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Sample records for adult metabolic syndrome

  1. Hyperleptinemia, adiposity, and risk of metabolic syndrome in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suruchi; Harris, Tamara B; Hue, Trisha; Miljkovic, Iva; Satterfield, Suzanne; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Mehta, Mira; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-01-01

    Background. Abdominal adiposity and serum leptin increase with age as does risk of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the prospective association between leptin and metabolic syndrome risk in relation to adiposity and cytokines. Methods. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of older adults aged 70 to 79 years. Baseline measurements included leptin, cytokines, BMI, total percent fat, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between leptin and metabolic syndrome (defined per NCEP ATP III) incidence after 6 years of follow-up among 1,120 men and women. Results. Leptin predicted metabolic syndrome in men (P for trend = 0.0002) and women (P for trend = 0.0001). In women, risk of metabolic syndrome increased with higher levels of leptin (compared with quintile 1, quintile 2 RR = 3.29, CI = 1.36, 7.95; quintile 3 RR = 3.25, CI = 1.33, 7.93; quintile 4 RR = 5.21, CI = 2.16, 12.56; and quintile 5 RR = 7.97, CI = 3.30, 19.24) after adjusting for potential confounders. Leptin remained independently associated with metabolic syndrome risk after additional adjustment for adiposity, cytokines, and CRP. Among men, this association was no longer significant after controlling for adiposity. Conclusion. Among older women, elevated concentrations of leptin may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome independent of adiposity and cytokines. PMID:24455217

  2. Hyperleptinemia, Adiposity, and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Tamara B.; Hue, Trisha; Miljkovic, Iva; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Mehta, Mira; Sahyoun, Nadine R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Abdominal adiposity and serum leptin increase with age as does risk of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the prospective association between leptin and metabolic syndrome risk in relation to adiposity and cytokines. Methods. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of older adults aged 70 to 79 years. Baseline measurements included leptin, cytokines, BMI, total percent fat, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between leptin and metabolic syndrome (defined per NCEP ATP III) incidence after 6 years of follow-up among 1,120 men and women. Results. Leptin predicted metabolic syndrome in men (P for trend = 0.0002) and women (P for trend = 0.0001). In women, risk of metabolic syndrome increased with higher levels of leptin (compared with quintile 1, quintile 2 RR = 3.29, CI = 1.36, 7.95; quintile 3 RR = 3.25, CI = 1.33, 7.93; quintile 4 RR = 5.21, CI = 2.16, 12.56; and quintile 5 RR = 7.97, CI = 3.30, 19.24) after adjusting for potential confounders. Leptin remained independently associated with metabolic syndrome risk after additional adjustment for adiposity, cytokines, and CRP. Among men, this association was no longer significant after controlling for adiposity. Conclusion. Among older women, elevated concentrations of leptin may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome independent of adiposity and cytokines. PMID:24455217

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This syndrome increases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. It has been demonstrated that the prevalence of MS is increasing worldwide. Despite the importance of MS in the context of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, few studies have described the prevalence of MS and its determinants in Latin America. The present study aims to assess studies describing the prevalence of MS in Brazil in order to determine the global prevalence of the syndrome and its components. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scielo from the earliest available online indexing year through May 2013. There were no restrictions on language. The search terms used to describe MS were taken from the PubMed (MeSH) dictionary: “metabolic syndrome x”, “prevalence” and “Brazil”. Studies were included if they were cross-sectional, described the prevalence of MS and were conducted in apparently healthy subjects, from the general population, 19-64 years old (adult and middle aged) of both genders. The titles and abstracts of all the articles identified were screened for eligibility. Results Ten cross-sectional studies were selected. The weighted mean for general prevalence of MS in Brazil was 29.6% (range: 14.9%-65.3%). Half of the studies used the criteria for clinical diagnosis of MS proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) (2001). The highest prevalence of MS (65.3%) was found in a study conducted in an indigenous population, whereas the lowest prevalence of MS (14.9%) was reported in a rural area. The most frequent MS components were low HDL-cholesterol (59.3%) and hypertension (52.5%). Conclusions Despite methodological differences among the studies selected, our findings suggested a high prevalence of MS in the Brazilian adult population. PMID:24350922

  4. Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in adults of Talca city, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Mujica, Veronica; Leiva, Elba; Icaza, Gloria; Diaz, Nora; Arredondo, Miguel; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Orrego, Roxana; Vásquez, Marcela; Palomo, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Objective- Insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a clustering of metabolic alterations associated to IR; however, there is no international consensus for defining its diagnosis. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of MS identified by the ATP III and IDF criteria in adults from Talca city. Research and methods- We studied 1007 individuals, aged 18–74, and residents from Talca. MS subjects were defined according to ATP III (three altered factors) and IDF criteria (patients with waist circumference >80/90 cm (W/M) and two others altered factors). Results- The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the IDF and ATP III criteria was 36.4% and 29.5%, respectively after adjustment for age and sex. The agreement for both criteria was 89%. The prevalence in men was higher than in women for both MS definitions, although not significant. MS probability increased with age, and the highest risk was in the 57–68 age group (ATP-MS) and 53–72 age group (IDF-MS). Hypertension, high triglycerides and abdominal obesity are the most frequent alterations in MS. Conclusion- MS prevalence in adults was higher when diagnosed with IDF than with ATP criterion; in both, age is directly related with the MS presence. The MS subjects showed higher levels of blood pressure, waist circumference and plasma triglycerides. Considering our results, it is worrisome that one third of our population has a high risk of developing DM2 and CVD in the future. PMID:18482457

  5. Childhood obesity affects adult metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yajun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Liang; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Yan, Yinkun; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Mi, Jie

    2015-09-01

    We seek to observe the association between childhood obesity by different measures and adult obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes. Thousand two hundred and nine subjects from "Beijing Blood Pressure Cohort Study" were followed 22.9 ± 0.5 years in average from childhood to adulthood. We defined childhood obesity using body mass index (BMI) or left subscapular skinfold (LSSF), and adult obesity as BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2). MetS was defined according to the joint statement of International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association with modified waist circumference (≥ 90/85 cm for men/women). Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or blood glucose 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or currently using blood glucose-lowering agents. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. The incidence of adult obesity was 13.4, 60.0, 48.3, and 65.1 % for children without obesity, having obesity by BMI only, by LSSF only, and by both, respectively. Compared to children without obesity, children obese by LSSF only or by both had higher risk of diabetes. After controlling for adult obesity, childhood obesity predicted independently long-term risks of diabetes (odds ratio 2.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.2-6.3) or abdominal obesity (2.7, 1.6-4.7) other than MetS as a whole (1.2, 0.6-2.4). Childhood obesity predicts long-term risk of adult diabetes, and the effect is independent of adult obesity. LSSF is better than BMI in predicting adult diabetes.

  6. Metabolic syndrome: a child is not a small adult.

    PubMed

    Pietrobelli, Angelo; Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino C; Fuiano, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased all-cause mortality rate and even small weight losses can be associated with short-term reduction in risk factors for disease. There is strong evidence that weight loss in obese subjects improves risk factors for diabetes and cardiaovascular diseases. Metabolic syndrome (MS) in adults is defined as a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance and hypertension. Application of the MS concept in children and adolescents is controversial; in fact no consensus exists on a specific definition for pediatric MS. Lack of consensus is in part due to body evolution associated with childhood and puberty that is related to changes in metabolic and clinical characteristics. The aim of this article is to try to clarify the differences between the MS as a concept and the MS as a diagnostic category, as well as to develop a theory related to its pathophysiology. We comment on the relationship between obesity, regional fat distribution and the MS, and finally we offer some insights into MS methodological approaches for estimating metabolic risk-factor clustering in children and adolescents. PMID:18278635

  7. Dietary factors associated with metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is defined as the association of numerous factors that increase cardiovascular risk and diet is one of the main factors related to increase the MS in the population. This study aimed to evaluate the association of diet on the presence of MS in an adult population sample. Methodology 305 adults were clinically screened to participate in a lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric assessments included waist circumference (WC), body fat and calculated BMI (kg/m2) and muscle-mass index (MMI kg/m2). Dietary intake was estimated by 24 h dietary recall. Fasting blood was used for biochemical analysis. MS was diagnosed using NCEP-ATPIII (2001) criteria with adaptation for glucose (≥ 100 mg/dL). Logistic regression (Odds ratio) was performed in order to determine the odds ratio for developing MS according to dietary intake. Results An adequate intake of fruits, OR = 0.52 (CI:0.28-0.98), and an intake of more than 8 different items in the diet (variety), OR = 0.31 (CI:0.12-0.79) showed to be a protective factor against a diagnosis of MS. Saturated fat intake greater than 10% of total caloric value represented a risk for MS diagnosis, OR = 2.0 (1.04-3.84). Conclusion Regarding the dietary aspect, a risk factor for MS was higher intake of saturated fat, and protective factors were high diet variety and adequate fruit intake. PMID:22417631

  8. Magnesium Intake and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher dietary intake of magnesium (Mg) may protect against development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome risk factors in elderly men and women. We examined cross-sectional associations between magnesium i...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  10. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Emem-Chioma, P C; Siminialayi, I M; Wokoma, F S

    2011-09-01

    The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other non- communicable diseases continues to rise globally, and recent studies suggest that metabolic syndrome (MS) may add to this burden by contributing to the development of CKD. Given that reports on the prevalence of CKD in patients with MS in this environment are scanty, this study was undertaken with the sole aim of determining the prevalence of CKD in subjects with MS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the National Cholesterol Education Project Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). A total of 240 consenting adults (18-70 years) attending the general out- patient clinic of the General Hospital Okrika for various ailments were studied. Subjects were screened for MS as per the above- mentioned criteria. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was determined with Modification of Diet for Renal Disease (MDRD) formula and CKD was defined as eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0 and Epi info version 4.06d; P <0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 88 males and 152 females were screened for MS by both criteria. Eighty- four (35.0%) of 240 subjects had MS as defined by NCEP ATP III, while 85 (35.4%) had MS as defined by the IDF. The subjects were predominantly females, and mean age was between 54.74 ± 15.30 and 55.60 ± 14.81 years. Four of the 84 (4.8%) subjects with MS by NCEP ATP III definition had CKD while three of the 85 (3.5%) subjects with MS by IDF definition had CKD. Among subjects without MS by either definition, the prevalence of CKD was four of 140 (2.9%). Although the prevalence of CKD was higher among subjects with MS by ATP III compared with those with MS as defined by IDF and subjects without MS, the differences were not statistically significant (X2 = 0.14; P = 0.710). A comparison of MS subjects without CKD and those with CKD did not show any significant difference in age, waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood

  11. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  12. Knowledge of Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Adults: Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Sally Wai Sze; Chair, Sek Ying; Lee, Iris Fung Kam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess knowledge of metabolic syndrome (MS) among Chinese adults and provide directions for designing healthcare promotion schemes for improving MS awareness in the community. Design: The study adopted a cross-sectional design and a convenience sampling method. Method: Chinese adults aged 18-65 years…

  13. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheol-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Tae; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ahn, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of dietary fat intake on the risk of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. We investigated the association between dietary fat and specific types of fat intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods The study population included 1,662 healthy adults who were 50.2 years of age and had no known hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or metabolic syndrome at the initial visit. Dietary intake was obtained from a 1-day food record. During 20.7 months of follow-up, we documented 147 cases of metabolic syndrome confirmed by self-report, anthropometric data, and blood test results. The intakes of total fat, vegetable fat, animal fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and cholesterol level divided by quintile. Multivariate analyses included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, total calorie, and protein intake. Results Vegetable fat intake was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome risk (odds ratio for the highest vs. the lowest quintile, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.76). Total fat, animal fat, SFA, PUFA, MUFA, and cholesterol intakes showed no association with metabolic syndrome. Vegetable fat intake was inversely associated with the risk of hypertriglyceridemia among the components of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion These data support an inverse association between vegetable fat and the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26435816

  14. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Christiana, Udenze Ifeoma; Casimir, Amadi E.; Nicholas, Awolola Awodele; Christian, Makwe C.; Obiefuna, Ajie I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome and to determine the relationship between components of the metabolic syndrome and CRP in adult Nigerians. Subjects and Methods: This was a case–control study of fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty age- and sex-matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Blood pressure and anthropometry measurements were taken and venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparisons of continuous variables and categorical variables were done using the Student's t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The age- and sex-matched males and females with and without the metabolic syndrome did not differ in their sociodemographic characteristics. They however differed in some clinical and laboratory parameters such as diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.048), waist circumference (P = 0.002), body mass index (P = 0.012), waist/hip ratio (P = 0.023), high density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.012), and insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.042). There was a statistically significant increase in the inflammatory marker, CRP (P = 0.019), the cytokines, IL6 (P = 0.040), and TNF-α (P = 0.031) between the subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. There was also a significant association between CRP, waist circumference, IR, and HDL in the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in

  15. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND NEUROMETABOLIC ASYMMETRY OF HIPPOCAMPUS IN ADULT BONNET MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Mao, Xiangling; Smith, Eric L.P.; Kaufman, Daniel; Gorman, Jack M.; Owens, Michael J.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Banerji, Mary Ann; Rosenblum, Leonard A.; Kral, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with the insulin resistance metabolic syndrome, postulated to be mediated by stress-induced alterations within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In adult bonnet macaques we examined relationships between components of the metabolic syndrome, hippocampal neurometabolic asymmetry, an indicator of negative affect, and juvenile cerebrospinal fluid (csf) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) levels obtained after stress exposure associated with maternal food insecurity and in controls. Methods Eleven adult male monkeys (seven with early life stress) who had undergone csf-CRF analyses as juveniles had magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of bilateral hippocampus, morphometry (body mass index, BMI; sagittal abdominal diameter, SAD) and determination of fasting plasma glucose and insulin as adults. Neurometabolite ratios included N-acetyl-aspartate as numerator (NAA; a marker of neuronal integrity) and choline (Cho; cell turnover) and creatine (Cr; reference analyte) as denominators. Results Elevated juvenile csf-CRF levels positively predicted adult BMI and SAD and were associated with right > left shift of NAA ratio within the hippocampus. Adult visceral obesity and insulin level correlated with right > left shift in hippocampal NAA concentrations, controlling for age and denominator. Conclusion Juvenile csf-CRF levels, a neuropeptide associated with early life stress, predict adult visceral obesity and hippocampal asymmetry supporting the hypothesis that metabolic syndrome in adults may be related to early life stress. Furthermore, this study demonstrates asymmetrical hippocampal alterations related to obesity. PMID:21459102

  16. Association between metabolic syndrome and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adults.

    PubMed

    Kullo, Iftikhar J; Cassidy, Andrea E; Peyser, Patricia A; Turner, Stephen T; Sheedy, Patrick F; Bielak, Lawrence F

    2004-12-15

    Metabolic syndrome was associated with the presence and quantity of coronary artery calcium, a marker of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, in 1,129 asymptomatic adults, ages 20 to 79 years, from a community-based study. The association was independent of 10-year risk of coronary heart disease based on the Framingham risk score.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…

  18. Dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome in thai adults.

    PubMed

    Aekplakorn, W; Satheannoppakao, W; Putwatana, P; Taneepanichskul, S; Kessomboon, P; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Chariyalertsak, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30-59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women), particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS. PMID:25699190

  19. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... becoming more common due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. In the future, metabolic syndrome may overtake smoking as the leading risk factor for heart disease. It is possible to prevent or delay ...

  20. Intensity of bouted and sporadic physical activity and the metabolic syndrome in adults

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical activity guidelines for adults only recognize the health benefits of accumulating bouted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), or MVPA occurring over at least 10 consecutive minutes. There is a lack of evidence supporting the health benefits of other patterns and intensities of activity including sporadic MVPA (i.e., MVPA occurring in periods of fewer than 10 consecutive minutes) and light intensity physical activity (LIPA). The objective of this study was to examine the health benefits associated with physical activity that does not meet the physical activity guidelines criteria for bouted MVPA. Specifically, we examined the association between sporadic MVPA and bouted and sporadic LIPA with the metabolic syndrome. Methods. We studied a representative cross-sectional sample of 1,974 adults aged 20 years and older from the 2003–2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity was measured over 7 days using Actigraph AM-7164 accelerometers. Each minute over the 7-day measurement period was classified as being of a sedentary, light, or moderate-to-vigorous intensity. A 10 min threshold differentiated bouted activity from sporadic activity. Average minutes/day of sporadic LIPA, sporadic MVPA, bouted LIPA, bouted MVPA, and embedded MVPA (MVPA occurring within bouts of primarily LIPA) were calculated. Metabolic syndrome status was determined using established criteria. Associations were examined using logistic regression and controlled for relevant covariates. Results. For every 30 min/day of physical activity, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of the metabolic syndrome was reduced by 4% (1–7%) for bouted LIPA, 64% (51–71%) for bouted MVPA, and 57% (45–67%) for embedded MVPA. Sporadic LIPA was not independently associated with the metabolic syndrome. We could not examine the association between sporadic MVPA and the metabolic syndrome because participants accumulated such a marginal amount of this

  1. Influence of metabolic syndrome on arterial stiffness and its age-related change in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengxu; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2005-06-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with risk variables of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older adults. However, information regarding the influence of the metabolic syndrome on arterial stiffness and its rate of change with age in young adults is limited. These aspects were examined in a sample of 806 asymptomatic, healthy young adults aged 24-44 years from a black-white community. Brachial to ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measured by an oscillometric method was used as an index of arterial stiffness. baPWV increased with the increasing number of metabolic syndrome components, defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (1256, 1314, and 1422 cm/s for those with 0, 1-2, and 3-5 components, respectively, P for trend <0.001). Furthermore, the rate of change (slope) of baPWV with age increased as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased (4.1, 10.7, and 18.7 cm/s per year for those with 0, 1-2, and 3-5 components, respectively; P for comparison of slopes <0.001). These findings by showing the deleterious effects of metabolic syndrome on arterial stiffness and its age-related increase in young adults underscore the importance of this syndrome in cardiovascular risk assessment even in a younger population. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the current cross-sectional findings.

  2. Relationship between plasma resistin concentrations, inflammatory chemokines, and components of the metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Aquilante, Christina L; Kosmiski, Lisa A; Knutsen, Shannon D; Zineh, Issam

    2008-04-01

    Recent data suggest that resistin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has a putative role in inflammatory processes and metabolic derangements. In vitro data suggest that resistin stimulates the production of inflammatory chemokines, yet the relationship in vivo is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between plasma resistin concentrations, plasma inflammatory chemokine aged concentrations (ie, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1] and epithelial neutrophil activator 78 [ENA-78]), and components of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic subjects without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plasma samples were obtained from nondiabetic subjects (N = 123) aged 18 to 55 years without known CVD or CVD risk equivalents. The presence of the metabolic syndrome was assessed using consensus guidelines. Fasting plasma resistin, MCP-1, ENA-78, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were analyzed. The study population consisted of 67.5% women and 68.3% Caucasians (mean age = 44 +/- 7 years and mean body mass index = 33.3 +/- 6 kg/m(2)). The metabolic syndrome was present in 46.3% of study participants. Resistin concentrations were significantly correlated with white blood cell count (r = 0.326, P < .001), hs-CRP concentrations (r = 0.293, P = .005), MCP-1 concentrations (r = 0.251, P = .005), body mass index (r = 0.193, P = .033), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.182, P = .044). Resistin concentrations were 1.21 times higher in subjects with the metabolic syndrome compared with those without the metabolic syndrome (P = .003). In stepwise regression analysis, white blood cell count (P < .001) and MCP-1 concentrations (P = .002) were significantly associated with resistin concentrations, independent of hs-CRP, sex, body mass index, presence of the metabolic syndrome, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Data from our cross-sectional study demonstrate that plasma resistin concentrations

  3. Dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population: dose-response meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sang-Yhun; Choi, Whan-Seok; Ock, Sun-Myeong; Kim, Chul-Min; Kim, Do-Hoon

    2014-12-22

    ncreasing evidence has suggested an association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome. However, previous research examining dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome has produced mixed results. Our objective was to determine the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population using a dose-response meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases from August, 1965, to May, 2014. Observational studies reporting risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome in ≥ 3 categories of dietary magnesium intake levels were selected. The data extraction was performed independently by two authors, and the quality of the studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS). Based on eight cross-sectional studies and two prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risks of metabolic syndrome per 150 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93; I(2) = 36.3%). The meta-regression model showed a generally linear, inverse relationship between magnesium intake (mg/day) and metabolic syndrome. This dose-response meta-analysis indicates that dietary magnesium intake is significantly and inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, randomized clinical trials will be necessary to address the issue of causality and to determine whether magnesium supplementation is effective for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Selected dietary nutrients and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult males and females in Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

  5. Relation of components of the metabolic syndrome to left ventricular geometry in hispanic and non-hispanic black adults

    PubMed Central

    Apridonidze, Teimuraz; Shaqra, Hussein; Ktaich, Nessrine; Liu, Jennifer E; Bella, Jonathan N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an independent predictor of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether components of the metabolic syndrome are associated with LV hypertrophy. Methods and Results: Accordingly, we analyzed echocardiograms in 192 consecutive ambulatory patients referred for echocardiography from October to December 2004. Patients were excluded if they had atrial fibrillation, significant valvular heart disease or failed to cooperate for echocardiogram. Of these, 126 (66%) patients met Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome. 29% had any 3 metabolic syndrome components, 18% had any 4 metabolic syndrome components and 17% had all 5 metabolic syndrome components. In analyses of variance adjusted for age and sex, LV mass and LV mass adjusted to its allometric relation to height2.7 (LV mass/height2.7) were higher in patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome (237 g [228-239 95%CI] vs. 224 g [206-239 95%CI] p=0.005 and 62 g/m2.7 [59-65 95%CI] vs. 56 g/m2.7 [52-60 95%CI] p=0.014, respectively). The prevalence of LV hypertrophy using prognostically-validated gender-specific partition values for LV mass/height2.7 was significantly higher in metabolic syndrome patients than in those without metabolic syndrome (81 v. 58%, p<0.001). There was a step-wise increase in LV mass/height2.7 in those with no metabolic syndrome components to those with increasing number of metabolic syndrome components (Figure, p<0.001). In this study of high-risk patients, the significant independent predictors of LV hypertrophy were only high blood pressure (OR=3.2, p=0.008) and increased waist circumference (OR=2.8, p=0.006) with no interaction between blood pressure and waist circumference. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher LV mass and prevalence of LV hypertrophy. Increasing number of metabolic syndrome components is associated with step

  6. Maternal Fructose Exposure Programs Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Bladder Overactivity in Young Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Chia; Tain, You-Lin; Wu, Kay L. H.; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal fructose exposure (MFE) programs the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young adult offspring. Epidemiological data indicate that MetS may increase the risks of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. However, it remains unknown whether MFE programs MetS-associated bladder dysfunction in adult offspring. Using Sprague-Dawley rats, we investigated the effects of MFE during pregnancy and lactation on developmental programming of MetS-associated bladder dysfunction. In addition, next generation sequencing technology was used to identify potential transcripts involved in the programmed bladder dysfunction in adult male offspring to MFE. We found that MFE programmed the MetS-associated OAB symptoms (i.e., an increase in micturition frequency and a shortened mean inter-contractile interval) in young adult male offspring, alongside significant alterations in bladder transcripts, including Chrm2, Chrm3, P2rx1, Trpv4, and Vipr2 gene expression. At protein level, the expressions of M2-, M3-muscarinic and P2X1 receptor proteins were upregulated in the MFE bladder. Functionally, the carbachol-induced detrusor contractility was reduced in the MFE offspring. These data suggest that alterations in the bladder transcripts and impairment of the bladder cholinergic pathways may underlie the pathophysiology of programmed bladder dysfunction in adult offspring to MFE. PMID:27703194

  7. Microvascular function in younger adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome: role of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Limberg, Jacqueline K.; Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Proctor, Lester T.; Sebranek, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults with cardiovascular disease exhibit microvascular dysfunction and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that microvascular impairments begin early in the disease process and can be improved by scavenging ROS. Forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in 45 young (32 ± 2 yr old) adults (n = 15/group) classified as lean, obese, and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Vasodilation in response to endothelial (ACh) and vascular smooth muscle [nitroprusside (NTP) and epoprostenol (Epo)] agonists was tested before and after intra-arterial infusion of ascorbic acid to scavenge ROS. Vasodilation was assessed as a rise in relative vascular conductance (ml·min−1·dl−1·100 mmHg−1). ACh and NTP responses were preserved (P = 0.825 and P = 0.924, respectively), whereas Epo responses were lower in obese and MetSyn adults (P < 0.05) than in lean controls. Scavenging of ROS via infusion of ascorbic acid resulted in an increase in ACh-mediated (P < 0.001) and NTP-mediated (P < 0.001) relative vascular conductance across all groups, suggesting that oxidative stress influences vascular responsiveness in adults with and without overt cardiovascular disease risk. Ascorbic acid had no effect on Epo-mediated vasodilation (P = 0.267). These results suggest that obese and MetSyn adults exhibit preserved endothelium-dependent vasodilation with reduced dependence on prostacyclin and are consistent with an upregulation of compensatory vascular control mechanisms. PMID:23934859

  8. Childhood stunting and the metabolic syndrome components in young adults from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, L P; Gigante, D P; Horta, B L; de Barros, F C F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between stunting in the second year of life and metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood among subjects who have been prospectively followed-up since birth, in a city in Southern Brazil. Subjects/Methods: In 1984, we attempted to follow-up the entire cohort; the subjects were examined and their mothers interviewed. Stunting was defined by a length-for-age Z-score 2 s.d. or more below the mean, in accordance with the World Health Organization reference. Between 2004 and 2005, we again tried to follow the entire cohort; during this period the subjects were evaluated for the following metabolic syndrome components: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, random blood glucose, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Family income at the time of the baby's birth, asset index, mother's education, mother's smoking during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding were considered possible confounders. Linear regression was used in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results: Among men, stunting was inversely associated with triglycerides (β=−11.90, confidence interval (CI)=−22.33 to −1.48) and waist circumference (β=−4.29, CI=−5.62 to −2.97), whereas for women stunting was negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (β=−4.50, CI=−6.47 to −2.52), triglycerides (β=−9.61, CI=−17.66 to −1.56) and waist circumference (β=−1.14, CI=−4.22 to −1.02). However, after controlling for confounding variables, these associations vanished. Conclusions: The findings suggest that stunting in childhood is not associated with metabolic syndrome components in young adults. PMID:26733042

  9. Effects of an Internet physical activity intervention in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bosak, Kelly A; Yates, Bernice; Pozehl, Bunny

    2010-02-01

    The Internet is a relatively new method of delivering strategies for health behavior change. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of delivering a physical activity intervention by the Internet to improve outcomes in adults with the metabolic syndrome. Twenty-two participants (16 males; 6 females) were recruited from a cardiology clinic database, age range 32-66 years. Participants were randomly assigned to the Internet intervention (n = 12) or the usual care ( n = 10) group. The mean total dose, in terms of the time the intervention Web site was accessed was 2 hours over 6 weeks, which was greater than the time spent delivering usual care. Overall, participants' evaluations of the Internet intervention were positive. The costs of development and delivery of the Internet intervention were less than that of a consultation and follow-up in the cardiology clinic for this sample. The Internet intervention appears feasible for testing in a larger study.

  10. Plasma fatty acids and the risk of metabolic syndrome in ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence of predictive power of various fatty acids on the risk of metabolic syndrome was scanty. We evaluated the role of various fatty acids, including saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, transfat, n-6 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Results A nested case-control study based on 1000 cases of metabolic syndrome and 1:1 matched control subjects. For saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and transfat, the higher the concentration the higher the risk for metabolic syndrome: participants in the highest quintile had a 2.22-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.97) higher risk of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the participants in higher EPA quintiles were less likely to have the risk of metabolic syndrome (adjusted risk, 0.46 [0.34 to 0.61] for the fifth quintile). Participants in the highest risk group (low EPA and high transfat) had a 2.36-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (95% CI, 1.38 to 4.03), compared with those in the lowest risk group (high EPA and low transfat). For prediction power, the area under ROC curves increased from 0.926 in the baseline model to 0.928 after adding fatty acids. The net reclassification improvement for metabolic syndrome risk was substantial for saturated fat (2.1%, P = 0.05). Conclusions Plasma fatty acid components improved the prediction of the metabolic syndrome risk in Taiwan. PMID:21333029

  11. A traditional rice and beans pattern is associated with metabolic syndrome in Puerto Rican older adults.

    PubMed

    Noel, Sabrina E; Newby, P K; Ordovas, Jose M; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was approximately 50% for Puerto Rican elders living in Massachusetts. Diet is known to be associated with metabolic syndrome. Little information exists regarding the dietary intakes of Puerto Ricans. We aimed to characterize the dietary patterns of 1167 Puerto Ricans (45-75 y) using principal components analysis and to further examine associations with metabolic syndrome. Factor solutions were examined for robustness using a random split sample. Adjusted means for metabolic syndrome components were calculated for factor quintiles. Logistic regression models examined associations between factors, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Analyses were also performed excluding subjects with diabetes. "Meat and French fries," "traditional," and "sweets" patterns emerged as most meaningful. A meat and French fries pattern was associated with higher blood pressure (systolic P-trend = 0.03 and diastolic < 0.001) and waist circumference (P-trend = 0.04). The traditional pattern was associated with lower HDL concentrations (P-trend = 0.007) and a higher likelihood of metabolic syndrome [odds ratio (OR): 1.7, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.7]). The sweets pattern was associated with lower HDL concentrations (P-trend < 0.001) and higher waist circumference (P-trend < 0.05). After excluding individuals with diabetes, the sweets pattern was no longer associated with fasting serum glucose and was associated with metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.3). Dietary patterns were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. More research is needed to make appropriate nutritional recommendations for this high-risk population.

  12. Validity of muscle-to-fat ratio as a predictor of adult metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jongsuk; Kim, Sangho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at determining the validity of the muscle-to-fat ratio as an indicator for the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome by establishing an optimal cutoff value. [Subjects and Methods] Data from the first and second year of the fifth Korea National Health Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare and Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were used. A total of 6,256 subjects were included in the study. Diagnostic accuracy was measured by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. [Results] The receiver operating characteristic curve for the muscle-to-fat ratio, which represents the diagnostic power for predicting metabolic syndrome, was 0.713 in men and 0.721 in women. The optimal cutoff value for the prediction and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was 3.09 kg/kg in men and 1.83 kg/kg in women. Intergroup differences based on the muscle-to-fat ratio indicated that the low-ratio group had higher values for all indicators of metabolic syndrome than the high-ratio group. [Conclusion] The muscle-to-fat ratio can be used as an indicator for the prediction and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, and early prevention and management of metabolic syndrome can help in improving public health. PMID:27134408

  13. Factor analysis of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Huang; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    To assess the clustering of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among Taiwanese adults, we evaluated 579 healthy participants who underwent health examinations between May and December 2007. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine risk factor clustering. Smoking, alcohol intake, exercise habits, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, uric acid, serum hepatic enzymes, and mean arterial pressure were assessed. Separate factor analyses assessed total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Principal components analysis identified five factors for a model without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and four factors for a model without total cholesterol. Four common factors in both models explained between 51.1 and 51.8% of variance in the original 14 factors. Metabolic factors, hematological factors (white blood cells and platelets), lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and exercise habits and fasting blood glucose explained about 20, 11, 10, 10% of total variance, respectively. In the model without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol factor explained 8.83% of variance. This study confirmed clustering of established metabolic syndrome components and revealed additional associated cardiovascular disease risk factors, including lifestyle factors, exercise and total cholesterol, which should be targeted in prevention efforts.

  14. Altered response to neuroendocrine challenge linked to indices of the metabolic syndrome in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Tyrka, A R; Walters, O C; Price, L H; Anderson, G M; Carpenter, L L

    2012-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by central obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is frequently abnormal in MetS, and excessive cortisol exposure may be implicated in metabolic derangements. We investigated the hypothesis that cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) responses to a standardized neuroendocrine challenge test would be associated with indices of MetS in a community sample of healthy adults. Healthy adults, 125 men and 170 women, without significant medical problems or chronic medications were recruited from the community. Participants completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, and anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and cholesterol were measured. Participants reported on their history of early life stress and recent stress, as well as mood and anxiety symptoms. Cortisol and ACTH responses to the Dex/CRH test were negatively associated with measures of central adiposity (p<0.001) and blood pressure (p<0.01), and positively associated with HDL cholesterol (p<0.01). These findings remained significant after controlling for body mass index (BMI). Measures of stress and anxiety and depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with cortisol and ACTH responses in the Dex/CRH test but were not related to MetS indices. That altered HPA axis function is linked to MetS components even in a healthy community sample suggests that these processes may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Identification of premorbid risk processes might allow for detection and intervention prior to the development of disease. PMID:22549400

  15. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Adults with Disabilities Based on a Community Health Check Up Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liou, Shih-Wen; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in society gradually and has important implications for public health in recent years. The present study aims to examine the gender effect on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults with disabilities. A cross-sectional study was conduct to analyze annual health check-up chart of 419 people with…

  16. Associations between urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol and metabolic syndrome among non-diabetic adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    We investigated in this study the relationship between exposure to para-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), and metabolic syndrome in non-diabetic adult participants. A nationally representative subsample of 1706 non-diabetic adult participants aged 20-79 years randomly selected for measurement of urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP in the 2007-2010 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed in the study participants across quartiles of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend = 0.0025). After adjusting for potential confounders, individuals in the third and fourth quartile of urinary 2,5-DCP had 1.47 (95% CI 1.02, 2.14) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.10, 2.23) increased odds of metabolic syndrome, respectively, compared with individuals with the lowest quartile. Of the five components of metabolic syndrome, waist circumference and HDL-cholesterol showed a significant and monotonic association with urinary 2,5-DCP. Participants with the highest quartile of 2,5-DCP had 3.18 cm (95% CI 1.34, 5.02) higher mean waist circumference and 2.83 mg/dL (95% CI -4.68, -0.98) lower mean HDL-cholesterol than the participants in the lowest quartile. This study suggests a potential relationship between p-DCB exposure and metabolic syndrome in non-diabetic adults. Prospective epidemiological and mechanistic studies are needed to further explore these interactions.

  17. Gut microbiome and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Ferns, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome contributes approximately 2kg of the whole body weight, and recent studies suggest that gut microbiota has a profound effect on human metabolism, potentially contributing to several features of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is defined by a clustering of metabolic disorders that include central adiposity with visceral fat accumulation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia and non-optimal blood pressure levels. Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that around 20-25 percent of the world's adult population has metabolic syndrome. In this manuscript, we have reviewed the existing data linking gut microbiome with metabolic syndrome. Existing evidence from studies both in animals and humans support a link between gut microbiome and various components of metabolic syndrome. Possible pathways include involvement with energy homeostasis and metabolic processes, modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways, interferences with the immune system, and interference with the renin-angiotensin system. Modification of gut microbiota via prebiotics, probiotics or other dietary interventions has provided evidence to support a possible beneficial effect of interventions targeting gut microbiota modulation to treat components or complications of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26916014

  18. Gut microbiome and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Ferns, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome contributes approximately 2kg of the whole body weight, and recent studies suggest that gut microbiota has a profound effect on human metabolism, potentially contributing to several features of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is defined by a clustering of metabolic disorders that include central adiposity with visceral fat accumulation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia and non-optimal blood pressure levels. Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that around 20-25 percent of the world's adult population has metabolic syndrome. In this manuscript, we have reviewed the existing data linking gut microbiome with metabolic syndrome. Existing evidence from studies both in animals and humans support a link between gut microbiome and various components of metabolic syndrome. Possible pathways include involvement with energy homeostasis and metabolic processes, modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways, interferences with the immune system, and interference with the renin-angiotensin system. Modification of gut microbiota via prebiotics, probiotics or other dietary interventions has provided evidence to support a possible beneficial effect of interventions targeting gut microbiota modulation to treat components or complications of metabolic syndrome.

  19. Relationship Between Body Composition Parameters and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Namwongprom, Sirianong; Rerkasem, Kittipan; Wongthanee, Antika; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Mangklabruks, Ampica

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition parameters, i.e. waist circumference, android fat mass (AFM), gynoid fat mass (GFM), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (AG ratio) and metabolic syndrome (MS) risk components in young Thai adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 391 adolescents (174 male, 217 female). The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and glucose levels were determined. AFM, GFM and AG ratio were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Linear regression analysis was done to assess the relationship of waist circumference, AFM, GFM and AG ratio with MS risk components’ score, separately. Results: Among 391 young adults aged 18.5-21.8 years, MS was found in 5.9%. Participants with MS (n=23) had a significantly higher weight, height and BMI than those without MS. There was no statistically significant difference in bone mineral density between the two groups. At univariable linear regression analysis, waist circumferences, AFM, GFM and AG ratio showed significant relationship with MS risk components’ score. However, after adjusting for gender, birth weight and BMI, AG ratio demonstrated greater relationship with MS risk components’ score (β 1.89, 95%CI 1.096-2.978) than waist circumference (β 0.046, 95%CI 0.033-0.058) and AFM (β 0.979, 95%CI 0.667-1.290). No significant association was observed between GFM and MS risk components’ score (β 0.077, 95%CI -0.089-0.243). Conclusion: The results from this study indicated that AG ratio is a stronger predictor of MS than waist circumference and AFM in young Thai adults. The role of AG ratio for the diagnosis of MS needs to be further investigated. PMID:25541893

  20. Cyclooxygenase-derived vasoconstriction restrains hypoxia-mediated cerebral vasodilation in young adults with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Poor cerebrovascular function in metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) likely contributes to elevated risk of cerebrovascular disease in this growing clinical population. Younger MetSyn adults without clinical evidence of cerebrovascular disease exhibit preserved hypercapnic vasodilation yet markedly impaired hypoxic vasodilation, but the mechanisms behind reduced hypoxic vasodilation are unknown. Based on data from rats, we tested the hypothesis that younger adults with MetSyn exhibit reduced cerebral hypoxic vasodilation due to loss of vasodilating prostaglandins. Middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) was measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound in adults with MetSyn (n = 13, 33 ± 3 yr) and healthy controls (n = 15, 31 ± 2 yr). Isocapnic hypoxia was induced by titrating inspired oxygen to lower arterial saturation to 90% and 80% for 5 min each. Separately, hypercapnia was induced by increasing end-tidal CO2 10 mmHg above baseline levels. Cyclooxygenase inhibition (100 mg indomethacin) was conducted in a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled design. MCAv was normalized for group differences in blood pressure (healthy: 89 ± 2 mmHg vs. MetSyn: 102 ± 2 mmHg) as cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCi), and used to assess cerebral vasodilation. Hypoxia increased CVCi in both groups; however, vasodilation was ∼55% lower in MetSyn at SpO2 = 80% (P < 0.05). Indomethacin tended to decrease hypoxic vasodilation in healthy controls, and unexpectedly increased dilation in MetSyn (P < 0.05). In contrast to hypoxia, hypercapnia-mediated vasodilation was similar between groups, as was the decrease in vasodilation with indomethacin. These data indicate increased production of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins restrains hypoxic cerebral vasodilation in MetSyn, preventing them from responding appropriately to this important physiological stressor. PMID:24213610

  1. Physical fitness and the metabolic syndrome in adults from the Quebec Family Study.

    PubMed

    Boulé, Normand G; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2005-04-01

    Physically fit individuals have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. However, it is unknown whether the associations between physical fitness and the metabolic syndrome are independent of total and abdominal adiposity. Physical fitness was defined as the physical work capacity on a cycle ergometer at heart rate of 150 bpm (PWC 150) in a sample of 158 men and 198 women 20-60 years of age. PWC 150 was adjusted for fat-free mass prior to the analyses. Percent body fat was estimated by hydrostatic weighing. Visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat were measured by computed tomography. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was based on two definitions. The metabolic syndrome decreased with increasing fitness in men (approx. 6 times higher in less fit vs. most fit tertile, p < 0.05) and in women (approx. 4 times higher in less fit vs. most fit tertile, p < 0.05). Fitness was negatively associated with most individual components of the metabolic syndrome, except HDL-cholesterol for which the correlation was positive. However, in men and in women, the effects of physical fitness on the individual components of the metabolic syndrome were attenuated after considering total and abdominal adiposity. PMID:15981784

  2. The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Mi; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Dong Lim; Kim, Suk Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    Background The common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults. Methods A total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS. Results Midnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12) than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34) (P=0.001). Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ≥100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4). Conclusion The results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS. PMID:22737665

  3. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Ikenna C.; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Foraster, Maria; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Gerbase, Margaret W.; Rothe, Thomas; Rochat, Thierry; Künzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Air pollutants (AP) play a role in subclinical inflammation, and are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is inflammatory and precedes cardiovascular morbidity and type 2 diabetes. Thus, a positive association between AP and MetS may be hypothesized. We explored this association, (taking into account, pathway-specific MetS definitions), and its potential modifiers in Swiss adults. We studied 3769 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults, reporting at least four-hour fasting time before venepuncture. AP exposures were 10-year mean residential PM10 (particulate matter <10μm in diameter) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide). Outcomes included MetS defined by World Health Organization (MetS-W), International Diabetes Federation (MetS-I) and Adult Treatment Panel-III (MetS-A) using four- and eight-hour fasting time limits. We also explored associations with individual components of MetS. We applied mixed logistic regression models to explore these associations. The prevalence of MetS-W, MetS-I and MetS-A were 10%, 22% and 18% respectively. Odds of MetS-W, MetS-I and MetS-A increased by 72% (51-102%), 31% (11-54%) and 18% (4-34%) per 10μg/m3 increase in 10-year mean PM10. We observed weaker associations with NO2. Associations were stronger among physically-active, ever-smokers and non-diabetic participants especially with PM10 (p<0.05). Associations remained robust across various sensitivity analyses including ten imputations of missing observations and exclusion of diabetes cases. The observed associations between AP exposure and MetS were sensitive to MetS definitions. Regarding the MetS components, we observed strongest associations with impaired fasting glycemia, and positive but weaker associations with hypertension and waist-circumference-based obesity. Cardio-metabolic effects of AP may be majorly driven by impairment of glucose homeostasis, and to a less-strong extent

  4. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults.

    PubMed

    Eze, Ikenna C; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Foraster, Maria; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Gerbase, Margaret W; Rothe, Thomas; Rochat, Thierry; Künzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Air pollutants (AP) play a role in subclinical inflammation, and are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is inflammatory and precedes cardiovascular morbidity and type 2 diabetes. Thus, a positive association between AP and MetS may be hypothesized. We explored this association, (taking into account, pathway-specific MetS definitions), and its potential modifiers in Swiss adults. We studied 3769 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults, reporting at least four-hour fasting time before venepuncture. AP exposures were 10-year mean residential PM10 (particulate matter <10μm in diameter) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide). Outcomes included MetS defined by World Health Organization (MetS-W), International Diabetes Federation (MetS-I) and Adult Treatment Panel-III (MetS-A) using four- and eight-hour fasting time limits. We also explored associations with individual components of MetS. We applied mixed logistic regression models to explore these associations. The prevalence of MetS-W, MetS-I and MetS-A were 10%, 22% and 18% respectively. Odds of MetS-W, MetS-I and MetS-A increased by 72% (51-102%), 31% (11-54%) and 18% (4-34%) per 10μg/m3 increase in 10-year mean PM10. We observed weaker associations with NO2. Associations were stronger among physically-active, ever-smokers and non-diabetic participants especially with PM10 (p<0.05). Associations remained robust across various sensitivity analyses including ten imputations of missing observations and exclusion of diabetes cases. The observed associations between AP exposure and MetS were sensitive to MetS definitions. Regarding the MetS components, we observed strongest associations with impaired fasting glycemia, and positive but weaker associations with hypertension and waist-circumference-based obesity. Cardio-metabolic effects of AP may be majorly driven by impairment of glucose homeostasis, and to a less-strong extent

  5. Is alexithymia associated with metabolic syndrome? A study in a healthy adult population.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Jula, Antti; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli

    2016-02-28

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors for, in particular, cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality, and it constitutes a major clinical challenge affecting millions of lives. Alexithymia is a condition that has been linked with several mental diseases and symptoms, as well as somatic illnesses, including essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited research on the association of alexithymia and MetS. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively explore this association in a large (n=1648) non-clinical sample of adults. Logistic regression analyses were applied to the five separate MetS components as well as the MetS diagnosis, and the analyses included a number of sociodemographic variables and depressive symptoms as covariates. The results confirmed the previous finding of alexithymic features being independently and significantly associated with hypertension. As a new finding, this association appears to be related to two particular dimensions of alexithymia, namely difficulty describing feelings and externally oriented thinking. Interestingly, alexithymic features were also separately significantly associated with waist circumference and triglycerides as well as the MetS diagnosis. Depressive symptoms did not have any significant effect on the relations of alexithymia and MetS. PMID:26747214

  6. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism is normal in young adults with Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Kumar, A.; Herscovitch, P.; Haxby, J.V.; Moore, A.M.; White, B.; Friedland, R.P.; Rapoport, S.I. )

    1990-03-01

    Regional CMRglc (rCMRglc) values were measured with ({sup 18}F)2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET), using a Scanditronix PC-1024-7B scanner, in 14 healthy, noninstitutionalized subjects with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome; DS) (mean age 30.0 years, range 25-38 years) and in 13 sex-matched, healthy volunteers (mean age 29.5 years, range 22-38 years). In the DS group, mean mental age on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was 7.8 years and dementia was not present. Resting rCMRglc was determined with eyes covered and ears occluded in a quiet, darkened room. Global gray CMRglc equaled 8.76 +/- 0.76 mg/100 g/min (mean +/- SD) in the DS group as compared with 8.74 +/- 1.19 mg/100 g/min in the control group (p greater than 0.05). Gray matter regional measurements also did not differ between groups. The ratio of rCMRglc to global CMRglc, calculated to reduce the variance associated with absolute rCMRglc, and right/left ratios did not show any consistent differences. These results show that healthy young DS adults do not have alterations in regional or global brain glucose metabolism, as measured with 18FDG and PET, prior to an age at which the neuropathological changes in Alzheimer disease are reported to occur.

  7. Leptin and uric acid as predictors of metabolic syndrome in jordanian adults

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mousa N.; Haddad, Fares H.; Azzeh, Firas S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a set of interrelated metabolic risk factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Studies regarding the specificity and sensitivity of serum levels of leptin and uric acid as predictors of MetS are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of leptin and uric acid in terms of their specificity and sensitivity as predictors of MetS in the studied Jordanian group. SUBJECTS/METHODS In this cross sectional study, 630 adult subjects (308 men and 322 women) were recruited from the King Hussein Medical Center (Amman, Jordan). The diagnosis of MetS was made according to the 2005 International Diabetes Federation criteria. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the efficacy of serum levels of leptin and uric acid as predictors of MetS in the studied Jordanian group. RESULTS Study results showed that for identification of subjects with MetS risk, area under the curve (AUC) for leptin was 0.721 and 0.683 in men and women, respectively. Serum uric acid levels in men showed no significant association with any MetS risk factors and no significant AUC, while uric acid AUC was 0.706 in women. CONCLUSION Serum leptin levels can be useful biomarkers for evaluation of the risk of MetS independent of baseline obesity in both men and women. On the other hand, serum uric acid levels predicted the risk of MetS only in women. PMID:27478548

  8. High frequency of metabolic syndrome in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Afrand, Mohammadhosain; Khalilzadeh, Saeed hossein; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Ariaeinejad, Azita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disturbances, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. MS exhibits variations among ethnic groups. Zoroastrianism is an ethnic minority which has maintained its isolation and endogamy up to now. So, we evaluated the frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants aged ≥30 years were selected using a systematic random sampling. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waistto- hip ratio (WHR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine and uric acid (UA) were measured. Both revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria were used to diagnose the MS. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The frequency of MS was 69.7% and 74.9% based on JIS and ATPIII criteria, respectively; this was significantly different by age, marital status, job, educational level, and menopausal status (p<0.05). The most prevalent abnormal parameters of MS according to ATPIII and JIS criteria were high WC (95%) and low HDL (87.9%), respectively. Mean LDL, systolic BP, WHR, UA, urea, and creatinine were different between men and women. The difference between the age groups was statistically significant for BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP, TG, WHR and urea (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed a high frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. PMID:27493914

  9. Low Intensive Lifestyle Modification in Young Adults With Metabolic Syndrome A Community-Based Interventional Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Lien; Lu, Chia-Wen; Shi, Leiyu; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Lee, Long-Teng; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study aims to find whether a low intensity lifestyle modification (LILM) program was effective to achieve weight reduction and improves metabolic syndrome in young adults. Our study prospectively enrolled young adults aged 30 to 45 years with metabolic syndrome in northeastern Taiwan from June 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. The participants in the intervention group attended a LILM program for 6 months, which included 4 interactive group discussion sessions and weekly phone contact with volunteer counselors. Participants in the comparison group, however, attended only 1 noninteractive session on diet and physical activity. The main outcomes measured the weight reduction and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in intervention and comparison groups. Generalized estimating equation modeling was used to analyze the effects at baseline, during the study, and postcompletion of the program. Compared with comparison group, the intervention group showed significantly greater reductions in body weight (−2.95 ± 3.52 vs −0.76 ± 2.76 kg, P < 0.0001) and body mass index (−1.03 ± 1.25 vs −0.30 ± 1.16 kg/m2, P < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounders, a modest decrease in body weight resulted in a statistically significant 43.32% resolution in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the intervention group compared with 33.64% in the comparison group (P < 0.01). The 6-month LILM program is not only effective in weight reduction but also an efficient intervention tool of metabolic syndrome in a community setting. The program with restricted manpower and limited medical resources can be practically transferred into primary care in rural area. PMID:26039125

  10. Blueberries and Metabolic Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia are among the metabolic alterations that predispose the individual to several adverse cardiovascular complications. The hea...

