists' attitudes. We aimed to measure how a group of trainee psychiatrists understand familiar mental illnesses in terms of propositions drawn from different models. Method We used a questionnaire study of a sample of trainees from South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust designed to assess attitudes across eight models of mental illness (e.g. biological, psychodynamic) and four psychiatric disorders. Methods for analysing repeated measures and a principal components analysis (PCA) were used. Results No one model was endorsed by all respondents. Model endorsement varied with disorder. Attitudes to schizophrenia were expressed with the greatest conviction across models. Overall, the ‘biological’ model was the most strongly endorsed. The first three components of the PCA (interpreted as dimensions around which psychiatrists, as a group, understand mental illness) accounted for 56% of the variance. Each main component was classified in terms of its distinctive combination of statements from different models: PC1 33% biological versus non-biological; PC2 12% ‘eclectic’ (combining biological, behavioural, cognitive and spiritual models); and PC3 10% psychodynamic versus sociological. Conclusions Trainee psychiatrists are most committed to the biological model for schizophrenia, but in general are not exclusively committed to any one model. As a group, they organize their attitudes towards mental illness in terms of a biological/non-biological contrast, an ‘eclectic’ view and a psychodynamic/sociological contrast. Better understanding of how professional group membership influences attitudes may facilitate better multidisciplinary working. PMID:19091161

  4. Discontinuation of Neuroleptics in Community-Dwelling Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-eight community-dwelling individuals with mental retardation and mental illness were discontinued from neuroleptics. Those with a psychotic disorder were significantly more likely to be restarted on neuroleptics at 3 months and 12 months. Not having a history of delusions was significantly associated with remaining neuroleptic-free at 3…

  5. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  6. Public policy and mental illnesses: Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Grob, Gerald N

    2005-01-01

    President Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health was intended to recommend policies to overcome obvious deficiencies in the mental health system. Bureaucratic rivalries within and between governments; tensions and rivalries within the mental health professions; identity and interest group politics; the difficulties of distinguishing the respective etiological roles of such elements as poverty, racism, stigmatization, and unemployment; and an illusory faith in prevention all influenced the commission's deliberations and subsequent enactment of the short-lived Mental Health Systems Act. The commission's work led to the formulation of the influential National Plan for the Chronically Mentally Ill, but a system of care and treatment for persons with serious mental illnesses was never created.

  7. Public Policy and Mental Illnesses: Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Grob, Gerald N

    2005-01-01

    President Jimmy Carter's Presidential Commission on Mental Health was intended to recommend policies to overcome obvious deficiencies in the mental health system. Bureaucratic rivalries within and between governments; tensions and rivalries within the mental health professions; identity and interest group politics; the difficulties of distinguishing the respective etiological roles of such elements as poverty, racism, stigmatization, and unemployment; and an illusory faith in prevention all influenced the commission's deliberations and subsequent enactment of the short-lived Mental Health Systems Act. The commission's work led to the formulation of the influential National Plan for the Chronically Mentally Ill, but a system of care and treatment for persons with serious mental illnesses was never created. PMID:16201999

  8. Social selection and mental health service utilization among mentally ill parolees: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Sommers, I; Baskin, D R

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a conceptual and methodological approach to research on mental health service utilization by parolees with mental illness. This approach can be used by researchers and policy makers to understand and improve the interface between criminal justice and mental health organizations. We justify the need for research on this population; discuss the conceptual framework which draws on social selection and organizational theory; describe methodological problems; and discuss implications of the research.

  9. Parents with serious mental illness: differences in internalised and externalised mental illness stigma and gender stigma between mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E

    2015-02-28

    Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI.

  10. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  11. Pariah or Paragon? Student Teachers' Evaluations of Enrolling Mentally Ill Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Fry, Patricia Brown

    1978-01-01

    The notion that student teachers are less accepting of mentally ill than of normal students was investigated. The hypothesis was supported. Implications for revealing potentially stigmatizing information about mental illness to teachers were discussed. (Author)

  12. Study of Teen Brains Offers Clues to Timing of Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Teen Brains Offers Clues to Timing of Mental Illness Regions that undergo greatest change also where schizophrenia, ... may help explain why the first signs of mental illness tend to appear during this time, researchers report. ...

  13. Associations of serious mental illness with earnings: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daphna; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Browne, Mark Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries. Aims To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Method The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated. Results Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (χ2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration. PMID:20679263

  14. Toxic causes of mental illness are overlooked.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2008-11-01

    While proper brain function requires the complex interaction of chemicals perpetually occupied in purposeful biochemistry, it is well established that certain toxic substances have the potential to disrupt normal brain physiology and to impair neurological homeostasis. As well as headache, cognitive dysfunction, memory disturbance, and other neurological signs and symptoms, disruption of brain function may also manifest as subtle or overt alteration in thoughts, moods, or behaviors. Over the last four decades, there has been the unprecedented development and release of a swelling repertoire of potentially toxic chemicals which have the capability to inflict brain compromise. Although the ability of xenobiotics to induce clinical illness is well established, the expanding public health problem of widespread toxicant exposure in the general population is a relatively new phenomenon that has spawned escalating concern. The emerging area of clinical care involving the assessment and management of accrued toxic substances such as heavy metals, pesticides, plasticizers and other endocrine disrupting or neurotoxic compounds has not been fully appreciated by the medical community and has yet to be incorporated into the clinical practice of many consultants or primary care practitioners.

  15. The census of India and the mentally ill

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Context/Background: Epidemiological data have long been considered essential for documenting incidence of disability and planning services. India has been conducting census operations for a long time, and this information may be relevant in the current context. Aims: To document the prevalence of insanity, and discussions about treatment and disability arising out of mental illness in India (1850-1950). Settings and Design: The material used was located at the British Library and the Wellcome Library, London; the Teen Murti Library, Delhi, and web-based archives. Materials and Methods: We have retrieved and summarized the coverage of psychiatric illness in previous census reports from the 19th and 20th century. Statistical Analysis: None, this relies upon historical archives and documents. Results and Conclusions: Differences in incidence and prevalence of insanity, as well as biological and psycho-social factors in the causation, and outcomes, of mental illness are all discussed in these census reports. Comparisons are often drawn to other countries and cultures, and impressions drawn about these differences and similarities. Similar concerns persist to this day. Disabilities and mental illness were not enumerated since the census of 1941 and have been restored only recently, and this lacuna has hampered planning in the post-Independence era. As we debate policy and plan interventions using contemporary census data, it may be useful to remind ourselves of the issues, then and now. PMID:22556434

  16. Positive psychology: an approach to supporting recovery in mental illness.

    PubMed

    Schrank, B; Brownell, T; Tylee, A; Slade, M

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on positive psychology with a special focus on people with mental illness. It describes the characteristics, critiques, and roots of positive psychology and positive psychotherapy, and summarises the existing evidence on positive psychotherapy. Positive psychology aims to refocus psychological research and practice on the positive aspects of experience, strengths, and resources. Despite a number of conceptual and applied research challenges, the field has rapidly developed since its introduction at the turn of the century. Today positive psychology serves as an umbrella term to accommodate research investigating positive emotions and other positive aspects such as creativity, optimism, resilience, empathy, compassion, humour, and life satisfaction. Positive psychotherapy is a therapeutic intervention that evolved from this research. It shows promising results for reducing depression and increasing well-being in healthy people and those with depression. Positive psychology and positive psychotherapy are increasingly being applied in mental health settings, but research evidence involving people with severe mental illness is still scarce. The focus on strengths and resources in positive psychology and positive psychotherapy may be a promising way to support recovery in people with mental illness, such as depression, substance abuse disorders, and psychosis. More research is needed to adapt and establish these approaches and provide an evidence base for their application.

  17. Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert D.; Flora, David B.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Varghese, Femina; Steffan, Jarrod S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic results are based on a small sample of available studies, results suggest interventions with offenders with mental illness effectively reduced symptoms of distress, improving offender’s ability to cope with their problems, and resulted in improved behavioral markers including institutional adjustment and behavioral functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism. Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies (e.g., use of homework), which produced the most positive benefits. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems (e.g., psychiatric hospitals) as well as community settings by informing treatment strategies for the first time, which are based on empirical evidence. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted. PMID:22471384

  18. Photovoice in mental illness research: A review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Christina S; Oliffe, John L

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, photovoice research has gained prominence, providing context rich insights through participants’ photographs and narratives. Emergent within the field of photovoice research have been health studies embracing diverse illness issues. The goal of this scoping review article was to describe the use of photovoice in mental illness, paying particular attention to the following: (1) the study design and methods, (2) empirical findings, and (3) dissemination strategies. Nine qualitative studies (seven drawing from primary and two secondary analyses) featuring diverse approaches to analysis of data comprising individual and/or focus group interviews using participant-produced photographs were included in the review. Described were participant’s experiences of living with mental illness and/or substance overuse, including feelings of loneliness and being marginalized, along with their support care needs (e.g. physical, emotional, and spiritual) to garner self-confidence, respite, and/or recovery. Empirically, the reviewed articles confirmed the value of participant-produced photographs for obtaining in-depth understandings about individual’s mental illness experiences while a focus on stigma and recovery was prominent. In terms of dissemination, while most of the published articles shared some participants’ photographs and narratives, less evident were strategies to actively engage the public or policymakers with the images. Recommendations for future photovoice research include conducting formal analyses of participant photographs and strategically lobbying policymakers and raising public awareness through virtual and “in person” photo exhibitions while de-stigmatizing and affirming the experiences of those who are challenged by mental illness. PMID:25673051

  19. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults.

  20. International human rights for mentally ill persons: the Ontario experience.

    PubMed

    Zuckerberg, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    This article is part of a working project which assesses Ontario's mental health legislation and practice vis-à-vis international human rights standards. The paper focuses on procedural safeguards provided by the major international human rights instruments in the field of mental health law such as the UN Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness (MI Principles) and the European Convention on Human Rights as interpreted by the European Human Rights Court. In analysing Ontario's compliance with international standards, the paper will explore some problems arising from the implementation of the legislation with which the author is familiar with from his experience as counsel for the Consent and Capacity Board. The paper aims to generate discussion for potential reforms in domestic legal systems and to provide a methodology to be used as a tool to assess similar mental health legislation in other local contexts.

