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Sample records for adult mosquitoes collected

  1. Effect of collection method on estimates of adult mosquito density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We made simultaneous comparison of the number of female mosquitoes captured by suction traps and portable light traps (augmented with CO2) in a Florida swamp with the landing rate of female mosquitoes on a human subject. Depending on the mosquito species, capture rates in light traps ranged between...

  2. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  3. Evaluation of some adhesives for collecting Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala adults or mosquito larvae in sticky traps.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Yunus, H; Sohadi, R

    1987-07-01

    1. Seven types of water-insoluble adhesives were evaluated in sticky traps for collecting adults of Musca domestica L. and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) or mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say). 2. Adhesive viscosity affected the tackiness of the glues and this determined their trapping efficiency in air or water. 3. From the 'Hyvis' range of adhesives tested, 'Hyvis 200' was most effective for trapping adult flies. 4. With 24 h exposure to fourth instar Ae.aegypti larvae in tapwater, submerged plates coated with 'Hyvis 10', 'Hyvis 30' or 'Hyvis 200' formulations trapped the majority of larvae. In polluted water the highest rates of trapping were 17.3% of Ae.aegypti and 18.7% of Cx quinquefasciatus with 'Hyvis 200'. Floating traps were consistently less productive than submerged traps under laboratory conditions. 5. In a heavily polluted natural breeding-site of Cx quinquefasciatus, floating traps were more productive than submerged sticky traps with four of seven adhesives tested, the most efficient being 'Hyvis 200' (4.2 mosquitoes per hour) and Hyvis:polyethylene 90:10 (4.5/h). Despite the relative inefficiency of aquatic traps, emergent adults, pupae and second to fourth instars of larvae were collected quickly from the habitat. PMID:2979541

  4. Evaluation of some adhesives for collecting Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala adults or mosquito larvae in sticky traps.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Yunus, H; Sohadi, R

    1987-07-01

    1. Seven types of water-insoluble adhesives were evaluated in sticky traps for collecting adults of Musca domestica L. and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) or mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say). 2. Adhesive viscosity affected the tackiness of the glues and this determined their trapping efficiency in air or water. 3. From the 'Hyvis' range of adhesives tested, 'Hyvis 200' was most effective for trapping adult flies. 4. With 24 h exposure to fourth instar Ae.aegypti larvae in tapwater, submerged plates coated with 'Hyvis 10', 'Hyvis 30' or 'Hyvis 200' formulations trapped the majority of larvae. In polluted water the highest rates of trapping were 17.3% of Ae.aegypti and 18.7% of Cx quinquefasciatus with 'Hyvis 200'. Floating traps were consistently less productive than submerged traps under laboratory conditions. 5. In a heavily polluted natural breeding-site of Cx quinquefasciatus, floating traps were more productive than submerged sticky traps with four of seven adhesives tested, the most efficient being 'Hyvis 200' (4.2 mosquitoes per hour) and Hyvis:polyethylene 90:10 (4.5/h). Despite the relative inefficiency of aquatic traps, emergent adults, pupae and second to fourth instars of larvae were collected quickly from the habitat.

  5. Integrated vector management guidelines for adult mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Kenneth W; Brown, David A

    2003-12-01

    A written document was developed to clarify the District's adult mosquito-management tactics to other interested individuals and agencies. The program described consists of 7 discrete components: 1) initiation criteria, 2) treatment area delineation, 3) agricultural and land-use practices, 4) meteorological conditions, 5) continuance criteria, 6) termination criteria, and 7) factors influencing implementation. The guidelines were adopted as policy by the District's Board of Trustees in 1998 and have been implemented in each of the last 5 years. The adult mosquito population is monitored with 6 Mosquito Magnets traps strategically located in the rice culture areas. Samples are collected daily and laboratory technicians notify the Adulticide/Airplane Coordinator of collection results before 1:00 p.m. PMID:14710754

  6. Marking adult mosquitoes using an aerially applied fluorescent pigment.

    PubMed

    Meek, C L; Broussard, B B; Andis, M D

    1987-09-01

    A water soluble, fluorescent pigment was aerially applied to caged Culex quinquefasciatus adults in a south Louisiana marshland pasture. Mosquitoes held in cages on 1 m stakes were greater than 90% marked. This number was significantly greater (P less than 0.01) than the number of marked mosquitoes held in cages that were placed in dense vegetation (greater than or equal to 0.5 m high) near the ground surface (70% marked). In a second aerial test with caged Aedes sollicitans in an open, grassy area of the marshland pasture, the pigment marked 100% of the adult mosquitoes held in cages 1 m above the ground and 98% of the caged mosquitoes on the ground surface. Greater than 96% of the adults collected from an emerging population of Ae. sollicitans within the test area were marked as well as 100% of wild caught deer fly adults, Chrysops flavidus complex, in the test area. PMID:2904958

  7. Just Spraying Adult Mosquitoes Won't Curb Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Just Spraying Adult Mosquitoes Won't Curb Zika: Study Lab work suggests larvicide also needed to ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Female mosquitoes can transmit the Zika virus to their eggs and offspring, and this ...

  8. Traps and trapping techniques for adult mosquito control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is presented of the recent advancements in research activities conducted to evaluate mosquito traps, insecticide-impregnated targets baited with combinations of attractants, and strategies for using mass trapping techniques for adult mosquito population management. Technologies that use...

  9. The Collection of Mosquito Eggs for Classroom and Field Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinly, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    A method for the collection of Aedes mosquito eggs is described whereby collection of mosquito eggs is used to monitor the intensity of egg deposition in urban and rural areas. The data is used to increase public awareness of the effect of human habitation and cultural practices on mosquito abundance.

  10. Temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Manaus, Brazil, measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Degener, Carolin Marlen; de Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in Manaus, Brazil, to monitor changes of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance. The objectives were to compare mosquito collections of two trap types, to characterise temporal changes of the mosquito population, to investigate the influence of meteorological variables on mosquito collections and to analyse the association between mosquito collections and dengue incidence. Mosquito monitoring was performed fortnightly using MosquiTRAPs (MQT) and BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps between December 2008-June 2010. The two traps revealed opposing temporal infestation patterns, with highest mosquito collections of MQTs during the dry season and highest collections of BGS during the rainy seasons. Several meteorological variables were significant predictors of mosquito collections in the BGS. The best predictor was the relative humidity, lagged two weeks (in a positive relationship). For MQT, only the number of rainy days in the previous week was significant (in a negative relationship). The correlation between monthly dengue incidence and mosquito abundance in BGS and MQT was moderately positive and negative, respectively. Catches of BGS traps reflected better the dynamic of dengue incidence. The findings help to understand the effects of meteorological variables on mosquito infestation indices of two different traps for adult dengue vectors in Manaus. PMID:25494470

  11. Natural vertical transmission of ndumu virus in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes collected as larvae.

    PubMed

    Lutomiah, Joel; Ongus, Juliette; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    Ndumu virus (NDUV) is a member of the family Togaviridae and genus Alphavirus. In Kenya, the virus has been isolated from a range of mosquito species but has not been associated with human or animal morbidity. Little is know about the transmission dynamics or vertebrate reservoirs of this virus. NDUV was isolated from two pools of female Culex pipiens mosquitoes, IJR37 (n = 18) and IJR73 (n = 3), which were collected as larvae on 15 April 2013 from two dambos near the village of Marey, Ijara District, Garissa County, Kenya, and reared to adults and identified to species. These results represent the first field evidence of vertical transmission of NDUV among mosquitoes.

  12. AN IMPROVED TRAP TO CAPTURE ADULT CONTAINER-INHABITING MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    BARRERA, ROBERTO; MACKAY, ANDREW J.; AMADOR, MANUEL

    2015-01-01

    Although dengue viruses are thought to be transmitted by Aedes aegypti in Puerto Rico, Aedes mediovittatus, the Caribbean tree hole mosquito, is also a potential vector. This species is native to the Greater Antilles and has been shown to be a competent vector of dengue viruses in the laboratory. Consequently, it has been suggested that Ae. mediovittatus could be acting as a secondary vector or virus reservoir. This study was part of an ongoing investigation into this, and it aimed to determine whether BG-Sentinel traps (BGS traps) could be used to collect adults of this mosquito and could be modified to increase the number of captures of this species in the field. We conducted experiments to test the relative attractiveness of BGS traps to Ae. mediovittatus and Ae. aegypti and explored the effects of chemical lures (BG-Lure, CO2, octenol) and optical properties (color, size) on the capture rates of BGS traps in a large, outdoor cage in San Juan city, Puerto Rico. We also conducted field tests to compare modified BGS traps with the original traps in a rural community in Patillas municipality, Puerto Rico. Results obtained from the large, outdoor cage experiments indicated that trap captures of both mosquito species could be significantly enhanced by using black instead of white BGS traps combined with BG-Lure. Field experiments revealed that the modified traps captured a significantly greater number of Ae. aegypti, Ae. mediovittatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus, with greater sensitivity for the latter 2 species, and also captured a larger number of mosquito species and a smaller ratio of Ae. aegypti to Ae. mediovittatus, with greater than expected species co-occurrences. PMID:24551969

  13. Spatiotemporal investigation of adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in an eastern Iowa county, USA.

    PubMed

    DeGroote, John; Mercer, David R; Fisher, Jeffrey; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2007-11-01

    Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that

  14. Mosquito, adult feeding on the skin (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are many different species of mosquito, which can carry some of the world's most common and significant infectious diseases, including West Nile, Malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, and ...

  15. Detection of Orthobunyavirus in mosquitoes collected in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tauro, L B; Batallan, G P; Rivarola, M E; Visintin, A; Berrón, C I; Sousa, E C; Diaz, L A; Almiron, W R; Nunes, M R; Contigiani, M S

    2015-09-01

    Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) (Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Bunyamwera) is considered an emerging pathogen for humans and animals in American countries. The CbaAr-426 strain of BUNV was recovered from mosquitoes Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Córdoba province (Argentina), where serological studies detected high seroprevalences in humans and animals. Molecular detection of Orthobunyavirus was performed in mosquitoes collected in Córdoba province. Seventeen mosquito pools of Oc. albifasciatus, Ochlerotatus scapularis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) showed positive results; four of these positive pools, all of Oc. scapularis, were sequenced. All amplicons grouped with BUNV in the Bunyamwera serogroup. The findings highlight the circulation of BUNV in Córdoba province and represent the first report of BUNV-infected Oc. scapularis mosquitoes in Argentina.

  16. Detection of Orthobunyavirus in mosquitoes collected in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tauro, L B; Batallan, G P; Rivarola, M E; Visintin, A; Berrón, C I; Sousa, E C; Diaz, L A; Almiron, W R; Nunes, M R; Contigiani, M S

    2015-09-01

    Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) (Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Bunyamwera) is considered an emerging pathogen for humans and animals in American countries. The CbaAr-426 strain of BUNV was recovered from mosquitoes Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Córdoba province (Argentina), where serological studies detected high seroprevalences in humans and animals. Molecular detection of Orthobunyavirus was performed in mosquitoes collected in Córdoba province. Seventeen mosquito pools of Oc. albifasciatus, Ochlerotatus scapularis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) showed positive results; four of these positive pools, all of Oc. scapularis, were sequenced. All amplicons grouped with BUNV in the Bunyamwera serogroup. The findings highlight the circulation of BUNV in Córdoba province and represent the first report of BUNV-infected Oc. scapularis mosquitoes in Argentina. PMID:25991544

  17. New technique to count mosquito adults: using ImageJ software to estimate number of mosquito adults in a trap.

    PubMed

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Dickson, Sammie

    2012-12-01

    A new technique is described here to count mosquitoes using open-source software. We wanted to develop a protocol that would estimate the total number of mosquitoes from a picture using ImageJ. Adult mosquitoes from CO2-baited traps were spread on a tray and photographed. The total number of mosquitoes in a picture was estimated using various calibrations on ImageJ, and results were compared with manual counting to identify the ideal calibration. The average trap count was 1,541, and the average difference between the manual count and the best calibration was 174.11 +/- 21.59, with 93% correlation. Subsequently, contents of a trap were photographed 5 different times after they were shuffled between each picture to alter the picture pattern of adult mosquitoes. The standard error among variations stayed below 50, indicating limited variation for total count between pictures of the same trap when the pictures were processed through ImageJ. These results indicate the software could be utilized efficiently to estimate total number of mosquitoes from traps.

  18. Evaluation of six mosquito traps for collection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and associated mosquito species in a suburban setting in North Central Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared six adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban backyards with the goal of finding a more suitable surveillance replacement for the CDC light trap. Trap selection included two commercial propane traps, two Aedes-specific traps, one experimental tr...

  19. Evaluation of Six Mosquito Traps for Collection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Associated Mosquito Species in a Suburban Setting in North Central Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared six adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban backyards with the goal of finding a more suitable surveillance replacement for the CDC light trap. Trap selection included two commercial propane traps, two Aedes-specific traps, one experimental tr...

  20. Detection of West Nile virus RNA in mosquitoes and identification of mosquito blood meals collected at alligator farms in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Isik; Kramer, Wayne L; Roy, Alma F; Foil, Lane D

    2010-07-01

    Since 2001, alligator farms in the United States have sustained substantial economic losses because of West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Once an initial infection is introduced into captive alligators, WNV can spread among animals by contaminative transmission. Some outbreaks have been linked to feeding on infected meat or the introduction of infected hatchlings, but the initial source of WNV infection has been uncertain in other outbreaks. We conducted a study to identify species composition and presence of WNV in mosquito populations associated with alligator farms in Louisiana. A second objective of this study was to identify the origin of mosquito blood meals collected at commercial alligator farms. Mosquitoes were collected from 2004 to 2006, using Centers for Disease Control light traps, gravid traps, backpack aspirators, and resting boxes. We collected a total of 58,975 mosquitoes representing 24 species. WNV was detected in 41 pools of females from 11 mosquito species: Anopheles crucians, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex coronator, Culex erraticus, Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Mansonia titillans, Aedes sollicitans, Psorophora columbiae, and Uranotaenia lowii. The blood meal origins of 213 field-collected mosquitoes were identified based on cytochrome B sequence identity. Alligator blood was detected in 21 mosquitoes representing six species of mosquitoes, including Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus. Our results showed that mosquitoes of species that are known to be competent vectors of WNV fed regularly on captive alligators. Therefore, mosquitoes probably are important in the role of transmission of WNV at alligator farms.

  1. Sampling of adult mosquito vectors with Mosquito Magnet Pro in Panaji, Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Korgaonkar, Nandini S; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P

    2008-12-01

    For mosquito vector population monitoring, a new commercial trap, Mosquito Magnet Pro (MM-PRO), was tested for its usefulness in Goa, India. Anopheles stephensi was tested for the presence of Plasmodium sporozoite infection in the salivary glands. Using the MM-PRO 24 h a day for 34 days, 2,329 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected. These included 6 species each of the genera Anopheles and Culex, 2 species of Aedes, and 1 each of Mansonia and Armigeres. Most (91%) of the mosquitoes caught were females. Among these the number and percentage of each species were Anopheles stephensi 59 (2.78%), Culex quinquefasciatus 1013 (47.78%), Culex vishnui 551 (26.0%), Mansonia uniformis 216 (10.19%), and Aedes albopictus 1 (0.04%). Of the 54 An. stephensi females tested for the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by an ELISA technique, 1 was found to be Plasmodium falciparum CSP positive. The MM-PRO device was found useful for mosquito population sampling in the urban setting of Goa. PMID:19181075

  2. Evaluation of compounds for insecticidal activity on adult mosquitos*

    PubMed Central

    Hadaway, A. B.; Barlow, F.; Grose, J. E. H.; Turner, C. R.; Flower, L. S.

    1970-01-01

    New pyrethrin-like compounds are compared with earlier synthetic pyrethroids and natural pyrethrins for intrinsic toxicity to adult mosquitos and for residual contact activity. Two of the compounds are at least as toxic as pyrethrin I to female Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Residues of these compounds are very persistent in the dark or in very subdued lighting but they decompose on exposure to normal intensities of daylight and rapidly lose their insecticidal activity. PMID:4392939

  3. Biodistribution and Trafficking of Hydrogel Nanoparticles in Adult Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Cynthia C. H.; Phanse, Yashdeep; Perry, Jillian L.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Airs, Paul M.; Dunphy, Brendan M.; Xu, Jing; Carlson, Jonathan O.; Luft, J. Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Beaty, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nanotechnology offers great potential for molecular genetic investigations and potential control of medically important arthropods. Major advances have been made in mammalian systems to define nanoparticle (NP) characteristics that condition trafficking and biodistribution of NPs in the host. Such information is critical for effective delivery of therapeutics and molecules to cells and organs, but little is known about biodistribution of NPs in mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings PRINT technology was used to construct a library of fluorescently labeled hydrogel NPs of defined size, shape, and surface charge. The biodistribution (organ, tissue, and cell tropisms and trafficking kinetics) of positively and negatively charged 200 nm x 200 nm, 80 nm x 320 nm, and 80 nm x 5000 nm NPs was determined in adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes as a function of the route of challenge (ingestion, injection or contact) using whole body imaging and fluorescence microscopy. Mosquitoes readily ingested NPs in sugar solution. Whole body fluorescence imaging revealed substantial NP accumulation (load) in the alimentary tracts of the adult mosquitoes, with the greatest loads in the diverticula, cardia and foregut. Positively and negatively charged NPs differed in their biodistribution and trafficking. Following oral challenge, negatively charged NPs transited the alimentary tract more rapidly than positively charged NPs. Following contact challenge, negatively charged NPs trafficked more efficiently in alimentary tract tissues. Following parenteral challenge, positively and negatively charged NPs differed in tissue tropisms and trafficking in the hemocoel. Injected NPs were also detected in cardia/foregut, suggesting trafficking of NPs from the hemocoel into the alimentary tract. Conclusions/Significance Herein we have developed a tool box of NPs with the biodistribution and tissue tropism characteristics for gene structure/function studies and for delivery of vector

  4. Mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in three ecosystems from the Colombian Andes: identification through DNA barcoding and adult morphology.

    PubMed

    Rozo-Lopez, Paula; Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Colombia, one of the world's megadiverse countries, has a highly diverse mosquito fauna and a high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases. In order to provide relevant information about the diversity and taxonomy of mosquito species in Colombia and to test the usefulness of DNA barcodes, mosquito species collected at different elevations in the departments of Antioquia and Caldas were identified combining adult morphology and barcode sequences. A total of 22 mosquito species from eight genera were identified using these combined techniques. We generated 77 barcode sequences with 16 species submitted as new country records for public databases. We examined the usefulness of DNA barcodes to discriminate mosquito species from the Neotropics by compiling 1,292 sequences from a total of 133 species and using the tree-based methods of neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood. Both methodologies provided similar results by resolving 105 species of mosquitoes separated into distinct clusters. This study shows the importance of combining classic morphological methodologies with molecular tools to accurately identify mosquitoes from Colombia. PMID:26257568

  5. Mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in three ecosystems from the Colombian Andes: identification through DNA barcoding and adult morphology.

    PubMed

    Rozo-Lopez, Paula; Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Colombia, one of the world's megadiverse countries, has a highly diverse mosquito fauna and a high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases. In order to provide relevant information about the diversity and taxonomy of mosquito species in Colombia and to test the usefulness of DNA barcodes, mosquito species collected at different elevations in the departments of Antioquia and Caldas were identified combining adult morphology and barcode sequences. A total of 22 mosquito species from eight genera were identified using these combined techniques. We generated 77 barcode sequences with 16 species submitted as new country records for public databases. We examined the usefulness of DNA barcodes to discriminate mosquito species from the Neotropics by compiling 1,292 sequences from a total of 133 species and using the tree-based methods of neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood. Both methodologies provided similar results by resolving 105 species of mosquitoes separated into distinct clusters. This study shows the importance of combining classic morphological methodologies with molecular tools to accurately identify mosquitoes from Colombia.

  6. Mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in three ecosystems from the Colombian Andes: identification through DNA barcoding and adult morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rozo-Lopez, Paula; Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colombia, one of the world’s megadiverse countries, has a highly diverse mosquito fauna and a high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases. In order to provide relevant information about the diversity and taxonomy of mosquito species in Colombia and to test the usefulness of DNA barcodes, mosquito species collected at different elevations in the departments of Antioquia and Caldas were identified combining adult morphology and barcode sequences. A total of 22 mosquito species from eight genera were identified using these combined techniques. We generated 77 barcode sequences with 16 species submitted as new country records for public databases. We examined the usefulness of DNA barcodes to discriminate mosquito species from the Neotropics by compiling 1,292 sequences from a total of 133 species and using the tree-based methods of neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood. Both methodologies provided similar results by resolving 105 species of mosquitoes separated into distinct clusters. This study shows the importance of combining classic morphological methodologies with molecular tools to accurately identify mosquitoes from Colombia. PMID:26257568

  7. Identification of wild collected mosquito vectors of diseases using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed-Yacine; Al Othman, Zeid A; Sallam, Mohamed F

    2013-11-01

    Thirty-three species of mosquitoes have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several of these mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l., Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedimorphus vexans arabiensis (Patton) are known vectors of human and animal diseases. In this study, the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of eight mosquito species using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were analyzed. Wild collected fourth-instar larvae were reared, and single, newly emerged, unfed adult females were used for the analysis. A total of 146-160 peaks were detected from the cuticular extracts by gas chromatography. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD Post Hoc test was used to test for quantitative differences in relative hydrocarbon quantity. In addition, a linear regression model was applied using Enter method to determine the diagnostic peaks for the eight mosquito specimens. The ANOVA test indicated that relative peaks were significant (P < 0.05) when selected pairs of peaks were compared. Also, seven compounds showed qualitative differences among the five mosquito vectors tested. The classes of constituents present were n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, trimethylalkanes, alkenes, branched aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and esters. These compounds have a carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 18 carbons. The most abundant compound in all adult mosquito specimens was n-hexylacrylate [retention time (RT) 6.73 min], which was not detected in Cx. pipiens. In Cx. pipiens, the most abundant peak was benzaldehyde (RT 2.98 min). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a suitable method to identify adult mosquitoes, especially from focal areas of public health concern such as Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. This method allows a wide range of adult collected material to be identified with high accuracy.

  8. Susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to organophosphates and a pyrethroid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Debin; Indelicato, Nick; Petersen, Jack; Williges, Eric; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary

    2014-06-01

    Chemical insecticides are the primary means to control mosquitoes, and mosquito control programs must regularly monitor for resistance of mosquito vectors to commonly used insecticides to ensure the efficacy and sustainability of active ingredients. We performed insecticide resistance bioassays to test the susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to 1 larvicide (temephos) and 2 adulticides (malathion and sumithrin). Larval susceptibility of Culex pipiens pipiens to temephos provided median concentration (LC50) and 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values of 1.108 microg/l and 2.02 microg/l, respectively. Bottle bioassays of adult Aedes albopictus showed that 100% mortality was achieved at 35-min exposure to sumithrin and at 40-min to malathion. Baseline values were obtained using both temephos and sumithrin. Our bioassays indicate satisfactory susceptibility to temephos and sumithrin in Ae. albopictus and Cx. p. pipiens field populations in central New Jersey. Despite constant field use, both products are still effective and can be used adequately for control of the test species. However, the susceptibility of target insects to various formulations should be closely monitored periodically to ensure continual efficacy.

  9. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Castro, Rosalía; Castellanos, Jaime E; Olano, Víctor A; Matiz, María Inés; Jaramillo, Juan F; Vargas, Sandra L; Sarmiento, Diana M; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models. PMID:27074252

  10. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castro, Rosalía; Castellanos, Jaime E; Olano, Víctor A; Matiz, María Inés; Jaramillo, Juan F; Vargas, Sandra L; Sarmiento, Diana M; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2016-04-01

    The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models.

  11. Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected during 1988 in the Senegal River basin.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S W; Tammariello, R F; Linthicum, K J; Dohm, D J; Digoutte, J P; Calvo-Wilson, M A

    1992-12-01

    During August and September 1988, we collected adult mosquitoes from 14 locations in the Senegal River basin to search for evidence of Rift Valley fever (RVF) viral activity one year after the 1987 outbreak, which occurred along the Senegal-Mauritania border. More than 62,000 specimens representing 18 species in seven genera were collected with carbon dioxide-baited, solid-state Army miniature light traps and sheep-baited traps. Twenty virus isolations from Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles mosquitoes were recovered from six locations: Fanaye Diery (11), Bode (four), Matam (two), Diongui (one), Ndialene (one), and Ngoui (one). Species yielding viral isolates were Anopheles pharoensis (eight), Culex tritaeniorhynchus (three), Cx. univitattus gr. (three), Cx. antennatus (two), Cx. poicillipes (two), Ae. hirsutus (one), and An. gambiae (one). Viruses were identified by complement fixation, and virus and plaque-reduction neutralization testing as Ngari (Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae) (n = 15), Babanki (Alphavirus, Togaviridae) (n = 3), Bagaza (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) (n = 1), and Bangui (Bunyavirus-like) (n = 1). No evidence of any RVF viral activity in the Senegal River Basin was detected in the mosquitoes tested.

  12. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet. PMID:26181697

  13. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet.

  14. Measurement, analysis, and depiction of activity in adult mosquito populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globalization, open trading practices, and climate change increase the likelihood of introduction of exotic mosquito species. These mosquitoes may harbor disease agents that threaten public and animal health. Successful containment and eradication of exotic mosquito species and (in the case of exo...

  15. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. PMID:22278732

  16. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  17. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  18. Effects of sampling design on the estimation of adult mosquito abundance.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Lothrop, H D

    1999-06-01

    During 1994-5, Culex tarsalis comprised 75% of the 902,643 adult female mosquitoes collected by 63 dry-ice-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC)-style traps operated biweekly in a uniform sampling grid that covered the southern Coachella Valley, Riverside County, California. The ln(y + 1) transformation successfully controlled the variance and normalized the distribution of catch size among trap nights. When tested by analysis of variance, abundance varied significantly among months, years, and trap sites. Although the trap by months interaction was not significant, female distribution changed seasonally as larval habitats shifted from wetlands along the Salton Sea to agriculture to managed duck marshes. Conditional simulations utilized subsets of trap sites to compare sampling designs that required no (uniform, random, and transect designs) or prior (best-estimate and stratified random designs) knowledge of mosquito spatial distribution. All designs provided similar information on population seasonal trends, but a stratified random design provided the most accurate and precise simulation. A uniform trap grid that employed every 2nd trap site subsequently was adopted by the Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District to provide information on focal changes in abundance indicative of missed or newly created larval habitats or control failures. PMID:10412106

  19. Monitoring malaria vector control interventions: effectiveness of five different adult mosquito sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Shirley A; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M; Kokwaro, Elizabeth; King, Charles H; Mutuku, Francis M

    2013-09-01

    Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods--light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps--in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed.

  20. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  1. Reduced productivity in adult yellowfever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, P.H.; Hamm, W.J.; Garcia, F.; Garcia, M.; Schirf, V.

    1989-04-01

    Male and female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes of the laboratory strain ROCK were irradiated with 130 mw of argon 514.5 nm laser microbeams for 0.04, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s, respectively. Egg production, percentage hatch, and productivity (average number of adults surviving after 3 wk) were used to assess mutagenic effects. Mortality was high for males in all laser radiation groups and increased with time of exposure. Except for the group treated for 0.25 s, significant reductions in total F1 progeny also were demonstrated for all other experimentals when male parents were exposed to laser radiation. Females showed a high mortality when subjected to 0.4- and 0.5-s laser radiation. No F1 progeny were produced when parental females were exposed for 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s. Numbers of F1 progeny from females exposed to 0.04 s of laser radiation were significantly reduced. A comparison of weekly mean number of progeny showed that the important differences in productivity occurred during the first and second week, respectively, when either male or female adult parents were subjected to laser radiation.