  11. Effect of diesel exhaust inhalation on antioxidant and oxidative stress responses in adults with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jason; Trenga, Carol A.; Peretz, Alon; Sullivan, Jeffrey H.; Carlsten, Christopher C.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Traffic-related air pollution is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the biological mechanisms are not well understood, oxidative stress may be a primary pathway. Subpopulations, such as individuals with metabolic syndrome (MeS), may be at increased risk of adverse effects associated with air pollution. Our aim was to assess the relationship between exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and indicators of systemic antioxidant and oxidative responses in adults with MeS. We hypothesized that DE exposure would result in greater oxidative stress and antioxidant responses compared with filtered air (FA). Methods Ten adult subjects with MeS were exposed on separate days for two hours to FA or DE (at 200μg/m3), in a double blind, crossover experiment. Urinary 8-isoPGF2α (F2-isoprostanes), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were assessed as markers of oxidative stress at 3 hrs and 22 hrs, respectively, after exposure initiation. To assess the short-term antioxidant response we analyzed plasma ascorbic acid (AA) 90 minutes after exposure initiation. All outcomes were compared to pre-exposure levels, and mean changes were compared between FA and DE exposures. Results Mean changes in urinary F2-isoprostanes (ng/mg creatinine), (-0.05 [95% CI = −0.29, 0.15]), and 8-OHdG (μg/g creatinine) (-0.09 [-0.13, 0.31]), were not statistically significant. Mean changes in plasma AA (mg/dl) were also not significant (-0.02 [-0.78, 0.04]). Conclusions In this carefully controlled experiment, we did not detect significant changes in oxidative stress or systemic antioxidant responses in subjects with MeS exposed to 200μg/m3 DE. PMID:19852547

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with leisure time physical activity among Peruvian adults

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Tafur, Luis Revilla; Lopez, Tania; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Previous studies have suggested an inverse relationship between physical activity and MetS. However, these findings were inconsistent; and few investigators have examined these associations among South Americans. We estimated the prevalence of MetS and its association with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among Peruvian adults. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study of 1,675 individuals (619 men and 1056 women) was conducted among residents in Lima and Callao, Peru. Information about LTPA, socio-demographic, and other lifestyle characteristics were collected by interview. The presence of MetS was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Results Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 26.9% and was more common among women (29.9%) than men (21.6%). Habitual participation in LTPA was associated with a 23% reduced risk of MetS (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.60–1.03). There was an inverse trend of MetS risk with amount of LTPA (p=0.016). Compared with non-exercisers, those who exercised < 150 minutes/week had a 21% reduced risk of MetS (AOR= 0.79; 95% CI 0.60–1.04). Individuals who exercised ≥ 150 minutes/week, compared with non-exercisers, had a 42% reduced risk of MetS (AOR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.36–0.93). Associations of similar magnitudes were observed when men and women were studied separately. Conclusion These data document a high prevalence of MetS and suggest an association with LTPA among urban dwelling Peruvians. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observations and to examine interventions that may promote increased physical activity in this population. PMID:19563445

  13. Poor-quality sleep is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junyong; Choi, Youn Seon; Jeong, Young Jin; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Jung Hyun; Kim, Su Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jeon, Tae Hee

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorder and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are important health-related problems. Recently, sleep duration has decreased among Korean adults. In this study, we examined whether sleep quality is associated with MetS by analyzing 301 subjects, aged 20 years or over, without acute and severe illness who visited three primary care clinics. Sleep duration, sleep quality and the risk of sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) were assessed with a standardized sleeping-estimating instrument. MetS was defined according to the modified diagnostic criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III using the Korean abdominal obesity definition. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, compared with the 7-hour sleep group, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of the ≤ 5- and ≥ 9-hour sleep groups for MetS were 4.89 and 5.98, respectively. Compared with the good-sleep quality and low-SRBD risk groups, the adjusted ORs of the poor-quality sleep and high-SRBD risk groups were 3.83 and 1.92, respectively (p < 0.05). In the ≤ 5- and ≥ 9-hour sleep groups, the prevalence of elevated triglyceride and high HOMA-IR was higher (p = 0.069). In the poor-quality sleep group, the prevalence of abdominal obesity, elevated triglyceride, low HDL cholesterol, high fasting insulin and high HOMA-IR were higher. In the high-SRBD risk group, the prevalence of abdominal obesity, obesity and elevated triglyceride were higher (p < 0.05). Overall, the ≤ 5- or ≥ 9-hour sleep duration, poor-quality sleep and high-SRBD risk are related with the high prevalence of MetS, perhaps through elevated insulin-resistance resulting from adiposity.

  14. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a sample of portuguese adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is scarce evidence regarding the association between diet and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Portuguese population. We aim to evaluate the association between a posteriori dietary patterns (DPs) and MetS and its features. Methods Using random digit dialing, a sample of 2167 adults was selected between 1999 and 2003, in Porto. During a face-to-face interview, a questionnaire was applied, anthropometric measures were taken, blood pressure measured and a fasting blood sample collected. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and four DPs were identified in each sex by multivariate finite mixture models. Results After adjustment for age and daily energy intake, comparing to the “healthy” DP, women with the “low fruit and vegetables” DP had a higher odds of high waist circumference (OR = 1.88 95% CI 1.17-3.01) and low HDL-cholesterol (OR = 1.78 95% IC 1.12-2.82) and women in the “red meat and alcohol” DP had higher odds of high waist circumference (OR = 1.45 95% CI 1.01-2.07) and of MetS (OR = 1.57 95% CI 1.07-2.29); men with the “fish” DP had a higher odds of high triglycerides (OR = 1.57 95% CI 1.05-2.35). After further adjustments (education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking, BMI, and menopausal status) no significant associations remained. Conclusions Four distinct DPs were identified in a community sample of Portuguese adults and there was no association with the prevalence of MetS. PMID:22943133

  15. Association of Serum Irisin with Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huijie; Pan, Lingling; Ma, Zhimin; Liu, Suhuan; Liu, Yongwen; Li, Xiaoying; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    Irisin, a recently identified novel myokine, drives brown-fat-like conversion of white adipose tissues and has been proposed to mediate beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. Circulating irisin was significantly reduced in type 2 diabetes patients; however, no evidence is available about its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and effects of adiposity and muscle mass on circulating irisin have been controversial. Cross-sectional data on socio-demographic, lifestyle, clinical characteristics and serum irisin were collected for 1,115 community-living Chinese adults with central obesity. Associations of serum irisin with MetS (central obesity plus any two of the following four factors (raised blood pressure (BP), raised fasting plasma glucose (FPG), raised triglyceride (TG), and reduced HDL cholesterol) and each component of MetS were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Among the 1,115 obese Chinese adults with a mean age of 53.2(±7.2) years, serum irisin levels (log-transformed) were significantly reduced in subjects with MetS and raised FPG than their control groups (p = 0.034 and 0.041, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders, serum irisin was significantly associated with reduced risks of MetS and raised FPG, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) per standard deviation of log-transformed irisin of 0.796 (0.505–0.959, p = 0.027) and 0.873 (0.764–0.998, p = 0.046), respectively. Associations of irisin with raised BP, raised TG and reduced HDL were not statistically significant ((ORs) (95% CI): 0.733(0.454–1.182, p = 0.202), 0.954(0.838–1.086, p = 0.478) and 1.130(0.980–1.302, p = 0.092), respectively). Stepwise multivariable linear regression analysis showed that fasting insulin, HbA1c and albumin/globulin ratio were negatively associated with serum irisin level with statistical significance (all p-values <0.05) and waist circumference was negatively associated with serum risin with

  16. Inflammatory Cytokine Profile Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Molina-Ayala, Mario; Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Vargas, Guadalupe; Gonzalez, Baldomero; Isibasi, Armando; Archundia-Riveros, Irma; Mendoza, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the serum concentration of IL-6, IL-10, TNF, IL-8, resistin, and adiponectin in type 1 diabetic patients with and without metabolic syndrome and to determine the cut-off point of the estimated glucose disposal rate that accurately differentiated these groups. Design. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of all patients in our type 1 diabetes clinic from January 2012 to January 2013. Patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome when they fulfilled the joint statement criteria and were evaluated for clinical, biochemical, and immunological features. Methods. We determined serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF with flow cytometry and adiponectin and resistin concentrations with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with and without metabolic syndrome. We also compared estimated glucose disposal rate between groups. Results. We tested 140 patients. Forty-four percent fulfilled the metabolic syndrome criteria (n = 61), 54% had central obesity, 30% had hypertriglyceridemia, 29% had hypoalphalipoproteinemia, and 19% had hypertension. We observed that resistin concentrations were higher in patients with MS. Conclusion. We found a high prevalence of MS in Mexican patients with T1D. The increased level of resistin may be related to the increased fat mass and could be involved in the development of insulin resistance. PMID:26273680

  17. Resting Metabolic Rate is Not Reduced in Obese Adults With Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernhall, Bo; Figueroa, Arturo; Collier, Scott; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Baynard, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 22 individuals with Down syndrome was compared to that of 20 nondisabled control individuals of similar age (25.7 and 27.4 years, respectively). Using a ventilated hood system, we measured RMR in the early morning after an overnight fast. Peak aerobic capacity Volume of Oxygen (VO2 peak) and body composition were…

  18. Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising obesity rates have been linked to the consumption of energy-dense diets. We examined whether dietary energy density was associated with obesity and related disorders, including insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representative ...

  19. Association between the dietary factors and metabolic syndrome with chronic kidney disease in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Hui; Wu, Yiqing; Zhao, Chunjie; Long, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of study was to examine the relationship between the dietary nutrition and the prevalence and risk of renal damage in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: 260 patients with metabolic syndrome and chronic renal disease meeting criterion were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to NCEP-ATPIII guidelines. Food-frequency questionnaire was performed to collect the information on dietary nutrition. Anthropometric measurements, including body weight, height and waist circumference were collected. Blood pressure, triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose, renal function and 24-hour urine protein were measured. The correlations between GFR and actual nutrient intakes of participants were examined. Results: The actual intakes of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat and cholesterol in participate were all significantly higher than recommended nutrient intakes/adequate intakes of Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes. GFR was significantly inversely correlated with energy, protein intake, cholesterol intake, carbohydrates intake, sodium intake, calcium intake and actual protein/energy ratio. Logistic regression analyses showed that actual protein intakes/recommended protein intakes (APIs/RPIs) were significant independent predictors of GFR < 60 ml/min•1.73 m2. Conclusions: Dietary nutrition is closely correlated with kidney damage in patients with metabolic syndrome. High protein intakes may be one of the risk factors of renal damage. PMID:25550967

  20. The Risk of Metabolic Syndrome among Institutionalized Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hung, Wen-Jui; Lin, Lam-Ping; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    People with metabolic syndrome (MS) are at increased risk of coronary heart disease and other health problems, such as diabetes and stroke. However, there is little previous information on the prevalence and determinants of MS among people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of MS risk factors…

  1. Metabolic Syndrome: Comparison of Prevalence in Young Adults at 3 Land-Grant Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Jesse Stabile; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Dent, Amanda; Carey, Gale B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study examines metabolic syndrome (MetS) among college students at 3 geographically distinct US campuses. Participants: Undergraduates ("N" = 360; 68% women), 18 to 24 years of age, were recruited at each public university in January and February 2011. MetS prevalence was evaluated in 83% ("n" = 299)…

  2. Prevalence of Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults with Paraplegia and Tetraplegia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To investigate the extent of oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and to identify the major factors associated with oxidative stress and MetS in this population. Methods: 24 subjects with paraplegia (PARA), 26 subjects with tetraplegia ...

  3. Effects of a Walking Program on Self-management and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Gyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, Jee- Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week walking program on increasing an individual’s self-management and decreasing the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in the older adult population. [Subjects] A total of 31 older adults participated in this study. Eighteen participants in the experimental group and 13 controls completed the pretest and posttest measures. A walking exercise and health education were provided for the experimental group. Data were analyzed by ANCOVAs to examine group differences. [Results] At the end of the 12-week study period, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in individuals’ ability to self-manage their health compared to the control group. Also, there were significant differences between the two groups in the total numbers of risk factors of metabolic syndrome, systolic blood pressure and BMI. No significant difference in blood sugar levels, HDL-C, waist circumference, and triglyceride levels were found between the experimental and control group. [Conclusion] This study revealed that a combination of health education and for walking exercise can lead to improved lifestyle management and reduce risk factors of metabolic syndrome for the elderly population of Korea. PMID:24567686

  4. Association of cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome in a Puerto Rican adult population.

    PubMed

    Calo, William A; Ortiz, Ana P; Suárez, Erick; Guzmán, Manuel; Pérez, Carmen M; Pérez, Cynthia M

    2013-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is related to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers of becoming insulin resistant and to develop cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore the association between cigarette smoking, MetSyn and its components among Puerto Rican adults. A representative sample of 856 persons aged 21-79 years from the San Juan Metropolitan area participated in this study. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics, including smoking habits, were gathered from a self-reported questionnaire. MetSyn was defined according to the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria and measured using biochemical measurements and anthropometric indices. Logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (POR) and its 95 % confidence intervals (CI). MetSyn was significantly (P < 0.001) more prevalent in former smokers (48.4 %) as compared to current (42.7 %) and never smokers (40.0 %). However, after adjusting for possible confounders, current smokers who used more than 20 cigarettes per day were 2.24 (95 % CI = 1.00-4.99) times more likely to have MetSyn as compared to never smokers. Heavy smokers were also more likely to have high triglyceride levels (POR = 2.22, 95 % CI = 1.12-4.38) and low HDL-cholesterol levels (POR = 2.49, 95 % CI = 1.28-4.86) as compared to never smokers. This study supports previous reports of an increased risk of MetSyn among current smokers, particularly those with a heavier consumption. Tobacco control strategies, such as preventing smoking initiation and disseminating evidence-based cessation programs, are necessary to reduce the burden of MetSyn in Puerto Rico.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome and Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Amit; Marmura, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent and costly conditions. The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, controversy exists regarding the contribution of each individual risk factor to migraine pathogenesis and prevalence. It is unclear what treatment implications, if any, exist as a result of the concomitant diagnosis of migraine and metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of migraine and metabolic syndrome treatments is prevention, relying heavily on diet modification, sleep hygiene, medication use, and exercise. PMID:23181051

  6. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in older adults in Korea: analysis of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mona; Yeom, Hye-A; Jung, Dukyoo

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is consistently increasing among Korean adults and is reported to be particularly high among older adults in Korea. This paper reports the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and identifies the association between metabolic syndrome and physical activity in Korean older adults. Subjects of this study were 3653 older adults who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 2007-2009. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 46.84%. The prevalences of abdominal obesity, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure were 39.51, 45.53, 39.55, 48.24, and 69.14%, respectively, in the study population. Compared to subjects who reported low levels of physical activity, the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for those who were moderately active and highly active were 0.93 and 0.63, respectively. Nurses should develop metabolic syndrome management programs that are tailored to the needs of the targeted group and that include individually adapted physical activity programs to promote health.

  7. Sex difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular-related risk factors in urban adults from 33 communities of China: The CHPSNE study.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing-Bin; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Shi-Jie; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in urban areas of China. To estimate the prevalence of MetS and identify its cardiovascular-related factors in men and women, a representative sample of 15,477 urban adults aged 18-74 years in Northeast China was selected from 2009 to 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on criteria set by the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.4% (men 27.9% and women 26.8%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher education level and a higher family income were associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men, but associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women. Higher physical activity was associated with a decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men (adjusted odds ratios (aORs) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.99), but associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00-1.29). Compared with rice as the major staple food, cooked wheaten foods were associated with lower adjusted odds for metabolic syndrome both in men (aOR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.90) and in women (aOR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56-0.92). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in urban areas of China, and there is heterogeneity by sex in the relationships between risk factors and metabolic syndrome prevalence.

  8. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  9. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  11. Low skin carotenoid concentration measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy is associated with metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Holt, Edward W; Wei, Esther K; Bennett, Nancy; Zhang, Laura M

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). Antioxidants, including carotenoids, are decreased in MS. We hypothesized that a low skin carotenoid score (SCS), calculated using resonance Raman spectroscopy, would correlate with the presence of MS. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients referred for dietary assessment between 2010 and 2012. For each patient, a nutrition history, medical history, and SCS were recorded. χ(2) and Student t test were used to determine factors associated with MS. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with MS. One hundred fifty-five patients were included. The mean age was 54.1 ± 13.1 years, and the mean body mass index was 28.3 ± 6.1 kg/m(2). Metabolic syndrome was present in 43.9% of patients. The mean SCS was 28 084 ± 14 006 Raman counts (RC), including 23 058 ± 9812 RC for patients with MS and 32 011 ± 15 514 RC for patients without MS (P = .0001). In a multivariate analysis, SCS less than 25 000 RC (odds ratio, 3.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-10.7; P = .01) was independently associated with MS. A higher number of MS components was associated with a progressively lower SCS (P = .004). In a consecutive sample of patients referred for dietary assessment, a noninvasively measured SCS was lower among patients with MS.

  12. Resolution of metabolic syndrome after following a gluten free diet in an adult woman diagnosed with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    García-Manzanares, Álvaro; Lucendo, Alfredo J; González-Castillo, Sonia; Moreno-Fernández, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Adult celiac disease (CD) presents with very diverse symptoms that are clearly different from those typically seen in pediatric patients, including ferropenic anemia, dyspepsia, endocrine alterations and elevated transaminase concentration. We present the case of a 51-year-old overweight woman with altered basal blood glucose, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and persisting elevated transaminase levels, who showed all the symptoms for a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Because she presented iron deficiency anemia, she was referred to the gastroenterology department and subsequently diagnosed with celiac disease after duodenal biopsies and detection of a compatible HLA haplotype. Gluten-free diet (GFD) was prescribed and after 6 mo the patient showed resolution of laboratory abnormalities (including recovering anemia and iron reserves, normalization of altered lipid and liver function parameters and decrease of glucose blood levels). No changes in weight or waist circumference were observed and no significant changes in diet were documented apart from the GFD. The present case study is the first reported description of an association between CD and metabolic syndrome, and invites investigation of the metabolic changes induced by gluten in celiac patients. PMID:21860836

  13. Evaluation of the impact of abdominal obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Real de Asua, Diego; Parra, Pedro; Costa, Ramón; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Suarez, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to describe anthropometric differences in weight-related disorders between adults with Down syndrome (DS) and healthy controls, as well as their disparate impact on glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. We underwent a cross-sectional study of 49 consecutively selected, community-residing adults with DS and 49 healthy controls in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Madrid, Spain. Siblings of adults with DS were studied as controls in 42 cases. Epidemiological data (age and gender), anthropometric data (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio [WHR]), coexisting clinical conditions, and laboratory data (fasting glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile) were measured and compared between the groups. Adults with DS were significantly younger and more often male, with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than controls. Adults with DS also had a higher WHR, and more frequently presented abdominal obesity. Moreover, insulin resistance measured using the homeostatic model assessment was more prevalent among adults with DS and abdominal obesity. However, lipid profiles were similar between groups. The kappa correlation index for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity between waist circumference and WHR was 0.24 (95%CI: 0.13-0.34). We concluded that the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity was higher in adults with DS than in controls. Adults with DS and abdominal obesity showed higher indexes of insulin resistance than their non-obese peers. WHR was a useful tool for the evaluation of abdominal obesity in this population.

  14. Tree nut consumption is associated with better adiposity measures and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome health risk factors in U.S adults: NHANES 2005-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown inconsistencies in the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). To determine the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for CVD and for MetS in adults. NHANES 2005-2010 data were u...

  15. Longitudinal Associations between Triglycerides and Metabolic Syndrome Components in a Beijing Adult Population, 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Li-Xin; Yang, Kun; Liu, Xiang-Tong; Cao, Kai; Zhu, Hui-Ping; Luo, Yan-Xia; Guo, Jin; Wu, Li-Juan; Li, Xia; Guo, Xiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background:Longitudinal associations between triglycerides (TG) and other metabolic syndrome (MetS) components have rarely been reported. The purpose was to investigate the longitudinal association between TG and other MetS components with time. Methods:The longitudinal study was established in 2007 on individuals who attended health check-ups at Beijing Tongren Hospital and Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital. Data used in this study was based on 7489 participants who had at least three health check-ups over a period of 5-year follow up. Joint model was used to explore longitudinal associations between TG and other MetS components after adjusted for age. Results:There were positive correlations between TG and other MetS components except for high density lipoprotein (HDL), and the correlations increased with time. A negative correlation was displayed between TG and HDL, and the correlation also increased with time. Among all five pairs of TG and other MetS components, the marginal correlation between TG and body mass index (BMI) was the largest for both men and women. The marginal correlation between TG and fasting plasma glucose was the smallest for men, while the marginal correlation between TG and diastolic blood pressure was the smallest for women. Conclusions: The longitudinal association between TG and other MetS components increased with time. Among five pairs of TG and other MetS components, the longitudinal correlation between TG and BMI was the largest. It is important to closely monitor subjects with high levels of TG and BMI in health check-up population especially for women, because these two components are closely associated with development of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other metabolic diseases. PMID:27279794

  16. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Metabolic Risk and Quality of Life in Hong Kong Chinese Adults with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention to improve metabolic risk profiles and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese adults with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We conducted a controlled trial within an university-affiliated hospital. 173 Chinese men and women aged 18 or above were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the control group (n = 86). Primary outcomes included 12-week change in metabolic risk factors and MetS z score. Secondary outcome was HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Short Form Survey at 12 weeks). Results The mean age of participants was 52.0 (SD 7.4, range 31-71) years. Analysis involving the entire study population revealed that the yoga group achieved greater decline in waist circumference (p<0.001), fasting glucose (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.05), and MetS z score (p<0.01). Yoga training also improved general health perceptions (p<0.01), physical component score (p<0.01), and social functioning (p<0.01) domains score of HRQoL. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the mean change of systolic/diastolic blood pressures or high-density lipid protein cholesterol (all p>0.05). There were no significant differences in the intervention effects on waist circumference and MetS z score between the MetS subgroups (both p>0.05). Conclusion A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention improves metabolic risk profiles and HRQoL in Chinese adults with and without MetS. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000816752 PMID:26111165

  17. Metabolic Syndrome: An Important Risk Factor for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming commoner due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. Generally speaking, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease and five times as likely to develop diabetes as someone without metabolic syndrome. Increasing oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome and Parkinson's disease is mentioned in the comprehensive articles; however, the system review about clear relation between metabolic syndrome and Parkinson's disease is deficient. In this review, we will focus on the analysis that the metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for Parkinson's disease and the preventions that reduce the incident of Parkinson's disease by regulating the oxidative stress. PMID:24955210

  18. A Traditional Rice and Beans Pattern Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Puerto Rican Older Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Sabrina E.; Newby, P. K.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was ∼50% for Puerto Rican elders living in Massachusetts. Diet is known to be associated with metabolic syndrome. Little information exists regarding the dietary intakes of Puerto Ricans. We aimed to characterize the dietary patterns of 1167 Puerto Ricans (45–75 y) using principal components analysis and to further examine associations with metabolic syndrome. Factor solutions were examined for robustness using a random split sample. Adjusted means for metabolic syndrome components were calculated for factor quintiles. Logistic regression models examined associations between factors, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Analyses were also performed excluding subjects with diabetes. “Meat and French fries,” “traditional,” and “sweets” patterns emerged as most meaningful. A meat and French fries pattern was associated with higher blood pressure (systolic P-trend = 0.03 and diastolic < 0.001) and waist circumference (P-trend = 0.04). The traditional pattern was associated with lower HDL concentrations (P-trend = 0.007) and a higher likelihood of metabolic syndrome [odds ratio (OR): 1.7, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.7]). The sweets pattern was associated with lower HDL concentrations (P-trend < 0.001) and higher waist circumference (P-trend < 0.05). After excluding individuals with diabetes, the sweets pattern was no longer associated with fasting serum glucose and was associated with metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.3). Dietary patterns were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. More research is needed to make appropriate nutritional recommendations for this high-risk population. PMID:19458029

  19. Black Beans, Fiber, and Antioxidant Capacity Pilot Study: Examination of Whole Foods vs. Functional Components on Postprandial Metabolic, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reverri, Elizabeth J; Randolph, Jody M; Steinberg, Francene M; Kappagoda, C Tissa; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

    2015-08-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain bioactive components with functional properties that may modify cardiovascular risk. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the ability of black beans to attenuate postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses and determine relative contribution of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of beans to the overall effect. In this randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) consumed one of three meals (black bean (BB), fiber matched (FM), and antioxidant capacity matched (AM)) on three occasions that included blood collection before (fasting) and five hours postprandially. Insulin was lower after the BB meal, compared to the FM or AM meals (p < 0.0001). A significant meal × time interaction was observed for plasma antioxidant capacity (p = 0.002) revealing differences over time: AM > BB > FM. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) was not different by meal, although a trend for declining oxLDL was observed after the BB and AM meals at five hours compared to the FM meal. Triglycerides and interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in response to meals (p < 0.0001). Inclusion of black beans with a typical Western-style meal attenuates postprandial insulin and moderately enhances postprandial antioxidant endpoints in adults with MetS, which could only be partly explained by fiber content and properties of antioxidant capacity. PMID:26225995

  20. Black Beans, Fiber, and Antioxidant Capacity Pilot Study: Examination of Whole Foods vs. Functional Components on Postprandial Metabolic, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reverri, Elizabeth J.; Randolph, Jody M.; Steinberg, Francene M.; Kappagoda, C. Tissa; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt M.

    2015-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain bioactive components with functional properties that may modify cardiovascular risk. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the ability of black beans to attenuate postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses and determine relative contribution of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of beans to the overall effect. In this randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) consumed one of three meals (black bean (BB), fiber matched (FM), and antioxidant capacity matched (AM)) on three occasions that included blood collection before (fasting) and five hours postprandially. Insulin was lower after the BB meal, compared to the FM or AM meals (p < 0.0001). A significant meal × time interaction was observed for plasma antioxidant capacity (p = 0.002) revealing differences over time: AM > BB > FM. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) was not different by meal, although a trend for declining oxLDL was observed after the BB and AM meals at five hours compared to the FM meal. Triglycerides and interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in response to meals (p < 0.0001). Inclusion of black beans with a typical Western-style meal attenuates postprandial insulin and moderately enhances postprandial antioxidant endpoints in adults with MetS, which could only be partly explained by fiber content and properties of antioxidant capacity. PMID:26225995

  1. Black Beans, Fiber, and Antioxidant Capacity Pilot Study: Examination of Whole Foods vs. Functional Components on Postprandial Metabolic, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reverri, Elizabeth J; Randolph, Jody M; Steinberg, Francene M; Kappagoda, C Tissa; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

    2015-07-27

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain bioactive components with functional properties that may modify cardiovascular risk. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the ability of black beans to attenuate postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses and determine relative contribution of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of beans to the overall effect. In this randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) consumed one of three meals (black bean (BB), fiber matched (FM), and antioxidant capacity matched (AM)) on three occasions that included blood collection before (fasting) and five hours postprandially. Insulin was lower after the BB meal, compared to the FM or AM meals (p < 0.0001). A significant meal × time interaction was observed for plasma antioxidant capacity (p = 0.002) revealing differences over time: AM > BB > FM. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) was not different by meal, although a trend for declining oxLDL was observed after the BB and AM meals at five hours compared to the FM meal. Triglycerides and interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in response to meals (p < 0.0001). Inclusion of black beans with a typical Western-style meal attenuates postprandial insulin and moderately enhances postprandial antioxidant endpoints in adults with MetS, which could only be partly explained by fiber content and properties of antioxidant capacity.

  2. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar.

  3. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar. PMID:25674127

  4. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  6. Associated Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in the Older Adults with Chronic Virus Hepatitis in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yuan-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Chao; Kee, Kwong-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lin, Chun-Yin; Lin, Sheng-Che; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2016-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic virus hepatitis elders in the community. Those subjects with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and/or anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) screened in the community before were invited to this study and 451 responded. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements, blood tests, ultrasound and fibroscan examinations. The cut-off of liver stiffness measurement-liver cirrhosis (LSM-LC) was 10 kPa for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 12 kPa for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, respectively. Among 451 responders, 56 were excluded due to negative HBsAg or anti-HCV. Three hundreds and ninety-five subjects included 228 CHB patients, 156 CHC patients and 11 dual hepatitis patients, had a mean age of 62±12.6 years. Fifty-four (23.7%) CHB patients coexisted with MetS whereas 40 (25.6%) CHC patients also had MetS. Those patients with MetS had more LSM-LC cases than those without (20.4% vs 9.8%, p = 0.04 in CHB patients; 28.2% vs 13.5%, p = 0.037 in CHC patients, respectively). In multivariate logistic analysis, detectable viremia was reversely associated with MetS in CHB patients after adjustment for age, gender and body mass index (odds ratio (OR): 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18–0.99; p = 0.047). Regarding CHC patients, higher LSM level was the only factor contributed to MetS (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.02–1.19; p = 0.012). In conclusion, elder CHB patients coexisted with MetS might experience an inactive virus replication but have an advanced liver fibrosis. In elder CHC patients, only higher LSM level was associated with MetS. PMID:27177024

  7. Eicosanoids in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, James P.; Eckman, Katie; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Esterle, Andrew; Chilian, William M.; Chiang, John Y.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Chronic persistent inflammation plays a significant role in disease pathology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is a constellation of diseases that include obesity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with many of the MetS diseases. These metabolic derangements trigger a persistent inflammatory cascade, which includes production of lipid autacoids (eicosanoids) that recruit immune cells to the site of injury and subsequent expression of cytokines and chemokines that amplify the inflammatory response. In acute inflammation, the transcellular synthesis of antiinflammatory eicosanoids resolve inflammation, while persistent activation of the autacoid-cytokine-chemokine cascade in metabolic disease leads to chronic inflammation and accompanying tissue pathology. Many drugs targeting the eicosanoid pathways have been shown to be effective in the treatment of MetS, suggesting a common linkage between inflammation, MetS and drug metabolism.The cross-talk between inflammation and MetS seems apparent because of the growing evidence linking immune cell activation and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Thus modulation of lipid metabolism through either dietary adjustment or selective drugs may become a new paradigm in the treatment of metabolic disorders. This review focuses on the mechanisms linking eicosanoid metabolism to persistent inflammation and altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in MetS. PMID:23433458

  8. Gender-dependent associations between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in the adult Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18–70 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Marital status, income, education, and occupation were used as socio-economic indicators while behavioral factor like physical exercise was also taken into account. MetS was defined using the criteria based from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Results In males, the odds ratio (OR) of harboring MetS was higher in married [OR1.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1, 2.4); p < 0.03], and high income class [OR 2.3(CI 1.5, 3.5); p < 0.001] and lowest in retired and unemployed individuals [1.4(1.0, 1.9); p < 0.04, 0.61(0.45, 0.82); p < 0.001] respectively. In females, MetS was inversely related to high income [OR 0.70 (CI 0.46, 1.1); p < 0.09] and education level [OR 0.38 (CI 0.26, 0.56); p < 0.001], and was significantly higher in the unemployed class [OR 1.6 (CI 1.2, 2.2); p < 0.004]. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS is significantly high among retired, married and high-earning Saudi males while in females, high earners and high education seem to confer a protective effect against MetS. PMID:24735007

  9. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: a propensity score-matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Gu, Yeqing; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Han, Peipei; Dong, Renwei; Wang, Xiuyang; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Liu, Fangfang; Yang, Huijun; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Wu, Yuntang; Song, Kun; Huang, Guowei; Wang, Guolin; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dietary patterns were associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known in Chinese. We design this case-control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and MS in Chinese adults. In this study, 1492 participants with MS were matched with 1492 controls using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and MS was defined in accordance with the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statement of 2009. Higher scores for the high-protein/cholesterol pattern were associated with higher prevalence of MS. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile, the odds ratio (OR) for the extreme quartile was 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10–1.68) and the P for trend <0.01 after adjusted for the other two dietary pattern scores. We also found a moderate consumption of the balanced pattern was associated with the lowest prevalence of MS. The ORs across quartiles of the balanced pattern were 1 (reference), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68–1.02), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56–0.85), and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68–1.04) after adjustment. Our study demonstrates that there is a strong association between a diet rich in animal offal, animal blood, meat, and sausage and a higher prevalence of MS. PMID:27708414

  10. Visceral Adiposity and Anthropometric Indicators as Screening Tools of Metabolic Syndrome among Low Income Rural Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-xia; Zhang, Xiang-hui; Zhang, Jing-yu; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-zhong; Ma, Jiao-long; Ma, Ru-lin; Guo, Heng; Mu, La-ti; Li, Shu-gang; Niu, Qiang; Rui, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jia-ming; Wang, Kui; Xu, Shang-zhi; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Yu-song

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS) examined urban and high income settings. We thus investigated the prevalence of MetS among a multi-ethnic population living in a low income rural area and explored the use of visceral adiposity and anthropometric indicators to identify men and women with MetS. We recruited 10,029 individuals of nomadic Kazakhs, rural Uyghur and Han residents in Xinjiang, China. MetS was defined by the Joint Interim Statement criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of each index. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 21.8%. The visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly associated with MetS, independent of ethnic, age, and other covariates. The AUC of VAI, LAP and WHtR were all greater than 0.7, and the LAP was the index that most accurately identified MetS status in men (AUC = 0.853) and women (AUC = 0.817), with the optimal cut-offs of 34.7 and 27.3, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of MetS in low income rural adults of Xinjiang was high and the LAP was an effective indicator for the screening of MetS. PMID:27782221

  11. Decreasing prevalence of the full metabolic syndrome but a persistently high prevalence of dyslipidemia among adult Arabs.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Sabico, Shaun Louie B; Chrousos, George P

    2010-01-01

    A decade has passed since metabolic syndrome (MetS) was documented to be highly prevalent in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No follow-up epidemiologic study was done. This study aims to fill this gap. In this cross-sectional, observational study, a total of 2850 randomly selected Saudi adults aged 18-55 years were recruited. Subjects' information was generated from a database of more than 10,000 Saudi citizens from the existing Biomarkers Screening in Riyadh Program (RIYADH Cohort), Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics included body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, as well as waist and hip circumferences. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were determined using routine laboratory procedures. The definition of ATP-III (NHANES III) was used for the diagnosis of the full MetS. The overall prevalence of complete MetS was 35.3% [Confidence-Interval (CI) 33.5-37.01]. Age-adjusted prevalence according to the European standard population is 37.0%. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent of all MetS risk factors, affecting 88.6% (CI 87.5-89.7) and hypertriglyceridemia the second most prevalent, affecting 34% (CI 32.3-35.7) of the subjects. The prevalence of the full MetS decreased from previous estimates but remains high, while dyslipidemia remains extremely high, affecting almost 90% of middle-aged Arabs. Screening for dyslipidemia among Saudi adults is warranted, especially among those most at risk. Scientific inquiry into the molecular causes of these manifestations should be pursued as a first step in the discovery of etiologic therapies.

  12. The Relationship between Diet Quality and Acculturation of Immigrated South Asian American Adults and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert T.; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Even though the total SA American population is increasing rapidly, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between diet quality, acculturation and health outcomes such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in the low-income South Asian (SA) sub-population. Our goal was to examine diet quality, degree of acculturation and their potential influence on MetS in a diverse sample of SA Americans. A convenience sample of 401 adult SA men and women were studied using a cross-sectional study design. Volunteers from two low-income community health clinics in Maryland were interviewed by questionnaires. MetS, defined by the consensus harmonized definition by the presence of ≥ 3 of the 5 abnormal indicators, was studied. An interviewer obtained an automated self-administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24) and an acculturation index (using a previously validated (SL-ASIA). SA had a composite HEI2010 score of 68 suggesting an overall need for diet improvements. Males had a higher diet quality (mean HEI2010 score) than females. Males with MetS had lower diet quality (68) than males without MetS (73). The converse was true for females (68 vs. 65). Americanized (more acculturated) subjects had a higher diet quality compared to less acculturated SA. Small differences were found in diet quality scores among SA adults from different countries. Less acculturated females, had a higher percentage of MetS and lower diet quality compared to males. These results suggest that interventions are needed in males and females who were less acculturated because they may have greater MetS and lower diet quality compared to more Americanized SA. PMID:27299862

  13. Metabolic comorbidities in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferraù, Francesco; Korbonits, Márta

    2015-10-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) patients have increased mortality primarily due to cardiovascular events induced by glucocorticoid (GC) excess-related severe metabolic changes. Glucose metabolism abnormalities are common in CS due to increased gluconeogenesis, disruption of insulin signalling with reduced glucose uptake and disposal of glucose and altered insulin secretion, consequent to the combination of GCs effects on liver, muscle, adipose tissue and pancreas. Dyslipidaemia is a frequent feature in CS as a result of GC-induced increased lipolysis, lipid mobilisation, liponeogenesis and adipogenesis. Protein metabolism is severely affected by GC excess via complex direct and indirect stimulation of protein breakdown and inhibition of protein synthesis, which can lead to muscle loss. CS patients show changes in body composition, with fat redistribution resulting in accumulation of central adipose tissue. Metabolic changes, altered adipokine release, GC-induced heart and vasculature abnormalities, hypertension and atherosclerosis contribute to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In paediatric CS patients, the interplay between GC and the GH/IGF1 axis affects growth and body composition, while in adults it further contributes to the metabolic derangement. GC excess has a myriad of deleterious effects and here we attempt to summarise the metabolic comorbidities related to CS and their management in the perspective of reducing the cardiovascular risk and mortality overall. PMID:26060052

  14. Imaging metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Han, Weiping; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Chang, Young-Tae; Olivo, Malini; Velan, S Sendhil; Bhakoo, Kishore; Townsend, David; Radda, George K

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a fast growing public health burden for almost all the developed countries and many developing nations. Despite intense efforts from both biomedical and clinical scientists, many fundamental questions regarding its aetiology and development remain unclear, partly due to the lack of suitable imaging technologies to visualize lipid composition and distribution, insulin secretion, β-cell mass and functions in vivo. Such technologies would not only impact on our understanding of the complexity of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes, but also aid in their diagnosis, drug development and assessment of treatment efficacy. In this article we discuss and propose several strategies for visualization of physiological and pathological changes that affect pancreas and adipose tissue as a result of the development of metabolic diseases. PMID:20533426

  15. Dietary patterns associated with metabolic syndrome, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors. Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyl...

  16. Metabolic Syndrome, Androgens, and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Moulana, Mohadetheh; Lima, Roberta; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the constellation of factors that make up the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in men and women is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with reductions in testosterone levels. In women, obesity and metabolic syndrome is associated with increases in androgen levels. In men reductions in androgen levels is associated with inflammation. Androgen supplements reduce inflammation in men. In women, increases in androgens are associated with increases in inflammatory cytokines, and reducing androgens reduces inflammation. In this review the possibility that androgens may have different effects on metabolic syndrome and its sequelae in males and females will be discussed. PMID:21274756

  17. Metabolic Syndrome: Hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Dee Ann Stults; Walling, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. When metabolic syndrome includes lipid abnormalities, management goals are weight loss and cardiovascular risk management through lifestyle modifications (eg, diet, exercise), and, when appropriate, lowering of lipid levels with pharmacotherapy. Healthy diets are recommended, particularly the Mediterranean diet. Patients also should set a goal of at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise on most, preferably all, days of the week. Guidelines provide criteria for statin treatment based on overall cardiovascular risk. High-intensity statin treatment (eg, rosuvastatin 20 to 40 mg, atorvastatin 40 to 80 mg) typically is recommended unless the patient cannot tolerate therapy. Approximately 5% of patients experience statin-induced myalgia, in which case moderate-intensity treatment can be tried. Lipid levels should be reevaluated 4 to 12 weeks after initiating therapy; lipid levels can be measured without fasting. A lack of improvement often indicates nonadherence. Bile acid sequestrants, fibric acids, and niacin can be used if other drugs are not tolerated. The evidence to support use of integrative medicine is limited, but the strongest evidence of benefit is for garlic (Allium sativum).

  18. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24529881

  19. [Metabolic syndrome--psychosomatic associations].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, D B; Rapoport, S I

    2008-01-01

    According to epidemiological investigations data, 10 to 35% of all population suffers from metabolic syndrome. However, until now, in spite of researches, metabolic syndrome remains little-studied complex problem. The aim of the review is summarized analysis of the researches results, going out the limits of internal diseases clinics and reflecting more complicated, psychosomatic mechanisms of the syndrome development. The data of literature indicate the row of patterns in development of psyche and metabolic processes disturbances. Analysis of various directions in study of metabolic syndrome with concomitant mental disturbances is represented in the article. The authors propose to perform further investigation subject to "multisectorality" of the disease, marking out prevailing mechanisms of development of metabolic syndrome subject to somatic and mental factors. PMID:18368784

  20. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Fetal Programming and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rinaudo, Paolo; Wang, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is reaching epidemic proportions, particularly in developing countries. In this review, we explore the concept—based on the developmental-origin-of-health-and-disease hypothesis—that reprogramming during critical times of fetal life can lead to metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Specifically, we summarize the epidemiological evidence linking prenatal stress, manifested by low birth weight, to metabolic syndrome and its individual components. We also review animal studies that suggest potential mechanisms for the long-term effects of fetal reprogramming, including the cellular response to stress and both organ- and hormone-specific alterations induced by stress. Although metabolic syndrome in adulthood is undoubtedly caused by multiple factors, including modifiable behavior, fetal life may provide a critical window in which individuals are predisposed to metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:21910625

  2. Primary care-based educational interventions to decrease risk factors for metabolic syndrome for adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with major psychotic and/or affective disorders are at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome due to lifestyle- and treatment-related factors. Numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been tested in inpatient and outpatient mental health settings to decrease these risk factors. This review focuses on primary care-based non-pharmacological (educational or behavioral) interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk factors in adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders. Methods The authors conducted database searches of PsychINFO, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as manual searches and gray literature searches to identify included studies. Results The authors were unable to identify any studies meeting a priori inclusion criteria because there were no primary care-based studies. Conclusions This review was unable to demonstrate effectiveness of educational interventions in primary care. Interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk have been demonstrated to be effective in mental health and other outpatient settings. The prevalence of mental illness in primary care settings warrants similar interventions to improve health outcomes for this population. PMID:24369749

  3. Utility of the waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index in the screening of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    -to-height ratio indexes are useful to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24594198

  4. Comparison of Anthropometric and Atherogenic Indices as Screening Tools of Metabolic Syndrome in the Kazakh Adult Population in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang-Hui; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-Zhong; Ma, Jiao-Long; Wang, Kui; Ma, Ru-Lin; Guo, Heng; Mu, La-Ti; Ding, Yu-Song; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Liu, Jia-Ming; Li, Shu-Gang; Niu, Qiang; Rui, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Shu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the screening ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic indices for Metabolic syndrome (MetS) using three common criteria and to evaluate the validity of suitable parameters in combination for the screening of MetS among a Kazakh population in Xinjiang. Methods: A total of 3752 individuals were selected using the stratified cluster random sampling method from nomadic Kazakhs (≥18 years old) in Xinyuan county, Xinjiang, China, which is approximately 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of each index. The sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index and cut-offs of each index for the screening of MetS were calculated. Results: According to the IDF, ATP III and JIS criteria, 18.61%, 10.51%, and 24.83% of males and 23.25%, 14.88%, and 25.33% of females had MetS. According to the IDF criteria, the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was the index that most accurately identified individuals with and without MetS both in males (AUC = 0.872) and females (AUC = 0.804), with the optimal cut-offs of 0.53 and 0.52, respectively. According to both the ATP III and JIS criteria, the lipid accumulation product (LAP) was the best index to discriminate between individuals with and without MetS in males (AUC = 0.856 and 0.816, respectively) and females (AUC = 0.832 and 0.788, respectively), with optimal cut-offs of 41.21 and 34.76 in males and 28.16 and 26.49 in females, respectively. On the basis of the IDF standard, Youden’s indices of WHtR and LAP serial tests for the screening of MetS were 0.590 and 0.455 in males and females, respectively, and those of WHtR and LAP parallel tests were 0.608 and 0.479, accordingly. Conclusion: According to the IDF, ATP III and JIS

  5. High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein is Related to Central Obesity and the Number of Metabolic Syndrome Components in Jamaican Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Nadia R.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Bennett, Franklyn I.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Younger-Coleman, Novie O. M.; Jackson, Maria D.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen E.; Wilks, Rainford J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has been shown to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints and is associated with CVD risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. This study evaluated the association between hsCRP and CVD risk factors among Afro-Caribbean young adults in Jamaica. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Jamaica 1986 Birth Cohort Study. Data were collected between 2005 and 2007 when participants were 18–20 years old. All participants completed an interviewer administered questionnaire and had anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements performed. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose, lipids, and hsCRP. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with high hsCRP. Results: Analyses included 342 men and 404 women with mean age 18.8 ± 0.6 years. Approximately 15% of the participants had high risk hsCRP (>3 mg/L), with a higher prevalence among women (20 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). The prevalence of elevated hsCRP increased with body mass index category, high waist circumference (WC), high triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein, and lower parental education among women, but only for high WC and lower parental education among men. In logistic regression models controlling for sex and parental education, high WC was associated with significantly higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.8–12.9, p < 0.001). In a similar model, high hsCRP was also associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components. Compared to participants with no metabolic syndrome component, having one metabolic syndrome component was associated with a twofold higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.8, p = 0.005), while having three components was associated with a 14-fold higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 13.5, 95% CI 2.4–76.0, p < 0.001). Conclusion: High hsCRP is common among Jamaican young adults and is strongly

  6. Metabolic syndrome and eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Poh, Stanley; Mohamed Abdul, Riswana Banu Binte; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are also on the rise due to aging of the population. Many of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been shown to be associated with these eye diseases. However, the association of metabolic syndrome with eye diseases is not clear. In this review, we reviewed the evidence for associations between metabolic syndrome and certain ocular diseases in populations. We also reviewed the association of individual metabolic syndrome components with ocular diseases due to a paucity of research in this area. Besides, we also summarised the current understanding of etiological mechanisms of how metabolic syndrome or the individual components lead to these ocular diseases. With increasing evidence of such associations, it may be important to identify patients who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome as prompt treatment and intervention may potentially decrease the risk of developing certain ocular diseases.

  7. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Defa; Li, Ning; Dindot, Scott V.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Bazer, Fuller W.

    2012-01-01

    Significance: Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between maternal nutrition and chronic metabolic disease in children and adults. Compelling experimental results also indicate that adverse effects of intrauterine growth restriction on offspring can be carried forward to subsequent generations through covalent modifications of DNA and core histones. Recent Advances: DNA methylation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA methyltransferases. Methylation, demethylation, acetylation, and deacetylation of histone proteins are performed by histone methyltransferase, histone demethylase, histone acetyltransferase, and histone deacetyltransferase, respectively. Histone activities are also influenced by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, ADP-ribosylation, sumoylation, and glycosylation. Metabolism of amino acids (glycine, histidine, methionine, and serine) and vitamins (B6, B12, and folate) plays a key role in provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Critical Issues: Disruption of epigenetic mechanisms can result in oxidative stress, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and vascular dysfunction in animals and humans. Despite a recognized role for epigenetics in fetal programming of metabolic syndrome, research on therapies is still in its infancy. Possible interventions include: 1) inhibition of DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and microRNA expression; 2) targeting epigenetically disturbed metabolic pathways; and 3) dietary supplementation with functional amino acids, vitamins, and phytochemicals. Future Directions: Much work is needed with animal models to understand the basic mechanisms responsible for the roles of specific nutrients in fetal and neonatal programming. Such new knowledge is crucial to design effective therapeutic strategies for preventing and treating metabolic abnormalities in offspring born to mothers with a previous experience of malnutrition. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 282–301. PMID

  8. Having knowledge of metabolic syndrome: does the meaning and consequences of the risk factors influence the life situation of Swedish adults?

    PubMed

    Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Berterö, Carina

    2008-12-01

    The underlying causes of metabolic syndrome (MS) are uncertain. Knowledge from those who have experience of this syndrome should provide new insight. The aim was to explore the meaning and consequences of MS. Thirteen Swedish adults with MS, aged between 33 and 82 years, were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed using constant comparative analysis, which is the basis of grounded theory. The core category for the meaning and consequences of having the risk factors of MS consisted of the recurrence of behavior. The participants attempted to balance their insight into the causes and consequences by referring to their normal life, lifestyle, and fatalistic approach to life. Attention needs to be paid to the attitudes of the individuals with MS, as well as the known risk factors and their consequences, in order to facilitate a long-term lifestyle change in these individuals.

  9. Lower dipeptidyl peptidase-4 following exercise training plus weight loss is related to increased insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malin, Steven K; Huang, Hazel; Mulya, Anny; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a circulating glycoprotein that impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the effect of exercise on plasma DPP-4 in adults with metabolic syndrome is unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of exercise on DPP-4 and its role in explaining exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity. Fourteen obese adults (67.9±1.2 years, BMI: 34.2±1.1kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria) underwent a 12-week supervised exercise intervention (60min/day for 5 days/week at ∼85% HRmax). Plasma DPP-4 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (40mU/m(2)/min) and estimated by HOMA-IR. Visceral fat (computerized tomography), 2-h glucose levels (75g oral glucose tolerance), and basal fat oxidation as well as aerobic fitness (indirect calorimetry) were also determined before and after exercise. The intervention reduced visceral fat, lowered blood pressure, glucose and lipids, and increased aerobic fitness (P<0.05). Exercise improved clamp-derived insulin sensitivity by 75% (P<0.001) and decreased HOMA-IR by 15% (P<0.05). Training decreased plasma DPP-4 by 10% (421.8±30.1 vs. 378.3±32.5ng/ml; P<0.04), and the decrease in DPP-4 was associated with clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (r=-0.59; P<0.04), HOMA-IR (r=0.59; P<0.04) and fat oxidation (r=-0.54; P<0.05). Increased fat oxidation also correlated with lower 2-h glucose levels (r=-0.64; P<0.02). Exercise training reduces plasma DPP-4, which may be linked to elevated insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation. Maintaining low plasma DPP-4 concentrations is a potential mechanism whereby exercise plus weight loss prevents/delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults with metabolic syndrome.

  10. Testosterone and the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Jones, T. Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency in men are closely Linked. Epidemiological studies have shown that Low testosterone Levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and an adverse Lipid profile in men. Conversely in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have a high prevalence of hypogonadism. Metabolic syndrome and Low testosterone status are both independently associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Observational and experimental data suggest that physiological replacement of testosterone produces improvement in insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidae-mia and sexual dysfunction along with improved quality of Life. However, there are no Long-term interventional studies to assess the effect of testosterone replacement on mortality in men with Low testosterone Levels. This article reviews the observational and interventional clinical data in relation to testosterone and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23148165

  11. A Retrospective Study in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diabetic Risk Factor Response to Daily Consumption of Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushrooms).