  1. [Psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness: past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ferretti, José María

    2011-01-01

    The use of psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness has evolved through Modernity. In the last century, indefinite and involuntary committal was a widespread practice but has now become an extraordinary and short-term therapeutic recourse. Even though law experts, doctors and other mental health professionals agree on the benefits of this shift, in practice there are disagreements rooted in the shortcomings of health service providers. The current medical and legal criteria for hospitalization of patients with mental disorders should move away from the concept of endangerment and embrace therapeutic procedures and social care. New contemporary challenges, such as drugs and violence, require the implementation of a social strategy that is more comprehensive than medical treatment. This article presents a series of case studies describing the circumstances that led to the hospitalization of mental health patients, mostly in the city of Buenos Aires. PMID:22091456

  2. Talking about Mental Illness: A Guide for Developing an Awareness Program for Youth. Community Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The program…

  3. Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

    As part of a campaign to end discrimination against mentally ill persons, this educational packet is designed to provide health educators with the material necessary to teach the facts about mental illness. The objectives of the lesson plans are for middle school students to: (1) identify the stigmatizing words associated with mental illness and…

  4. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  5. Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

  6. The First Steps to Learning with a Child Who Has a Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.

  7. 38 CFR 17.109 - Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. 17.109 Section 17.109 Pensions, Bonuses, and... psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. (a) Psychosis. Eligibility for benefits under this part... period beginning on the last day of the Persian Gulf War. (b) Mental illness (other than...

  8. 38 CFR 17.109 - Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. 17.109 Section 17.109 Pensions, Bonuses, and... psychosis and mental illness other than psychosis. (a) Psychosis. Eligibility for benefits under this part... period beginning on the last day of the Persian Gulf War. (b) Mental illness (other than...

  9. Exploring the Role of Diagnosis in the Modified Labeling Theory of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    According to the modified labeling theory of mental illness, when an individual is diagnosed with a mental illness, cultural ideas associated with the mentally ill become personally relevant and foster negative self-feelings. We explore the way that psychiatric diagnosis shapes this process. Specifically, we examine if and how psychiatric…

  10. Relationship of the Media to Attitudes toward People with Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Pauley, Pamela S.; Carmichael, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Reports on results of Community Attitudes Toward Mentally Ill questionnaire given to undergraduates. Significant differences emerged on subscales based ranking of primary source of information about mental illness. Results do not imply causality but rather that electronic media is powerful mechanism for spreading the stigma of mental illness.…

  11. Weight reduction among people with severe and persistent mental illness after health behavior counseling and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Katekaru, Matthew; Minn, Carol E; Pobutsky, Ann M

    2015-04-01

    The high prevalence of obesity and associated chronic conditions in persons with severe and persistent mental illness has contributed to a mortality rate that is nearly two times higher than the overall population. In 2008, the Central O'ahu Community Mental Health Center of the Hawai'i State Department of Health, Adult Mental Health Division began an unfunded, health counseling intervention pilot project to address such concerns for the health of persons with severe and persistent mental illness. This article reviews the results of this intervention. Forty-seven persons with schizophrenia or related disorders were included in the intervention which involved health counseling and monitoring of weight as a risk factor for chronic disease. After five years of counseling and monitoring, medical chart reviews were conducted for each person for data on weight change. Analysis showed weight loss and improvements in body mass index. The results of this project show potential for long-term counseling and monitoring as an intervention for obesity in persons with severe and persistent mental illness.

  12. The stigma of mental illness in children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Anya; Kostaki, Evgenia; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos

    2016-09-30

    One in ten children and adolescents suffer with mental health difficulties at any given time, yet less than one third seek treatment. Untreated mental illness predisposes to longstanding individual difficulties and presents a great public health burden. Large scale initiatives to reduce stigmatization of mental illness, identified as a key deterrent to treatment, have been disappointing. This indicates the need for a clearer understanding of the stigmatizing processes faced by young people, so that more effective interventions are employed. A systematic review of the literature, assessing public stigma and self-stigma (i.e. internalized public stigma) specifically in children and adolescents with mental health difficulties (YP-MHD), was conducted. Forty-two studies were identified, confirming that stigmatization of YP-MHD is a universal and disabling problem, present amongst both children and adults. There was some variation by diagnosis and gender, and stigmatization was for the most part unaffected by labelling. Self-stigmatization led to more secrecy and an avoidance of interventions. The findings confirm that stigmatization of mental illness is poorly understood due to a lack of research and methodological discrepancies between existing studies. Implications for the findings are discussed, and suggestions made for future research.

  13. The stigma of mental illness in children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Anya; Kostaki, Evgenia; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos

    2016-09-30

    One in ten children and adolescents suffer with mental health difficulties at any given time, yet less than one third seek treatment. Untreated mental illness predisposes to longstanding individual difficulties and presents a great public health burden. Large scale initiatives to reduce stigmatization of mental illness, identified as a key deterrent to treatment, have been disappointing. This indicates the need for a clearer understanding of the stigmatizing processes faced by young people, so that more effective interventions are employed. A systematic review of the literature, assessing public stigma and self-stigma (i.e. internalized public stigma) specifically in children and adolescents with mental health difficulties (YP-MHD), was conducted. Forty-two studies were identified, confirming that stigmatization of YP-MHD is a universal and disabling problem, present amongst both children and adults. There was some variation by diagnosis and gender, and stigmatization was for the most part unaffected by labelling. Self-stigmatization led to more secrecy and an avoidance of interventions. The findings confirm that stigmatization of mental illness is poorly understood due to a lack of research and methodological discrepancies between existing studies. Implications for the findings are discussed, and suggestions made for future research. PMID:27517643

  14. Mental illness and homicide--prevention of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Talevska, Valentina; Stefanovski, Branko

    2011-12-01

    We hypothesized that the integration of forensic psychiatrists and the forensic system into the general stream of mental health should lead to better reintegration of forensic patients into the society. The aims of the study were to explore the link between violence, murder, psychiatric disorders and other variables, and to suggest a mode of prevention of criminal recidivism. This investigation provided a more reflective profile of mentally ill persons convicted of murder, hospitalized in Psychiatric Hospital in Demir Hisar in Macedonia between 2007 and 2009. Study results indicated the offender with severe mental illness incarcerated for murder in Demir Hisar Psychiatric Hospital to be predominantly suffering from a mood disorder, to be a male with secondary school education, and to have significant intimate and family relationships characterized by rage as a frequently mentioned motive for murder. On committing homicide, they frequently used firearm or sharp objects. The offenders lived in dysfunctional families, had extensive histories of substance abuse and criminal activity before their murder conviction, and received inadequate treatment for their mental disorder and substance abuse. We suggest that the offenders (murderers) continue their treatment in mental health forensic services upon completing their obligatory treatment at a psychiatric hospital.

  15. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  16. Interprofessional education in mental health: An opportunity to reduce mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Maranzan, K Amanda

    2016-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is a common problem in healthcare students and professionals in addition to the general public. Stigma is associated with numerous negative outcomes and hence there is an urgent need to address it. This article explores the potential for interprofessional education (IPE) to emerge as a strategy to reduce mental illness stigma amongst healthcare students and professionals. Most anti-stigma strategies use a combination of knowledge and contact (with a person with lived experience) to change attitudes towards mental illness. Not surprisingly interprofessional educators are well acquainted with theory and learning approaches for attitude change as they are already used in IPE to address learners' attitudes and perceptions of themselves, other professions, and/or teamwork. This article, through an analysis of IPE pedagogy and learning methods, identifies opportunities to address mental illness stigma with application of the conditions that facilitate stigma reduction. The goal of this article is to raise awareness of the issue of mental illness stigma amongst healthcare students and professionals and to highlight interprofessional education as an untapped opportunity for change.

  17. Mythos and mental illness: psychopathy, fantasy, and contemporary moral life.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Geoff

    2008-12-01

    Medical accounts of the absence of conscience are intriguing for the way they seem disposed to drift away from the ideal of scientific objectivity and towards fictional representations of the subject. I examine here several contemporary accounts of psychopathy by Robert Hare and Paul Babiak. I first note how they locate the truth about their subject in fiction, then go on to contend that their accounts ought to be thought of as a "mythos," for they betray a telling uncertainty about where "fact" ends and "fantasy" begins, as well as the means of distinguishing mental health from mental illness in regard to some social roles.

  18. Involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill: China's 2012 Mental Health Law.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    The long-awaited Mental Health Law of China was passed on 26 October 2012 and took effect on 1 May 2013. Being the first national legislation on mental health, it establishes a basic legal framework to regulate mental health practice and recognizes the fundamental rights of persons with mental disorders. This article focuses on the system of involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill under the new law, which is expected to prevent the so-called "Being misidentified as mentally disordered" cases in China. A systematic examination of the new system demonstrates that the Mental Health Law of China implicitly holds two problematic assumptions and does not provide adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the involuntary patients. Administrative enactments and further national legislative efforts are needed to remedy these flaws in the new law.

  19. Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness and Mental Health Service Use Among Black Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We have presented nationally representative data on the prevalence and correlates of mental illness and mental health service use among African American and Caribbean Black (US-born and foreign-born) fathers in the United States. Methods. We have reported national estimates of lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of mental illness, correlates, and service use among African American (n = 1254) and Caribbean Black (n = 633) fathers using data from the National Survey of American Life, a national household survey of Black Americans. We used bivariate cross-tabulations and Cox proportional hazards regression approaches and adjusted for the National Survey of American Life's complex sample design. Results. The prevalence of mental illness, sociodemographic correlates, and service use among Black fathers varied by ethnicity and nativity. US-born Caribbean Black fathers had alarmingly high rates of most disorders, including depression, anxiety, and substance disorders. Mental health service use was particularly low for African American and foreign-born Caribbean Black fathers. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the need for more research on the causes and consequences of mental illness and the help-seeking behavior of ethnically diverse Black fathers. PMID:22401518

  20. Report Summary--Mental Illness in Canada, 2015.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    This report, Mental Illness in Canada, 2015 is the first publication to include administrative health data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CCDSS) for the national surveillance of mental illness. It features the most recent CCDSS data available (fiscal year 2009/10), as well as trend data spanning over a decade (1996/97 to 2009/10). It is also the first national report to include children and adolescents under the age of 15 years. The data presented within this report and subsequent updates can be accessed via the Public Health Agency of Canada's Chronic Disease Infobase Data Cubes at www.infobase.phac-aspc.gc.ca. Data Cubes are interactive databases that allow users to create tables and graphs quickly using their Web browser.