  2. Suppression of water loss during adult diapause in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Denlinger, David L

    2007-01-01

    One of the major challenges of overwintering in the mosquito, Culex pipiens, is prevention of dehydration. In this study, we compare the water balance requirements of nondiapausing and diapausing adult females of C. pipiens. Although their percentage water content is lower, diapausing females contain both higher initial and dry masses than nondiapausing individuals. Both nondiapausing and diapausing females tolerate a loss of up to 40% of their water mass before dying, but diapausing female C. pipiens reach this point after a longer period due to their lower rate of water loss. Males, which do not overwinter in diapause, showed no differences in their water balance characteristics when reared under diapausing or nondiapausing conditions. Likewise, no changes were noted in the water balance of pupae, indicating that diapause-related changes do not occur prior to adult eclosion. This mosquito does not replenish internal water stores by generating metabolic water or by absorbing vapor from the atmosphere, but instead relies on drinking liquid water (or blood feeding in the case of nondiapausing females). The critical transition temperature, a point where water loss increases rapidly with temperature, was the highest for females, then males, then pupae, but was not influenced by the diapause program. Females in diapause did not utilize common polyols (glycerol, trehalose and sorbitol) to retain water, but instead the presence of twice the amount of cuticular hydrocarbons in diapausing compared with nondiapausing females suggests that the deposition of hydrocarbons contribute to the reduced rates of water loss. The laboratory results were also verified in field-collected specimens: mosquitoes in the late fall and winter had a lower percentage water content and water loss rate, higher initial mass, dry mass and more cuticular hydrocarbons than individuals collected during the summer. Thus, the major features of diapause that contribute to the suppression of water loss

  3. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, D; Ponmariappan, S; Sharma, Atul K; Jha, Hemendra K; Wasu, Yogesh H; Sharma, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker's yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker's yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to

  4. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, D; Ponmariappan, S; Sharma, Atul K; Jha, Hemendra K; Wasu, Yogesh H; Sharma, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker's yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker's yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to

  5. Protocol for mosquito rearing (A. gambiae).

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Garver, Lindsey; Dimopoulos, George

    2007-01-01

    This protocol describes mosquito rearing in the insectary. The insectary rooms are maintained at 28 degrees C and approximately 80% humidity, with a 12 hr. day/night cycle. For this procedure, you'll need mosquito cages, 10% sterile sucrose solution, paper towels, beaker, whatman filter paper, glass feeders, human blood and serum, water bath, parafilm, distilled water, clean plastic trays, mosquito food (described below), mosquito net to cover the trays, vacuum, and a collection chamber to collect adults. PMID:18979019

  6. Population dynamics of some Pakistan mosquitoes: changes in adult relative abundance over time and space.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Milby, M M

    1986-02-01

    Time series and spatial changes in the relative abundance of 14 mosquito species were described from weekly or biweekly collections at nine localities in Punjab province, Pakistan, from January 1976 to June 1980. Comparisons between indoor aspirator catches and outdoor mechanical sweeper collections enabled mosquito resting habits to be classified as: (1) endophilic (Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. subpictus); (2) partially exophilic (An. annularis, An. pulcherrimus, An. nigerrimus, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx, pseudovishnui, Cx, quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus), or exophilic (Cx. fuscocephala, Aedes caspius, Mansonia uniformis). Temporal abundance patterns were grouped by seasonality, overwintering strategies and the magnitude of fluctuation. Seasonal patterns were: (1) unimodal-spring (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. capius); (2) unimodal-monsoon (An. nigerrimus, An. subpictus, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. fuscocephala); (3) bimodal-spring dominant (An. annularis, An. culcifacies, An. stephensi), and (4) bimodal-monsoon/post-monsoon dominant (An. fluviatilis, An. pulcherrimus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ma. uniformis). Mosquito overwintering strategies included: (1) adults with slowed reproductive activity (An. annularis, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. pulcherrimus, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus); (2) females with interrupted reproductive activity (An. nigerrimus, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus); (3) immature stages (Ae. caspius, Ma. uniformis) and (4) annual extinction and re-introduction (An. subpictus). The magnitude of seasonal change was classified by the number of standard deviations from the overall mean exhibited by the annual maxima or minima: (1) stationary, less than 1 standard deviation (An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Ae. caspius), (2) fluctuating moderately, one to two standard deviations (An. annularis, An. nigerrimus, An. pulcherrimus, An

  7. Effect of sampling method on the species composition and abundance of adult mosquitoes in a Florida swamp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of the adult mosquito populations in a Florida swamp (Sumter Co.) were obtained using suction traps and portable CDC light traps (augmented with CO2) and the results compared with mosquitoes captured by mechanical aspirator when landing on a human subject. Sixteen mosquito species total wer...

  8. Flavivirus isolations from mosquitoes collected from western Cape York Peninsula, Australia, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Cheryl A; Nisbet, Debra J; Zborowski, Paul; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Ritchie, Scott A; Mackenzie, John S

    2003-12-01

    After the 1st appearance of Japanese encephalitis virus (JE) on mainland Australia in 1998, a study was undertaken to investigate whether JE had become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western Cape York Peninsula. Adult mosquitoes were collected during the late wet season from Kowanyama and Pormpuraaw in April 1999, and Pormpuraaw and Barr's Yard in April 2000. Despite processing 269,270 mosquitoes for virus isolation, no isolates of JE were obtained. However, other flaviviruses comprising Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Kunjin virus, Alfuy virus, and Kokobera virus (KOK) were isolated. Isolates of the alphaviruses Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus (BF), and Sindbis virus (SIN) also were obtained. The majority (88%) of isolates were from members of the Culex sitiens subgroup. Single isolates of KOK, BF, and SIN were obtained from Ochlerotatus vigilax, Oc. normanensis, and Anopheles bancroftii, respectively. The isolations of flaviviruses during the late wet season indicate that conditions were suitable for flavivirus activity in the area. No evidence was found to suggest that JE has become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western Cape York, although study sites and field trips were limited. PMID:14710742

  9. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Anam J.; Hun, Lewis V.; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal–specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms.—Arik, A. J., Hun, L. V., Quicke, K., Piatt, M., Ziegler, R., Scaraffia, P. Y., Badgandi H., Riehle, M. A. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship. PMID:25550465

  10. Dispersal behavior of adult snow melt mosquitoes in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M; Storch, V; Kaiser, A; Beck, M; Becker, N

    1997-06-01

    The dispersal behavior of female snow melt mosquitoes was studied in two forests in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, from April to August 1993. Both CDC-light-traps and human bait collections were used to collect mosquitoes. Sampling sites were chosen along a west-east and a north-south transect in treated and untreated parts of a forest with a village in its center. Around this settlement, breeding sites within a radius of 1.5 to 2.5 km were treated. It could be shown that this buffer zone is sufficient to prevent a nuisance caused by snow melt mosquitoes in the village. The results lead to the conclusion that snow melt mosquitoes do not regularly migrate over large distances but stay near their breeding sites. In a detailed study of the behavior of Aedes rusticus, it could be observed that these mosquitoes were resting in the interior of the forest during daytime and leaving it with increasing dusk up to 50 m from the forest edge. A comparison of landing rate counts near a row of trees and in the open field showed higher activity near the row of trees indicating visual orientation of the mosquitoes. Although the Ae. rusticus females left the forest regularly, no nuisance occurred in nearby villages. The treatment of breeding sites near settlements appeared to be sufficient to prevent a nuisance caused by the snow melt mosquitoes.

  11. Avian Plasmodium infection in field-collected mosquitoes during 2012-2013 in Tarlac, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Aure, Wilfredo E; Cruz, Estrella Irlandez; Malbas, Fedelino F; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2015-12-01

    Global warming threatens to increase the spread and prevalence of mosquito-transmitted diseases. Certain pathogens may be carried by migratory birds and transmitted to local mosquito populations. Mosquitoes were collected in the northern Philippines during bird migration seasons to detect avian malaria parasites as well as for the identification of potential vector species and the estimation of infections among local mosquito populations. We used the nested PCR to detect the avian malaria species. Culex vishnui (47.6%) was the most abundant species collected and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (13.8%) was the second most abundant. Avian Plasmodium parasites were found in eight mosquito species, for which the infection rates were between 0.5% and 6.2%. The six Plasmodium genetic lineages found in this study included P. juxtanucleare -GALLUS02, Tacy7 (Donana04), CXBIT01, Plasmodium species LIN2 New Zealand, and two unclassified lineages. The potential mosquito vectors for avian Plasmodium parasites in the Philippines were Cq. crassipes, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sitiens, Cx. vishnui, and Ma. Uniformis; two major genetic lineages, P. juxtanucleare and Tacy7, were identified. PMID:26611975

  12. Avian Plasmodium infection in field-collected mosquitoes during 2012-2013 in Tarlac, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Aure, Wilfredo E; Cruz, Estrella Irlandez; Malbas, Fedelino F; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2015-12-01

    Global warming threatens to increase the spread and prevalence of mosquito-transmitted diseases. Certain pathogens may be carried by migratory birds and transmitted to local mosquito populations. Mosquitoes were collected in the northern Philippines during bird migration seasons to detect avian malaria parasites as well as for the identification of potential vector species and the estimation of infections among local mosquito populations. We used the nested PCR to detect the avian malaria species. Culex vishnui (47.6%) was the most abundant species collected and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (13.8%) was the second most abundant. Avian Plasmodium parasites were found in eight mosquito species, for which the infection rates were between 0.5% and 6.2%. The six Plasmodium genetic lineages found in this study included P. juxtanucleare -GALLUS02, Tacy7 (Donana04), CXBIT01, Plasmodium species LIN2 New Zealand, and two unclassified lineages. The potential mosquito vectors for avian Plasmodium parasites in the Philippines were Cq. crassipes, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sitiens, Cx. vishnui, and Ma. Uniformis; two major genetic lineages, P. juxtanucleare and Tacy7, were identified.

  13. Residual efficacy of field applied permethrin, sumithrin, and resmethrin on plant foliage against adult mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Backpack sprayer applications of 3 pyrethroid insecticides, permethrin, d-phenothrin, and resmethrin to vegetation and plants at Anastasia Island, St. Augustine, Florida were evaluated for duration of residual efficacy against adult mosquitoes. All sprays produced 100% mortality (24 h) for mosqui...

  14. Meteorological effects on adult mosquito (Culex) populations in metropolitan New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degaetano, Arthur T.

    2005-05-01

    For two metropolitan New Jersey counties, monthly average adult mosquito (Culex) catch from New Jersey light trap data sets covering multiple decades is related to a number of meteorological factors. From June through August climatological conditions accounted for between 40% and 50% of the variation in average catch. In general, high monthly precipitation totals both in the month corresponding to the catch and the previous month were associated with increased trap catch. However, individual heavy rainfall events tended to reduce catch. Warm temperatures exerted a positive influence on mosquito abundance in June, but were associated with a low catch in August. Linear meteorological relationships explained only a small percentage of the variations in mosquito catch during May and September. During July, and particularly August, antecedent monthly catch also explained a significant portion of the variance in the contemporaneous catch. Over 60% of the variability in August catch could be attributed to the July population.

  15. Comparative morphology of the pyloric armature of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Tuten, H C; Bridges, W C; Adler, P H

    2012-09-01

    The structure of the pyloric armature, hypothesized to aid in blood-meal digestion or parasite resistance, was compared quantitatively among the following 8 species in 5 genera of adult mosquitoes from the southeastern United States: Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes triseriatus, Anopheles punctipennis, Culex pipiens s.l., Culex restuans, Orthopodomyia signifera, and Toxorhynchites rutilus. Females differed significantly among species in the structure of spines composing the armature, with Aedes spp. forming one general group, Culex spp. another, and An. punctipennis and Or. signifera a third. Relationships of species based on structural characters of the armature were consistent with recent culicid phylogenies. Although pyloric armature has been noted in mosquitoes and other insects, this is the first quantitative investigation of the mosquito pyloric armature.

  16. A global assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency and blood meal host preferences. Methods We assembled a comprehensive database describing adult female MMRR experiments. Bibliographic searches were used to build a digital library of MMRR studies and selected data describing the reported outcomes were extracted. Results The resulting database contained 774 unique adult female MMRR experiments involving 58 vector mosquito species from the three main genera of importance to human health: Aedes, Anopheles and Culex. Crude examination of these data revealed patterns associated with geography as well as mosquito genus, consistent with bionomics varying by species-specific life history and ecological context. Recapture success varied considerably and was significantly different amongst genera, with 8, 4 and 1% of adult females recaptured for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species, respectively. A large proportion of experiments (59%) investigated dispersal and survival and many allowed disaggregation of the release and recapture data. Geographic coverage was limited to just 143 localities around the world. Conclusions This MMRR database is a substantial contribution to the compilation of global data that can be used to better inform basic research and public health interventions, to identify and fill knowledge gaps and to enrich theory and evidence-based ecological and epidemiological studies of mosquito vectors, pathogen transmission and disease prevention. The database revealed limited geographic coverage and a relative scarcity of information for vector species of substantial public health relevance. It represents, however, a wealth of entomological information not previously compiled and of particular interest for mosquito

  17. Adult Education Collection at Syracuse University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N., Comp.

    Intended to give adult educators and adult education researchers greater and easier access to the Syracuse University adult education collection, the guide inventories, describes the resources, and names a contact person for each of 18 parts of the diverse collection. The following are the holdings attended to, which also reflect the guide's…

  18. Discovery of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Tan, Guanhong; Isoe, Jun; Wysocki, Vicki H; Wells, Michael A; Miesfeld, Roger L

    2008-01-15

    We demonstrate the presence of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that converts uric acid to urea via an amphibian-like uricolytic pathway. For these studies, female mosquitoes were fed a sucrose solution containing (15)NH4Cl, [5-(15)N]-glutamine, [(15)N]-proline, allantoin, or allantoic acid. At 24 h after feeding, the feces were collected and analyzed in a mass spectrometer. Specific enzyme inhibitors confirmed that mosquitoes incorporate (15)N from (15)NH4Cl into [5-(15)N]-glutamine and use the (15)N of the amide group of glutamine to produce labeled uric acid. More importantly, we found that [(15)N2]-uric acid can be metabolized to [(15)N]-urea and be excreted as nitrogenous waste through an uricolytic pathway. Ae. aegypti express all three genes in this pathway, namely, urate oxidase, allantoinase, and allantoicase. The functional relevance of these genes in mosquitoes was shown by feeding allantoin or allantoic acid, which significantly increased unlabeled urea levels in the feces. Moreover, knockdown of urate oxidase expression by RNA interference demonstrated that this pathway is active in females fed blood or (15)NH4Cl based on a significant increase in uric acid levels in whole-body extracts and a reduction in [(15)N]-urea excretion, respectively. These unexpected findings could lead to the development of metabolism-based strategies for mosquito control.

  19. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Jones, J W; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; Watts, D M; Fernandez, R; Travassos da Rosa, A; Guzman, H; Tesh, R; Rossi, C A; Ludwig, V; Mangiafico, J A; Kondig, J; Wasieloski, L P; Pecor, J; Zyzak, M; Schoeler, G; Mores, C N; Calampa, C; Lee, J S; Klein, T A

    2005-09-01

    As part of a comprehensive study on the ecology of arthropod-borne viruses in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, we assayed 539,694 mosquitoes captured in Loreto Department, Peru, for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were captured either by dry ice-baited miniature light traps or with aspirators while mosquitoes were landing on human collectors, identified to species, and later tested on Vero cells for virus. In total, 164 virus isolations were made and included members of the Alphavirus (eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Trocara, Una, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses), Flavivirus (Ilheus and St. Louis encephalitis), and Orthobunyavirus (Caraparu, Itaqui, Mirim, Murutucu, and Wyeomyia viruses) genera. In addition, several viruses distinct from the above-mentioned genera were identified to the serogroup level. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, whereas Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings & Ferreira. Most isolations of Ilheus virus were made from Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt). Although species of the Culex subgenus Melanoconion accounted for only 45% of the mosquitoes collected, 85% of the virus isolations were made from this subgenus. Knowledge of the viruses that are being transmitted in the Amazon Basin region of Peru will enable the development of more effective diagnostic assays, more efficient and rapid diagnoses of clinical illnesses caused by these pathogens, risk analysis for military/civilian operations, and development of potential disease control measures.

  20. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rudy; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Müller, Günter C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, FL. Exit traps were constructed to cover the well and cistern openings so the number of resting and emerging mosquitoes stained by feeding on the sugar bait could be monitored. Four mosquito species were collected from these structures: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett). Overall, 90% (1482/1644) of the mosquitoes trapped were stained. In general, the number of mosquitoes stained was significantly greater in wells (P<0.0001) and cisterns (P<0.0001) than the numbers that were not stained by the colored bait. Based on the number of mosquitoes stained, we would have expected considerable mosquito mortality had the sugar bait contained an oral toxin. The results of this study support the concept of using attractive toxic sugar baits as an effective tool for integrated mosquito management. PMID:22820024

  1. Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances. Methods The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay. Results 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012. Conclusion The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR. PMID:24060238

  2. Female Adult Aedes albopictus Suppression by Wolbachia-Infected Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Rose, Robert I.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation. It is unknown however, whether openly released, artificially infected male Ae. albopictus can competitively mate and sterilize females at a level adequate to suppress a field population. Also, the unintended establishment of Wolbachia at the introduction site could result from horizontal transmission or inadvertent female release. In 2014, an Experimental Use Permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency approved a pilot field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Here, we present data showing localized reduction of both egg hatch and adult female numbers. The artificial Wolbachia type was not observed to establish in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of Wolbachia-infected males as a biopesticide to suppress field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27659038

  3. Isolation of a new flavivirus related to cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) from field-collected flood-water Aedes mosquitoes sampled from a dambo in central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Sang, R C; Gichogo, A; Gachoya, J; Dunster, M D; Ofula, V; Hunt, A R; Crabtree, M B; Miller, B R; Dunster, L M

    2003-06-01

    Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) is an RNA insect virus that was isolated from a line of Aedes aegypti mosquito cells and has been assigned to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. We report here the first isolation of a CFA-like virus from field-collected mosquitoes. Mosquito larvae and pupae were sampled from flooded dambos in Central Province, Kenya during the short rain season of 1999. Specimens were reared to adults, identified and pooled by species and were tested for the presence of virus. Two virus isolates were obtained from two pools of Aedes macintoshi mosquitoes. The virus isolates replicated only in invertebrate cells in culture and not in vertebrate cells or in mice. The virus isolates did not antigenically cross-react with known arboviruses but were identified to family by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed using primers specific to alphaviruses, bunyaviruses and flaviviruses; only the flavivirus-specific primers produced a DNA fragment of the expected size. Nucleic acid sequencing of this fragment showed the two isolates to be nearly identical. Comparison of sequences to the GenBank database using BLAST identified the virus as most closely related to CFAV. Results from cross-neutralization tests suggested that, although the BLAST search indicated homology to CFAV, the virus isolated represented a new insect flavivirus. Detailed characterization of this new virus, described in Crabtree et al. [7], further supports this finding. We propose this new flavivirus be designated Kamiti River virus (KRV). This is the first isolation of a CFA-like virus from field-collected mosquitoes and indicates the presence of this group of viruses in nature.

  4. Comparison of fatty acid contents and composition in major lipid classes of larvae and adults of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from a steppe region.

    PubMed

    Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Yurchenko, Yuri A; Gladyshev, Michail I; Belevich, Olga E; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Angelika A

    2013-10-01

    Emerging aquatic insects, including mosquitoes, are known to transfer to terrestrial ecosystems specific essential biochemicals, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We studied fatty acid (FA) composition and contents of dominant mosquito populations (Diptera: Culicidae), that is, Anopheles messeae, Ochlerotatus caspius, Oc. flavescens, Oc. euedes, Oc. subdiversus, Oc. cataphylla, and Aedes cinereus, inhabited a steppe wetland of a temperate climate zone to fill up the gap in their lipid knowledge. The polar lipid and triacylglycerol fractions of larvae and adults were compared. In most studied mosquito species, we first found and identified a number of short-chain PUFA, for example, prominent 14:2n-6 and 14:3n-3, which were not earlier documented in living organisms. These PUFA, although occurred in low levels in adult mosquitoes, can be potentially used as markers of mosquito biomass in terrestrial food webs. We hypothesize that these acids might be synthesized (or retroconverted) by the mosquitoes. Using FA trophic markers accumulated in triacylglycerols, trophic relations of the mosquitoes were accessed. The larval diet comprised green algae, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates and provided the mosquitoes with essential n-3 PUFA, linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids. As a result, both larvae and adults of the studied mosquitoes had comparatively high content of the essential PUFA. Comparison of FA proportions in polar lipids versus storage lipids shown that during mosquito metamorphosis transfer of essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from the reserve in storage lipids of larvae to functional polar lipids in adults occurred.

  5. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  6. Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult mosquito traps of four types that are marketed for homeowner use in residential settings were compared with a standard CDC light trap for efficacy in collecting phlebotomine sand flies. We evaluated the Mosquito MagnetTM Pro (MMP), the SentinelTM 360 mosquito trap (S360), the BG-SentinelTM mo...

  7. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-11-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

  8. Development of the gravid Aedes trap for the capture of adult female container-exploiting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Eiras, Alvaro E; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring dengue vector control by sampling adult Aedes aegypti (L.) recently has been used to replace both larval and pupal surveys. We have developed and evaluated the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) through a sequential behavioral study. The GAT does not require electricity to function, and trapped mosquitoes are identified easily during trap inspections. The GAT concept relies on visual and olfactory cues to lure gravid Ae. aegypti and an insecticide to kill trapped mosquitoes. Gravid mosquitoes are lured to a black bucket base containing oviposition attractant (infusion) and are trapped in a translucent chamber impregnated with a pyrethroid insecticide where they are killed within 3-15 min. In semifield observations, the GAT captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the double sticky ovitrap. We also demonstrated that the visual cues of the prototype GAT-LgBF (large black base bucket with a black funnel at the top of the translucent chamber) captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the other prototypes. The visual contrast created by the addition of a white lid to the top of the black funnel significantly increased the number of captured gravid mosquitoes when compared with the GAT-LgBF in semifield trials. We conclude that the GAT is more efficient in recapturing gravid Ae. aegypti when compared with sticky ovitraps. The GAT is an effective, practical, low cost, and easily transportable trap, features that are essential in large-scale monitoring programs, particularly in areas where funding is limited. PMID:24605470

  9. Development of the gravid Aedes trap for the capture of adult female container-exploiting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Eiras, Alvaro E; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring dengue vector control by sampling adult Aedes aegypti (L.) recently has been used to replace both larval and pupal surveys. We have developed and evaluated the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) through a sequential behavioral study. The GAT does not require electricity to function, and trapped mosquitoes are identified easily during trap inspections. The GAT concept relies on visual and olfactory cues to lure gravid Ae. aegypti and an insecticide to kill trapped mosquitoes. Gravid mosquitoes are lured to a black bucket base containing oviposition attractant (infusion) and are trapped in a translucent chamber impregnated with a pyrethroid insecticide where they are killed within 3-15 min. In semifield observations, the GAT captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the double sticky ovitrap. We also demonstrated that the visual cues of the prototype GAT-LgBF (large black base bucket with a black funnel at the top of the translucent chamber) captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the other prototypes. The visual contrast created by the addition of a white lid to the top of the black funnel significantly increased the number of captured gravid mosquitoes when compared with the GAT-LgBF in semifield trials. We conclude that the GAT is more efficient in recapturing gravid Ae. aegypti when compared with sticky ovitraps. The GAT is an effective, practical, low cost, and easily transportable trap, features that are essential in large-scale monitoring programs, particularly in areas where funding is limited.

  10. Fluid absorption in the isolated midgut of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Onken, Horst; Moffett, David F

    2015-07-01

    The transepithelial voltage (Vte) and the volume of isolated posterior midguts of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were monitored. In all experiments, the initial Vte after filling the midgut was lumen negative, but subsequently became lumen positive at a rate of approximately 1 mV min(-1). Simultaneously, the midgut volume decreased, indicating spontaneous fluid absorption. When the midguts were filled and bathed with mosquito saline, the average rate of fluid absorption was 36.5±3.0 nl min(-1) (N=4, ±s.e.m.). In the presence of theophylline (10 mmol l(-1)), Vte reached significantly higher lumen-positive values, but the rate of fluid absorption was not affected (N=6). In the presence of NaCN (5 mmol l(-1)), Vte remained close to 0 mV (N=4) and fluid absorption was reduced (14.4±1.3 nl min(-1), N=3, ±s.e.m.). When midguts were filled with buffered NaCl (154 mmol l(-1) plus 1 mmol l(-1) HEPES) and bathed in mosquito saline with theophylline, fluid absorption was augmented (50.0±5.8 nl min(-1), N=12, ±s.e.m.). Concanamycin A (10 µmol l(-1)), ouabain (1 mmol l(-1)), and acetazolamide (1 mmol l(-1)) affected Vte in different ways, but all reduced fluid absorption by 60-70% of the value before addition of the drugs.

  11. Viruses isolated from Aedeomyia squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Panama, Ecuador, and Argentina: establishment of the Gamboa serogroup.

    PubMed

    Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S; Justines, G; Francy, D B; Monath, T P; Gutierrez, E; Sabattini, M S; Bowen, G S; Jakob, W L

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four virus strains were isolated from Aedeomyia squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Ecuador. One additional strain each was isolated from this species from Panama and ARgentina. All 26 isolates were shown to be related serologically to prototype Gamboa virus, originally isolated from Ad. squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Panama. Antigenic comparisons of eight strains, including prototype Gamboa virus, indicated the existence of four distinct viruses. Neutralization tests with sera from a variety of mammalian and avian species from Argentina provided further evidence that Gamboa serogroup viruses are transmitted between Ad. squamipennis and birds. PMID:6111232

  12. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections.

  13. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections. PMID:27376502

  14. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU.

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bartumeus, Frederic; Oltra, Aitana; Sousa, Carla A; Chouin, Sébastien; Werner, Doreen

    2015-01-08

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order to assess the current species occurrence, distribution and, when possible, abundance, in order to permit the early detection of invasive species and the spread of competent vectors. As active mosquito collection, e.g. by trapping adults, dipping preimaginal developmental stages or ovitrapping, is usually cost-, time- and labour-intensive and can cover only small parts of a country, passive data collection approaches are gradually being integrated into monitoring programmes. Thus, scientists in several EU member states have recently initiated programmes for mosquito data collection and analysis that make use of sources other than targeted mosquito collection. While some of them extract mosquito distribution data from zoological databases established in other contexts, community-based approaches built upon the recognition, reporting, collection and submission of mosquito specimens by citizens are becoming more and more popular and increasingly support scientific research. Based on such reports and submissions, new populations, extended or new distribution areas and temporal activity patterns of invasive and native mosquito species were found. In all cases, extensive media work and communication with the participating individuals or groups was fundamental for success. The presented projects demonstrate that passive approaches are powerful tools to survey the mosquito fauna in order to supplement active mosquito surveillance strategies and render them more focused. Their ability to continuously produce biological data permits the early recognition of changes in the mosquito fauna that may have an impact on biting nuisance and the risk of pathogen transmission associated

  15. Deposition and air concentrations of permethrin and naled used for adult mosquito management.

    PubMed

    Schleier, Jerome J; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-01-01

    One of the most effective ways of managing adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is the use of ultra-low-volume (ULV) insecticides. Because of the lack of environmental fate studies and concerns about the safety of the insecticides used for the management of adult mosquitoes, we conducted an environmental fate study after truck-mounted applications of permethrin and naled. One hour after application, concentrations of permethrin on cotton dosimeters placed at ground level 25, 50, and 75 m from the spray source were 2, 4, and 1 ng/cm2 in 2007 and 5, 2, and 0.9 ng/cm2 in 2008, respectively. One hour after application, concentrations of naled 25, 50, and 75 m were 47, 66, and 67 ng/cm2 in 2007 and 15, 6.1, and 0 (nondetectable) ng/cm2 in 2008, respectively. Deposition concentrations 12 h after application were not significantly different than 1 h after application for permethrin and naled either year. During 2007 and 2008 permethrin applications, two quantifiable air concentrations of 375 and 397 ng/m3 were observed 1 h after application. In 2007 and 2008, naled air concentrations ranged from 2300 to 4000 ng/m3 1 h after application. There were no quantifiable air concentrations between 1 and 12 h after application in either 2007 or 2008 for both naled and permethrin. Environmental concentrations observed in this study demonstrate that models used in previous risk assessments were sufficiently conservative (i.e., the models overestimated environmental concentrations). However, we also demonstrate inadequacies of models such as AgDrift and AGDISP, which currently are used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to estimate environmental concentrations of ULV insecticides. PMID:19536586

  16. Repellent, Irritant and Toxic Effects of 20 Plant Extracts on Adults of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  17. Repellent, irritant and toxic effects of 20 plant extracts on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae mosquito.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  18. Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to iden...