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mona S; Mehrotra, Anita; Beelman, Robert B; Nadkarni, Girish; Wang, Lingzhi; Cai, Weijing; Goh, Boon Cher; Kalaras, Michael D; Uribarri, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Adults with metabolic syndrome from different race/ethnicities are often predisposed to developing type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, growing evidence suggests that healthy diets and lifestyle choices can significantly slow or prevent progression to T2D. This poorly understood relationship to healthy dietary patterns and prevention of T2D motivated us to conduct a retrospective analysis to determine the potential impact of a minor dietary lifestyle change (daily mushroom consumption) on known T2D risk factors in racially diverse adults with confirmed features of the metabolic syndrome. Retrospectively, we studied 37 subjects who had participated in a dietary intervention focused on vitamin D bioavailability from white button mushrooms (WBM). All 37 had previously completed a 16-week study where they consumed 100 g of WBM daily and were then followed-up for one month during which no mushrooms were consumed. We analyzed differences in serum risk factors from baseline to 16-week, and from baseline to one-month follow-up. Measurement of serum diabetic risk factors included inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant component naturally rich in mushrooms, ergothioneine. Significant beneficial health effects were observed at 16-week with the doubling of ergothioneine from baseline, increases in the antioxidant marker ORAC (oxygen radical absorption capacity) and anti-inflammatory hormone, adiponectin and significant decreases in serum oxidative stress inducing factors, carboxymethyllysine (CML) and methylglyoxal (MG), but no change in the lipid oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane, leptin or measures of insulin resistance or glucose metabolism. We conclude that WBM contain a variety of compounds with potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant health benefits that can occur with frequent consumption over time in adults predisposed to T2D. Well-controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify the specific mushroom components

  12. Equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  13. Equine metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Keen, J; McGowan, C

    2015-08-15

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  14. Metabolic Syndrome and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Patients Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Mangili, Alexandra; Jacobson, Denise L.; Gerrior, Jul; Polak, Joseph F.; Gorbach, Sherwood L.; Wanke, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The present study examines the association between carotid and coronary atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected adults. Methods We measured the common and internal carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) using B-mode ultrasonography, and we measured coronary artery calcium (CAC) using high-resolution, electrocardiographic, synchronized, computed tomography, for 314 HIV-infected men and women. Metabolic syndrome was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. We compared the c-IMT measurements and CAC scores of patients with metabolic syndrome with the scores of those without metabolic syndrome using a Wilcoxon test for continuous variables and a χ2 test for categorical variables. To examine the association between surrogate markers and metabolic syndrome, we used logistic regression analysis. Results Participants with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have a common c-IMT measurement >0.8 mm than were those without metabolic syndrome (17% vs.7%; P=.009), but both groups were equally likely to have an internal c-IMT measurement >1.0 mm (20% vs. 13%; P=.15). Any positive CAC score was more likely to occur for participants with metabolic syndrome (80.3% vs. 46.7%; P < .0001). In a multivariate model adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, and smoking status, participants with metabolic syndrome were more likely than those without metabolic syndrome to have an abnormal common c-IMT measurement (odds ratio [OR], 2.9; P= .020) and detectable CAC scores (OR, 4.9; P < .0001) but not a higher internal c-IMT measurement (OR, 1.6; P=.255). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that HIV-infected individuals with metabolic syndrome may be at increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis and supports screening for metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:17443477

  15. Protein Restriction During the Last Third of Pregnancy Malprograms the Neuroendocrine Axes to Induce Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Male Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Barella, Luiz Felipe; Malta, Ananda; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Pavanello, Audrei; Torrezan, Rosana; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic malprogramming has been associated with low birth weight; however, the interplay between insulin secretion disruption and adrenal function upon lipid metabolism is unclear in adult offspring from protein-malnourished mothers during the last third of gestation. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of a maternal low-protein diet during the last third of pregnancy on adult offspring metabolism, including pancreatic islet function and morphophysiological aspects of the liver, adrenal gland, white adipose tissue, and pancreas. Virgin female Wistar rats (age 70 d) were mated and fed a protein-restricted diet (4%, intrauterine protein restricted [IUPR]) from day 14 of pregnancy until delivery, whereas control dams were fed a 20.5% protein diet. At age 91 d, their body composition, glucose-insulin homeostasis, ACTH, corticosterone, leptin, adiponectin, lipid profile, pancreatic islet function and liver, adrenal gland, and pancreas morphology were assessed. The birth weights of the IUPR rats were 20% lower than the control rats (P < .001). Adult IUPR rats were heavier, hyperphagic, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperleptinemic, and hypercorticosteronemic (P < .05) with higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, ACTH, and insulin sensitivity index levels (P < .01). The insulinotropic action of glucose and acetylcholine as well as muscarinic and adrenergic receptor function were impaired in the IUPR rats (P < .05). Maternal undernutrition during the last third of gestation disrupts the pancreatic islet insulinotropic response and induces obesity-associated complications. Such alterations lead to a high risk of metabolic syndrome, characterized by insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:27007071

  16. Metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Nidhi; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2013-01-01

    To review the data with respect to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its correlates in schizophrenia. For this review, electronic search engines PUBMED, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were used. Available data suggests that most of the studies have been of cross-sectional design. Prevalence rates of MetS have varied from 11% to 69% in medicated patients, and 4-26% in drug naive patients in cross-sectional evaluations. Longitudinal studies have shown the prevalence rates to range from 0% to 14% at the baseline in drug naive patients, which increase to as high as 52.4% by 3 months of antipsychotic medication treatment. The prevalence rates of MetS in patients with schizophrenia are much higher than that seen in general population or healthy controls. Though there is no causal association with any demographic or clinical variables, the risk increases with increase in age. Among antipsychotics, there seems to be an association between MetS and atypical antipsychotics like clozapine and olanzapine. Therefore, the psychiatrists should be more vigilant regarding the presence of MetS in these high risk groups. Research on biological correlates of MetS in schizophrenia is still in its primitive stage, however, these is some evidence to suggest an association of MetS with adiponectin levels, hematological indices, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (ADRA1A) gene. These areas hold promise, and targeting these with appropriate interventions may help us to prevent the occurrence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia in future. PMID:24249923

  17. [Arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Christ, Michael; Klima, Theresia; Maisch, Bernhard

    2003-12-01

    BACKGROUND AND THERAPY: The metabolic syndrome comprises a virulent and lethal group of atherosclerotic risk factors, including dyslipidemia, obesity, systemic hypertension and insulin resistance. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has continuously grown in industrialized and developing countries during the last decades, and affects tens of millions of people in Germany and Europe. Particularly prominent as a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance is central obesity, which is causally involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in addition to genetic predisposition. The metabolic syndrome can easily be diagnosed in clinical practice (guidelines of the WHO and ATP III panel), and immediate treatment of the metabolic syndrome is mandatory because those patients are at increased risk to develop overt diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and stroke. The high risk for cardiovascular diseases is supported by findings that the risk for myocardial infarction in patients with insulin resistance is as high as the risk of patients after their first myocardial infarction. Intentional weight reduction reduces abdominal obesity and beneficially modulates all features of the metabolic syndrome, while the benefits of aerobic exercise training are discussed controversially. Thus, weight reduction causally undoes essential features of the metabolic syndrome, but effects are often not enduring. Therefore, the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dislipidemia is essential. Of note, antihypertensive treatment is more effective than tight glucose control to reduce cardiovascular events. Diuretics, ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists are suggested as first line therapeutics. However, at least two antihypertensives are usually necessary to achieve the suggested goals of blood pressure reduction. In conclusion, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is continuously growing. Due to its adverse impact

  18. Blueberries improve endothelial function, but not blood pressure, in adults with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Cash, Katherine C; Champagne, Catherine M; Gupta, Alok K; Boston, Raymond; Beyl, Robbie A; Johnson, William D; Cefalu, William T

    2015-05-27

    Blueberry consumption has been shown to have various health benefits in humans. However, little is known about the effect of blueberry consumption on blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in humans. The present study investigated the role of blueberry consumption on modifying blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In addition, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity (secondary measurements) were also assessed. A double-blind and placebo-controlled study was conducted in 44 adults (blueberry, n = 23; and placebo, n = 21). They were randomized to receive a blueberry or placebo smoothie twice daily for six weeks. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The blood pressure and insulin sensitivity did not differ between the blueberry and placebo groups. However, the mean change in resting endothelial function, expressed as reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was improved significantly more in the group consuming the blueberries versus the placebo group (p = 0.024). Even after adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., the percent body fat and gender, the blueberry group still had a greater improvement in endothelial function when compared to their counterpart (RHI; 0.32 ± 0.13 versus -0.33 ± 0.14; p = 0.0023). In conclusion, daily dietary consumption of blueberries did not improve blood pressure, but improved (i.e., increased) endothelial function over six weeks in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  19. Blueberries Improve Endothelial Function, but Not Blood Pressure, in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stull, April J.; Cash, Katherine C.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Gupta, Alok K.; Boston, Raymond; Beyl, Robbie A.; Johnson, William D.; Cefalu, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Blueberry consumption has been shown to have various health benefits in humans. However, little is known about the effect of blueberry consumption on blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in humans. The present study investigated the role of blueberry consumption on modifying blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In addition, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity (secondary measurements) were also assessed. A double-blind and placebo-controlled study was conducted in 44 adults (blueberry, n = 23; and placebo, n = 21). They were randomized to receive a blueberry or placebo smoothie twice daily for six weeks. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The blood pressure and insulin sensitivity did not differ between the blueberry and placebo groups. However, the mean change in resting endothelial function, expressed as reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was improved significantly more in the group consuming the blueberries versus the placebo group (p = 0.024). Even after adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., the percent body fat and gender, the blueberry group still had a greater improvement in endothelial function when compared to their counterpart (RHI; 0.32 ± 0.13 versus −0.33 ± 0.14; p = 0.0023). In conclusion, daily dietary consumption of blueberries did not improve blood pressure, but improved (i.e., increased) endothelial function over six weeks in subjects with metabolic syndrome. PMID:26024297

  20. Management of metabolic syndrome in young population.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Ayrton Pires; Brandão, Andréa Araújo; de Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Pozzan, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder associated with several cardiovascular risk factors resulting in a 2.5-fold increase in cardiovascular mortality in adults. However, over the last 20 years, the same association has been demonstrated in the young population, and it is also related to a parental history of the syndrome. However, the root of the problem could be a high risk factor profile for metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents, as it has been demonstrated over the last 20 years. It has been shown that the association of obesity, alterations of glucose and lipids metabolism, and high blood pressure are responsible for early atherosclerotic lesions at autopsy as observed in young people. The prevalence of several risk factors for cardiovascular diseases has increased in the Brazilian population, as has that of obesity, a cause of great concern because of its importance as one of the metabolic syndrome components. The anthropometric patterns of the Brazilian population have changed over the last 30 years from undernourishment to weight excess, regardless of age, sex, or socioeconomic level. The identification of such individuals, followed by primary preventive measures, changes in lifestyle, and pharmacologic treatment, should be implemented, aiming at reducing the cardiovascular risk in countries undergoing economic transition, such as Brazil. The measures recommended for that age group should focus on changing lifestyle through adoption of healthy habits such as avoiding excessive intake of calories, salt, saturated fat, and cholesterol and engagement in regular physical activity without smoking.

  1. Clinical biomarkers in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barazzoni, Rocco; Silva, Veronica; Singer, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    A biomarker can be defined as a measurable variable that may be used as an indicator of a given biological state or condition. Biomarkers have been used in health and disease for diagnostic purposes, as tools to assess effectiveness of nutritional or drug intervention, or as risk markers to predict the development of certain diseases. In nutrition studies, selecting appropriate biomarkers is important to assess compliance, or incidence of a particular dietary component in the biochemistry of the organism, and in the diagnosis and prognosis of nutrition-related diseases. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that occur simultaneously in the same individual, and it is associated with systemic alterations that may involve several organs and tissues. Given its close association with obesity and the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, identifying obese individuals at risk for metabolic syndrome is a major clinical priority. Biomarkers for metabolic syndrome are therefore potential important tools to maximize the effectiveness of treatment in subjects who would likely benefit the most. Choice of biomarkers may be challenging due to the complexity of the syndrome, and this article will mainly focus on nutrition biomarkers related to the diagnosis and prognosis of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Population from Maracaibo City, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Martínez, María Sofía; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Morillo, Jessenia; Mejías, José Carlos; Rojas, Milagros; Salazar, Juan; Rojas, Joselyn; Añez, Roberto; Cabrera, Mayela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Although the relationships between alcohol and disorders such as cancer and liver disease have been thoroughly researched, its effects on cardiometabolic health remain controversial. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the association between alcohol consumption, the Metabolic Syndrome (MS), and its components in our locality. Materials and Methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional study with randomized, multistaged sampling, which included 2,230 subjects of both genders. Two previously determined population-specific alcohol consumption pattern classifications were utilized in each gender: daily intake quartiles and conglomerates yielded by cluster analysis. MS was defined according to the 2009 consensus criteria. Association was evaluated through various multiple logistic regression models. Results. In univariate analysis (daily intake quartiles), only hypertriacylglyceridemia was associated with alcohol consumption in both genders. In multivariate analysis, daily alcohol intake ≤3.8 g/day was associated with lower risk of hypertriacylglyceridemia in females (OR = 0.29, CI 95%: 0.09–0.86; p = 0.03). Among men, subjects consuming 28.41–47.33 g/day had significantly increased risk of MS, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, hypertriacylglyceridemia, and elevated waist circumference. Conclusions. The relationship between drinking, MS, and its components is complex and not directly proportional. Categorization by daily alcohol intake quartiles appears to be the most efficient method for quantitative assessment of alcohol consumption in our region. PMID:26779349

  3. Greater Healthful Food Variety as Measured by the US Healthy Food Diversity Index Is Associated with Lower Odds of Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in US Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Parkeh, Niyati; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consuming a wider variety of nutrient-dense foods may promote adherence to healthful dietary patterns, leading to improved dietary quality and enhanced metabolic health. Objective: We used the US Healthy Food Diversity (HFD) index to simultaneously measure dietary variety, quality, and proportionality, hypothesizing a priori that race/ethnicity may moderate associations between diet and health. Methods: A representative sample of adults (n = 7470) aged 20+ y with two 24-h recalls and complete outcome data from the cross-sectional NHANES 2003–2006 were selected. US HFD values were generated using a previously validated equation with a theoretical range from 0 to nearly 1, with higher scores indicative of more varied diets with a higher proportion of healthful food groups. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined using the most recent harmonized definition. Survey-weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking, energy, screen time, and leisure activity, were used to compute means and ORs (95% CIs). Results: Adults in the third vs. first US HFD tertile had 21% lower odds of MetS [OR (95% CI): 0.79 (0.64, 0.98)] as well as lower odds of hypertension [0.83 (0.70, 0.995] and elevated waist circumference [0.75 (0.66, 0.86] after multivariable adjustment (P-trend < 0.05). The age- and sex-adjusted odds of low serum HDL cholesterol and impaired fasting plasma glucose (P-trend < 0.05) were lower in the highest vs. lowest US HFD tertile but attenuated with multivariable adjustment (P = 0.06 and 0.22, respectively). Notably, the US HFD index was only protective against adiposity among non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) adults, and MetS associations were driven by NHW adults. No associations were observed among Hispanic adults for any MetS components. Conclusions: Greater healthful food variety was associated with lower odds of MetS and some MetS components in the total population, NHW adults, and

  4. [Testosterone deficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Testosterone deficiency in adult age is associated with a decrease in libido, energy, hematocrit, muscle mass and bone mineral density, as well as with depression. More recently, testosterone deficiency has also been associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased insulin resistance, increase in fat mass, low HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and hypertension. Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with testosterone deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome has shown reductions in insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and improvement in glycemic control and anthropometric parameters. PMID:26433309

  5. Association of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with metabolic syndrome, prediabetes and diabetes in adults from Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined the association of biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in persons from Inner Mongolia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,536 people aged 20 years and older from Inner Mongolia, China. Overnight fasting blood samples were obtained to measure plasma concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), sE-selectin, angiotensin II, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood glucose. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by trained staff. MetS was defined according to the modified ATP III definition for Asians. Elevated level of the biomarker was defined as values in the upper tertile of the distribution. Participants were categorized into one of four groups based on the presence or absence of metabolic and glycemic abnormalities: 1) free of prediabetes, diabetes and MetS (reference group), 2) prediabetes or diabetes only, 3) MetS without prediabetes or diabetes, and 4) MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes. The multivariable models are adjusted for age, gender, smoking, drinking, family history of hypertension, and body mass index. Results Among study participants, 18.5% had prediabetes, 3.6% had diabetes, and 27.4% of the entire study population had 3 or more components of the MetS. Elevated hsCRP was associated with an increased odds of prediabetes or diabetes only, MetS without prediabetes or diabetes, and MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes with multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.3 (1.7-3.1), 3.0 (2.4-3.8), and 5.8 (4.5-7.5), respectively. Elevated sICAM-1 was associated with increased odds (95% CI) of prediabetes or diabetes only (2.1, 1.6-2.9) and MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes (4.2, 3.2-5.3) but was not associated with MetS alone. Elevated sE-selectin was associated with a modestly increased risk of MetS (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1

  6. [Fattening diet and metabolic syndrome in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Hauhouot-Attoungbré, Marie Laure; Yayo, Eric Sagou; Konan, Jean-Louis; Koné, Fatoumata; Siara, Eugénie; Monnet, Dagui

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a particular state of morbidity characterized by the association of several factors contributing to the increase in the cardiovascular risk. This constellation of factors associates the glucose intolerance and its corollary the hyperglycemia, the overweight, the hypertriglyceridemia, the fall of the HDL-cholesterol and arterial hypertension. In Africa, it is difficult to evaluate in the actual prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The present study aims was to determine the prediction and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of nurse--lactating mothers--in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), who were submitted at a particularly rich food lipids. Our populations were composed to 100 lactating women, and we used the definition of « National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III ». The results obtained showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 7%, and 30% of them are presented an abdominal obesity. Our populations were composed to 100 lactating women, which belong to the Ethie where the habit are to eat, after giving birth, high foods lipids for 6 months. We used the definition of "National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III" to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this population and see if the diet has a negative influence. The results obtained showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 7%, and 30% of them are presented an abdominal obesity. The risk to develop a metabolic syndrome in this specific population of nurse is particularly big and it's linked to their eating habits.

  7. Sex-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome in adult offspring after prenatal ethanol exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    He, Zheng; Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Zhang, Li; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-03

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) is an established risk factor for intrauterine growth retardation. The present study was designed to determine whether PEE can increase the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult offspring in a sex-specific manner, based on a generalized linear model analysis. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered ethanol (4 g/kg.d) from gestational day 11 until term delivery. All offspring were fed either a normal diet or a HFD after weaning and were sacrificed at postnatal week 20, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PEE reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels but enhanced serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistant index (IRI), triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations. Moreover, the analysis showed interactions among PEE, HFD and sex. In the PEE offspring, HFD aggravated the decrease in ACTH and corticosterone levels and further increased serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride and TC levels. The changes of serum ACTH, glucose and IRI levels in the female HFD rats were greater than those in the male HFD rats. Our findings suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to MS induced by HFD in a sex-specific manner, which might be primarily associated with the neuroendocrine metabolic programming by PEE.

  8. Sex-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome in adult offspring after prenatal ethanol exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    He, Zheng; Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Zhang, Li; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) is an established risk factor for intrauterine growth retardation. The present study was designed to determine whether PEE can increase the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult offspring in a sex-specific manner, based on a generalized linear model analysis. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered ethanol (4 g/kg.d) from gestational day 11 until term delivery. All offspring were fed either a normal diet or a HFD after weaning and were sacrificed at postnatal week 20, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PEE reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels but enhanced serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistant index (IRI), triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations. Moreover, the analysis showed interactions among PEE, HFD and sex. In the PEE offspring, HFD aggravated the decrease in ACTH and corticosterone levels and further increased serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride and TC levels. The changes of serum ACTH, glucose and IRI levels in the female HFD rats were greater than those in the male HFD rats. Our findings suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to MS induced by HFD in a sex-specific manner, which might be primarily associated with the neuroendocrine metabolic programming by PEE. PMID:26631430

  9. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adolescents According to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seonho; So, Wi-Young

    2016-01-01

    In both adults and children, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been attributed to risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This descriptive study aimed to compare the prevalence of MetS and diagnostic components according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 2330 Korean adolescents (10–18 years), using data from the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V. The NCEP-ATP III and IDF were used to diagnose MetS and yielded prevalence rates of 5.7% and 2.1%, respectively, with no sex-related differences. The most frequent MetS diagnostic components according to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria were high triglyceride levels (21.2%) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (13.6%), respectively; approximately 50.1% and 33.1% of adolescents had at least one MetS diagnostic component according to the respective criteria. Both overweight/obese male and female adolescents exhibited significantly increased prevalence rates of MetS and related diagnostic components, compared to normal-weight adolescents. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of MetS and diagnostic components differ according to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria. Henceforth, efforts are needed to establish diagnostic criteria for Korean adolescents. PMID:27706073

  10. Community-based physical activity and nutrition programme for adults with metabolic syndrome in Vietnam: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van Dinh; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; James, Anthony P; Howat, Peter; Thi Phuong Mai, Le

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes. In Vietnam, more than one-quarter of its population aged 50–65 have MetS. This cluster-randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase levels of physical activity and improve dietary behaviours among Vietnamese adults aged 50–65 years with MetS. Method and analysis This 6-month community-based intervention includes a range of strategies to improve physical activity and nutrition for adults with MetS in Hanam, a province located in northern Vietnam. 600 participants will be recruited from 6 communes with 100 participants per commune. The 6 selected communes will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group (m=3; n=300) or a control group (m=3; n=300). The intervention comprises booklets, education sessions, resistance bands and attending local walking groups that provide information and encourage participants to improve their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours during the 6-month period. The control group participants will receive standard and 1-time advice. Social cognitive theory is the theoretical concept underpinning this study. Measurements will be taken at baseline and postintervention to evaluate programme effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR139/2014). The results of the study will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000811606. PMID:27256094

  11. Holter registers and metabolic syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Aguilar-Molina, A. M.; Zamora-Justo, J. A.; Gutiérrez-Calleja, R. A.; Virgilio-González, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    There is a relationship between the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome (MS). A way to diagnose the heart state of a person is to monitor the electrical activity of the heart using a 24 hours Holter monitor. Scanned ECG signal can be analyzed beat-by-beat by algorithms that separate normal of abnormal heartbeats. If the percentage of abnormal heartbeats is too high it could be argued that the patient has heart problems. We have algorithms that can not only identify the abnormal heartbeats, but they can also classify them, so we classified and counted abnormal heartbeats in patients with MS and subjects without MS. Most of our patients have large waist circumference, high triglycerides and high levels of LDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol although some of them have high blood pressure. We enrolled adult patients with MS free of diabetes in a four month lifestyle intervention program including diet and physical aerobic exercise, and compared with healthy controls. We made an initial registration with a Holter, and 24 hours ECG signal is analyzed to identify and classify the different types of heartbeats. The patients then begin with diet or exercise (at least half an hour daily). Periodically Holter records were taken up and we describe the evolution in time of the number and type of abnormal heartbeats. Results show that the percentage of abnormal heartbeats decreases over time, in some cases the decline is very significant, and almost a reduction to half or less of abnormal heartbeats after several months since the patients changed their eating or physical activity habits.

  12. Phytoestrogens and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois; Medjakovic, Svjetlana

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are a diverse class of non-steroidal compounds that have an affinity for estrogen receptors α and β, for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family and for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Examples of phytoestrogens include prenylated flavonoids, isoflavones, coumestans and lignans. Many phytoestrogens counteract the cellular derailments that are responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. Here we propose a mechanism of action which is based on five pillars/principles. First, phytoestrogens are involved in the downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as COX-2 and iNOS, by activating PPAR and by inhibiting IκB activation. Second, they increase reverse cholesterol transport, which is mediated by PPARγ. Third, phytoestrogens increase insulin sensitivity, which is mediated via PPARα. Fourth, they exert antioxidant effects by activating antioxidant genes through KEAP. Fifth, phytoestrogens increase energy expenditure by affecting AMP-activated kinase signaling cascades, which are responsible for the inhibition of adipogenesis. In addition to these effects, which have been demonstrated in vivo and in clinical trials, other effects, such as eNOS activation, may also be important. Some plant extracts from soy, red clover or licorice can be described as panPPAR activators. Fetal programming for metabolic syndrome has been hypothesized; thus, the consumption of dietary phytoestrogens during pregnancy may be relevant. Extracts from soy, red clover or licorice oil have potential as plant-derived medicines that could be used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease linked to hyperandrogenism and obesity, although clinical trials have not yet been conducted. Phytoestrogens may help prevent metabolic syndrome, although intervention studies will be always be ambiguous, because physical activity and reduced calorie consumption also have a significant impact. Nevertheless, extracts rich in phytoestrogens may be an

  13. Current perspectives between metabolic syndrome and cancer.

    PubMed

    Micucci, Carla; Valli, Debora; Matacchione, Giulia; Catalano, Alfonso

    2016-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies linked metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer. Although metabolic syndrome may not necessarily cause cancer, it is linked to poorer cancer outcomes including increased risk of recurrence and overall mortality. This review tends to discuss the major biological and physiological alterations involved in the increase of incidence and mortality of cancer patients affected by metabolic syndrome. We focus on metabolic syndrome-associated visceral adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) pathway as well as estrogen signaling and inflammation. Several of these factors are also involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the link between metabolic syndrome and cancer may provide new insight about oncogenesis. Moreover, prevention of metabolic syndrome - related alterations may be an important aspect in the management of cancer patients during simultaneous palliative care.

  14. Chromium exposure and incidence of metabolic syndrome among American young adults over a 23-year follow-up: the CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jianling; Xun, Pengcheng; Morris, Steve; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2015-10-22

    Studies suggest that chromium deficiency is associated with elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, circulating insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreased proportion of lean body mass. However, data directly relating chromium levels to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk are lacking. A total of 3,648 American adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, aged 20-32 years, were prospectively examined for the incidence of MetS and its five components from 1987-88 to 2010-11. Baseline toenail chromium levels were measured with instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Incident MetS was defined by the NCEP-ATP III criteria. During the 23-year follow-up, 878 incident MetS cases were identified. Baseline toenail chromium was inversely associated with incidence of MetS as well as its blood lipid components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of MetS comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of toenail chromium levels was 0.80 (0.66-0.98; Plinear trend = 0.006). The adjusted HRs were 0.82 (0.68-0.98; Ptrend = 0.045) for having abnormal triglycerides levels and 0.75 (0.64-0.88; Ptrend  = 0.030) for having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels. Toenail chromium levels were inversely and longitudinally associated with incidence of MetS in American young adults. This inverse association was mainly explained by its relation to blood lipids.

  15. Chromium exposure and incidence of metabolic syndrome among American young adults over a 23-year follow-up: the CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jianling; Xun, Pengcheng; Morris, Steve; Jacobs, David R.; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that chromium deficiency is associated with elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, circulating insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreased proportion of lean body mass. However, data directly relating chromium levels to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk are lacking. A total of 3,648 American adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, aged 20–32 years, were prospectively examined for the incidence of MetS and its five components from 1987–88 to 2010–11. Baseline toenail chromium levels were measured with instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Incident MetS was defined by the NCEP-ATP III criteria. During the 23-year follow-up, 878 incident MetS cases were identified. Baseline toenail chromium was inversely associated with incidence of MetS as well as its blood lipid components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of MetS comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of toenail chromium levels was 0.80 (0.66–0.98; Plinear trend = 0.006). The adjusted HRs were 0.82 (0.68–0.98; Ptrend = 0.045) for having abnormal triglycerides levels and 0.75 (0.64–0.88; Ptrend  = 0.030) for having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels. Toenail chromium levels were inversely and longitudinally associated with incidence of MetS in American young adults. This inverse association was mainly explained by its relation to blood lipids. PMID:26489690

  16. Physical activity and metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kallwitz, Eric R; Loy, Veronica; Mettu, Praveen; Von Roenn, Natasha; Berkes, Jamie; Cotler, Scott J

    2013-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients, a population that tends to be physically inactive. The aim of this study was to characterize physical activity and evaluate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in patients more than 3 months after transplantation. Metabolic syndrome was classified according to National Cholesterol Education Panel Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Physical activity, including duration, frequency, and metabolic equivalents of task (METs), was assessed. The study population consisted of 204 subjects, with 156 more than 1 year after transplantation. The median time after transplantation was 53.5 months (range = 3-299 months). The mean duration of exercise was 90 ± 142 minutes, and the mean MET score was 3.6 ± 1.5. Metabolic syndrome was observed in 58.8% of all subjects and in 63.5% of the subjects more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis involving all subjects, metabolic syndrome was associated with a time after transplantation greater than 1 year [odds ratio (OR) = 2.909, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.389-6.092] and older age (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 1.001-1.072). A second analysis was performed for only patients more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with lower exercise intensity (OR = 0.690, 95% CI = 0.536-0.887), older age (OR = 1.056, 95% CI = 1.014-1.101), and pretransplant diabetes (OR = 4.246, 95% CI = 1.300-13.864). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is common after liver transplantation, and the rate is significantly higher in patients more than 1 year after transplantation. The observation that exercise intensity is inversely related to metabolic syndrome after transplantation is novel and suggests that physical activity might provide a means for reducing metabolic syndrome complications in liver

  17. [Metabolic syndrome, a mitochondrial disease?].

    PubMed

    Gastaldi, G; Giacobino, J P; Ruiz, J

    2008-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors including: atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, high plasma glucose and a prothrombotic and proinflammatory state, frequently associated to overweight. Impaired cell metabolism has been suggested as a relevant pathophysiological process. Indeed, the accumulation of intracellular fatty acylCoA and diacylglycerol, which then activate critical signal transduction pathways that ultimatly lead to suppression of insulin signalisation. Therefore a defect in mitochondrial function may be responsible for insulin resistance. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been found to take place in organs such as skeletal muscle, liver, pancreas and smoth vascular cells suggesting that mitochondrial defect could play a critical role in the occurence of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal fat and cholesterol levels in the blood edema, or swelling, usually in the legs, feet, or ... to absorb extra fluid from the body, causing edema. Nephrotic syndrome results from a problem with the ...

  19. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of general medical outpatient clinics using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Omech, Bernard; Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Mwita, Julius C; Tsima, Billy; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries, including Botswana, are facing rising prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic complications. Very little information is known about clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in the outpatient setting during routine visits. We aimed to assess the prevalence and identify the determinants of metabolic syndrome among the general outpatients’ attendances in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 involving outpatients aged ≥20 years without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A precoded questionnaire was used to collect data on participants’ sociodemographics, risk factors, and anthropometric indices. Fasting blood samples were drawn and analyzed for glucose and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results In total, 291 participants were analyzed, of whom 216 (74.2%) were females. The mean age of the total population was 50.1 (±11) years. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.1% (n=79), with no significant difference between the sexes (female =29.6%, males =20%, P=0.11). A triad of central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure constituted the largest proportion (38 [13.1%]) of cases of metabolic syndrome, followed by a combination of low high-density lipoprotein, elevated triglycerides, central obesity, and elevated blood pressure, with 17 (5.8%) cases. Independent determinants of metabolic syndrome were antihypertensive use and increased waist circumference. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the general medical outpatients clinics. Proactive approaches are needed to screen and manage cases targeting its most important predictors.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of general medical outpatient clinics using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Omech, Bernard; Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Mwita, Julius C; Tsima, Billy; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries, including Botswana, are facing rising prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic complications. Very little information is known about clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in the outpatient setting during routine visits. We aimed to assess the prevalence and identify the determinants of metabolic syndrome among the general outpatients’ attendances in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 involving outpatients aged ≥20 years without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A precoded questionnaire was used to collect data on participants’ sociodemographics, risk factors, and anthropometric indices. Fasting blood samples were drawn and analyzed for glucose and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results In total, 291 participants were analyzed, of whom 216 (74.2%) were females. The mean age of the total population was 50.1 (±11) years. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.1% (n=79), with no significant difference between the sexes (female =29.6%, males =20%, P=0.11). A triad of central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure constituted the largest proportion (38 [13.1%]) of cases of metabolic syndrome, followed by a combination of low high-density lipoprotein, elevated triglycerides, central obesity, and elevated blood pressure, with 17 (5.8%) cases. Independent determinants of metabolic syndrome were antihypertensive use and increased waist circumference. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the general medical outpatients clinics. Proactive approaches are needed to screen and manage cases targeting its most important predictors. PMID:27616893

  1. Effects of step-wise increases in dietary carbohydrate on circulating saturated Fatty acids and palmitoleic Acid in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Volk, Brittanie M; Kunces, Laura J; Freidenreich, Daniel J; Kupchak, Brian R; Saenz, Catherine; Artistizabal, Juan C; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Bruno, Richard S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J; Phinney, Stephen D; Volek, Jeff S

    2014-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses have found no association between heart disease and dietary saturated fat; however, higher proportions of plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) predict greater risk for developing type-2 diabetes and heart disease. These observations suggest a disconnect between dietary saturated fat and plasma SFA, but few controlled feeding studies have specifically examined how varying saturated fat intake across a broad range affects circulating SFA levels. Sixteen adults with metabolic syndrome (age 44.9±9.9 yr, BMI 37.9±6.3 kg/m2) were fed six 3-wk diets that progressively increased carbohydrate (from 47 to 346 g/day) with concomitant decreases in total and saturated fat. Despite a distinct increase in saturated fat intake from baseline to the low-carbohydrate diet (46 to 84 g/day), and then a gradual decrease in saturated fat to 32 g/day at the highest carbohydrate phase, there were no significant changes in the proportion of total SFA in any plasma lipid fractions. Whereas plasma saturated fat remained relatively stable, the proportion of palmitoleic acid in plasma triglyceride and cholesteryl ester was significantly and uniformly reduced as carbohydrate intake decreased, and then gradually increased as dietary carbohydrate was re-introduced. The results show that dietary and plasma saturated fat are not related, and that increasing dietary carbohydrate across a range of intakes promotes incremental increases in plasma palmitoleic acid, a biomarker consistently associated with adverse health outcomes.

  2. Effects of Step-Wise Increases in Dietary Carbohydrate on Circulating Saturated Fatty Acids and Palmitoleic Acid in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Brittanie M.; Kunces, Laura J.; Freidenreich, Daniel J.; Kupchak, Brian R.; Saenz, Catherine; Artistizabal, Juan C.; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Bruno, Richard S.; Maresh, Carl M.; Kraemer, William J.; Phinney, Stephen D.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses have found no association between heart disease and dietary saturated fat; however, higher proportions of plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) predict greater risk for developing type-2 diabetes and heart disease. These observations suggest a disconnect between dietary saturated fat and plasma SFA, but few controlled feeding studies have specifically examined how varying saturated fat intake across a broad range affects circulating SFA levels. Sixteen adults with metabolic syndrome (age 44.9±9.9 yr, BMI 37.9±6.3 kg/m2) were fed six 3-wk diets that progressively increased carbohydrate (from 47 to 346 g/day) with concomitant decreases in total and saturated fat. Despite a distinct increase in saturated fat intake from baseline to the low-carbohydrate diet (46 to 84 g/day), and then a gradual decrease in saturated fat to 32 g/day at the highest carbohydrate phase, there were no significant changes in the proportion of total SFA in any plasma lipid fractions. Whereas plasma saturated fat remained relatively stable, the proportion of palmitoleic acid in plasma triglyceride and cholesteryl ester was significantly and uniformly reduced as carbohydrate intake decreased, and then gradually increased as dietary carbohydrate was re-introduced. The results show that dietary and plasma saturated fat are not related, and that increasing dietary carbohydrate across a range of intakes promotes incremental increases in plasma palmitoleic acid, a biomarker consistently associated with adverse health outcomes. PMID:25415333

  3. Nephrocalcinosis as adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Luiken, G P M; van Riemsdijk, I C; Petrij, F; Zandbergen, A A M; Dees, A

    2014-02-01

    Bartter syndrome consists a group of rare autosomal-recessive renal tubulopathies characterised by renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism. It is classified into five types. Mutations in the KCNJ1 gene (classified as type II) usually cause the neonatal form of Bartter syndrome. We describe an adult patient with a homozygous KCNJ1 mutation resulting in a remarkably mild phenotype of neonatal type Bartter syndrome. PMID:24659592

  4. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-11-21

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of "metabolic endotoxemia", leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use.

  5. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal “superorganism” seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host’s immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of “metabolic endotoxemia”, leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use. PMID:25473159

  6. Higher serum carotenoid concentrations associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Shi, Wen-Qi; Cao, Yi; He, Li-Ping; Guan, Ke; Ling, Wen-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2014-12-28

    The association between serum carotenoids and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, and little is known about this relationship in the Chinese population. The present study examined the association between serum carotenoid concentrations and the MetS in Chinese adults. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in which 2148 subjects (1547 women and 601 men) aged 50-75 years were recruited in urban Guangzhou, China. Dietary data and other covariates were collected during face-to-face interviews. Blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, glucose and serum carotenoids (α-, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin) were examined. We found dose-response inverse relationships between individual serum carotenoid concentrations and total carotenoids and the prevalence of the MetS after adjusting for potential confounders (P for trend < 0.001). The OR of the MetS for the highest (v. lowest) quartile were 0.31 (95% CI 0.20, 0.47) for α-carotene, 0.23 (95% CI 0.15, 0.36) for β-carotene, 0.44 (95% CI 0.29, 0.67) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.39 (95% CI 0.26, 0.58) for lycopene, 0.28 (95% CI 0.18, 0.44) for lutein+zeaxanthin and 0.19 (95% CI 0.12, 0.30) for total carotenoids. Higher concentrations of each individual carotenoid and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the number of abnormal MetS components (P for trend < 0.001-0.023). Higher serum carotenoid levels were associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS and fewer abnormal MetS components in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. PMID:25345663

  7. Metabolic syndrome and dietary components are associated with coronary artery disease risk score in free-living adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is among the main causes of death in developed countries, and diet and lifestyle can influence CAD incidence. Objective To evaluate the association of coronary artery disease risk score with dietary, anthropometric and biochemical components in adults clinically selected for a lifestyle modification program. Methods 362 adults (96 men, 266 women, 53.9 ± 9.4 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria by presenting all the required data. The Framingham score was calculated and the IV Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis was adopted for classification of the CAD risks. Anthropometric assessments included waist circumference (WC), body fat and calculated BMI (kg/m2) and muscle-mass index (MMI kg/m2). Dietary intake was estimated through 24 h dietary recall. Fasting blood was used for biochemical analysis. Metabolic Syndrome (MS) was diagnosed using NCEP-ATPIII (2001) criteria. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of CAD risks according to the altered components of MS, dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical components. Results For a sample with a BMI 28.5 ± 5.0 kg/m2 the association with lower risk (<10% CAD) were lower age (<60 years old), and plasma values of uric acid. The presence of MS within low, intermediary, and high CAD risk categories was 30.8%, 55.5%, and 69.8%, respectively. The independent risk factors associated with CAD risk score was MS and uric acid, and the protective factors were recommended intake of saturated fat and fiber and muscle mass index. Conclusion Recommended intake of saturated fat and dietary fiber, together with proper muscle mass, are inversely associated with CAD risk score. On the other hand, the presence of MS and high plasma uric acid are associated with CAD risk score. PMID:21554698

  8. Higher adherence to a diet score based on American Heart Association recommendations is associated with lower odds of allostatic load and metabolic syndrome in Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-11-01

    A score based on diet and lifestyle recommendations from the AHA has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to assess whether the diet components alone were associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL; a composite measure of 10 physiologically dysregulated variables). The diet score ranged from 0 to 90 and included intake components for dietary fats, fruits and vegetables, whole grains, salt, added sugars, and alcohol and was tested in a cross-sectional analysis of 1318 Puerto Rican adults (aged 45-75 y; 72% women) living in Boston, MA. The mean ± SD diet score was 28.0 ± 9.9 for men and 30.0 ± 10.1 for women. Replicating findings from a previous study in this cohort that used both the diet and lifestyle components, we observed associations between the diet-only score and insulin, waist circumference, and HDL cholesterol. We found novel significant associations between the continuous diet score and AL components, namely an inverse association with urinary cortisol and a positive association with serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in women as well as an inverse association with urinary norepinephrine in men (all P < 0.05). In multinomial logistic regression, every 10 AHA diet score units were associated with 22% (95% CI: 1, 38; P = 0.043) lower odds of having ≥6 (vs. ≤2) dysregulated AL components in women. In men, every 10 diet score units were associated with lower odds of MetS (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.93; P = 0.016). Following AHA recommendations for a healthy diet may protect against the development of components of MetS and AL in Puerto Rican adults.

  9. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Shahpoor; Mahdizadeh, Jamileh

    2015-12-01

    The association of obesity and other metabolic conditions with osteoarthritis is under debate; however, a strong link between metabolic disturbances is suggested to contribute to increased incidences and progression of osteoarthritis. We examined the association of metabolic syndrome and its components with the incidence of knee osteoarthritis in Iranian population. A community-based study was conducted on a total of 625 Iranian volunteers with the complaint of knee pain. Weight-bearing and anteroposterior plain radiographs of both knees were taken on the day of admission. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the modified Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome were 22.5% in males and 11.6% in females (P=0.002). The prevalence rate of knee osteoarthritis was 20.0% in males and 43.8% of females (P<0.001). In both genders, osteoarthritis group had higher serum levels of triglyceride and systolic blood pressure in comparison with non-osteoarthritis group. Women with osteoarthritis had higher Body Mass Index (BMI), however, this association was not observed in men. In females, the presence of osteoarthritis was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, with the risk of metabolic syndrome in the osteoarthritis group at 2.187 fold the risk in the non-osteoarthritis group. But, the presence of osteoarthritis was not associated with metabolic syndrome in males. Metabolic syndrome mainly through high BMI is associated with knee osteoarthritis in the Iranian women, but neither metabolic syndrome nor any related components are associated with knee osteoarthritis in men.

  10. Milk and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pfeuffer, M; Schrezenmeir, J

    2007-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders, namely dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity and glucose intolerance. Insulin resistance is the core phenomenon. Co-occurrence is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Observational studies found no increased CVD risk with increasing consumption of milk and other dairy products. In several studies dairy consumption was inversely associated with the occurrence of one or several facets of the metabolic syndrome. Many dairy components may contribute to the beneficial effects. Milk and particularly whey appeared insulinotropic when given in a single meal, but not in longer-term intervention. Medium chain fatty acids improve insulin sensitivity. Whey proteins, amino acids, medium chain fatty acids and in particular calcium and other minerals may contribute to the beneficial effect of dairy products on body weight and body fat. Peptides, calcium and other minerals reduce blood pressure. Fermented products and probiotic bacteria decrease absorption of cholesterol, sphingomyelin of cholesterol and fat, calcium of cholesterol, bile acids and fat. Proteins, peptides and bacteria may also reduce plasma cholesterol. Lactose, citrate, proteins and peptides improve weight control, blood pressure and plasma lipids indirectly, by improving calcium bioavailability. Furthermore, dairy consumption improves the bioavailability of folate and other secondary plant components.

  11. Dyslipidemic drugs in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Sheelu S.; Misbahuddin; Ahmad, Farida; Rahman, Syed Z.; Khan, Asad U.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome predisposes to diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Statins reduce cardiovascular events, so all metabolic syndrome patients should be evaluated for dyslipidemia. Many patients fail to achieve lipid goals with statin monotherapy. Co-administration of ezetimibe (EZE) and atorvastatin (ATV) may enable more patients to achievelow-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C) goal while avoiding risks of high-dose statin monotherapy. Materials and Methods: The present study compares rosuvastatin (Rsv) with a combination of (Atv) and (Eze). Metabolic syndrome patients, 30-70 years with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dl and a 10-year CHD risk score of 10% were randomized to double-blind treatment with (Rsv) 5 mg (n = 67) or (Atv) 10 mg+(Eze) 10 mg (n = 68) for 12 weeks. Results: LDL-C reduced significantly; (32.3% and 30.3%, P < 0.001) in (Atv)+(Eze) and (Rsv), respectively, but there was no significant difference between two arms. More patients achieved LDL-C goal of ≤100 mg/dl with (Atv)+(Eze) compared to (Rsv) (65% vs. 58%, P < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) were reduced more with (Atv)+(Eze) compared to (Rsv) (28.1% and 21.4%, P < 0.001). Greater increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was observed with (Atv)+(Eze). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion: This study shows that the combination of (Atv)+(Eze) has more efficacy and comparable safety to that of (Rsv). PMID:23869305

  12. Metabolic syndrome in children (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yue-E; Zhang, Chong-Lin; Zhen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure. The prevalence of MetS is on the increase worldwide owing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. The risk of prevalence of MetS greatly increases during adulthood for those children exposed to cardiometabolic risk factors in their early lives. MetS has also been associated with liver fat accumulation in children. Elevated levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase have been associated with liver fat accumulation. The present review aimed to expand knowledge on the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors responsible for the widespread occurrence of metabolic disease in children. PMID:27698739

  13. Metabolic syndrome in children (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yue-E; Zhang, Chong-Lin; Zhen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure. The prevalence of MetS is on the increase worldwide owing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. The risk of prevalence of MetS greatly increases during adulthood for those children exposed to cardiometabolic risk factors in their early lives. MetS has also been associated with liver fat accumulation in children. Elevated levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase have been associated with liver fat accumulation. The present review aimed to expand knowledge on the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors responsible for the widespread occurrence of metabolic disease in children.

  14. Occupation-Related Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R.; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16–74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. RESULTS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5–11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0–4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex. PMID:18753667

  15. The metabolic syndrome and the liver.

    PubMed

    Verrijken, A; Francque, S; Van Gaal, L

    2008-01-01

    Together with the worldwide epidemic proportions of obesity the incidence of 'the metabolic syndrome' is rising across countries. The metabolic syndrome is described as a complex condition that is linked to (intra-abdominal) obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Several definitions for the metabolic syndrome have been suggested, all trying to identify individuals at high risk for both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The primary hepatic complication of obesity and insulin resistance is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is not included as a component of the metabolic syndrome as it is currently defined; however, data suggest an association. Although the data are mainly epidemiological, the pathogenesis of NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome show common components, with the focus on insulin resistance as a key factor. Even so the treatment of patients with the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD shows a certain degree of similarity, and should focus on the management of associated conditions including obesity, glucose and lipid abnormalities. Lifestyle modifications comprising healthy eating habits and regular exercise are the primary interventions recommended to patients with the metabolic syndrome and those with NAFLD. A pharmacological approach like insulin-sensitizing agents, lipid lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antiobesity agents can be successful in the treatment of certain risk factors that are currently clustering with both the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. In some cases bariatric surgery may be necessary.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome in Preeclampsia Women in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the metabolic syndrome in preeclampsia women. The study was performed on 50 women. The metabolic syndrome prevalence was 66%. Serum glucose, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly were increased and HDL- cholesterol level significantly was decreased in metabolic syndrome patients. These patients showed high prevalence of components of the syndrome. Our results show the importance of dyslipidemia in preeclampsia in overweight and obese women. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease are important problems for the health of women. It may be useful to give a treat to people with a high-normal blood pressure in early pregnancy. PMID:25553139

  17. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  18. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    PubMed Central

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. PMID:26061455

  19. Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Risk in HIV

    PubMed Central

    Nix, Linda

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection and its treatment have been associated with adipose tissue changes and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism. The proportion of HIV-infected adults over the age of 50 is also growing placing HIV-infected adults at particular risk for metabolic perturbations and cardiovascular disease. The metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected adults has been increasingly studied but whether HIV is associated with greater risk remains unclear, likely because of the interplay of host, viral and antiretroviral factors that are associated with the components of the metabolic syndrome. While the Framingham Risk Score is a well-accepted measure of 10-year cardiovascular risk in the general population, it may not accurately predict risk in the HIV setting due to HIV-related factors such as inflammation that are not accounted for. The relationship between HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) risk has also been debated. We summarize the recent literature on metabolic syndrome, DM, and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected adults. PMID:25027062

  20. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sasthi Narayan; Roy, Sunetra Kaviraj; Rahaman, Md Abdur

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. Objectives: To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Results: Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43), upper social class (14.89), sedentary lifestyle (17.00), and positive family history. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26985412

  1. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Kaushik; Goswami, Soumik; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-01-01

    South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population. PMID:22276252

  2. Medicinal agents and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Ruiz, M E; El Hafidi, M; Pérez-Torres, I; Baños, G; Guarner, V

    2013-01-01

    The definition of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) has encountered difficulty in reaching a universal consensus although there exists an agreement of its main pathologies which are hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, inflammation and renal damage. The prevalent opinion is that three of those alterations may define the syndrome. The incidence of the MS has increased globally, particularly in the last few years, to the point of being regarded as an epidemic. The treatment of the MS can be approached from different angles, since it may be a multifaceted health problem. A healthy lifestyle, which means the practice of regular exercise is suggested to MS patients. Increasing physical activity has anti-inflammatory effects since there is an inverse association of physical activity and inflammatory biomarker concentrations. An adequate diet is recommended, such as the Mediterranean, which contains fish, tomatoes, garlic, red peppers, olive oil and includes red wine, that is, antioxidants and non-saturated oils. There are also the traditional herbal preparations, used in the alternative medicine. Several therapeutic tools can be used; the most common are the pharmaceutical products to deal with obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and inflammation. In addition several pharmacological therapies such as non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended. Recently new mechanisms of action of statins, fibrates, metformin and thiazolidinediones have demonstrated their anti-inflammatory effect and potential use to treat MS.

  3. Early life programming and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Min

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) has reached epidemic proportions worldwide among children. Early life "programming" is now thought to be important in the etiology of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and MS. Nutritional imbalance and exposures to endocrine disruptor chemicals during development can increase risk for MS later in life. Epigenetic marks may be reprogrammed in response to both stochastic and environmental stimuli, such as changes in diet and the in utero environment, therefore, determination of targets for early life effects on epigenetic gene regulation provides insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of a variety of adult onset disease phenotypes. The perinatal period is a crucial time of growth, development and physiological changes in mother and child, which provides a window of opportunity for early intervention that may induce beneficial physiological alternations.