  1. Forecasting recidivism in mentally ill offenders released from prison.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Gregg J; Lovell, David; Peterson, Paul D; Jemelka, Ron

    2004-04-01

    Little research has focused on assessing the risk of mentally ill offenders (MIOs) released from state prisons. Here we report findings for 333 mentally ill offenders released from Washington State prisons. Logistic regression identified sets of variables that forecasted felony and violent reconviction as accurately as state-of-the-art risk assessment instruments. Sums of simple recoded versions of these variables predicted reoffense as well as complex logistic regression equations. Five of these 9 variables were found to be relative protective factors. Findings are discussed in terms of the value of stock correctional variables in forecasting risk, the need to base actuarial risk assessments on local data, the importance of protective factors in assessing MIO risk, and the need for dynamic, situational, and clinical variables that can further sharpen predictive accuracy of emergent risk in the community. PMID:15141775

  2. Creative writing in recovery from severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority.

  3. Mental illness in homicide-suicide: a review.

    PubMed

    Roma, Paolo; Pazzelli, Floriana; Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Homicide followed by suicide (H-S) is a lethal event in which an individual kills another individual and subsequently dies by suicide. This article presents a review of research carried out in Asia, Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States of America over the past 60 years on the prevalence of mental illness among the perpetrators of H-S. Analysis of the available data indicated a great disparity in the results of the different studies. Overall, depression was the most frequent disorder reported (about 39% of the cases in the 20 studies that assessed depressive disorders), followed by substance abuse (about 20% in 10 studies) and psychosis (about 17% in 11 studies). This review, therefore, indicated that mental illness plays an important role in H-S. The prevention of these events depends on the identification and treatment of psychiatric disorder in potential perpetrators.

  4. Mentally ill persons who commit crimes: punishment or treatment?

    PubMed

    Melamed, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety.

  5. Neighborhood Effects, Mental Illness and Criminal Behavior: A Review.

    PubMed

    Freedman, David; Woods, George W

    2013-09-01

    This paper briefly reviews the social science on "neighborhood effects" as an independent force in shaping poor outcomes, specifically mental illness and criminal behavior, before discussing the implications of that research for understanding the relationship between neighborhoods, race and class. Neighborhood effects research has proliferated in recent years with extensive attention again being focused on the social context of family and individual development and life course. Moreover, recent work has suggested the need to consider the developmental effects of neighborhoods that persist across life-span. This paper will focus specifically on mental illness and criminal behavior as outcomes for understanding neighborhood effects, but will also consider what the structural causes of individual behavior and functioning mean for clinical assessment, especially forensic assessment.

  6. Neighborhood Effects, Mental Illness and Criminal Behavior: A Review.

    PubMed

    Freedman, David; Woods, George W

    2013-09-01

    This paper briefly reviews the social science on "neighborhood effects" as an independent force in shaping poor outcomes, specifically mental illness and criminal behavior, before discussing the implications of that research for understanding the relationship between neighborhoods, race and class. Neighborhood effects research has proliferated in recent years with extensive attention again being focused on the social context of family and individual development and life course. Moreover, recent work has suggested the need to consider the developmental effects of neighborhoods that persist across life-span. This paper will focus specifically on mental illness and criminal behavior as outcomes for understanding neighborhood effects, but will also consider what the structural causes of individual behavior and functioning mean for clinical assessment, especially forensic assessment. PMID:25250101

  7. The economic status of parents with serious mental illness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, A; Nicholson, J; Meara, E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parents with serious mental illness may be vulnerable to financial insecurity, making successful parenting especially difficult. We explored relationships among parenting, serious mental illness and economic status in a nationally representative sample. Methods The sample included all working-age participants from the 2009 and 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 77,326). Two well-established scales of mental health distinguished participants with none, mild, moderate, and serious mental illness. We compared economic status by parenthood status and mental illness severity. Results Rates of employment were low for parents with serious mental illness (38% full-time and 17% part-time among mothers; 60% full-time and 9% part-time among fathers) compared to parents with no mental illness (50% full-time and 19% part-time among mothers; 85% full-time and 5% part-time among fathers). Mothers and fathers with serious mental illness were twice as likely to fall below the US Census poverty threshold than their peers without mental illness. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Parents with serious mental illness are less likely to be employed than those without mental illnesses and are highly likely to be living in poverty. Reducing poverty by helping parents with serious mental illness achieve better jobs and education is likely to translate into family stability and better outcomes. PMID:25000119

  8. The Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Children and Parents. Data Trends #124

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…

  9. The Legal Framework for Care and Treatment of the Mentally Ill. Staff Brief 86-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pam

    This report was prepared for the Wisconsin State Legislative Council's Special Committee on Mental Health Issues. It summarizes legal issues and procedures relating to the admission, commitment, and treatment of the mentally ill in Wisconsin. Part I sets forth legal definitions of certain key mental health terms, including mental illness as it is…

  10. Guilty but mentally ill: the South Carolina experience.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D W; McCullough, T M; Jenkins, P L; White, W M

    1988-01-01

    Thirty of the first 45 individuals to receive guilty but mentally ill (GBMI) verdicts in South Carolina were interviewed using a structured interview schedule for diagnosis. The relationship of diagnosis to pretrial evaluation and posttrial conviction treatment are discussed. No person received GBMI in a jury trial. Suggestions to improve the operation of the GBMI verdict are made, as well as a brief review of these data with data from other states.

  11. [Evidence-based treatment of mentally ill homeless persons].

    PubMed

    Larsen, Maja; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-05-31

    A systematic review of the literature shows that it is possible to reduce homelessness among mentally ill homeless persons, partly by offering access to housing and partly by providing intensive care through Assertive Community Treatment. Assertive Community Treatment can, to some extent, decrease psychiatric symptoms and increase quality of life. It is evident that by offering housing, homelessness may be reduced, but the comparison of independent housing and group living did not reveal big differences.

  12. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  13. Barriers and Facilitators of a Healthy Lifestyle Among Persons with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness: Perspectives of Community Mental Health Providers

    PubMed Central

    McKibbin, Christine L.; Kitchen, Katherine A.; Wykes, Thomas L.; Lee, Aaron A.

    2014-01-01

    The investigators used qualitative methods to examine perspectives of community mental health professionals on obesity management in adults with serious mental illness. Data from 5 focus groups were subjected to constant comparison analysis and grounded theory. Results showed that influences at individual, social, community, and societal levels impact development and maintenance of obesity. Mental health providers desired a collaborative relationship with providers of health promotion program staff. They also believed that frequent, group-based health promotion should include participation incentives for adults with SMI and should occur over durations of at least 6-months to achieve improved health outcomes for this population. PMID:24129587

  14. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hert, Marc De; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Wood, David; Kahl, Kai G; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    Position statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). People with severe mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder, have worse physical health and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. The excess cardiovascular mortality associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is attributed to an increased risk of the modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors, obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. Antipsychotic medication and possibly other psychotropic medication like antidepressants can induce weight gain and further increase the risk of adverse metabolic effects which may result in further increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Patients have limited access to general healthcare with less opportunity for cardiovascular risk screening and prevention than would be expected in a non-psychiatric population. The European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published this statement aiming to improve the care of patients suffering from severe mental illness. The intention is to initiate co-operation and shared care between the different health care professionals and to increase the awareness of psychiatrists caring for patients suffering from severe mental illness to screen and treat increased cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes. PMID:23034198

  15. Juror knowledge and attitudes regarding mental illness verdicts.

    PubMed

    Sloat, Lisa M; Frierson, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    We begin with a brief overview of the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdicts in the United States and then report on a study of qualified jurors (n=96) in which we examined jurors' understanding and attitudes about mental illness verdicts and the disposition of mentally ill defendants. Results indicate that although the jury pool was highly educated, only 4.2 percent of jurors could correctly identify both the definitions and dispositions of defendants found NGRI and GBMI. Jurors with lower educational levels were less likely to identify the dispositional outcome of a GBMI verdict (p<.05). Eighty-four percent of respondents believed that juries should be informed of dispositional outcome before deciding a verdict. Also, 68.4 percent of jurors erroneously believed that a defendant found GBMI could not receive the death penalty. Among jurors who correctly identified the definition of GBMI, those with lower educational levels were more punitive in their attitudes toward disposition of the GBMI defendants, believing they should eventually be sent to prison (p<.05).