  19. A Tale of Two City Blocks: Differences in Immature and Adult Mosquito Abundances between Socioeconomically Different Urban Blocks in Baltimore (Maryland, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian; Leisnham, Paul T.; LaDeau, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure degradation in many post-industrial cities has increased the availability of potential mosquito habitats, including container habitats that support infestations of invasive disease-vectors. This study is unique in examining both immature and adult mosquito abundance across the fine-scale variability in socio-economic condition that occurs block-to-block in many cities. We hypothesized that abundant garbage associated with infrastructure degradation would support greater mosquito production but instead, found more mosquito larvae and host-seeking adults (86%) in parcels across the higher socio-economic, low-decay block. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens were 5.61 (p < 0.001) and 4.60 (p = 0.001) times more abundant, respectively. Most discarded (garbage) containers were dry during peak mosquito production, which occurred during the 5th hottest July on record. Containers associated with human residence were more likely to hold water and contain immature mosquitoes. We propose that mosquito production switches from rain-fed unmanaged containers early in the season to container habitats that are purposefully shaded or watered by mid-season. This study suggests that residents living in higher socioeconomic areas with low urban decay may be at greater risk of mosquito-borne disease during peak mosquito production when local container habitats are effectively decoupled from environmental constraints. PMID:24651396

  20. A critical review of ultralow-volume aerosols of insecticide applied with vehicle-mounted generators for adult mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Mount, G A

    1998-09-01

    This review of ultralow-volume (ULV) ground aerosols for adult mosquito control includes discussion on application volume, aerosol generators, droplet size, meteorology, swath, dispersal speed, assay methods, insecticide efficacy, and nontarget effects. It summarizes the efficacy of ULV insecticidal aerosols against many important pest and disease-bearing species of mosquitoes in a wide range of locations and habitats in the United States and in some countries of Asia and the Americas. Fourteen conclusions were drawn from the review. 1) ULV ground aerosol applications of insecticide are as efficacious against adult mosquitoes as high- or low-volume aerosols. 2) ULV aerosols with an optimum droplet size spectrum can be produced by several types of nozzles including vortex, pneumatic, and rotary. Droplet size of a particular insecticide formulation is dependent primarily on nozzle air pressure or rotation speed and secondarily on insecticide flow rate. 3) Label flow rates of insecticide for ULV aerosol application can be delivered accurately during routine operations with speed-correlated metering systems within a calibrated speed range, usually not exceeding 20 mph. 4) The most economical and convenient method of droplet size determination for ULV aerosols of insecticide is the waved-slide technique. 5) The efficacy of ULV ground aerosols against adult mosquitoes is related to droplet size because it governs air transport and impingement. The optimum droplet size for mosquito adulticiding is 8-15 microns volume median diameter (VMD) on the basis of laboratory wind-tunnel tests and field research with caged mosquitoes. 6) In general, ULV aerosols should be applied following sunset when mosquitoes are active and meteorological conditions are favorable for achieving maximum levels of control. Application can be made during daytime hours when conditions permit, but rates may have to be increased. The critical meteorological factors are wind velocity and direction

  1. Bystander Exposure to Ultra-Low-Volume Insecticide Applications Used for Adult Mosquito Management

    PubMed Central

    Preftakes, Collin J.; Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K. D.

    2011-01-01

    A popular and effective management option for adult mosquitoes is the use of insecticides applied by ultra-low-volume (ULV) equipment. However, there is a paucity of data on human dermal exposure to insecticides applied by this method. The objective of the current study was to estimate dermal exposures to the insecticide active ingredient permethrin using water- (Aqua-Reslin®) and oil-based (Permanone® 30-30) formulations with passive dosimetry. No significant differences in deposition of permethrin were observed between years, distance from the spray source, front or back of the body, or the placement of the patches on the body. However, exposure to Aqua-Reslin was significantly greater than Permanone 30-30 and average concentrations deposited on the body were 4.2 and 2.1 ng/cm2, respectively. The greater deposition of Aqua-Reslin is most likely due to the higher density of the water-based formulation which causes it to settle out faster than the lighter oil-based formulation of Permanone 30-30. The estimated average absorbed dermal exposure for permethrin from Aqua-Reslin and Permanone 30-30 was 0.00009 and 0.00005 mg/kg body weight, respectively. We also found that ground deposition of ULV insecticides can be used as a surrogate for estimating dermal exposure. The estimated exposures support the findings of previous risk assessments that exposure to ULV applications used for mosquito management are below regulatory levels of concern. PMID:21776222

  2. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Jeffery, Jason A L; Trewin, Brendan J; Wockner, Leesa F; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Hoang Le; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2014-02-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  3. Adult Survivorship of the Dengue Mosquito Aedes aegypti Varies Seasonally in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Leon E.; Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Trewin, Brendan J.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Thi Yen, Nguyen; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle. PMID:24551251

  4. Blood Meal Analysis of and Virus Detection in Mosquitoes Collected during a Rift Valley fever Epizootic/Epidemic: Implications for epidemic disease transmission dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Bloodfed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the bloodmeals. Bloodmeals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for v...

  5. Field evaluation of boric acid and fipronil based bait stations against adult mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of boric acid (1%) and fipronil (0.1%) bait stations in reducing the number of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes released in outdoor screened cages was evaluated. Both toxicants reduced landing rates of the two mosquito species on a ...

  6. Response of adult mosquitoes to light emitting diodes placed in resting boxes and in the field.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resting boxes are passive devices used to attract and capture mosquitoes seeking shelter. Increasing the attractiveness of these devices could improve their effectiveness. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) can be attractive to mosquitoes when used together with other trapping devices. Therefore restin...

  7. Bioinsecticide and leaf litter combination increases oviposition and reduces adult recruitment to create an effective ovitrap for Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Bellile, Katie G; Vonesh, James R

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito egg traps, aquatic habitats baited with oviposition attractant and insecticide, are important tools for surveillance and control efforts in integrated vector management programs. The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides and the combination of Bti with a simple oviposition attractant like leaf litter to create an effective egg trap seems appealing. However, previous research suggests that Bti may itself alter oviposition, and that leaf litter may dramatically reduce Bti toxicity. Here we present results from field experiment designed to link the effects of litter and Bti on mosquito oviposition habitat selection and post-colonization survival to production of adult mosquitoes. Tripling litter increased Culex spp. oviposition nearly nine-fold, while Bti had no effect on oviposition. Neither factor altered egg survival, thus larval abundance reflected the effects of litter on oviposition. Both Bti and litter reduced larval survival by ∼60%. We found no evidence that increased litter reduced Bti toxicity. Adult production was dependent upon both litter and Bti. In the absence of Bti, effects of litter on oviposition translated into three-fold more adults. However, in the presence of Bti, initial increases in oviposition were erased by the combined negative effects of Bti and litter on post-colonization survival. Thus, our study provides field evidence that combined litter and Bti application creates an effective ovitrap. This combined treatment had the highest oviposition and the lowest survival, and thus removed the greatest number of mosquitoes from the landscape. PMID:27232134

  8. Ability of newly emerged adult Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to exit belowground stormwater treatment systems via lateral conveyance pipes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Marco E; Harbison, Justin E; Burns, Joseph E; Hu, Renjie

    2012-03-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes flourish in belowground stormwater systems in the southern United States. Recent evidence suggests that oviposition-site-seeking females may have difficulties locating, entering, and ovipositing inside permanent water chambers when surface entry through pickholes in manhole covers are sealed. It remains unknown, however, if newly emerged adults are able to detect cues necessary to exit these partly sealed systems via lateral conveyance pipes or if they perish belowground. Fourth instar Cx. quinquefasciatus were placed within proprietary belowground stormwater treatment systems to determine the percentage of newly emerged adults able to escape treatment chambers via a single lateral conveyance pipe. Overall, 56% of deployed mosquitoes were captured in adult exit traps with an 1:1 male:female ratio. The percentage of adults captured varied significantly among chambers, but was not associated with structural site characteristics such as the chamber depth or the length and course of conveyance pipe to the exit trap. Empirical observations suggested that longbodied cellar spiders, Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin), ubiquitous in these structures, may have reduced adult trap capture. Findings demonstrate that newly emerged Cx. quinquefasciatus can exit subterranean chambers under potentially difficult structural conditions but suggest that a portion may perish in the absence of surface exit points in manhole shafts.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of CO2-baited and unbaited light traps, gravid traps, backpack aspirators, and sweep net collections for sampling mosquitoes infected with Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Chen, Chien-Fu; Chang, Mi-Chun; Lu, Liang-Chen; Lin, Cheo; Jian, Shu-Wan; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2011-06-01

    Two field studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of mosquito collection methods for species composition, species abundance, and Japanese encephalitis virus infection rates in Taiwan. Traps evaluated included John W. Hock (JH) model UD black light traps, JH model 1012 new standard miniature CDC light traps, JH model 1712 CDC gravid traps, and Taiwan-made Pest-O-Lite light traps. Backpack aspirators and sweep nets were also used to collect the resting population. Culex tritaeniorhynchus in all studies and Mansonia uniformis in the Taipei areas were the two most abundance species collected. Dry ice-baited UD black light traps were effective in regard to species diversity, species abundance, and Japanese encephalitis virus infection rates. The unbaited Pest-O-Lite light traps collected significantly more female mosquitoes than the UD black light traps but performed similarly with regard to species diversity and male mosquito collection. Most mosquitoes collected by Pest-O-Lite light traps were dried and not suitable for virus detection. Dry ice-baited CDC light traps collected significantly fewer mosquitoes than other light traps. Although CO(2) -baited UD black light traps with octenol attracted more mosquitoes, no statistical significance was found compared to CO(2) -baited UD black light traps without octenol. Japanese encephalitis viruses were isolated from half of the positive pools in UD black light traps and CDC light traps.

  10. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown and in vivo diuresis assay in adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Aguirre, Sarah E; Hansen, Immo A

    2012-07-14

    This video protocol demonstrates an effective technique to knockdown a particular gene in an insect and conduct a novel bioassay to measure excretion rate. This method can be used to obtain a better understanding of the process of diuresis in insects and is especially useful in the study of diuresis in blood-feeding arthropods that are able to take up huge amounts of liquid in a single blood meal. This RNAi-mediated gene knockdown combined with an in vivo diuresis assay was developed by the Hansen lab to study the effects of RNAi-mediated knockdown of aquaporin genes on Aedes aegypti mosquito diuresis. The protocol is setup in two parts: the first demonstration illustrates how to construct a simple mosquito injection device and how to prepare and inject dsRNA into the thorax of mosquitoes for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. The second demonstration illustrates how to determine excretion rates in mosquitoes using an in vivo bioassay.

  11. Larval Temperature-Food Effects on Adult Mosquito Infection and Vertical Transmission of Dengue-1 Virus.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Eva A; Alto, Barry W; Lounibos, L Philip

    2016-01-01

    Temperature-food interactions in the larval environment can affect life history and population growth of container mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse, the primary vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses. We used Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and dengue-1 virus (DENV-1) from Florida to investigate whether larval rearing temperature can alter the effects of larval food levels on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus life history and DENV-1 infection and vertical transmission. Although we found no effect of larval treatments on survivorship to adulthood, DENV-1 titer, or DENV-1 vertical transmission, rates of vertical transmission up to 16-24% were observed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, which may contribute to maintenance of this virus in nature. Larval treatments had no effect on number of progeny and DENV-1 infection in Ae. aegypti, but the interaction between temperature and food affected number of progeny and DENV-1 infection of the female Ae. albopictus parent. The cooler temperature (24°C) yielded the most progeny and this effect was accentuated by high food relative to the other conditions. Low and high food led to the highest (∼90%) and lowest (∼65%) parental infection at the cooler temperature, respectively, whereas intermediate infection rates (∼75-80%) were observed for all food conditions at the elevated temperature. These results suggest that temperature and food availability have minimal influence on rate of vertical transmission and a stronger influence on adults of Ae. albopictus than of Ae. aegypti, which could have consequences for dengue virus epidemiology. PMID:26489999

  12. Toxicity and risk of permethrin and naled to non-target insects after adult mosquito management.

    PubMed

    Schleier, Jerome J; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-08-01

    We derived laboratory LC50 values, assessed non-target insect risks, and conducted a field bioassay for ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides used to manage adult mosquitoes. The house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.), was used as an indicator species for medium- to large-bodied ground dwelling insects. The 24-h LC(50) values for Permanone (formulated product of permethrin), Permanone + piperonyl butoxide (PBO), technical grade permethrin, and technical grade permethrin + PBO ranged from 0.052 to 0.9 microg/cm(2). The 24 h LC(50) for technical grade naled and Trumpet((R)) (formulated product of naled) were 0.038 and 0.44 microg/cm(2), respectively. The synergist ratio was 2.65 for Permanone + PBO and 1.57 for technical grade permethrin + PBO. The toxicity of technical grade permethrin was about 10-fold greater than Permanone. A risk assessment using modeled estimated environmental concentrations resulted in risk quotients (RQ) that exceeded regulatory levels of concern, but when compared to field-derived actual environmental concentrations RQs did not exceed a regulatory level of concern, except in the case of technical grade naled. These results were expected because higher tiered risk assessments using field-verified data generally lead to lower risk estimates. Field bioassays using caged crickets showed no significant mortality for permethrin or naled after a single truck-mounted ULV application. The results of the risk assessment using actual environmental concentrations are supported by the field bioassays and suggest that a single ULV application of synergized or unsynergized permethrin and naled most likely will not result in population impacts on medium- to large-bodied insects. PMID:20429029

  13. Natural vertical transmission of Ndumu virus in Culex pipiens (Diptera; Culicidae) mosquitoes collected as larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ndumu virus (NDUV) is a member of the Family: Togaviridae and Genus: Alphavirus. In Kenya the virus has been isolated from a range of mosquito species but has not been associated with human or animal morbidity. Little is know about the transmission dynamics or vertebrate reservoirs of this virus. We...

  14. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis and Getah viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected near Camp Greaves, Gyonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2000.

    PubMed

    Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P; Dohm, David J; Lee, Wan-Ja; Cho, Hae-Wol; Kim, Heung-Chol; Burkett, Douglas A; Mores, Christopher N; Coleman, Russell E; Klein, Terry A

    2003-07-01

    As part of an evaluation of the ecology of arthropod-borne diseases in the Republic of Korea (ROK), we examined 8,765 mosquitoes captured in Paju County, Gyonggi Province, ROK, for the presence of viruses. Mosquitoes were captured in propane lantern/human-baited Shannon traps, Mosquito Magnet traps, or American Biophysics Corporation (East Greenwich, RI) miniature light traps with or without supplemental octenol bait and/or dry ice. Mosquitoes were identified to species, placed in pools of up to 40 mosquitoes each, and tested on Vero cells for the presence of virus. A total of 15 virus isolations were made from 293 pools of mosquitoes. Viruses were identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing and consisted of 14 isolations of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus and one isolation of Getah (GET) virus. All JE isolates were from Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, and the isolate of GET was from Aedes vexans (Meigen). The minimum field infection rate for JE in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was 3.3 per 1,000, whereas the GET virus infection rate for Ae. vexans was 0.2 per 1,000. Isolation of JE and GET indicated that both viruses were actively circulating in northern Gyonggi Province, ROK. The lack of human cases of JE among the Korean population probably is because of an effective government-mandated vaccination program. The reason for no cases among >10,000 United States military and others that reside or train nearby is unknown, but may be related to personnel protection measures (permethrin-impregnated uniforms and use of deet repellent), adult mosquito control, mosquito selection of nonhuman hosts (unpublished data), and the low symptomatic to asymptomatic ratio of disease in adults.

  15. Mosquito Surveillance Revealed Lagged Effects of Mosquito Abundance on Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission: A Retrospective Study in Zhejiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008–2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008–2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0–2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008–2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008–2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0–2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs. PMID:25393834

  16. Mosquito surveillance revealed lagged effects of mosquito abundance on mosquito-borne disease transmission: a retrospective study in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008-2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0-2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008-2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008-2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0-2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs.

  17. The Human-Baited Double Net Trap: An Alternative to Human Landing Catches for Collecting Outdoor Biting Mosquitoes in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Tangena, Julie-Anne A.; Thammavong, Phoutmany; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve W.; Brey, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the exposure of individuals to mosquito-borne diseases is a key measure used to evaluate the success of vector control operations. The gold standard is to use human landing catches where mosquitoes are collected off the exposed limbs of human collectors. This is however an unsatisfactory method since it potentially exposes individuals to a range of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study several sampling methods were compared to find a method that is representative of the human-biting rate outdoors, but which does not expose collectors to mosquito-borne infections. The sampling efficiency of four odour-baited traps were compared outdoors in rural Lao PDR; the human-baited double net (HDN) trap, CDC light trap, BG sentinel trap and Suna trap. Subsequently the HDN, the best performing trap, was compared directly with human landing catches (HLC), the ‘gold standard’, for estimating human-biting rates. HDNs collected 11–44 times more mosquitoes than the other traps, with the exception of the HLC. The HDN collected similar numbers of Anopheles (Rate Ratio, RR = 1.16, 95% Confidence Intervals, 95% CI = 0.61–2.20) and Culex mosquitoes (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.74–2.17) as HLC, but under-estimated the numbers of Aedes albopictus (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.27–0.77). Simpson’s index of diversity was 0.845 (95% CI 0.836–0.854) for the HDN trap and 0.778 (95% CI 0.769–0.787) for HLC, indicating that the HDN collected a greater diversity of mosquito species than HLC. Both HLC and HDN can distinguish between low and high biting rates and are crude ways to measure human-biting rate. The HDN is a simple and cheap method to estimate the human-biting rate outdoors without exposing collectors to mosquito bites. PMID:26381896

  18. The Human-Baited Double Net Trap: An Alternative to Human Landing Catches for Collecting Outdoor Biting Mosquitoes in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Tangena, Julie-Anne A; Thammavong, Phoutmany; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve W; Brey, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the exposure of individuals to mosquito-borne diseases is a key measure used to evaluate the success of vector control operations. The gold standard is to use human landing catches where mosquitoes are collected off the exposed limbs of human collectors. This is however an unsatisfactory method since it potentially exposes individuals to a range of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study several sampling methods were compared to find a method that is representative of the human-biting rate outdoors, but which does not expose collectors to mosquito-borne infections. The sampling efficiency of four odour-baited traps were compared outdoors in rural Lao PDR; the human-baited double net (HDN) trap, CDC light trap, BG sentinel trap and Suna trap. Subsequently the HDN, the best performing trap, was compared directly with human landing catches (HLC), the 'gold standard', for estimating human-biting rates. HDNs collected 11-44 times more mosquitoes than the other traps, with the exception of the HLC. The HDN collected similar numbers of Anopheles (Rate Ratio, RR = 1.16, 95% Confidence Intervals, 95% CI = 0.61-2.20) and Culex mosquitoes (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.74-2.17) as HLC, but under-estimated the numbers of Aedes albopictus (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.27-0.77). Simpson's index of diversity was 0.845 (95% CI 0.836-0.854) for the HDN trap and 0.778 (95% CI 0.769-0.787) for HLC, indicating that the HDN collected a greater diversity of mosquito species than HLC. Both HLC and HDN can distinguish between low and high biting rates and are crude ways to measure human-biting rate. The HDN is a simple and cheap method to estimate the human-biting rate outdoors without exposing collectors to mosquito bites. PMID:26381896

  19. Annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Ion K; Toderas, Lidia G

    2013-06-01

    The mosquito fauna of the Republic of Moldova is poorly known. In an effort to understand the Culicidae fauna better, mosquito collections have been conducted between early April and middle November from 2008 to 2012. A total of 10,923 larval specimens and 8,246 adults were collected from 20 regions of Moldova. Altogether 36 species have been recorded during the recent study, bringing the total Moldovan mosquito fauna to 40 species in 9 genera and 11 subgenera. New state records include the following 7 species: Anopheles pseudopictus, An. melanoon, Aedes geminus, Culex torrentium, Culiseta longiareolata, Coquillettidia buxtoni, and Uranotaenia unguiculata.

  20. Abridged Description Listing for Adult and Continuing Education Research Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. Publications Program in Continuing Education.

    This publication contains descriptions of 53 research collections in adult and continuing education housed at Syracuse University (Syracuse, New York) Collection strengths have been identified as the history of adult education as a profession, field, and practice; literacy; and civic education. Each collection is described, and the number of boxes…

  1. Potential for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Florida to transmit rift valley fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated 8 species of mosquitoes collected in Florida to determine which of these should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America. Female mosquitoes that had fed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV were incubated for 7-21 d at 26°C, allowed to...

  2. Using a near-infrared spectrometer to estimate the age of Anopheles mosquitoes exposed to pyrethroids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the accuracy of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the age of Anopheles mosquitoes reared from wild larvae and a mixed age-wild adult population collected from pit traps after exposure to pyrethroids. The mosquitoes reared from wild larvae were estimated as ,7 or $7 d ol...

  3. Seasonal Abundance of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Collected by Mosquito Magnet® in Northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A.; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A.; Chong, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® traps at the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) camp and Daeseongdong village inside the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and near the military demarcation line (MDL) separating North and South Korea and at Warrior Base (US Army training site) and Tongilchon 3 km south of the DMZ in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK), from May-October 2010-2012, to determine their seasonal distributions. A total of 18,647 Culicoides females (18,399; 98.7%) and males (248; 1.3%) comprising 16 species were collected. Overall, the most commonly collected species was Culicoides nipponensis (42.9%), followed by C. erairai (29.2%), C. punctatus (20.3%), C. arakawae (3.3%), C. pallidulus (1.8%), and C. circumscriptus (1.4%), while the remaining 10 species accounted for only 1.1% of all Culicoides spp. collected. The seasonal distribution of C. nipponensis was bimodal, with high numbers collected during May-June and again during September. C. erairai was more frequently collected during June-July, followed by sharply decreased populations from August-October. C. punctatus was collected in low numbers from May-September with high numbers collected during October. C. erairai was predominantly collected from the NNSC camp (85.1% of all C. erairai collected) located adjacent to the MDL at Panmunjeom in the northernmost part of Gyeonggi-do (Province), while other sites yielded low numbers of specimens. PMID:24623883

  4. Seasonal abundance of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected by mosquito Magnet® in Northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A; Chong, Sung-Tae; Park, Jee-Yong

    2014-02-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® traps at the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) camp and Daeseongdong village inside the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and near the military demarcation line (MDL) separating North and South Korea and at Warrior Base (US Army training site) and Tongilchon 3 km south of the DMZ in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK), from May-October 2010-2012, to determine their seasonal distributions. A total of 18,647 Culicoides females (18,399; 98.7%) and males (248; 1.3%) comprising 16 species were collected. Overall, the most commonly collected species was Culicoides nipponensis (42.9%), followed by C. erairai (29.2%), C. punctatus (20.3%), C. arakawae (3.3%), C. pallidulus (1.8%), and C. circumscriptus (1.4%), while the remaining 10 species accounted for only 1.1% of all Culicoides spp. collected. The seasonal distribution of C. nipponensis was bimodal, with high numbers collected during May-June and again during September. C. erairai was more frequently collected during June-July, followed by sharply decreased populations from August-October. C. punctatus was collected in low numbers from May-September with high numbers collected during October. C. erairai was predominantly collected from the NNSC camp (85.1% of all C. erairai collected) located adjacent to the MDL at Panmunjeom in the northernmost part of Gyeonggi-do (Province), while other sites yielded low numbers of specimens.

  5. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins. PMID:27669021

  6. Comparative estimates of density and species diversity in adult mosquito populations landing on a human subject and captured using light and suction traps.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative responses of 21 species of mosquitoes to light traps (LT) and suction traps (ST) and captured using the human landing collection method (HL) varied in accordance with collection technique but data analyses for most species revealed significant interaction between collection method and th...

  7. Malpais spring virus: a new vesiculovirus from mosquitoes collected in New Mexico and evidence of infected indigenous and exotic ungulates.