  4. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women. In this

  5. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Han, Thang S; Lean, Mike Ej

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30-40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5-10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35-40 kg/m(2) with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists. PMID:26998259

  6. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Mike EJ

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists. PMID:26998259

  7. α-Tocopherol bioavailability is lower in adults with metabolic syndrome regardless of dairy fat co-ingestion: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial123

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Eunice; Sapper, Teryn N; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Failla, Mark L; Schill, Kevin E; Clinton, Steven K; Bobe, Gerd; Traber, Maret G; Bruno, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary fat intake is expected to improve α-tocopherol bioavailability, which could be beneficial for improving α-tocopherol status, especially in cohorts at high cardiometabolic risk who fail to meet dietary α-tocopherol requirements. Objective: Our objective was to assess dose-dependent effects of dairy fat and metabolic syndrome (MetS) health status on α-tocopherol pharmacokinetics in plasma and lipoproteins. Design: A randomized, crossover, double-blind study was conducted in healthy and MetS adults (n = 10/group) who ingested encapsulated hexadeuterium-labeled (d6)–RRR–α-tocopherol (15 mg) with 240 mL nonfat (0.2 g fat), reduced-fat (4.8 g fat), or whole (7.9 g fat) milk before blood collection at regular intervals for 72 h. Results: Compared with healthy participants, those with MetS had lower (P < 0.05) baseline plasma α-tocopherol (μmol/mmol lipid) and greater oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), interleukin (IL)–6, IL-10, and C-reactive protein. Regardless of health status, d6–α-tocopherol bioavailability was unaffected by increasing amounts of dairy fat provided by milk beverages, but MetS participants had lower estimated d6–α-tocopherol absorption (±SEM) than did healthy participants (26.1% ± 1.0% compared with 29.5% ± 1.1%). They also had lower plasma d6–α-tocopherol AUC from 0 to 72 h, as well as maximal concentrations (Cmax: 2.04 ± 0.14 compared with 2.73 ± 0.18 μmol/L) and slower rates of plasma disappearance but similar times to Cmax. MetS participants had lower d6–α-tocopherol AUC from t = 0–12 h (AUC0–t final) in lipoprotein fractions [chylomicron, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, high-density lipoprotein]. Percentages of d6–α-tocopherol AUC0–t final in both the chylomicron (r = −0.46 to −0.52) and VLDL (r = −0.49 to −0.68) fractions were inversely correlated with oxidized LDL, IL-10, IL-6, and C-reactive protein. Conclusions: At dietary intakes equivalent to the

  8. Management of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2004-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with insulin resistance and consists of a constellation of factors that raise the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the primary goals of treating MetS are prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. Three levels of intervention may be considered for individuals with MetS : 1) management of underlying risk conditions by controlling weight excess, enhancing regular physical exercise and promoting healthy diet; 2) management of individual risk factors such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension, hyperglycaemia and prothrombotic state; and 3) targeting insulin resistance by using specific insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones. The most important therapeutic intervention effective in subjects with MetS should focus on modest weight reduction and regular leisure-time physical activities. Although lifestyle modification is the first-line therapy, drug therapy may be necessary in many patients to achieve recommended goals regarding lipid profile, blood pressure and blood glucose control. Rather than to use a magic bullet that might fully reverse the underlying cause of the syndrome, one appealing alternative would be to use a so-called "polypill" targeting each of the components of MetS. However, such a polypill should ideally contain numerous molecules that all have shown a potential interest for the management of MetS such as metformin, acarbose, a thiazolidinedione, a statin, a fibrate, an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system, aspirin. The growing prevalence and high-risk nature of MetS highlights the need to identify individuals with this condition and to treat them with an aggressive multitargeted approach.

  9. [Involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mari Hotta

    2015-04-01

    This article gives an outline about involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa become common diseases in woman in Japan. Binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome are observed in men as well as women. Binge eating is characteristic of bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome. It should be noted that high energy availability observed in these diseases results in obesity and exacerbate metabolic syndrome. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) can make patients to control symptoms and improve their QOL. Osteoporosis is one of chief complications and sequelae of anorexia nervosa. Low-birth weight babies born from emaciated patients with eating disorders are subject to metabolic syndrome in the future.

  10. Metabolic complications of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Qanta A

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a widely prevalent disorder, hallmarked by partial or total upper airway obstruction during sleep. These events fracture sleep integrity resulting in chronic partial sleep deprivation with destructive metabolic sequelae, the focus of this review.

  11. Metabolic syndrome, periodontal infection, and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Timonen, P; Niskanen, M; Suominen-Taipale, L; Jula, A; Knuuttila, M; Ylöstalo, P

    2010-10-01

    Only a few studies have examined the association of metabolic syndrome with periodontal infection and dental caries. The aim in this study was to examine the association of metabolic syndrome with periodontal infection and dental caries using the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) definition and its separate components. This study population consisted of dentate, non-diabetic individuals aged 30 to 64 years (N = 2050) who had never smoked. Relative risks (RR) were estimated with Poisson regression models. Metabolic syndrome was associated with teeth with deepened periodontal pockets 4 mm deep or deeper [adjusted RR 1.19 (95% CI 1.01-1.42)], with pockets 6 mm deep or deeper [adjusted RR 1.50 (95% CI 0.96-2.36)], and carious teeth [adjusted RR 1.25 (95% CI 0.93-1.70)]. The results suggest that metabolic syndrome or some of its components are associated weakly with periodontal infection.

  12. Metabolic syndrome in patients with hematological diseases.

    PubMed

    Annaloro, Claudio; Airaghi, Lorena; Saporiti, Giorgia; Onida, Francesco; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Deliliers, Giorgio Lambertenghi

    2012-08-01

    The term metabolic syndrome (MS) defines a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, formerly known as syndrome X. There is some debate about the diagnostic criteria; but the most widely accepted framework is that defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, which requires the simultaneous occurrence of at least three of abdominal obesity, arterial hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertrigliceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The prevalence of MS increases with age and varies depending on genetic factors. An abnormally high prevalence has been observed in patients with heterogeneous conditions, such as solid organ transplant recipients, AIDS patients and long-term cancer survivors. As some of the pathogenetic factors possibly involved include cyclosporine A, corticosteroids and cancer chemoradiotherapy, it is possible that MS may also be a complication in hematological patients. Some of the characteristics of MS have been reported with a certain frequency in thalassemia patients, and are mainly attributed to iron overload. Impaired hemostasis is a feature of MS rather than a factor predisposing to its development. In oncohematology, an abnormally high prevalence of MS features has been observed in survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In addition to corticosteroid- and cancer therapy-related hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and defective growth hormone incretion are other factors related to the development of MS. Moreover, the highest frequency of MS is observed in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Pediatric patients and allogeneic HSCT recipients have been the subject of foremost investigations; but adult patients and autologous HSCT recipients have also been studied more recently. A wide range of factors may contribute to the development of MS in HSCT recipients. Unfortunately, the real entity of the problem is far from clear because of the retrospective design of

  13. Key elements of plant-based diets associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Harris, Metria

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20 %-25 % of adults worldwide have metabolic syndrome. Vegetarian and vegan diets have demonstrated effectiveness in improving body weight, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factors, as compared with conventional therapeutic approaches, and are potentially useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. This article consists of two steps: (1) a review of the literature on studies examining vegetarian and vegan diets and metabolic syndrome and (2) a review of foods and nutrients that are protective against or associated with metabolic syndromes that may help to explain the beneficial effects of plant-based dietary approaches for metabolic syndrome. The present review found eight observational research studies, and no intervention studies, examining the association of plant-based dietary approaches with metabolic syndrome. These studies, conducted mostly in Asian populations, yielded varying results. The majority, however, found better metabolic risk factors and lowered risk of metabolic syndrome among individuals following plant-based diets, as compared with omnivores. Some dietary components that are lower in the diets of vegetarians, such as energy intake, saturated fat, heme iron, and red and processed meat, may influence metabolic syndrome risk. In addition, plant-based diets are higher in fruits, vegetables, and fiber, which are protective against the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25084991

  14. Key elements of plant-based diets associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Harris, Metria

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20 %-25 % of adults worldwide have metabolic syndrome. Vegetarian and vegan diets have demonstrated effectiveness in improving body weight, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factors, as compared with conventional therapeutic approaches, and are potentially useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. This article consists of two steps: (1) a review of the literature on studies examining vegetarian and vegan diets and metabolic syndrome and (2) a review of foods and nutrients that are protective against or associated with metabolic syndromes that may help to explain the beneficial effects of plant-based dietary approaches for metabolic syndrome. The present review found eight observational research studies, and no intervention studies, examining the association of plant-based dietary approaches with metabolic syndrome. These studies, conducted mostly in Asian populations, yielded varying results. The majority, however, found better metabolic risk factors and lowered risk of metabolic syndrome among individuals following plant-based diets, as compared with omnivores. Some dietary components that are lower in the diets of vegetarians, such as energy intake, saturated fat, heme iron, and red and processed meat, may influence metabolic syndrome risk. In addition, plant-based diets are higher in fruits, vegetables, and fiber, which are protective against the development of metabolic syndrome.

  15. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS.

  16. White Matter Alteration in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shimoji, Keigo; Abe, Osamu; Uka, Takanori; Yasmin, Hasina; Kamagata, Koji; Asahi, Kouichi; Hori, Masaaki; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Watada, Hirotaka; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Aoki, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We explored the regional pattern of white matter alteration in subjects with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated whether white matter alteration was correlated with BMI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seven middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome and seven without metabolic syndrome underwent diffusion tensor imaging with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging imager. We analyzed the fractional anisotropy (FA) values by using a tract-based spatial statistics technique (whole-brain analysis). We subsequently focused on measuring the mean FA values of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) of all subjects by tract-specific analysis (regional brain analysis). We used a Pearson correlation coefficient to evaluate the relationship between BMI and mean FA values of the right IFOF. RESULTS In the whole-brain analysis, subjects with metabolic syndrome had significantly lower FA values than control subjects in part of the right external capsule (part of the right IFOF), the entire corpus callosum, and part of the deep white matter of the right frontal lobe. In the regional brain analysis, the mean FA value of the right IFOF was 0.41 ± 0.03 for subjects with metabolic syndrome and 0.44 ± 0.05 for control subjects. A significant negative correlation was observed between BMI and FA values in the right IFOF (r = −0.56, P < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Our results show that microstructural white matter changes occur in patients with metabolic syndrome. FA values may be useful indices of white matter alterations in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:23172976

  17. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults  ≥ 19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p < 0.05); fruit, diet quality, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, dietary fiber, vitamins E, K, magnesium, and potassium (p < 0.0001); vitamin K (p = 0.0013); and lower intakes of added sugars (p < 0.0001). No significant differences were seen in calorie or sodium intakes. Body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly lower (p < 0.01), and HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in avocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of

  18. Metabolic syndrome in severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, Jude U; Akanji, Abayomi O

    2011-04-01

    The concept of metabolic syndrome in psychiatry provides a united front for confronting a series of metabolic changes that are predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which are highly prevalent in severe mental disorders (SMDs), such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and severe depression. This review attempts to answer the following questions: (1) Is there evidence of significantly increased risk of metabolic syndrome in SMDs? (2) How is this evidence explained by stress theory and functional polymorphism? (3) What role can psychopharmacology and psychosocial therapies play in minimizing the problem? We have done a historical review using related literature from Medline. Compared with the general population, metabolic syndrome is two to three times more common in SMDs. The evidence for this predates the era of antipsychotic drugs. Altered glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia seem to be integral to SMDs. However, major psychotropic drugs are associated with metabolic syndrome, because of their activity at the appetite-stimulating receptors. SMDs seem to trigger a pathogenic cycle that fuels metabolic syndrome. To explain these findings, a neural diathesis-stress model has been proposed. Furthermore, candidate genes associated with receptors for weight gain are implicated. Using metformin (≥750 mg/day) may significantly reduce metabolic risks, and the data support consideration of this intervention for psychiatric patients taking antipsychotics. The obstacles to the implementation of the available guidelines for monitoring metabolic effects and changing unhelpful lifestyles need to be overcome by making monitoring mandatory and integration of physical exercise into routine care. Drug development and genotyping for the risk factors are future solutions. PMID:20964513

  19. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in pediatric psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Gutmark-Little, Iris; Shah, Kara N

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory dermatosis that often has its onset during childhood. There is increasing evidence that psoriasis in adults is associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and associated comorbidities, including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This association is postulated to arise, at least in part, as a result of a systemic proinflammatory state that is mediated by adipose tissue. Several recent observational studies suggest that children and adolescents with psoriasis may be at increased risk of being overweight and obese as well as having an increased risk for features of the metabolic syndrome. Such an association raises concern with regards to the long-term health implications for children and adolescents with psoriasis and suggests that better awareness, evaluation, and management of overweight and obese patients and associated metabolic disease are warranted in this population. PMID:25889131

  20. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and asthma.

    PubMed

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  2. Nocturnal eating syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Spaggiari, M C; Granella, F; Parrino, L; Marchesi, C; Melli, I; Terzano, M G

    1994-06-01

    Ten adult subjects were referred to our sleep disorders center complaining of difficulty in maintaining sleep due to frequent and recurrent awakenings to eat or drink. All patients manifested more than one episode per night, characterized by compulsive food seeking and a return to sleep only after adequate food intake. Food-seeking drive was described as an urgent abnormal need to swallow food and was associated with an absence of real hunger. Six subjects showed an elective nighttime intake of carbohydrates, and in all cases only edible substances were injected. The patients were always fully awake during the episodes and could clearly recall them in the morning. Polysomnographic investigation showed low levels of sleep efficiency, a high number of awakenings and a strict relation between nocturnal eating episodes and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The average length of each episode was 3.5 minutes. The "eating latency", that is the interval between awakening and chewing start, was shorter than 30 seconds in 50% of the episodes. No medical, hormonal or neurological disorders were found during clinical and laboratory investigations. Body mass index was abnormally high in six patients. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia were carefully excluded. Various psychiatric disturbances were found in nine subjects, who were nevertheless well-functioning adults. Concurrent dyssomniac disorders, such as narcolepsy or periodic leg movements occasionally associated with restless legs syndrome, were diagnosed in five patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning.

  4. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning. PMID:27601926

  5. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning. PMID:27601926

  6. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P < 0.001), confirmed by fasting plasma alkylrecorsinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05) in parallel to a 53% decrease in the alkylrecorsinol concentration (P < 0.001) in the group consuming refined wheat breads. In this group, the abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, B. plebeius, and Prevotella tannerae decreased, whereas that of bacteria related to Collinsella and members of the Clostridium clusters IV and XI increased. In a multivariate regression analysis, the abundance of Bacteroides spp. was best explained by different fat compounds among dietary variables, whereas the main sugar-converting butyrate-producers were mostly associated with the intake of whole- and refined-grain bread and fiber. Our results indicate that the quality of grains has a minor effect on the intestinal microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat. PMID:23514765

  7. β-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    PubMed Central

    Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Sánchez-Guillén, María Del Carmen; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Aims The clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not find any parameters to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS) or β-cell function. The evaluation of these parameters would detect early risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between β-cell function and presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects. Material and methods This study is part of the Mexican Survey on the Prevention of Diabetes (MexDiab Study) with headquarters in the city of Puebla, Mexico. The study comprised of 444 subjects of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years and allocated into two study groups: (1) control group of individuals at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome and (2) group composed of subjects with metabolic syndrome and diagnosed according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Defection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessments were carried out. Results Average age of the subjects in the control group (n = 254) was 35.7 ± 11.5 years and 42.0 ± 10.7 years for subjects in the metabolic syndrome group (n = 190). Subjects at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome showed decreased IS, increased insulin resistance (IR), and altered β-cell function. Individuals with metabolic syndrome showed a high prevalence (P ≤ 0.05) of family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This group also showed a significant metabolic imbalance with glucose and insulin levels and lipid profile outside the ranges considered safe to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and T2D. Conclusion The main finding in this study was the detection of altered β-cell function, decreased IS, an increased IR in subjects at metabolic balance, and the progressive deterioration of β-cell function and IS in subjects with metabolic syndrome as the number of features of metabolic syndrome increases

  8. A metabolic syndrome severity score: A tool to quantify cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Joshua F; Carrington, Melinda J

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors and is associated with increased mortality. There is no standard, validated way to assess the severity of aggregated metabolic syndrome risk factors. Cardiovascular and diabetes risk factor data came from two studies conducted in Australia from 2006 to 2010 in adults aged 18 or above. In medication free adults, sex-specific clinical thresholds and Principal Component Analysis were used to develop a formula to calculate a metabolic syndrome severity score (MetSSS). These scores were compared to scores derived using the same process in subgroups by sex, age, medication status, and time. We also examined the MetSSS in relation to other known risk factors. In 2125 adults (57.6±14.7years of age), the MetSSS ranged from 0 to 8.7 with a mean of 2.6. There were strong correlations (.95-.99) between the MetSSS in medication free adults and the MetSSS calculated from subgroups. MetSSS predicted medication initiation for hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia over six months (OR=1.31, 95% CI [1.00-1.70], per MetSSS unit, p=.043). Lower education, medication prescription, history of smoking and age were associated with higher MetSSS (all p<.05). Higher physical but not mental health quality of life was associated with lower MetSSS (p<.001). A standardized formula to measure cardio-metabolic risk factor severity was constructed and demonstrated expected relations with known risk factors. The use of the MetSSS is recommended as a measure of change within individuals in cardio-metabolic risk factors and to guide treatment and management.

  9. A metabolic syndrome severity score: A tool to quantify cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Joshua F; Carrington, Melinda J

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors and is associated with increased mortality. There is no standard, validated way to assess the severity of aggregated metabolic syndrome risk factors. Cardiovascular and diabetes risk factor data came from two studies conducted in Australia from 2006 to 2010 in adults aged 18 or above. In medication free adults, sex-specific clinical thresholds and Principal Component Analysis were used to develop a formula to calculate a metabolic syndrome severity score (MetSSS). These scores were compared to scores derived using the same process in subgroups by sex, age, medication status, and time. We also examined the MetSSS in relation to other known risk factors. In 2125 adults (57.6±14.7years of age), the MetSSS ranged from 0 to 8.7 with a mean of 2.6. There were strong correlations (.95-.99) between the MetSSS in medication free adults and the MetSSS calculated from subgroups. MetSSS predicted medication initiation for hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia over six months (OR=1.31, 95% CI [1.00-1.70], per MetSSS unit, p=.043). Lower education, medication prescription, history of smoking and age were associated with higher MetSSS (all p<.05). Higher physical but not mental health quality of life was associated with lower MetSSS (p<.001). A standardized formula to measure cardio-metabolic risk factor severity was constructed and demonstrated expected relations with known risk factors. The use of the MetSSS is recommended as a measure of change within individuals in cardio-metabolic risk factors and to guide treatment and management. PMID:27095322

  10. Evaluating Barriers to Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Iranian Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: A Qualitative Study Using the Theory of Reasoned Action

    PubMed Central

    ESMAEILI, Naseh; ALIZADEH, Mohammad; TARIGHAT ESFANJANI, Ali; KHEIROURI, Sorayya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined as a pattern of metabolic disorders including central obesity, insulin resistance or hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Many studies show a clear relationship between diet and components of MS. The aim of the current study was to identify barriers to adherence to dietary recommendations among Iranian MS patients. Methods: The theory of reasoned action (TRA) served as the framework for this qualitative study. Data collection was conducted through six semi-structured focus group discussions, from Apr to Jun 2013. Subjects included 36 married men and women with different levels of education between the ages of 20–50 with MS diagnosed based on IDF’s (International Diabetes federation) criteria. All focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed. The thematic content analysis method was used to analyze the study data. Results: This study identified the most important barriers to adherence to dietary recommendations. MS patients have problems in their attitude toward MS components and their relationship to nutrition. They also had wrong attitudes toward fats and oils, salt, dairy products, cereals, and sugary drinks and sweets. Subjective norms that affects patient eating identifies too. Conclusion: We identified barriers to adherence to dietary recommendations in MS patients that could be used to prevent MS consequences and provide patients with nutrition education. PMID:27517000

  11. Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.

    PubMed

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway.

  12. Validation of the Friedewald Formula in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knopfholz, José; Disserol, Caio César Diniz; Pierin, Andressa Jardim; Schirr, Fernanda Letícia; Takito, Lilian Lumi; Massucheto Ledesma, Patrícia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha; Olandoski, Marcia; da Cunha, Claudio Leinig Pereira; Bandeira, Antonio Milton

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the Friedewald formula (FF) is the main method for evaluating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). Recently, many limitations have emerged regarding its use, including patients with triglyceride levels ≥400 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus, and kidney or hepatic chronic diseases. We analyzed the use of the FF in patients with metabolic syndrome. We selected patients with known metabolic syndrome that fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report and excluded patients with triglyceride levels ≥400 mg/dL and chronic liver and/or kidney disease. Using direct assays, we measured total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c. Then, LDL-c was estimated using the FF and compared with the LDL-c by direct assay. The sample size was 135 patients. Using the FF, the mean LDL-c value was 124.4 ± 42.1 mg/dL; it was 125.1 ± 38.5 mg/dL by direct assay. The correlation coefficient between these two methods was 0.89, with statistical significance (P  value < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the patients with triglyceride levels >150 mg/dL (P = 0.618). In conclusion, FF is a good method for estimating LDL-c in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24672715

  13. Offending Behaviour in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…

  14. A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc.) contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome's definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome. PMID:24711954

  15. The association of metabolic syndrome and urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yee V; Cook, Paul; Somani, Bhaskar K

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing prevalence of kidney stones over the last 2 decades worldwide. Many studies have indicated a possible association between metabolic syndrome and kidney stone disease, particularly in overweight and obese patients. Many different definitions of metabolic syndrome have been suggested by various organizations, although the definition by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is universally considered as the most acceptable definition. The IDF definition revolves around 4 core components: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of urolithiasis resulting from metabolic syndrome, amongst which are the insulin resistance and Randall's plaque hypothesis. Similarly the pathophysiology of calcium and uric acid stone formation has been investigated to determine a connection between the two conditions. Studies have found many factors contributing to urolithiasis in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, out of which obesity, overweight, and sedentary lifestyles have been identified as major etiological factors. Primary and secondary prevention methods therefore tend to revolve mainly around lifestyle improvements, including dietary and other preventive measures.

  16. Lifestyle management in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Lakka, Timo A; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are two of the fastest growing public health problems in both developed and developing countries. Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent complication of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Overweight, obesity, or weight gain has been shown to be an important risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and an important component of the metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity is another important risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Data from prospective studies have shown that at least 30 min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity can prevent type 2 diabetes. Moderate or high levels of physical fitness are effective in preventing type 2 diabetes. Results from clinical trials have indicated that lifestyle changes, including dietary modification and increase in physical activity, can prevent type 2 diabetes. Analyses from prospective studies have confirmed that healthy diets are effective and safe ways to prevent type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Public health messages, health care professionals, and the health care system should aggressively promote physical activity and responsible nutritional habits during occupation, leisure time, and daily life and prevent overweight and obesity.

  17. METABOLIC SYNDROME – THEORY AND PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    Ramic, Enisa; Prasko, Subhija; Mujanovic, Olivera Batic; Gavran, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Due to sedentary lifestyles and excessive calorie intake, metabolic syndrome is becoming increasingly common health problem in the world, as well as in our country, and it is estimated to occur in 30% of the population of middle and older age. The metabolic syndrome is a combination of disorders that include: obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, impaired regulation of body fat and high blood pressure. Complications resulting from metabolic syndrome significantly reduces quality of patient’s life and represents a huge socio-economic burden. Metabolic syndrome therapy is directed to reduce all risk factors, and that means the change of lifestyle, which includes a reduction of body weight, physical activity, antiatherogenic diet and smoking cessation. Medical therapy is aimed to the individual risk factors. Case report: In case of our patient, despite the optimal standard therapy, including drugs for the regulation of LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, an intensive control of blood pressure and glucose, failure to implement the recommended treatment led to a myocardial infarction. Conclusion: The fundamental problem is not the lack of efficacy of available therapeutic measures, medications and procedures, but in insufficient implementation. PMID:27047273

  18. Understanding the Metabolic Syndrome: A Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Michael C. K.; Oliveira, Flavia M. G. S.; Cheng, Limei

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing at an alarming rate, placing many at risk for developing diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, or a combination of disorders known as “metabolic syndrome”. The evidence to date suggests that metabolic syndrome results from an imbalance in the mechanisms that link diet, physical activity, glucose-insulin control, and autonomic cardiovascular control. There is also growing recognition that sleep-disordered breathing and other forms of sleep disruption can contribute significantly to autonomic dysfunction and insulin resistance. Chronic sleep deprivation resulting from sleep-disordered breathing or behavioral causes can lead to excessive daytime sleepiness and lethargy, which in turn contribute to increasing obesity. Analysis of this complex dynamic system using a model-based approach can facilitate the delineation of the causal pathways that lead to the emergence of the metabolic syndrome. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main physiological mechanisms associated with obesity and sleep-disordered breathing that are believed to result in metabolic and autonomic dysfunction, and review the models and modeling approaches that are relevant in characterizing the interplay among the multiple factors that underlie the development of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23232440

  19. Epidemiological, endocrine and metabolic features in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2004-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the more common genetic disorders, associated with abnormalities of the X chromosome, and occurring in about 50 per 100 000 liveborn girls. Turner syndrome is usually associated with reduced adult height, gonadal dysgenesis and thus insufficient circulating levels of female sex steroids, and infertility. A number of other signs and symptoms are seen more frequently with the syndrome. Morbidity and mortality are increased. The average intellectual performance is within the normal range. A number of recent studies have provided new insights with respect to epidemiology, cardiology, endocrinology and metabolism. Treatment with GH during childhood and adolescence allows a considerable gain in adult height, although very-long-term consequences of this treatment are not clear. Puberty has to be induced in most cases, and female sex hormone replacement therapy is given during the adult years. The proper dose of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has not been established, and, likewise, benefits and/or drawbacks from HRT have not been thoroughly evaluated. Since the risk of cardiovascular and endocrinological disease is clearly elevated, proper care during adulthood is emphasized. In summary, Turner syndrome is a condition associated with a number of diseases and conditions which are reviewed in the present paper.

  20. Lipid abnormalities in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Eliot A

    2003-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome is the constellation of adverse metabolic and clinical effects of insulin resistance. Its high and increasing prevalence and its profound impact on the major diseases of the western world require that clinicians consider its diagnosis and management on a routine basis. Recently published guidelines on its definition now make convenient and reliable diagnosis possible. Also, there is new and better understanding of the complex dyslipidemias and other risk factors strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome, which greatly increase the risk of clinical atherosclerotic events. Comprehensive clinical evaluation of these dyslipidemias and associated atherosclerosis risk factors can lead to their aggressive treatment, customized according to the circumstances of each patient. These steps are now more feasible and more clearly desirable than ever before. Statins alone greatly reduce atherosclerosis risk, but combination lipid therapy is often required for optimal dyslipidemia management and atheroprevention. PMID:12643148

  1. [Atypical antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Andreas; Yazdani, Renè; Haas-Krammer, Alexandra; Stepan, Alexandra; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of atypical antipsychotics in psychopharmacology represented a major advance in the treatment of psychotic disorders. However, there have been numerous studies that certain atypical antipsychotics may be associated with a greater risk of metabolic abnormalities than others, including weight gain, hyperlipidemia and new-onset typ 2 diabetes mellitus. A G-Protein beta3 subunit Gen (C825T) polymorphism, an increased carbohydrate metabolism and dyshormonism are discussed as pathogenetic mechanisms. High risk patients (adiposity, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, preexisting diabetes) should maintain an antipsychotic agent with a favourable side effect profile. In these cases a periodical diabetes screening and blood lipid controls are required. Clinicans must balance the significant benefits of atypical antipsychotics against the risk of metabolic disturbances. In this article recent findings are reviewed.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in patients with prostate cancer undergoing intermittent androgen-deprivation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Mohammadali Mohammadzadeh; Rezaei, Mohammadhadi Mohammadzadeh; Ghoreifi, Alireza; Kerigh, Behzad Feyzzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of metabolic syndrome in men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), especially intermittent type, has not been completely evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate metabolic syndrome in men with PCa undergoing intermittent ADT. Methods: In this longitudinal study, we studied the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in 190 patients who were undergoing intermittent ADT. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. All metabolic parameters, including lipid profile, blood glucose, blood pressures, and waist circumferences of the patients were measured six and 12 months after treatment. Results: Mean age of the patients was 67.5 ± 6.74 years. The incidence of metabolic syndrome after six and 12 months was 6.8% and 14.7%, respectively. Analysis of various components of the metabolic syndrome revealed that patients had significantly higher overall prevalence of hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in their six- and 12-month followups, but blood pressure has not been changed in the same period except for diastolic blood pressure after six months. Conclusions: Although there was an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in patients receiving intermittent ADT, it was lower than other studies that treated the same patients with continuous ADT. Also it seems that intermittent ADT has less metabolic complications than continuous ADT and could be used as a safe alternative in patients with advanced and metastatic PCa.

  3. A prospective study of serum adiponectin and regression of metabolic syndrome: The ARIRANG study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang-Young; Yadav, Dhananjay; Ahn, Song Vogue; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2015-10-16

    Increased serum adiponectin levels may play a protective role in metabolic syndrome. However, few prospective studies have examined the effect of serum adiponectin in the improvement of metabolic components in subjects with metabolic syndrome. We investigated the association of serum adiponectin levels with the regression of metabolic syndrome in a population-based longitudinal study. A total of 1308 adults (575 men and 733 women) with metabolic syndrome at baseline were examined and followed. Baseline serum adiponectin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. During an average of 2.6 years of follow-up, metabolic syndrome had disappeared in 184 men (29.8%) and 235 women (32.1%). In multivariable adjusted models, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for regression of metabolic syndrome comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of adiponectin levels was 0.93 (0.56-1.53) in men and 2.48 (1.54-4.01) in women. Increased serum adiponectin is a predictor for the regression of metabolic syndrome in women. Adiponectin may have potential therapeutic applications in metabolic disease.

  4. Metabolic syndrome in patients with prostate cancer undergoing intermittent androgen-deprivation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Mohammadali Mohammadzadeh; Rezaei, Mohammadhadi Mohammadzadeh; Ghoreifi, Alireza; Kerigh, Behzad Feyzzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of metabolic syndrome in men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), especially intermittent type, has not been completely evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate metabolic syndrome in men with PCa undergoing intermittent ADT. Methods: In this longitudinal study, we studied the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in 190 patients who were undergoing intermittent ADT. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. All metabolic parameters, including lipid profile, blood glucose, blood pressures, and waist circumferences of the patients were measured six and 12 months after treatment. Results: Mean age of the patients was 67.5 ± 6.74 years. The incidence of metabolic syndrome after six and 12 months was 6.8% and 14.7%, respectively. Analysis of various components of the metabolic syndrome revealed that patients had significantly higher overall prevalence of hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in their six- and 12-month followups, but blood pressure has not been changed in the same period except for diastolic blood pressure after six months. Conclusions: Although there was an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in patients receiving intermittent ADT, it was lower than other studies that treated the same patients with continuous ADT. Also it seems that intermittent ADT has less metabolic complications than continuous ADT and could be used as a safe alternative in patients with advanced and metastatic PCa. PMID:27695584

  5. Support Groups for Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Kathryn Mederise

    2011-01-01

    A total of 35 adults (24-77 years; 24 males and 11 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) who were in, were waiting to get in, or had been in support groups participated in the study. In general, the adults were highly educated but unemployed or underemployed and living alone with family members as friends. The participants were interviewed,…

  6. Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caitlin J; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative.

  7. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  8. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors among outpatients of Jimma University Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Abda, Edris; Hamza, Leja; Tessema, Fasil; Cheneke, Waqtola

    2016-01-01

    Background Developing countries are now experiencing the epidemiologic transition, whereby the burden of chronic diseases, like metabolic syndrome, is increasing. However, no study had previously been conducted to show the status of metabolic syndrome among outpatients of Jimma University Teaching Hospital. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated factors among adult (≥20 years) patients. Methods A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in July 2014 among adult (≥20 years) patients attending Jimma University Teaching Hospital, outpatient department. All patients attending the outpatient department and were willing to participate in the study were included. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were undertaken for all the study subjects to know the status of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was identified using the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results A total of 225 participants were included in the study, of whom 106 (47.1%) were males and 119 (52.9%) were females. A total of 59 (26%) adults were found to have metabolic syndrome, which was seen more than twice as much in females, 42 (35%), as compared with males, 17 (16%), (P<0.01). The most frequent metabolic syndrome parameters were hypertension (45%), hyperglycemia (39%), decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (31%), central obesity (26%), and elevated triglycerides (18%). Elevated blood pressure is more common in females (44.5%) than in males (34.9%). Decreased HDL-cholesterol was observed among 37% of females versus 24% males (P<0.001) and 6% of males versus 45% females had central obesity (P<0.001). Hypertension and body mass index were significantly lower among males (35% and 14%) than females (45% and 41%) (P<0.01 and P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion It is demonstrated that metabolic syndrome is prevalent in adult outpatients in Jimma and increases as age increases; it

  9. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Concepción M; Olza, Josune; Gil, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial origin disease characterised by body fat excess mainly due to an imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. One of the major complications of obesity is metabolic syndrome, which comprises anthropometrical, clinical, and metabolic dysfunctions that predispose the affected individual to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is hypothesised that the variability in the susceptibility to obesity-mediated metabolic complications involves both environmental and genetic factors. Whereas advances in the knowledge of the variations in the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity and related disorders, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the interactions between obesity and genetic polymorphisms and the development of metabolic complications. Despite these limited efforts, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that the effects of some gene variants on metabolic traits are modified by or present only in the setting of obesity. Furthermore, some of these loci may have larger effects on metabolic phenotypes in the presence of certain dietary or lifestyle factors. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the genes and their variants that have been evidenced to play a role in obesity-associated metabolic complications through genetic association studies, including candidate gene and genome-wide association approaches in adults and children.

  10. Reduced Flexibility Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Community-Dwelling Elders

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hung; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Han, Der-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background The ageing process may lead to reductions in physical fitness, a known risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate cross-sectional and combined associations of metabolic syndrome with body composition and physical fitness in a community based geriatric population. Methods A total of 628 community-dwelling elders attending a geriatric health examination were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criterion with Asian cutoff of waist girth was adopted in this study. Body composition was obtained using bioimpedance analysis, and physical fitness was evaluated through the measurement of muscle strength (handgrip force), lower extremity muscle endurance (sit-to-stand test), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), and cardiorespiratory endurance (2-minute step test). Multivariable logistic regression and correlation analysis were performed to determine the association of metabolic syndrome with body composition and functionality variables. Results Metabolic syndrome was associated with increased skeletal muscle index (SMI) (odds ratio (OR), 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–2.07) and decreased flexibility (OR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95–0.99) compared with those without metabolic syndrome. When body mass index was accounted for in the analysis, the association of SMI with metabolic syndrome was reduced. Waist circumference was positively correlated with SMI but negatively correlated with flexibility, whereas high density lipoprotein was positively correlated with flexibility but negatively correlated with SMI. Conclusion Reduced flexibility was positively associated with metabolic syndrome independent of age, gender, body composition, and functionality measurements in a community based geriatric population. Significant associations between metabolic syndrome with muscle strength

  11. Metabolic syndrome: from epidemiology to systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Lusis, Aldons J.; Attie, Alan D.; Reue, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a group of metabolic conditions that occur together and promote the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several novel susceptibility genes for MetSyn traits, and studies in rodent models have provided important molecular insights. However, as yet, only a small fraction of the genetic component is known. Systems-based approaches that integrate genomic, molecular and physiological data are complementing traditional genetic and biochemical approaches to more fully address the complexity of MetSyn. PMID:18852695

  12. Ethnic differences in beta-cell function, dietary intake and expression of the metabolic syndrome among UK adults of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white-European origin at high risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goff, Louise M; Griffin, Bruce A; Lovegrove, Julie A; Sanders, Tom A; Jebb, Susan A; Bluck, Les J; Frost, Gary S

    2013-07-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of ethnic differences in dietary intake, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, using the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), was conducted on 497 healthy adult participants of the 'Reading, Imperial, Surrey, Cambridge, and Kings' (RISCK) study. Insulin sensitivity (Si) was significantly lower in African-Caribbean (AC) and South Asian (SA) participants [IVGTT-Si; AC: 2.13 vs SA: 2.25 vs white-European (WE): 2.84 (×10(-4) mL µU min)(2), p < 0.001]. AC participants had a higher prevalence of anti-hypertensive therapy (AC: 19.7% vs SA: 7.5%), the most cardioprotective lipid profile [total:high-density lipoprotein (HDL); AC: 3.52 vs SA: 4.08 vs WE: 3.83, p = 0.03] and more pronounced hyperinsulinaemia [IVGTT-acute insulin response (AIR)] [AC: 575 vs SA: 428 vs WE: 344 mL/µU/min)(2), p = 0.002], specifically in female participants. Intake of saturated fat and carbohydrate was lower and higher in AC (10.9% and 50.4%) and SA (11.1% and 52.3%), respectively, compared to WE (13.6% and 43.8%, p < 0.001). Insulin resistance in ACs is characterised by 'normal' lipid profiles but high rates of hypertension and pronounced hyperinsulinaemia.

  13. Ayurvedic concept of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari; Chandola, H M

    2011-06-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus are increasing to epidemic proportions globally. There are 400 million clinically obese adults worldwide and there are more than 220 million people who have diabetes. The global impact of these disorders is immense in terms of human suffering and economic burden. There is an urgent need for a more effective understanding of these disease processes and their management, including the use of natural strategies that are affordable and efficacious. The health care system known as Ayurveda has much to offer in this regard. Ayurveda describes a set of complex clinical disorders, collectively called Prameha, that are characterized by frequent abnormal micturition. The clinical conditions associated with Prameha correlate in many ways with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. The etiology, classification, pathogenesis, and management of Prameha are discussed at length and in detail in the Ayurvedic texts. The theoretical background and comprehensive set of strategies Ayurveda utilizes to treat Prameha may be valuable in managing obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus in an efficacious and cost-effective manner. PMID:21649521

  14. Hypogonadism and endocrine metabolic disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Müller, J

    1997-11-01

    Disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are reviewed in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, and a brief account is given of thyroid function, adrenal function and glucose metabolism in such patients. Cryptorchidism, hypoplastic external genitalia and delayed or incomplete pubertal development in most patients with Prader-Willi syndrome suggest dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Decreased levels of gonadotrophins, consistent with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, have been found in some patients, whereas others appear to have hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism secondary to cryptorchidism and its treatment. Gonadal function is normal in a small number of patients with the syndrome. Although most clinicians agree that cryptorchidism should be corrected in early childhood, in practice the surgery is often not performed. In addition, most patients do not receive sex hormone replacement therapy. It is therefore suggested that more aggressive endocrine treatment strategies for hypogonadism are warranted in both children and adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. Both thyroid function and adrenal function appear to be normal in most patients, and glucose metabolism is similar to that in normal obese individuals.

  15. Cardiac NO signalling in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pechánová, O; Varga, Z V; Cebová, M; Giricz, Z; Pacher, P; Ferdinandy, P

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that metabolic syndrome (i.e. a group of risk factors, such as abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides and low cholesterol level in high-density lipoprotein), which raises the risk for heart disease and diabetes, is associated with increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generation. ROS/RNS can modulate cardiac NO signalling and trigger various adaptive changes in NOS and antioxidant enzyme expressions/activities. While initially these changes may represent protective mechanisms in metabolic syndrome, later with more prolonged oxidative, nitrosative and nitrative stress, these are often exhausted, eventually favouring myocardial RNS generation and decreased NO bioavailability. The increased oxidative and nitrative stress also impairs the NO-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) signalling pathway, limiting the ability of NO to exert its fundamental signalling roles in the heart. Enhanced ROS/RNS generation in the presence of risk factors also facilitates activation of redox-dependent transcriptional factors such as NF-κB, promoting myocardial expression of various pro-inflammatory mediators, and eventually the development of cardiac dysfunction and remodelling. While the dysregulation of NO signalling may interfere with the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs used in the management of metabolic syndrome, the modulation of NO signalling may also be responsible for the therapeutic benefits of already proven or recently developed treatment approaches, such as ACE inhibitors, certain β-blockers, and sGC activators. Better understanding of the above-mentioned pathological processes may ultimately lead to more successful therapeutic approaches to overcome metabolic syndrome and its pathological consequences in cardiac NO signalling. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this

  16. Nutritional programming of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Sebert, Sylvain P; Hyatt, Melanie A; Budge, Helen

    2009-11-01

    The primary markers of the metabolic syndrome are central obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. In this review, we consider the effect of changes in maternal nutrition during critical windows in fetal development on an individual's subsequent predisposition to the metabolic syndrome. The fetal origins of obesity, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance have been investigated in a wide range of epidemiological and animal studies; these investigations highlight adaptations made by the nutritionally manipulated fetus that aim to maintain energy homeostasis to ensure survival. One consequence of such developmental plasticity may be a long term re-setting of cellular energy homeostasis, most probably via epigenetic modification of genes involved in a number of key regulatory pathways. For example, reduced maternal-fetal nutrition during early gestation to midgestation affects adipose tissue development and adiposity of the fetus by setting an increased number of adipocyte precursor cells. Importantly, clinically relevant adaptations to nutritional challenges in utero may only manifest as primary components of the metabolic syndrome if followed by a period of accelerated growth early in the postnatal period and/or if offspring become obese.

  17. Dopamine metabolism in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome, with and without schizophrenia--relationship with COMT Val¹⁰⁸/¹⁵⁸Met polymorphism, gender and symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Boot, Erik; Booij, Jan; Abeling, Nico; Meijer, Julia; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Zinkstok, Janneke; Baas, Frank; Linszen, Don; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2011-07-01

    22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a major risk factor for schizophrenia. In addition, both conditions are associated with alterations of the dopaminergic system. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, located within the deleted region, encodes for the enzyme COMT that is important for degradation of catecholamines, including dopamine (DA). COMT activity is sexually dimorphic and its gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val¹⁰⁸/¹⁵⁸ Met; the Met allele is associated with lower enzyme activity. We report the first controlled catecholamine study in 22q11DS-related schizophrenia. Twelve adults with 22q11DS with schizophrenia (SCZ+) and 22 adults with 22q11DS without schizophrenia (SCZ-) were genotyped for the COMT Val¹⁰⁸/¹⁵⁸ Met genotype. We assessed dopaminergic markers in urine and plasma. We also correlated these markers with scores on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). Contrary to our expectations, we found SCZ+ subjects to be more often Val hemizygous and SCZ- subjects more often Met hemizygous. Significant COMT cross gender interactions were found on dopaminergic markers. In SCZ+ subjects there was a negative correlation between prolactin levels and scores on the general psychopathology subscale of the PANSS scores. These findings suggest intriguing, but complex, interactions of the COMT Val¹⁰⁸/¹⁵⁸ Met polymorphism, gender and additional factors on DA metabolism, and its relationship with schizophrenia.

  18. Metabolic Syndrome As an Underlying Disease Entity and Its Relationship to Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Andean Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Arguelles, William; Goldberg, Ronald; Schneiderman, Neil; Khan, Zubair; Morey, Oscar O.; Raja, Muhammad Waheed; Paz, Roberto; Chirinos, Julio A.; Llabre, Maria M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The question of whether the metabolic syndrome truly reflects a single disease entity with a common underlying pathology remains unclear. In this study, we assess whether metabolic syndrome represents an underlying disease construct in a large population-based sample of Andean Hispanic adults and examine its relationship to subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: The study sample was comprised of 2513 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to identify a metabolic syndrome latent factor using waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), and glucose levels as indicators. The relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results: Results supported the proposed structure of the metabolic syndrome latent factor evidenced by adequate fit indexes. HDL-C did not significantly load on the metabolic syndrome latent factor (standardized factor loading=0.01, P=0.88). The metabolic syndrome latent factor was significantly associated with cIMT in women (B=0.007, P<0.001) and men (B=0.008, P<0.001) after controlling for age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and smoking. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome components, such as waist circumference, blood pressure, TGs, and glucose levels, but not HDL-C, share a common underlying pathophysiology that may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis in Andean Hispanics. Its longitudinal association with cardiovascular disease should be the focus of future research. PMID:24206171

  19. [Dietary correction of nutrition status in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pogozheva, A V; Derbeneva, A R; Bogdanov, A R; Kaganov, B S

    2009-01-01

    Effectivity was studied of a low-caloric diet in patients with metabolic syndrome. Results of the study show that enrichment of a low-caloric diets in patients with metabolic syndrome improved clinic status, antropometric levels, metabolism and lipid spectrum of blood.

  20. Obesity, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmina, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The complex mechanisms linking fat excess to metabolic syndrome are not well understood, but several experimental studies have shown that altered production of adipokines plays a main role in development and progression of this disorder. In particular, reduced secretion of adiponectin has a crucial role in inducing insulin resistance but also in determining the clustering of elevated triglycerides and small, dense LDL particles. Increased leptin secretion may be responsible for sympathetic nervous system overactivity and hypertension, while reduced omentin may have an important permissive role in the development of atherogenic processes. Finally, cytokines and other adipokines (resistin, visfatin) determine and modulate the inflammatory process that is an essential component of this condition of cardiovascular risk. Because obesity is prevalent in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it is not surprising that patients with PCOS present altered adipokine levels and increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. However, because of the presence of other CV risk factors (androgen excess), in PCOS adipokine dysfunction is particularly severe. Understanding and treating adipokine dysfunction in young women with PCOS is an essential component of any politics of prevention of CV diseases in the general population.

  1. Metabolic Syndrome Based on IDF Criteria in a Sample of Normal Weight and Obese School Children.

    PubMed

    Quah, Y V; Poh, B K; Ismail, M N

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome was once reported only in adults but is now occurring more frequently in children. This study compared the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components among normal and obese children using the 2007 International Diabetes Federation (IDF) pediatric definition for metabolic syndrome. Subjects comprised 78 school children aged 8-10 years, with 34 obese and 44 normal weight children. Body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured and body mass index was calculated. Clinical profiles measured included fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined using the 2007 IDF pediatric criteria. Obese subjects had a significantly (p< 0.001) higher mean BMI (26.0 ± 3.6 kg/m2) compared to normal weight subjects (15.1 ± 0.8 kg/m2). Only one obese subject (1.3% of subjects) had metabolic syndrome based on the IDF definition, but all obese subjects had at least one component of metabolic syndrome. In comparison, no normal weight subjects had metabolic syndrome and only 9.1% of normal weight subjects had at least one component of metabolic syndrome. The most common component was central obesity, observed in 43.6% of subjects having WC equal to or greater than the 90th percentile. In concurrence with central obesity as the core feature of the IDF criteria, WC showed the strongest correlation with indicators of obesity such as BMI (r=0.938, p< 0.001), fat mass (r=0.912, p< 0.001) and fat-free mass (r=0.863, p< 0.001). We conclude that the problem of metabolic syndrome is more prominent among obese children, although the incidence of MS as defined by the 2007 pediatric IDF criteria, is low in this population (1.3%). PMID:22691926

  2. Outcomes in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the current research literature on adult outcomes of individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS). Specific areas addressed are the characteristics associated with adulthood AS, including employment issues, comorbid mental and physical health conditions, neurological issues, possible problems with the legal system, mortality…

  3. Anomalous dominance in Down syndrome young adults.

    PubMed

    Giencke, S; Lewandowski, L

    1989-03-01

    The ear advantages of groups of Down Syndrome and developmentally retarded (NonDown) young adults, and normal youngsters matched for mental age were compared on dichotic listening performance. The paradigm employed strings of single, double, and triple digits presented to each ear under both free and cued recall conditions. The developmentally retarded and normal groups demonstrated the typical right ear advantage (REA), whereas the Down Syndrome group produced a significant left ear advantage (LEA) in four of the six experimental conditions. In addition, for the cued as compared to free recall conditions, all three groups demonstrated relatively better right ear performance. These results indicate anomalous dominance in Down Syndrome young adults which is consistent across varying memory load and attentional demands. Furthermore, these results are not likely due to a maturational lag phenomenon, but more likely related to genetic, biologic, and neurologic, factors as suggested by Geschwind and Galaburda (1985). PMID:2523281

  4. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lucinda K.; Edwards, Suzanne; Grieger, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2). Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. PMID:26251918

  5. Metabolic syndrome and the hepatorenal reflex.

    PubMed

    Wider, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient hepatic O2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients may reflect insufficient hepatic O2 delivery, potentially accounting for the sympathetic overdrive associated with MetS. This theoretical concept is supported by experimental results in animals fed a high fructose diet to induce MetS. Hepatic fructose metabolism rapidly consumes ATP resulting in increased adenosine production and hyperuricemia as well as elevated renin release and sympathetic activity. This review makes the case for the hepatorenal reflex causing sympathetic overdrive and metabolic syndrome in response to exaggerated splanchnic oxygen consumption from excessive eating. This is strongly reinforced by the fact that MetS is cured in a matter of days in a significant percentage of patients by diet, bariatric surgery, or endoluminal sleeve, all of which would decrease splanchnic oxygen demand by limiting nutrient contact with the mucosa and reducing the nutrient load due to the loss of appetite or dietary restriction. PMID:27656314

  6. Metabolic syndrome and the hepatorenal reflex

    PubMed Central

    Wider, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient hepatic O2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients may reflect insufficient hepatic O2 delivery, potentially accounting for the sympathetic overdrive associated with MetS. This theoretical concept is supported by experimental results in animals fed a high fructose diet to induce MetS. Hepatic fructose metabolism rapidly consumes ATP resulting in increased adenosine production and hyperuricemia as well as elevated renin release and sympathetic activity. This review makes the case for the hepatorenal reflex causing sympathetic overdrive and metabolic syndrome in response to exaggerated splanchnic oxygen consumption from excessive eating. This is strongly reinforced by the fact that MetS is cured in a matter of days in a significant percentage of patients by diet, bariatric surgery, or endoluminal sleeve, all of which would decrease splanchnic oxygen demand by limiting nutrient contact with the mucosa and reducing the nutrient load due to the loss of appetite or dietary restriction. PMID:27656314

  7. Metabolic syndrome and the hepatorenal reflex

    PubMed Central

    Wider, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient hepatic O2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients may reflect insufficient hepatic O2 delivery, potentially accounting for the sympathetic overdrive associated with MetS. This theoretical concept is supported by experimental results in animals fed a high fructose diet to induce MetS. Hepatic fructose metabolism rapidly consumes ATP resulting in increased adenosine production and hyperuricemia as well as elevated renin release and sympathetic activity. This review makes the case for the hepatorenal reflex causing sympathetic overdrive and metabolic syndrome in response to exaggerated splanchnic oxygen consumption from excessive eating. This is strongly reinforced by the fact that MetS is cured in a matter of days in a significant percentage of patients by diet, bariatric surgery, or endoluminal sleeve, all of which would decrease splanchnic oxygen demand by limiting nutrient contact with the mucosa and reducing the nutrient load due to the loss of appetite or dietary restriction.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome: Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Mayans, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that synergistically increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and premature mortality. The components are abdominal obesity, impaired glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Prediabetes, which is a combination of excess body fat and insulin resistance, is considered an underlying etiology of metabolic syndrome. Prediabetes manifests as impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired fasting glucose is defined as a fasting blood glucose level of 100 to 125 mg/dL; impaired glucose tolerance requires a blood glucose level of 140 to 199 mg/dL 2 hours after a 75-g oral intake of glucose. In patients with prediabetes, the rate of progression to diabetes within 3 years can be decreased by approximately 58% with lifestyle modifications. These include weight loss through exercise (30 minutes or more of moderate physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week) and dietary modifications. Recommended diets are high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fish. Consumption of sweetened beverages, including diet soda, should be avoided. For patients who do not achieve goals with lifestyle modifications, metformin can be considered. Weight loss drugs and bariatric surgery are appropriate for select patients. Hypertension and dyslipidemia should be managed according to current guidelines. PMID:26280340

  9. [Impact of metabolic syndrome on chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Calò, L A

    2006-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been recognized as possible risk factor for renal damage and the increased prevalence of both metabolic syndrome and renal disease justifies the increasing interest of the nephrology community toward the metabolic syndrome as another possible inducing cause of chronic renal disease, although the available evidence about a direct causal relationship between metabolic syndrome and development of renal disease so far is scanty. The not easy separation of the negative effects on renal function of metabolic syndrome from those derived from hypertension and diabetes per se, however, does not reduce the interest toward a possible direct impact of metabolic syndrome on renal disease. This also in consideration that other important factors linked with metabolic syndrome, such as for example obesity, have direct independent impact on the development of abnormalities such as microalbuminuria and or overt renal disease. Planning of clinical trials specifically for patients with metabolic syndrome could be helpful to give definitive answers on a possible direct impact of metabolic syndrome on chronic renal disease.