  16. Living with mental illness: professional/family collaboration.

    PubMed

    Peternelj-Taylor, C A; Hartley, V L

    1993-03-01

    What started as a pilot project in the spring of 1990 has matured into a successful ongoing enterprise between professionals and families that continues to meet the needs of families experiencing the impact of mental illness. According to self-administered evaluations completed by those in attendance, and a subjective review by the planning committee, the program was an immediate success. It attained its overall education and mutual support objectives, and fostered successful collaboration between professionals and families. One hundred percent of family participants indicated that they would recommend the workshop to others in similar situations. In managing mental illness through collaborative partnerships, the family must be an integral part of each phase of project development. Family members are the "thermometer," measuring how closely the project is mirroring their needs. Since its inception, 370 people have participated in this dynamic project. This program demonstrates that through understanding, respect, and positive regard, families, friends, and professionals can work collaboratively to enhance the quality of life for all who are victimized by mental illness. PMID:8450484

  17. Juror knowledge and attitudes regarding mental illness verdicts.

    PubMed

    Sloat, Lisa M; Frierson, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    We begin with a brief overview of the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdicts in the United States and then report on a study of qualified jurors (n=96) in which we examined jurors' understanding and attitudes about mental illness verdicts and the disposition of mentally ill defendants. Results indicate that although the jury pool was highly educated, only 4.2 percent of jurors could correctly identify both the definitions and dispositions of defendants found NGRI and GBMI. Jurors with lower educational levels were less likely to identify the dispositional outcome of a GBMI verdict (p<.05). Eighty-four percent of respondents believed that juries should be informed of dispositional outcome before deciding a verdict. Also, 68.4 percent of jurors erroneously believed that a defendant found GBMI could not receive the death penalty. Among jurors who correctly identified the definition of GBMI, those with lower educational levels were more punitive in their attitudes toward disposition of the GBMI defendants, believing they should eventually be sent to prison (p<.05). PMID:15985664

  18. Perceptions of mental illness and related stigma among Vietnamese populations: findings from a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Do, Mai; Pham, Nhu Ngoc K; Wallick, Stacy; Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul

    2014-12-01

    Mental-illness-related (MIR) stigma is recognized as a major barrier to health care. Yet very little is known about mental illness and stigma among Vietnamese populations, or how emigration and acculturation processes might affect traditional views. Focus group discussions were conducted with Vietnamese Americans in New Orleans (Louisiana) and Vietnamese nationals in Bui Chu (Vietnam), who shared historical and cultural backgrounds, in 2010 to assess differences in their perceptions of mental illness and stigma. Results show several significant differences in mental illness perceptions between Vietnamese Americans and Vietnamese nationals, while MIR stigma seemed prevalent and understanding of mental illness was low among both groups. PMID:24719272

  19. Perceived Need for Mental Health Care Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Robert L.; Kaas, Merrie; Kane, Rosalie A.

    2009-01-01

    Only half of older adults with a mental disorder use mental health services, and little is known about the causes of perceived need for mental health care (MHC). We used logistic regression to examine relationships among depression, anxiety, chronic physical illness, alcohol abuse and/or dependence, sociodemographics, and perceived need among a national sample of community-dwelling individuals 65 years of age and older (the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys data set). Less than half of respondents with depression or anxiety perceived a need for care. Perceived need was greater for respondents with more symptoms of depression regardless of whether they met diagnostic criteria for a mental illness. History of chronic physical conditions, history of depression or anxiety, and more severe mental illness were associated with greater perceived need for MHC. Future studies of perceived need should account for individual perceptions of mental illness and treatment and the influence of social networks. PMID:19820231

  20. Law & psychiatry: Responsibility for torts: should the courts continue to ignore mental illness?

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-04-01

    Although courts routinely consider whether a criminal defendant's mental illness makes punishment unfair, the rules are very different for civil liability. When people with mental illness harm others, courts refuse to consider their mental states in determining civil liability. The justifications offered for this rule range from the difficulty of assessing the impact of mental illness on behavior to the desire to place the burden of loss on the person who caused the injury. Undeniably, though, mental disabilities are treated differently from physical impairments, and the law's resistance to change seems largely based on misunderstanding and prejudice against mental illness.

  1. Primary care for those with severe and persistent mental illness.

    PubMed Central

    Crews, C; Batal, H; Elasy, T; Casper, E; Mehler, P S

    1998-01-01

    Historically, the medical care of persons with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) has been suboptimal. In many communities, large gaps exist in the continuum of services necessary to meet the medical needs of those patients, and existing services are not well coordinated. The effect of the managed mental health care on patients with SPMI remains to be seen, but it does not bode well for patients who are already at risk for being undertreated. We initiated primary care clinics exclusively for patients with SPMI because of our belief that integrating primary care and mental health services offers the best hope of improving health care for those patients. Our experience to date is instructive for other health care systems. PMID:9795595

  2. Mental illness in blacks: an overview, and treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Davis, E B

    1979-10-01

    Provisions for inner city mental health services must recognize the association between poverty, discrimination, and related social and physical conditions and disproportionately high rates of severe mental disorder-a transcultural phenomenon.Program emphasis should therefore be on the prevention, early recognition, prompt and effective treatment and rehabilitative care of psychosis. The total spectrum of psychiatric services is required for this, and thus an opportunity is afforded for necessary training and research.Poverty has negative impact on general health and cognitive development as well as on self-esteem, self-care, and the ability to utilize medical and health services. This contributes to a vicious, intergenerational poverty cycle.Primary prevention of mental illness, where possible, depends at present on socioeconomic change. Secondary prevention, ie, timely, appropriate treatment, is effective, but requires patient access to and acceptance of all indicated modalities of care.

  3. California's historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness: the Mental Health Services Act.

    PubMed

    Clark, Wayne; Welch, Stephanie N; Berry, Sandra H; Collentine, Ann M; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L

    2013-05-01

    In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort.

  4. Online support for children of parents suffering from mental illness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Drost, Louisa M; Schippers, Gerard M

    2015-01-01

    From epidemiologic research, we know that children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) have an elevated risk of developing a serious mental disorder. Aside from studies based on risk and resilience, there has been little research on the children's own perceptions. The aim of this study was to expand our understanding of key variables influencing COPMI's seeking support and to explore whether a website targeted at COPMI could help them improve their ability to cope with their circumstances and to find professional help. This case study illustrates one visitor's use of a website that was specifically designed to help COPMI. The visitor was a young adult female whose two parents both suffered from mental illness. She participated for 3 years in an intervention delivered through the website. Several things helped to inform us about her perspective on living with parents suffering from mental illness, her use of the website and the benefits she derived from using the website. These included (a) her story as she told it in the exit interview, (b) her messages to her peers and counsellors, (c) her user data and (d) the content of her chat conversations with her peers.

  5. Mental disorders in chronically ill children: case identification and parent-child discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Canning, E H

    1994-01-01

    Children, like adults and parents, depend on primary care physicians to identify, treat, or refer those with mental disorders. Mental health concerns are also germane to the growing number of chronically ill children in pediatric care. This paper focuses on: 1) the level of agreement between children and parents about the presence of a mental disorder and the impact of informant on case identification; and 2) the extent to which pediatricians agree with reports by chronically ill children and/or their parents regarding such problems. The study sample includes 112 children, ages 9 to 18, with cancer, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and insulin-dependent diabetes and a control group of 35 healthy subjects. Subject and a parent were interviewed separately using a highly standardized, structured interview that generates DSM-III-R diagnoses by computer algorithms. Pediatricians completed a questionnaire asking about the presence of any mental disorders. Agreement between parent and child was poor for both groups. In the medically ill group, more cases were identified by the parent interview than by child interview alone for all types of disorders. In contrast, children in the comparison group more often reported symptoms sufficient for a diagnosis than did their parents. The difference in prevalence between the two groups was significant only for the parent-identified cases, and physicians were more likely to recognize child-identified disorders. The choice of informant(s) has clear implications for case identification and case recognition in both clinical care and research in pediatric settings.

  6. Perspectives of Treatment Providers and Clients with Serious Mental Illness Regarding Effective Therapeutic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Easter, Alison; Pollock, Michele; Pope, Leah Gogel; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Smith, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the nature of clinical therapeutic relationships between mental health treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued treatment. Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 56 clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued care and 25 mental health treatment providers were completed. Both clients with serious mental illness and treatment providers emphasized the importance of client-focused goal setting, time and availability of treatment providers, a caring approach, and trust and honesty in the relationship. However, clients with serious mental illness placed greater emphasis on goals involving tangible services, a notable area of discord between the two groups. Individuals with serious mental illness and treatment providers agreed regarding several key elements to a positive clinical relationship. Further attention to client goals related to tangible services may serve to improve relationships between treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness.

  7. Serving severely mentally ill people in a major Canadian city.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, D A; Sladen-Dew, N; Russell, J S

    1994-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, GVMHS has been the single organization taking ultimate responsibility for the seriously mentally ill throughout the city. It uses central coordination coupled with community-based teams and partnership programs with other agencies to strike a useful balance between integration and flexibility. GVMHS's mission throughout that time has been to provide everyday community support, networking, case management, rehabilitation, and counseling services to as many seriously mentally ill persons with concomitant disabilities as possible. To carry out that mission, GVMHS has developed some innovative solutions for the problems of community support--problems such as psychiatric emergencies, crises, community demands for service outside the mandate, and workload management. GVMHS has also developed dual-diagnosis, multicultural, multiagency case coordination for the multiproblem client (Buckley and Bigelow, 1992), specialized family and child programs, and specialized geriatric programs. This has all been possible only because financial support is available on an ongoing basis at a level adequate to provide good, dependable services. GVMHS has been proven an effective service in a number of studies (Bigelow and Beiser, 1978; Beiser, Shore, Peters, and Tatum, 1985). It has also demonstrated good cost-efficiency (Bigelow and McFarland, 1989) and abundant innovation and adaptation to emerging challenges (Bigelow, McFarland, Russell, and Sladen-Dew, 1990). It has proven that dedicated, well-trained professionals working at the community level will work hard and smart and that an agency and its staff will stick to the mandate of serving people with serious mental illnesses and disabilities even under pressure to do otherwise. The intriguing thing is that this productivity is not driven by competition, incentives, or threat: none of these factors presses upon the Greater Vancouver Mental Health Services Society from without and none is built in. The

  8. Advocating for persons who are mentally ill: a history of mutual empowerment of patients and profession.

    PubMed

    Foulks, E F

    2000-05-01

    The author reviews the history of advocacy for mentally ill individuals. Through organizations such as the National Mental Health Association and the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, collaboration among professionals, consumers, and concerned citizens is enhanced. The common causes and differences among organizations are discussed within the context of how psychiatrists can realize leadership strategies to further advance advocacy for mentally ill persons and for the profession.