    PubMed

    Clark, G G; Calisher, C H; Crabbs, C L; Canestorp, K M; Tesh, R B; Bowen, R A; Taylor, D E

    1988-12-01

    Two virus isolates, 1 each from Aedes campestris and Psorophora signipennis mosquitoes collected in south central New Mexico in August 1985, were shown by neutralization tests to be identical to each other, but not to any of more than 250 arthropod-borne and other viruses. Electron microscopy of 1 isolate (85-488NM, chosen as the prototype) indicated that this strain shares morphologic characteristics with viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae. Indirect fluorescent antibody tests indicated that this virus is a member of the genus Vesiculovirus, but is not closely related to any of the North American or other rhabdoviruses with which it was tested, including vesicular stomatitis (Indiana) and vesicular stomatitis (New Jersey) viruses. The name Malpais Spring virus is proposed for this newly recognized vesiculovirus. A serologic survey indicated that Malpais Spring virus infects indigenous (mule deer and pronghorn) and exotic (gemsbok) ungulates at and near the sites where the mosquitoes from which the virus strains were isolated were collected. Antibody prevalence in wild animals indicates that the pronghorn and gemsbok may play roles as hosts for Malpais Spring, epizootic hemorrhagic disease (New Jersey), and bluetongue viruses in this area. PMID:3061310

  8. Methods to collect Anopheles mosquitoes and evaluate malaria transmission: A comparative study in two villages in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Various methods have been studied as replacement of human landing catches (HLC) for mosquito sampling in entomological studies on malaria transmission. Conflicting results have been obtained in comparing relative efficiency of alternative methods, according to the area, the species present and their density. The aim of this study was to compare the number and characteristics of mosquitoes sampled in two areas of Senegal by three different methods: HLC, light traps adjacent to an occupied bed net (LT/N), pyrethrum spray catches (PSC). Methods Collections were performed in two villages: Dielmo (Soudan savanna) and Bandafassi (Soudan Guinean savanna), two or three nights per month for a 4-5 months period during the maximal transmission season in 2001-2002. Species were identified and Plasmodium infection determined by ELISA. The specific composition, circumsporozoite protein rate and entomological inoculation rate were calculated. Results The diversity of mosquito species captured was maximal with LT/N, minimal with PSC. The mean number of anopheles captures each night was significantly different according to the method used and the species. PSC displayed a significantly lower anopheles density. HLC was the most efficient sampling method when Anopheles gambiae was the main vector (in Bandafassi); LT/N when it was Anopheles funestus (in Dielmo). A significant correlation was found between HLC and LT/M but correlation parameters were different according to the species. Circumsporozoite protein rates were not significantly different between methods or species. The entomological inoculation rate varied along with vector density and thus with methods and species. Conclusions The choice of sampling method influenced entomological data recorded. Therefore, the sampling technique has to be chosen according to the vector studied and the aim of the study. Only HLC must be considered as the reference method, but in some conditions LT/N can be used as an alternative

  9. Dispersal of Adult Culex Mosquitoes in an Urban West Nile Virus Hotspot: A Mark-Capture Study Incorporating Stable Isotope Enrichment of Natural Larval Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Gabriel L.; Anderson, Tavis K.; Donovan, Danielle J.; Brawn, Jeffrey D.; Krebs, Bethany L.; Gardner, Allison M.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Brown, William M.; Kitron, Uriel D.; Newman, Christina M.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Walker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is a critical life history behavior for mosquitoes and is important for the spread of mosquito-borne disease. We implemented the first stable isotope mark-capture study to measure mosquito dispersal, focusing on Culex pipiens in southwest suburban Chicago, Illinois, a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission. We enriched nine catch basins in 2010 and 2011 with 15N-potassium nitrate and detected dispersal of enriched adult females emerging from these catch basins using CDC light and gravid traps to distances as far as 3 km. We detected 12 isotopically enriched pools of mosquitoes out of 2,442 tested during the two years and calculated a mean dispersal distance of 1.15 km and maximum flight range of 2.48 km. According to a logistic distribution function, 90% of the female Culex mosquitoes stayed within 3 km of their larval habitat, which corresponds with the distance-limited genetic variation of WNV observed in this study region. This study provides new insights on the dispersal of the most important vector of WNV in the eastern United States and demonstrates the utility of stable isotope enrichment for studying the biology of mosquitoes in other disease systems. PMID:24676212

  10. Bacterial Exposure at the Larval Stage Induced Sexual Immune Dimorphism and Priming in Adult Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-García, Miguel; Vargas, Valeria; Ramírez-Bello, Inci; Hernández-Martínez, Guadalupe; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the immune response of insects are driven by natural selection for females and sexual selection for males. These natural forces entail a multitude of extrinsic and intrinsic factors involved in a genotype-environment interaction that results in sex-biased expression of the genes shared by males and females. However, little is known about how an infection at a particular ontogenetic stage may influence later stages, or how it may impact sexual immune dimorphism. Using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a bacterial exposure at the larval stage on adult immunity in males and females. The parameters measured were phenoloxidase activity, nitric oxide production, antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial peptide transcript response. As a measure of the immune response success, the persistence of injected bacteria was also evaluated. The results show that males, as well as females, were able to enhance survival in the adult stage as a result of being exposed at the larval stage, which indicates a priming effect. Moreover, there was a differential gender immune response, evidenced by higher PO activity in males as well as higher NO production and greater antimicrobial activity in females. The greater bacterial persistence in females suggests a gender-specific strategy for protection after a previous experience with an elicitor. Hence, this study provides a primary characterization of the complex and gender-specific immune response of male and female adults against a bacterial challenge in mosquitoes primed at an early ontogenetic stage. PMID:26181517

  11. A comparison of adult mosquito trapping regimes across seasons and ecosystems in Darwin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Whelan, Peter I

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes are problematic as vectors and pests in many tropical cities, including Darwin, the principal city in the Northern Territory of Australia. To monitor peaks in mosquito populations, the Medical Entomology unit of the Health Department sets overnight CO(2) -baited traps weekly. Trap setting and retrieving, followed by mosquito counting and identification, are labor intensive. Aiming to reduce this workload, we tested the hypothesis that fortnightly trapping is as effective as weekly trapping across seasons and ecologically distinct systems in Darwin. We applied cross-sectional negative binomial mixed effects models, which adjusted for rain and calendar month, to existing historical data. Culex annulirostris peaks were effectively identified using fortnightly trapping across all three ecological systems, during wet/dry and build-up seasonal patterns. For Aedes vigilax, fortnightly trapping was adequate in identifying peaks during wet and dry season months, but inadequate during build-up months across all three ecological systems. Therefore, weekly trapping should continue during build-up months, but trapping could be reduced to fortnightly for wet and dry season months for all ecological systems. Trapping for Cx. annulirostris monitoring could be reduced to fortnightly in all areas and seasons. Evaluation of programs can maximize staff efficiency and improve service delivery by reducing the need for unnecessary tasks.

  12. Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei; Zeng, Xiaopeng; Yanma; Liu, Ting; Qian, Kuen; Han, Yuhua; Xue, Suqin; Tucker, Brad; Schultz, Gretchen; Coats, Joel; Rowley, Wayne; Zhang, Aijun

    2006-09-01

    The larvicidal activity and repellency of 5 plant essential oils--thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil, and cinnamon oil--were tested against 3 mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens pallens. Larvicidal activity of these essentials oils was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of each of the 3 mosquito species, and amyris oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect with LC50 values in 24 h of 58 microg/ml (LC90 = 72 microg/ml) for Ae. aegypti, 78 microg/ml (LC90 = 130 microg/ml) for Ae. albopictus, and 77 microg/ml (LC90 = 123 microg/ml) for Cx. p. pallens. The topical repellency of these selected essential oils and deet against laboratory-reared female blood-starved Ae. albopictus was examined. Catnip oil seemed to be the most effective and provided 6-h protection at both concentrations tested (23 and 468 microg/ cm2). Thyme oil had the highest effectiveness in repelling this species, but the repellency duration was only 2 h. The applications using these natural product essential oils in mosquito control are discussed. PMID:17067055

  13. Comparative structural and functional analysis of the larval and adult dorsal vessel and its role in hemolymph circulation in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    League, Garrett P.; Onuh, Ogechukwu C.; Hillyer, Julián F.

    2015-01-01

    Hemolymph circulation in insects is driven primarily by the contractile action of a dorsal vessel, which is divided into an abdominal heart and a thoracic aorta. As holometabolous insects, mosquitoes undergo striking morphological and physiological changes during metamorphosis. This study presents a comprehensive structural and functional analysis of the larval and adult dorsal vessel in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Using intravital video imaging we show that, unlike the adult heart, the larval heart contracts exclusively in the anterograde direction and does not undergo heartbeat directional reversals. The larval heart contracts 24% slower than the adult heart, and hemolymph travels across the larval dorsal vessel at a velocity that is 68% slower than what is seen in adults. By fluorescently labeling muscle tissue we show that although the general structure of the heart and its ostia are similar across life stages, the heart-associated alary muscles are significantly less robust in larvae. Furthermore, unlike the adult ostia, which are the entry points for hemolymph into the heart, the larval ostia are almost entirely lacking in incurrent function. Instead, hemolymph enters the larval heart through incurrent openings located at the posterior terminus of the heart. These posterior openings are structurally similar across life stages, but in adults have an opposite, excurrent function. Finally, the larval aorta and heart differ significantly in the arrangement of their cardiomyocytes. In summary, this study provides an in-depth developmental comparison of the circulatory system of larval and adult mosquitoes. PMID:25524976

  14. Mosquito blood-meal analysis for avian malaria study in wild bird communities: laboratory verification and application to Culex sasai (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2009-10-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to verify molecular techniques of avian malaria parasite detection distinguishing between an infected mosquito (oocysts on midgut wall) and infective mosquito (sporozoites in salivary glands) in parallel with blood-meal identification from individual blood-fed mosquitoes prior to application to field survey for avian malaria. Domestic fowl infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum was exposed to a vector and non-vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens, respectively, to compare the time course of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection for parasite between competent and refractory mosquitoes. DNA of the domestic fowl was detectable for at least 3 days after blood feeding. The PCR-based detection of P. gallinaceum from the abdomen and thorax of A. aegypti corresponded to the microscopic observation of oocysts and sporozoites. Therefore, this PCR-based method was considered useful as one of the criteria to assess developmental stages of Plasmodium spp. in mosquito species collected in the field. We applied the same PCR-based method to 21 blood-fed C. sasai mosquitoes collected in Rinshi-no-mori Park in urban Tokyo, Japan. Of 15 blood meals of C. sasai successfully identified, 86.7% were avian-derived, 13.3% were bovine-derived. Plasmodium DNA was amplified from the abdomen of three C. sasai specimens having an avian blood meal from the Great Tit (Parus major), Pale Thrush (Turdus pallidus), and Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). This is the first field study on host-feeding habits of C. sasai in relation to the potential role as a vector for avian malaria parasites transmitted in the Japanese wild bird community.

  15. Insecticidal potential of Ocimum canum plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larval and adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Murugan, Jimmantiyur Madhappan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making their control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable natural control. This study evaluates the toxic potential of Ocimum canum (Sims) leaf extract and powder against Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Lin) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larval and adult mosquitoes. Larval mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period and adult smoke toxicity observed for 40 min duration at 10 min interval. Methanol extract of O. canum showed highest larval mortality against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus LC50 = 28.3225, LC90 = 44.1150; Ae. aegypti LC50 = 43.327, LC90 = 61.249; and An. stephensi LC50 = 30.2001, LC90 = 48.2866 ppm. The smoke toxicities were 93% mortality in C. quinquefasciatus, 74% in Ae. aegypti and 79% in An. stephensi adults, respectively, whereas 100% mortality was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. Our results suggest that O. canum leaf extract and powder are natural insecticide, and ideal eco friendly approach for mosquito control.

  16. An ecological risk assessment for insecticides used in adult mosquito management.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ryan S; Peterson, Robert K D; Macedo, Paula A

    2007-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has been a concern for people across the United States since the disease was initially observed in the summer of 1999. Since 1999, WNV has caused the largest arboviral encephalitis epidemic in US history. Vector control management programs have been intensively implemented to control mosquitoes that carry WNV. Our deterministic ecological risk assessment focused on 6 common mosquito adulticides used in vector control, including 3 pyrethroids (d-phenothrin, resmethrin, and permethrin), pyrethrins, and 2 organophosphates (malathion and naled). Piperonyl butoxide, a synergist for the pyrethroids, was also assessed. Both aquatic and terrestrial nontarget organisms were considered for acute and chronic exposures to the adulticides. Tier I exposure estimates were derived from ISCST3 and AERMOD for deposition and air concentrations affecting terrestrial organisms and PRZM-EXAMS for standard pond concentrations affecting aquatic organisms. Nontargets exposed to adulticides included small mammals, birds, as well as aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates in a pond subject to receiving the chemical via drift and runoff. Risk quotients were obtained by comparing exposures to toxic endpoints. All risk quotients were low indicating that risks to ecological receptors most likely were small. PMID:17695110

  17. The Eye of the Tiger, the Thrill of the Fight: Effective Larval and Adult Control Measures Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in North America.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive container-inhabiting species with a global distribution. This mosquito, similar to other Stegomyia species such as Aedes aegypti (L.), is highly adapted to urban and suburban areas, and commonly oviposits in artificial containers, which are ubiquitous in these peridomestic environments. The increase in speed and amount of international travel and commerce, coupled with global climate change, have aided in the resurgence and expansion of Stegomyia species into new areas of North America. In many parts of their range, both species are implicated as significant vectors of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Although rapid and major advances have been made in the field of biology, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, and virology, relatively little has changed in the field of mosquito control in recent decades. This is particularly discouraging in regards to container-inhabiting mosquitoes, because traditional integrated mosquito management (IMM) approaches have not been effective against these species. Many mosquito control programs simply do not possess the man-power or necessary financial resources needed to suppress Ae. albopictus effectively. Therefore, control of mosquito larvae, which is the foundation of IMM approaches, is exceptionally difficult over large areas. This review paper addresses larval habitats, use of geographic information systems for habitat preference detection, door-to-door control efforts, source reduction, direct application of larvicides, biological control agents, area-wide low-volume application of larvicides, hot spot treatments, autodissemination stations, public education, adult traps, attractive-toxic sugar bait methods, lethal ovitraps, barrier-residual adulticides, hand-held ultra-low-volume adulticides, area-wide adulticides applied by ground or air, and genetic control methods. The review concludes with future

  18. The Eye of the Tiger, the Thrill of the Fight: Effective Larval and Adult Control Measures Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in North America.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive container-inhabiting species with a global distribution. This mosquito, similar to other Stegomyia species such as Aedes aegypti (L.), is highly adapted to urban and suburban areas, and commonly oviposits in artificial containers, which are ubiquitous in these peridomestic environments. The increase in speed and amount of international travel and commerce, coupled with global climate change, have aided in the resurgence and expansion of Stegomyia species into new areas of North America. In many parts of their range, both species are implicated as significant vectors of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Although rapid and major advances have been made in the field of biology, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, and virology, relatively little has changed in the field of mosquito control in recent decades. This is particularly discouraging in regards to container-inhabiting mosquitoes, because traditional integrated mosquito management (IMM) approaches have not been effective against these species. Many mosquito control programs simply do not possess the man-power or necessary financial resources needed to suppress Ae. albopictus effectively. Therefore, control of mosquito larvae, which is the foundation of IMM approaches, is exceptionally difficult over large areas. This review paper addresses larval habitats, use of geographic information systems for habitat preference detection, door-to-door control efforts, source reduction, direct application of larvicides, biological control agents, area-wide low-volume application of larvicides, hot spot treatments, autodissemination stations, public education, adult traps, attractive-toxic sugar bait methods, lethal ovitraps, barrier-residual adulticides, hand-held ultra-low-volume adulticides, area-wide adulticides applied by ground or air, and genetic control methods. The review concludes with future

  19. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Kondig, John P; Turell, Michael J; Lee, John S; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P

    2007-03-01

    Identifying viral isolates from field-collected mosquitoes can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly in regions of the world where numerous closely related viruses are co-circulating (e.g., the Amazon Basin region of Peru). The use of molecular techniques may provide rapid and efficient methods for identifying these viruses in the laboratory. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses (EEEVs): one member from the Peru-Brazil (Lineage II) clade and one member from the Argentina-Panama (Lineage III) clade. In addition, we determined the nucleotide sequence for the nonstructural P3 protein (nsP3) and envelope 2 (E2) protein genes of 36 additional isolates of EEEV from mosquitoes captured in Peru between 1996 and 2001. The 38 isolates were evenly distributed between lineages II and III virus groupings. However, analysis of the nsP3 gene for lineage III strongly suggested that the 19 isolates from this lineage could be divided into two sub-clades, designated as lineages III and IIIA. Compared with North American EEEV (lineage I, GA97 strain), we found that the length of the nsP3 gene was shorter in the strains isolated from South America. A total of 60 nucleotides was deleted in lineage II, 69 in lineage III, and 72 in lineage IIIA. On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses.

  20. The heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, GPA2/GPB5, regulates ion transport across the hindgut of the adult mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Paluzzi, Jean-Paul; Vanderveken, Mark; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A family of evolutionarily old hormones is the glycoprotein cysteine knot-forming heterodimers consisting of alpha- (GPA) and beta-subunits (GPB), which assemble by noncovalent bonds. In mammals, a common glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (GPA1) pairs with unique beta-subunits that establish receptor specificity, forming thyroid stimulating hormone (GPA1/TSHβ) and the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (GPA1/LHβ), follicle stimulating hormone (GPA1/FSHβ), choriogonadotropin (GPA1/CGβ). A novel glycoprotein heterodimer was identified in vertebrates by genome analysis, called thyrostimulin, composed of two novel subunits, GPA2 and GPB5, and homologs occur in arthropods, nematodes and cnidarians, implying that this neurohormone system existed prior to the emergence of bilateral metazoans. In order to discern possible physiological roles of this hormonal signaling system in mosquitoes, we have isolated the glycoprotein hormone genes producing the alpha- and beta-subunits (AedaeGPA2 and AedaeGPB5) and assessed their temporal expression profiles in the yellow and dengue-fever vector, Aedes aegypti. We have also isolated a putative receptor for this novel mosquito hormone, AedaeLGR1, which contains features conserved with other glycoprotein leucine-rich repeating containing G protein-coupled receptors. AedaeLGR1 is expressed in tissues of the alimentary canal such as the midgut, Malpighian tubules and hindgut, suggesting that this novel mosquito glycoprotein hormone may regulate ionic and osmotic balance. Focusing on the hindgut in adult stage A. aegypti, where AedaeLGR1 was highly enriched, we utilized the Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique (SIET) to determine if AedaeGPA2/GPB5 modulated cation transport across this epithelial tissue. Our results suggest that AedaeGPA2/GPB5 does indeed participate in ionic and osmotic balance, since it appears to inhibit natriuresis and promote kaliuresis. Taken together, our findings imply this hormone may play an important

  1. Aerial ultra-low-volume application of naled: impact on nontarget imperiled butterfly larvae (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) and efficacy against adult mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus).

    PubMed

    Zhong, H; Hribar, L J; Daniels, J C; Feken, M A; Brock, C; Trager, M D

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the exposure and acute toxicity of naled, applied aerially as an ultra-low-volume spray for mosquito control, on late instar larvae of the Miami blue (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) (Comstock and Huntington 1943) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), an imperiled South Florida butterfly. We concurrently evaluated the control efficacy against caged adult female salt-marsh mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus) (Wiedemann 1821) (Diptera: Culicidae). This 3-yr study was conducted in north Key Largo (Monroe County, FL) beginning in 2006. The field trials incorporated 15 sampling stations: nine in the target spray zone, three in the spray drift zone at varying distances from the target zone, and three in the control zone not subjected to naled spray drift. A total of six field spray trials were completed, three at an altitude of 30.5 m (100 feet), and three at 45.7 m (150 feet). For all trials, the ultra-low-volume application of Trumpet EC insecticide (78% naled) at a rate of 54.8 ml/ha (0.75 fl. oz/acre) was effective in killing caged adult mosquitoes in the target zone. Butterfly larvae survival was significantly reduced in the spray zone compared with drift and control zones. Analysis of insecticide residue data revealed that the mortality of the late instar butterfly larvae was a result of exposure to excess residues of naled. Additional research is needed to determine mitigation strategies that can limit exposure of sensitive butterflies to naled while maintaining mosquito control efficacy. PMID:22182563

  2. Culex flavivirus isolates from mosquitoes in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales-Betoulle, M E; Monzón Pineda, M L; Sosa, S M; Panella, N; López, M R B; Cordón-Rosales, C; Komar, N; Powers, A; Johnson, B W

    2008-11-01

    A new strain of Culex flavivirus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, CxFV), an insect virus first described in Japan, was isolated from adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in 2006 from Izabal Department on the Caribbean coast of Guatemala. Mosquito pools were assayed for flavivirus RNA by using flavivirus group-specific primers that amplified a 720-bp region of the nonstructural (NS) 5 gene by standard reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. From 210 pools (1,699 mosquitoes), eight tested positive, and six of these mosquito pools produced virus isolates in Aedes albopictus Skuse C6/36 cells. Nucleotide sequence comparison of the eight flavivirus RNA-positive pools showed that there was 100% identity among them, and phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 and envelope gene regions indicated that they represent a strain of the recently described CxFV from Japan. This is the first report of an insect flavivirus from Central America.

  3. Evaluation of different methods of catching anopheline mosquitoes in western Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y; Curtis, C F

    1992-09-01

    During a longitudinal study of vector biology and malaria transmission in western Venezuela, adult mosquitoes were collected by different methods and their efficiency was compared with human landing catches. CDC light traps, a double-net, a calf-baited trap and collection of resting mosquitoes on vegetation were tested. These methods did not prove to be effective substitutes for human landing catches. PMID:1402863

  4. 77 FR 37923 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Adult and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Investment Act (WIA) Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs Gold Standard Evaluation (WIA Evaluation); New...: New collection. Title of Collection: WIA Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs Gold Standard...

  5. Abundance and Diversity of Mosquito Species Collected From a Rural Area of Central Mississippi: Implications for West Nile Virus Transmission in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Varnado, Wendy; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-06-01

    To determine abundance and seasonality of potential West Nile virus (WNV) mosquito vectors in a forested area of central Mississippi, mosquitoes were collected weekly from a wildlife management area located approximately 10 mi from a local urban area known to have numerous human WNV cases. We were particularly interested in the presence or absence of Culex quinquefasciatus, the primary vector of WNV in Mississippi, although other Culex species were assayed. Two Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps baited with CO2 were set once a week from 2005 through 2006 in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area (PRWMA), which consists of 6,925 acres primarily composed of bottomland hardwood forest with wetland areas. Traps were placed midafternoon and picked up the following morning. A total of 199,222 mosquitoes were collected during the 2-year study. No Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected throughout the entire study, although other health department surveys have indicated they are abundant just a few miles away. As for other potential WNV vectors, 1,325 (0.6%) Cx. nigripalpus, 1,804 (0.9%) Cx. restuans, and 6,076 (3.1%) Cx. salinarius were collected in the PRWMA over the 2-year period. These data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus is not usually found in remote forested environments, but is more associated with human habitation. PMID:26181696

  6. Evaluating the lethal and pre-lethal effects of a range of fungi against adult Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance is seriously undermining efforts to eliminate malaria. In response, research on alternatives to the use of chemical insecticides against adult mosquito vectors has been increasing. Fungal entomopathogens formulated as biopesticides have received much attention and have shown considerable potential. This research has necessarily focused on relatively few fungal isolates in order to ‘prove concept’. Further, most attention has been paid to examining fungal virulence (lethality) and not the other properties of fungal infection that might also contribute to reducing transmission potential. Here, a range of fungal isolates were screened to examine variation in virulence and how this relates to additional pre-lethal reductions in feeding propensity. Methods The Asian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi was exposed to 17 different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi belonging to species of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium acridum and Isaria farinosus. Each isolate was applied to a test substrate at a standard dose rate of 1×109 spores ml-1 and the mosquitoes exposed for six hours. Subsequently the insects were removed to mesh cages where survival was monitored over the next 14 days. During this incubation period the mosquitoes’ propensity to feed was assayed for each isolate by offering a feeding stimulant at the side of the cage and recording the number probing. Results and conclusions Fungal isolates showed a range of virulence to A. stephensi with some causing >80% mortality within 7 days, while others caused little increase in mortality relative to controls over the study period. Similarly, some isolates had a large impact on feeding propensity, causing >50% pre-lethal reductions in feeding rate, whereas other isolates had very little impact. There was clear correlation between fungal virulence and feeding reduction with virulence explaining nearly 70% of the variation in feeding reduction. However, there

  7. Urban Mosquito Fauna in Mérida City, México: Immatures Collected from Containers and Storm-water Drains/Catch Basins.

    PubMed

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, María; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Víctor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damián; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-06-01

    We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Mérida City, México. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Mérida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species.

  8. Morphometric Wing Characters as a Tool for Mosquito Identification.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Christe, Rafael de Oliveira; Multini, Laura Cristina; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Wilk-da-Silva, Ramon; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of important infectious diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and endangering approximately 3 billion people around the world. As such, precise identification of mosquito species is crucial for an understanding of epidemiological patterns of disease transmission. Currently, the most common method of mosquito identification relies on morphological taxonomic keys, which do not always distinguish cryptic species. However, wing geometric morphometrics is a promising tool for the identification of vector mosquitoes, sibling and cryptic species included. This study therefore sought to accurately identify mosquito species from the three most epidemiologically important mosquito genera using wing morphometrics. Twelve mosquito species from three epidemiologically important genera (Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) were collected and identified by taxonomic keys. Next, the right wing of each adult female mosquito was removed and photographed, and the coordinates of eighteen digitized landmarks at the intersections of wing veins were collected. The allometric influence was assessed, and canonical variate analysis and thin-plate splines were used for species identification. Cross-validated reclassification tests were performed for each individual, and a Neighbor Joining tree was constructed to illustrate species segregation patterns. The analyses were carried out and the graphs plotted with TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39, MorphoJ 1.02 and Past 2.17c. Canonical variate analysis for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera showed three clear clusters in morphospace, correctly distinguishing the three mosquito genera, and pairwise cross-validated reclassification resulted in at least 99% accuracy; subgenera were also identified correctly with a mean accuracy of 96%, and in 88 of the 132 possible comparisons, species were identified with 100% accuracy after the data was subjected to reclassification. Our results showed that Aedes, Culex

  9. Morphometric Wing Characters as a Tool for Mosquito Identification

    PubMed Central

    Christe, Rafael de Oliveira; Multini, Laura Cristina; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Wilk-da-Silva, Ramon; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of important infectious diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and endangering approximately 3 billion people around the world. As such, precise identification of mosquito species is crucial for an understanding of epidemiological patterns of disease transmission. Currently, the most common method of mosquito identification relies on morphological taxonomic keys, which do not always distinguish cryptic species. However, wing geometric morphometrics is a promising tool for the identification of vector mosquitoes, sibling and cryptic species included. This study therefore sought to accurately identify mosquito species from the three most epidemiologically important mosquito genera using wing morphometrics. Twelve mosquito species from three epidemiologically important genera (Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) were collected and identified by taxonomic keys. Next, the right wing of each adult female mosquito was removed and photographed, and the coordinates of eighteen digitized landmarks at the intersections of wing veins were collected. The allometric influence was assessed, and canonical variate analysis and thin-plate splines were used for species identification. Cross-validated reclassification tests were performed for each individual, and a Neighbor Joining tree was constructed to illustrate species segregation patterns. The analyses were carried out and the graphs plotted with TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39, MorphoJ 1.02 and Past 2.17c. Canonical variate analysis for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera showed three clear clusters in morphospace, correctly distinguishing the three mosquito genera, and pairwise cross-validated reclassification resulted in at least 99% accuracy; subgenera were also identified correctly with a mean accuracy of 96%, and in 88 of the 132 possible comparisons, species were identified with 100% accuracy after the data was subjected to reclassification. Our results showed that Aedes, Culex

  10. Anopheles arabiensis egg treatment with dieldrin for sex separation leaves residues in male adult mosquitoes that can bioaccumulate in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hanano; Jandric, Zora; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Vreysen, Marc JB; Rathor, Mohammad N; Gilles, Jeremie RL; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a biological control tactic that is used as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs. The SIT can only be applied against disease-transmitting mosquitoes when only sterile male mosquitoes are released, and the blood-sucking and potentially disease-transmitting females are eliminated from the production line. For Anopheles arabiensis, a potent vector of malaria, a genetic sexing strain was developed whereby females can be eliminated by treating the eggs or larvae with the insecticide dieldrin. To evaluate the presence of dieldrin residues in male mosquitoes designated for SIT releases, a simple, sensitive, and accurate gas chromatography–electron capture detector (GC–ECD) method was developed. In addition, bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of these residues to fish after feeding with treated mosquitoes was demonstrated. The overall recovery from method validation studies was 77.3 ± 2.2% (mean ± relative standard deviation [RSD]) for the mosquitoes, and 99.1 ± 4.4% (mean ± RSD) for the fish. The average dieldrin concentration found in adult male An. arabiensis was 28.1 ± 2.9 µg/kg (mean ± standard deviation [SD]). A range of 23.9 ± 1.1 µg/kg to 73.9 ± 5.2 µg/kg (mean ± SD) of dieldrin was found in the fish samples. These findings indicate the need to reassess the environmental and health implications of control operations with a SIT component against An. arabiensis that involves using persistent organochlorines in the sexing process. PMID:23983078

  11. Anopheles arabiensis egg treatment with dieldrin for sex separation leaves residues in male adult mosquitoes that can bioaccumulate in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hanano; Jandric, Zora; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Rathor, Mohammad N; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a biological control tactic that is used as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs. The SIT can only be applied against disease-transmitting mosquitoes when only sterile male mosquitoes are released, and the blood-sucking and potentially disease-transmitting females are eliminated from the production line. For Anopheles arabiensis, a potent vector of malaria, a genetic sexing strain was developed whereby females can be eliminated by treating the eggs or larvae with the insecticide dieldrin. To evaluate the presence of dieldrin residues in male mosquitoes designated for SIT releases, a simple, sensitive, and accurate gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method was developed. In addition, bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of these residues to fish after feeding with treated mosquitoes was demonstrated. The overall recovery from method validation studies was 77.3 ± 2.2% (mean ± relative standard deviation [RSD]) for the mosquitoes, and 99.1 ± 4.4% (mean ± RSD) for the fish. The average dieldrin concentration found in adult male An. arabiensis was 28.1 ± 2.9 µg/kg (mean ± standard deviation [SD]). A range of 23.9 ± 1.1 µg/kg to 73.9 ± 5.2 µg/kg (mean ± SD) of dieldrin was found in the fish samples. These findings indicate the need to reassess the environmental and health implications of control operations with a SIT component against An. arabiensis that involves using persistent organochlorines in the sexing process.