  10. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-08-09

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed.

  11. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Risk Factors in Northern Plains and Southwest American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Kaìmi A.; Bogart, Andy; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by age, sex, and diabetes status in Northern Plains and Southwest American Indians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data for this analysis came from the Education and Research Toward Health (EARTH) study, a 5-year cross-sectional study of Southwest and Northern Plains American Indian adults. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III) guidelines were used to identify adults with metabolic syndrome. RESULTS The age-adjusted prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 49.8% among 4,457 participants aged 18–88 years. Age-adjusted prevalence was 42.4% for participants without diabetes and 86.6% for participants with diabetes. In participants aged <40 years, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 53.1%; 44.9% after excluding individuals with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Northern Plains and Southwest American Indians of all ages. PMID:20864516

  12. AKT1 polymorphisms are associated with risk for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Harmon, Brennan T; Bradbury, Margaret K; Devaney, Stephanie A; Harris, Tamara B; Thompson, Paul D; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Price, Thomas B; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Pesca, Linda S; VIsich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Seip, Richard L; Seo, Jinwook; Kim, Bo Hyoung; Tosi, Laura L; Garcia, Melissa; Li, Rongling; Zmuda, Joseph M; Delmonico, Matthew J; Lindsay, Robert S; Howard, Barbara V; Kraus, William E; Hoffman, Eric P

    2011-02-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that AKT1 is a major mediator of the responses to insulin,insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and glucose. AKT1 also plays a key role in the regulation of both muscle cell hypertrophy and atrophy. We hypothesized that AKT1 variants may play a role in the endophenotypes that makeup metabolic syndrome. We studied a 12-kb region including the first exon of the AKT1 gene for association with metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in four study populations [FAMUSS cohort (n = 574; age 23.7 ± 5.7 years), Strong Heart Study (SHS) (n = 2,134; age 55.5 ± 7.9 years), Dynamics of Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) (n = 3,075; age 73.6 ± 2.9 years), and Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise (STRRIDE)(n = 175; age 40–65 years)]. We identified a three SNP haplotype that we call H1, which represents the ancestral alleles eles at the three loci and H2, which represents the derived alleles at the three loci. In young adult European Americans (FAMUSS), H1 was associated with higher fasting glucose levels in females. In middle age Native Americans (SHS), H1 carriers showed higher fasting insulin and HOMA in males, and higher BMI in females. Inolder African-American and European American subjects(Health ABC) H1 carriers showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome. Homozygotes for the H1 haplotype showed about twice the risk of metabolic syndrome in both males and females (p < 0.001). In middle-aged European Americans with insulin resistance (STRRIDE) studied by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), H1 carriers showed increased insulin resistance due to the Sg component (p = 0.021). The 12-kb haplotype is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance that needs to be explored in further populations. PMID:21061022

  13. Metabolic syndrome – Removing roadblocks to therapy: Antigenic immunotherapies☆

    PubMed Central

    Coppieters, Ken T.; von Herrath, Matthias G.

    2014-01-01

    Up to 25 per cent of the world׳s adult population may have the metabolic syndrome, a condition closely associated with central obesity. The metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and therefore represents an important worldwide health problem. In addition to metabolic abnormalities such as raised fasting plasma glucose, high cholesterol and high blood pressure, there is consensus that obese subjects develop a state of low-grade chronic immune activation. This sustained pro-inflammatory response in fat tissue is thought to worsen insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Likewise, the immune system contributes to the detrimental cascade of events leading to plaque formation in atherosclerosis. It has long been assumed that the innate arm of the immune system was the only key player, but emerging evidence suggests that there is in fact a sizeable adaptive immune component to obesity and cardiovascular disease. From a therapeutic perspective, it could be envisioned that immune modulation drugs such as cytokine inhibitors, co-stimulation blockers or anti-T cell agents could offer benefit. It is questionable, however, whether chronic treatment with for instance biologicals will have a favorable risk/benefit profile in a silent condition such as the metabolic syndrome. An attractive alternative could be the development of antigen-specific T cell therapies, not unlike those currently in various phases of development for type 1 diabetes. In this article, we will give an overview of antigen-specific treatment modalities in type 1 diabetes, followed by a review of the evidence for T cell involvement in obesity and atherosclerosis. PMID:24749057

  14. Metabolic Syndrome and Skin: Psoriasis and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Tanmay; Garima

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (Met S) is a clustering of risk factors comprising of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and abnormal glucose tolerance. The prevalence of Met S has been increasing in the last few years throughout the world. Psoriasis has consistently been associated with Met S as well as its various components. However, the association is no longer limited to psoriasis alone. Various dermatological conditions such as lichen planus, androgenetic alopecia, systemic lupus erythematosus, skin tags, acanthosis nigricans, and even cutaneous malignancies have also been found to be associated with this syndrome. Though chronic inflammation is thought to be the bridging link, the role of oxidative stress and endocrine abnormalities has recently been proposed in bringing them together. PMID:23919003

  15. The "adult" form of the scimitar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, C; Charaf, L A; Brevière, G M; Abou, P; Rémy-Jardin, M; Helmius, G

    1992-08-15

    One hundred twenty-two cases of the adult form of the scimitar syndrome were collected from different cardiologic centers. The clinical, radiographic and hemodynamic findings are described. The scimitar syndrome is defined as an anomalous right pulmonary venous drainage, partial or complete, to the inferior vena cava. Additional characteristics of this syndrome such as hypoplasia and abnormalities of the vascular supply to the right lung, dextrocardia and abnormalities of the bronchial segmentation are common; bronchiectases are rare. The left to right shunt was less than 50% in 100 of the 122 patients. The pulmonary arterial pressures were normal in 94 patients and slightly elevated in 28. A follow-up study of these patients showed that, without surgical correction, they lead a normal life. An awareness of this syndrome may avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures and surgical treatment for most patients.

  16. The metabolic syndrome--a neuroendocrine disorder?

    PubMed

    Björntorp, P; Rosmond, R

    2000-03-01

    Central obesity is a powerful predictor for disease. By utilizing salivary cortisol measurements throughout the day, it has now been possible to show on a population basis that perceived stress-related cortisol secretion frequently is elevated in this condition. This is followed by insulin resistance, central accumulation of body fat, dyslipidaemia and hypertension (the metabolic syndrome). Socio-economic and psychosocial handicaps are probably central inducers of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Alcohol, smoking and traits of psychiatric disease are also involved. In a minor part of the population a dysregulated, depressed function of the HPA axis is present, associated with low secretion of sex steroid and growth hormones, and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. This condition is followed by consistent abnormalities indicating the metabolic syndrome. Such 'burned-out' function of the HPA axis has previously been seen in subjects exposed to environmental stress of long duration. The feedback control of the HPA axis by central glucocorticoid receptors (GR) seems inefficient, associated with a polymorphism in the 5' end of the GR gene locus. Homozygotes constitute about 14% of Swedish men (women to be examined). Such men have a poorly controlled cortisol secretion, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. Furthermore, polymorphisms have been identified in the regulatory domain of the GR gene that are associated with elevated cortisol secretion; polymorphisms in dopamine and leptin receptor genes are associated with sympathetic nervous system activity, with elevated and low blood pressure, respectively. These results suggest a complex neuroendocrine background to the metabolic syndrome, where the kinetics of the regulation of the HPA axis play a central role.

  17. Does breastfeeding prevent the metabolic syndrome, or does the metabolic syndrome prevent breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Stuebe, Alison M

    2015-06-01

    In mammalian physiology, lactation follows pregnancy. Disruption of this physiology is associated with long-term adverse maternal health outcomes, including higher risks of later-life obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Multiple mechanisms likely contribute to these associations, including the metabolic demands of breastfeeding, modulation of stress reactivity, and confounding by other health behaviors. At the same time, evidence suggests that maternal metabolic health entering pregnancy affects lactation performance. In this paradigm, adverse lactation outcomes may be a marker for underlying maternal disease risk. Understanding these relationships has important clinical and policy implications for women's health. PMID:26187772

  18. The metabolic syndrome: a brain disease?

    PubMed

    Buijs, Ruud M; Kreier, Felix

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity with, as consequence, a rise in associated diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia--the metabolic syndrome--is reaching epidemic proportions in industrialized countries. Here, we provide a hypothesis that the biological clock which normally prepares us each morning for the coming activity period is altered due to a modern life style of low activity during the day and late-night food intake. Furthermore, we review the anatomical evidence supporting the proposal that an unbalanced autonomic nervous system output may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of diabetes type 2, dyslipidemia, hypertension and visceral obesity.

  19. The metabolic basis of the Refsum syndrome.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, D

    1971-02-01

    Studies in patients with the Refsum syndrome show that accumulation of phytanic acid stems from a metabolic error in the pathway for its oxidative degradation. The major degradative pathway involves an initial alpha oxidation followed by successive beta oxidation steps. The enzyme defect in patients with phytanic acid storage appears to be at the very first step, alphahydroxylation of phytanic acid. Heterozygous carriers have a partial fibroblasts in cell culture. On diets low in phytanic acid content, plasma phytanic acid levels fall and objective studies in patients suggest therapeutic benefit.

  20. Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Obese Youth.

    PubMed

    Platt, Adrienne M

    2015-07-01

    School nurses are well aware of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, as one in three youth are overweight or obese. Co-morbidities found in overweight or obese adults were not commonly found in youth three decades ago but are now increasingly "normal" as the obesity epidemic continues to evolve. This article is the second of six related articles discussing the co-morbidities of childhood obesity and discusses the complex association between obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance increases up to 50% during puberty, which may help to explain why youth are more likely to develop co-morbidities as teens. Treatment of these disorders is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as a child cannot change his or her pubertal progression, ethnicity, or family history. School nurses and other personnel can assist youth with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome by supporting their efforts to make changes, reinforcing that insulin resistance is not necessarily type 2 diabetes even if the child is taking medication, and intervening with negative peer pressure. PMID:25816425

  1. Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Obese Youth.

    PubMed

    Platt, Adrienne M

    2015-07-01

    School nurses are well aware of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, as one in three youth are overweight or obese. Co-morbidities found in overweight or obese adults were not commonly found in youth three decades ago but are now increasingly "normal" as the obesity epidemic continues to evolve. This article is the second of six related articles discussing the co-morbidities of childhood obesity and discusses the complex association between obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance increases up to 50% during puberty, which may help to explain why youth are more likely to develop co-morbidities as teens. Treatment of these disorders is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as a child cannot change his or her pubertal progression, ethnicity, or family history. School nurses and other personnel can assist youth with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome by supporting their efforts to make changes, reinforcing that insulin resistance is not necessarily type 2 diabetes even if the child is taking medication, and intervening with negative peer pressure.

  2. Wnt-signalling and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schinner, S

    2009-02-01

    The Wnt-signalling pathway plays a well-established role in embryogenesis and tumourigenesis. However, recent data puts Wnt-signalling in the context of metabolic disease. In vitro and in vivo data characterised the role of Wnt-signalling molecules in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis). Furthermore, Wnts play a pivotal role in regulating pancreatic beta-cell function and mass. In addition, studies found polymorphisms within the gene encoding TCF7L2, a Wnt-regulated transcription factor, to contribute an increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. This review will summarise recent aspects of Wnt-signalling in these pathophysiologic events and discuss the contributions of dysregulation in Wnt-signalling to features of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19214925

  3. Salivary Amylase: Digestion and Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peyrot des Gachons, Catherine; Breslin, Paul A S

    2016-10-01

    Salivary amylase is a glucose-polymer cleavage enzyme that is produced by the salivary glands. It comprises a small portion of the total amylase excreted, which is mostly made by the pancreas. Amylases digest starch into smaller molecules, ultimately yielding maltose, which in turn is cleaved into two glucose molecules by maltase. Starch comprises a significant portion of the typical human diet for most nationalities. Given that salivary amylase is such a small portion of total amylase, it is unclear why it exists and whether it conveys an evolutionary advantage when ingesting starch. This review will consider the impact of salivary amylase on oral perception, nutrient signaling, anticipatory metabolic reflexes, blood sugar, and its clinical implications for preventing metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:27640169

  4. Theory of Mind in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind was assessed in 32 adults with HFA, 29 adults with Asperger syndrome and 32 neurotypical adults. The HFA and Asperger syndrome groups were impaired in performance of the Strange stories test and the Faux-pas test and reported more theory of mind problems than the neurotypical adults. The three groups did not differ in performance of…

  5. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-08-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD. PMID:27610012

  6. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD. PMID:27610012

  7. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD.

  8. [Inborn errors of metabolism in adult neurology].

    PubMed

    Sedel, F

    2013-02-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are caused by mutations in genes coding for enzymes and other proteins involved in cell metabolism. Many IEM can be treated effectively. Although IEM have usually been considered pediatric diseases, they can present at any age, mostly with neurological and psychiatric symptoms, and therefore constitute an integral subspeciality of neurology. However, although they are increasingly being recognized, IEM remain rare, and the care for patients should be optimized in specialized reference centers. Since the number of different diseases is very large, the diagnostic approach needs to be rigorous, starting at the clinics and calling upon the additional help of neuroradiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. In practice, it is important for the neurologist to recognize: (1) when to start suspecting an IEM; and (2) how to correlate a given clinical presentation with one of the five major groups of diseases affecting the nervous system. These five groups may be classified as: (a) energy metabolism disorders such as respiratory chain disorders, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, GLUT1 deficiency, fatty-acid β-oxidation defects, and disorders involving key cofactors such as electron transfer flavoprotein, thiamine, biotin, riboflavin, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10; (b) intoxication syndromes such as porphyrias, urea-cycle defects, homocystinurias, organic acidurias and amino acidopathies; (c) lipid-storage disorders such as lysosomal storage disorders (Krabbe disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Niemann - Pick disease type C, Fabry disease and Gaucher's disease), peroxisomal disorders (adrenomyeloneuropathy, Refsum disease, disorders of pristanic acid metabolism, peroxisome biogenesis disorders), Tangier disease and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis; (d) metal-storage diseases such as iron, copper and manganese metabolic disorders; and (e) neurotransmitter metabolism defects, including defects of serotonin, dopamine and glycine metabolism

  9. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.

  10. Brachiocephalic artery thrombosis in adult nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, B. K.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Unni, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Thrombotic events are known to occur in nephrotic syndrome, as these patients have a hypercoagulable state. Venous thrombosis is well recognized, but arterial thrombosis is rare and is mainly noted in pediatric population. In the present study, we report a case of thrombosis of right brachiocephalic artery, embolic occlusion of right axillary artery, and right middle cerebral artery territory infarction due to thromboembolism in an adult patient with nephrotic syndrome (Minimal change disease). Patient underwent thromboembolectomy in the right axillary artery followed by anticoagulation therapy. PMID:21886984

  11. [Metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Wolska, K; Michalska-Jakubus, M; Pietrzak, A; Krasowska, D

    2014-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin, nail plates and joints, which shares similarities with other chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Recent studies indicated that patients with psoriasis are at greater risk for cardiovascular co-morbidities and metabolic syndrome. Published data demonstrates that there is a correlation between the severity of skin changes, cardiovascular co-morbidities and features of metabolic syndrome. Recent research showed that psoriasis plaque shares striking histological features with atherosclerotic one. Both plaques have an elevated level of activated T helper 1 and T helper 17 cells. T helper 1 cells show an overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as: TNF-alpha, INF-gamma IL-6 which result in endothelial dysfunction. IL-17 produced by T helper 17 cells have been known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and trigger inflammation in various tissues and organs. In addition, elevated level of serum IL-17 have been observed in unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as in acute myocardial infarction (MI). Physical activity was proved to play a protective role in prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidities. Recent studies showed that increased physical activity in patients with psoriasis reduce inflammation and risk of cardiometabolic co-morbidities. PMID:24779224

  12. Prediction of metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ersan, Fırat; Arslan, Esra; Esmer, Aytül Çorbacıoğlu; Aydın, Serdar; Gedikbaşı, Asuman; Gedikbaşı, Ali; Alkış, İsmet; Ark, Cemal

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify biochemical factors that serve as predictors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to investigate the value of adipocytokines in the prediction of metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods A total of 91 pre-menopausal women with PCOS diagnosed according to the Rotterdam consensus criteria were recruited as study subjects. Waist circumference, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, serum lipids, insulin, FSH, LH, E2, total testosteron, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum leptin and adiponectin levels were evaluated for all patients. Results Of the 91 women with PCOS, 15 patients met the criteria for MetS. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and VLDL concentrations were significantly higher and HDL was significantly lower in women with PCOS+MetS compared with those with PCOS only. However, the level of LDL, FSH, LH, E2 and total testesterone was not significantly different between these two groups. Women with PCOS+MetS had significantly higher levels of leptin and HOMA-IR, and significantly lower levels of adiponectin compared to the women with PCOS only. In the multiple logistic regression model, the association between HOMA-IR and leptin, and MetS remained statistically significant (p=0.001 and 0.018), while the association between adiponectin and MetS was no longer statistically significant. Conclusion Aside from the biochemical markers such as glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride, adipose tissue factors and insulin resistance are valuable parameters in the prediction of MetS in patients with PCOS. PMID:24592034

  13. CEREBRAL DAMAGE IN OBESITY-ASSOCIATED METABOLIC SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Rusinek, Henry; Convit, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased in tandem with obesity and is associated with structural and functional cerebral damage. A new study confirms the association between the metabolic syndrome and reduced brain volume in the absence of diabetes mellitus. Here, we highlight how vascular dysfunction potentially contributes to this brain damage. PMID:25112231

  14. Metabolic features of chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Naviaux, Robert K.; Naviaux, Jane C.; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A. Taylor; Alaynick, William A.; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne; Gordon, Eric

    2016-01-01

    More than 2 million people in the United States have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We performed targeted, broad-spectrum metabolomics to gain insights into the biology of CFS. We studied a total of 84 subjects using these methods. Forty-five subjects (n = 22 men and 23 women) met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS by Institute of Medicine, Canadian, and Fukuda criteria. Thirty-nine subjects (n = 18 men and 21 women) were age- and sex-matched normal controls. Males with CFS were 53 (±2.8) y old (mean ± SEM; range, 21–67 y). Females were 52 (±2.5) y old (range, 20–67 y). The Karnofsky performance scores were 62 (±3.2) for males and 54 (±3.3) for females. We targeted 612 metabolites in plasma from 63 biochemical pathways by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry in a single-injection method. Patients with CFS showed abnormalities in 20 metabolic pathways. Eighty percent of the diagnostic metabolites were decreased, consistent with a hypometabolic syndrome. Pathway abnormalities included sphingolipid, phospholipid, purine, cholesterol, microbiome, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, riboflavin, branch chain amino acid, peroxisomal, and mitochondrial metabolism. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed diagnostic accuracies of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84–100%] in males using eight metabolites and 96% (95% CI, 86–100%) in females using 13 metabolites. Our data show that despite the heterogeneity of factors leading to CFS, the cellular metabolic response in patients was homogeneous, statistically robust, and chemically similar to the evolutionarily conserved persistence response to environmental stress known as dauer. PMID:27573827

  15. Metabolic features of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naviaux, Robert K; Naviaux, Jane C; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A Taylor; Alaynick, William A; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne; Gordon, Eric

    2016-09-13

    More than 2 million people in the United States have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We performed targeted, broad-spectrum metabolomics to gain insights into the biology of CFS. We studied a total of 84 subjects using these methods. Forty-five subjects (n = 22 men and 23 women) met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS by Institute of Medicine, Canadian, and Fukuda criteria. Thirty-nine subjects (n = 18 men and 21 women) were age- and sex-matched normal controls. Males with CFS were 53 (±2.8) y old (mean ± SEM; range, 21-67 y). Females were 52 (±2.5) y old (range, 20-67 y). The Karnofsky performance scores were 62 (±3.2) for males and 54 (±3.3) for females. We targeted 612 metabolites in plasma from 63 biochemical pathways by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry in a single-injection method. Patients with CFS showed abnormalities in 20 metabolic pathways. Eighty percent of the diagnostic metabolites were decreased, consistent with a hypometabolic syndrome. Pathway abnormalities included sphingolipid, phospholipid, purine, cholesterol, microbiome, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, riboflavin, branch chain amino acid, peroxisomal, and mitochondrial metabolism. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed diagnostic accuracies of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84-100%] in males using eight metabolites and 96% (95% CI, 86-100%) in females using 13 metabolites. Our data show that despite the heterogeneity of factors leading to CFS, the cellular metabolic response in patients was homogeneous, statistically robust, and chemically similar to the evolutionarily conserved persistence response to environmental stress known as dauer. PMID:27573827

  16. Effect of the telephone-delivered nutrition education on dietary intake and biochemical parameters in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyoung; Bea, Wookyung; Lee, Kiheon; Han, Jongsoo; Kim, Sohye; Kim, Misung; Na, Woori; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2013-07-01

    As prevalence of metabolic syndrome has rapidly increased over the past decade, lifestyle changes including dietary habits are considered as a therapeutic cornerstone for metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular complications and type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered nutrition education to improve metabolic parameters compared with a single-visit with a dietitian in subjects with metabolic syndrome. A total of seventy-one adults who met diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to either the single-visit group or the in-depth nutrition education group during a 3-month intervention study period. The in-depth telephone-delivered nutrition education group had an initial visit with a dietitian and additional two telephone counseling during the first 4 weeks of the study periods. Sixty-six subjects completed a 3-month intervention study. The trial examined participant's anthropometric changes and dietary intakes as well as changes in the metabolic syndrome factors. At the end of the trial, the in-depth nutrition education group showed significantly higher reduction in weight, body fat and abdominal circumference compared with the other group (p < 0.05). In the in-depth nutrition groups, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was decreased to 45.5%, while 69.7% of the subjects were metabolic syndrome patients in the single-visit group (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the telephone-intervention counseling is a feasible mean to deliver dietary intervention in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome in Yup'ik Eskimos: The Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its defining components among Yup’ik Eskimos. Research Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional study design that included 710 adult Yup’ik Eskimos 18 years of age residing in 8 communities in Southwest Alaska. The prevale...

  18. The impact of metabolic syndrome on child weight outcomes in pediatric obesity program for Mexican Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are three to five times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Given the long term consequences of MetS, the growing number of children meeting criteria for MetS is concerning. In order to determine the impact of MetS on pediatric wei...

  19. [Psychotherapy of Asperger syndrome in adults].

    PubMed

    Fangmeier, T; Lichtblau, A; Peters, J; Biscaldi-Schäfer, M; Ebert, D; van Elst, L T

    2011-05-01

    There is an increase in awareness in professionals that the Asperger syndrome (AS) in adulthood is associated with specific problems and burdens which may well differ from those in childhood and adolescence. The core symptoms of AS generally persist into adulthood, however in contrast to childhood and adolescence there is no specific support system for adults in Germany. Also the environment of the afflicted patient changes thus producing different challenges and problems. In addition a subgroup of patients with high functioning AS primarily presents in adulthood generally due to secondary psychosocial problems, depression or anxiety. Difficulties in social interaction, problems with modified daily routines and unforeseen situations cause severe frustration for the majority of the patients. While several therapy programs have been developed and implemented for children and adolescents, for adults there are none. Also there is a lack of comprehensive concepts addressing the specific needs of adult patients with AS. From an economic perspective this is particularly unfortunate since affected people often have good or excellent partial abilities and might be very valuable employees. In this article existing therapeutic concepts for AS are summarized and a newly designed group therapy program for adult patients with Asperger syndrome in Freiburg is introduced (Freiburg Asperger-spezifische Therapie für Erwachsene, FASTER) which specifically addresses the needs and problems of adult patients with AS.

  20. Candy consumption was not associated with body weight measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited research examining the relationship of candy consumption by adults on diet and health. The purpose of this study was to determine total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption and their effect on energy, saturated fatty acid and added sugar intake, weight, risk factors for cardiovasc...

  1. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed. PMID:27517891

  2. Mediators of sympathetic activation in metabolic syndrome obesity.

    PubMed

    Straznicky, Nora E; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Esler, Murray D

    2008-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome represents a major public health burden because of its high prevalence in the general population and its association with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Accumulated evidence based on biochemical, neurophysiologic, and indirect measurements of autonomic activity indicate that visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome are associated with enhanced sympathetic neural drive and vagal impairment. The mechanisms linking metabolic syndrome with sympathetic activation are complex and not completely understood, and cause-effect relationships need further clarification from prospective trials. Components of the metabolic syndrome that may directly or indirectly enhance sympathetic drive include hyperinsulinemia, leptin, nonesterified fatty acids, proinflammatory cytokines, angiotensinogen, baroreflex impairment, and obstructive sleep apnea. beta-Adrenoceptor polymorphisms have also been associated with adrenoceptor desensitization, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, and enhanced sympathetic activity. Because chronic sympathetic activation contributes to hypertension and its target-organ damage, sympathoinhibition remains an important goal in the therapeutic management of the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Atypical work hours and metabolic syndrome among police officers.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Vila, Bryan J

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether atypical work hours are associated with metabolic syndrome among a random sample of 98 police officers. Shift work and overtime data from daily payroll records and reported sleep duration were obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined as elevated waist circumference and triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of covariance models were used for analyses. Officers working midnight shifts were on average younger and had a slightly higher mean number of metabolic syndrome components. Stratification on sleep duration and overtime revealed significant associations between midnight shifts and the mean number of metabolic syndrome components among officers with less sleep (p = .013) and more overtime (p = .007). Results suggest shorter sleep duration and more overtime combined with midnight shift work may be important contributors to the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19864222

  4. Women are at a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Mitra, Amal K; Zainuddin, Laila Ruwaida Mohd; Leng, Soo Kah; Wan Muda, Wan Manan

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults. PMID:23751089

  5. Metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism--two peas in a pod.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Fahim; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is highly prevalent in up to 50% of men with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Low testosterone levels in men appear to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor and predictor of subsequent development of the metabolic syndrome. Reciprocally, the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in testosterone levels. This review provides an account of the pathophysiological mechanisms in the bidirectional relationship between hypogonadism and body composition, inflammation and insulin sensitivity as well as the effects of testosterone replacement on diverse metabolic parameters.

  6. Sleep Related Breathing Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Onofrio; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Giliberti, Tiziana; Caratozzolo, Gennaro; Cagnazzo, Maria Grazia; Scarpelli, Franco; Nocerino, Maria Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated sleep-related breathing disorders in six adults with Down syndrome. Five were found to have respiratory events justifying the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome. Results suggest that the nocturnal respiratory pattern of adults with Down syndrome depends on several pathogenetic factors such as age, severity of upper airway…

  7. Breakfast patterns and their likelihood of increased risk of overweight/obesity and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adults 19+ years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of specific types of breakfast consumed and the risk of overweight/obesity or risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Cluster analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 data identified 12 breakfast clusters—including no breakfast, in...

  8. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Associations in a Bariatric Surgery Cohort from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, Faith; Smith, Mark D.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Inabnet, William B.; King, Wendy C.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Raum, William J.; Schrope, Beth; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Patterson, Emma J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, all common conditions in patients referred for bariatric surgery, and it may predict early postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined using updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria, in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and compare the prevalence of baseline co-morbid conditions and select operative and 30-day postoperative outcomes by metabolic syndrome status. Methods: Complete metabolic syndrome data were available for 2275 of 2458 participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2), an observational cohort study designed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in obese adults. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 79.9%. Compared to those without metabolic syndrome, those with metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to be men, to have a higher prevalence of diabetes and prior cardiac events, to have enlarged livers and higher median levels of liver enzymes, a history of sleep apnea, and a longer length of stay after surgery following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and gastric sleeves but not open RYGB or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Metabolic syndrome status was not significantly related to duration of surgery or rates of composite end points of intraoperative events and 30-day major adverse surgical outcomes. Conclusions: Nearly four in five participants undergoing bariatric surgery presented with metabolic syndrome. Establishing a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in bariatric surgery patients may identify a high-risk patient profile, but does not in itself confer a higher risk for short-term adverse postsurgery outcomes. PMID:24380645

  10. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, P<0.001), and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046–0.0143, P<0.001). Conclusions The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  11. Understanding cachexia as a cancer metabolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Porporato, P E

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming occurs in tumors to foster cancer cell proliferation, survival and metastasis, but as well at a systemic level affecting the whole organism, eventually leading to cancer cachexia. Indeed, as cancer cells rely on external sources of nitrogen and carbon skeleton to grow, systemic metabolic deregulation promoting tissue wasting and metabolites mobilization ultimately supports tumor growth. Cachectic patients experience a wide range of symptoms affecting several organ functions such as muscle, liver, brain, immune system and heart, collectively decreasing patients' quality of life and worsening their prognosis. Moreover, cachexia is estimated to be the direct cause of at least 20% of cancer deaths. The main aspect of cachexia syndrome is the unstoppable skeletal muscle and fat storage wasting, even with an adequate caloric intake, resulting in nutrient mobilization - both directly as lipid and amino acids and indirectly as glucose derived from the exploitation of liver gluconeogenesis - that reaches the tumor through the bloodstream. From a metabolic standpoint, cachectic host develops a wide range of dysfunctions, from increased insulin and IGF-1 resistance to induction of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and fat tissue browning resulting in an increased energy expenditure and heat generation, even at rest. For a long time, cachexia has been merely considered an epiphenomenon of end-stage tumors. However, in specific tumor types, such as pancreatic cancers, it is now clear that patients present markers of tissue wasting at a stage in which tumor is not yet clinically detectable, and that host amino acid supply is required for tumor growth. Indeed, tumor cells actively promote tissue wasting by secreting specific factors such as parathyroid hormone-related protein and micro RNAs. Understanding the molecular and metabolic mediators of cachexia will not only advance therapeutic approaches against cancer, but also improve patients' quality of life

  12. Androgen deficiency and metabolic syndrome in men

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Ashley G.; Zhao, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing health concern worldwide. Initially a point of interest in cardiovascular events, the cluster of HTN, obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance known as MetS has become associated with a variety of other disease processes, including androgen deficiency and late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Men with MetS are at a higher risk of developing androgen deficiency, and routine screening of testosterone (T) is advised in this population. The pathophysiology of androgen deficiency in MetS is multifactorial, and consists of inflammatory, enzymatic, and endocrine derangements. Many options for the concomitant treatment of both disorders exist. Direct treatment of MetS, whether by diet, exercise, or surgery, may improve T levels. Conversely, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been shown to improve MetS parameters in multiple randomized controlled trials (RTCs). PMID:26816752

  13. Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kraja, Aldi T; Chasman, Daniel I; North, Kari E; Reiner, Alexander P; Yanek, Lisa R; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Smith, Jennifer A; Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Johnson, Andrew D; Feitosa, Mary F; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Chu, Audrey Y; Nolte, Ilja M; Dastani, Zari; Morris, Andrew; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Sun, Yan V; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Vaez, Ahmad; Lin, Honghuang; Ligthart, Symen; Marullo, Letizia; Rohde, Rebecca; Shao, Yaming; Ziegler, Mark A; Im, Hae Kyung; Schnabel, Renate B; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Stolk, Ronald P; Snieder, Harold; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Ikram, M Arfan; Richards, J Brent; Rotimi, Charles; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie; Ganesh, Santhi K; Nalls, Mike; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Pankow, James S; Coresh, Josef; Tang, Weihong; Linda Kao, W H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C; Ridker, Paul M; Becker, Diane M; Rotter, Jerome I; Kardia, Sharon L R; Loos, Ruth J F; Larson, Martin G; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Province, Michael A; Tracy, Russell; Voight, Benjamin F; Vaidya, Dhananjay; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Benjamin, Emelia J; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Prokopenko, Inga; Meigs, James B; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic

  14. Pulse pressure and heart rate in patients with metabolic syndrome across Europe: insights from the GOOD survey.

    PubMed

    Perlini, S; Naditch-Brule, L; Farsang, C; Zidek, W; Kjeldsen, S E

    2013-07-01

    The Global Cardiometabolic Risk Profile in Patients with hypertension disease (GOOD) survey investigated the global cardiometabolic risk profile in 3464 adult outpatients with hypertension across 289 sites in 12 European countries. The pulse pressure and heart rate profile of the survey population was evaluated according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. History and treatment of hypertension were not counted as criteria for metabolic syndrome as they applied to all patients. Out of the 3370 recruited patients, 1033 had metabolic syndrome and 1177 had neither metabolic syndrome nor diabetes. When compared with patients with no metabolic syndrome or diabetes, patients with metabolic syndrome had higher pulse pressure (59±14 vs. 55±14 mm Hg) and heart rate (75.2±11.0 vs. 72.5±10.0 beats per min) (P<0.001 for both), independent of the concomitant presence or absence of diabetes, despite a more prevalent use of β-blockers. In conclusion, in hypertensive outpatients the presence of metabolic syndrome is associated with increased heart rate and pulse pressure, which may at least in part reflect increased arterial stiffness and increased sympathetic tone. This may contribute, to some extent, to explaining the increased cardiovascular risk attributed to the presence of metabolic syndrome.

  15. Effects of metabolic syndrome on language functions in aging.

    PubMed

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Spiro, Avron; Cohen, Jason A; Oveis, Abigail C; Ojo, Emmanuel A; Sayers, Jesse T; Obler, Loraine K; Albert, Martin L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored effects of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) on language in aging. MetS is a constellation of five vascular and metabolic risk factors associated with the development of chronic diseases and increased risk of mortality, as well as brain and cognitive impairments. We tested 281 English-speaking older adults aged 55-84, free of stroke and dementia. Presence of MetS was based on the harmonized criteria (Alberti et al., 2009). Language performance was assessed by measures of accuracy and reaction time on two tasks of lexical retrieval and two tasks of sentence processing. Regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease, demonstrated that participants with MetS had significantly lower accuracy on measures of lexical retrieval (action naming) and sentence processing (embedded sentences, both subject and object relative clauses). Reaction time was slightly faster on the test of embedded sentences among those with MetS. MetS adversely affects the language performance of older adults, impairing accuracy of both lexical retrieval and sentence processing. This finding reinforces and extends results of earlier research documenting the negative influence of potentially treatable medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension) on language performance in aging. The unanticipated finding that persons with MetS were faster in processing embedded sentences may represent an impairment of timing functions among older individuals with MetS.

  16. Testosterone Supplementation Therapy in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R.; Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clinical complex of risk factors including increased waist circumference, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure and insulin resistance whose presence increases the likelihood of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. With a quarter of the American adult population affected, MetS has been referred to as the most significant public health threat of the 21st century. While lifestyle modification and weight loss are recommended, no specific pharmacological treatment is known. Given that low levels of testosterone have been implicated in the pathogenesis of MetS and an inverse relationship exists between circulating testosterone and the development of MetS, it is tempting to speculate that men with MetS may benefit from testosterone supplementation therapy (TST). As such, this review seeks to examine the role of testosterone and the use of TST as a treatment modality in men with MetS. PMID:25387223

  17. Refeeding and metabolic syndromes: two sides of the same coin

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, O A; Hachem, D H; Ayoub, J J

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome describes the metabolic and clinical changes attributed to aggressive rehabilitation of malnourished subjects. The metabolic changes of refeeding are related to hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, sodium retention and hyperglycemia, and these are believed to be mainly the result of increased insulin secretion following high carbohydrate intake. In the past few decades, increased consumption of processed food (refined cereals, oils, sugar and sweeteners, and so on) lowered the intake of several macrominerals (mainly phosphorus, potassium and magnesium). This seems to have compromised the postprandial status of these macrominerals, in a manner that mimics low grade refeeding syndrome status. At the pathophysiological level, this condition favored the development of the different components of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is reasonable to postulate that metabolic syndrome is the result of long term exposure to a mild refeeding syndrome. PMID:24979149

  18. Nutrigenetics, metabolic syndrome risk and personalized nutrition.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Phillips, Catherine M; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle and its increasing prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted as a cornerstone of treatment for MetS, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve its control. However the question arises as to whether dietary therapy may require a more personalised approach. In this regard improvements in genetic analysis have enhanced our understanding of the role of genetics in this dietrelated condition. In this review we will present recent data highlighting the importance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of MetS risk.

  19. Diet and metabolic syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Keane, Deirdre; Kelly, Stacey; Healy, Niamh P; McArdle, Maeve A; Holohan, Kieran; Roche, Helen M

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex multifactorial disorder and its incidence is on the increase worldwide. Due to the definitive link between obesity and the MetS weight loss strategies are of prime importance in halting the spread of MetS. Numerous epidemiological studies provide evidence linking dietary patterns to incidence of MetS symptoms. As a consequence of the epidemiology studies, dietary intervention studies which analyse the effects of supplementing diets with particular nutrients of interest on the symptoms of the MetS have been conducted. Evidence has shown that lifestyle intervention comprising changes in dietary intake and physical activity leads to an improved metabolic profile both in the presence or absence of weight loss thus highlighting the importance of a multi-faceted approach in combating MetS. Nutritional therapy research is not focused solely on reducing energy intake and manipulating macronutrient intake but is investigating the role of functional foods or bioactive components of food. Such bioactives which target weight maintenance and /or insulin sensitivity may have a potentially positive effect on the symptoms of the MetS. However the efficacy of different functional nutrients needs to be further defined and clearly demonstrated.

  20. [Relationship between metabolic syndrome and urinary stone disease].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2011-10-01

    Epidemiologically, there are many same characteristics among patients with urolithiasis, life-style related diseases and metabolic syndrome. In a comparison with the major urological diseases, the patients with stone disease have the largest amount of visceral fat on computerized tomography. The patients who finally had a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in urolithiasis were 43% of men and female 31%. The clinical features of the patients include increased urinary oxalate excretion, abnormal uric acid metabolism, and acidic urine. The basic studies by the animal experiments suggest that there is a close relationship between urolithiasis and metabolic syndrome. After the treatment of the urinary stone, it is very important to make a long-term follow-up by not only the prevention of recurrent stone episode but also life style management and medical treatment for metabolic syndrome. PMID:21960234

  1. Characterization of the metabolic syndrome by apolipoproteins in the Oklahoma Cherokee.

    PubMed

    Alaupovic, Petar; Blackett, Piers; Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Native Americans are susceptible to type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular risk that precedes the diabetes. Nondiabetic Cherokee adolescents and young adults were studied for association of apolipoproteins A-I, B, and C-III with the metabolic syndrome, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body mass index. Apolipoproteins, lipids, selected ratios, and HOMA-IR changed adversely according to the number of metabolic syndrome criteria present (P<.001 for trend). Logistic regression showed heparin-precipitated apolipoprotein C-III, apolipoprotein C-III bound to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, to be a significant predictor of the metabolic syndrome in the adolescents and adults, and it appears to be more strongly associated than apolipoprotein B: apolipoprotein A-I. Regression modeling with components of the syndrome as the dependent variables showed that they were all significantly associated with heparin-precipitated apolipoprotein C-III except for fasting blood glucose. The Cherokee have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with atherosclerotic lipoprotein particles containing apolipoprotein C-III and B. PMID:19040586

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Metabolic Syndrome via TCM Pattern Differentiation: Tongue Diagnosis for Predictor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Lo, Lun-Chien; Wu, Fang-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a morbid condition, which is manifested by central obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance, lipodystrophy, and hypertension. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clarifies that obesity is classified as phlegm-dampness. It is often accompanied with qi stagnation and blood stasis. One hundred and two overweight adults, who did not receive lipid-lowering drugs, were enrolled for analysis. The exclusion criteria were adults having malignancy disease, DM, and renal disease or who were pregnant or lactating. The study was divided into two groups: metabolic syndrome group (MetS) and nonmetabolic syndrome group (nMetS). The modern tongue analysis and heart rate variability devices for data analysis and Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) for appetite evaluation were used. Obesity patients with metabolic syndrome obviously have lower CNAQ score. The 6 items of CNAQ between two groups have significant difference in variation (P < 0.001). The nMetS average was above 28 scores (96%) and the MetS was all in 17–28 scores. The tongue appearance showed that MetS group have white coating different from the nMetS group with white and yellow coating (P < 0.05). However the HRV is not different from nMetS group significantly. Our results try to explore the relationship between the TCM pattern, nutrition appetite, and heart rate variability in metabolic syndrome patients. PMID:27313640

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Metabolic Syndrome via TCM Pattern Differentiation: Tongue Diagnosis for Predictor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Lo, Lun-Chien; Wu, Fang-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a morbid condition, which is manifested by central obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance, lipodystrophy, and hypertension. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clarifies that obesity is classified as phlegm-dampness. It is often accompanied with qi stagnation and blood stasis. One hundred and two overweight adults, who did not receive lipid-lowering drugs, were enrolled for analysis. The exclusion criteria were adults having malignancy disease, DM, and renal disease or who were pregnant or lactating. The study was divided into two groups: metabolic syndrome group (MetS) and nonmetabolic syndrome group (nMetS). The modern tongue analysis and heart rate variability devices for data analysis and Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) for appetite evaluation were used. Obesity patients with metabolic syndrome obviously have lower CNAQ score. The 6 items of CNAQ between two groups have significant difference in variation (P < 0.001). The nMetS average was above 28 scores (96%) and the MetS was all in 17-28 scores. The tongue appearance showed that MetS group have white coating different from the nMetS group with white and yellow coating (P < 0.05). However the HRV is not different from nMetS group significantly. Our results try to explore the relationship between the TCM pattern, nutrition appetite, and heart rate variability in metabolic syndrome patients.

  4. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Metabolic Syndrome via TCM Pattern Differentiation: Tongue Diagnosis for Predictor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Lo, Lun-Chien; Wu, Fang-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a morbid condition, which is manifested by central obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance, lipodystrophy, and hypertension. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clarifies that obesity is classified as phlegm-dampness. It is often accompanied with qi stagnation and blood stasis. One hundred and two overweight adults, who did not receive lipid-lowering drugs, were enrolled for analysis. The exclusion criteria were adults having malignancy disease, DM, and renal disease or who were pregnant or lactating. The study was divided into two groups: metabolic syndrome group (MetS) and nonmetabolic syndrome group (nMetS). The modern tongue analysis and heart rate variability devices for data analysis and Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) for appetite evaluation were used. Obesity patients with metabolic syndrome obviously have lower CNAQ score. The 6 items of CNAQ between two groups have significant difference in variation (P < 0.001). The nMetS average was above 28 scores (96%) and the MetS was all in 17-28 scores. The tongue appearance showed that MetS group have white coating different from the nMetS group with white and yellow coating (P < 0.05). However the HRV is not different from nMetS group significantly. Our results try to explore the relationship between the TCM pattern, nutrition appetite, and heart rate variability in metabolic syndrome patients. PMID:27313640

  5. Metabolic syndrome and mammographic density in Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Megan; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Results Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density compared to those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI (difference = 4.76, 95%CI: 1.72, 7.81). Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (<50mg/dl) were associated with significantly higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco (difference=4.62, 95%CI: 1.73, 7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference=-2.91, 95% CI: -7.19, 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies. PMID:23682074

  6. Metabolic syndrome and mammographic density in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Rice, Megan S; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however, little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density than those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI [difference = 4.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-7.81]. Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (<50 mg/dL) were associated with significantly higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco (difference = 4.62; 95% CI, 1.73-7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference = -2.91; 95% CI, -7.19 to 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico, or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however, results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies.

  7. Vanishing testes syndrome-related osteoporosis and high cardio-metabolic risk in an adult male with long term untreated hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Carsote, Mara; Capatina, Cristina; Valea, Ana; Dumitrascu, Anda

    2016-02-01

    The male hypogonadism-related bone mass loss is often under diagnosed. Peak bone mass is severely affected if the hypogonadism occurs during puberty and is left untreated. We present an interesting; almost bizarre case of a male with non-functional testes early during childhood and undiagnosed and untreated hypogonadism until his fifth decade of life. Forty six year male is referred for goitre, complaining of back pain. Phenotype suggested intersexuality: gynoid proportions, micropenis, no palpable testes into the scrotum, no facial or truncal hair. His medical history had been unremarkable until the previous year when primary hypothyroidism was diagnosed and levothyroxine replacement was initiated. Later, he was diagnosed with ischemic heart disease, with inaugural unstable angina. On admission, the testosterone was 0.2 ng/mL (normal: 1.7-7.8 ng/mL), FSH markedly increased (56 mUI/mL), with normal adrenal axis, and TSH (under thyroxine replacement). High bone turnover markers, and blood cholesterol, and impaired glucose tolerance were diagnosed. The testes were not present in the scrotum. Abdominal computed tomography suggested bilateral masses of 1.6 cm diameter within the abdominal fat that were removed but no gonadal tissue was confirmed histopathologically. Vanishing testes syndrome was confirmed. The central DXA showed lumbar bone mineral density of 0.905 g/cm2, Z-score of -2.9SD. The spine profile X-Ray revealed multiple thoracic vertebral fractures. Alendronate therapy together with vitamin D and calcium supplements and trans-dermal testosterone were started. Four decades of hypogonadism associate increased cardiac risk, as well as decreased bone mass and high fracture risk. PMID:26909487

  8. Supervised exercise improves cutaneous reinnervation capacity in metabolic syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, J. Robinson; Marcus, Robin L.; Lessard, Margaret; Jackson, Justin E.; Smith, A. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Unmyelinated cutaneous axons are vulnerable to physical and metabolic injury, but also capable of rapid regeneration. This balance may help determine risk for peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes or Metabolic Syndrome. Capsaicin application for 48 hours induces cutaneous fibers to die back into the dermis. Re-growth can be monitored by serial skin biopsies to determine intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). We used this capsaicin axotomy technique to examine the effects of exercise on cutaneous regenerative capacity in the setting of metabolic syndrome. Methods Baseline ankle IENFD and 30 day cutaneous regeneration after thigh capsaicin axotomy were compared for participants with type 2 diabetes (35) or metabolic syndrome (32) without symptoms or exam evidence of neuropathy. 36 participants (17 with metabolic syndrome) then joined twice weekly observed exercise and lifestyle counseling. Axotomy regeneration was repeated in month four during this intervention. Results Baseline distal leg IENFD was significantly reduced for both metabolic syndrome and diabetic groups. With exercise, participants significantly improved exercise capacity and lower extremity power. Following exercise, 30 day reinnervation rate improved (0.051 +/− 0.027 fibers/mm/day before versus 0.072 +/− 0.030, p= 0.002). Those who achieved improvement in more Metabolic Syndrome features experienced a greater degree of 30 day reinnervation (p<0.012) Interpretation Metabolic Syndrome was associated with reduced baseline IENFD and cutaneous regeneration capacity comparable to that seen in diabetes. Exercise induced improvement in metabolic syndrome features increased cutaneous regenerative capacity. The results underscore the potential benefit to peripheral nerve function of a behavioral modification approach to metabolic improvement. PMID:25388934

  9. Early childhood growth failure and the developmental origins of adult disease: Do enteric infections and malnutrition increase risk for the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Oría, Reinaldo B.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Moore, Sean R.; Luna, Max A.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the developmental origins of health and disease postulate that developing fetuses–and potentially young children—undergo adaptive epigenetic changes with longstanding effects on metabolism and other processes. Ongoing research explores whether these adaptations occur during early life following malnutrition. In the developing world there remains a high degree of nutritional stunting—linear growth failure due to inadequate calories that may be exacerbated by inflammation from ongoing infections. In areas with poor sanitation children experience vicious cycles of enteric infections and malnutrition, resulting in poor nutrient absorption from intestinal mucosa changes now termed “environmental enteropathy.” Emerging evidence links early childhood diarrhea and/or growth failure with increased CVD risk factors in later life, including dyslipidemia, hypertension and glucose intolerance. The mechanisms for these associations remain poorly understood and may relate to epigenetic responses to poor nutrition, increased inflammation or both. Given increases in CVD in developing areas of the world, associations between childhood malnutrition, early life infections and increased CVD risk factors underscore further reasons to improve nutrition and infection-related outcomes for young children worldwide. PMID:23110643

  10. Early childhood growth failure and the developmental origins of adult disease: do enteric infections and malnutrition increase risk for the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Mark D; Lima, Aldo A M; Oría, Reinaldo B; Scharf, Rebecca J; Moore, Sean R; Luna, Max A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2012-11-01

    Hypotheses regarding the developmental origins of health and disease postulate that developing fetuses - and potentially young children - undergo adaptive epigenetic changes that have longstanding effects on metabolism and other processes. Ongoing research explores whether these adaptations occur during early life following early childhood malnutrition. In the developing world, there remains a high degree of nutritional stunting, defined as linear growth failure caused by inadequate caloric intake, which may be exacerbated by inflammation from ongoing infections. In areas with poor sanitation, children experience vicious cycles of enteric infections and malnutrition, resulting in poor nutrient absorption as a result of changes in the intestinal mucosa, now termed "environmental enteropathy." Emerging evidence links early childhood diarrhea and/or growth failure with an increased occurrence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in later life, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. The mechanisms for these associations remain poorly understood and may relate to epigenetic responses to poor nutrition, increased inflammation, or both. Given the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in developing areas of the world, associations between childhood malnutrition, early-life infections, and the increased occurrence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease underscore further reasons to improve nutrition and infection-related outcomes for young children worldwide.