  9. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among church-based lay health workers: experience from a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission trial in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iheanacho, Theddeus; Kapadia, Daniel; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O.; Osuji, Alice A.; Ogidi, Amaka G.; Ike, Anulika; Patel, Dina; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert; Obiefune, Michael; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

    2016-01-01

    Common mental disorders are prevalent in Nigeria. Due to stigma and a limited number of trained specialists, only 10% of adults with mental illness in Nigeria receive any care. The Healthy Beginning Initiative is a community-based maternal/child health program that includes screening for perinatal depression and was implemented by lay, volunteer, church-based health advisors (CHAs). The aim of the study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes about mental illness among the CHAs. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 57 CHAs, who completed a 43-item, self-administered questionnaire that assessed their beliefs and attitudes about mental illness. The response rate was 71%. Respondents were mostly female (79%), married (83%) and aged 40–49 years (M = 41.16 SD = 10.48). Most endorsed possession by evil spirits (84%), traumatic events (81%) and witchcraft (60%) as causes of mental illness. A majority (69%) believed that people with mental illness were a nuisance, and less than half (46%) believed that mental disorders were illnesses like any other illness. It is concluded that stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about mental illness are common among the CHAs. Training for lay health workers in Nigeria should include education on the known bio-psycho-social basis of mental disorders and the role of social inclusion in recovery. PMID:26807146

  10. Race-related differences in the experiences of family members of persons with mental illness participating in the NAMI Family to Family Education Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Lindsey, Michael A; Williams, Crystal D; Medoff, Deborah R; Lucksted, Alicia; Fang, Li Juan; Schiffman, Jason; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Dixon, Lisa B

    2014-12-01

    Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with mental illness. Coping with the strain of shifting roles and multiple challenges of caregiving can have a huge impact. Limited information exists regarding race-related differences in families' caregiving experiences, their abilities to cope with the mental illness of a loved one, or their interactions with mental health service systems. This study examined race-related differences in the experiences of adults seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family Education Program due to mental illness of a loved one. Participants were 293 White and 107 African American family members who completed measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping, knowledge about mental illness, subjective illness burden, psychological distress, and family functioning. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine race-related differences. African American caregivers reported higher levels of negative caregiving experiences, less knowledge of mental illness, and higher levels of both problem-solving coping and emotion-focused coping, than White caregivers. Mental health programs serving African American families should consider targeting specific strategies to address caregiving challenges, support their use of existing coping mechanisms and support networks, and increase their knowledge of mental illness. PMID:25213395

  11. Attitudes towards mental illness of nursing students in a Baccalaureate programme in Jamaica: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J; Stennett, R

    2015-10-01

    There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes.

  12. Recovery and Severe Mental Illness: Description and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Robert E; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The notion of recovery has been embraced by key stakeholders across Canada and elsewhere. This has led to a proliferation of definitions, models, and research on recovery, making it vitally important to examine the data to disentangle the evidence from the rhetoric. In this paper, first we ask, what do people living with severe mental illness (SMI) say about recovery in autobiographical accounts? Second, what do they say about recovery in qualitative studies? Third, from what we have uncovered about recovery, can we learn anything from quantitative studies about proportions of people leading lives of recovery? Finally, can we identify interventions and approaches that may be consistent or inconsistent with the grounded notions of recovery unearthed in this paper? We found that people with mental illness frequently state that recovery is a journey, characterized by a growing sense of agency and autonomy, as well as greater participation in normative activities, such as employment, education, and community life. However, the evidence suggests that most people with SMI still live in a manner inconsistent with recovery; for example, their unemployment rate is over 80%, and they are disproportionately vulnerable to homelessness, stigma, and victimization. Research stemming from rehabilitation science suggests that recovery can be enhanced by various evidence-based services, such as supported employment, as well as by clinical approaches, such as shared decision making and peer support. But these are not routinely available. As such, significant systemic changes are necessary to truly create a recovery-oriented mental health system. PMID:25007276

  13. Housing First Services for People Who Are Homeless with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Gulcur, Leyla; Tsemberis, Sam

    2006-01-01

    The literature on homeless adults with severe mental illness is generally silent on a critical issue surrounding service delivery--the contrast between housing first and treatment first program philosophies. This study draws on data from a longitudinal experiment contrasting a housing first program (which offers immediate permanent housing without…

  14. When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2008-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

  15. Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

  16. Mental health in primary care: perceptions of augmented care for individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Nover, Cynthia Helen

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness are at increased risk of developing secondary physical illnesses because of lifestyle and psychiatric treatment-related factors. Many individuals with mental illness participate in primary care clinics, such as Placer County Community Clinic (PCCC), which provides primary care and medication-only psychiatric services to low-income county residents. This qualitative study describes an augmented care program provided to this population at PCCC and explores participant experiences with that program. The augmented program consisted of a full-time social worker and part-time registered nurse working as a team to coordinate care between providers, and provide psychosocial education and illness management support. Previous studies have demonstrated that similar programs result in improved clinical outcomes for people with mental illness but have largely not included perspectives of participants in these pilot programs. This article includes participant reports about medical service needs, barriers, and beneficial elements of the augmented program. Medical service needs included the need to provide input in treatment and to be personally valued. Barriers ranged from doubts about provider qualifications to concerns about medication. Elements of the augmented care program that participants found beneficial were those involving care coordination, social support, and weight management support.

  17. Mental illness and Irish people: stereotypes, determinants and changing perspectives.

    PubMed

    Clarke, L

    1998-08-01

    The causes of psychological illness in Irish people have been identified with colonial rule and the catastrophic conditions deriving from famine in the nineteenth century. In particular, the scourge of unremitting emigration, resulting from famine, has formed a background against which speculative theories of inferiority, alienation and mental illness have been constructed. In particular, the long standing idea that Irish people exhibit higher rates of schizophrenia, both in Ireland and abroad, is discussed. Contemporary studies which suggest that these elevated rates do not correspond to international diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are introduced. Rather, these enhanced rates may reflect a malaise which resembles schizophrenia but which is really a product of historical dispossession. The importance of these factors is underscored by the previous neglect of Irish people, considered as an ethnic minority, as well as the particular distaste which many Irish people display towards such a notion.

  18. Mental illness and Irish people: stereotypes, determinants and changing perspectives.

    PubMed

    Clarke, L

    1998-12-01

    The causes of psychological illness in Irish people have been identified with colonial rule and the catastrophic conditions deriving from famine in the nineteenth century. In particular, the scourge of unremitting emigration, resulting from famine, has formed a background against which speculative theories of inferiority, alienation and mental illness have been constructed. In particular, the long standing idea that Irish people exhibit higher rates of schizophrenia, both in Ireland and abroad, is discussed. Contemporary studies which suggest that these elevated rates do not correspond to international diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are introduced. Rather, these enhanced rates may reflect a malaise which resembles schizophrenia but which is really a product of historical dispossession. The importance of these factors is underscored by the previous neglect of Irish people, considered as an ethnic minority, as well as the particular distaste which many Irish people display towards such a notion.

  19. [Mental illness in the view of patients and their families].

    PubMed

    Spadini, Luciene Simões; de Mello e Souza, Maria Conceição Bernardo

    2006-03-01

    With the aim of studying the comprehension of mental illness of patients and their families, we conducted a bibliographical study of articles in Brazilian periodicals, theses and dissertations in the period between 1993 and 2003. The identification of the sources was done through the automated search systems Latin American Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) and the University of São Paulo's Bibliographic Data Bank On-line Global Catalog (DEDALUS). Nineteen papers were selected and four categories identified: family difficulty in the relationship with the patient; prejudice and stigma; organic/ biological explanation for the illness; and fear and pain of insanity. Most of the papers show that, regarding assistance, there is a need for support and expansion of the public health system in order to meet the demands. It is believed that the number of publications is small considering the importance of the problem, showing the need for new research.

  20. Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.

    PubMed

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry. PMID:23670966

  1. Family Intervention and Services for Persons with Mental Illness in the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Kam-shing

    2005-01-01

    Family services and intervention for persons with mental illness is crucial in mental health services. In this paper, the writer attempts to describe family intervention and services for persons with mental illness in the People's Republic of China. Family intervention and services like home-based care, guardianship network, family counseling, and…

  2. The real mental illnesses: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema (1959-2013) in memoriam.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2014-02-01

    Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's life work concerned rumination, gender differences in depression, and the "transdiagnostic" processes in mental illness. The articles in this special section expand on these themes. Her work on transdiagnostic processes leads us to consider that the real mental illnesses are not the congeries of symptoms in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, but these processes themselves.

  3. Living Arrangements and Social Support: Effects on the Well-Being of Mothers with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Hollingsworth, Leslie; Goodkind, Sara; Oyserman, Daphna

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the effects of living arrangements on the well-being of mothers with a serious mental illness. Analyses of data from a National Institute of Mental Health-funded study of an urban, primarily African American sample of 379 mothers with mental illness revealed few differences in parenting or social functioning between mothers…

  4. The Silent Parent: Developing Knowledge about the Experiences of Parents with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boursnell, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the lived experiences of parents with mental illness in Australia. It draws on in-depth interviews with parents (n = 10) who have mental illness and provides an analysis of national mental health policies. The analysis of the parents' narratives is essential in building a picture for those involved in the issues associated with…

  5. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  6. Breaking Down the Stigma of Mental Illness through an Adventure Camp: A Collaborative Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an outdoor adventure camp to help mental health consumers and nursing students explore the issues of mental health and illness through experiential and perceived risk challenges. Evaluation data reveals a breakdown in the stigma of mental illness as consumers and students came to know, trust, and count on each other in order to succeed…

  7. Breaking the Silence: Teaching the Next Generation about Mental Illness. For Upper Elementary Grades. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susin, Janet; Kaplan, Lorraine; Slater, Louise

    This guide provides curriculum lessons for the upper elementary school student that put a human face on mental illness and confront myths passed on from one generation to the next. One in five children will be affected by mental illness at some point in their lives. The goal of these lessons is help students understand that severe mental illnesses…

  8. A special population. The elderly deinstitutionalized chronically mentally ill patient.

    PubMed

    Talbott, J A

    1983-01-01

    Deinstitutionalization began with some noble sentiments: to treat and care for the mentally ill in settings that were closer to their homes, families, and neighborhoods; to treat people in more therapeutic and less restrictive settings; and to provide the array of services and settings in the community rather than in far distant institutions. However, few of these intentions have been realized. It is up to us to point out the discrimination, the inequity, indeed the insanity of our current practices and non-system.

  9. Setting the bar: athletes and vulnerability to mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lynette; Leavey, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    Whereas physical sport activity is generally considered a health benefit, extreme exercise may be harmful. Of particular concern in this regard is the considerable variation between doctors in the primary care setting and those working within the sports setting around the diagnosis and treatment of athletes presenting with similar symptoms. Known risk factors for athletes are herein presented to raise awareness of the negative side of sport and to bring attention to the psychological outcomes and needs of athletes. The need for research into the incidence and aetiology of mental illness within elite level sport is also raised.