  12. [Adult and Continuing Education Collections at Syracuse University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse University Library Associates Courier, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This issue of the biannual "Syracuse University Library Associate Courier" is devoted to covering the world famous collections of adult and continuing education materials held by the Syracuse University Library. It contains five articles: "Laubach in India: 1935-1970" (S. Y. Shah) describes missionary and founder of Laubach Literacy International…

  13. West Nile Virus in Mosquitoes of Iranian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Motazakker, Morteza; Asgari, Sassan; Dabiri, Farrokh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2015-12-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycle includes a wide range of migratory wetland birds as reservoirs, mosquitoes as biological vectors, and equines and humans as dead-end hosts. Despite the presence of potential vector species, there is no information about the existence of WNV in mosquito vectors in Iran. The Iranian West Azerbaijan Province is located in the northwestern part of Iran and has borders with Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The current study was conducted to identify the wetland mosquitoes of the West Azerbaijan Province and their infection with WNV. In this study, 2143 specimens were collected, comprising 1541 adults and 602 larvae. Six species belonging to four genera were collected and identified: Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (s.l.), Culex (Cx.) hortensis, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, and Aedes (Ae.) (Ochlerotatus) caspius. In total, 45 pools of mosquitoes were examined. Two of the adult pools collected from the same location showed the presence of WNV in Ae. (Och.) caspius, from Sangar, Makoo County, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Due to the discovery of WNV in the mosquito population of the region, and the presence of wetlands and significant populations of migratory birds, the health sector should carefully monitor the factors involved in the cycle of this disease. PMID:26565610

  14. Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João

    2012-05-01

    The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

  15. Using a Near-Infrared Spectrometer to Estimate the Age of Anopheles Mosquitoes Exposed to Pyrethroids

    PubMed Central

    Sikulu, Maggy T.; Majambere, Silas; Khatib, Bakar O.; Ali, Abdullah S.; Hugo, Leon E.; Dowell, Floyd E.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the accuracy of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the age of Anopheles mosquitoes reared from wild larvae and a mixed age-wild adult population collected from pit traps after exposure to pyrethroids. The mosquitoes reared from wild larvae were estimated as <7 or ≥7 d old with an overall accuracy of 79%. The age categories of Anopheles mosquitoes that were not exposed to the insecticide papers were predicted with 78% accuracy whereas the age categories of resistant, susceptible and mosquitoes exposed to control papers were predicted with 82%, 78% and 79% accuracy, respectively. The ages of 85% of the wild-collected mixed-age Anopheles were predicted by NIRS as ≤8 d for both susceptible and resistant groups. The age structure of wild-collected mosquitoes was not significantly different for the pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes (P = 0.210). Based on these findings, NIRS chronological age estimation technique for Anopheles mosquitoes may be independent of insecticide exposure and the environmental conditions to which the mosquitoes are exposed. PMID:24594705

  16. Preventing Childhood Malaria in Africa by Protecting Adults from Mosquitoes with Insecticide-Treated Nets

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Gerry F; Smith, Tom A; Ferguson, Heather M; Mshinda, Hassan; Abdulla, Salim; Lengeler, Christian; Kachur, Steven P

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaria prevention in Africa merits particular attention as the world strives toward a better life for the poorest. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) represent a practical means to prevent malaria in Africa, so scaling up coverage to at least 80% of young children and pregnant women by 2010 is integral to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Targeting individual protection to vulnerable groups is an accepted priority, but community-level impacts of broader population coverage are largely ignored even though they may be just as important. We therefore estimated coverage thresholds for entire populations at which individual- and community-level protection are equivalent, representing rational targets for ITN coverage beyond vulnerable groups. Methods and Findings Using field-parameterized malaria transmission models, we show that high (80% use) but exclusively targeted coverage of young children and pregnant women (representing <20% of the population) will deliver limited protection and equity for these vulnerable groups. In contrast, relatively modest coverage (35%–65% use, with this threshold depending on ecological scenario and net quality) of all adults and children, rather than just vulnerable groups, can achieve equitable community-wide benefits equivalent to or greater than personal protection. Conclusions Coverage of entire populations will be required to accomplish large reductions of the malaria burden in Africa. While coverage of vulnerable groups should still be prioritized, the equitable and communal benefits of wide-scale ITN use by older children and adults should be explicitly promoted and evaluated by national malaria control programmes. ITN use by the majority of entire populations could protect all children in such communities, even those not actually covered by achieving existing personal protection targets of the MDG, Roll Back Malaria Partnership, or the US President's Malaria Initiative. PMID:17608562

  17. Fine scale spatial urban land cover factors associated with adult mosquito abundance and risk in Tucson, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Landau, Katheryn I; van Leeuwen, Willem J D

    2012-12-01

    It is currently unclear what role microhabitat land cover plays in determining the seasonal spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, disease vectors of dengue and West Nile Virus, respectively, in Tucson, AZ. We compared mosquito abundance to sixteen land cover variables derived from 2010 NAIP multispectral data and 2008 LiDAR height data. Mosquitoes were trapped with 30-9 traps from May to October of 2010 and 2011. Variables were extracted for five buffer zones (10-50 m radii at 10 m intervals) around trapping sites. Stepwise regression was performed to determine the best scale for observation and the influential land cover variables. The 30 m radius buffer was determined to be the best for observing the land cover-mosquito abundance relationship. Ae. aegypti presence was positively associated with structure and medium height trees and negatively associated with bare earth; Cx. quinquefasciatus presence was positively associated with pavement and medium height trees and negatively associated with shrubs. These findings emphasize vegetation, impervious surfaces, and soil influences on mosquito presence in an urban setting. Lastly, the land cover-mosquito abundance relationships were used to produce risk maps of seasonal presence that highlight high risk areas in Tucson, which may be useful for focusing mosquito control program actions. PMID:23181866

  18. Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

  19. Mosquitoes associated with ditch-plugged and control tidal salt marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Leisnham, Paul T; Sandoval-Mohapatra, Sarah

    2011-08-01

    A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near their outlets in two ('experimental') marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557) of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4-5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt) than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt), and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of this study suggest

  20. Mosquitoes Associated with Ditch-Plugged and Control Tidal Salt Marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Leisnham, Paul T.; Sandoval-Mohapatra, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near their outlets in two (‘experimental’) marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557) of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4–5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt) than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt), and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of this study

  1. Recent entomological enquiry on mosquito fauna in Circeo National Park.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, Claudio; Magliano, Adele; Farina, Flavia; Toma, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out in Circeo National Park (Lazio region, Central Italy), in order to collect data about mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) fauna in a protected area for biodiversity. From 2003 to 2004 seasonal surveys allowed to collect and to identify 380 larvae and 713 adult mosquitoes in 6 sites. A total of 15 mosquito species belonging to 6 genera were recorded; the most abundant species were Culex pipens Linnaeus, 1758 known as the main West Nile virus vector, Ochlerotatus detritus (Haliday, 1933) and Culiseta annulata (Dhrank, 1776). Present data show a noteworthy number of other mosquito species, even if less abundant, reflecting the considerable environmental richness. Respect to the past collections of Anophelinae mosquitoes carried out in the same area once affected by malaria, the present research represents the first monitoring of the whole Culicidae Family in Circeo National Park, up to now. This paper reports the collected data as a first base for a future checklist in this protected area. PMID:26428047

  2. Mosquito biodiversity patterns around urban environments in South-central okinawa island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Imanishi, Nozomi; Higa, Yukiko; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Okinawa is the largest, most urbanized, and densely populated island in the Ryukyus Archipelago, where mosquito species diversity has been thoroughly studied. However, the south-central Okinawa mosquito fauna has been relatively poorly studied. Here, we present results from a mosquito faunal survey in urban environments of Nishihara city, south-central Okinawa. Mosquitoes were sampled biweekly, from April 2007 to March 2008, at 3 different environments: a forest preserve, an animal farm, and a water reservoir. We employed 4 mosquito collection methods: 1) oviposition traps; 2) light traps; 3) sweep nets; and 4) larval surveys of tree holes, leaf axils, and artificial water containers. We collected a total of 568 adults and 10,270 larvae belonging to 6 genera and 13 species, including 6 species of medical importance: Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles Hyrcanus group, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Mosquito species composition was similar to data from previous studies in Okinawa Island. The flattening of the species accumulation curve suggests that our diversity sampling was exhaustive with light and oviposition traps, as well as the coincidence between the species richness we found in the field and estimates from the Chao2 index, a theoretical estimator of species richness based on species abundance. This study highlights the importance of combining several sampling techniques to properly characterize regional mosquito fauna and to monitor changes in the presence of mosquito species.

  3. Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Hugo C.; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

  4. [Mosquito allergy].

    PubMed

    Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki; Reunala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all Finns are sensitized to mosquito bites already during childhood. Skin reactions caused by mosquito bites vary from rapidly appearing urticarial wheals to persistent itching papules. Allergic shock is fortunately extremely rare. The symptoms are strongest in early summer. Immediate symptoms result from proteins that get into the skin along with mosquito saliva and induce the production of IgE class antibodies by the body. The originating mechanism of delayed symptoms is unclear. Both immediate and delayed symptoms of mosquito allergy can be relieved with antihistamine drugs.

  5. Artificial natural selection: can supplemental feeding domesticate mosquitoes and control mosquito-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Egeth, Marc; Kurzban, Robert

    2012-08-29

    A new method is proposed for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. In particular, instead of trying to kill mosquitoes, we suggest provisioning them with food from artificial feeders. Because mosquito populations are frequently limited by ecological factors other than blood meals, such as the availability of egg-laying sites, feeding mosquitoes would not necessarily increase the total number of mosquitoes, but could reduce the number of human-drawn mosquito meals. Like mosquito traps, feeders could divert biting mosquitoes away from people by means of lures, but, after diversion, prevent subsequent human bites by satiating the mosquitoes instead of killing them. Mosquito feeders might reduce the problem of the evolution of resistance to control: in an ecology with mosquito feeders, which provide safe and abundant calories for adult female mosquitoes, there could be selection for preferring (rather than avoiding) feeders, which could eventually lead to a population of feeder-preferring mosquitoes. Artificial feeders also offer the chance to introduce novel elements into the mosquito diet, such as anti- malarial or other anti-parasitic agents. Feeders might directly reduce human bites and harnesses the power of natural selection by selectively favoring feeder-preferring (rather than trap-resistant) mosquitoes.

  6. Mosquito control insecticides: a probabilistic ecological risk assessment on drift exposures of naled, dichlorvos (naled metabolite) and permethrin to adult butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive probabilistic terrestrial ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted to characterize the potential risk of mosquito control insecticide (i.e., naled, it's metabolite dichlorvos, and permethrin) usage to adult butterflies in south Florida by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations following actual mosquito control applications at labeled rates from ten field monitoring studies with the probability distributions of butterfly species response (effects) data from our laboratory acute toxicity studies. The overlap of these distributions was used as a measure of risk to butterflies. The long-term viability (survival) of adult butterflies, following topical (thorax/wings) exposures was the environmental value we wanted to protect. Laboratory acute toxicity studies (24-h LD50) included topical exposures (thorax and wings) to five adult butterfly species and preparation of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). The ERA indicated that the assessment endpoint of protection, of at least 90% of the species, 90% of the time (or the 10th percentile from the acute SSDs) from acute naled and permethrin exposures, is most likely not occurring when considering topical exposures to adults. Although the surface areas for adulticide exposures are greater for the wings, exposures to the thorax provide the highest potential for risk (i.e., SSD 10th percentile is lowest) for adult butterflies. Dichlorvos appeared to present no risk. The results of this ERA can be applied to other areas of the world, where these insecticides are used and where butterflies may be exposed. Since there are other sources (e.g., agriculture) of pesticides in the environment, where butterfly exposures will occur, the ERA may under-estimate the potential risks under real-world conditions. PMID:25261815

  7. Mosquito control insecticides: a probabilistic ecological risk assessment on drift exposures of naled, dichlorvos (naled metabolite) and permethrin to adult butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive probabilistic terrestrial ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted to characterize the potential risk of mosquito control insecticide (i.e., naled, it's metabolite dichlorvos, and permethrin) usage to adult butterflies in south Florida by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations following actual mosquito control applications at labeled rates from ten field monitoring studies with the probability distributions of butterfly species response (effects) data from our laboratory acute toxicity studies. The overlap of these distributions was used as a measure of risk to butterflies. The long-term viability (survival) of adult butterflies, following topical (thorax/wings) exposures was the environmental value we wanted to protect. Laboratory acute toxicity studies (24-h LD50) included topical exposures (thorax and wings) to five adult butterfly species and preparation of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). The ERA indicated that the assessment endpoint of protection, of at least 90% of the species, 90% of the time (or the 10th percentile from the acute SSDs) from acute naled and permethrin exposures, is most likely not occurring when considering topical exposures to adults. Although the surface areas for adulticide exposures are greater for the wings, exposures to the thorax provide the highest potential for risk (i.e., SSD 10th percentile is lowest) for adult butterflies. Dichlorvos appeared to present no risk. The results of this ERA can be applied to other areas of the world, where these insecticides are used and where butterflies may be exposed. Since there are other sources (e.g., agriculture) of pesticides in the environment, where butterfly exposures will occur, the ERA may under-estimate the potential risks under real-world conditions.

  8. Collective Transformations, Collective Theories: What Adult Educators Can Learn From the Boston Women's Health Book Collective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birden, Susan

    The experiences of the 12-woman Boston Women's Health Book Collective was examined in a case study that focused on the collective's activities from its formation in 1969 through its publication of the book "Our Bodies, Ourselves" in 1973 and its opening of a women's clinic in downtown Boston that is still in operation today. The case study draws…

  9. Stable Isotope Analysis Reveals Detrital Resource Base Sources of the Tree Hole Mosquito, Aedes triseriatus

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Michael G.; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S.; Yee, Donald A.; Juliano, Steven A.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Walker, Edward D.

    2010-01-01

    1. Detritus that forms the basis for mosquito production in tree hole ecosystems can vary in type and timing of input. We investigated the contributions of plant- and animal-derived detritus to the biomass of Aedes triseriatus (Say) pupae and adults by using stable isotope (15N and 13C) techniques in lab experiments and field collections. 2. Lab-reared mosquito isotope values reflected their detrital resource base, providing a clear distinction between mosquitoes reared on plant or animal detritus. 3. Isotope values from field-collected pupae were intermediate between what would be expected if a single (either plant or animal) detrital source dominated the resource base. However, mosquito isotope values clustered most closely with plant-derived values, and a mixed feeding model analysis indicated tree floral parts contributed approximately 80% of mosquito biomass. The mixed model also indicated that animal detritus contributed approximately 30% of mosquito tissue nitrogen. 4. Pupae collected later in the season generally had isotope values that were consistent with an increased contribution from animal detritus, suggesting this resource became more nutritionally important for mosquitoes as plant inputs declined over the summer. PMID:21132121

  10. Screening of ten plant species for metaphase chromosome preparation in adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) using an inoculation technique.

    PubMed

    Jitpakdi, A; Choochote, W; Insun, D; Tippawangkosol, P; Keha, P; Pitasawat, B

    1999-11-01

    The screening of 10 plant species (Aloe barbadensis Mill., Asparagus officinalis L., As. plumosus Bak., As. racemosus Willd., As. sprengeri Regel, Codyline fruticosa Goppert, Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Gloriosa superba L., Hemerocallis flava L., and Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer) for colchicine-like substance(s) using a mosquito cytogenetic assay revealed that a 1% solution of dried Gl. superba rhizome extracted in 0.85% sodium chloride solution could be used instead of a 1% colchicine in Hanks' balanced salt solution. The metaphase rates and average number of metaphase chromosomes per positive mosquito of Aedes aegypti (L.) after intrathoracic inoculation with 1% Gl. superba-extracted solution were 100% and 29.80 in females, and 90% and 25.78 in males, whereas the inoculation with 1% colchicine solution yielded 100 and 90% metaphase rates, and 20.90 and 12.22 average number of metaphase chromosomes per positive mosquito in females and males, respectively. The application of Gl. superba-extracted solution for metaphase chromosome preparation in other mosquito genera and species [e.g., Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann), and Anopheles vagus (Döenitz)] also has yielded the satisfactory results. PMID:10593098

  11. Toxicity of white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) compounds to adult and larval lifestages of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increasing insecticide resistance, new pesticides are needed. Flowering plants have been the source of useful pesticides in the past. We studied 15 chemicals isolated from a poisonous pasture plant for activity against the yellow fever mosquito. We found that dehydrotremetone was effectiv...

  12. An Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes of Oklahoma Including New State Records and West Nile Virus Vectors, 2003-06.

    PubMed

    Noden, Bruce H; Coburn, Lisa; Wright, Russell; Bradley, Kristy

    2015-12-01

    The mosquito fauna of Oklahoma has not been evaluated since 1965 and no report has been published concerning species associated with urban areas in the state. Mosquito collections were conducted as part of the West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance program between April and November from 2003 to 2006, using standard collection methods. A total of 74,756 adults were collected in 26 urban centers in 16 counties of Oklahoma. Altogether, 40 species were recorded during this study period, bringing the total mosquito species recorded in Oklahoma to 62 species in 9 different genera and 18 subgenera. An updated checklist of Oklahoma mosquito fauna is included with a comparison to historical records. New state records include 3 species: Aedes muelleri, Anopheles perplexens, and Culex coronator. In addition to updating the checklist, 12 species of mosquitoes were tested for WNV. Pools of Culex pipiens complex represented the highest proportion testing positive for WNV (134/766, 17.5%), followed by Cx. tarsalis (13/192, 6.8%) and Aedes albopictus (5/215, 2.3%). West Nile virus-positive mosquitoes were detected earliest in June 2005 and latest in November 2004. Infected Cx. pipiens complex testing positive for WNV were more prevalent in the eastern and central areas of Oklahoma, whereas positive Cx. tarsalis were found mainly in the western areas of the state. This distinct geographical difference needs to be monitored and followed up to ensure optimal mosquito control efforts in Oklahoma communities with mosquito control capabilities.

  13. Japanese encephalitis on Saipan: a survey of suspected mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C J; Savage, H M; Smith, G C; Flood, S P; Castro, L T; Roppul, M

    1993-04-01

    An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis (JE) occurred on Saipan, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, in October 1990. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected during September-October 1991 to retrospectively determine the probable mosquito vector(s). Virus was not isolated from 119 mosquito pools composed of 7,250 adult specimens as follows: Aedes vexans nocturnis (14%), Culex tritaeniorhynchus (39%), Cx. sitiens group (11%), Culex (Culex) species (35%), and < 1% each of Ae. albopictus, Ae. oakleyi, Aedes saipanensis, Cx. annulirostris marianae, and Cx. fuscanus. Three additional species were collected only as larvae: Anopheles indefinitus, Ae. neopandani, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Among the vectors of JE incriminated in other areas, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant species in our collections and the principal species feeding on swine. This is the first published record of the occurrence of this species on Saipan. Culex tritaeniorhynchus is abundant and widely distributed on the southern half of Saipan where human JE cases occurred in 1990, and where swine seroconversions were detected. Although the identity of the mosquito vector(s) responsible for the 1990 outbreak cannot be established with certainty, our results suggest that Cx. tritaeniorhychus was probably involved.

  14. Mosquitoes in Moose Country: A Mosquito Survey of Northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, A C; Moon, R D; Johnson, K; Carstensen, M; Neitzel, D; Craft, M E

    2016-06-01

    An adult mosquito survey was conducted at 12 sites using carbon dioxide traps in northern Minnesota throughout the summer of 2012. Specimens were counted, identified to species, sorted into pools, and tested for eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Our findings extend the known range of Culiseta melanura, Anopheles barberi, and An. quadrimaculatus and document the presence and abundance of 27 other mosquito taxa in the region. None of the pools tested positive for EEEV or WNV. PMID:27280346

  15. Mosquitoes in Moose Country: A Mosquito Survey of Northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, A C; Moon, R D; Johnson, K; Carstensen, M; Neitzel, D; Craft, M E

    2016-06-01

    An adult mosquito survey was conducted at 12 sites using carbon dioxide traps in northern Minnesota throughout the summer of 2012. Specimens were counted, identified to species, sorted into pools, and tested for eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Our findings extend the known range of Culiseta melanura, Anopheles barberi, and An. quadrimaculatus and document the presence and abundance of 27 other mosquito taxa in the region. None of the pools tested positive for EEEV or WNV.

  16. Flavivirus-mosquito interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Higgs, Stephen; Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2014-11-01

    The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  17. Biting activity and host attractancy of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Manzhouli, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Ming; Xing, Dan; Wu, Zhi-Ming; Yao, Wen-Jing; Gang, Wang; Xin, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Yue-Fen; Xue, Rui-De; Dong, Yang-De; Li, Chun-Xiao; Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2012-11-01

    The biting activity and host attractancy of vector mosquitoes are important in assessing the risk of arbovirus transmission, especially where migratory and nonmigrating bird species congregate, such as in Hulun Lake, Manzhouli. In 2009, the population distribution, species diversity, biting activity, and host attractancy of mosquitoes were investigated in Hulan Lake and its associated prairie area. The adult mosquitoes were captured either by human volunteers using aspirators in mosquito nets, by CO2-baited light traps, or by animal-baited traps. In total, 27,004 mosquitoes, representing three genera and 10 species, were collected from Manzhouli, China, in July 2009, of which Aedes dorsalis (Meigen) were most predominant species, followed by Ae. vexans (Meigen). Biting activity peaks by Ae.flavescens (Muller), Ae. dorsalis, and Culex modestus (Facalbi) on human subjects were investigated. Four mosquito species were captured from different animal sheds (sheep, cattle, and goose). Ae. flavescens was more abundant in the cattle shed than in the other two sheds. The Ae. dorsalis in the sheep shed was much higher than in the other animal sheds. The Ae.flavescens collected via chicken-baited traps were significantly higher than those collected via rabbit-baited and pigeon-baited traps. There were no significant differences in the number of Ae. dorsalis and Ae. vexans collected using the three different animal traps.

  18. Mosquito genomics: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Severson, David W; Behura, Susanta K

    2012-01-01

    The whole-genome sequencing of mosquitoes has facilitated our understanding of fundamental biological processes at their basic molecular levels and holds potential for application to mosquito control and prevention of mosquito-borne disease transmission. Draft genome sequences are available for Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Collectively, these represent the major vectors of African malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever viruses, and lymphatic filariasis, respectively. Rapid advances in genome technologies have revealed detailed information on genome architecture as well as phenotype-specific transcriptomics and proteomics. These resources allow for detailed comparative analyses within and across populations as well as species. Next-generation sequencing technologies will likely promote a proliferation of genome sequences for additional mosquito species as well as for individual insects. Here we review the current status of genome research in mosquitoes and identify potential areas for further investigations.

  19. 76 FR 68509 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting System, Extension... support the Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult (RExO-Adult) grants, which expires on March 31, 2012. A... Reintegration of Ex-Offender-Adult (formerly Prisoner Reentry Initiative) grants, faith-based and...

  20. Mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) and seasonal activity in Makka Al Mukarramah Region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alahmed, A M; Al Kuriji, M A; Kheir, S M; Alahmedi, S A; Al Hatabbi, M J; Al Gashmari, M A M

    2009-12-01

    From March 2004 to February 2006, a mosquito survey was conducted in Makka Al Mukarrama Region, in the western part of Saudi Arabia, and 19 species which belong to 4 genera, were collected: Aedes (2 species), Anopheles (8 species), Culex (8 species) and Culiseta (1 species). The mosquitoes were Aedes caspius, Ae. aegypti, Anopheles d'thali, An. gambiae, An. multicolor, An. rhodesiensis, An. sergenti, An. stephensi, An. subpictus, An. turkhudi, Culex arbieeni, Cx. laticinctus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. tigripes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. univittatus and Culiseta longiareolata. Cx. arbieeni was reported for the first time in Saudi Arabia from Al Taif District. The physical properties of water of mosquito's larval breeding sites showed the total dissolved salts (TDS) varied between 70-15552 ppm, pH ranged between 5.4-11.2 and water temperature varied between 15 degrees C in winter to 40.7 degrees C in summer. There was no correlation between these physical properties and the distribution of mosquito larvae. Light traps collected 1858 mosquitoes, and adult Culex were the most prevalent as 1658 (89.24%) were collected, followed by 121 (6.51%) Aedes, 68 (3.66%) Anopheles and 11 (0.59%) Culiseta. The effects of temperature and rainfall on seasonal abundance of mosquitoes in the study area are discussed.

  1. Survival and emergence of immature Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in market-gardener wells in Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Awono-Ambéné, H P; Robert, V

    1999-06-01

    Anopheles arabiensis is the unique species of the An. gambiae complex observed in the wells dug by market-gardeners in the Dakar area. In order to relate the numbers of immature stages and emerging adults mosquitoes, population measurements were performed in eight wells in which An. arabiensis was the only mosquito species. Mean density of immature stages was measured using two sampling methods, the dipping with a tray by giving 50 dips in each well, and the quadrat with a frame on 2 or 3 m2 in each well. The absolute number of emergent adults was obtained by collecting mosquitoes under net-trap covering entirely each wells. The dipping method was quicker and more operational than quadrat method. Density estimations of larvae at stage I to IV did not significantly differed using dipping or quadrat methods. On the contrary, pupal density was underestimated when measured by dipping. Mosquito nets placed over wells increased significantly emergence rate of adults, thus measurement of emerging mosquitoes was possible only the first day following the net putting up. The total number of immature stages in each well was significantly correlated with the number of emergent mosquitoes. The mean number of mosquitoes emerging daily from one well corresponded to 5% of the total number of immature stages. Stage distribution for larvae I to IV and pupae, estimated by quadrat, was respectively 29%, 28%, 22%, 16% et 5% (total = 100%). Taking account the mean duration of various immature stages and the number of emerging mosquitoes by day, the equation of the survivorship curve from larval hatch (excluded) to emergence included was: y = 427.2-136.8 Log x. Therefore the mean mortality at immature stages was 80% i.e. an emerging rate of 20%. The results of this study, associated with those of previous ones, permit to evaluate the average productivity of malaria vectors in market-gardener wells in the Dakar area.

  2. [Mosquito allergy].

    PubMed

    Haas, H; Tran, A

    2014-08-01

    Althought serious illnesses can be transmitted by mosquitoes, the most frequent manifestations are due to the contact with saliva of mosquitoes during the blood meal. Culex and Aedes are meeting in countries with moderate climates. Clinical signs vary according to the immunoallergical response, from simple pruritic wheals to immediate and/or delayed allergic reactions. Some reactions can provoke confusion with an infectious cellulitis and an inappropriate antibiotherapy. The natural history of insect bite reactions in an individual tends to progress through 5 stages until immunizing tolerance settles down. Skin prick testing or Serum specific IgE of whole body extracts are lacking sensibility and specificity. Actually, they must be reserved for the most invalidating or severe cases. The recombinant allergens of the saliva of mosquitoes should allow to improve diagnosis and to envisage immunotherapy.