  11. Stress and obesity/metabolic syndrome in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pervanidou, Panagiota; Chrousos, George P

    2011-09-01

    Chronic distress contributes to the development of obesity and comorbid states. Stress is the disturbance of the complex dynamic equilibrium that all organisms must maintain, and is associated with activation of the Stress system comprising of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the arousal/sympathetic nervous systems. The stress system functions in a baseline circadian fashion and interacts with other systems of the organism to regulate a variety of behavioral, endocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular functions. The experience of perceived or real uncontrollable intense and/or chronic stress (distress) may lead to several psychopathologic conditions, including anxiety, depressive and psychosomatic disorders, substance abuse, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, as well as impaired reproductive and immune functions. Developing children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the effects of chronic stress. Both behavioral and biological pathways are involved in the connection between chronic stress and obesity in adults and children. Emotional "comfort" eating, lack of sleep, impulsive behaviours and selection of specific foods often characterize stressed individuals. In addition to specific behaviours, dysregulation of the stress system through increased secretion of cortisol and catecholamines, especially in the evening hours, and in concert with concurrently elevated insulin concentrations, leads to development of central obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In children, chronic alterations in cortisol secretion may have additional effects on cognitive and emotional development, timing of puberty and final stature. Obese children and adolescents are frequently entangled in a vicious cycle between distress, impairing self-image and distorted self-image, maintaining and worsening distress.

  12. Lifestyle behaviors associated with lower risk of having the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shankuan; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Heshka, Stanley; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2004-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that predisposes individuals to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes and is present in almost one fourth of adult Americans. Risk factors involved with the metabolic syndrome can be altered via modifiable lifestyle factors, such as diet, physical activity, and smoking and drinking habits. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which these modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with the risk of having the metabolic syndrome. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted between 1988 and 1994, were used to measure the risk of having the metabolic syndrome in healthy adult Americans who follow certain lifestyle behaviors, such as dietary practices, levels of physical activity, smoking and drinking habits. Low physical activity level, high carbohydrate (CHO) intake, and current smoking habits were all significantly associated with an increased risk of having the metabolic syndrome, even after adjusting for other related covariates. Relative to physically inactive subjects, being physically active was associated with lower odds ratio (OR) (0.36, confidence interval [CI] 0.21 to 0.68, P < .01) in overweight men and in normal weight (0.36, CI 0.18 to 0.70, P < .01) and overweight (0.61, CI 0.38 to 0.97, P < .05) women. Although the type of CHO could not be distinguished, relative to a high CHO diet, men having a low or moderate CHO intake had a lower risk of having the metabolic syndrome with respective ORs of 0.41 (CI 0.24 to 0.67, P < .01) and 0.44 (CI 0.25 to 0.77, P < .01); no effect of dietary CHO was observed in women. Moderate alcohol consumption was not significantly related to the risk of having the metabolic syndrome in men, but was associated with a lower OR in women (0.76, CI 0.61 to 0.95, P < .05). Regression models indicate a reduced risk of having the metabolic syndrome when selected low-risk lifestyle factors are present in

  13. Childhood trauma and metabolic syndrome in men and women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chioun; Tsenkova, Vera; Carr, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    The long-term effects of childhood trauma on health are well-documented, but few population-based studies have explored how childhood trauma affects the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Using data from 1234 adults in the second wave of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), we investigate (1) the extent to which childhood abuse affects the risk of developing MetS in adulthood; (2) how the severity of different types of abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, or cumulative abuse) affects this risk; and (3) the extent to which adult socioeconomic status (SES), maladaptive stress responses, and unhealthy behaviors mediate the association. We also test whether these associations differ significantly by sex. We find that emotional and physical abuse increase the risk of developing MetS for both sexes, whereas sexual abuse is a predictor for women only. For both sexes, individuals who experienced more cumulative abuse have a greater risk of developing MetS. Adult SES partially explains the association between childhood abuse and MetS. Maladaptive stress responses and unhealthy behaviors further explain the association. Among the potential mediators, poor sleep quality was a significant pathway for men and women, while stress-induced eating was a significant pathway for women only. Our findings suggest that the well-documented health consequences of early life trauma may vary by the nature of the trauma, the victim's sex, and the coping mechanisms that he or she employs. PMID:24524907

  14. Increased Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Acne Inversa

    PubMed Central

    Schneider-Burrus, Sylke; Metternich, Deborah; Kokolakis, Georgios; Kurek, Agata; Philipp, Sandra; Uribe, Daniela; Wolk, Kerstin; Sterry, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Background Acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, localized in the axillary, inguinal and perianal skin areas that causes painful, fistulating sinuses with malodorous purulence and scars. Several chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its consequences including arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infraction, and stroke. So far, the association of AI with systemic metabolic alterations is largely unexplored. Methods and Findings A hospital-based case-control study in 80 AI patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control participants was carried out. The prevalence of central obesity (odds ratio 5.88), hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.24), hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (odds ratio 4.56), and hyperglycemia (odds ratio 4.09) in AI patients was significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome, previously defined as the presence of at least three of the five alterations listed above, was more common in those patients compared to controls (40.0% versus 13.0%; odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 2.02 to 9.96; P<0.001). AI patients with metabolic syndrome also had more pronounced metabolic alterations than controls with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the severity or duration of the disease and the levels of respective parameters or the number of criteria defining the metabolic syndrome. Rather, the metabolic syndrome was observed in a disproportionately high percentage of young AI patients. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that AI patients have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and all of its criteria. It further suggests that the inflammation present in AI patients does not have a major impact on the development of metabolic alterations. Instead, evidence is given for a role of metabolic alterations in the development of AI. We recommend monitoring of AI patients

  15. Nephrotic Syndrome in Adult Africans in Nairobi

    PubMed Central

    Barr, R. D.; Rees, P. H.; Cordy, P. E.; Kungu, A.; Woodger, B. A.; Cameron, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    The adult nephrotic syndrome as met with in Nairobi is predominantly encountered in young sophisticated African women, most of whom began to use skin-lightening creams containing mercury before the symptomatic onset of their illness. The particular form of mercury involved is well known to cause the nephrotic syndrome in other circumstances—for example, when applied to the skin in the treatment of psoriasis. In these circumstances the pathogenetic mechanism is thought to be of an idiosyncratic type. The use of mercury-containing skin-lightening creams in the patients studied seemed to be particularly associated with a “minimal-change” (“light-negative”) renal glomerular lesion, this lesion being present in half of the patients. The prognosis in this group of patients seems remarkably good, with 50% entering remission, 77% of these doing so spontaneously on discontinuing the use of the creams. PMID:4111681

  16. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  17. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks123

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants’ usual diets. Objective: This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Methods: Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Results: Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P < 0.05) with changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P < 0.05) among groups that consumed <1.0 (n = 43) vs. ≥1.0 to <1.2 (n = 29) vs. ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 (n = 45). The TPro group with ≥1.0 to <1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 reduced FM and %FM and increased percentage of LM (%LM) compared with the lowest TPro group, whereas the TPro group with ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 presented intermediate responses on changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. Conclusions: In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. PMID:26246322

  18. Psychiatric manifestations of treatable hereditary metabolic disorders in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Detecting psychiatric disorders of secondary origin is a crucial concern for the psychiatrist. But how can this reliably be done among a large number of conditions, most of which have a very low prevalence? Metabolic screening undertaken in a population of subjects with psychosis demonstrated the presence of treatable metabolic disorders in a significant number of cases. The nature of the symptoms that should alert the clinician is also a fundamental issue and is not limited to psychosis. Hereditary metabolic disorders (HMD) are a rare but important cause of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and adults, the signs of which may remain isolated for years before other more specific organic signs appear. HMDs that present purely with psychiatric symptoms are very difficult to diagnose due to low awareness of these rare diseases among psychiatrists. However, it is important to identify HMDs in order to refer patients to specialist centres for appropriate management, disease-specific treatment and possible prevention of irreversible physical and neurological complications. Genetic counselling can also be provided. This review focuses on three HMD categories: acute, treatable HMDs (urea cycle abnormalities, remethylation disorders, acute intermittent porphyria); chronic, treatable HMDs (Wilson’s disease, Niemann-Pick disease type C, homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis); and chronic HMDs that are difficult to treat (lysosomal storage diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, creatine deficiency syndrome). We also propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of HMDs in patients with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:25478001

  19. The metabolic syndrome as a concept of adipose tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji

    2008-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to directly promote the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, in 2005, the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes jointly stated that no existing definition of the metabolic syndrome meets the criteria of a syndrome, and there have been endless debates on the pros and cons of using the concept of this syndrome. The controversy may stem from confusion between the syndrome and obesity. Obesity is an epidemic, essentially contagious disease caused by an environment of excess nutritional energy and reinforced by deeply rooted social norms. The epidemic of obesity should be prevented or controlled by social and political means, similar to the approaches now being taken to combat global warming. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome is useless for this public purpose. The purpose of establishing criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome is to find individuals who are at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and who require specific therapy including diet and exercise. The syndrome may be an adipose tissue disease different from obesity; in that case, it would be characterized by inflammation clinically detected through systemic inflammatory markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and insulin resistance reflecting histological changes in adipose tissue. However, many problems in defining the optimal diagnostic criteria remain unresolved.

  20. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a Japanese working population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome has become a major public health concern, but the role of diet in the etiology of this syndrome is not well understood. This study investigated the association between major dietary patterns and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Japanese working population. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 municipal employees (284 men and 176 women), aged 21–67 years, who participated in a health survey at the time of periodic checkup. Dietary patterns were derived by using the principal component analysis of the consumption of 52 food and beverage items, which were assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Results Three dietary patterns were identified. Westernized breakfast pattern characterized by high intakes of bread, confectionaries, and milk and yogurt but low intakes of rice and alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure (P for trend = 0.02 and 0.049, respectively). Animal food pattern characterized by high intakes of fish and shellfish, meat, processed meat, mayonnaise, and egg was not associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but was positively associated with high blood glucose (P for trend = 0.03). Healthy Japanese dietary pattern characterized by vegetables and fruits, soy products, mushrooms, and green tea was not appreciably associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome or its components. Conclusions The results suggest that westernized breakfast pattern may confer some protection against metabolic syndrome in Japanese. The causality of these associations needs to be confirmed. PMID:23537319

  1. Redefining Metabolic Syndrome as a Fat Storage Condition Based on Studies of Comparative Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J; Stenvinkel, Peter; Martin, Sandra L.; Jani, Alkesh; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Hill, James O; Lanaspa, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of signs including abdominal obesity, elevated serum triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance. Today approximately one third of the adult population has the metabolic syndrome. While there is little doubt that the signs constituting the metabolic syndrome frequently cluster, much controversy exists over the definition, pathogenesis, or clinical utility. Here we present evidence from the field of comparative physiology that the metabolic syndrome is similar to the biological process that animals engage to store fat in preparation for periods of food shortage. We propose that the metabolic syndrome be changed to fat storage condition to more clearly align with its etiology. Obesity in humans is likely the consequences of both genetic predisposition (driven in part by thrifty genes) and environment. Recent studies suggest that the loss of the uricase gene may be one factor that predisposes humans to obesity today. Understanding the process animals engage to switch from a lean insulin-sensitive to an obese insulin-resistant state may provide novel insights into the cause of obesity and diabetes in humans, and unique opportunities for reversing their pathology. PMID:23401356

  2. Dietary methyl-consuming compounds and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Da; Lun, Yong-Zhi

    2011-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Although systemic oxidative stress and aberrant methylation status are known to have important roles in the development of metabolic syndrome, how they occur remains unclear. The metabolism of methyl-consuming compounds generates reactive oxygen species and consumes labile methyl groups; therefore, a chronic increase in the levels of methyl-consuming compounds in the body can induce not only oxidative stress and subsequent tissue injury, but also methyl-group pool depletion and subsequent aberrant methylation status. In the past few decades, the intake amount of methyl-consuming compounds has substantially increased primarily due to pollution, food additives, niacin fortification and high meat consumption. Thus, increased methyl consumers might have a causal role in the development and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related diseases. Moreover, factors that decrease the elimination/metabolism of methyl-consuming compounds and other xenobiotics (for example, sweat gland inactivity and decreased liver function) or increase the generation of endogenous methyl-consuming compounds (for example, mental stress-induced increase in catecholamine release) may accelerate the progression of metabolic syndrome. Based on current nutrition knowledge and the available evidence from epidemiological, ecological, clinical and laboratory studies on metabolic syndrome and its related diseases, this review outlines the relationship between methyl supply-consumption imbalance and metabolic syndrome, and proposes a novel mechanism for the pathogenesis and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related diseases.

  3. Psoriasis and Metabolic Syndrome – scientific evidence and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Voiculescu, VM; Lupu, M; Papagheorghe, L; Giurcaneanu, C; Micu, E

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease, predominantly affecting the skin, being included in the group of Immune Mediated Inflammatory Diseases. Growing evidence from the last 10 years suggests that several systemic conditions like metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, psychological disorders or inflammatory bowel disease are prevalent in psoriasis patients. The linker might be the chronic secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this current review, the scientific evidence that explains the relationship between psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome in particular will be addressed, as the metabolic syndrome comprises a group of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, thus offering an overall picture of the systemic involvement in psoriasis. An integrated approach, with an early detection and treatment of the components of the metabolic syndrome, are important steps in psoriasis management. Attention should be paid on influence of psoriasis treatment upon comorbidities and vice-versa. PMID:25713604

  4. Psoriasis and Metabolic Syndrome--scientific evidence and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Voiculescu, V M; Lupu, M; Papagheorghe, L; Giurcaneanu, C; Micu, E

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease, predominantly affecting the skin, being included in the group of Immune Mediated Inflammatory Diseases. Growing evidence from the last 10 years suggests that several systemic conditions like metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, psychological disorders or inflammatory bowel disease are prevalent in psoriasis patients. The linker might be the chronic secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this current review, the scientific evidence that explains the relationship between psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome in particular will be addressed, as the metabolic syndrome comprises a group of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, thus offering an overall picture of the systemic involvement in psoriasis. An integrated approach, with an early detection and treatment of the components of the metabolic syndrome, are important steps in psoriasis management. Attention should be paid on influence of psoriasis treatment upon comorbidities and vice-versa.

  5. OXIDATIVE STRESS STATUS IN HUMANS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each component of the constellation of Metabolic Syndrome signs - dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and obesity - has been associated, though not unequivocally, with an elevation of oxidative stress. Moreover, reductions in these conditions appear generally associated with attenuation of b...

  6. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar: results from a National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Cheema, Sohaila; Sheikh, Javaid; Mamtani, Ravinder; Lowenfels, Albert B; Al-Chetachi, Walaa Fattah; Almalki, Badria Ali; Hassan Khalifa, Shamseldin Ali; Haj Bakri, Ahmad Omar; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    combine with other variables to construct a country-specific definition of metabolic syndrome in Qatar. Approximately 28% of adult Qatari citizens satisfy the criteria for metabolic syndrome, which increased significantly with age. Education and physical activity were inversely associated with this syndrome. PMID:27601485

  7. Sphingosine 1-phosphate in metabolic syndrome (Review).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Lu, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Xiang, Hong; Peng, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a clustering of components, is closely associated with the development and prognosis of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid with paracrine and autocrine effects, which is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension through extracellular and intracellular signals to achieve a variety of biological functions. However, there is controversy regarding the role of S1P in MetS; the specific role played by S1P remains unclear. It ameliorates abnormal energy metabolism and deviant adipogenesis and mediates inflammation in obesity. Despite the fact that sphingosine kinase (SphK)2/S1P increases the glucose‑stimulated insulin secretion of β-cells, more evidence showed that activation of the SphK1/S1P/S1P2R pathway inhibited the feedback loop of insulin secretion and sensitivity. The majority of S1P1R activation improves diabetes whereas S1P2R activation worsens the condition. In hyperlipidemia, S1P binds to high-density lipoprotein, low‑density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein exerting different effects. Moreover, low concentrations of S1P lead to vasodilation whereas high concentrations of S1P result in vasocontraction of isolated arterioles. This review discusses the means by which different SphKs, S1P concentrations or S1P receptor subtypes results to diverse result in MetS, and then examines the role of S1P in MetS. PMID:27600830

  8. Periodontal disease: the influence of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, more attention has been reserved to the correlation between periodontitis and systemic health. MetS is characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which the equilibrium between the production and the inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) becomes disrupted. ROS have an essential role in a variety of physiological systems, but under a condition of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction and damage. Oxidative stress may act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of MetS and periodontitis. All those conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, promoting a proinflammatory state. Moreover, adipocytokines, produced by the fat cells of fat tissue, might modulate the balance between oxidant and antioxidant activities. An increased caloric intake involves a higher metabolic activity, which results in an increased production of ROS, inducing insulin resistance. At the same time, obese patients require more insulin to maintain blood glucose homeostasis – a state known as hyperinsulinemia, a condition that can evolve into type 2 diabetes. Oxidation products can increase neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis, thus favoring oxidative damage. Hyperglycemia and an oxidizing state promote the genesis of advanced glycation end-products, which could also be implicated in the degeneration and damage of periodontal tissue. Thus, MetS, the whole of interconnected factors, presents systemic and local manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease and periodontitis, related by a common factor known as oxidative stress. PMID:23009606

  9. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Hispanics/Latinos of Diverse Background: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, Gerardo; Snyder, Michelle L.; Teng, Yanping; Schneiderman, Neil; Llabre, Maria M.; Cowie, Catherine; Carnethon, Mercedes; Kaplan, Robert; Giachello, Aida; Gallo, Linda; Loehr, Laura; Avilés-Santa, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Approximately one-third of the adult U.S. population has the metabolic syndrome. Its prevalence is the highest among Hispanic adults, but variation by Hispanic/Latino background is unknown. Our objective was to quantify the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women 18–74 years of age of diverse Hispanic/Latino background. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two-stage area probability sample of households in four U.S. locales, yielding 16,319 adults (52% women) who self-identified as Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, or South American. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2009 Joint Scientific Statement. The main outcome measures were age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome per the harmonized American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute definition and its component abnormalities. RESULTS The metabolic syndrome was present in 36% of women and 34% of men. Differences in the age-standardized prevalence were seen by age, sex, and Hispanic/Latino background. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among those 18–44, 45–64, and 65–74 years of age was 23%, 50%, and 62%, respectively, among women; and 25%, 43%, and 55%, respectively, among men. Among women, the metabolic syndrome prevalence ranged from 27% in South Americans to 41% in Puerto Ricans. Among men, prevalences ranged from 27% in South Americans to 35% in Cubans. In those with the metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity was present in 96% of the women compared with 73% of the men; more men (73%) than women (62%) had hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS The burden of cardiometabolic abnormalities is high in Hispanic/Latinos but varies by age, sex, and Hispanic/Latino background. Hispanics/Latinos are thus at increased, but modifiable, predicted lifetime risk of diabetes and its cardiovascular sequelae. PMID:25061141

  10. Metabolic Syndrome in a Metapopulation of Croatian Island Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kolčić, Ivana; Vorko-Jović, Ariana; Salzer, Branka; Smoljanović, Mladen; Kern, Josipa; Vuletić, Silvije

    2006-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in 9 isolated populations on Adriatic islands, Croatia, and in the group of immigrants to these islands. Methods Random samples of 100 inhabitants from each village and 101 immigrants were collected during 2002 and 2003. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used in data analysis. Age, gender, village, diet, smoking habits, physical activity, education, occupational class, and personal genetic history (a pedigree-based estimate of the individual genome-wide heterozygosity level) were used as independent variables in logistic regression. Results A total of 343 (34%) examinees met criteria of the metabolic syndrome diagnosis, with significant differences in the prevalence among villages (P = 0.002). Metabolic syndrome was most frequently detected on Mljet island (53%), where all examinees exhibited fasting plasma glucose over 6.1 mmol/L. Examinees with metabolic syndrome were significantly older than those without it (median age 60.0 vs 53.0; P<0.001). Women were more frequently diagnosed than men (39% vs 28%; P<0.001). The highest prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was found in the autochthonous group, whereas the lowest proportion was recorded in the admixed group (39% vs 21%, respectively, P = 0.017). However, only age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.03-1.08) and having a university degree (OR, 0.18; 95% CI 0.04-0.92) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in the regression model. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome was not associated with pedigree-based individual genome-wide heterozygosity estimate, after controlling for a number of confounding factors. More precise marker based genomic measures are needed to provide a clear answer whether metabolic syndrome development is influenced by the population genetic structure. PMID:16909456

  11. Metabolic syndrome and C-reactive protein in bank employees

    PubMed Central

    Cattafesta, Monica; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani

    2016-01-01

    Background The ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (us-CRP) is used for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, but it is not well described as a marker for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods An observational and transversal study of bank employees evaluated anthropometric, hemodynamic, and biochemical data. CRP values were determined using commercial kits from Roche Diagnostics Ltd, and MS criteria were analyzed according to National Cholesterol Education Program’s – Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). Results A total of 88 individuals had MS, and 77.3% (n=68) of these showed alterations of us-CRP (P=0.0001, confidence interval [CI] 0.11–0.34). Individuals with MS had higher mean values of us-CRP in global measures (P=0.0001) and stratified by sex (P=0.004) than individuals without the syndrome. This marker exhibited significant differences with varying criteria for MS, such as waist circumference (P=0.0001), triglycerides (P=0.002), and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.007), and the highest levels of us-CRP were found in individuals with more MS criteria. Conclusion us-CRP was strongly associated with the presence of MS and MS criteria in this group of workers. us-CRP is a useful and effective marker for identifying the development of MS and may be used as a reference in routine care. PMID:27274294

  12. Metabolic disorders associated with obstructive sleep apnea in adults.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is multidirectional. Obesity is recognized as the strongest risk factor for OSA. It is unknown whether metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus contribute to the development or aggravation of OSA, although this is likely. Conversely, OSA may be a risk factor for metabolic disorders. Strong evidence suggests that OSA may increase the risk of developing insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. OSA has also been associated with the development and/or aggravation of obesity, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome. In addition, metabolic disorders are confounding factors in OSA. Metabolic disorders and OSA share common intermediate pathogenic pathways, including alterations in autonomic nervous system regulation, increased inflammatory activity, and alterations in adipokine levels and endothelial dysfunction, which may be involved in the interplay between these conditions. Overall, this complexity makes it especially difficult to reveal and understand the links between OSA and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The International Diabetes Federation has recently published clinical practice recommendations suggesting that OSA patients should be routinely screened for markers of metabolic disturbance and cardiovascular risk, such as waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting lipid and glucose levels. It also recommends that the possibility of OSA should be considered in the assessment of all patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. PMID:22005190

  13. Opposite fates of fructose in the development of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alegret, Marta; Laguna, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    This short review comments on the recently published work of Ishimoto et al regarding the opposing effects of fructokinase C and A isoforms on fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in mice. The framework for the commentary is the preexisting background of epidemiological and experimental data regarding the association between ingestion of fructose, as present in sweetened beverages, and the development of metabolic syndrome. The work of Ishimoto et al clearly confirms the negative effect of fructose on lipid and glucose metabolism, independently from the amount of energy provided by the ingested sugar. It also confirms the absolute requirement of liver fructose metabolism, driven by fructokinase activity, in order to develop the full spectrum of metabolic syndrome alterations. PMID:22969219

  14. Pharmacological approach to cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Alessandro; Trimarco, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is not a discrete entity with a single pathogenesis, but different complex mechanisms, especially those inducing oxidative stress, play a major role in the genesis of this condition. This consideration suggests that treatment of recognized cardiovascular risk factors alone cannot be enough to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with a diagnosed metabolic syndrome. However, it has been reported that oxidative stress is involved in the transduction of the effects of haemodynamic and metabolic pathological conditions. Thus, drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system [angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers], or on the glucose or lipid metabolism as substrate of oxidative mechanisms (statins and nutraceuticals) in association with a dietary restriction may be taken in account, because they play a synergistic effect in preventing functional and structural changes responsible for the high cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome.

  15. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Uzunlulu, Mehmet; Telci Caklili, Ozge; Oguz, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Growing data show the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its components with cancer development and cancer-related mortality. It is suggested that in MetS and cancer association, insulin resistance and insulin-like growth factor 1 system play a key role, especially adipokines secreted from visceral adipocytes, free fatty acids and aromatase activity contribute to this process. It is also reported that MetS has a link with colorectal, breast, endometrial, pancreas, primary liver and, although controversial, prostate cancer. Although every component of MetS is known to have an association with cancer development, it is still debated whether the effects of these components are additive or synergistic. On the other hand, in the association between MetS and cancer, the role of antidiabetic and antihypertensive treatments including thiazolidinedione, insulin, angiotensin receptor blockers is also suggested. The primary approach in MetS-cancer relation is to prevent risk factors. Life style changes including weight loss and a healthy diet are known to decrease cancer risk in normal population. It is postulated that an insulin-sensitizing agent, metformin, has cancer-preventing effects on diabetic patients. This review discusses the relationship between MetS and cancer from different aspects and examines this relationship in some of the cancers suggested to be linked with MetS. PMID:26895247

  16. Relevance of postprandial lipemia in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined by the aggregation of interconnected cardiometabolic risk factors which increase the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease (CVD). MetS is currently a matter of concern and it will continue to be in the future, since there is likely to be a dramatic increase in its prevalence, and subjects with MetS will have an increased risk of mortality, mainly through CVD. Moreover, the implications on the global health burden and the worldwide epidemic of this complex disorder will impact greatly on socioeconomic cost. MetS is therefore a matter of serious concern and we need to understand its etiology in order to improve strategies of treatment and prevention. In this regard, postprandial lipemia has increased in importance over the last few years as it has been demonstrated to influence the development of atherosclerosis. In addition, in modern times, fasting is not the typical physiological state of humans; in fact, they spend most of the time in the postprandial state. However, although it is obvious that postprandial lipemia is present in conditions of obesity, little is known about the relevance of postprandial lipemia in MetS. In the current review, we will explore some aspects of postprandial lipemia which could be of interest for understanding the pathogenesis of this complex disorder and which may help us advance towards more personalized nutrition. PMID:24168444

  17. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  18. Cholesterol and Alzheimer Type Dementia among Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a summary of research by Warren Zigman and colleagues investigating the link between cholesterol levels and Alzheimer type dementia among adults with Down syndrome. Warren Zigman and colleagues followed 123 adults with Down syndrome between May 1998 and April 2006. The participants were aged between 41 and 78 years at the…

  19. Dietary intake and the metabolic syndrome in overweight Latino children.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Emily E; Davis, Jaimie N; Alexander, Katharine E; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Lee, Won; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Lane, Christianne J; Kelly, Louise A; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I

    2008-08-01

    Little is known about the relationship between diet and metabolic health in Latino children, a population at increased risk for diabetes. The present study evaluates diet composition and the metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional sample of 109 overweight Latino children aged 10 to 17 years with a family history of type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour recalls. Associations between nutrients and features of the metabolic syndrome were examined using multiple linear regression and analysis of covariance. Log cholesterol intake was positively associated with log systolic blood pressure (beta=0.034, P=0.017) and log soluble dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with log waist circumference (beta=-0.069, P=0.036). Log soluble fiber intake was significantly higher in participants with 0 features compared to those with 3+ features of the metabolic syndrome (P=0.046), which translates to 5.2 g vs 4.1 g soluble fiber daily. No other significant associations were found between dietary variables and either the individual features of the metabolic syndrome or the clustering of metabolic syndrome components. Increases in soluble fiber through the daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, and beans may improve metabolic health in Latino children.

  20. Indigenous populations in transition: An evaluation of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors among the Toba of northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lagranja, Elena Sofía; Phojanakong, Pam; Navarro, Alicia; Valeggia, Claudia R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The health problems associated with rapidly changing lifestyles in indigenous populations, e.g., cardiovascular disease, are becoming a public health concern. Aim The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and analyze the metabolic conditions that define this syndrome, in an indigenous Toba community of northern Argentina. Subjects and Methods A total of 275 adults participated in this study. Anthropometric (BMI, body fat percentage, waist circumference) and clinical measures (blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, and triglycerides) were taken. Pearson and logistic regressions were used in the statistical analysis of risk factors for metabolic syndrome by sex and by reproductive status in women. Results The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38%. Nearly a third (31%) of the population was overweight and 45%, obese. Men had significantly higher blood pressure and levels of triglycerides than women, while women had higher percentages of body fat. BMI was significantly associated with most of the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Menopausal women had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than women of reproductive age. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent in this indigenous community, which places them at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease PMID:25004443

  1. Association of periodontal status with liver abnormalities and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aisyah; Furuta, Michiko; Shinagawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Takeshita, Toru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between periodontal status and liver abnormalities has been reported, it has not been described in relation to metabolic syndrome (MetS), which often coexists with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We examined the association of a combination of liver abnormality and MetS with periodontal condition in Japanese adults, based on the level of alcohol consumption. In 2008, 4,207 males aged 45.4 ± 8.9 years and 1,270 females aged 45.9 ± 9.7 years had annual workplace health check-ups at a company in Japan. Periodontal status was represented as periodontal pocket depth at the mesio-buccal and mid-buccal sites for all teeth. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and metabolic components were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between deep pocket depth and the coexistence of elevated ALT and MetS in males with low alcohol consumption. Females showed no such relationship. In conclusion, the association between periodontal condition and the combination of elevated ALT and MetS was confirmed in males. That is, a clear association between liver abnormalities and periodontal condition was seen in male subjects with no or low alcohol consumption and MetS, providing new insights into the connection between liver function and periodontal health. PMID:26666857

  2. Investigating the metabolic syndrome: Contributions of swine models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes, and an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, occurs in nearly 35% of adults and 50% of the aging population in the United States. However, the underlying mechanisms by which MetS orchestrates and amplifies cardiovascular events remain elusive. Furthermore, traditional therapeutic strategies addressing lifestyle modifications and individual components of MetS are often unsuccessful in decreasing morbidity due to MetS. The availability of an adequate experimental platform that mimics the complexity of MetS may allow development of novel management techniques. Swine models, including domestic pigs and minipigs, have made important contributions to our understanding of many aspects of MetS. Given their similarity to human anatomy and physiology, those models may have significant predictive power for elucidating the pathophysiology of MetS in a manner applicable to humans. Moreover, experimental maneuvers and drugs can be tested in these pre-clinical models before application in patients with MetS. This review highlights the utility of the pig as an animal model for metabolic disorders, which may play a crucial role in novel drug development to optimize management of MetS. PMID:26933085

  3. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using the modified ATP III definitions for workers in Japan, Korea and Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Shiwaku, Kuninori; Nogi, Akiko; Kitajima, Keiko; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Kim, Jung-Man; Kim, In-Shik; Lee, Sung-Kook; Oyunsuren, Tsendsuren; Yamane, Yosuke

    2005-03-01

    A clustering of insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia has been labeled as the metabolic syndrome. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than do Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Most data on metabolic syndrome are based on studies from Western countries with only limited information derived from Asian populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals aged 30-60 yr in workplace settings. We examined and analyzed the health data of 1,384 Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians for metabolic syndrome based on the modified definitions of the working definition proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Educational Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (ATP III definition). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using the ATP III-BMI30 and ATP III-BMI25 definitions was 7% and 12% for Japanese, 7% and 13% for Koreans, and 12% and 16% for Mongolians, respectively. With the exception of obesity, the prevalences of individual metabolic abnormalities within each of the three Asian groups were similar to each other and to reported rates of prevalence in the U.S.A. Nevertheless, the values of sensitivity and specificity by the metabolic syndrome definitions are remarkably different relative to ethnicity. A universal metabolic syndrome definition is inappropriate for comparisons of metabolic syndrome among Asian ethnic groups. We believe that the ATP III-BMI25 definition is suitable for the determination of metabolic syndrome among Japanese and Koreans, and that the ATP III-BMI30 is more appropriate for Mongolians.

  4. Association of Microalbuminuria with Metabolic Syndrome among Aged Population.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Shu-Hua; Guan, Li-Ying; Wang, Yi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of the various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on chronic kidney disease has been conflicting. We aim to investigate the association between MetS and microalbuminuria and identify the major contributing components of MetS that result in microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Methods. A total of 674 adults aged 55-98 years (males: 266; mean age: 66.5 ± 7.5 years) were studied. MetS was defined by the 2004 Chinese Diabetes Society criteria and microalbuminuria by urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥3 mg/mmoL. Results. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was gradually increased with increasing number of MetS components (P < 0.05). In multivariate regression, after adjusting for age and sex, MetS was the strongest correlate of microalbuminuria (OR = 1.781, 95% CI = 1.226-2.587; P < 0.05) followed by the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (OR = 1.217, 95% CI = 1.044-1.092; P < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (OR = 1.011, 95% CI = 1.107-1.338; P < 0.05), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.576, 95% CI = 0.348-0.953; P < 0.05). Conclusions. MetS is independently associated with microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Elevated FPG is the most predominant component of metabolic syndrome associated with microalbuminuria followed by elevated SBP and reduced HDL-C. PMID:27200378

  5. Lifestyle modification and weight reduction among low-income patients with the metabolic syndrome: the CHARMS randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Diana A; Goldberg, Ronald B; Llabre, Maria M; Gellman, Marc; Gutt, Miriam; McCalla, Judith; Mendez, Armando; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-06-01

    Although weight is an important intervention target among patients with metabolic syndrome, few trials have recruited low-income minority populations. The Community Health and Risk-reduction for Metabolic Syndrome randomized controlled trial aimed to examine the effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and metabolic syndrome components among low-income minority adults. We randomized 120 adults with metabolic syndrome to standard medical care (N = 60) or a lifestyle intervention (N = 60). Using an intent-to-treat approach, we found significant intervention effects on weight [B = -0.452; SE = 0.122; 95 % confidence intervals (CI) -0.653 to -0.251) and glucose levels at 6-months (B = -0.522, SE = 0.234, 95 % CI -0.907 to -0.138). These changes were maintained through the 12-month assessment. No significant effects were observed on insulin resistance or other metabolic syndrome components. Our intervention was successful in achieving modest but significant weight loss and reduction in fasting glucose among low-income minority subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Turner's syndrome presenting as metabolic bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Balachandran, Karthik; Ananthakrishnan, Ramesh; Hamide, Abdoul

    2012-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a genetic disorder with a complete or partial absence of one X chromosome with characteristic phenotypic features. The prevalence of renal anomalies in turner syndrome is 30–40%. However, the renal function is usually normal. We report a case of Turner's syndrome presenting with chronic kidney disease and renal osteodystrophy. PMID:22837932

  7. The renin angiotensin system and the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Hong; Li, Feng; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is important for fluid and blood pressure regulation. Recent studies suggest that an overactive RAS is involved in the metabolic syndrome. This article discusses recent advances on how genetic alteration of the RAS affects cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes, with a special emphasis on the potential role of angiotensin-independent effects of renin. PMID:21132096

  8. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Egg Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults ≥ 40 Years Old: The Yangpyeong Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES_Yangpyeong).

    PubMed

    Woo, Hye Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the public has been advised to limit egg consumption even though there is little evidence of any harmful effect of eggs on blood cholesterol. The purpose of this cross-sectional and prospective study was to evaluate the potential association between egg consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS components in adults ≥ 40 years in KoGES_Yangpyeong. Yangpyeong is a rural area in South Korea. A total of 2,887 subjects (men 1,115, women 1,772) were recruited from 2005 to 2009, based on a physical examination and questionnaires administered using standardized protocol. After excluding subjects who had MetS at baseline, 1,663 subjects (675 men, 958 women) were followed for 3.20 years (range: 0.34-8.70). During the follow-up period, MetS occurred in 289 subjects. More than 3 eggs per week was significantly associated with decreased risk of MetS in both men (RR = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.26-0.82, P for trend = 0.1093) and women (RR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.31-0.93, P for trend 0.0325) compared to non-users. There was a cross-sectional inverse relationship between egg consumption and abdominal obesity in men and women. Also, prospectively, higher egg consumption in men was associated with a decreased risk of high fasting blood glucose (RR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.67, P for trend = 0.0042) and high triglycerides (RR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.22-0.80, P for trend = 0.1080). In conclusion, our findings suggest that higher egg consumption may reduce the risk of MetS both in men and women, and the risk of high fasting blood glucose and high triglycerides in men. Current guidelines regarding egg consumption may need to be re-visited for healthy middle-aged and elderly people. PMID:26808174

  9. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Egg Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults ≥ 40 Years Old: The Yangpyeong Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES_Yangpyeong)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hye Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the public has been advised to limit egg consumption even though there is little evidence of any harmful effect of eggs on blood cholesterol. The purpose of this cross-sectional and prospective study was to evaluate the potential association between egg consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS components in adults ≥ 40 years in KoGES_Yangpyeong. Yangpyeong is a rural area in South Korea. A total of 2,887 subjects (men 1,115, women 1,772) were recruited from 2005 to 2009, based on a physical examination and questionnaires administered using standardized protocol. After excluding subjects who had MetS at baseline, 1,663 subjects (675 men, 958 women) were followed for 3.20 years (range: 0.34–8.70). During the follow-up period, MetS occurred in 289 subjects. More than 3 eggs per week was significantly associated with decreased risk of MetS in both men (RR = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.26–0.82, P for trend = 0.1093) and women (RR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.31–0.93, P for trend 0.0325) compared to non-users. There was a cross-sectional inverse relationship between egg consumption and abdominal obesity in men and women. Also, prospectively, higher egg consumption in men was associated with a decreased risk of high fasting blood glucose (RR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22–0.67, P for trend = 0.0042) and high triglycerides (RR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.22–0.80, P for trend = 0.1080). In conclusion, our findings suggest that higher egg consumption may reduce the risk of MetS both in men and women, and the risk of high fasting blood glucose and high triglycerides in men. Current guidelines regarding egg consumption may need to be re-visited for healthy middle-aged and elderly people. PMID:26808174

  10. Emerging aspects of pharmacotherapy for obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nisoli, Enzo; Carruba, Michele O

    2004-11-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial, chronic disorder that has reached epidemic proportions in most industrialized countries and is threatening to become a global epidemic. Obese patients are at higher risk from coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, cancers, cerebrovascular accidents, osteoarthritis, restrictive pulmonary disease, and sleep apnoea. In particular, visceral fat accumulation is usually accompanied by insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, high uremic acid levels, low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to define a variously named syndrome or metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is now considered a major cardiovascular risk factor in a large percentage of population in worldwide. Both obesity and metabolic syndrome are particularly challenging clinical conditions to treat because of their complex pathophysiological basis. Indeed, body weight represents the integration of many biological and environmental components and relationships among fat and glucose tolerance or blood pressure are not completely understood. Efforts to develop innovative anti-obesity drugs, with benefits for metabolic syndrome, have been recently intensified. In general two distinct strategies can be adopted: first, to reduce energy intake; second, to increase energy expenditure. Here we review some among the most promising avenues in these two fields of drug therapy of obesity and, consequently, of metabolic syndrome. PMID:15458765

  11. [The nutrition of acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Sebe, Mayu

    2016-03-01

    In this session, we describe the acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome from two sides; acute disease that occurs higher in patients with metabolic syndrome such as colonary heart disease and stroke, and acute aggravation of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. The electrolyte imbalance is frequently detected in critical ill patients. It is reported that the extreme abnormalities of ionized calcium concentrations are independent predictors of mortality. In addition, from clinical database MIMIC-Ⅱ,calcium supplementation improves clinical outcome in intensive care unit patients. Although metabolic syndrome; lifestyle-related disease, is a chronic disease, the possibility of falling into acute disease by having it becomes very high and improvement of electrolyte imbalance, especially hypocalcaemia is expected to effective on clinical outcome. PMID:26923986

  12. [The nutrition of acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Sebe, Mayu

    2016-03-01

    In this session, we describe the acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome from two sides; acute disease that occurs higher in patients with metabolic syndrome such as colonary heart disease and stroke, and acute aggravation of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. The electrolyte imbalance is frequently detected in critical ill patients. It is reported that the extreme abnormalities of ionized calcium concentrations are independent predictors of mortality. In addition, from clinical database MIMIC-Ⅱ,calcium supplementation improves clinical outcome in intensive care unit patients. Although metabolic syndrome; lifestyle-related disease, is a chronic disease, the possibility of falling into acute disease by having it becomes very high and improvement of electrolyte imbalance, especially hypocalcaemia is expected to effective on clinical outcome.

  13. Adiponectin and Metabolic Syndrome in Women at Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Mankowska, Aneta; Nowak, Lena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with premature atherosclerosis, as well as with many metabolic alterations including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Visceral fat accumulation, particularly, is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. The menopause transition, as well as the early postmenopausal period, is associated with increase in total and central obesity. Among adipocytokines secreted by the adipose tissue adiponectin is the only one that has a protective role in the development of obesity-related disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review aims to present a role that adiponectin may play during the progress of menopause in relation to development of menopausal metabolic syndrome.

  14. [Treatment of diabetes in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pelikánova, T

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia is a typical feature of metabolic syndrome (MeTS) and one of its independent diagnostic criteria. The term includes impaired glucose homeostasis (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although glycaemic control has been shown to lower the risk of microvascular events, the effect of intensive glycaemic control on macrovascular outcomes is less clear. Epidemiological studies show hyperglycaemia, particularly the postprandial one, to be a clear risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity. However, the intervention studies are less conclusive. The large interventional studies published in 2008 and 2009 (UKPDS, VADT, ACCORD, ADVANCE, RECORD) advocate the controlling of nonglycemic risk factors (through blood pressure control, lipid lowering with statin therapy, aspirin therapy, and lifestyle modifications) as the primary strategies for reducing the burden of CV disease in people with diabetes, and demonstrated the need for individualized approach to the patients' care in terms of blood glucose control. The patients with shorter duration of type 2 diabetes and without established atherosclerosis might reap CV benefit from intensive glycemic control. Conversely, it is possible that potential risks of intensive glycaemic control (hypoglycaemia) may outweigh its benefits in other patients, such as those with a very long duration ofdiabetes, known history of severe hypoglycemia, advanced atherosclerosis, and advanced age/frailty. According to the latest recommendations of the Czech Diabetes Society that are in line with the European and US standards the best way to protect type 2 diabetic patients against coronary and cerebrovascular disease is to target all cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure treatment, including lipid-lowering with statins, aspirin prophylaxis, smoking cessation, and healthy lifestyle behaviors hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and other symptoms of metabolic syndrome

  15. Metabolic syndrome and hepatocellular carcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Turati, F; Talamini, R; Pelucchi, C; Polesel, J; Franceschi, S; Crispo, A; Izzo, F; La Vecchia, C; Boffetta, P; Montella, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been associated to diabetes and obesity, but a possible association with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its potential interaction with hepatitis is open to discussion. Methods: We analysed data from an Italian case–control study, including 185 HCC cases and 404 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from unconditional logistic regression models. Results: Among the MetS components, diabetes and obesity (i.e, body mass index (BMI)⩾30 kg m−2) were positively associated to HCC risk, with ORs of 4.33 (95% CI, 1.89–9.86) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.03–3.79), respectively. The ORs for the MetS were 4.06 (95% CI, 1.33–12.38) defining obesity as BMI⩾25, and 1.92 (95% CI, 0.38–9.76) defining it as BMI⩾30. The risk increased with the number of MetS components, up to an almost four-fold excess risk among subjects with ⩾2 MetS factors. Among subjects without chronic infection with hepatitis B and/or C, the OR for those with ⩾2 MetS components was over six-fold elevated. There was no consistent association in subjects with serological evidence of hepatitis B and/or C infection. Conclusion: This study found that the risk of HCC increases with the number of MetS components in subjects not chronically infected with hepatitis viruses. PMID:23169288

  16. Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Belarbia, Anis; Nouira, Safa; Sahtout, Wissal; Guedri, Yosra; Achour, Abdellatif

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients as well as its effects on the progression of CKD, we conducted a prospective, longitudinal study including 180 patients with chronic renal failure followed at the outpatient service of Nephrology at the Saloul's University Hospital of Sousse (Tunisia) over six months. Our study population consisted of 101 men and 79 women. Chronic glomerulonephritis (36.6%) was the most frequent nephropathy. The mean serum creatinine was 249 ± 200 mmol/L and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 55.8 ± 49.2 mL/min. Cardiovascular (CV) impairment was found in 27.2% of the patients. The prevalence of MS was 42.2%. Women had significantly more abdominal obesity than men. Subjects with MS were significantly older and predominantly females who had higher blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). CV complications were more frequent among the MS subjects than among the controls. Glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) were significantly higher in the group of CKD patients with MS. However, the occurrence of MS was not influenced by the nature of nephropathy, the degree of the CKD and the use of renin-angiotensin blockers or statins. In multivariate analysis, predictors of occurrence of MS in our series included older age, female gender and higher BMI and LDL-c levels. The prevalence of MS in patients with CKD is higher than the general population. These patients should receive special multidisciplinary care to limit CV complications.

  17. Psychiatric disorders in adults with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, C.S.; Levitas, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a multiple anomaly/mental retardation syndrome currently mapped to 16p13.3 and characterized by microephaly, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, curved nose, elongated nasal columelia and broad thumbs and great toes, often with medial or lateral angulation. Although there are reports of attentional problems and impulsivity among children with RTS there have been no studies to date of behavioral characteristics of the syndrome. Since 1988 we have identified 7 adults with classic RTS and psychiatric disorders among 1500 mentally retarded individuals ascertained primarily for behavioral and psychiatric problems; these patients all had microcephaly, characteristic facies and broad halluces, frequently with angulation. An additional 6 adults with psychiatric disorders had some features suggesting RTS but not classic for the disorder; these patients had microcephaly, characteristic nasal configuration and somewhat broad thumbs but lacked hypertelorism, downslant of palpebral fissures, angulation of halluces, and/or other dysmorphic features typical of classic RTS. Among the seven with classic RTS, three had tic disorder and/or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, one had Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features and one had Major Depressive Disorder with obsessive-compulsive features. The six with some RTS features had similar psychiatric disorders. All patients were extremely sensitive to side effects of antidopaminergic medication, with the exception of clozapine. This clustering of psychiatric disorders and sensitivity suggests possible dysfunction of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in at least some patients with RTS. The 16p13.3 region should be examined for possible genes affecting metabolism or receptors of these neurotransmitters.

  18. Metabolic Syndrome, Aging and Involvement of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bonomini, Francesca; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity and insulin resistance, is dramatically increasing in Western and developing countries. This disorder consists of a cluster of metabolic conditions, such as hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-low-density lipoproteins, hypo-high-density lipoproteins, insulin resistance, abnormal glucose tolerance and hypertension, that-in combination with genetic susceptibility and abdominal obesity-are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, and renal, liver and heart diseases. One of the defects in metabolic syndrome and its associated diseases is excess of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species generated by mitochondria, or from other sites within or outside the cell, cause damage to mitochondrial components and initiate degradative processes. Such toxic reactions contribute significantly to the aging process. In this article we review current understandings of oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome related disease and its possible contribution to accelerated senescence. PMID:25821639

  19. [Association between asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and metabolic syndrome in the adolescents].

    PubMed

    Koborová, Ivana; Gurecká, Radana; Hlavatá, Anna; Šebeková, Katarína

    2015-01-01

    In humans, uric acid represents a biologically active end-product of purine nucleotides. Several studies in children and adolescents documented an association between hyperuricaemia and the components metabolic syndrome. High intake of fructose-sweetened beverages might increase uricaemia, since fructose is the only saccharide which metabolism results in the formation of uric acid. Current knowledge does not allow distinguishing whether hyperuricaemia is causally related to the components of metabolic syndrome, or rather represents a marker of an enhanced risk, and poor outcome. No guidelines exist whether or not to treat asymptomatic hyperuricaemia in the adolescents. Randomized controlled prospective clinical studies are needed to elucidate whether uric acid-lowering management would beneficially affect the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and the incidence of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Links between nutrition, drug abuse, and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew; Ali, Syed; Gaetani, Franco

    2006-08-01

    Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse may increase risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by augmenting cell damage, excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. We have reviewed here the following points: effects of drugs of abuse on nutrition and brain metabolism; effects of nutrition on actions of the drugs of abuse; drug abuse and probability of developing metabolic syndrome; role of genetic vulnerability in nutrition/drug abuse and brain damage; and the role of neuroprotective supplements in drug abuse. Nutrition education is an essential component of substance abuse treatment programs and can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. The strategies available, in particular the nutritional approach to protect the drug abusers from the metabolic syndrome and other diseases are discussed.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032) and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01). In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance. PMID:24676191

  2. Hemophagocytic syndrome in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Iwona; Machaczka, Maciej; Popko, Katarzyna; Siwicka, Alicja; Salamonowicz, Małgorzata; Nasiłowska-Adamska, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome, also known as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a heterogenic syndrome, which leads to an acute, life-threatening inflammatory reaction. HLH occurs both in children and adults, and can be triggered by various inherited as well as acquired factors. Depending on the etiology, HLH can be divided into genetic (i.e., primary) and acquired (i.e., secondary) forms. Among genetic HLH forms, one can distinguish between familial HLH and other genetically conditioned forms of HLH. Acquired HLH can be typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignancies. The most common symptoms of HLH are unremitting fever, splenomegaly, and peripheral blood cytopenia. Some severely ill patients present with central nervous system involvement. Laboratory tests reveal hyperferritinemia (often >10,000 μg/L), increased serum concentration of soluble receptor α for interleukin-2 (>2,400 U/L), hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia, coagulopathy, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated liver transaminases and bilirubin. Prognosis in HLH is very serious. Genetic HLH is always lethal if adequate therapy is not administered. Similarly, severe acquired cases often lead to death without appropriate treatment. Since HLH can be encountered by various specialists in the medical field, basic knowledge of this entity such as diagnostic criteria and treatment should be familiar to all physicians.

  3. Nut consumption has favorable effects on lipid profiles of Korean women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Joo; Nam, Ga Eun; Seo, Ji A; Yoon, Taehyung; Seo, Ilwon; Lee, Jin Hee; Im, Donggil; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo; Jeong, Si An; Kang, Tae Seok; Ahn, Jae Hee; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Nan Hee

    2014-09-01

    Nut consumption has been studied for its cardioprotective effects. However, the findings of clinical intervention studies are inconsistent; and no intervention studies have been conducted in the Korean population. We hypothesized that nut supplementation may have favorable influence on metabolic markers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of nut consumption on metabolic parameters and biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. To this end, we designed a randomized, parallel, controlled dietary intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02023749). Subjects with metabolic syndrome and a body mass index of at least 23 kg/m(2) were randomized to the Control group and the Nut group, which received supplementation with 30 g/d of mixed nuts (walnuts, peanuts, and pine nuts) for 6 weeks. Sixty volunteers were included in the final analysis. Metabolic markers were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly improved in the Nut group compared to those in the Control group (P = .023 and P = .016, respectively) in women. Biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function did not significantly change from baseline in either group. Thus, supplementing a usual diet with mixed nuts for 6 weeks had favorable effects on several lipid parameters in Korean women with metabolic syndrome. These findings present a possible mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of nut consumption.