  10. [Suicidality in mental illness – prevention and therapy].

    PubMed

    Röcker, Sabine; Bachmann, Silke

    2015-10-01

    The great majority of suicides and suicide attempts are related to mental illness. Special risk has been attributed to depression, psychosis, substance use, personality, and trauma-related disorders. Many affected persons seek medical attention prior to taking action. Primary care therefor plays an outstanding role in suicide prevention. Doctors should pay attention to potential risk constellations and actively address the issue. This paper presents possibly helpful models and instruments for everyday use. Most importantly, however, professionals’ empathy and time are required as well as appropriate decisions concerning a referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric inpatient treatment.

  11. Involuntary hospitalization of the mentally ill as a moral issue.

    PubMed

    Chodoff, P

    1984-03-01

    Conflict exists between medical model and civil liberties approaches to involuntary hospitalization for mental illness. The amassing and analysis of data will not resolve this conflict because the two sides view the problem from differing moral vantage points. Medical model adherents are influenced chiefly by utilitarian or consequentialist considerations, while the civil libertarians take more of a deontological or absolutist position. Opinions about such issues as hospitalization criteria of dangerousness versus medical necessity and the relative role of rights versus obligations and of autonomy versus paternalism can be seen largely to depend on such underlying value judgments. Neither side has a monopoly on truth or right in the question of involuntary hospitalization.

  12. Guns, schools, and mental illness: potential concerns for physicians and mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2013-11-01

    Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public.

  13. Does humor influence the stigma of mental illnesses?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Fokuo, J Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A

    2014-05-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, the participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared with the nondisclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the nondisclosed condition, suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships.

  14. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2015-09-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke.

  15. Assessing the "criminalization" of the mentally ill in Canada.

    PubMed

    Davis, S

    1992-10-01

    This paper is an overview of the conceptual and methodological problems encountered trying to assess the hypothesis that the mentally ill, as a consequence of deinstitutionalization, are being "criminalized". Generalizations are difficult to make, in large part because most of the studies are American and do not fit well into the Canadian scene. Relevant Canadian findings are reviewed and compared to the US data. There is some evidence that Canadian patients may be diverted from the criminal justice system more often than in the US, where there are fewer resources. However, this conclusion must be tempered by the fact that Canadian surveys have found high rates of mental disorder among prison and jail inmates.

  16. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared to the non-disclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the non-disclosed condition suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  17. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke. PMID:26339210

  18. The genetics of mental illness: implications for practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the comfortable and relatively simple models of the nature of mental disorders, their causes and their neural substrates now appear quite frayed. Gone is the idea that symptom clusters, course of illness, family history and treatment response would coalesce in a simple way to yield valid diagnoses. Also too simple was the concept, born of early pharmacological successes, that abnormal levels of one or more neurotransmitters would satisfactorily explain the pathogenesis of depression or schizophrenia. Gone is the notion that there is a single gene that causes any mental disorder or determines any behavioural variant. The concept of the causative gene has been replaced by that of genetic complexity, in which multiple genes act in concert with non-genetic factors to produce a risk of mental disorder. Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice. The complex genetics of risk should reinvigorate research on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and explain the complex patterns of disease transmission within families. Knowledge of the timing of the expression of risk genes during brain development and of their function should not only contribute to an understanding of gene action and the pathophysiology of disease but should also help to direct the search for modifiable environmental risk factors that convert risk into illness. The function of risk genes can only become comprehensible in the context of advances at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in neuroscience and the behavioural sciences. Genetics should yield new therapies aimed not just at symptoms but also at pathogenic processes, thus permitting the targeting of specific therapies to individual patients. PMID:10885164

  19. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies by our group have used money given contingent on abstinence to reduce drug use by individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of marijuana use by individuals with serious mental illness to voucher-based contingent reinforcement, which represents the first study to date investigating the efficacy of voucher incentives with this population. This within-subject reversal design consisted of three conditions: 4-week baseline, 12-week voucher intervention, and 4-week baseline. During baseline periods, subjects received 10 US dollars vouchers per urine specimen, independent of urinalysis results. During voucher intervention, only specimens testing negative for marijuana earned vouchers, with total possible earnings of 930 US dollars. Seven adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses participated in the study. The percentage of marijuana-negative specimens was significantly greater during voucher intervention than during baseline periods. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness is sensitive to voucher-based incentives and further support the potential feasibility of using voucher-based contingency management to reduce substance abuse in this challenging population.

  20. Criminal thinking styles among people with serious mental illness in jail.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Amy Blank; Farkas, Kathleen; Ishler, Karen J; Gearhart, Michael; Morgan, Robert; Ashe, Melinda

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the investigation of criminal thinking of persons with mental illness beyond prison and community settings to a jail setting. Participants consisted of 122 individuals incarcerated in a county jail who were diagnosed with a severe mental illness, including schizophrenia spectrum and major mood disorders. Results indicated that people with mental illness in this sample of jail inmates presented with thinking styles that support a criminal lifestyle, and have criminal thinking styles that follow a pattern that is very similar to a sample of prison inmates with serious mental illness. These findings support the need for therapeutic programs for justice-involved persons with serious mental illness to develop a multipronged treatment approach that integrates interventions for individuals' criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes with treatment for their mental illness and substance abuse issues.

  1. Teaching Medical Students about Communicating with Patients with Major Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Ramanan, Radhika A; Lee, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Persons with major mental illness often have chronic diseases and poor physical health. Therefore, all practicing physicians should learn about communicating effectively with these patients. Few efforts to teach medical students communication skills have specifically targeted patients with major mental illness. Indeed, most of the limited literature on this topic is decades old, predating significant scientific advances in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatric therapeutics and changes in social policies regarding major mental illness. To gather preliminary insight into training needs, we interviewed 13 final-year students from 2 Boston medical schools. Students' observations coalesced around 4 themes: fears and anxieties about interacting with persons with major mental illness; residents “protecting” students from patients with major mental illness; lack of clinical maturity; and barriers to learning during psychiatry rotations. Educational researchers must explore ways to better prepare young physicians to communicate effectively with patients with major mental illness. PMID:16970561

  2. Parenting of Mothers with a Serious Mental Illness: Differential Effects of Diagnosis, Clinical History, and Other Mental Health Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol; Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; MacFarlane, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of mental illness on parenting in a sample of women with serious mental illness. Diagnosis had a small but significant effect on parenting attitudes and behaviors. However, current symptoms mediated the effects of diagnosis and chronicity on parenting stress, and current symptomatology and community functioning partially…

  3. Correlates of HIV infection among patients with mental illness in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Mark D.C.; McKinnon, Karen; Cournos, Francine; Machado, Carla J.; Melo, Ana Paula S.; Campos, Lorenza N.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2015-01-01

    People living with mental illness are at increased risk for HIV. There are scarce data on correlates and prevalence of HIV infection, and none with a nationally representative sample. We report on correlates of HIV infection from a cross-sectional national sample of adults receiving care in 26 publicly funded mental health treatment settings throughout Brazil. Weighted prevalence rate ratios were obtained using multiple log-binomial regression modeling. History of homelessness, ever having an STD, early age of first sexual intercourse before 18 years old, having suffered sexual violence, previous HIV testing, self-perception of high risk of HIV infection and not knowing one’s risk were statistically associated with HIV infection. Our study found an elevated HIV seroprevalence and correlates of infection were not found to include psychiatric diagnoses or hospitalizations but instead reflected marginalized living circumstances and HIV testing history. These adverse life circumstances (history of homelessness, having suffered sexual violence, reporting a sexually transmitted disease, and early sexual debut) may not be unique to people living with mental illness but nonetheless the mental health care system can serve as an important point of entry for HIV prevention in this population. PMID:23998905

  4. Correlates of HIV infection among patients with mental illness in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Mark D C; McKinnon, Karen; Cournos, Francine; Machado, Carla J; Melo, Ana Paula S; Campos, Lorenza N; Wainberg, Milton L

    2014-04-01

    People living with mental illness are at increased risk for HIV. There are scarce data on correlates and prevalence of HIV infection, and none with a nationally representative sample. We report on correlates of HIV infection from a cross-sectional national sample of adults receiving care in 26 publicly funded mental health treatment settings throughout Brazil. Weighted prevalence rate ratios were obtained using multiple log-binomial regression modeling. History of homelessness, ever having an STD, early age of first sexual intercourse before 18 years old, having suffered sexual violence, previous HIV testing, self-perception of high risk of HIV infection and not knowing one's risk were statistically associated with HIV infection. Our study found an elevated HIV seroprevalence and correlates of infection were not found to include psychiatric diagnoses or hospitalizations but instead reflected marginalized living circumstances and HIV testing history. These adverse life circumstances (history of homelessness, having suffered sexual violence, reporting a sexually transmitted disease, and early sexual debut) may not be unique to people living with mental illness but nonetheless the mental health care system can serve as an important point of entry for HIV prevention in this population. PMID:23998905

  5. Brief battery for measurement of stigmatizing versus affirming attitudes about mental illness.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

    2014-02-28

    Decreasing the stigma of mental illness is not sufficient. Rather promoting important ideas, such as recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, is important to increase social inclusion, or more broadly, affirming attitudes. The goal of this article is to evaluate the psychometrics of a battery of measures that assess both stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illnesses. The aforementioned battery was used in four separate RCTs on stigma change with different samples: college students, adults, health care providers, and mental health service providers. Test-retest indices were satisfactory for all samples except for the Empowerment Scale score for the mental health providers. Attribution Questionnaire-9 (AQ-9) scores were significantly and inversely associated with the three affirming attitude scale scores for eight of twelve correlations, with five of these meeting the Bonferroni Criterion. Research on social attitudes and structures needs to incorporate assessment of affirming perspectives about a group and effective anti-stigma programs need to promote social inclusion and affirming attitudes.