  3. 77 FR 48973 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Vocational and Adult Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Vocational and Adult Education; Perkins... and financial reports for the Office of Vocational Adult Education office (OVAE) Division of...

  4. Mosquitoes of Zika Forest, Uganda: species composition and relative abundance.

    PubMed

    Kaddumukasa, M A; Mutebi, J-P; Lutwama, J J; Masembe, C; Akol, A M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito collections were conducted in Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda, from July 2009 through June 2010 using CO2-baited light traps, ovitraps, and human-baited catches. In total, 163,790 adult mosquitoes belonging to 12 genera and 58 species were captured. Of these, 22 species (38%) were captured in Zika Forest for the first time. All the new records found in the forest in this study had previously been captured in other regions of Uganda, implying that they are native to the country and do not represent new introductions. More than 20 species previously collected in Zika Forest were not detected in our collections, and this may suggest a change in the mosquito fauna during the past 40 yr or variation in species composition from year to year. Arboviruses of public health importance have previously been isolated from >50% of the 58 mosquito species captured in Zika Forest, which suggests ahigh potential for transmission and maintenance of a wide range of arboviruses in Zika Forest.

  5. MOSQUITO IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR XENOMONITORING OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN SELECTED ENDEMIC AREAS IN GIZA AND QUALIOUBIYA GOVERNORATES, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoeib, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Edmardash, Yusuf; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne health problem that has been focally endemic in Egypt for centuries. The chief vectors of transmission are Culicinae species. Control measures in the form of mass drug administration of DEC citrate treatment have been implemented in Nile delta for almost a decade. This study aimed to identify the prevalent mosquito species in endemic areas in Giza and Qualioubiya governorates and to monitor Wuchereria bancrofti infection by detecting the parasite DNA in collected mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected using light traps hung indoors. Microscopic examination was performed to identify and examine the morphologic characters of mosquitoes. Female Culex mosquitoes were subjected to semi-nested PCR to detect filarial DNA targeting repetitive DNA sequences (pWbl2 repetitive region) specific for W. bancrofti. The results revealed 3 species of mosquitoes Culex pipiens, Culex pusillus and Culex quinquefasciatus with the predominance of Culex pipiens (85.7%). Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was not detected in any of the collected mosquito pools. With progress of elimination programme in Nile Delta, follow up studies with larger sample size are recommended as the predominance of Culex pipiens the main lymphatic filariasis vector remains a risk of transmission in such areas. PMID:27363044

  6. MOSQUITO IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR XENOMONITORING OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN SELECTED ENDEMIC AREAS IN GIZA AND QUALIOUBIYA GOVERNORATES, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoeib, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Edmardash, Yusuf; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne health problem that has been focally endemic in Egypt for centuries. The chief vectors of transmission are Culicinae species. Control measures in the form of mass drug administration of DEC citrate treatment have been implemented in Nile delta for almost a decade. This study aimed to identify the prevalent mosquito species in endemic areas in Giza and Qualioubiya governorates and to monitor Wuchereria bancrofti infection by detecting the parasite DNA in collected mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected using light traps hung indoors. Microscopic examination was performed to identify and examine the morphologic characters of mosquitoes. Female Culex mosquitoes were subjected to semi-nested PCR to detect filarial DNA targeting repetitive DNA sequences (pWbl2 repetitive region) specific for W. bancrofti. The results revealed 3 species of mosquitoes Culex pipiens, Culex pusillus and Culex quinquefasciatus with the predominance of Culex pipiens (85.7%). Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was not detected in any of the collected mosquito pools. With progress of elimination programme in Nile Delta, follow up studies with larger sample size are recommended as the predominance of Culex pipiens the main lymphatic filariasis vector remains a risk of transmission in such areas.

  7. A Golden Age for Adult Education: The Collective Disorienting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…

  8. Nest Mosquito Trap quantifies contact rates between nesting birds and mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Caillouët, Kevin A.; Riggan, Anna E.; Rider, Mark; Bulluck, Lesley P.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimates of host-vector contact rates are required for precise determination of arbovirus transmission intensity. We designed and tested a novel mosquito collection device, the Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT), to collect mosquitoes as they attempt to feed on unrestrained nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. In the laboratory, the NMT collected nearly one-third of the mosquitoes introduced to the nest boxes. We then used these laboratory data to estimate our capture efficiency of field-collected bird-seeking mosquitoes collected over 66 trap nights. We estimated that 7.5 mosquitoes per trap night attempted to feed on nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. Presence of the NMT did not have a negative effect on avian nest success when compared to occupied nest boxes that were not sampled with the trap. Future studies using the NMT may elucidate the role of nestlings in arbovirus transmission and further refine estimates of nesting bird and vector contact rates. PMID:22548555

  9. Aspects of Adult Literacy: A Collection of Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Tovim, Margaret, Ed.; Kedney, R. J., Ed.

    The book contains 15 papers focusing on adult illiteracy in Great Britain in the context of the community, but excluding the prison population, trainees at Adult Training Centres, patients in mental hospitals, or literacy education in the armed forces. The papers are presented in three sections. Part 1 on students contains six papers: "The Scale…

  10. Adult Education. Part II: Collection of Learning Experiences. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavey, Kay S., Ed.

    This document, which is the first in a series of best practice documents incorporating the wisdom and experiences of New York's adult educators, presents eight learning experiences that are specifically tailored for adult learners and instructors. The following information is provided for each learning experience: (1) a brief description of the…

  11. Comparison of immunoreactivity to serotonin, FMRFamide and SCPb in the gut and visceral nervous system of larvae, pupae and adults of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, Stacia B.; Moffett, David F.

    2005-01-01

    In all life stages, the gut of the mosquito is innervated by a small number (typically 4) of central neurons immunoreactive to serotonin (SI). The serotonergic system appears to pass through metamorphosis largely intact, despite extensive remodeling of the gut. Axons immunoreactive to antibodies raised against molluscan FMRFamide (RF-I) constitute peptidergic innervation that anatomically parallels the serotonergic system. In the larva, two clusters of 3 neurons project to the anterior regions of the gut, whereas in the pupa and adult, typically two large RF-I neurons located next to the esophagus send several processes posteriorly. In adults, these neurons branch throughout the diverticula and anterior stomach. In pupae, but not in larvae or adults, the gut RF-l system coexpresses reactivity to antibodies raised against a member of another peptide family, molluscan small cardioactive peptide b (SCP-I). SCP-I immunoreactivity is localized independently of RF-l immunoreactivity in the ganglia of all stages and in neurons that project along the gut of the adult. We did not find any colocalization of S-I and the peptide markers. Distinct populations of enteroendocrine cells populate different regions of the gut at different life stages. Changes in staining pattern suggest that these cells are replaced at metamorphosis along with the other gut cells during the extensive remodeling of the tract. Distributed in the gut epithelium are subpopulations that express either RF-I or SCP-I; a small fraction of these cells bind antibodies to both peptides. The stomachs of adult females are larger than those of males, and the numbers of SCP-I and RF-I enteroendocrine cells are proportionately greater in females. In all the life stages, the junctions between different regions of the gut are the focus of regulatory input. The larval cardiac valve possesses a ring of cells, the necklace cells, which appear to receive extensive synaptic inputs from both the serotonergic system and the

  12. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland.

  13. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants.

  14. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. PMID:26775817

  15. Predatory efficiency of the water bug Sphaerodema annulatum on mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus) and its effect on the adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Aditya, G; Bhattacharyya, S; Kundu, N; Saha, G K; Raut, S K

    2004-11-01

    The daily number of IV instar larva of Culex quinquefasciatus killed, rate of pupation and adult emergence was noted in presence of the predatory water bug Sphaerodema annulatum for a period of seven consecutive days, experimentally, in the laboratory. The rate of IV instar larva killed by the water bugs on an average was 65.17 per day. The rate of pupation ranged between 7.6 and 48 in control while in presence of water bugs it ranged between 6 and 35. The rate of adult emergence in control experiments varied between 1.4 and 4.8 per day, which was reduced to only 0.4-28.8 per day in case of the water bugs. The results clearly indicate that the water bugs on its way of predation reduces the rate of pupation and adult emergence of Cx. quinquefasciatus significantly which calls for an extensive field trials.

  16. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of metropolitan Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E

    2014-08-01

    In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250

  17. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    PubMed Central

    Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Knols, Bart G.J.; Samson, Robert A.; Takken, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis. PMID:15861235

  18. West African Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes harbor a taxonomically diverse virome including new insect-specific flaviviruses, mononegaviruses, and totiviruses.

    PubMed

    Fauver, Joseph R; Grubaugh, Nathan D; Krajacich, Benjamin J; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Lakin, Steven M; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Bolay, Fatorma K; Diclaro, Joseph W; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Foy, Brian D; Brackney, Doug E; Ebel, Gregory D; Stenglein, Mark D

    2016-11-01

    Anopheles gambiae are a major vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Viruses that naturally infect these mosquitoes may impact their physiology and ability to transmit pathogens. We therefore used metagenomics sequencing to search for viruses in adult Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Liberia, Senegal, and Burkina Faso. We identified a number of virus and virus-like sequences from mosquito midgut contents, including 14 coding-complete genome segments and 26 partial sequences. The coding-complete sequences define new viruses in the order Mononegavirales, and the families Flaviviridae, and Totiviridae. The identification of a flavivirus infecting Anopheles mosquitoes broadens our understanding of the evolution and host range of this virus family. This study increases our understanding of virus diversity in general, begins to define the virome of a medically important vector in its natural setting, and lays groundwork for future studies examining the potential impact of these viruses on anopheles biology and disease transmission. PMID:27639161

  19. An innovative mosquito trap for testing attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a simple trap modification for testing or using attractants to collect flying mosquitoes. The trap also can test the effectiveness of spatial repellents. The proposed design may facilitate standardized testing of mosquito attractants and repellents. The trap uses a standard Centers f...

  20. Neuropeptidomics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. The data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragmentation, of selected tissues from single speci...

  1. STUDIES ON THE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF MOSQUITOES OF MPIGI DISTRICT, CENTRAL UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    Mayanja, Martin; Mutebi, John-Paul; Crabtree, Mary B.; Ssenfuka, Fred; Muwawu, Teddy; Lutwama, Julius J.

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of arboviral disease outbreaks and planning for appropriate control interventions require knowledge of the mosquito vectors involved. Although mosquito surveys have been conducted in different regions of Uganda since the mid 30’s such studies have not been carried out in Mpigi District. In October 2011, we conducted mosquito collections in Mpigi district to determine species composition and relative abundance of the different species. The survey was conducted in four villages, Njeru, Ddela, Kiwumu and Nsumbain Kammengo sub-county, Mpigi district, Uganda. CDC light traps baited with dry ice (carbon dioxide) were used to capture adult mosquitoes. A total of 54,878 mosquitoes comprising 46 species from eight genera were collected. The dominant species at all sites was Coquilletidia (Coquilletidia) fuscopennata Theobald (n=38,059, 69%), followed by Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) metallica Theobald (n=4,265, 7.8%). The number of species collected varied from 17 in the genus Culex to 1 in the genus Lutzia. Of the 46 species identified, arboviruses had previously been isolated from 28 (60.9%) suggesting a high potential for arboviral transmission and/or maintenance in Mpigi District. PMID:26346305

  2. Spatial and temporal characterization of mosquito distribution and arbovirus transmission activity in St. Johns County, Florida. St. Augustine, FL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global information technology (GIT) (including Global Positioning System [GPS], Geographic Information Systems [GIS], and image analysis) can be used to develop adult mosquito sampling methods and to characterize adult mosquito distributions and disease transmission patterns. At this meeting of v...

  3. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft’s filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. Methods We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride) and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group). Results We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus) albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus) sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm) sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia browni. Ur. nepenthes

  4. Mosquito fauna and perspectives for integrated control of urban vector-mosquito populations in Southern Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa.

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF CDC AND MOSQUITO MAGNET® X TRAPS BAITED WITH DRY ICE, CO2 SACHET, AND OCTENOL AGAINST MOSQUITOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnet® X (MMX) traps baited with dry ice, octenol, and a new formulation of CO2 (granular) were evaluated against mosquitoes in the field. The results showed that the MMX traps (68.6%) baited with dry ice collected more mosquitoes, compared to the CDC light traps (32.4%...

  6. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4 µg/♀) followed by guineensine (1.9 µg/♀), retrofractamide A (2.4 µg/♀) and pipercide (3.2 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.03 µg/♀. Against female A. aegypti, the insecticidal activity was more pronounced in pellitorine (0.17 µg/♀) than in retrofractamide A (1.5 µg/♀), guineensine (1.7 µg/♀), and pipercide (2.0 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.0014 µg/♀.

  7. Mosquito Population Regulation and Larval Source Management in Heterogeneous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L.; Perkins, T. Alex; Tusting, Lucy S.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lindsay, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM). We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats’ carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%). Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools) gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides. PMID:23951118

  8. Doll Collecting; A Course Designed for the Adult Education Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Betty M.

    The author has attempted to organize the many materials to be found on doll collecting into a course which will provide a foundation of knowledge for appreciating and evaluating old dolls. The course has been divided into sessions in which old dolls will be studied by type (images, idols, and early playthings; child, doll, and social realities;…

  9. Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  10. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  11. A Field Study in Benin to Investigate the Role of Mosquitoes and Other Flying Insects in the Ecology of Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Zogo, Barnabas; Djenontin, Armel; Carolan, Kevin; Babonneau, Jeremy; Guegan, Jean-François; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer, the third mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy, is caused by the environmental mycobacterium M. ulcerans. There is at present no clear understanding of the exact mode(s) of transmission of M. ulcerans. Populations affected by Buruli ulcer are those living close to humid and swampy zones. The disease is associated with the creation or the extension of swampy areas, such as construction of dams or lakes for the development of agriculture. Currently, it is supposed that insects (water bugs and mosquitoes) are host and vector of M. ulcerans. The role of water bugs was clearly demonstrated by several experimental and environmental studies. However, no definitive conclusion can yet be drawn concerning the precise importance of this route of transmission. Concerning the mosquitoes, DNA was detected only in mosquitoes collected in Australia, and their role as host/vector was never studied by experimental approaches. Surprisingly, no specific study was conducted in Africa. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of mosquitoes (larvae and adults) and other flying insects in ecology of M. ulcerans. This study was conducted in a highly endemic area of Benin. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes (adults and larvae) were collected over one year, in Buruli ulcer endemic in Benin. In parallel, to monitor the presence of M. ulcerans in environment, aquatic insects were sampled. QPCR was used to detected M. ulcerans DNA. DNA of M. ulcerans was detected in around 8.7% of aquatic insects but never in mosquitoes (larvae or adults) or in other flying insects. Conclusion/Significance This study suggested that the mosquitoes don't play a pivotal role in the ecology and transmission of M. ulcerans in the studied endemic areas. However, the role of mosquitoes cannot be excluded and, we can reasonably suppose that several routes of transmission of M. ulcerans are possible through the world. PMID:26196901

  12. Abridged pupa identification key to the common container-breeding mosquitoes in urban Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Bangs, Michael J; Focks, Dana A

    2006-09-01

    Pupal surveys have been advocated as an alternative or surrogate surveillance method for estimating densities of adult Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Usually, this survey strategy has required that collected pupae eclose to adults before attempting species identification. Using the pupal survey method in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, this rearing step was obviated with the pupal morphological key described herein for identifying preserved or live pupae. Examination of pupae for the identification of various container-inhabiting mosquito genera and target aedine species proved to be accurate and far less time-consuming and problematic than rearing pupae to adults.

  13. Dengue in Java, Indonesia: Relevance of Mosquito Indices as Risk Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Wijayanti, Siwi P. M.; Sunaryo, Sunaryo; Suprihatin, Suprihatin; McFarlane, Melanie; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Dietrich, Isabelle; Schnettler, Esther; Biek, Roman; Kohl, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background No vaccine is currently available for dengue virus (DENV), therefore control programmes usually focus on managing mosquito vector populations. Entomological surveys provide the most common means of characterising vector populations and predicting the risk of local dengue virus transmission. Despite Indonesia being a country strongly affected by DENV, only limited information is available on the local factors affecting DENV transmission and the suitability of available survey methods for assessing risk. Methodology/principal findings We conducted entomological surveys in the Banyumas Regency (Central Java) where dengue cases occur on an annual basis. Four villages were sampled during the dry and rainy seasons: two villages where dengue was endemic, one where dengue cases occurred sporadically and one which was dengue-free. In addition to data for conventional larvae indices, we collected data on pupae indices, and collected adult mosquitoes for species identification in order to determine mosquito species composition and population density. Traditionally used larval indices (House indices, Container indices and Breteau indices) were found to be inadequate as indicators for DENV transmission risk. In contrast, species composition of adult mosquitoes revealed that competent vector species were dominant in dengue endemic and sporadic villages. Conclusions/significance Our data suggested that the utility of traditional larvae indices, which continue to be used in many dengue endemic countries, should be re-evaluated locally. The results highlight the need for validation of risk indicators and control strategies across DENV affected areas here and perhaps elsewhere in SE Asia. PMID:26967524

  14. 76 FR 13339 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child and Adult...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... accuracy of meal claims submitted for reimbursement by family day care home providers for meals served to children who attend the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) day care homes. The assessment is tasked... family day care homes (FDCHs) during FY 2011. DATES: Written comments on this notice must be received...

  15. Collective memories of three wars in United States history in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Zaromb, Franklin; Butler, Andrew C; Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

    2014-04-01

    A collective memory is a representation of the past that is shared by members of a group. We investigated similarities and differences in the collective memories of younger and older adults for three major wars in U.S. history (the Civil War, World War II, and the Iraq War). Both groups were alive during the recent Iraq War, but only the older subjects were alive during World War II, and both groups learned about the Civil War from historical sources. Subjects recalled the 10 most important events that occurred during each war and then evaluated the emotional valence, the relative importance, and their level of knowledge for each event. They also estimated the percentage of people that would share their memory of each event within their age group and the other age group. Although most historical events were recalled by fewer than 25 % of subjects, younger and older adults commonly recalled a core set of events for each war that conform to a narrative structure that may be fundamental to collective remembering. Younger adults showed greater consensus in the events that they recalled for all three wars, relative to older adults, but there was less consensus in both groups for the Iraq War. Whereas younger adults recalled more specific events of short duration, older adults recalled more extended and summarized events of long duration. Our study shows that collective memories can be studied empirically and can differ depending on whether the events are experienced personally or learned from historical sources.

  16. Collections of adult Ixodes dammini in Indiana, 1987-1990, and the isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R; Holycross, J; Ryder, J; Mummert, M

    1991-09-01

    The collection records for Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin in Indiana are summarized for the period 1987-1990. In 1990, 13 of 729 deer examined were found to harbor adult I. dammini ticks. Eleven of these ticks were collected from 10 deer at a site in Newton County in northwestern Indiana. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were isolated from a single female I. dammini tick collected from this site.

  17. Assessing the Susceptibility Status of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Dirofilariasis Focus, Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ataie, Abolfazl; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Vatandoost, Hassan; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Bakhshi, Hasan; Anjomruz, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes are considered as the vectors of dirofilariasis and some vector borne disease in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility level of the vectors to various insecticides recommended by WHO for any control measures in an endemic area in northwestern Iran. Methods: Mosquito larval and adult collections were carried out using different methods provided by WHO including dipping and hand catch techniques. The susceptibility level was assessed to DDT 4%, malathion 5%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.05% and lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%. Results: Totally, 749 adults and 5060 larvae of Culicidae mosquitoes were collected comprising seven species of adult and larvae, including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis, An. sacharovi, Culex hortensis, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri and Culiseta longiaerolata. Frequency of larvae and adults of An. maculipennis was very low, so susceptibility tests on this species did not performed. Results showed that Cx. theileri, Cs. longiaerolata and Cx. pipiens were resistant to DDT 4%, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%, and propoxur 0.1% whereas found tolerant to deltamethrin 0.05% and malathion 5%. The LT50 and LT90 values for five insecticides were calculated. Conclusion: We suggest the same study in different parts of the world to obtain the data due to bionomic and susceptibility status of dirofilariasis vectors. This information will help the health authorities for monitoring and evaluation of control measures. PMID:26114140

  18. Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission.

    PubMed

    Johansen, C A; Power, S L; Broom, A K

    2009-09-01

    A double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the bloodmeal sources of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in encephalitis vector surveillance mosquito traps in Western Australia between May 1993 and August 2004. In total, 2,606 blood-fed mosquitoes, representing 29 mosquito species, were tested, and 81.7% reacted with one or more of the primary antibodies. Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson) and Culex annulirostris Skuse were the most common species tested, making up 47.2% (1,234) and 35.6% (930), respectively. These species obtained bloodmeals from a variety of vertebrate hosts but particularly marsupials and cows. In contrast, Culex pullus Theobald (72.7%; 24/33), Culiseta atra (Lee) (70.0%; 7/10), Culex globocoxitus Dobrotworsky (54.5%; 12/22), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (39.3%; 22/56) often obtained bloodmeals from birds. Although Ae. camptorhynchus and Cx. annulirostris are well established vectors of arboviruses, other mosquitoes also may have a role in enzootic and/ or epizootic transmission.

  19. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  20. Seasonal Dynamics, Longevity, and Biting Activity of Anopheline Mosquitoes in Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lelisa, Kidane; Emana, Daniel; Asale, Abebe; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2016-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of vector species composition, abundance, dynamics, feeding pattern, and host finding strategy is the base to determine when, what, and how control should be implemented. Thus, this study was conducted to assess entomological parameters of anopheline mosquitoes in nine villages in Seka district, southwestern Ethiopia, from June to December 2012. Mosquito collection was carried out from selected households in each of the nine study villages using light trap catches from June to December 2012. Differences in mean mosquito density, parity rates before, and after indoor residual spraying (IRS) operation were compared. In total, 1,136 adult female anopheline mosquitoes were collected during the study period. All anopheline mosquitoes collected belong to three species. Anopheles gambiae senso lato Giles was the most predominant (69.7%) followed by Anopheles coustani s.l. Laveran (22.7%) and Anopheles pharoensis Theobald (7.6%). There was significant variation in mean mosquito density among An. gambiae s.l., An. coustani s.l., and An. pharoensis. Parity rate of An. gambiae s.l. before spray operation was significantly higher than after spray operation. The highest peak biting activity of An. gambiae s.l. was between 1800 and 2100 hours. The longevity of An. gambiae s.l. ranged from 3.4 to 12.5 d. The highest vector abundance and parity rate were recorded in July and August. In conclusion, the behavioral plasticity and early biting activity of An. gambiae s.l. could affect current vector control tools (IRS and long lasting insecticidal nets). Hence, it is imperative to explore intervention tools for outdoor malaria vector control in addition to the existing IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets. PMID:26798142

  1. Distribution and prevalence of Octomyomermis troglodytis (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a parasite of the western tree hole mosquito, Aedes sierrensis.

    PubMed

    Washburn, J O; Anderson, J R; Egerter, D E

    1986-09-01

    Octomyomermis troglodytis was found infecting Aedes sierrensis larvae in 14.5% of 165 tree holes sampled between 1982 and 1986. Mermithid infections were detected in tree hole waters that ranged in pH from 6.5 to 9.3 and electrical conductivities between 0.10 and 5.11 mmhos/cm. Third and fourth instar larvae were most frequently infected, and most immatures that succumbed to infections died while in the fourth instar. Most hosts contained only one nematode. Infected adults were obtained from emergence traps over tree holes, from field-collected immatures reared in the laboratory, and from mosquito collections from sentinel humans. Octomyomermis troglodytis escaped from adults into water vials in the laboratory, suggesting that infected adult mosquitoes serve as dispersal agents for this parasite.

  2. Seasonal dynamics and habitat specificity of mosquitoes in an English wetland: implications for UK wetland management and restoration.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-06-01

    We engaged in field studies of native mosquitoes in a Cambridgeshire Fen, investigating a) the habitat specificity and seasonal dynamics of our native fauna in an intensively managed wetland, b) the impact of water-level and ditch management, and c) their colonization of an arable reversion to flooded grassland wetland expansion project. Studies from April to October, 2010 collected 14,000 adult mosquitoes (15 species) over 292 trap-nights and ∼4,000 pre-imaginal mosquitoes (11 species). Open floodwater species (Aedes caspius and Aedes cinereus, 43.3%) and wet woodland species (Aedes cantans/annulipes and Aedes rusticus, 32.4%) dominated, highlighting the major impact of seasonal water-level management on mosquito populations in an intensively managed wetland. In permanent habitats, managing marginal ditch vegetation and ditch drying significantly affect densities of pre-imaginal anophelines and culicines, respectively. This study presents the first UK field evidence of the implications of wetland expansion through arable reversion on mosquito colonization. Understanding the heterogeneity of mosquito diversity, phenology, and abundance in intensively managed UK wetlands will be crucial to mitigating nuisance and vector species through habitat management and biocidal control. PMID:26047189

  3. Seasonal dynamics and habitat specificity of mosquitoes in an English wetland: implications for UK wetland management and restoration.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-06-01

    We engaged in field studies of native mosquitoes in a Cambridgeshire Fen, investigating a) the habitat specificity and seasonal dynamics of our native fauna in an intensively managed wetland, b) the impact of water-level and ditch management, and c) their colonization of an arable reversion to flooded grassland wetland expansion project. Studies from April to October, 2010 collected 14,000 adult mosquitoes (15 species) over 292 trap-nights and ∼4,000 pre-imaginal mosquitoes (11 species). Open floodwater species (Aedes caspius and Aedes cinereus, 43.3%) and wet woodland species (Aedes cantans/annulipes and Aedes rusticus, 32.4%) dominated, highlighting the major impact of seasonal water-level management on mosquito populations in an intensively managed wetland. In permanent habitats, managing marginal ditch vegetation and ditch drying significantly affect densities of pre-imaginal anophelines and culicines, respectively. This study presents the first UK field evidence of the implications of wetland expansion through arable reversion on mosquito colonization. Understanding the heterogeneity of mosquito diversity, phenology, and abundance in intensively managed UK wetlands will be crucial to mitigating nuisance and vector species through habitat management and biocidal control.

  4. Molecular survey of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens by direct PCR for wild caught mosquitoes in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Lee, Won-Ja

    2007-09-01

    Adult mosquito collections using New Jersey light traps and Black-hole light traps were conducted to determine the potential vectors and the relative mosquito infection rates of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea, 2005. Dirofilaria spp. were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific primers for D. immitis and D. repens. Minimum field infection rates (MFIR) [MFIR = (number infected pools/total number of mosquitoes) x 1000] of 12 pools/2059 total number mosquitoes (5.8) and 21 pools (10.1) of the wild caught mosquitoes were positive by PCR for D. immitis and D. repens, respectively. Dual infections of both D. immitis and D. repens were detected by PCR in eight pools (3.9). Anopheles sinensis sensu lato (includes An. sinensis s.s., An. pullus, An. kleini, An. belenrae, and An. lesteri), An. sineroides, Aedes vexans nipponi, Culex pipiens and Armigeres subalbatus were found to be infected and are potential vectors of D. immitis and D. repens in Korea. Infections observed in mosquitoes represent potential health risks for domestic animal and human populations.