  4. Childhood trauma and metabolic syndrome in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chioun; Tsenkova, Vera; Carr, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The long-term effects of childhood trauma on health are well-documented, but few population-based studies have explored how childhood trauma affects the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Using data from 1,234 adults in the second wave of the Midlife Development in the U.S. survey (2004), we investigate (1) the extent to which childhood abuse affects the risk of developing MetS in adulthood; (2) how the severity of different types of abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, or cumulative abuse) affects this risk; and (3) the extent to which adult socioeconomic status (SES), maladaptive stress responses, and unhealthy behaviors mediate the association. We also test whether these associations differ significantly by sex. We find that emotional and physical abuse increase the risk of developing MetS for both sexes, whereas sexual abuse is a predictor for women only. For both sexes, individuals who experienced more cumulative abuse have a greater risk of developing MetS. Adult SES partially explains the association between childhood abuse and MetS. Maladaptive stress responses and unhealthy behaviors further explain the association. Among the potential mediators, poor sleep quality was a significant pathway for men and women, while stress-induced eating was a significant pathway for women only. Our findings suggest that the well-documented health consequences of early life trauma may vary by the nature of the trauma, the victim’s sex, and the coping mechanisms that he or she employs. PMID:24524907

  5. Association between the polycystic ovary syndrome and the metabolic syndrome in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Rabelo Acevedo, Marielsa; Vick, Margarita Ramírez

    2005-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects mostly young women causing chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism and obesity with android pattern. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (abnormal glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, hypertension and increased waist circumference) in PCOS is not defined although both have a common etiologic factor: insulin resistance. This retrospective study from medical records examined the presence of obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. The metabolic syndrome was defined as presence of two or more of the following signs: abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, and hypertension. Thirty nine records of patients with PCOS were reviewed. The mean age was 29.4 years and the body mass index was 36 kg/m2. Hypertriglyceridemia was present in 43%, low HDL in 71%, hypertension in 36%, impaired glucose tolerance in 10% and diabetes mellitus type 2 in 37%. The metabolic syndrome was identified in 44% of sampled women with PCOS. These findings indicate that women with PCOS are at increased risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 at a young age. PCOS patients have higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome than the rest of the population and thus are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease even if they don't develop diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:16329683

  6. Obesity-Driven Gut Microbiota Inflammatory Pathways to Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz H. A.; Galvão, José G. F. M.; da Silva, Juliane Santos de França; de Sales-Neto, José M.; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism, and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signaling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome. PMID:26635627

  7. The metabolic vascular syndrome - guide to an individualized treatment.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Markolf; Pistrosch, Frank; Bornstein, Stefan R; Birkenfeld, Andreas L

    2016-03-01

    In ancient Greek medicine the concept of a distinct syndrome (going together) was used to label 'a group of signs and symptoms' that occur together and 'characterize a particular abnormality and condition'. The (dys)metabolic syndrome is a common cluster of five pre-morbid metabolic-vascular risk factors or diseases associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, fatty liver disease and risk of cancer. The risk for major complications such as cardiovascular diseases, NASH and some cancers develops along a continuum of risk factors into clinical diseases. Therefore we still include hyperglycemia, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension as diagnostic traits in the definition according to the term 'deadly quartet'. From the beginning elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia were core traits of the metabolic syndrome associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus metabolic and vascular abnormalities are in extricable linked. Therefore it seems reasonable to extend the term to metabolic-vascular syndrome (MVS) to signal the clinical relevance and related risk of multimorbidity. This has important implications for integrated diagnostics and therapeutic approach. According to the definition of a syndrome the rapid global rise in the prevalence of all traits and comorbidities of the MVS is mainly caused by rapid changes in life-style and sociocultural transition resp. with over- and malnutrition, low physical activity and social stress as a common soil. PMID:26956847

  8. [The use of various diet supplements in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Maćczak, Aneta; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-01-09

    Civilization development is associated with immense progress in science and significant improvement of human living conditions but simultaneously it contributes to many health problems including metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a set of mutually associated factors including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, lipids disorders and hypertension, which is the main cause of development of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. The first line of defense against metabolic syndrome is a change of life style including body mass reduction, application of a low-calorie diet and performance of physical activity. In spite of the simplicity of therapy, long-term success of the above treatment among patients is observed seldom because it is very difficult to obey rigorous rules. Nowadays, it is considered that diet supplements including antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids and mineral elements are helpful in metabolic syndrome treatment due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is considered that a health balanced diet enriched with various diet supplements may be the best strategy in metabolic syndrome treatment.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome Sinkholes: What to Do When Occam's Razor Gets Blunted.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ross D; Anderson, Todd J; Touyz, Rhian M

    2015-05-01

    The real promise of the metabolic syndrome concept was the opportunity to elucidate a singular common mechanism for its component abnormalities and consequently a singular therapy. That promise has not produced. This relates to the following considerations: (1) metabolic syndrome remains a syndrome not a disease, (2) its diagnosis offers little more than what can be determined by measuring waist circumference, (3) risk assessment is not improved by the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, (4) the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not impact the treatment of each component of the syndrome, and (5) there is no effective therapy for metabolic syndrome in its entirety.

  10. Cardiac rehabilitation programs improve metabolic parameters in patients with the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Ignacio P; Zapata, Maria A; Cervantes, Carlos E; Jarabo, Rosario M; Grande, Cristina; Plaza, Rose; Garcia, Sara; Rodriguez, Miriam L; Crespo, Silvia; Perea, Jesús

    2010-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training program on metabolic parameters and coronary risk factors in patients with the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease. The study involved 642 patients with coronary heart disease. Of them, 171 (26.7%) fulfilled criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Clinical data, laboratory tests, and exercise testing were performed before and after the program, which lasted 2 to 3 months. Except for waist circumference, there were no significant differences between groups; blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose improvements during the follow-up were higher in patients with the metabolic syndrome (all P<.001). At study end, in patients with the metabolic syndrome, functional capacity increased by 26.45% ( P<.001), as measured by metabolic equivalents, with a slight increase of 1.25% ( P=not significant) in the double product. Patients with the metabolic syndrome who took part in this secondary prevention program reported improvements in cardiovascular risk profile and functional capacity.

  11. White coat hypertension in definition of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Helvaci, Mehmet Rami; Kaya, Hasan; Seyhanli, Mahmut; Yalcin, Atilla

    2008-07-01

    Although white coat hypertension (WCH) is believed to have an effect on health, there is no term defining WCH in metabolic syndrome. Consecutive patients 20 years old or older who underwent a check-up were included. The study included 1068 cases. The prevalences of hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and WCH were similar to excess weight in that they increased significantly until the seventh decade of life and decreased thereafter significantly (P < 0.05 in most steps). On the other hand, the prevalences of hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary heart disease (CHD) always increased significantly with age without any decrease (P < 0.05 in most steps), indicating their irreversibility in contrast to the reversibility of excess weight, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, IGT, and WCH. Metabolic syndrome is a reversible progression step between health and irreversible final diseases terminating with increased mortality and disabilities. Thus, the definition of metabolic syndrome should include reversible metabolic risk factors such as excess weight (overweight and obesity), hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, IGT, and WCH, instead of irrevesible diseases such as DM, HT, CHD, and stroke that have already developed and require drug therapy. After development of one of the final metabolic diseases, the term metabolic syndrome probably loses most of its significance, since from that point on, nonpharmaceutical approaches such as lifestyle changes, diet, and exercise will provide little benefit to prevent development of the others, most likely due to the cumulative effects of the risk factors on body systems over a long period of time.

  12. Dynamic genetic architecture of metabolic syndrome attributes in the rat.

    PubMed

    Seda, Ondrej; Liska, Frantisek; Krenova, Drahomira; Kazdova, Ludmila; Sedova, Lucie; Zima, Tomas; Peng, Junzheng; Pelinkova, Kveta; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Kren, Vladimir

    2005-04-14

    The polydactylous rat strain (PD/Cub) is a highly inbred (F > 90) genetic model of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic architecture of the metabolic derangements found in the PD/Cub strain and to assess its dynamics in time and in response to diet and medication. We derived a PD/Cub x BN/Cub (Brown Norway) F2 intercross population of 149 male rats and performed metabolic profiling and genotyping and multiple levels of genetic linkage and statistical analyses at five different stages of ontogenesis and after high-sucrose diet feeding and dexamethasone administration challenges. The interval mapping analysis of 83 metabolic and morphometric traits revealed over 50 regions genomewide with significant or suggestive linkage to one or more of the traits in the segregating PD/Cub x BN/Cub population. The multiple interval mapping showed that, in addition to "single" quantitative train loci, there are more than 30 pairs of loci across the whole genome significantly influencing the variation of particular traits in an epistatic fashion. This study represents the first whole genome analysis of metabolic syndrome in the PD/Cub model and reveals several new loci previously not connected to the genetics of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In addition, it attempts to present the concept of "dynamic genetic architecture" of metabolic syndrome attributes, evidenced by shifts in the genetic determination of syndrome features during ontogenesis and during adaptation to the dietary and pharmacological influences.

  13. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some

  14. Associations between Resident Perceptions of the Local Residential Environment and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, Katherine; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha; Coffee, Neil; Hugo, Graeme; Taylor, Anne; Adams, Robert; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A substantial body of research has arisen concerning the relationships between objective residential area features, particularly area-level socioeconomic status and cardiometabolic outcomes. Little research has explored residents' perceptions of such features and how these might relate to cardiometabolic outcomes. Perceptions of environments are influenced by individual and societal factors, and may not correspond to objective reality. Understanding relations between environmental perceptions and health is important for the development of environment interventions. This study evaluated associations between perceptions of local built and social environmental attributes and metabolic syndrome, and tested whether walking behaviour mediated these associations. Individual-level data were drawn from a population-based biomedical cohort study of adults in Adelaide, South Australia (North West Adelaide Health Study). Participants' local-area perceptions were analysed in cross-sectional associations with metabolic syndrome using multilevel regression models (n = 1, 324). A nonparametric bootstrapping procedure evaluated whether walking mediated these associations. Metabolic syndrome was negatively associated with greater local land-use mix, positive aesthetics, and greater infrastructure for walking, and was positively associated with greater perceived crime and barriers to walking. Walking partially mediated associations between metabolic syndrome and perceived environmental features. Initiatives targeting residents' perceptions of local areas may enhance the utility of environmental interventions to improve population health. PMID:23049574

  15. Adiponectin: an adipokine with protective features against metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Maryam; Movahedian, Ahmad; Baranchi, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a collection of obesity-associated disorders is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, pro-thrombotic state, elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is one of the most abundant peptide hormones derived from adipose tissue. This protein plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism and prevents development of vascular changes. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects are the other features of adiponectin. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with hypertension and pro-thrombotic state. In this review, we discuss the crucial role of adiponectin in prevention of metabolic syndrome considering its effects on the components of this syndrome. Pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification may increase plasma adiponectin level or tissue sensitivity which seems to be a promising target for prevention and therapeutic approaches of MetS and related diseases. PMID:26124928

  16. [History and definition(s) of metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, M; Schaper, F; Ceriello, A

    2007-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome--a cluster of metabolic diseases and hypertension--is not a new disease. It has been present in the upper classes of all highly developed cultures suffering from over-nutrition and limited physical activity. In the medical literature, it can be found in Renaissance and Baroque times. We are presently experiencing a global tsunami of this syndrome as over-nutrition and lack of movement are typical for large groups of the population. The current definition of metabolic syndrome of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation incorporates the quartet central obesity, hypertension, increased blood sugar and dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol). Thus, simple, collective diagnostics and therapy for this finely meshed group of diseases together with its risk factors is possible. PMID:17226009

  17. Strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in the metabolic syndrome: clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Lyons, Timothy J

    2012-06-13

    Emerging science supports therapeutic roles of strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic state characterized by several cardiovascular risk factors. Interventional studies reported by our group and others have demonstrated the following effects: strawberries lowering total and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, and decreasing surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules); blueberries lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lipid oxidation and improving insulin resistance; and low-calorie cranberry juice selectively decreasing biomarkers of lipid oxidation (oxidized LDL) and inflammation (adhesion molecules) in metabolic syndrome. Mechanistic studies further explain these observations as up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, reduction in renal oxidative damage, and inhibition of the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes or angiotensin-converting enzyme by these berries. These findings need confirmation in future studies with a focus on the effects of strawberry, blueberry, or cranberry intervention in clinical biomarkers and molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and high fructose intake in the development of metabolic syndrome, brain metabolic abnormalities, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2013-08-01

    Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654

  19. Relation between nutritional risk and metabolic syndrome in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Lee, Kang Soo; Eom, Jin-Sup; Lim, Ki-Young; Lee, Kwan Woo; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition is regarded as a major factor in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Undernutrition or nutritional imbalance, rather than overnutrition, can be associated with MS. We evaluated the relationship between nutritional risk and MS in the elderly. We analyzed 2284 Koreans aged over 60 years (689 men and 1595 women) from baseline data of a large prospective study called the Gwangju Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment Study (GDEMCIS). MS was determined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, and nutritional risk was evaluated using the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) checklist. Among 2284 subjects, 1219 (53.4%) had MS. NSI score was higher in subjects with MS than in those without MS (2.46 ± 1.89 vs. 2.18 ± 1.87, p<0.001). The risks of abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated glucose, and MS were higher in subjects with moderate or high nutritional risk compared to subjects in a good nutritional state. Nutritional risk was independently associated with MS for subjects in their 60s, but not in their 70s or 80s and above. In conclusion, high nutritional risk is associated with increased risk of MS in the elderly. Measurement of nutritional status in the elderly may serve as a marker for MS, especially for the younger elderly.

  20. [Obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rosende, Andrés; Pellegrini, Carlos; Iglesias, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related to the cases of cardiovascular disease; they are usually regarded as belonging to the adult population but are seen with increasing frequency in children and adolescents. There is evidence that atherosclerotic lesions occur most often in young people with obesity. The factors involved in this pandemic are manifold and range from genetic-biological to cultural changes. The family and the environment in which the child develops play a key role in the adoption of habits related to diet and physical activity. This problem does not respect borders and cultures but all countries are being affected, even more those of middle-income. State and Society as a whole can play a role oriented to modify this environment. The restriction on sales of unhealthy food and the fight against the sedentary lifestyle are urgently needed to be applied. The impact that these disorders will have in terms of cardiovascular disease, has not yet reached its true dimension. PMID:24152409

  1. Association between Toenail Mercury and Metabolic Syndrome Is Modified by Selenium

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyong; Seo, Eunmin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Asian populations consume relatively large amounts of fish and seafood and have a high prevalence of metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the association between chronic mercury exposure and metabolic syndrome and its effect modification by selenium. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in the Yeungnam area. Participants included 232 men and 269 women, aged 35 years or older, who had complete data regarding demographic, lifestyle, diet, toenail mercury and selenium levels, and health. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were measured using instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The metabolic biomarker levels were obtained through biannual medical checkups. Results: Higher toenail mercury levels were associated with habitual consumption of whale and shark meats, older age, obesity, smoking, alcohol drinking, and higher household income. Multivariable analysis showed a positive association between toenail mercury exposure and metabolic syndrome. In addition, this association was significantly stronger at lower selenium levels and was weaker at higher selenium levels. Conclusion: The possible harmful effects of mercury on metabolic syndrome may be attenuated by high levels of selenium. Future studies are needed to suggest optimal dietary guidelines regarding fish and selenium intakes, particularly for Asians with high levels of fish intake. PMID:27420091

  2. Toxigenic and metabolic causes of ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Martina M; Hajja, Waddah; Al-Khatib, Sofian; Hazeghazam, Maryam; Sreedhar, Dharmashree; Li, Rebecca Na; Wong-McKinstry, Edna; Carlson, Richard W

    2012-10-01

    Ketoacidotic syndromes are frequently encountered in acute care medicine. This article focuses on ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes associated with intoxications, alcohol abuse, starvation, and certain dietary supplements as well as inborn errors of metabolism. Although all of these various processes are characterized by the accumulation of ketone bodies and metabolic acidosis, there are differences in the mechanisms, clinical presentations, and principles of therapy for these heterogeneous disorders. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for these disorders are presented, as well as guidance regarding identification and management.

  3. Epigenomics, gestational programming and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of

  4. Profiling of plasma metabolites in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Miho; Harada, Sei; Kurihara, Ayako; Fukai, Kota; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Ayano; Okamura, Tomonori; Akiyama, Miki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Asako; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Banno, Kouji; Aoki, Daisuke; Takebayashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of amino acids and other polar metabolites with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women in a lean Asian population. Methods: The participants were 1,422 female residents enrolled in a cohort study from April to August 2012. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III modified for Japanese women. Associations were examined between MetS and 78 metabolites assayed in fasting plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Replication analysis was performed to confirm the robustness of the results in a separate population created by random allocation. Results: Analysis was performed for 877 naturally postmenopausal women, including 594 in the original population and 283 in the replication population. The average age, body mass index, and levels of high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the entire population were 64.6 years, 23.0 kg/m2, 72.1 mg/dL, and 126.1 mg/dL, respectively. There was no significant difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between women with and without MetS. Thirteen metabolites were significantly related to MetS: multiple plasma amino acids were elevated in women with MetS, including branched-chain amino acids, alanine, glutamate, and proline; and alpha-aminoadipate, which is generated by lysine degradation, was also significantly increased. Conclusions: Our large-scale metabolomic profiling indicates that Japanese postmenopausal women with MetS have abnormal polar metabolites, suggesting altered catabolic pathways. These results may help to understand metabolic disturbance, including in persons with normal body mass index and relatively high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and may have clinical utility based on further studies. PMID:27070805

  5. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P < 0.001); this effect was not shown for the rest of the study population. EiA was related to higher prevalence of MS (13.8% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.001), higher metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS.

  6. [Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome. Apropos of 4 cases discovered in adults].

    PubMed

    Madoule, P; Le Balc'h, T; Petrel, P; Doyon, D

    1984-02-01

    Of four adult patients with the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, 3 were from one family, one had associated major femoral trochlear dysplasia and bilateral mandibular condyle dysplasia, and another a bilateral coxa plana. PMID:6716338

  7. Biological functions of histidine-dipeptides and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Song, Byeng Chun; Joo, Nam-Seok; Aldini, Giancarlo; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2014-02-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which is associated with a state of elevated systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, is expected to cause future increases in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars produces reactive carbonyl species, which, due to their electrophilic nature, react with the nucleophilic sites of certain amino acids. This leads to formation of protein adducts such as advanced glycoxidation/lipoxidation end products (AGEs/ALEs), resulting in cellular dysfunction. Therefore, an effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering agent may be able to prevent such cellular dysfunction. There is accumulating evidence that histidine containing dipeptides such as carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (β-alanyl-methyl-L-histidine) detoxify cytotoxic reactive carbonyls by forming unreactive adducts and are able to reverse glycated protein. In this review, 1) reaction mechanism of oxidative stress and certain chronic diseases, 2) interrelation between oxidative stress and inflammation, 3) effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering actions of histidine-dipeptides and their metabolism, 4) effects of carnosinase encoding gene on the effectiveness of histidine-dipeptides, and 5) protective effects of histidine-dipeptides against progression of metabolic syndrome are discussed. Overall, this review highlights the potential beneficial effects of histidine-dipeptides against metabolic syndrome. Randomized controlled human studies may provide essential information regarding whether histidine-dipeptides attenuate metabolic syndrome in humans. PMID:24611099

  8. Treating Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Marotz, Clarisse A.; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness. Here we review recent evidence suggesting efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in animal models and humans for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders.

  9. Treating Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Marotz, Clarisse A.; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness. Here we review recent evidence suggesting efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in animal models and humans for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. PMID:27698622

  10. Association between metabolic syndrome, smoking status and coronary artery calcification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Ah; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook; Rho, Jun-Seung; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC), an indicator of coronary artery stenosis, is an independent risk factor of ischemic heart disease. Smoking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. Almost no previous studies have evaluated the combined effect of MS and smoking status on CAC. Therefore, in this study we examined the relationships between CAC, MS, and smoking. This study included 775 adult males without histories of cardiovascular disease who visited the Health Promotion Center at the University Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea from January 2, 2010 to December 31, 2012. All subjects were screened for CAC by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). CAC increased significantly with age and body mass index (BMI). Among MS components, abdominal obesity and elevated fasting blood glucose were correlated with CAC. After adjusting for age and BMI, MS was associated with a 1.46-fold increase in CAC (95% CI:1.02-2.09), abdominal obesity was associated with a 1.45-fold increase (95% CI:1.04-2.04), elevated fasting blood glucose was associated with a 2-fold increase (95% CI:1.36-2.94), and MS and smoking combined were associated with 2.44-fold increase in CAC. Thus, the combination of smoking and MS had a greater impact on CAC than any single factor alone. MS is correlated with an increased risk of CAC, and a combination of MS and smoking is associated with even greater risk. These findings can be used to prevent cardiovascular disease in adults.

  11. Metabolic syndrome after a liver transplantation in an Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hwee Leong; Lim, Kieron B L; Iyer, Shridhar Ganpathi; Chang, Stephen K Y; Madhavan, Krishnakumar; Kow, Alfred W C

    2015-01-01

    Background With improvements in patient survival after a liver transplantation (LT), long-term sequelae such as metabolic syndrome (MS) have become increasingly common. This study aims to characterize the prevalence, associations and long-term outcomes of post-LTMS and its components in an Asian population. Methods A retrospective review of all adult patients who underwent LT at the National University Health System Singapore between December 1996 and May 2012 was performed. MS was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria modified for an Asian population. Results The median age of this cohort of 90 patients was 50.0 (16.0–67.0) years, with a median follow-up duration of 60.0 (7.0–192.0) months. The prevalence of post-LTMS was 35.6%, diabetes mellitus (DM) 51.1%, hypertension 60.0%, obesity 26.7% and dyslipidaemia 46.7%. On univariate analysis, factors significantly associated with post-LT MS include female gender (P = 0.066), pre-LT respiratory comorbidities (P = 0.038), pre-LT obesity (P = 0.014), pre-LTDM (P < 0.001), pre-LT hypertension (P = 0.039), pre-LTMS (P < 0.001), prednisolone use ≥24 months (P = 0.005) and mycophenolate mofetil use ≥24 months (P = 0.035). On multivariate analysis, independent associations of post-LT MS were pre-LTDM (P = 0.011) and pre-LTMS (P = 0.024). There was no difference in long-term survival of patients with and without post-LTMS (P = 0.425). Conclusion In conclusion, pre-LT components of the MS and the use of certain immunosuppressants are related to developing post-LTMS. PMID:26172138

  12. Predictive value of ceruloplasmin for metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-Riovalle, Jacqueline; Sinausía, Laura; Carmen Valenza, Maríe; Perona, Javier S

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is precisely defined and the cardiovascular risk associated with the clustering of its components has been demonstrated in adults. However, data on children and adolescents are still scarce, in part, because of difficulties in transposing the definition from adults. The identification of risk factors for the development of MetS at an early age is essential for prevention purposes with low-grade inflammation acting as a determinant for the association among the MetS components. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of the MetS with systemic markers of inflammation and ceruloplasmin in a population of adolescents. The present is a cross-sectional study whose sample population consisted of 976 adolescents, 13.2 ± 1.2 years of age. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was determined by a solid-phase chemiluminiscent immunometric assay. Ceruloplasmin was measured by immunoturbidimetry. MetS adolescents exhibited higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and ceruloplasmin compared to non-MetS individuals. TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP showed strong correlations with the MetS components and insulin resistance but not relevant predictive values according to ROC curves (AUC values 0.544- 0.555). In contrast, ceruloplasmin only showed significant correlations in non-Mets individuals, but exhibited a very high predictive value (AUC=0.941, P < 0.001). The determination of serum ceruloplasmin in adolescents might be a useful tool to identify patients with the highest risk of future cardiovascular disease.

  13. Predictive value of ceruloplasmin for metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-Riovalle, Jacqueline; Sinausía, Laura; Carmen Valenza, Maríe; Perona, Javier S

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is precisely defined and the cardiovascular risk associated with the clustering of its components has been demonstrated in adults. However, data on children and adolescents are still scarce, in part, because of difficulties in transposing the definition from adults. The identification of risk factors for the development of MetS at an early age is essential for prevention purposes with low-grade inflammation acting as a determinant for the association among the MetS components. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of the MetS with systemic markers of inflammation and ceruloplasmin in a population of adolescents. The present is a cross-sectional study whose sample population consisted of 976 adolescents, 13.2 ± 1.2 years of age. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was determined by a solid-phase chemiluminiscent immunometric assay. Ceruloplasmin was measured by immunoturbidimetry. MetS adolescents exhibited higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and ceruloplasmin compared to non-MetS individuals. TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP showed strong correlations with the MetS components and insulin resistance but not relevant predictive values according to ROC curves (AUC values 0.544- 0.555). In contrast, ceruloplasmin only showed significant correlations in non-Mets individuals, but exhibited a very high predictive value (AUC=0.941, P < 0.001). The determination of serum ceruloplasmin in adolescents might be a useful tool to identify patients with the highest risk of future cardiovascular disease. PMID:27083758

  14. Impact of lifestyle on metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy people.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Silvio; Sprini, Delia; Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Nicolucci, Antonio; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Massenti, Fatima M; Amodio, Emanuele; Rini, Giovam B

    2014-06-01

    Parallel to the increase in obesity, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is continually increasing, with increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular atherosclerosis diseases. Despite the importance of this public health problem, the relative impact of diet and physical activity on MetS prevalence has yet to be established. We investigated the association between lifestyle, in terms of both habitual dietary pattern and physical activity, and MetS in a cohort of adults without known diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Four hundred seventy-seven randomly selected adult participants were cross-sectionally investigated. Each participant answered a food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on physical activity, and underwent routine laboratory blood measurements. MetS was identified in 24.7% of the cohort. Dietary patterns were not significantly different (P = 0.31) between the groups (with or without MetS). The habitual physical activity level was significantly lower (P = 0.011) in the group with MetS. In particular, the prevalence of sedentary participants was 58.1% in the group with MetS, and 43.9% in the group without MetS. Multivariate analysis revealed that MetS was associated with age (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.08) and physical activity level (light vs. sedentary: OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.87; moderate/heavy vs. sedentary: OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.75). This study suggests that inadequate physical activity level is associated with MetS. Our results are therefore consonant with the notion of healthier lifestyle changes to counteract the epidemic of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, though adequate interventional trials will be needed in high-risk populations.

  15. Comparison of Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Premature Myocardial Infarction in an Iranian Population: A Case -Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Toba; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Zarban, Asghar; Fesharakinia, Azita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Aim: Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with premature myocardial infarction (before 50 years of age). Methods: In this case–control study, we compared 98 consecutive patients who were hospitalized in Birjand with acute first myocardial infarction before the age of 50 years and 98 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without a history of coronary artery disease. The case and control groups were categorized according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III) metabolic syndrome criteria [presence of ≥3 of the following: Fasting blood glucose ≥100 mg/dL, triglyceride (TG) level ≥150 mg/dL, low high density lipoprotein (HDL; <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women), blood pressure ≥130/85 mm Hg, and waist circumference >102 cm in men or 88 cm in women]. The data were collected and analyzed by t-test, χ2, and logistic regression in SPSS software 11.5. Results: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in cases than in control group (34.7% in cases, 16.3% in controls, P=0.003). All components of metabolic syndrome except high waist circumstance in the cases group were significantly higher than in control. The most common component of metabolic syndrome was high TG and the least common component was low HDL. Conclusion: We conclude that prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with premature myocardial infarction is high; high TG is the most common component of metabolic syndrome. PMID:23411742

  16. Estrogen and mitochondria function in cardiorenal metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R; Sowers, James R

    2014-01-01

    The cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) consists of a constellation of cardiac, renal, and metabolic disorders including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, metabolic dyslipidemia, high-blood pressure, and evidence of early cardiac and renal disease. Mitochondria dysfunction often occurs in the CRS, and this dysfunction is promoted by excess reactive oxygen species, genetic factors, IR, aging, and altered mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, it has been shown that there are important sex-related differences in mitochondria function and metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal components. Sex differences in the CRS have mainly been attributed to the estrogen's effects that are mainly mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) α, ERβ, and G-protein coupled receptor 30. In this review, we discuss the effects of estrogen on the mitochondrial function, insulin metabolic signaling, glucose transport, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory responses from liver, pancreatic β cells, adipocytes, skeletal muscle, and cardiovascular tissue.

  17. Psychological Disorder in Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tantam, Digby

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome suggests that these individuals commonly develop a psychological disorder secondary to Asperger syndrome including affective disorders, anxiety-related disorders, and conduct disorders. Treatment usually involves a combination of psychoeducation, social change,…

  18. Adult Prader-Willi Syndrome: An Update on Management.

    PubMed

    Ho-Ming, Luk

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of medical care, the survival of most patients with syndromal genetic disease is greatly improved. In this case report, we have reported an adult Prader-Willi syndrome patient who is being diagnosed at the age of 33. The clinical features and their associated complications during adulthood have been reviewed. PMID:27375909

  19. Adult Fanconi syndrome with monoclonal abnormality of immunoglobulin light chain

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J. F.; Blainey, J. D.

    1967-01-01

    Two adult cases of the Fanconi syndrome are described, in each of which there was abnormal urinary excretion of immunoglobulin κ-chain. The significance of this finding is discussed in relation to the recognized association between multiple myeloma and the Fanconi syndrome. Images PMID:6016886

  20. Prevalence of Dementia in Adults with and without Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Warren B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of adults with mental retardation either with or without Down syndrome and under or over 50 years of age found a significantly higher rate of dementia only in Down syndrome subjects over 50. However, the observed incidence based on functional findings was substantially below the presumed 100% prevalence of neuropathological markers of…

  1. Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Changes in psychiatric symptoms related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 224 adults 45 years of age or older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are a prevalent feature of dementia in the population with Down syndrome and that clinical presentation is qualitatively similar to that seen in Alzheimer's…

  2. Effects of Topiramate in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira, Nathan A.; Lessig, Mary C.; Lewis, Mark H.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Driscoll, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is a multisystem neurogenetic obesity disorder with behavioral manifestations, including hyperphagia, compulsive behavior, self-injury, and mild to moderate mental retardation. In an 8-week open-label study, we evaluated adjunctive therapy with the anticonvulsant topiramate in 8 adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. Appetite was…

  3. Adult Prader-Willi Syndrome: An Update on Management

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of medical care, the survival of most patients with syndromal genetic disease is greatly improved. In this case report, we have reported an adult Prader-Willi syndrome patient who is being diagnosed at the age of 33. The clinical features and their associated complications during adulthood have been reviewed. PMID:27375909

  4. Shared Effects of Genetic and Intrauterine and Perinatal Environment on the Development of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vuguin, Patricia M.; Hartil, Kirsten; Kruse, Michael; Kaur, Harpreet; Lin, Chia-Lei Vivian; Fiallo, Ariana; Glenn, Alan Scott; Patel, Avanee; Williams, Lyda; Seki, Yoshinori; Katz, Ellen B.; Charron, Maureen J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors, including the in utero environment, contribute to Metabolic Syndrome. Exposure to high fat diet exposure in utero and lactation increases incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in offspring. Using GLUT4 heterozygous (G4+/−) mice, genetically predisposed to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and wild-type littermates we demonstrate genotype specific differences to high fat in utero and lactation. High fat in utero and lactation increased adiposity and impaired insulin and glucose tolerance in both genotypes. High fat wild type offspring had increased serum glucose and PAI-1 levels and decreased adiponectin at 6 wks of age compared to control wild type. High fat G4+/− offspring had increased systolic blood pressure at 13 wks of age compared to all other groups. Potential fetal origins of adult Metabolic Syndrome were investigated. Regardless of genotype, high fat in utero decreased fetal weight and crown rump length at embryonic day 18.5 compared to control. Hepatic expression of genes involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, oxidative stress and inflammation were increased with high fat in utero. Fetal serum glucose levels were decreased in high fat G4+/− compared to high fat wild type fetuses. High fat G4+/−, but not high fat wild type fetuses, had increased levels of serum cytokines (IFN-γ, MCP-1, RANTES and M-CSF) compared to control. This data demonstrates that high fat during pregnancy and lactation increases Metabolic Syndrome male offspring and that heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 augments susceptibility to increased systolic blood pressure. Fetal adaptations to high fat in utero that may predispose to Metabolic Syndrome in adulthood include changes in fetal hepatic gene expression and alterations in circulating cytokines. These results suggest that the interaction between in utero-perinatal environment and genotype plays a critical role in the developmental origin of health and disease. PMID:23690974

  5. A combined continuous and interval aerobic training improves metabolic syndrome risk factors in men

    PubMed Central

    Sari-Sarraf, Vahid; Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Naderali, Mohammad-Mahdi; Esmaeili, Hamid; Naderali, Ebrahim K

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome have significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes leading to premature death mortality. Metabolic syndrome has a complex etiology; thus, it may require a combined and multi-targeted aerobic exercise regimen to improve risk factors associated with it. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined continuous and interval aerobic training on patients with metabolic syndrome. Thirty adult male with metabolic syndrome (54±8 years) were randomly divided into two groups: test training group (TTG; n=15) and control group (CG; n=15). Subjects in TTG performed combined continuous and interval aerobic training using a motorized treadmill three times per week for 16 weeks. Subjects in CG were advised to continue with their normal activities of life. Twenty-two men completed the study (eleven men in each group). At the end of the study, in TTG, there were significant (for all, P<0.05) reductions in total body weight (−3.2%), waist circumference (−3.43 cm), blood pressure (up to −12.7 mmHg), and plasma insulin, glucose, and triacylglyceride levels. Moreover, there were significant (for all, P<0.05) increases VO2max (−15.3%) and isometric strength of thigh muscle (28.1%) and high-density lipoprotein in TTG. None of the above indices were changed in CG at the end of 16-week study period. Our study suggests that adoption of a 16-week combined continuous and interval aerobic training regimen in men with metabolic syndrome could significantly reduce cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. PMID:26056487

  6. Ferritin levels and risk of metabolic syndrome: meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated ferritin levels have been associated with single cardiovascular risk factors but the relationship to the presence of metabolic syndrome is inconclusive. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational studies was to estimate the association between serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome in adults. Methods The Pubmed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for epidemiological studies that assessed the association between ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome and were published before September 2013. There were no language restrictions. Two investigators independently selected eligible studies. Measures of association were pooled by using an inverse-variance weighted random-effects model. The heterogeneity among studies was examined using the I2 index. Publication bias was evaluated using the funnel plot. Results Twelve cross-sectional, one case–control and two prospective studies met our inclusion criteria including data from a total of 56,053 participants. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the metabolic syndrome comparing the highest and lowest category of ferritin levels was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.54, 1.95; I2 = 75,4%). Subgroup analyses indicate that pooled OR was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.61, 2.30; I2 = 78%) for studies adjusting for C-reactive protein (CRP), and 1.52 (95% CI:1. 36, 1.69; I2 = 41%) for studies that did not adjust for CRP (P = 0.044). This finding was remarkably robust in the sensitivity analysis. We did not find publication bias. Conclusions The meta-analysis suggests that increased ferritin levels are independently and positively associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome with an odds ratio higher than 1.73. PMID:24884526

  7. Effect of Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...

  8. A Clinical Pharmacist's Role in Screening for Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Pediatric Ambulatory Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Sandra; Kohler, Lisa A.; Souffrant, Garry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population is increasing. Barriers, including the lack of consensus of a definition for metabolic syndrome and time constraints for the pediatrician, may limit the identification and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the role…

  9. Sagittal sinus thrombosis in adult minimal change nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urch, C; Pusey, C D

    1996-02-01

    Nephrotic syndrome causes a hypercoagulable state, leading to both venous and arterial thrombosis. The mechanisms are as yet unclear, but numerous alterations in coagulant and anti-coagulant factors have been reported [Llach et al. 1985, Harris and Ismail 1994]. The most common clinical features in adults are renal vein thrombosis, femoral vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, although thrombosis in numerous other arterial and venous sites has been described [Cameron 1984, Llach et al. 1985]. Intracranial thrombosis is rare, although in adult nephrotic syndrome arterial thrombosis is well recognized [Fuh et al. 1991]. We report a patient with minimal change nephrotic syndrome who developed venous sinus thrombosis detected by magnetic resonance (MR) scanning.

  10. Correlations between metabolic syndrome, serologic factors, and gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jae Hong; Ki, Nam Kyun; Cho, Jae Hwan; Ahn, Jae Ouk; Sunwoo, Jae Gun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the serologic factors associated with metabolic syndrome and gallstones. [Subjects and Methods] The study evaluated subjects who visited a health promotion center in Seoul from March 2, 2013 to February 28, 2014, and had undergone abdominal ultrasonography. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood sampling was performed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and red and white blood cell counts. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. [Results] The risk factors for metabolic syndrome in men, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, body mass index, maximum size of gallstones, white blood cell count, waist circumference, and uric acid level. The factors in women, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, presence/absence of gallstones, uric acid level, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and waist circumference. [Conclusion] Most serum biochemical factors and gallstone occurrence could be used to indicate the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, independent of gender. PMID:27630427

  11. A clustering analysis of lipoprotein diameters in the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL) particle...

  12. Development of a metabolic syndrome personal health record system.

    PubMed

    López, Diego M; Álvarez-Rosero, Rosa E; Sierra-Torres, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), a quarter of the world population is affected with metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper describes the development process of a Personal Health Record System (PHR) for the management of MS. Following the recommendations of ISO 9241-210:2010, a PHR for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition was implemented. PMID:25980887

  13. Correlations between metabolic syndrome, serologic factors, and gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jae Hong; Ki, Nam Kyun; Cho, Jae Hwan; Ahn, Jae Ouk; Sunwoo, Jae Gun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the serologic factors associated with metabolic syndrome and gallstones. [Subjects and Methods] The study evaluated subjects who visited a health promotion center in Seoul from March 2, 2013 to February 28, 2014, and had undergone abdominal ultrasonography. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood sampling was performed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and red and white blood cell counts. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. [Results] The risk factors for metabolic syndrome in men, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, body mass index, maximum size of gallstones, white blood cell count, waist circumference, and uric acid level. The factors in women, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, presence/absence of gallstones, uric acid level, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and waist circumference. [Conclusion] Most serum biochemical factors and gallstone occurrence could be used to indicate the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, independent of gender.

  14. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  15. Physical Activity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Overweight in Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Davis, Catherine L.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Lewis, Richard D.; Yin, Zenong

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research suggests significant health differences between rural dwelling youth and their urban counterparts with relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study was conducted to (1) determine relationships between physical activity and markers of metabolic syndrome, and (2) to explore factors relating to physical activity in a…

  16. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  17. Correlations between metabolic syndrome, serologic factors, and gallstones.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jae Hong; Ki, Nam Kyun; Cho, Jae Hwan; Ahn, Jae Ouk; Sunwoo, Jae Gun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the serologic factors associated with metabolic syndrome and gallstones. [Subjects and Methods] The study evaluated subjects who visited a health promotion center in Seoul from March 2, 2013 to February 28, 2014, and had undergone abdominal ultrasonography. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood sampling was performed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and red and white blood cell counts. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. [Results] The risk factors for metabolic syndrome in men, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, body mass index, maximum size of gallstones, white blood cell count, waist circumference, and uric acid level. The factors in women, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, presence/absence of gallstones, uric acid level, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and waist circumference. [Conclusion] Most serum biochemical factors and gallstone occurrence could be used to indicate the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, independent of gender. PMID:27630427

  18. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  19. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  20. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  1. Assessment of the environmental and genetic factors influencing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gosadi, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the adult Saudi population where the increase in cardiovascular-related mortality is augmented by the rise in the prevalence of MS. Metabolic syndrome is a multi-factorial disorder influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental components. This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of studied environmental and genetic factors explaining the prevalence of MS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Additionally, this review aims to illustrate factors related to the population genetics of Saudi Arabia, which might explain a proportion of the prevalence of MS. PMID:26739969

  2. [Low birth weight and delayed risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Svacina, S

    2003-12-01

    Low birth weight is according to many studies associated with later incidence of type 2 diabetes, hypertension and in lower degree with obesity and hypertriacylglycerolemia. Detection of history of low birth weight could have some importance in detection of persons with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk. In the pathogenesis can be involved fetal selection of thrifty genes which are later unable to overcome low physical activity and overfeeding in adult age. More probable is that low birth weight is primary of genetic origin. The same genetic origin can be involved in BMI rebound in childhood, development of insulin resistance, weight gain and later incidence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Detection of all these phenomena is important in selecting patients in diabetes and cardiovascular risk for preventive intervention.

  3. Morbidity and Hospitalizations of Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Ariel; Chavkin, Maor; Wexler, Isaiah D.; Korem, Maya; Merrick, Joav

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade a significant increase in the life expectancy of people with Down syndrome (DS) has been observed, which has caused a higher incidence of morbidity as they age. However, there is a lack of literature regarding morbidity and hospitalization of adults with DS. Analysis of 297 hospitalizations of 120 adults with DS aged 18-73…

  4. Advanced Mind-Reading in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnet, Koen S.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buysse, Ann; De Clercq, Armand; Van Der Heyden, Eva

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the mind-reading abilities of 19 adults with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adults. Two static mind-reading tests and a more naturalistic empathic accuracy task were used. In the empathic accuracy task, participants attempted to infer the thoughts and feelings of target persons, while viewing a videotape of…

  5. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Action Observation in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virji-Babul, Naznin; Moiseev, Alexander; Cheung, Teresa; Weeks, Daniel J.; Cheyne, Douglas; Ribary, Urs

    2010-01-01

    Results of a magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging study conducted to examine the cortical responses during action execution and action observation in 10 healthy adults and 8 age-matched adults with Down syndrome are reported. During execution, the motor responses were strongly lateralized on the ipsilateral rather than the contralateral side…

  6. Geriatric Syndromes in Older HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Meredith; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Valcour, Victor; Miao, Yinghui; Madamba, Joy; Lampiris, Harry; Cenzer, Irena Stijacic; Martin, Jeffrey; Deeks, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Geriatric syndromes such as falls, frailty, and functional impairment are multifactorial conditions used to identify vulnerable older adults. Limited data exists on these conditions in older HIV-infected adults and no studies have comprehensively examined these conditions. Methods Geriatric syndromes including falls, urinary incontinence, functional impairment, frailty, sensory impairment, depression and cognitive impairment were measured in a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults age 50 and older who had an undetectable viral load on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined both HIV and non-HIV related predictors of geriatric syndromes including sociodemographics, number of co-morbidities and non-antiretroviral medications, and HIV specific variables in multivariate analyses. Results We studied 155 participants with a median age of 57 (IQR 54-62); (94%) were men. Pre-frailty (56%), difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (46%), and cognitive impairment (47%) were the most frequent geriatric syndromes. Lower CD4 nadir (IRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.26), non-white race (IRR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.74), and increasing number of comorbidities (IRR 1.09, 95%CI 1.03-1.15) were associated with increased risk of having more geriatric syndromes. Conclusions Geriatric syndromes are common in older HIV infected adults. Treatment of comorbidities and early initiation of ART may help to prevent development of these age related complications. Clinical care of older HIV-infected adults should consider incorporation of geriatric principles. PMID:26009828

  7. [Neuropsychiatric coaching of an adult with Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Asperger syndrome is a lifelong neurodevelopmental condition. The major features of the syndrome include problems in social interaction and communication, narrow interests and stereotyped behaviour. Cognitive abilities are usually within normal. The syndrome potentially leads to a diminished level of life management in adulthood. Neuropsychiatric coaching is a solution-focused and practically oriented process of interventions for clients with neurodevelopmental problems. The methods include forms of evaluation and self reflection, structuring, guidance and visualization aids. Coaching does not exclude simultaneous therapeutic elements. The effectiveness has not yet been established by research, but the experiences reported have been encouraging. Neuropsychiatric coaching is recommended for adults with Asperger syndrome to rehabilitate life management skills.

  8. Care of the adult patient with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ross, Whitney Trotter; Olsen, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome have an increased risk for many conditions, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, infections, and osteoporosis, and endocrine, neurological, orthopedic, auditory, and ophthalmic disorders. They also are at increased risk for abuse and human rights violations and receive fewer screenings and interventions than the population without Down syndrome. In this literature review, the most common health conditions associated with Down syndrome are examined, along with the topics of sexual abuse, menstrual hygiene, contraception, and human rights. Clinical guidelines for this population are summarized in an effort to assist practicing physicians in improving their provision of health care to the adult patient with Down syndrome.

  9. OBESITY PREVALENCE AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A PARK USERS

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Maíra Danielle Gomes; VILAR, Lucio; de ANDRADE, Cinthia Barbosa; ALBUQUERQUE, Raíssa de Oliveira e; CORDEIRO, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; FERRAZ, Álvaro Antônio Bandeira

    2015-01-01

    Background - Overweight and obesity are associated with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity, thereby increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In Brazil, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of these disorders, especially among individuals who carry out some kind of physical activity in public spaces and there are no education and prevention programs for obesity. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity among park users. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 619 individuals assessed and stratified by profile according to a specific protocol. The group was characterized as follows: female (50.1%) and mean age =50.6±14.8, with predominance of individuals aged between 50 and 59 years (26.8%) and with higher education (68%) and a household income of between 4 and 10 minimum wages (29.2%). Results: Regular physical exercise was reported by 78% of the individuals and it was found that 70.7% were nevertheless of above normal weight: 45% overweight and 25.7% obese, of whom 20.7% had obesity grade I, 3.9% grade II and 1.1% grade III. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.3%, mostly in men (6.3%). Arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were detected in 17.8% and 5.5%, respectively. In view of the influence of obesity on the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it was found that this association was not significant for the two conditions (p=0.014 and 0.017, respectively). Conclusion : The findings demonstrate a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied population, and metabolic syndrome in 4.3%, despite the fact that 70% reported engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26537270

  10. Rare nonconservative LRP6 mutations are associated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajvir; Smith, Emily; Fathzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Wenzhong; Go, Gwang-Woong; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Faramarzi, Saeed; McKenna, William; Mani, Arya

    2013-09-01

    A rare mutation in LRP6 has been shown to underlie autosomal dominant coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome in an Iranian kindred. The prevalence and spectrum of LRP6 mutations in the disease population of the United States is not known. Two hundred white Americans with early onset familial CAD and metabolic syndrome and 2,000 healthy Northern European controls were screened for nonconservative mutations in LRP6. Three novel mutations were identified, which cosegregated with the metabolic traits in the kindreds of the affected subjects and none in the controls. All three mutations reside in the second propeller domain, which plays a critical role in ligand binding. Two of the mutations substituted highly conserved arginines in the second YWTD domain and the third substituted a conserved glycosylation site. The functional characterization of one of the variants showed that it impairs Wnt signaling and acts as a loss of function mutation.

  11. Association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Y; Thomas, G; Nurko, S; Stephany, B; Fatica, R; Chiesa, A; Rule, A D; Srinivas, T; Schold, J D; Navaneethan, S D; Poggio, E D

    2013-09-01

    The selection of living kidney donors is based on a formal evaluation of the state of health. However, this spectrum of health includes subtle metabolic derangements that can cluster as metabolic syndrome. We studied the association of metabolic syndrome with kidney function and histology in 410 donors from 2005 to 2012, of whom 178 donors were systematically followed after donation since 2009. Metabolic syndrome was defined as per the NCEP ATPIII criteria, but using a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) instead of waist circumference. Following donation, donors received counseling on lifestyle modification. Metabolic syndrome was present in 50 (12.2%) donors. Donors with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have chronic histological changes on implant biopsies than donors with no metabolic syndrome (29.0% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001). This finding was associated with impaired kidney function recovery following donation. At last follow-up, reversal of metabolic syndrome was observed in 57.1% of donors with predonation metabolic syndrome, while only 10.8% of donors developed de novo metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome in donors is associated with chronic histological changes, and nephrectomy in these donors was associated with subsequent protracted recovery of kidney function. Importantly, weight loss led to improvement of most abnormalities that define metabolic syndrome.

  12. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the scope of the problem of obesity in the United States, noting the health risks associated with being overweight or obese (e.g., gallstones, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and colon cancer); discussing the association of type-II diabetes mellitus with obesity; examining the effects of exercise on metabolic disease; and looking at…

  13. Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontal Disease Progression in Men.

    PubMed

    Kaye, E K; Chen, N; Cabral, H J; Vokonas, P; Garcia, R I

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of 3 or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, is associated with periodontal disease, but few studies have been prospective in design. This study's aim was to determine whether metabolic syndrome predicts tooth loss and worsening of periodontal disease in a cohort of 760 men in the Department of Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study and Normative Aging Study who were followed up to 33 y from 1981 to 2013. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Waist circumference was measured in units of 0.1 cm following a normal expiration. Fasting blood samples were measured in duplicate for glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Calibrated periodontists served as dental examiners. Periodontal outcome events on each tooth were defined as progression to predefined threshold levels of probing pocket depth (≥5 mm), clinical attachment loss (≥5 mm), mobility (≥0.5 mm), and alveolar bone loss (≥40% of the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the root apex, on radiographs). Hazards ratios (95% confidence intervals) of tooth loss or a periodontitis event were estimated from tooth-level extended Cox proportional hazards regression models that accounted for clustering of teeth within individuals and used time-dependent status of metabolic syndrome. Covariates included age, education, smoking status, plaque level, and initial level of the appropriate periodontal disease measure. Metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation increased the hazards of tooth loss (1.39; 1.08 to 1.79), pocket depth ≥5 mm (1.37; 1.14 to 1.65), clinical attachment loss ≥5 mm (1.19; 1.00 to 1.41), alveolar bone loss ≥40% (1.25; 1.00 to 1.56), and tooth mobility ≥0.5 mm (1.43; 1.07 to 1.89). The number of positive metabolic syndrome conditions was also associated with each of these outcomes. These findings suggest that the metabolic disturbances that

  14. New targets to treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathleen A; Mani, Mitra V; Mani, Arya

    2015-09-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster ofassociated metabolic traits that collectively confer unsurpassed risk for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes compared to any single CVD risk factor. Truncal obesity plays an exceptionally critical role among all metabolic traits of the MetS. Consequently, the prevalence of the MetS has steadily increased with the growing epidemic of obesity. Pharmacotherapy has been available for obesity for more than one decade, but with little success in improving the metabolic profiles. The serotonergic drugs and inhibitors of pancreatic lipases were among the few drugs that were initially approved to treat obesity. At the present time, only the pancreatic lipase inhibitor orlistat is approved for long-term treatment of obesity. New classes of anti-diabetic drugs, including glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, are currently being evaluated for their effects on obesity and metabolic traits. The genetic studies of obesity and metabolic syndrome have identified novel molecules acting on the hunger and satiety peptidergic signaling of the gut-hypothalamus axis or the melanocortin system of the brain and are promising targets for future drug development. The goal is to develop drugs that not only treat obesity, but also favorably impact its associated traits. PMID:26001373

  15. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.M.; Parker, E.S.; Clark, C.M.; Martin, P.R.; George, D.T.; Weingartner, H.; Sokoloff, L.; Ebert, M.H.; Mishkin, M.