  6. A social/emotional theory of 'mental illness'.

    PubMed

    Scheff, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    One reason that theories of mental illness have made little progress may be their focus on individuals, omitting the social/relational and emotional world. Adding these components will be difficult, however: in modern societies they have become virtually invisible, particularly the emotion of shame. The theory outlined here is based on the work of Cooley, Elias, Lewis and Goffman: shame is both social and individual and, if anticipation is included, virtually omnipresent in modern societies. It is proposed that most symptoms of mental illness are products of shame and relational feedback loops: emotion and alienation can both spiral leading to further alienation and chaotic or hidden emotions. Almost everyone is especially ashamed of their shame. Being ashamed of one's shame and/or anger can spiral when not acknowledged. Under certain conditions, these spirals continue without limit, generating immense force for acting out symptoms or depression. To the extent that this theory is true, we would need to rename the field using non-medical terms, such as emotional/social dysfunction.

  7. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Adler, Emerald P; Otilingam, Poorni G; Peters, Townley

    2014-01-01

    The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item questionnaire measuring self-stigma among persons with psychiatric disorders. It was developed with substantial consumer input and has been widely used, but its psychometric qualities have not been comprehensively evaluated across multiple versions. Here we review the 55 known versions, and provide the 47 available versions, including: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese (Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong), Croatian, Dutch, English (USA, South Africa), Estonian, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Lithuanian, Lugandan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Slovenian, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu, and Yoruba, and qualitative English and Swahili versions, as well as versions for depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, leprosy, smoking, parents and caregivers of people with mental illness, and ethnicity. The various versions show reliability and validity across a wide range of languages, cultures, and writing systems. The most commonly reported findings of studies using the ISMI are that internalized stigma correlates with higher depression, lower self esteem, and higher symptom severity. Initial studies of ways to reduce internalized stigma are promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:24060237

  8. Social support and recovery in people with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Phelan, Sean M

    2004-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between objective and subjective measures of social support with recovery from serious mental illness; recovery has been described as both an outcome state and an ongoing process. One hundred and seventy six people with serious mental illness completed the Recovery Assessment Scale, a process measure of recovery that assessed, among other factors, personal confidence, goal orientation, and non-domination by symptoms. They also were administered the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, a semi-structured interview that assesses psychiatric symptom and represents recovery as an outcome. Finally, research participants completed the Social Network Scale, which assessed size of the overall network plus such important subnetworks as family, friends, and health professionals. The SNS also provided measures of the perceived satisfaction with, mutuality in, and obligation towards individuals in their support network. Results showed people with larger overall network size and more network satisfaction were likely to report higher factors on the Recovery Assessment Scale. For the most part, network size and satisfaction was not significantly associated with psychiatric symptoms. Implications of these findings for better understanding the association between social support and recovery are discussed.

  9. [Interpersonal relations in groups of mentally ill and mentally healthy children].

    PubMed

    Rogovin, M S; Polyvianaia, M Iu

    1985-01-01

    Using the sociometric method supplemented by systematic observations, the authors studied the interpersonal relations in children's departments of mental and therapeutic hospitals. The subjective structures of choices were compared with the objectively forming interrelations. Mental patients showed a greater rigidity of these structures which remained unaltered even with the arrival of newcomers, which is explained by a relatively minor role played by such a factor as socialization. The nosological characteristics influenced the sociometric choices only indirectly, with the main structural factors being sex and age. The position of each patient in this structure was altered in parallel with the change in his or her mental status. Unlike the therapeutic department, characteristic of mentally ill patients was the limitation of choices by sex; they also differed by the fact that girls had two types of leaders.

  10. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a

  11. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a

  12. Understanding and Reducing Disability in Older Adults Following Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Brummel, N.E.; Balas, M.C.; Morandi, A.; Ferrante, L.E.; Gill, T.M.; Ely, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. Data Sources Review of the literature describing post-critical illness disability in older adults and expert opinion. Results We identified 19 studies evaluating disability outcomes in critically ill patients age 65 years and older. Newly acquired disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and mobility activities was commonplace among older adults who survived a critical illness. Incident dementia and less-severe cognitive impairment was also highly prevalent. Factors related to the acute critical illness, intensive care unit practices such as heavy sedation, physical restraints and immobility as well as aging physiology and coexisting geriatric conditions can combine to result in these poor outcomes. Conclusion Older adults who survive critical illness suffer physical and cognitive declines resulting in disability at greater rates than hospitalized, non-critically ill and community dwelling older adults. Interventions derived from widely available geriatric care models in use outside of the ICU, which address modifiable risk factors including immobility and delirium, are associated with improved functional and cognitive outcomes and can be used to complement ICU-focused models such as the ABCDEs. PMID:25756418

  13. Humour-related interventions for people with mental illness: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Abraham; Kohn, Paul M; Edwards, Kim R; Podnar, David; Caird, Sara; Martin, Rod

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the feasibility and effects of humour-related interventions for mentally ill adults. Twelve, randomly assigned, participated in each of 3 arms--stand up comedy training (the experimental arm), discussing comedy videos (the active control arm), and no humour-related intervention (the passive control arm). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected at baseline, end of interventions (3 months) and follow up (after another 3 months). Scale comparisons were largely negative, although self-esteem marginally increased in the experimental arm. Interview responses indicated benefits for the interventions, including improved self-esteem in the experimental arm. These results, though mixed, justify further study.

  14. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  15. Adolescents' attitudes toward mental illness and perceived sources of their attitudes: an examination of pilot data.

    PubMed

    Lopez, L R

    1991-10-01

    This exploratory descriptive pilot study examined the attitudes of 89 Floridian adolescents toward mental illness and found significant differences according to gender and education about mental illness. Responses to social distance items showed that adolescents tended to be less accepting as they were proposed relationships that suggested greater intimacy with the mentally ill. The mass media, personal experience with someone who had a mental illness, and parents were perceived by the adolescents as the most important sources of their attitudes. The major implications for nursing practice with adolescents, and particularly in the school system, are discussed with suggested interventions.

  16. Mental Illness and Stigma: Has Psychiatry Done more Harm than Good?

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Ashima

    2015-01-01

    Stigma against people with mental illness is a very complex public health problem. There could be diverse reasons for this ranging from: Lack of awareness;Fear of a dimly-comprehended and much-misunderstood illness;Illogical generalizations; andDisrespect for the heterogeneity of life. The result-for the mentally ill-could well be diminished access to social determinants of healthcare, employment, and housing. In addition, people with mental illnesses are exposed to numerous health risks such as malnutrition, drug abuse, violence and homelessness. Maybe this explains nondisclosure of illness in an increasingly degenerate civil society. PMID:25969604

  17. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  18. A consumer satisfaction survey of people with mental retardation and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dudley, J R; Calhoun, M L; Ahlgrim-Delzell, L; Conroy, J

    1997-08-01

    This study investigated consumer satisfaction among 98 members of the Thomas S. class action lawsuit in North Carolina, in which the court ordered implementation of habilitative and residential service plans. Class members have mental retardation, and most also have a mental illness. Before the court order, 83 of the consumers were inappropriately placed in state psychiatric hospitals; one year after, 82 were living in community residences. A survey at baseline and one year later indicated that consumers' satisfaction had increased significantly. They were more satisfied with where they lived, the food, and the level of freedom. They also felt that staff were more helpful, and that more staff were "nice" rather than "mean."

  19. [Social representations and living conditions of the mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly in nursing homes.].

    PubMed

    Dorvil, H; Benoit, M

    1999-01-01

    The aging of the population in Québec as in the rest of the western world, brings to the fore people who until now were greatly marginalized. This is the case of mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly who until recently, lived their aging in the shadow of psychiatric institutions. Have these people now found with deinstitutionalization, the possibility of growing old within society ? This article analyses the conditions of integration and support networks, in sum a collective responsability of these aging people in nursing homes.

  20. Human Rights Act 1998 and mental health legislation: implications for the management of mentally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Leung, W-C

    2002-03-01

    In the management of mentally ill patients, there is a tension between protecting the rights of individual patients and safeguarding public safety. The Human Rights Act 1998 emphasises on the former while two recent white papers focus on the latter. This article first examines the extent to which the Mental Health Act 1983 is consistent with the Human Rights Act. It argues that while the recent white papers exploit the gaps in the judgments given by the European courts, its compatibility with human rights is very doubtful. The practical implications of the Human Rights Act for doctors are discussed.

  1. Computational Psychiatry: towards a mathematically informed understanding of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rick A; Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency ('helplessness'), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods.

  2. Computational Psychiatry: towards a mathematically informed understanding of mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency (‘helplessness’), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods. PMID:26157034

  3. Community Attitude and Associated Factors towards People with Mental Illness among Residents of Worabe Town, Silte Zone, Southern Nation’s Nationalities and People’s Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bedasso, Kufa; Feyera, Fetuma

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental illnesses worldwide are accompanied by another pandemic, that of stigma and discrimination. Public understanding about mental illnesses and attitudes towards people with mental illness play a paramount role in the prevention and treatment of mental illness and the rehabilitation of people with mental illness. Objective To assess community attitude and associated factors towards people with mental illness. Methods Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 28 to May 28, 2014. Quantitative data were collected through interview from 435 adults selected using simple random sampling. Data were collected using community attitude towards mentally ill (CAMI) tool to assess community attitude towards people with mental illness and associated factors. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of community attitude towards people with mental illness and the level of significance association was determined by beta with 95% confidence interval and P less than 0.05. Results The highest mean score was on social restrictiveness subscale (31.55±5.62). Farmers had more socially restrictive view (β = 0.291, CI [0.09, 0.49]) and have less humanistic view towards mentally ill (β = 0.193, CI [-0.36, -0.03]). Having mental health information had significantly less socially restrictive (β = -0.59, CI [-1.13, -0.05]) and less authoritarian (β = -0.10, CI [-1.11, -0.06]) view towards mentally ill but respondents who are at university or college level reported to be more socially restrictive (β = 0.298, CI [0.059, 0.54]). Respondents whose age is above 48 years old had significantly less view of community mental health ideology (β = -0.59, CI [-1.09, -0.08]). Conclusion and Recommendation Residents of Worabe town were highly socially restrictive but less authoritarian. There was high level of negative attitude towards people with mental illness along all the subscales with relative variation indicating a need to

  4. Carers of Mentally Ill People in Queensland: Their Perceived Relationships with Professional Mental Health Service Providers: Report on a Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Orme; King, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationships of caregivers of mentally ill people with professional mental health providers since the introduction of community-based services. Respondents perceived mental health workers to be professional, friendly, respectful and positive in outlook. However they indicated dissatisfaction with accessibility, communication about…

  5. Access to dental care and dental ill-health of people with serious mental illness: views of nurses working in mental health settings in Australia.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David; Hanley, Christine

    2015-01-01

    People with serious mental illness experience higher rates of oral and dental health problems than the wider population. Little is known about how dental health is viewed or addressed by nurses working with mental health consumers. This paper presents the views of nurses regarding the nature and severity of dental health problems of consumers with serious mental illness, and how often they provide advice on dental health. Mental health sector nurses (n=643) completed an online survey, including questions on dental and oral health issues of people with serious mental illness. The majority of nurses considered the oral and dental conditions of people with serious mental illness to be worse than the wider community. When compared with a range of significant physical health issues (e.g. cardiovascular disease), many nurses emphasised that dental and oral problems are one of the most salient health issues facing people with serious mental illness, their level of access to dental care services is severely inadequate and they suffer significantly worse dental health outcomes as a result. This study highlights the need for reforms to increase access to dental and oral health care for mental health consumers.