  5. Mosquito management: Ecological approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, R.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses organism use for management of mosquitoes included are considerations of the introduction and/or manipulation of plants, animals, and microorganisms into breeding habitats in which they act to make conditions less suitable for mosquito production. The importance of foresight and careful planning is stressed with regard to developing mosquito management strategies

  6. MAN, MOSQUITOES AND MICROBES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOONOVER, ROBERT A.

    THE CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES IS A MATTER OF INCREASING CONCERN IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE, VARIOUS SPECIES, CONTROL, AND DESCRIPTION OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY THE MOSQUITO WAS PRESENTED. THE ARTICLE CONCLUDED THAT MOSQUITO CONTROL IS NOT ONLY A HEALTH PROBLEM, BUT ALSO A MATTER OF IMPROVED ECONOMICS IN RELATION TO…

  7. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The auto-dissemination approach has been shown effective at treating cryptic refugia that remain unaffected by existing mosquito control methods. This approach relies on adult mosquito behavior to spread larvicide to breeding sites at levels that are lethal to immature mosquitoes. Prior studies demonstrate that ‘dissemination stations,’ deployed in mosquito-infested areas, can contaminate adult mosquitoes, which subsequently deliver the larvicide to breeding sites. In some situations, however, preventative measures are needed, e.g., to mitigate seasonal population increases. Here we examine a novel approach that combines elements of autocidal and auto-dissemination strategies by releasing artificially reared, male mosquitoes that are contaminated with an insecticide. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments examine for model-predicted impacts of pyriproxyfen (PPF) directly applied to adult male Aedes albopictus, including (1) the ability of PPF-treated males to cross-contaminate females and to (2) deliver PPF to breeding sites. Principal Findings Similar survivorship was observed in comparisons of PPF-treated and untreated males. Males contaminated both female adults and oviposition containers in field cage tests, at levels that eliminated immature survivorship. Field trials demonstrate an ability of PPF-treated males to transmit lethal doses to introduced oviposition containers, both in the presence and absence of indigenous females. A decline in the Ae. albopictus population was observed following the introduction of PPF-treated males, which was not observed in two untreated field sites. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that, in cage and open field trials, adult male Ae. albopictus can tolerate PPF and contaminate, either directly or indirectly, adult females and immature breeding sites. The results support additional development of the proposed approach, in which male mosquitoes act as vehicles for insecticide delivery

  8. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L; Coates, Craig J; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2015-01-01

    host-associated microbes to determine suitability for blood feeding. We believe these data suggest that manipulating quorum sensing by bacteria could serve as a novel approach for reducing mosquito attraction to hosts, or possibly enhancing the trapping of adults at favored oviposition sites.

  9. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L.; Coates, Craig J.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2015-01-01

    between host-associated microbes to determine suitability for blood feeding. We believe these data suggest that manipulating quorum sensing by bacteria could serve as a novel approach for reducing mosquito attraction to hosts, or possibly enhancing the trapping of adults at favored oviposition sites. PMID:26674802

  10. Impact of dryland salinity on population dynamics of vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Ross River virus in inland areas of southwestern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jardine, A; Lindsay, M D A; Johansen, C A; Cook, A; Weinstein, P

    2008-11-01

    Clearing of native vegetation for agriculture since European settlement has left 1.047 million ha of southwestern Australia affected by a severe form of environmental degradation called dryland salinity, characterized by secondary soil salinization and waterlogging. This area may expand by a further 1.7-3.4 million ha if current trends continue. Detailed investigations of seasonal of adult and larval mosquito population dynamics were undertaken in the region to test the hypothesis that the development of dryland salinity and waterlogging in inland southwestern Australia has led to a succession of mosquito species and increased Ross River virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, RRV) transmission risk. Aedes (Ochlerotatus) camptorhynchus (Thomson) made up >90% of adult mosquito collections in saline regions. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling and generalized estimating equations modeling demonstrated that it was strongly associated with increasing severity of dryland salinity. This article describes the first detailed investigation of the mosquito fauna of inland southwestern Australia, and it is the first description of the influence of secondary soil salinity on mosquito population dynamics. Despite the dominant presence of Ae. camptorhynchus, RRV disease incidence is not currently a significant population health priority in areas affected by dryland salinity. Potential limiting factors include local climatic impacts on the seasonal mosquito population dynamics, vertebrate host distribution and feeding behavior of Ae. camptorhynchus, and the scarce and uneven distribution of the human population in the region.

  11. Methionine: a new biopesticide for use in mosquito management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito larvicides are an effective means of source reduction, controlling the population size so that the number of adult females that are present to bite and potentially spread pathogenic organisms is decreased. Currently utilized mosquito larvicides include insect growth regulators, organophosph...

  12. Is Collective Efficacy Age Graded? The Development and Evaluation of a New Measure of Collective Efficacy for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Galinsky, Adena M.; Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Community processes are key determinants of older adults' ability to age in place, but existing scales measuring these constructs may not provide accurate, unbiased measurements among older adults because they were designed with the concerns of child-rearing respondents in mind. This study examines the properties of a new theory-based measure of collective efficacy (CE) that accounts for the perspectives of older residents. Methods. Data come from the population-based Chicago Neighborhood Organization, Aging and Health study (N = 1,151), which surveyed adults aged 65 to 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlations, and factor analysis, we explored the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new measure. Results. Principal component analysis indicated that the new scale measures a single latent factor. It had good internal consistency reliability, was highly correlated with the original scale, and was similarly associated with neighborhood exchange and disorder, self-rated health, mobility, and loneliness. The new scale also showed less age-differentiated nonresponse compared to the original scale. Discussion. The older adult CE scale has reliability and validity equivalent to that of the existing measure but benefits from a more developed theoretical grounding and reduced likelihood of age-related differential nonresponse. PMID:22315685

  13. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in different genera of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Melaun, Christian; Zotzmann, Sina; Santaella, Vanesa Garcia; Werblow, Antje; Zumkowski-Xylander, Helga; Kraiczy, Peter; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Some stages of the borrelial transmission cycle in ticks (transstadial, feeding and co-feeding) can potentially occur also in insects, particularly in mosquitoes. In the present study, adult as well as larval mosquitoes were collected at 42 different geographical locations throughout Germany. This is the first study, in which German mosquitoes were analyzed for the presence of Borrelia spp. Targeting two specific borrelial genes, flaB and ospA encoding for the subunit B of flagellin and the outer surface protein A, the results show that DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia bavariensis and Borrelia garinii could be detected in ten Culicidae species comprising four distinct genera (Aedes, Culiseta, Culex, and Ochlerotatus). Positive samples also include adult specimens raised in the laboratory from wild-caught larvae indicating that transstadial and/or transovarial transmission might occur within a given mosquito population.

  14. Post-hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance and the efficacy of Air Force aerial applications for mosquito control in east Texas.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Walker, Wes W; Sanders, David M

    2008-06-01

    Post-Hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance was carried out in 4 east Texas counties to determine mosquito abundance, species composition, and need for mosquito control. Subsequently, aerial applications of naled (Dibrom) for mosquito control were made by the Air Force Aerial Spray Flight, while continued surveillance documented the efficacy of the applications. Psorophora columbiae was the predominant species in landing counts. Twenty-two mosquito species were represented in light trap collections with Aedes atlanitcus/tormentor, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. vexans, and Ps. columbiae making up 91% of the total. A total of 102,001 ha (252,052 acres) were aerially treated based on high mosquito abundance, exposure of first responders and residents to nuisance biting, and local interruption of electric utilities. A significant 90% decline in mosquito abundance was observed posttreatment. PMID:18666545

  15. Techniques for collecting saliva from awake, unrestrained, adult monkeys for cortisol assay.

    PubMed

    Lutz, C K; Tiefenbacher, S; Jorgensen, M J; Meyer, J S; Novak, M A

    2000-10-01

    Cortisol levels serve as an index of pituitary-adrenal activity in nonhuman primates. In adult monkeys, cortisol is normally measured in blood (typically requiring restraint or sedation) or urine (reflecting a state rather than point estimate). In contrast, saliva collection is less invasive than drawing blood and allows for repeated sampling within a short period of time. Although protocols exist for collecting saliva from young monkeys, these procedures are inadequate for awake, unrestrained adult animals. Our laboratory has developed two methods for collecting saliva from adult rhesus monkeys: a "screen" method, which involves licking screen-covered gauze, and a "pole" method, which involves sucking and chewing on an attached rope. Twenty-three adult male rhesus monkeys were used to evaluate these two methods. After a period of adaptation, saliva samples were collected from 21 of 23 subjects. Saliva collection was faster with the pole than with the screen method (P < 0.01), but the pole method was not suitable for some animals because of their tendency to bite off the attached rope. An analysis of 19 saliva samples revealed a mean cortisol concentration of 0.84 microg/dl (range 0.27-1.77 microg/dl). There was no statistically significant difference in cortisol value between methods used (P > 0.22). The influence of the flavoring on the cortisol assay was tested, and was found to have no significant effect (P > 0.28). Our results indicate that either technique can be used to safely collect saliva from unrestrained adult monkeys. Choice of technique will depend on the proclivities of individual monkeys.

  16. Volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals.

    PubMed

    Nyasembe, Vincent O; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-05-01

    Plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. Cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuitable one. The volatile compounds involved in plant-insect chemical interactions have been widely exploited in the management of agricultural pests. On the other hand, use of plant volatiles in the management of medically important insects is limited, mainly due to paucity of information on their role in disease vector-plant interactions. To date, a total of 29 plant volatile compounds from various chemical classes, including phenols, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and terpenes, have been identified as mosquito semiochemicals. In this review, we present highlights of mosquito-plant interactions, the available evidence of nectar feeding, with particular emphasis on sources of plant attractants, methods of plant volatile collection and the candidate plant volatile compounds that attract mosquitoes to nectar sources. We also highlight the potential application of these phytochemical attractants in integrated mosquito management. PMID:25383131

  17. Mosquito-Disseminated Pyriproxyfen Yields High Breeding-Site Coverage and Boosts Juvenile Mosquito Mortality at the Neighborhood Scale

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Padilla-Torres, Samael D.; Luz, Sérgio L. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne pathogens pose major public health challenges worldwide. With vaccines or effective drugs still unavailable for most such pathogens, disease prevention heavily relies on vector control. To date, however, mosquito control has proven difficult, with low breeding-site coverage during control campaigns identified as a major drawback. A novel tactic exploits the egg-laying behavior of mosquitoes to have them disseminate tiny particles of a potent larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), from resting to breeding sites, thus improving coverage. This approach has yielded promising results at small spatial scales, but its wider applicability remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a four-month trial within a 20-month study to investigate mosquito-driven dissemination of PPF dust-particles from 100 ‘dissemination stations’ (DSs) deployed in a 7-ha sub-area to surveillance dwellings and sentinel breeding sites (SBSs) distributed over an urban neighborhood of about 50 ha. We assessed the impact of the trial by measuring juvenile mosquito mortality and adult mosquito emergence in each SBS-month. Using data from 1,075 dwelling-months, 2,988 SBS-months, and 29,922 individual mosquitoes, we show that mosquito-disseminated PPF yielded high coverage of dwellings (up to 100%) and SBSs (up to 94.3%). Juvenile mosquito mortality in SBSs (about 4% at baseline) increased by over one order of magnitude during PPF dissemination (about 75%). This led to a >10-fold decrease of adult mosquito emergence from SBSs, from approximately 1,000–3,000 adults/month before to about 100 adults/month during PPF dissemination. Conclusions/Significance By expanding breeding-site coverage and boosting juvenile mosquito mortality, a strategy based on mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to substantially enhance mosquito control. Sharp declines in adult mosquito emergence can lower vector/host ratios, reducing the risk of disease outbreaks. This approach is a very

  18. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  19. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity of a forest-fragment mosaic in the Amazon rain forest.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Rosa Sá Gomes; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Hutchings, Roger William

    2011-03-01

    To study the impact of Amazonian forest fragmentation on the mosquito fauna, an inventory of Culicidae was conducted in the upland forest research areas of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project located 60 km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The culicid community was sampled monthly between February 2002 and May 2003. CDC light traps, flight interception traps, manual aspiration, and net sweeping were used to capture adult specimens along the edges and within forest fragments of different sizes (1, 10, and 100 ha), in second-growth areas surrounding the fragments and around camps. We collected 5,204 specimens, distributed in 18 genera and 160 species level taxa. A list of mosquito taxa is presented with 145 species found in the survey, including seven new records for Brazil, 16 new records for the state of Amazonas, along with the 15 morphotypes that probably represent undescribed species. No exotic species [Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse)] were found within the sampled areas. Several species collected are potential vectors of Plasmodium causing human malaria and of various arboviruses. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed, and the results are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region.

  20. Organochlorine contaminant concentrations in caddisfly adults (Trichoptera) collected from great lakes connecting channels.

    PubMed

    Kovats, Z E; Ciborowski, J J

    1993-09-01

    Pennsylvania-style light traps were used to capture adult Trichoptera from the St. Marys, St. Clair, Detroit and Niagara rivers, Canada. Adequate biomass was acquired in single, 2-h collections to permit triplicate gas chromatographic analyses of 1-4 g samples for 36 organochlorine contaminants. Contaminant levels varied unpredictably but relatively little among samples taken at monthly intervals over the summer. Samples collected simultaneously from the two sides of the Detroit R. reflected local sediment contaminant patterns, suggesting limited dispersal by adults. Genus-specific differences in contaminant concentrations within the Hydropsychidae and Leptoceridae probably reflect differences in larval habitats and manner of feeding. Contaminant concentrations and relative composition paralleled published reports of contaminants in sediments from collection locations. St. Marys R. caddisflies contained contaminant levels indistinguishable from samples collected at reference sites. St. Clair R. samples contained high levels of compounds associated with petrochemical industries located in the river's upstream reaches. High levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most other contaminants in Detroit R. samples reflected industrial loadings near Detroit, Michigan. Niagara R. samples contained elevated concentrations of PCBs and pesticides. Cluster analysis grouped samples into five clusters each with unique contaminant composition. These also corresponded to geographic origin: St. Marys, St. Clair, Detroit and upper and lower Niagara rivers. The relative ease of collection and consistent results obtained render adult Trichoptera potentially valuable candidates for surveys of aquatic contamination over a broad range of geographical and ecological conditions.

  1. Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen to Mark Wild Populations of Anopheles and Aedes Mosquitoes in South-Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Mercy A.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Auckland, Lisa D.; Majambere, Silas; Okumu, Fredros O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marking wild mosquitoes is important for understanding their ecology, behaviours and role in disease transmission. Traditional insect marking techniques include using fluorescent dyes, protein labels, radioactive labels and tags, but such techniques have various limitations; notably low marker retention and inability to mark wild mosquitoes at source. Stable isotopes are gaining wide spread use for non-invasive marking of arthropods, permitting greater understanding of mosquito dispersal and responses to interventions. We describe here a simple technique for marking naturally-breeding malaria and dengue vectors using stable isotopes of nitrogen (15N) and carbon (13C), and describe potential field applications. Methods We created man-made aquatic mosquito habitats and added either 15N-labelled potassium nitrate or 13C-labelled glucose, leaving non-adulterated habitats as controls. We then allowed wild mosquitoes to lay eggs in these habitats and monitored their development in situ. Pupae were collected promptly as they appeared and kept in netting cages. Emergent adults (in pools of ~4 mosquitoes/pool) and individually stored pupae were desiccated and analysed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS). Findings Anopheles gambiae s.l and Aedes spp. from enriched 13C and enriched 15N larval habitats had significantly higher isotopic levels than controls (P = 0.005), and both isotopes produced sufficient distinction between marked and unmarked mosquitoes. Mean δ15N for enriched females and males were 275.6±65.1 and 248.0±54.6, while mean δ15N in controls were 2.1±0.1 and 3.9±1.7 respectively. Similarly, mean δ13C for enriched females and males were 36.08±5.28 and 38.5±6.86, compared to -4.3±0.2 and -7.9±3.6 in controls respectively. Mean δ15N and δ13C was significantly higher in any pool containing at least one enriched mosquito compared to pools with all unenriched mosquitoes, P<0.001. In all cases, there were variations in standardized

  2. Electronic Data Collection and Management System for Global Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pujari, Sameer J; Palipudi, Krishna M; Morton, Jeremy; Levinsohn, Jay; Litavecz, Steve; Green, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Portable handheld computers and electronic data management systems have been used for national surveys in many high-income countries, however their use in developing countries has been challenging due to varying geographical, economic, climatic, political and cultural environments. In order to monitor and measure global adult tobacco use, the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative household survey of adults, 15 years of age or older, using a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and data collection and management procedures. The Survey has been conducted in 14 low- and middle-income countries, using an electronic data collection and management system. This paper describes implementation of the electronic data collection system and associated findings. Methods: The Survey was based on a comprehensive data management protocol, to enable standardized, globally comparable high quality data collection and management. It included adaptation to specific country needs, selection of appropriate handheld hardware devices, use of open source software, and building country capacity and provide technical support. Results: In its first phase, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey was successfully conducted between 2008 and 2010, using an electronic data collection and management system for interviews in 302,800 households in 14 countries. More than 2,644 handheld computers were fielded and over 2,634 fieldworkers, supervisors and monitors were trained to use them. Questionnaires were developed and programmed in 38 languages and scripts. The global hardware failure rate was < 1% and data loss was almost 0%. Conclusion: Electronic data collection and management systems can be used effectively for conducting nationally representative surveys, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, irrespective of geographical, climatic, political and cultural

  3. Larval ecology of mosquitoes in sylvatic arbovirus foci in southeastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although adult mosquito vectors of sylvatic arbovirus [yellow fever (YFV), dengue-2 (DENV-2) and chikungunya (CHIKV)] have been studied for the past 40 years in southeastern Senegal, data are still lacking on the ecology of larval mosquitoes in this area. In this study, we investigated the larval habitats of mosquitoes and characterized their seasonal and spatial dynamics in arbovirus foci. Methods We searched for wet microhabitats, classified in 9 categories, in five land cover classes (agriculture, forest, savannah, barren and village) from June, 2010 to January, 2011. Mosquito immatures were sampled monthly in up to 30 microhabitats of each category per land cover and bred until adult stage for determination. Results No wet microhabitats were found in the agricultural sites; in the remaining land covers immature stages of 35 mosquito species in 7 genera were sampled from 9 microhabitats (tree holes, fresh fruit husks, decaying fruit husks, puddles, bamboo holes, discarded containers, tires, rock holes and storage containers). The most abundant species was Aedes aegypti formosus, representing 30.2% of the collections, followed by 12 species, representing each more than 1% of the total, among them the arbovirus vectors Ae. vittatus (7.9%), Ae. luteocephalus (5.7%), Ae. taylori (5.0%), and Ae. furcifer (1.3%). Aedes aegypti, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Er. chrysogster and Ae. vittatus were the only common species collected from all land covers. Aedes furcifer and Ae. taylori were collected in fresh fruit husks and tree holes. Species richness and dominance varied significantly in land covers and microhabitats. Positive associations were found mainly between Ae. furcifer, Ae. taylori and Ae. luteocephalus. A high proportion of potential enzootic vectors that are not anthropophilic were found in the larval mosquito fauna. Conclusions In southeastern Senegal, Ae. furcifer and Ae. taylori larvae showed a more limited distribution

  4. Mosquito Records from Mexico: The Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Tamaulipas State.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Zavortink, Thomas J; Huerta-Jiménez, Herón; Sánchez-Rámos, Francisco J; Valdés-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Siller-Rodríguez, Quetzaly K; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-03-01

    To document the diversity and distribution of mosquito species inhabiting the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, collection trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Grand Northamerican Plains, Coastal Plain of North Gulf, and Sierra Madre Oriental) and subregions across the state. Additionally, we re-examined mosquito specimens in two Mexican entomological collections: the Collection of Insects and Mites of Medical Importance and the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance. In total, 3,931 specimens were collected. These represent the two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 10 tribes, 17 genera, 27 subgenera, 80 named species, and 2 undescribed species. Of these, 3 tribes, 6 genera, 7 subgenera, and 20 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Tamaulipas. Fourteen species recorded in the historical records were not found in collections made for this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution limits, and comments about the medical importance of some of the species collected are reported.

  5. Mosquitoes and the Environment in Nile Delta Villages with Previous Rift Valley Fever Activity.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Abdelbaset B; Britch, Seth C; Soliman, Mohamed I; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-06-01

    Egypt is affected by serious human and animal mosquito-borne diseases such as Rift Valley fever (RVF). We investigated how potential RVF virus mosquito vector populations are affected by environmental conditions in the Nile Delta region of Egypt by collecting mosquitoes and environmental data from 3 key governorates before and after 2012 seasonal flooding. We found that environmental effects varied among species, life stages, pre- and postflood groupings, and geographic populations of the same species, and that mosquito community composition could change after flooding. Our study provides preliminary data for modeling mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the Nile Delta region.

  6. Mosquitoes and the Environment in Nile Delta Villages with Previous Rift Valley Fever Activity.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Abdelbaset B; Britch, Seth C; Soliman, Mohamed I; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-06-01

    Egypt is affected by serious human and animal mosquito-borne diseases such as Rift Valley fever (RVF). We investigated how potential RVF virus mosquito vector populations are affected by environmental conditions in the Nile Delta region of Egypt by collecting mosquitoes and environmental data from 3 key governorates before and after 2012 seasonal flooding. We found that environmental effects varied among species, life stages, pre- and postflood groupings, and geographic populations of the same species, and that mosquito community composition could change after flooding. Our study provides preliminary data for modeling mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the Nile Delta region. PMID:26181689

  7. Multiple dengue virus types harbored by individual mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Angel, Bennet; Angel, Annette; Joshi, Vinod

    2015-10-01

    The existing knowledge on pathogenesis and aetiology of DHF establishes that Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) are caused by two subsequent infections of two different serotypes of dengue affecting a common human population with a time gap. Present studies have been undertaken on 212 laboratory reared infected individual mosquitoes from larvae collected from 31 dengue endemic towns of Rajasthan, India. Type specific DEN viruses were detected from individual mosquitoes employing RT-PCR. In 78.7% of 212 infected individual mosquitoes studied, vertically transmitted multiple DENV types were observed. We report for the first time that single mosquitoes contain multiple dengue virus types.

  8. Mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in a riceland agroecosystem in Mwea, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat; Jacob, Benjamin; Gu, Weidong; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-06-01

    We conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in the Mwea rice scheme, Kenya. Adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor spraying of houses and outdoors by CDC light traps in three villages representing planned (Mbuinjeru) and unplanned (Kiamachiri) rice agroecosystems and a non-irrigated agroecosystem (Murinduko). During the 12-month sampling period, a total of 98,708 mosquitoes belonging to five genera and 25 species were collected. The five most common species collected during this study were Anopheles arabiensis Patton (52.5%), Culex quinquefasciatus Say (36.7%), Anopheles pharoensis Theobald (5.2%), Anopheles coustani Laveran (1.4%), and Anopheles funestus Giles (1.3%). Anopheles arabiensis, Cx quinquefasciatus, and An. pharoensis were more abundant in rice agroecosystems than in the non-irrigated agroecosystem, and in planned than in the unplanned rice agroecosystems. In contrast, An. funestus was more abundant in the non-irrigated agroecosystem. The mosquito species diversity (H) and evenness (E(H)) in the non-irrigated agroecosystem (Shannon diversity Index, H = 1.507, EH = 0.503) was significantly higher than in the rice agroecosystems (H) = 0.968, E(H) = 0.313, unplanned; and H= 1.040, E(H) = 0.367 planned). Results of lag cross correlation analysis revealed a strong relationship between rainfall and the abundance of An. arabiensis, and C. quinquefasciatus in the non-irrigated agroecosystem but not in the rice agroecosystems. It is inferred from the data that different levels of habitat perturbations with regard to rice cultivation have different effects on mosquito diversity and abundance. This provides an understanding of how mosquito diversity is impacted by different habitat management and rice cropping strategies.

  9. Comparison of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations by wetland type and year in the lower river Dalälven region, Central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M L; Lundström, J O; Petersson, E

    2008-06-01

    We studied adult mosquito assemblages in six wetlands, representing three types (wet meadow, alder swamp, and bog), in the lower part of the River Dalälven in Central Sweden during three consecutive years (2000-2002) and evaluated the influence of wetland type and year. Mosquito abundance differed significantly between years but not between wetland types. Mosquito species richness showed no significant variation between years or wetland types. Cluster analysis based on percentage of similarity resulted in three clusters, with high similarity between all wetlands in 2000. Ordination analysis showed that mosquito assemblages were mainly correlated with wetland type and water level increase in the previous month. Hydrological conditions varied between the years and between the wetland types, and our collections also included a year (2000) with extreme flood situations. The floodwater mosquito species Ochlerotatus sticticus was the predominant species with a strong influence on the whole study due to its long-range dispersal ability. The entire region suffered from enormous numbers of Oc. sticticus in 2000. The data from this study provided the basis for the initiation of a mosquito control project in the region.

  10. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential in Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A

    2015-03-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors.

  11. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland. PMID:26675454

  12. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  13. Mosquitoes of Guam and the Northern Marianas: distribution, checklists, and notes on mosquito-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pecor, James E; Reeves, Will K; Wolf, Stephen P; Nunn, Peter V; Rabago, Rosanna Y; Gutierrez, Teresa L; Debboun, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    This report includes the distribution records and updated checklists of the mosquitoes known to occur in Guam and nearby selected islands (ie, Saipan, Tinian, Rota), based on our field collections from various localities during 2010, published reports, and accessioned specimens deposited in the US National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors and their borne-pathogens are also noted.

  14. Do capture data from mosquito traps represent reality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collectively, the effects of mechanical trap style, the method of trap placement in the field, mosquito activity phase, and other biological phenomena are manifest as sample bias that leads to vector detection failure(s) and/or erroneous predictions of mosquito activity. The goal of this research i...

  15. Mosquito survey during West Nile virus outbreak 2012 in northeast Croatia.

    PubMed

    Merdić, Enrih; Vignjević, Goran; Turić, Natasa; Bogojević, Mirta Sudarić; Milas, Josip; Vrućina, Ivana; Zahirović, Zeljko

    2014-06-01

    During the August and September 2012, seven human cases of the West Nile neuro-invasive disease were reported in Croatia. Medical entomology research on a potential vectors during the outbreak was supported by the Ministry of Health. A mosquito survey has been done in 64 sites in three eastern Croatian counties (Osijek-Baranja County, Vukovar-Srijem county and in Brod-Posavina county). Dry ice baited CDC traps were used for mosquito sampling in a period from the 10th to 25th September 2012. A total of 1785 mosquitoes were collected and 5 species were determined. The most numerous species were Aedes vexans with 1634 specimens, a Culex pipiens c., the potential vector of WNV, was present with 6.39%, in 114 specimens. That species was present in 43 out of 64 investigated sites. Vector control included both the control of mosquito larvae and the adults. Treatments have been done on 184 small breeding sites and on 2900 ha of an urban area. PMID:25144969

  16. Performance of mosquito's pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2005-11-01

    The flow of human blood in Mosquito's proboscis on Hagen-Poiseuille flow is investigated by using micro PIV system to apply mosquito's sucking system for micro-TAS devises. We want to know how high the power of Mosquito's pump is and how small the resistance in a proboscis is, a structure of Mosquito's sucking pump, and its characteristics as mechanical pump. We made the mosquito suck blood of our arm to obtain the average value, made many slices of a mosquito with 2μm thickness after fixed by wax. We anatomized the mosquito's head and picked up the sucking pump under the microscope to know its volume. Mosquito's pump shows high performance compared with the artificial pumps. The surfaces of proboscis were taken by using SEM, AFM because it is important factor for interaction between flow and its wall. Visualization of the blood flows near the tip of and inside proboscis are taken by micro PIV system to know the flow rate. We estimate the power of pump and the friction drag of proboscis by using these data.

  17. How Mosquitoes Detect People

    MedlinePlus

    ... mosquito-borne diseases are endemic,” Ray says. — by Carol Torgan, Ph.D. Related Links Targeting the Mosquito's ... Assistant Editors: Vicki Contie, Tianna Hicklin, Ph.D., Carol Torgan, Ph.D. NIH Research Matters is a ...