    1985-05-01

    Seven alcoholic male subjects diagnosed as having Korsakoff's syndrome and eight age-matched male normal volunteers were studied with /sup 18/F 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2/sup 18/FDG). All subjects were examined at rest with eyes covered in a quiet, darkened room. Serial plasma samples were obtained following injection of 4 to 5 mCi of 2/sup 18/FDG. Tomographic slices spaced at 10mm axial increments were obtained (in-plane resolution = 1.75 cm, axial resolution = 1.78 cm). Four planes were selected from each subject, and a total of 46 regions of interest were sampled and glucose metabolic rates for each region calculated. The mean glucose metalbolic rate for the 46 regions in the Korsakoff subjects was significantly lower than that in the normal controls (5.17 +- .43 versus 6.6 +- 1.31). A Q-component analysis, which examined each subject's regional rates relative to his mean rate, revealed two distinct patterns in the Korsakoff group. Glucose metabolism was significantly reduced in 37 of the 46 regions sampled. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in a nondemented group of subjects has not previously been reported. The reduction in cortical metabolism may be the result of damage to sub-cortical projecting systems. The differing patterns of cerebral metabolism in Korsakoff's syndrome suggests subgroups with differing neuropathology. Regions implicated in memory function, medial temporal, thalamic and medial prefrontal were among the regions reduced in metabolism.

  16. New targets to treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kathleen; Mani, Mitra; Mani, Arya

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of associated metabolic traits that collectively confer unsurpassed risk for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes compared to any single CVD risk factor. Truncal obesity plays an exceptionally critical role among all metabolic traits of the MetS. Consequently, the prevalence of the MetS has steadily increased with the growing epidemics of obesity. Pharmacotherapy has been available for obesity for more than one decade, but with little success in improving the metabolic profiles. The serotonergic drugs and inhibitors of pancreatic lipases were among the few drugs that were initially approved to treat obesity. At the present time, only the pancreatic lipase inhibitor orlistat is approved for long-term treatment of obesity. New classes of anti-diabetic drugs, including glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, are currently being evaluated for their effects on obesity and metabolic traits. The genetic studies of obesity and metabolic syndrome have identified novel molecules acting on the hunger and satiety peptidergic signaling of the gut-hypothalamus axis or the melanocortin system of the brain and are promising targets for future drug development. The goal is to develop drugs that not only treat obesity, but also favorably impact its associated traits. PMID:26001373

  17. The Relationship Between Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Platelet Activity as Measured by Mean Platelet Volume

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Binita; Sha, Daohang; Xie, Dawei; Mohler, Emile R.; Berger, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The association between platelet activity, diabetes, and glucometabolic control is uncertain. We aim to investigate mean platelet volume (MPV), a marker of platelet size and platelet activity, with the prevalence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and degree of glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This is a retrospective analysis of 13,021 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2004. Prevalence of diabetes was defined as nonfasting glucose >200 mg/dL, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, or treatment with hypoglycemic agents. Presence of metabolic syndrome was determined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS MPV was significantly higher in subjects with diabetes (8.20 vs. 8.06 femtoliter [fL], P < 0.01) but not in subjects with metabolic syndrome (8.09 vs. 8.07 fL, P = 0.24). For the metabolic syndrome components, MPV was significantly higher in abdominal obesity (P = 0.03) and low HDL (P = 0.04), and not different in high blood pressure (P = 0.07), abnormal glucose metabolism (P = 0.71), or hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.46). There was a significant correlation between MPV and glucose (P < 0.0001) and between MPV and hemoglobin A1c (P < 0.0001) in subjects with diabetes. These correlations were no longer significant in those without diabetes. The adjusted odds of diabetes rose with increasing MPV levels and were most pronounced in subjects with MPV levels exceeding the 90th percentile (≥9.31 fL). The association between MPV and diabetes was most apparent in those with the poorest glucose control. CONCLUSIONS Mean platelet volume is strongly and independently associated with the presence and severity of diabetes. PMID:22410814

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Nsiah, Kwabena; Shang, V Owusua; Boateng, K Agyenim; Mensah, FO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The diabetic condition is influenced by several factors, some of which can accelerate the disease's progression to various complications that aggravate the morbidity. Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components and the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and was conducted at the Diabetes Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, the Ashanti Region of Ghana, from February, 2013 to April, 2013. The study involved the use of a questionnaire to obtain some information on the diabetics, undertaking anthropometric measurements, as well as collecting blood samples for the measurement of some biochemical parameters; fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 58% in the studied Ghanaian population. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor (60%), followed by central obesity (48.67%) and dyslipidemia (37%). Female type 2 diabetics had a higher prevalence of MetS, and carried more components than their male counterparts. Regression analysis showed three factors; femininity, high body mass index and low educational status were the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS, according to this study. Conclusion: With hypertension being the commonest component, future cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should focus attention on its management and prevention, through education. PMID:26097823

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Osteoporosis in Relation to Muscle Mass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporosis according to muscle mass levels and the joint relationship of MetS and muscle mass with osteoporosis in a representative population-based sample from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010-2011. In 1654 men and 1979 women aged 50-93 years, body composition and bone mineral density at the femur and lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Low- and high-muscle mass groups were identified using the mean sex-specific muscle mass of appendicular muscle mass/height(2). The covariates were age, health behaviors, serum 25-OH vitamin D and parathyroid hormone, calcium intake, and hormone replacement therapy for women. Men and women with MetS (defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III) had 43 and 31% lower odds for osteoporosis, respectively, compared with their MetS-free counterparts after adjusting for muscle mass and covariates. When stratified by muscle mass, MetS was not associated with osteoporosis in men, while associated in women with higher muscle mass (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.91). Compared with MetS-free men and women with lower muscle mass, the odds for osteoporosis were 45% and 23, 52 and 15%, and 72 and 46% lower among those with low muscle mass and MetS, high muscle mass without MetS, and high muscle mass and MetS, respectively (P for trend <0.001). Combination of high muscle mass and MetS was associated with lower prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean men and women. PMID:26156754

  20. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Özmen, Mustafa; Yersal, Özlem; Öztürk, Serpil; Soysal, Dilek; Köseeoğlu, Mehmet Hicri

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience a markedly increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the causal factors have yet to be completely elucidated. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors of CVD and identifies additional cardiovascular risk beyond the sum of its individual components. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of MetS and its possible relationship with disease-related factors in patients with RA. Material and Methods Fifty-two patients with RA and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATP III) and modified World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to define MetS. RA disease activity is assessed by the disease activity score of 28 joints (DAS28), and the functional status of patients was evaluated by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Results Although there was no difference between groups regarding the frequency of MetS according to NCEP-ATP III criteria (17.3% and 6.5% in RA and control groups, respectively (p=0.158)) if modified WHO criteria were used, the prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in patients with RA (28.8%) than in controls (9.7%) (p=0.04). Central obesity and hypertension were found to be more frequent in patients with RA by both NCEP-ATP III and WHO criteria. RA patients with MetS had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI and frequency of smoking than patients without MetS. Disease-related factors were similar in RA patients with or without MetS. Conclusion The evaluation of patients with RA for MetS, which is a multidimensional risk factor of CVD, may be beneficial.

  1. Adult Phenotypes in Angelman- and Rett-Like Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Willemsen, M.H.; Rensen, J.H.M.; van Schrojenstein-Lantman de Valk, H.M.J.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Kleefstra, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Angelman- and Rett-like syndromes share a range of clinical characteristics, including intellectual disability (ID) with or without regression, epilepsy, infantile encephalopathy, postnatal microcephaly, features of autism spectrum disorder, and variable other neurological symptoms. The phenotypic spectrum generally has been well studied in children; however, evolution of the phenotypic spectrum into adulthood has been documented less extensively. To obtain more insight into natural course and prognosis of these syndromes with respect to developmental, medical, and socio-behavioral outcomes, we studied the phenotypes of 9 adult patients who were recently diagnosed with 6 different Angelman- and Rett-like syndromes. Methods All these patients were ascertained during an ongoing cohort study involving a systematic clinical genetic diagnostic evaluation of over 250, mainly adult patients with ID of unknown etiology. Results We describe the evolution of the phenotype in adults with EHMT1, TCF4, MECP2, CDKL5, and SCN1A mutations and 22qter deletions and also provide an overview of previously published adult cases with similar diagnoses. Conclusion These data are highly valuable in adequate management and follow-up of patients with Angelman- and Rett-like syndromes and accurate counseling of their family members. Furthermore, they will contribute to recognition of these syndromes in previously undiagnosed adult patients. PMID:22670143

  2. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: a treatable inherited error of metabolism causing mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Nowaczyk, M J; Whelan, D T; Heshka, T W; Hill, R E

    1999-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a syndrome of multiple malformations and mental retardation that for years was relegated to the atlases of genetic esoterica, was recently found to be a relatively common inborn error of metabolism. The underlying defect is absent or deficient activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol- delta 7-reductase, the enzyme catalysing the final step of cholesterol synthesis. The discovery of the biochemical defect causing Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome has resulted in the development of a diagnostic test and a potentially beneficial treatment (dietary cholesterol supplementation). Infants and young children with the syndrome have shown marked improvement in growth, behaviour and general health after receiving cholesterol therapy; older children and adults have shown some improvement in development and intellectual functioning. Despite the excitement these developments have elicited among geneticists and biochemists, this syndrome remains relatively unknown to many primary care physicians. Increased awareness of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is needed to identify affected patients so that they and their families can benefit from appropriate treatment and genetic counselling. PMID:10439827

  3. Hepatitis B virus infection and metabolic syndrome: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Chi; Tseng, Tai-Chung; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Although hepatitis C virus infection is known to be linked with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis, the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and metabolic factors remains unclear. HBV infection is a health problem worldwide, especially in endemic regions such as Asia and Africa. It induces liver decompensation, cirrhosis, hepatocellualr carcinoma, and premature mortality. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome continues to increase in parallel with the epidemic of obesity, which is closely associated with the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or even cancer. The systemic review shows that chronic HBV infection protects against instead of promotes fatty liver. The mechanism is possibly due to a lower frequency of dyslipidemia profile in patients with chronic HBV infection. The association of HBV with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and the risk of arteriosclerosis is still inconclusive. In addition, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome may accelerate the progression of liver disease in patients with chronic HBV infection and synergistically induce cirrhosis or even hepatocellualr carcinoma development. PMID:25092429

  4. [Alimentary, metabolic and toxic osteopathies in adults].

    PubMed

    Ellegast, H H

    1986-12-01

    Skeletal changes in deficient or badly balanced nutrition (alimentary osteopathies) and osseous changes accompanying chronic disease of internal organs and metabolic disorders (metabolic osteopathies) are discussed. Basically, the classical generalised skeletal changes such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia, fibroosteoclacia and sclerosis of the bone can occur in their pure form or as a combination of two ore more of these disorders. Finally the exogenic toxic osteopathies are discussed, nowadays fluorosis being the most important. Other external factors may be drugs such as methotrexate and antiepileptic medications.

  5. Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome: Criteria for Differential Diagnosis from Lyell's Syndrome. Two Cases in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, B.; D'Arpa, N.; D'Amelio, L.; Chimenti, S.; Pileri, D.; Accardo-Palumbo, A.; Conte, F.

    2006-01-01

    Summary A review of the relative international literature of the last few years is followed by a description of two cases of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in adults. As in both cases the initial diagnosis was that of Lyell's syndrome, the main criteria for the differential diagnosis of the two pathologies are considered in order to permit specific and effective treatment. PMID:21991049

  6. Cephalometric analysis of adults with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Christina; Norevall, Lars-Inge; Ekman, Bertil; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Bågesund, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder of females with a prevalence of 1/2000-3000 live female births. The aim of this study was to compare cephalometric variables from adult women diagnosed with TS to a standardized reference group of 31-year old healthy women, and to evaluate the possible effects of human growth hormone (hGH) therapy in women with TS. Registered TS subjects in the Southeast region of Sweden were invited to take part in the study. Twenty-one women aged 36 ± 13(18-57) years accepted participation. Lateral radiographs of the head were analyzed using standard cephalometric methods (Hasund analysis) and with the commercially available soft-ware program FACAD. Comparisons were made with roentgen-cephalometric standards from a reference group of nineteen 31-year old Swedish women. Analysis of the cephalometric radiographs from the TS subjects showed a more retrognathic maxilla (SNA 80.3 ± 5.4) (p = 0.0460) and mandible (SNB 77.0 ± 5.2) (p = 0.0014), and a correspondingly backward position of the chin (SN/Pg 78.9 ± 5.5) (p = 0.0046) as compared to the reference values of 31-year old women (SNA 83.2 ± 3.0, SN B 81.5 ± 2.3 and SNPg 83.0 ± 2.3, respectively). In addition there was an increased posterior inclination of the maxilla (SN/NL 8.6 ± 4.1), as compared to the reference values (SN/NL 5.3 ± 2.7) (p = 0.0048). There were no significant differences regarding sagittal or vertical jaw relations, mandibular inclination or cranial base angle between the TS-group and the 31-year olds with the reference values. No significant difference was seen in jaw relationship, as measured by the ANB value, however the Wits(index) (3.3 ± 3.5) was higher (p = 0.0001) than the reference values (-0.1 ± 1.8). Subjects with or without previous hGH administration did,not show any significant differences in cephalometric values. In conclusion, women with TS had a significantly more retrognathic maxilla (SNA) and mandible (SNB) and a correspondingly significantly

  7. Cephalometric analysis of adults with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Christina; Norevall, Lars-Inge; Ekman, Bertil; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Bågesund, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder of females with a prevalence of 1/2000-3000 live female births. The aim of this study was to compare cephalometric variables from adult women diagnosed with TS to a standardized reference group of 31-year old healthy women, and to evaluate the possible effects of human growth hormone (hGH) therapy in women with TS. Registered TS subjects in the Southeast region of Sweden were invited to take part in the study. Twenty-one women aged 36 ± 13(18-57) years accepted participation. Lateral radiographs of the head were analyzed using standard cephalometric methods (Hasund analysis) and with the commercially available soft-ware program FACAD. Comparisons were made with roentgen-cephalometric standards from a reference group of nineteen 31-year old Swedish women. Analysis of the cephalometric radiographs from the TS subjects showed a more retrognathic maxilla (SNA 80.3 ± 5.4) (p = 0.0460) and mandible (SNB 77.0 ± 5.2) (p = 0.0014), and a correspondingly backward position of the chin (SN/Pg 78.9 ± 5.5) (p = 0.0046) as compared to the reference values of 31-year old women (SNA 83.2 ± 3.0, SN B 81.5 ± 2.3 and SNPg 83.0 ± 2.3, respectively). In addition there was an increased posterior inclination of the maxilla (SN/NL 8.6 ± 4.1), as compared to the reference values (SN/NL 5.3 ± 2.7) (p = 0.0048). There were no significant differences regarding sagittal or vertical jaw relations, mandibular inclination or cranial base angle between the TS-group and the 31-year olds with the reference values. No significant difference was seen in jaw relationship, as measured by the ANB value, however the Wits(index) (3.3 ± 3.5) was higher (p = 0.0001) than the reference values (-0.1 ± 1.8). Subjects with or without previous hGH administration did,not show any significant differences in cephalometric values. In conclusion, women with TS had a significantly more retrognathic maxilla (SNA) and mandible (SNB) and a correspondingly significantly

  8. Adult-onset bulbar ptosis in Joubert syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Benjamin; Levine, Johanan; Le, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a case of adult-onset bulbar ptosis in a patient with Joubert syndrome. Joubert syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with malformations in cerebellum and brainstem. Many ocular abnormalities have been noted in Joubert syndrome, but the association of this syndrome with adult-onset ptosis has not been described to date. This 24-year-old Joubert patient developed a cerebrospinal fluid cyst in her midbrain. She had signs of bilateral third nerve palsy and abducens palsy in the left eye. The bilateral central third nerve palsy causing functional blindness secondary to severe bilateral levator palsy was treated successfully with silicone sling frontalis suspension, as the seventh nerve nucleus was not involved. PMID:22291457

  9. [Metabolic syndrome with vascular risk and arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Wassermann, A O; Grosso, C P

    1996-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with metabolic disturbances that may be related to hyperinsulinemia, both resulting from our lifestyle. Insulin resistance generated by central obesity, and complex relations with sympathetic activity, dyslipemia, atherosclerosis, sodium retention, altered vascular reactivity and hypertension, lead to pathophysiological connections, that are still to be understood. Even if obesity and hypertension were not related through hyperinsulinemia, the metabolic syndrome increases either vascular risk or hypertension, and it has to be re-evaluated whether essential hypertension is an adequate diagnosis for these patients.

  10. TREATMENT OF METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Păvăleanu, Ioana; Gafiţanu, D; Popovici, Diana; Duceac, Letiţia Doina; Păvăleanu, Maricica

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy characterized by oligo ovulation or anovulation, signs of androgen excess and multiple small ovarian cysts. It includes various metabolic abnormalities: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, visceral obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All these metabolic abnormalities have long-term implications. Treatment should be individualized and must not address a single sign or symptom. Studies are still needed to determine the benefits and the associated risks of the medication now available to practitioners. PMID:27483702

  11. [Metabolic syndrome with vascular risk and arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Wassermann, A O; Grosso, C P

    1996-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with metabolic disturbances that may be related to hyperinsulinemia, both resulting from our lifestyle. Insulin resistance generated by central obesity, and complex relations with sympathetic activity, dyslipemia, atherosclerosis, sodium retention, altered vascular reactivity and hypertension, lead to pathophysiological connections, that are still to be understood. Even if obesity and hypertension were not related through hyperinsulinemia, the metabolic syndrome increases either vascular risk or hypertension, and it has to be re-evaluated whether essential hypertension is an adequate diagnosis for these patients. PMID:8935572

  12. Cockayne syndrome in two adult siblings.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, H; Horio, T; Akaeda, T; Asada, Y; Chang, H R; Ishizaki, K; Ikenaga, M

    1994-02-01

    Although survival beyond the second decade is unusual in patients who have Cockayne syndrome, we describe two brothers with the syndrome who are 42 and 55 years of age. Their cultured skin fibroblasts showed extreme UV sensitivity but had almost normal UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis. The patients were classified as genetic complementation group B after study of the recovery of RNA synthesis after UV irradiation of fused cells. Clinical phototesting revealed a reduced threshold for UVB erythema. PMID:8294592

  13. Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, D.; Cuda, C.; Luhovyy, B. L.; Anderson, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications. PMID:22187640

  14. Menopause, the metabolic syndrome, and mind-body therapies

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk rises sharply with menopause, likely due to the coincident increase in insulin resistance and related atherogenic changes that together comprise the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. A growing body of research suggests that traditional mind-body practices such as yoga, tai chi, and qigong may offer safe and cost-effective strategies for reducing insulin resistance syndrome-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older populations, including postmenopausal women. Current evidence suggests that these practices may reduce insulin resistance and related physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease; improve mood, well-being, and sleep; decrease sympathetic activation; and enhance cardiovagal function. However, additional rigorous studies are needed to confirm existing findings and to examine long-term effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:18779682

  15. The health promotion lifestyle of metabolic syndrome individuals with a diet and exercise programme.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hua; Chu, Li-Ling

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a health promotion lifestyle (HPL) with a diet and exercise programme (DEP) in metabolic syndrome adults. The study consisted of 207 individuals who followed a DEP and 185 who did not. The subjects were rural community adults. Their HPL was evaluated using the Chinese version of the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Short Form (HPLP-S). The average HPLP-S score was significantly higher in the DEP group (3.28 ± 0.36) than in the group without the DEP (2.05 ± 0.65). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that group, gender, smoking, alcohol use, marital status, religion and chronic disease were predictors of an HPL and accounted for 67.0% of the variance in the HPLP-S score. This study demonstrates that a DEP has positive effects on a health promotion lifestyle. The community-based DEP targeting health promotion behaviours should be presented as a strategy for metabolic syndrome in adults.

  16. [POSSIBLE DRUG CORRECTION OF LIPID METABOLISM DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH PSORIASIS].

    PubMed

    Dontsova, E V

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the possibility of correcting lipid metabolism in patients with psoriasis and concomitant metabolic syndrome (MS) by using additional treatment with semax. In group 1, 58 patients received conventional therapy, while 60 patients in group 2 received the same with additional 0.1% semax solution intranasally 600 mg/day for 10 days. It was found that the inclusion of semax in complex treatment of patients with psoriasis complicated by metabolic syndrome led to a decrease in the initially elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and to an increase in the initially reduced levels of HDL cholesterol, in contrast to the standard treatment, which did not produce any statistically significant effect on the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol in the blood serum.

  17. Role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoub, Soleiman; Masrour-Roudsari, Jila

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) recognized as a major cause of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, has become one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome is multiple and still poorly understood. No single factor has yet been identified as an underlying causal factor. There is a growing belief, however, that obesity, especially visceral obesity, may play an important role in the development of the syndrome. Visceral adiposity seems to be an independent predictor of insulin sensitivity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure. An increasing number of studies confirm that oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and angiogenesis all play important roles in the pathogenesis of MS. Chronic hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in tissues prone to complications in patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress occurs in a cellular system when the production of free radical moieties exceeds the antioxidant capacity of that system. If cellular antioxidants do not remove free radicals, radicals attack and damage proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The oxidized or nitrosylated products of free radical attack have decreased biological activity, leading to loss of energy metabolism, cell signaling, transport, and other major functions. These altered products are also targeted for proteosome degradation, further decreasing cellular function. Accumulation of such injury ultimately leads a cell to die through necrotic or apoptotic mechanisms. In conclusion, a puzzle of many pieces of evidence suggests that free radical overgeneration may be considered the key in the generation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26557292

  18. Posttransplant metabolic syndrome: an epidemic waiting to happen.

    PubMed

    Pagadala, Mangesh; Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Eghtesad, Bijan; McCullough, Arthur J

    2009-12-01

    With increasing survival after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), metabolic syndrome and its individual components, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity, are increasingly being identified and contributing to cardiovascular complications and late morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of posttransplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS) and its individual components has been found to be higher post-OLT versus a comparable population without OLT. The development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) after liver transplantation for non-NAFLD cirrhosis is also being increasingly recognized. A number of predictors have been identified as potential risk factors related to these complications. The pretransplant risk factors include immunosuppression, a higher age at transplant, male gender, a history of smoking, the pretransplant body mass index, pre-OLT diabetes, the etiology of the underlying liver disease that resulted in OLT (hepatitis C, cryptogenic cirrhosis, or alcohol), an increased donor body mass index, and marital status. Although there is an increased risk of cardiovascular events, rejection, and infection among patients with PTMS, the overall impact on long-term survival and mortality remains inconclusive. Strategies to reduce the development of metabolic syndrome after transplantation should include lifestyle modifications involving alterations in diet and increased physical activity. Additional measures that may be potentially beneficial include the use of lipid-lowering agents, the optimal control of blood glucose, and the use of tacrolimus instead of cyclosporine. PMID:19938136

  19. Metabolic syndrome related health inequalities in Korean elderly: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHAES).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Seon

    2014-11-19

    While the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing, little is presently known about this syndrome in Korean elderly. This study aimed to group metabolic risk factors and to examine the associations between groups of health living conditions and metabolic syndrome using data from the Korean National Health Examination and Nutritional Assessment (KNHANES). A total of 1,435 subjects aged over 65 years old with both biochemical and dietary data information were obtained from the 4th and 5th KNHANES (2007-2012). Using stratified and multistage probability sample data, five components of metabolic syndrome were adopted to identify health inequalities. Our findings show that groups of health living conditions such as dietary pattern, body image, muscle mass, and fat mass were differentially associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors. Future studies are necessary to examine the underlying mechanisms of individual health living conditions to better understand the role of metabolic risk factors in metabolic syndrome in elderly.

  20. Diet, sleep and metabolic syndrome among a legal Amazon population, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Poliana Rodrigues; Ferrari, Graziele Souza Lira; Ferrari, Carlos K B

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome incidence is increasing worldwide then it is important to study the possible risk and protective factors. Our previous study suggested an association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to address possible associations between dietary lifestyle factors with metabolic syndrome. In a case-control study we compared 74 metabolic syndrome patients with 176-matched controls attended at a public health central unit. Incident cases diagnosed according to ATP III criteria were matched with control group composed of healthy subjects performing routine examinations. Having lower educational level compared to highest levels tend to increase metabolic syndrome prevalence, which was not statistically significant. Similar pattern was observed for marital status. No difference was found regarding gender and metabolic syndrome odds. Interestingly, daily drinking two to three cups of coffee (OR=0.0646, 95% CI, 0.0139-0.3005, p=0.0005) or until 2 cups of milk were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome odds (OR=0.5368, 95% CI, 0.3139-0.9181, p=0.0231). Sleeping seven to eight hours per night was also associated with decreased odds of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.0789, 95% CI, 0.0396-0.1570, p<0.0001). Eating at least two portions of chocolate was also associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.3475, 95%CI, 0.1865-0.6414, p=0.0009). Adequate sleeping and dietary intake of some foods materially decreased the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Atypical measles syndrome in adults: still around.

    PubMed

    Melenotte, Cléa; Cassir, Nadim; Tessonnier, Laurent; Brouqui, Philippe

    2015-09-23

    Measles, a vaccine-preventable disease, is currently responsible for worldwide outbreaks mainly due to the failure to maintain high coverage of childhood immunisation. Atypical measles syndrome was first described in the 1960s in association with the inactivated measles vaccine. We report a case of atypical measles syndrome in a 29-year-old man without previous measles immunisation. He presented with fever, shortness of breath and a purpuric rash. Radiological investigations allowed the diagnosis of severe nodular pneumonia. Positive PCR in nasal and pharyngeal samples, and positive serology for a primary infection confirmed measles diagnosis. Both clinical symptoms and pulmonary nodules regressed spontaneously, whereas mediastinal lymph nodes increased and persisted up to 3 months after the primary infection. Physicians should be aware of the atypical measles syndrome presentation in order to limit the delay of diagnosis, to avoid unnecessary investigations and to prevent the potential spread of this infectious disease.

  2. Opposing effects of fructokinase C and A isoforms on fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Le, MyPhuong T.; Garcia, Gabriela E.; Diggle, Christine P.; MacLean, Paul S.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Asipu, Aruna; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Kosugi, Tomoki; Rivard, Christopher J.; Maruyama, Shoichi; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Bonthron, David T.; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Fructose intake also causes features of metabolic syndrome in laboratory animals and humans. The first enzyme in fructose metabolism is fructokinase, which exists as two isoforms, A and C. Here we show that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is prevented in mice lacking both isoforms but is exacerbated in mice lacking fructokinase A. Fructokinase C is expressed primarily in liver, intestine, and kidney and has high affinity for fructose, resulting in rapid metabolism and marked ATP depletion. In contrast, fructokinase A is widely distributed, has low affinity for fructose, and has less dramatic effects on ATP levels. By reducing the amount of fructose for metabolism in the liver, fructokinase A protects against fructokinase C-mediated metabolic syndrome. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which fructose causes obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:22371574

  3. A role for metabolism in Rett syndrome pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Monica J; Buchovecky, Christie M; Kyle, Stephanie M; Djukic, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurological disorder caused by mutations in MECP2, may have a metabolic component. We reported a genetic suppressor screen in a Mecp2-null mouse model to identify pathways for therapeutic improvement of RTT symptoms. Of note, one suppressor mutation implied that cholesterol homeostasis was perturbed in Mecp2 null mice; indeed, cholesterol synthesis was elevated in the brain and body system. Remarkably, the genetic effect of downregulating the cholesterol pathway could be mimicked chemically by statin drugs, improving motor symptoms, and increasing longevity in the mouse. Our work linked cholesterol metabolism to RTT pathology for the first time. Both neurological and systemic effects of perturbed cholesterol homeostasis overlap with many RTT symptoms. Here we show in patients that peripheral cholesterol, triglycerides, and/or LDLs may be elevated early in RTT disease onset, providing a biomarker for patients that could be aided by therapeutic interventions that modulate lipid metabolism. PMID:25003017

  4. Metabolic syndrome in people with schizophrenia: a review

    PubMed Central

    DE HERT, MARC; SCHREURS, VINCENT; VANCAMPFORT, DAVY; VAN WINKEL, RUUD

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in people with schizophrenia. Patients are at risk for premature mortality and overall have limited access to physical health care. In part these cardio-metabolic risk factors are attributable to unhealthy lifestyle, including poor diet and sedentary behaviour. But over recent years it has become apparent that antipsychotic agents can have a negative impact on some of the modifiable risk factors. The psychiatrist needs to be aware of the potential metabolic side effects of antipsychotic medication and to include them in the risk/benefit assessment when choosing a specific antipsychotic. He should also be responsible for the implementation of the necessary screening assessments and referral for treatment of any physical illness. Multidisciplinary assessment of psychiatric and medical conditions is needed. The somatic treatments offered to people with severe and enduring mental illness should be at par with general health care in the non-psychiatrically ill population. PMID:19293950

  5. Role of Sirtuins in Linking Metabolic Syndrome with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Kim, Jongpil

    2016-01-01

    Depression is now widely regarded as a common disabling disorder that affects negatively the social functioning all over the world. Depression is associated with diverse phenomenon in brain such as neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Recent studies reported that depression occurs by various metabolic changes, leading to metabolic syndrome. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylases, known to regulate diverse biological mechanism such as longevity, genomic stability, and inflammation. The modulation of sirtuin activity has been highlighted as a promising approach to reduce neurodegenerative processes. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries regarding the potential relationship between SIRTs and depression caused by metabolic disorders (Mets). Ultimately, we suggest the possibility that SIRTs will be novel targets to alleviate neuropathogenesis induced by depression. PMID:27065808

  6. An association of metabolic syndrome constellation with cellular membrane caveolae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that can predispose an individual to a greater risk of developing type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The cluster includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia - all of which are risk factors to public health. While searching for a link among the aforementioned malaises, clues have been focused on the cell membrane domain caveolae, wherein the MetS-associated active molecules are colocalized and interacted with to carry out designated biological activities. Caveola disarray could induce all of those individual metabolic abnormalities to be present in animal models and humans, providing a new target for therapeutic strategy in the management of MetS.

  7. Metabolic syndrome risk factors and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Lei; Cheng, Ya-Lan; Ren, Yu-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Ning; Shentu, Xing-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the relationship between metabolic risk factors and dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS Retrieved studies on the association of metabolic syndrome risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and hyperlipidemia) and DES were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library in December 2015. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the final relationship. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to diagnostic criteria of DES. RESULTS Nine cross-sectional studies and three case-control studies were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that people with hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of suffering from DES (P<0.05), especially the typical DES symptoms. On the other hand, obesity did not increase the risk of DES. CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that all metabolic risk factors except obesity were risk factors for DES. PMID:27500114

  8. Is Metabolic Syndrome On the Radar? Improving Real-Time Detection of Metabolic Syndrome and Physician Response by Computerized Scan of the Electronic Medical Record

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Kingwai; Randhawa, Gagandeep; Totten, Vicken; Smith, Adam E.; Raese, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome is a common underdiagnosed condition among psychiatric patients exacerbated by second-generation antipsychotics, with the exception of aripiprazole and ziprasidone. This study evaluated the prescribing and treating behavior with regard to antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome of psychiatrists before and after implementation of a mandatory admission order set and electronic notification of results. Method: Baseline data from 9,100 consecutive psychiatric admissions to a mental health hospital (July 2013–July 2014) were compared to postintervention data (July 2014–January 2015), which included 1,499 consecutive patient records. The intervention initiated standardized admission testing with electronic notification to psychiatrists when patients met metabolic syndrome criteria (according to Axis III of the DSM-IV). Charts were examined for inclusion of this diagnosis at discharge and for treatment changes. Results: At baseline, only 2.4% of patients (n = 214) were evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Of these, 34.5% (0.8% of the total sample) met metabolic syndrome criteria. Only 15 patients (0.16%) were comprehensively treated. No chart listed metabolic syndrome under Axis III of the DSM-IV. After the intervention, the diagnosis of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome increased from 0% to 29.3%. Less than 3% of patients were switched to drugs with a more benign metabolic profile. All patients who continued on second-generation antipsychotics had metabolic retesting. Thirty-eight experienced a significant and rapid increase in triglyceride levels after only 3 to 17 days. Conclusions: Mandatory intake testing increases the number of patients evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Electronic alerts increase the inclusion of metabolic syndrome among discharge diagnoses but rarely affect prescribing practices. PMID:27247842

  9. Metabolic Health Status and the Obesity Paradox in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feon W; Gao, Xiang; Mitchell, Diane C; Wood, Craig; Rolston, David D K; Still, Christopher D; Jensen, Gordon L

    2016-01-01

    The explanation for reduced mortality among older persons with overweight or class I obesity compared to those of desirable weight remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic health status on all-cause mortality in a cohort of advanced age. Adults aged 74 ± 4.7 (mean ± SD) years at baseline (n = 4551) were categorized according to BMI (18.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, 30.0-34.9, and ≥35.0 kg/m(2)) and the presence or absence of a metabolically healthy phenotype (i.e., 0 or 1 risk factors based on a modified Adult Treatment Panel III). Metabolically unhealthy was ≥2 risk factors. There were 2294 deaths over a mean 10.9 years of follow up. Relative to metabolically healthy desirable weight, metabolically healthy overweight or class I obesity was not associated with a greater mortality risk (HR 0.90; 95 CI% 0.73-1.13 and HR 0.58; 95 CI% 0.42-0.80, respectively) (P-interaction <0.001). Results remained consistent in rigorous sensitivity analyses. The "obesity paradox" may be partially explained by the inclusion of metabolically healthy overweight and obese older persons, who do not have elevated mortality risk, in population studies of BMI and mortality. PMID:27559852

  10. Fifteen-Year Follow-Up of Thyroid Status in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Ninan, S.; Haque, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome is relatively unknown with limited long-term follow-up data. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with Down syndrome over a 15-year period. Results: For healthy adults with Down syndrome there is a gradual increase in thyroxine…

  11. Disorders of lipid metabolism in nephrotic syndrome: mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2016-07-01

    Nephrotic syndrome results in hyperlipidemia and profound alterations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins (very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], immediate-density lipoprotein [IDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio are increased in nephrotic syndrome. This is accompanied by significant changes in the composition of various lipoproteins including their cholesterol-to-triglyceride, free cholesterol-to-cholesterol ester, and phospholipid-to-protein ratios. These abnormalities are mediated by changes in the expression and activities of the key proteins involved in the biosynthesis, transport, remodeling, and catabolism of lipids and lipoproteins including apoproteins A, B, C, and E; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase; fatty acid synthase; LDL receptor; lecithin cholesteryl ester acyltransferase; acyl coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase; HDL docking receptor (scavenger receptor class B, type 1 [SR-B1]); HDL endocytic receptor; lipoprotein lipase; and hepatic lipase, among others. The disorders of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in nephrotic syndrome contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular and kidney disease. In addition, by limiting delivery of lipid fuel to the muscles for generation of energy and to the adipose tissues for storage of energy, changes in lipid metabolism contribute to the reduction of body mass and impaired exercise capacity. This article provides an overview of the mechanisms, consequences, and treatment of lipid disorders in nephrotic syndrome. PMID:27165836

  12. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Fiona Z.; Russell, Ailsa J.; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published…

  13. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Cynthia R. Greene; Bert, Minnie

    Persons with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) may be diagnosed at birth based on specific symptoms and anomalies. These are history of prenatal alcohol exposure, mental retardation, central nervous system dysfunctions, growth deficiency, particular physical anomalies, and speech and language anomalies. With aging, cranial and skeletal anomalies become…

  15. Postural Control in Children, Teenagers and Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Mainardi, Luca; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze postural control in Down syndrome (DS) participants considering three different groups composed by children, teenagers and adults with DS. An analysis of the centre of pressure (COP) displacement during standing position was therefore performed for the three groups of subjects. The obtained signal of COP was…

  16. Deaths among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miodrag, Nancy; Silverberg, Sophie E.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although life expectancies in Down syndrome (DS) have doubled over the past 3-4 decades, there continue to be many early deaths. Yet, most research focuses on infant mortality or later adult deaths. Materials and Methods: In this US study, hospital discharge and death records from the state of Tennessee were linked to examine 2046…

  17. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Day, S.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated demographic and phenomenological characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in nine adults with Down syndrome (DS), and possible effects on adaptive behavior. Results suggest OCD is more common in the DS population than the non-DS population. Ordering and tidiness was the most common form of OCD found, and…

  18. Adult hemolytic-uremic syndrome and bone marrow necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, C.B.; Redmond, J. III

    1984-11-01

    A case is reported of adult hemolytic-uremic syndrome in which massive bone marrow necrosis developed, a previously undescribed complication. Technetium-99m minicolloid scanning and indium-111 bone marrow scans were used to demonstrate lack of bone marrow activity in the patient. 11 references, 2 figures.

  19. Improvements in Physical Fitness in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; Heller, Tamar; Wang, Edward; Valerio, Irene

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of an exercise training program for 52 adults with Down syndrome (M age = 39.4 years) was evaluated. The training program consisted of cardiovascular (30 minutes) and strength exercise (15 minutes) for 12 weeks, 3 days a week for 45-minutes per session. Compared to control subjects, the training group improved significantly in…

  20. Cognitive Deficits in Nonretarded Adults with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Kimberley A.; Don, Audrey; Mateer, Catherine A.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen nonretarded young adults with fetal alcohol syndrome were divided into two groups, one with average to above average IQ and one with borderline to low average IQ. Subjects in both groups manifested clear deficits on neuropsychological measures sensitive to complex attention, verbal learning, and executive function at a frequency and…

  1. Temperament and Character in Adults with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Henrik; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    A study of personality characteristics of 31 adults with Asperger syndrome found they scored significantly higher on harm avoidance and lower on self-directedness and cooperativeness on the Temperament and Character Inventory. Reward dependence and novelty seeking tended to be low. The most common temperament configurations were obsessional,…

  2. Cerebral Specialization for Spatial Processing in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of 34 adults with Down's syndrome found that right-handed subjects exhibited no lateral advantage in dihaptic shape-matching, whereas left-handed subjects displayed an expected left-hand advantage. In a visual field dot enumeration task, both groups exhibited left-field superiority. Results indicate that subjects' atypical cerebral…

  3. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among a determined Puerto Rican population.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha; Ramírez, Margarita; Disdier, Orbill

    2006-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome defined as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, Glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, also known as the syndrome of insulin resistance, has been found highly prevalent among Hispanic populations. The reason is attributed to the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes due to genetic factors, sedentary lifestyle and poor nutritional habits. The association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular disease is widely recognized but the prevalence of the syndrome varies between studies due to the variations among both definitions (ATP III and WHO). We aim to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a determined Puerto Rican population at the outpatient employee's clinic to further support the burden of the metabolic syndrome among hispanics. In this study, the ATP III criteria presented higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome than the WHO definition and the modified criteria detected more cases of impaired fasting glucose than ATP III. The 32% overall prevalence support the NHANES III reported prevalence among Mexican-Americans.

  4. Endogenous fructose production and metabolism in the liver contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Li, Nanxing; Cicerchi, Christina; Orlicky, David J.; Ruzicky, Philip; Rivard, Christopher; Inaba, Shinichiro; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Bales, Elise S.; Diggle, Christine P.; Asipu, Aruna; Petrash, J. Mark; Kosugi, Tomoki; Maruyama, Shoichi; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G.; McManaman, James L.; Bonthron, David T; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates with high glycemic index are proposed to promote the development of obesity, insulin resistance and fatty liver, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. High serum glucose concentrations glucose are known to induce the polyol pathway and increase fructose generation in the liver. Here we show that this hepatic, endogenously-produced fructose causes systemic metabolic changes. We demonstrate that mice unable to metabolize fructose are protected from an increase in energy intake and body weight, visceral obesity, fatty liver, elevated insulin levels and hyperleptinemia after exposure to 10% glucose for 14 weeks. In normal mice, glucose consumption is accompanied by aldose reductase and polyol pathway activation in steatotic areas. In this regard, we show that aldose reductase deficient mice were protected against glucose-induced fatty liver. We conclude that endogenous fructose generation and metabolism in the liver represents an important mechanism whereby glucose promotes the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24022321

  5. Metabolic syndrome among Jaffna Tamil community, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Amarasinghe, Sivarathy; Sandrasegarampillai, Balakumar; Arasaratnam, Vasanthy

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The prevalence and associated risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS) among adults over 18 years old in Jaffna district. Materials and Methods: It was community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was employed. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain the relevant information. Waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triacylglycerols were analyzed by the enzymatic colorimetric assay using semi-automated analyzer (Teco Diagnostics TC-3300). International Diabetic Federation guideline for Asians was used to identify MS. Results: Sample response rate was 95.3% and of them, 43.8% (n = 224) was male. The prevalence of central obesity (WC for male ≥90 cm, female ≥80 cm) was 23.9%. Raised FPG (≥100 mg/dL, or previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus), hypertriacylglycerolemia (≥150 mg/dl), low level of HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dL in males, <50 mg/dL in females), and raised BP (systolic BP ≥130 or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg or previously diagnosed hypertension) were found in 23.9%, 25%, 79.3%, and 36.6% of the participants. The prevalence of MS was 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.8–19.3) and it was 17.4% in males and 14.6% in females. Participants living in the urban area had a higher prevalence of MS when compared with participants in a rural area (P = 0.015). Older age (P < 0.001) was a risk factor for development of MS. Smoking (P = 0.005) was a risk factor for the development of MS. Participants having sedentary, moderately active, and highly active lifestyle had the prevalence of MS 20.6% (95% CI: 13.2–29.7), 14.7% (95% CI: 10.6–19.5), and 14.7% (95% CI: 9.3–21.6), respectively (P = 0.247). Conclusion: Older age, urban living, and smoking carry a higher risk for development of MS among Jaffna Tamil community. PMID:26425479

  6. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women. The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: “traditional,” “western,” and “prudent.” The “prudent” dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the “prudent” dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36–0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59–0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43–0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42–0.68). However, the “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS. The “prudent” dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  7. Nephrotic syndrome-induced thromboembolism in adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azzawi, Hasan F.; Obi, Onyekachi C.; Safi, Javeryah; Song, Mingchen

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a well-defined syndrome characterized by the presence of nephrotic range of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia. Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-reported complication associated with NS, the incidence, prevalence, risk factors, treatment options, and preventative strategies are not well-established. Thromboembolic phenomena in nephrotic patients are postulated to be a result of the urinary loss of antithrombotic factors by affected kidneys and increased production of prothrombotic factors by the liver. Most cases of VTE associated with NS reported in the literature have a known diagnosis of NS. We report a case of a young female presenting with dyspnea and a pulmonary embolism. She was found to have NS and right renal vein thrombosis. We review the available literature to highlight the best approach for clinicians treating VTE in patients with NS. PMID:27308257

  8. Growth signals, inflammation, and vascular perturbations: mechanistic links between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hursting, Stephen D; Hursting, Marcie J

    2012-08-01

    Nearly 35% of adults and 20% of children in the United States are obese, defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Obesity, which is accompanied by metabolic dysregulation often manifesting in the metabolic syndrome, is an established risk factor for many cancers. Within the growth-promoting, proinflammatory environment of the obese state, cross talk between macrophages, adipocytes, and epithelial cells occurs via obesity-associated hormones, cytokines, and other mediators that may enhance cancer risk and progression. This review synthesizes the evidence on key biological mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link, with particular emphasis on obesity-associated enhancements in growth factor signaling, inflammation, and vascular integrity processes. These interrelated pathways represent possible mechanistic targets for disrupting the obesity-cancer link.

  9. Subjective Socioeconomic Status and Presence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Midlife Community Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Manuck, Stephen B.; Phillips, Jennifer; Gianaros, Peter J.; Flory, Janine D.; Muldoon, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Objective indices of socioeconomic status (SES) predict diverse sources of morbidity and mortality, as well as numerous biological and behavioral risk factors for disease. Here we examine whether subjective SES may be similarly associated with measured risk factors, including the metabolic syndrome and its components of elevated blood pressure, high fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, and central adiposity. METHODS Observations were based on a community sample of 981 adults (30–54 years of age; 52% female; 84% white, 16% African American). Subjective SES was measured using the nationally referenced (U.S.) MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, and objective SES indexed by composite of years of education and family income. RESULTS Likelihood of meeting criteria for presence of the metabolic syndrome varied inversely with subjective SES (Odds Ratio [OR] =0.75; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.88, for a 1 SD increase in subjective SES, adjusted for age, sex, and race), and this association persisted on further adjustment for objective SES (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Subjective SES was also associated inversely with blood pressure, waist circumference, and serum triglycerides, and positively with HDL cholesterol. Level of physical activity and smoking status were predicted by subjective SES as well, but adjusting for these health behaviors did not appreciably reduce associations of subjective SES with metabolic syndrome and syndrome components. CONCLUSIONS These findings support speculation that perceived social standing is associated with prominent cardiovascular risk factors and may prove a useful adjunct to conventional socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological research. PMID:19933505

  10. Test–retest reliability of peripheral arterial tonometry in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Katherine A; West, Sheila G; McCrea, Cindy E; Campbell, Janice M; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Jenkins, David JA; Kendall, Cyril WC

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is an important contributor to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, routine assessment via angiography or flow-mediated dilation is difficult due to technical limitations. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) is a promising alternative method for non-invasive assessment of endothelial dysfunction. This study assessed the test–retest reliability of PAT in adults with the metabolic syndrome (n = 20) and provides sample size and power estimates for study design. Participants completed five PAT tests each separated by 1 week. The PAT-derived reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) showed robust repeatability (intra-class correlation = 0.74). A parallel-arm study powered at 0.90 would require 22 participants to detect an absolute change in RHI of 0.40 units (equal to ∼25% change in this sample), whereas a crossover study would require 12 participants. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that PAT can be used to assess endothelial dysfunction in adults with the metabolic syndrome as reliably as in healthy samples. PMID:24659234

  11. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Osteoporosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sok Kuan; Chin, Kok-Yong; Suhaimi, Farihah Hj; Ahmad, Fairus; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporosis are two major healthcare problems worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of medical conditions consisting of central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, in which each acts on bone tissue in different ways. The growing prevalence of MetS and osteoporosis in the population along with the controversial findings on the relationship between both conditions suggest the importance for further investigation and discussion on this topic. This review aims to assess the available evidence on the effects of each component of MetS on bone metabolism from the conventional to the contemporary. Previous studies suggested that the two conditions shared some common underlying pathways, which include regulation of calcium homeostasis, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of the NF-κB (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathways. In conclusion, we suggest that MetS may have a potential role in developing osteoporosis and more studies are necessary to further prove this hypothesis. PMID:27338453

  12. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Osteoporosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sok Kuan; Chin, Kok-Yong; Suhaimi, Farihah Hj; Ahmad, Fairus; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporosis are two major healthcare problems worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of medical conditions consisting of central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, in which each acts on bone tissue in different ways. The growing prevalence of MetS and osteoporosis in the population along with the controversial findings on the relationship between both conditions suggest the importance for further investigation and discussion on this topic. This review aims to assess the available evidence on the effects of each component of MetS on bone metabolism from the conventional to the contemporary. Previous studies suggested that the two conditions shared some common underlying pathways, which include regulation of calcium homeostasis, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of the NF-κB (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathways. In conclusion, we suggest that MetS may have a potential role in developing osteoporosis and more studies are necessary to further prove this hypothesis. PMID:27338453

  13. Adipobiology for novel therapeutic approaches in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malagón, María M; Díaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Guzmán-Ruiz, Rocío; Jiménez-Gómez, Yolanda; Moreno, Natalia R; García-Navarro, Socorro; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Peinado, Juan R

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is dramatically increasing virtually worldwide, which has been linked to the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Excess fat accumulation causes severe alterations in adipose tissue function. Actually, adipose tissue is now recognized as a major endocrine and secretory organ that releases a wide variety of signaling molecules (hormones, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, etc.), the adipokines, which play central roles in the regulation of energy metabolism and homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. In addition, adipose tissue is no longer regarded as a passive lipid storage site but as a highly dynamic energy depot which stores excess energy during periods of positive energy balance and mobilizes it in periods of nutrient deficiency in a tightly regulated manner. Altered lipid release and adipokine production and signaling, as occurs in obesity, are linked to insulin resistance and the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome (dyslipidemia, hypertension), which confer an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here we summarize current knowledge on adipose tissue and review the contribution of novel techniques and experimental approaches in adipobiology to the identification of novel biomarkers and potential targets for dietary or pharmacological intervention to prevent and treat adipose tissue-associated diseases. PMID:24168446

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic comorbidities: therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    De Leo, V; Musacchio, M C; Palermo, V; Di Sabatino, A; Morgante, G; Petraglia, F

    2009-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women and the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, affecting 5-10% of the population. Approximately 60-70% of PCOS patients are obese. Although it is well known that obesity is associated with insulin resistance, most studies have shown that impaired insulin sensitivity is present without obesity. Hyper-insulinemia associated with insulin resistance has been causally linked to all features of the syndrome, such as hyperandrogenism, reproductive disorders, acne, hirsutism and metabolic disturbances. PCOS patients often have an atherogenic lipid profile and increased incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and type 2 diabetes. It has been demonstrated that by reducing hyper-insulinemia, insulin-lowering agents might improve endocrine and reproductive abnormalities in PCOS patients, and have numerous beneficial effects on multiple cardiovascular risk factors in PCOS. Metformin is currently the preferred insulin-sensitizing drug for chronic treatment of PCOS and has been shown to improve the metabolic profile, menstrual cyclicity and fertility in women with PCOS, and is associated with weight loss. In this review the metabolic comorbidities of PCOS and their therapeutic options are discussed.

  15. Metabolic syndrome, platelet activation and the development of transient ischemic attack or thromboembolic stroke.

    PubMed

    van Rooy, Mia-Jeanne; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-03-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of mortality in the world today, where transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a period of focal ischemia, the symptoms of which resemble a thromboembolic stroke. Contrary to stroke, TIA symptoms typically last less than one hour and necrosis is absent. Stroke is often preceded by TIA, making it an important predictor of future ischemic events. The causal role of atherosclerosis in the development of TIA is well es