  6. Patient Safety Events and Harms During Medical and Surgical Hospitalizations for Persons With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Daumit, Gail L.; McGinty, Emma E.; Pronovost, Peter; Dixon, Lisa B.; Guallar, Eliseo; Ford, Daniel E.; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Boonyasai, Romsai T.; Thompson, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explored the risk of patient safety events and associated nonfatal physical harms and mortality in a cohort of persons with serious mental illness. This group experiences high rates of medical comorbidity and premature mortality and may be at high risk of adverse patient safety events. Methods Medical record review was conducted for medical-surgical hospitalizations occurring during 1994–2004 in a community-based cohort of Maryland adults with serious mental illness. Individuals were eligible if they died within 30 days of a medical-surgical hospitalization and if they also had at least one prior medical-surgical hospitalization within five years of death. All admissions took place at Maryland general hospitals. A case-crossover analysis examined the relationships among patient safety events, physical harms, and elevated likelihood of death within 30 days of hospitalization. Results A total of 790 hospitalizations among 253 adults were reviewed. The mean number of patient safety events per hospitalization was 5.8, and the rate of physical harms was 142 per 100 hospitalizations. The odds of physical harm were elevated in hospitalizations in which 22 of the 34 patient safety events occurred (p<.05), including medical events (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.3–1.7) and procedure-related events (OR=1.6, CI=1.2–2.0). Adjusted odds of death within 30 days of hospitalization were elevated for individuals with any patient safety event, compared with those with no event (OR=3.7, CI=1.4–10.3). Conclusions Patient safety events were positively associated with physical harm and 30-day mortality in nonpsychiatric hospitalizations for persons with serious mental illness. PMID:27181736

  7. Marriage and mental health among young adults.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2012-03-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.

  8. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity

    PubMed Central

    Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Wright, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. Methods A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N=401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with zero partners, one partner, or multiple partners over the past three months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Results Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions based on consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. PMID:25664756

  9. Medieval and early modern theories of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, R

    1979-04-01

    Historians of medieval and early modern psychiatry have utilized limited source materials in their research. They have focused on printed works, particularly formal treatises by celebrated authors, and neglected manuscript collections. The resulting histories depict early European psychiatric thought as dominated by demonology. Examination of the archives of an early English legal incompetency jurisdiction flatly contradicts this picture. Starting in the 13th century, the English government conducted mental status examinations of psychiatrically disabled individuals, using commonsense, naturalistic criteria of impairment; private, supervised guardians were appointed for such persons. Furthermore, etiological theories entertained by royal officials and laymen relied on physiological and psychological notions of psychiatric illness. These findings raise serious questions about conventional accounts of this period and underline the need for more research using original manuscripts. PMID:371576

  10. Mental illness, criminal risk factors and parole release decisions.

    PubMed

    Matejkowski, Jason; Draine, Jeffrey; Solomon, Phyllis; Salzer, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Research has not examined whether higher rates of parole denial among inmates with mental illness (MI) are the result of the increased presence of criminal risk factors among this population. Employing a representative sample of inmates with (n  =  219) and without (n  =  184) MI receiving parole release decisions in 2007, this study tested whether the central eight risk factors for recidivism considered in parole release decisions intervened in the relationship between MI and parole release. MI was associated with possession of a substance use disorder, antisocial personality disorder and violent charges while incarcerated; however, these factors were not related to release decisions. MI was found to have neither a direct nor an indirect effect on release decisions. While results indicate that release decisions appear, to some extent, to be evidence-based, they also suggest considerable discretion is being implemented by parole board members in release decisions above and beyond consideration of criminal risk factors.

  11. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? PMID:25874748

  12. Commercialisation of Biomarker Tests for Mental Illnesses: Advances and Obstacles.

    PubMed

    Chan, Man K; Cooper, Jason D; Bahn, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Substantial strides have been made in the field of biomarker research for mental illnesses over the past few decades. However, no US FDA-cleared blood-based biomarker tests have been translated into routine clinical practice. Here, we review the challenges associated with commercialisation of research findings and discuss how these challenges can impede scientific impact and progress. Overall evidence indicates that a lack of research funding and poor reproducibility of findings were the most important obstacles to commercialization of biomarker tests. Fraud, pre-analytical and analytical limitations, and inappropriate statistical analysis are major contributors to poor reproducibility. Increasingly, these issues are acknowledged and actions are being taken to improve data validity, raising the hope that robust biomarker tests will become available in the foreseeable future. PMID:26549771

  13. Violence and mental illness: a new analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Lidz, Charles W; Banks, Steven; Simon, Lorna; Schubert, Carol; Mulvey, Edward P

    2007-02-01

    Empirical studies of violence and mental illness have used many different methods. Current state-of-the-art methods gather information from both subject and collateral interviews as well as official records. Typically these sources are treated as additive. Any report of a violent incident from any source is treated as true and all reported incidents are added to generate estimates of frequency. This paper presents a new statistical technique that uses the level of agreement between the sources of data to adjust those estimates. The evidence suggests that, although the additive technique for using multiple sources correctly estimates how many people are involved, it substantially underestimates the number of incidents. The new technique substantially reduces both false negatives and false positives.

  14. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  15. Serious mental illness and the role of primary care.

    PubMed

    Planner, Claire; Gask, Linda; Reilly, Siobhan

    2014-08-01

    Policies and guidelines from across the international community are attempting to galvanise action to address the unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rates amongst people with a serious mental illness (SMI). Primary care has a pivotal role to play in translating policy into evidence based practice in conjunction with other providers of health care services. This paper explores the current and potential of role of primary care providers in delivering health care to people with SMI. A review of research in the following key areas of primary health care provision is provided: access, screening and preventative care, routine monitoring and follow-up, diagnosis and delivery of treatments in accordance with guidelines and delivery of interventions. There is undoubtedly a need for further research to establish the effectiveness of primary care interventions and the organisation of services. Equally, understanding how primary care services can deliver high quality care and promoting effective working at the interface with other services must be priorities.

  16. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence?

  17. Narrative processing of entertainment media and mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Nicole Mossing; Rouner, Donna

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the narrative effects of familiarity, transportation, whether a story is factual or fiction, and perceived realism on the stigmatizing behavior of social distancing behavior. A sample of N = 137 participants watched a commercial movie about mental illness. Genre was manipulated to determine whether fiction or nonfiction impacted social distancing behavior. Although there was no effect of the genre manipulation, transportation was found to have a relationship with social distancing, with the more relevant the participants found the story, the lower they demonstrated social distancing behavior. How much participants identified with the main character was found to have a partial mediating effect between perceived story relevance and social distancing behavior.

  18. HIV risk behaviors among outpatients with severe mental illness in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    WAINBERG, MILTON L.; MCKINNON, KAREN; ELKINGTON, KATHERINE; MATTOS, PAULO E.; GRUBER MANN, CLAUDIO; DE SOUZA PINTO, DIANA; OTTO-SALAJ, LAURA; COURNOS, FRANCINE; AND THE INVESTIGATORS OF PRISSMA

    2008-01-01

    We conducted the first study to examine rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors, sexual protective behaviors, injection drug use (IDU), needle sharing, and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among outpatients with severe mental illness (SMI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a measure with demonstrated reliability, we found that 42% of 98 patients engaged in vaginal or anal sex within the past three months. Comorbid substance use disorder was significantly associated with sexual activity. Only 22% of sexually active patients used condoms consistently, despite having better HIV knowledge than those who were sexually abstinent. Overall, 45% of patients reported not engaging in any HIV protective behaviors. There were no reports of drug injection. Adults with SMI in Brazil are in need of efficacious HIV prevention programs and policies that can sustain these programs within mental health treatment settings. PMID:18836542

  19. Speech Deficits in Serious mental Illness: A Cognitive Resource Issue?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; McGovern, Jessica E.; Dinzeo, Thomas J.; Covington, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production (“alogia”), variability (“blunted vocal affect”) and content (“poverty of content of speech”). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. PMID:25464920

  20. A nursing faculty practice for the severely mentally ill: merging practice with research.

    PubMed

    Chafetz, Linda; Collins-Bride, Geraldine M; White, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This Faculty Practice developed in response to increasing medical complexity among severely mentally ill adults in community programs. It represents collaboration between an academic nursing program and Progress Foundation, a residential care provider in San Francisco for the severely mentally ill (SMI). Over ten years, the practice and research agenda have evolved together, through a commitment to mutual collaboration by clinicians and researchers from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) School of Nursing, and the mental health community. Initial efforts at research focused on description of clients and practice. Research efforts have broadened and evolve to include an on-going clinical trial that tests the value of adding active health promotion to primary care. Factors contributing to success included trust among research and clinical faculty and community partners, use of clinical data in the service of practice and education, and relative freedom from fiscal administration. The merging of practice and research increases visibility of nursing contributions and will allow testing of models for care.