  18. Mosquito immunity against arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-11-19

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector.

  19. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle EH; Parker, Andrew G; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose) was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi-) field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators. PMID:19917076

  20. Effect of a lunar eclipse on the flight activity of mosquitoes in the upper Gulf Coast of Texas.

    PubMed

    Janousek, T E; Olson, J K

    1994-06-01

    Adult mosquito flight activity was monitored at a coastal marshland site in Chambers County, TX, before, during, and after a total eclipse of the moon on August 16, 1989. A vehicle-mounted mobile interceptor trap and a stationary, dry ice-baited CDC miniature light trap were used in this monitoring effort. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles crucians, Culex salinarius, and Psorophora columbiae were mosquito species most abundantly represented in collections made by both traps during the 12-h study period. The numbers of each of these species collected by the vehicle-mounted trap decreased during the lunar eclipse and increased when the full moon was exposed. Collections of these same species by the light trap increased during the lunar eclipse and decreased when the full moon was exposed.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Mosquito Adulticide in Houston during Spraying Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, S.; Clark, A. E.; Yoon, S.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is a common practice for urban areas in the south to control the mosquito population through the routine spraying of pesticides utilizing ultra-low volume (ULV) foggers, either aerially or from trucks. Adult mosquitoes are known disease-borne vectors, including, but not limited to, West Nile Virus. Common mosquito adulticides include Permethrin (a pyrethroid) which is a neurotoxin. The EPA has labelled this pesticide good for mosquito treatment due to low cost, high effectiveness and low pest resistance. Permethrin is released directly into the atmosphere during active ULV fogger spraying, resulting in potentially significantly elevated atmospheric concentrations for hours to days after spray event. The metropolitan area of Houston, TX has a population of nearly 6 million people, making it the fourth most populous city in the U.S., and covers over 9000 square miles. During the DISCOVER-AQ sampling campaign in September 2013, nearly 300 atmospheric particular matter samples were collected during the month-long sampling campaign at four different locations in the Houston metropolitan area. Both total suspended particle (TSP) and particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) samples were collected, the latter of which is more readily inhaled and presents a greater risk to human health. Harris County, the main county of the Houston metropolitan area, controls mosquito for ~4-7 months, annually, covering the summer months. During 2013, Harris County utilized Permethrin as one of two pesticides in a weekly rotation from April to October. Proposed daily ULV treatment plans are published online on a neighborhood scale (Zip Code). Preliminary atmospheric concentrations show that Permethrin has been detected coinciding with days when treatment was proposed by the county. During or directly after use, atmospheric concentration of Permethrin were measuring at typically >10 ng m-3, but as high as 90 ng m-3. Atmospheric concentrations were also

  2. Volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Nyasembe, Vincent O.; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. Cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuitable one. The volatile compounds involved in plant–insect chemical interactions have been widely exploited in the management of agricultural pests. On the other hand, use of plant volatiles in the management of medically important insects is limited, mainly due to paucity of information on their role in disease vector–plant interactions. To date, a total of 29 plant volatile compounds from various chemical classes, including phenols, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and terpenes, have been identified as mosquito semiochemicals. In this review, we present highlights of mosquito–plant interactions, the available evidence of nectar feeding, with particular emphasis on sources of plant attractants, methods of plant volatile collection and the candidate plant volatile compounds that attract mosquitoes to nectar sources. We also highlight the potential application of these phytochemical attractants in integrated mosquito management. PMID:25383131

  3. Microscopic Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytemia and Infectivity to Mosquitoes in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jessica T; Ubalee, Ratawan; Lon, Chanthap; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Rahman, Rifat; Saingam, Piyaporn; Heng, Thay Kheang; Vy, Dav; San, Savoeun; Nuom, Sarath; Burkly, Hana; Chanarat, Nitima; Ponsa, Chanudom; Levitz, Lauren; Parobek, Christian; Chuor, Char Meng; Somethy, Sok; Spring, Michele; Lanteri, Charlotte; Gosi, Panita; Meshnick, Steven R; Saunders, David L

    2016-05-01

    Although gametocytes are essential for malaria transmission, in Africa many falciparum-infected persons without smear-detectable gametocytes still infect mosquitoes. To see whether the same is true in Southeast Asia, we determined the infectiousness of 119 falciparum-infected Cambodian adults to Anopheles dirus mosquitoes by membrane feeding. Just 5.9% of subjects infected mosquitoes. The 8.4% of patients with smear-detectable gametocytes were >20 times more likely to infect mosquitoes than those without and were the source of 96% of all mosquito infections. In low-transmission settings, targeting transmission-blocking interventions to those with microscopic gametocytemia may have an outsized effect on malaria control and elimination.

  4. Molecular Investigation of Francisella-Like Endosymbiont in Ticks and Francisella tularensis in Ixodid Ticks and Mosquitoes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duzlu, Onder; Yildirim, Alparslan; Inci, Abdullah; Gumussoy, Kadir Semih; Ciloglu, Arif; Onder, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the molecular prevalence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and Francisella tularensis in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes in Turkey. Genomic DNA pools were constructed from a total of 1477 adult hard ticks of Rhipicephalus (Rh.) annulatus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Rh. bursa, Haemaphysalis (Hae.) parva, Hae. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. detritum detritum, H. dromedarii, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes ricinus species, which were collected from several barns, cattle, and people. Genomic DNA was also extracted from pools consisting of 6203 adult female mosquito species belonging to Aedes vexans, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. theileri, Culiseta annulata, and Anopheles maculipennis species. Conventional PCR and TaqMan probe-based real- time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene for FLEs and the lpnA gene for F. tularensis, respectively, were performed on the DNA isolates obtained. FLEs and F. tularensis were not found in any genomic DNA pools constructed from ixodid ticks and mosquitos. This study represents the first investigation of F. tularensis and FLEs in potential vector ticks and mosquitoes by molecular methods in Turkey. The present study provides useful insights into the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis and FLEs. One of the major conclusions of the study is that tularemia outbreaks may be essentially due to direct transmission from the environment (especially from water) in Turkey and not to vector-borne transmission. PMID:26741324

  5. Molecular Investigation of Francisella-Like Endosymbiont in Ticks and Francisella tularensis in Ixodid Ticks and Mosquitoes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duzlu, Onder; Yildirim, Alparslan; Inci, Abdullah; Gumussoy, Kadir Semih; Ciloglu, Arif; Onder, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the molecular prevalence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and Francisella tularensis in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes in Turkey. Genomic DNA pools were constructed from a total of 1477 adult hard ticks of Rhipicephalus (Rh.) annulatus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Rh. bursa, Haemaphysalis (Hae.) parva, Hae. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. detritum detritum, H. dromedarii, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes ricinus species, which were collected from several barns, cattle, and people. Genomic DNA was also extracted from pools consisting of 6203 adult female mosquito species belonging to Aedes vexans, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. theileri, Culiseta annulata, and Anopheles maculipennis species. Conventional PCR and TaqMan probe-based real- time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene for FLEs and the lpnA gene for F. tularensis, respectively, were performed on the DNA isolates obtained. FLEs and F. tularensis were not found in any genomic DNA pools constructed from ixodid ticks and mosquitos. This study represents the first investigation of F. tularensis and FLEs in potential vector ticks and mosquitoes by molecular methods in Turkey. The present study provides useful insights into the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis and FLEs. One of the major conclusions of the study is that tularemia outbreaks may be essentially due to direct transmission from the environment (especially from water) in Turkey and not to vector-borne transmission.

  6. The influence of diet on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (>/='7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significan...

  7. A pilot study comparing three salivary collection methods in an adult population with salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, R; Navazesh, M; Wood, G J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the reliability of three collection methods (draining, chewing of gum base, and the Saxon test) for whole saliva using a sample of middle-aged and older ambulatory adults (n = 18) with proven salivary gland hypofunction. The results demonstrated high reliability (r values ranging from 0.91 to 0.80, p < 0.001) for all three methods. MANOVA analysis revealed significant (p < 0.001) differences in flow rates among the draining, chewing-stimulated, and Saxon methods.

  8. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C.; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3–4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12–22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  9. Analyzing the control of mosquito-borne diseases by a dominant lethal genetic system.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Michael P; Su, Zheng; Alphey, Nina; Alphey, Luke S; Coleman, Paul G; Wein, Lawrence M

    2007-05-29

    Motivated by the failure of current methods to control dengue fever, we formulate a mathematical model to assess the impact on the spread of a mosquito-borne viral disease of a strategy that releases adult male insects homozygous for a dominant, repressible, lethal genetic trait. A dynamic model for the female adult mosquito population, which incorporates the competition for female mating between released mosquitoes and wild mosquitoes, density-dependent competition during the larval stage, and realization of the lethal trait either before or after the larval stage, is embedded into a susceptible-exposed-infectious-susceptible human-vector epidemic model for the spread of the disease. For the special case in which the number of released mosquitoes is maintained in a fixed proportion to the number of adult female mosquitoes at each point in time, we derive mathematical formulas for the disease eradication condition and the approximate number of released mosquitoes necessary for eradication. Numerical results using data for dengue fever suggest that the proportional policy outperforms a release policy in which the released mosquito population is held constant, and that eradication in approximately 1 year is feasible for affected human populations on the order of 10(5) to 10(6), although the logistical considerations are daunting. We also construct a policy that achieves an exponential decay in the female mosquito population; this policy releases approximately the same number of mosquitoes as the proportional policy but achieves eradication nearly twice as fast.

  10. Transmission of tularemia from a water source by transstadial maintenance in a mosquito vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäckman, Stina; Näslund, Jonas; Forsman, Mats; Thelaus, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are thought to function as mechanical vectors of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica (F. t. holarctica) causing tularemia in humans. We investigated the clinical relevance of transstadially maintained F. t. holarctica in mosquitoes. Aedes egypti larvae exposed to a fully virulent F. t. holarctica strain for 24 hours, were allowed to develop into adults when they were individually homogenized. Approximately 24% of the homogenates tested positive for F. t. DNA in PCR. Mice injected with the mosquito homogenates acquired tularemia within 5 days. This novel finding demonstrates the possibility of transmission of bacteria by adult mosquitoes having acquired the pathogen from their aquatic larval habitats.

  11. Transmission of tularemia from a water source by transstadial maintenance in a mosquito vector.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, Stina; Näslund, Jonas; Forsman, Mats; Thelaus, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are thought to function as mechanical vectors of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica (F. t. holarctica) causing tularemia in humans. We investigated the clinical relevance of transstadially maintained F. t. holarctica in mosquitoes. Aedes egypti larvae exposed to a fully virulent F. t. holarctica strain for 24 hours, were allowed to develop into adults when they were individually homogenized. Approximately 24% of the homogenates tested positive for F. t. DNA in PCR. Mice injected with the mosquito homogenates acquired tularemia within 5 days. This novel finding demonstrates the possibility of transmission of bacteria by adult mosquitoes having acquired the pathogen from their aquatic larval habitats.

  12. The Adult Netherlands Twin Register: Twenty-Five Years of Survey and Biological Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Abdellaoui, Abdel; den Braber, Anouk; van Beek, Jenny H. D. A.; Draisma, Harmen H. M.; van Dongen, Jenny; van ‘t Ent, Dennis; Geels, Lot M.; van Lien, Rene; Ligthart, Lannie; Kattenberg, Mathijs; Mbarek, Hamdi; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Neijts, Melanie; Pool, Rene; Stroo, Natascha; Kluft, Cornelis; Suchiman, H. Eka D.; Slagboom, P. Eline; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Adult Netherlands Twin Register (ANTR) has collected a wealth of information on physical and mental health, lifestyle, and personality in adolescents and adults. This article provides an overview of the sources of information available, the main research findings, and an outlook for the future. Between 1991 and 2012, longitudinal surveys were completed by twins, their parents, siblings, spouses, and offspring. Data are available for 33,957 participants, with most individuals having completed two or more surveys. Smaller projects provided in-depth phenotyping, including measurements of the autonomic nervous system, neurocognitive function, and brain imaging. For 46% of the ANTR participants, DNA samples are available and whole genome scans have been obtained in more than 11,000 individuals. These data have resulted in numerous studies on heritability, gene × environment interactions, and causality, as well as gene finding studies. In the future, these studies will continue with collection of additional phenotypes, such as metabolomic and telomere length data, and detailed genetic information provided by DNA and RNA sequencing. Record linkage to national registers will allow the study of morbidity and mortality, thus providing insight into the development of health, lifestyle, and behavior across the lifespan. PMID:23298648

  13. Collection of Clonorchis sinensis adult worms from infected humans after praziquantel treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chenghua; Kim, Jae-hwan; Lee, Jeong-Keun; Bae, Young Mee; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Lim, Min Kyung; Shin, Hai-Rim; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2007-01-01

    A cohort was established for evaluation of cancer risk factors in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. As one of the cohort studies, stools of 947 residents (403 males and 544 females, age range: 29-86 years) were screened for Clonorchis sinensis eggs using both Kato-Katz method and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall egg positive rate of C. sinensis was 37.7% and individual EPG (eggs per gram of feces) counts ranged from 24 to 28,800. Eight egg positive residents voluntarily joined a process of collection of the passed worms after praziquantel treatment. A total of 158 worms were recovered from 5 of the 8 treated persons, ranged from 3 to 108 in each individual. The worms were 15-20 mm × 2-3 mm in size, and showed brown-pigmented, red, or white body colors. This is the first collection record of C. sinensis adult worms from humans through anthelmintic treatment and purgation. The adult worms of C. sinensis may be paralyzed by praziquantel and then discharged passively through bile flow in the bile duct and by peristaltic movement of the bowel. PMID:17570980

  14. Mosquitocidal Effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla Leaf Extracts against Three Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Suganya, Ponnusamy; Natarajan, Devarajan; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The resistance status of malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides used for public health has raised concern for vector control programmes. Alternative compounds to supplement the existing tools are important to be searched to overcome the existing resistance and persistence of pesticides in vectors and the environment respectively. The mosquitocidal effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla using different solvents of acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts against three medically important mosquito vectors was conducted. Methods Glycosmis pentaphylla plant leaves were collected from Kolli Hills, India. The WHO test procedures for larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate extracts against mosquito vectors, and the chemical composition of extracts identified using GC-MS analysis. Results The larvicidal and adulticidal activity of G. pentaphylla plant extracts clearly impacted the three species of major mosquitoes vectors. Acetone extracts had the highest larvicidal effect against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0004, 138.54; 0.2669, 73.7413 and 0.0585, 303.746 mg/ml, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 adulticide values of G. pentaphylla leaf extracts in acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate, solvents were as follows for Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti: 2.957, 5.458, 2.708, and 4.777, 3.449, 6.676 mg/ml respectively. The chemical composition of G. pentaphylla leaf extract has been found in 20 active compounds. Conclusions The plant leaf extracts of G. pentaphylla bioactive molecules which are effective and can be developed as an eco-friendly approach for larvicides and adulticidal mosquitoes vector control. Detailed identification and characterization of mosquitocidal effect of individual bioactive molecules ingredient may result into biodegradable effective tools for the control of mosquito vectors. PMID:27391146

  15. Ability of device to collect bacteria from cough aerosols generated by adults with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ku, David N.; Ku, Sarah K.; Helfman, Beth; McCarty, Nael A.; Wolff, Bernard J.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Anderson, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying lung pathogens and acute spikes in lung counts remain a challenge in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Bacteria from the deep lung may be sampled from aerosols produced during coughing. Methods: A new device was used to collect and measure bacteria levels from cough aerosols of patients with CF. Sputum and oral specimens were also collected and measured for comparison. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus mitis were detected in specimens using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) molecular assays. Results: Twenty adult patients with CF and 10 healthy controls participated. CF related bacteria (CFRB) were detected in 13/20 (65%) cough specimens versus 15/15 (100%) sputum specimens. Commensal S. mitis was present in 0/17 (0%, p=0.0002) cough specimens and 13/14 (93%) sputum samples. In normal controls, no bacteria were collected in cough specimens but 4/10 (40%) oral specimens were positive for CFRB. Conclusions: Non-invasive cough aerosol collection may detect lower respiratory pathogens in CF patients, with similar specificity and sensitivity to rates detected by BAL, without contamination by oral CFRB or commensal bacteria. PMID:27781088

  16. Systematic list of the species added to the mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K; Jambulingam, P

    2011-03-01

    Mosquito species housed in the mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India, were increased from 181 to 266 species belonging to 22 genera. The systematic list of the 85 species added to the collection is provided. The collection consists of a total of 31,874 adult specimens, of which 23,696 are individually mounted on minuten pins, while the rest are held in stock vials. It also includes 2,456 male genitalia and 470 female genitalia preparations, 3,523 larvae, 4,745 larval exuviae, and 3,057 pupal exuviae on microscope slides. Representative specimens of different species are available from 16 states and 3 union territories of India.

  17. Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Kerri L.; Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are anautogenous and must blood feed to produce eggs, while one, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is autogenous and produces eggs without blood feeding. Each mosquito species contained a low diversity community comprised primarily of aerobic bacteria acquired primarily from the aquatic habitat in which larvae developed. Our results suggested the communities in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae larvae share more similarities with one another than with Ge. atropalpus. Studies with Ae. aegypti also strongly suggested that adults transstadially acquired several members of the larval bacterial community, but only four genera of bacteria present in blood fed females were detected on eggs. Functional assays showed that axenic larvae of each species failed to develop beyond the first instar. Experiments with Ae. aegypti indicated several members of the microbial community and Escherichia coli successfully colonized axenic larvae and rescued development. Overall, our results provide new insights about the acquisition and structure of bacterial communities in mosquitoes. They also indicate three mosquito species spanning the breadth of the Culicidae depend on their gut microbiome for development. PMID:24766707

  18. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development.

    PubMed

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  19. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development

    PubMed Central

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A.; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  20. [The recurring necessity of mosquito surveillance and research].

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2015-10-01

    Hematophagous arthropods and the diseases associated with them represent a growing threat to human and animal health in Europe. After the eradication of endemic malaria from Europe in the middle of the last century, there has been a resurgence of mosquitoes as significant vectors of disease agents under the influence of continuing globalisation, as exotic species and mosquito-borne pathogens are being introduced with increasing frequency. At present, southern Europe is particularly affected by disease outbreaks and cases, but invasive mosquito species, including efficient vectors, have also emerged in Germany. While there is considerable knowledge on the vector potential of many tropical and subtropical mosquito species, corresponding data on the indigenous mosquito species are scarce. Exceptions are the Anopheles species, which were already vectors of malaria parasites in historic Europe. It must be assumed, however, that many further indigenous species are able to transmit pathogens under certain conditions and will by all means gain vector competence under a scenario of climate warming. Thus, the permanent surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease agents is paramount for the purposes of conducting risk analyses and modelling, in addition to research work addressing the conditions of the spread of vectors and pathogens and of pathogen transmission. Only ample data can facilitate taking appropriate prophylactic action and designing control strategies. International health organizations have realised this and started to promote data collection on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the EU. At a national levels, authorities are more reluctant, although, similar to other fields of health, it has been shown for mosquito-borne diseases that preventive measures are more cost-saving than disease case management and the coverage of follow-up costs. The present article is intended to illustrate the necessity of the re-intensification of mosquito

  1. [The recurring necessity of mosquito surveillance and research].

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2015-10-01

    Hematophagous arthropods and the diseases associated with them represent a growing threat to human and animal health in Europe. After the eradication of endemic malaria from Europe in the middle of the last century, there has been a resurgence of mosquitoes as significant vectors of disease agents under the influence of continuing globalisation, as exotic species and mosquito-borne pathogens are being introduced with increasing frequency. At present, southern Europe is particularly affected by disease outbreaks and cases, but invasive mosquito species, including efficient vectors, have also emerged in Germany. While there is considerable knowledge on the vector potential of many tropical and subtropical mosquito species, corresponding data on the indigenous mosquito species are scarce. Exceptions are the Anopheles species, which were already vectors of malaria parasites in historic Europe. It must be assumed, however, that many further indigenous species are able to transmit pathogens under certain conditions and will by all means gain vector competence under a scenario of climate warming. Thus, the permanent surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease agents is paramount for the purposes of conducting risk analyses and modelling, in addition to research work addressing the conditions of the spread of vectors and pathogens and of pathogen transmission. Only ample data can facilitate taking appropriate prophylactic action and designing control strategies. International health organizations have realised this and started to promote data collection on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the EU. At a national levels, authorities are more reluctant, although, similar to other fields of health, it has been shown for mosquito-borne diseases that preventive measures are more cost-saving than disease case management and the coverage of follow-up costs. The present article is intended to illustrate the necessity of the re-intensification of mosquito

  2. Eastern equine encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and their role as bridge vectors.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2010-12-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. Other mosquito species that feed opportunistically on mammals have been incriminated as bridge vectors to humans and horses. To evaluate the capacity of these mosquitoes to acquire, replicate, and potentially transmit EEEV, we estimated the infection prevalence and virus titers in mosquitoes collected in Connecticut, USA, by cell culture, plaque titration, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Cs. melanura mosquitoes were the predominant source of EEEV (83 [68%] of 122 virus isolations) and the only species to support consistently high virus titers required for efficient transmission. Our findings suggest that Cs. melanura mosquitoes are primary enzootic and epidemic vectors of EEEV in this region, which may explain the relative paucity of human cases. This study emphasizes the need for evaluating virus titers from field-collected mosquitoes to help assess their role as vectors.

  3. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential of Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Bryan T.; Stone, Christopher M.; Ebrahimi, Babak; Briët, Olivier J.T.; Foster, Woodbridge A.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for experiments on behaviour, reproduction, and adult survivorship of the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m3) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito’s energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately, using a method that accounts for a proportion of bodies being lost. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single-cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition, and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes where space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339

  4. Insecticide resistance status, esterase activity, and electromorphs from mosquito populations of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), in Houston (Harris County), Texas.

    PubMed

    Pietrantonio, P V; Gibson, G; Nawrocki, S; Carrier, F; Knight, W P

    2000-06-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say is a vector of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) in Texas. This disease is endemic and prevalent in the Houston area. Disease prevention through mosquito control is mainly targeted against adults by application of a resmethrin-piperonyl butoxide formulation (Scourge). Immature mosquitoes were collected from eight areas in Harris County during 1998. The susceptibility status of these populations to Scourge, malathion, and resmethrin, the latter alone or with an esterase inhibitor as a synergist, was determined using a bottle assay with females. The population structure was investigated by electrophoretic analysis of esterases and their activity. Individual females were also analyzed for esterase activity by plate assay and for isoenzyme pattern by native PAGE. Bioassays indicated high levels of resistance to malathion in all areas. In addition, the effectiveness of Scourge in mosquitoes from area 51 deteriorated throughout the season. A localized, distinctive esterase pattern and activity level was observed in mosquitoes from different areas. Overall, the frequency of esterases Est alpha 2 (A2)/Est beta 2 (B2) was higher than that of Est beta 1 (B1). Altogether, these results indicate the onset of a fragile situation for mosquito control that should be further analyzed to effectively maintain the SLE prevention program for Harris County.

  5. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children’s understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together, which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children’s knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions. PMID:24223477

  6. Intricate predatory decisions by a mosquito-specialist spider from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert R; Li, Daiqin; Woon, Jeremy R W; Hashim, Rosli; Cross, Fiona R

    2014-10-01

    Paracyrba wanlessi is a southeast Asian jumping spider (Salticidae) that lives in the hollow internodes of fallen bamboo and preys on the larvae, pupae and adults of mosquitoes. In contrast to Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid that is also known for actively targeting mosquitoes as preferred prey, there was no evidence of P. wanlessi choosing mosquitoes on the basis of species, sex or diet. However, our findings show that P. wanlessi chooses mosquitoes significantly more often than a variety of other prey types, regardless of whether the prey are in or away from water, and regardless of whether the mosquitoes are adults or juveniles. Moreover, a preference for mosquito larvae, pupae and adults is expressed regardless of whether test spiders are maintained on a diet of terrestrial or aquatic prey and regardless of whether the diet includes or excludes mosquitoes. Congruence of an environmental factor (in water versus away from water) with prey type (aquatic versus terrestrial mosquitoes) appeared to be important and yet, even when the prey were in the incongruent environment, P. wanlessi continued to choose mosquitoes more often than other prey.

  7. Intricate predatory decisions by a mosquito-specialist spider from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert R; Li, Daiqin; Woon, Jeremy R W; Hashim, Rosli; Cross, Fiona R

    2014-10-01

    Paracyrba wanlessi is a southeast Asian jumping spider (Salticidae) that lives in the hollow internodes of fallen bamboo and preys on the larvae, pupae and adults of mosquitoes. In contrast to Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid that is also known for actively targeting mosquitoes as preferred prey, there was no evidence of P. wanlessi choosing mosquitoes on the basis of species, sex or diet. However, our findings show that P. wanlessi chooses mosquitoes significantly more often than a variety of other prey types, regardless of whether the prey are in or away from water, and regardless of whether the mosquitoes are adults or juveniles. Moreover, a preference for mosquito larvae, pupae and adults is expressed regardless of whether test spiders are maintained on a diet of terrestrial or aquatic prey and regardless of whether the diet includes or excludes mosquitoes. Congruence of an environmental factor (in water versus away from water) with prey type (aquatic versus terrestrial mosquitoes) appeared to be important and yet, even when the prey were in the incongruent environment, P. wanlessi continued to choose mosquitoes more often than other prey. PMID:26064534

  8. Intricate predatory decisions by a mosquito-specialist spider from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert R.; Li, Daiqin; Woon, Jeremy R. W.; Hashim, Rosli; Cross, Fiona R.

    2014-01-01

    Paracyrba wanlessi is a southeast Asian jumping spider (Salticidae) that lives in the hollow internodes of fallen bamboo and preys on the larvae, pupae and adults of mosquitoes. In contrast to Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid that is also known for actively targeting mosquitoes as preferred prey, there was no evidence of P. wanlessi choosing mosquitoes on the basis of species, sex or diet. However, our findings show that P. wanlessi chooses mosquitoes significantly more often than a variety of other prey types, regardless of whether the prey are in or away from water, and regardless of whether the mosquitoes are adults or juveniles. Moreover, a preference for mosquito larvae, pupae and adults is expressed regardless of whether test spiders are maintained on a diet of terrestrial or aquatic prey and regardless of whether the diet includes or excludes mosquitoes. Congruence of an environmental factor (in water versus away from water) with prey type (aquatic versus terrestrial mosquitoes) appeared to be important and yet, even when the prey were in the incongruent environment, P. wanlessi continued to choose mosquitoes more often than other prey. PMID:26064534

  9. Large-Volume Gravid Traps Enhance Collection of Culex Vectors.

    PubMed

    Popko, David A; Walton, William E

    2016-06-01

    Gravid mosquito collections were compared among several large-volume (infusion volume ≥35 liters) gravid trap designs and the small-volume (infusion volume  =  6 liters) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) gravid trap used routinely by vector control districts for vector and pathogen surveillance. The numbers of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and Cx. stigmatosoma collected by large gravid traps were greater than by the CDC gravid trap during nearly all overnight trials. Large-volume gravid traps collected on average 6.6-fold more adult female Culex mosquitoes compared to small-volume CDC gravid traps across 3 seasons during the 3 years of the studies. The differences in gravid mosquito collections between large-versus small-volume gravid traps were greatest during spring, when 8- to 56-fold more Culex individuals were collected using large-volume gravid traps. The proportion of gravid females in collections did not differ appreciably among the more effective trap designs tested. Important determinants of gravid trap performance were infusion container size and type as well as infusion volume, which determined the distance between the suction trap and the infusion surface. Of lesser importance for gravid trap performance were the number of suction traps, method of suction trap mounting, and infusion concentration. Fermentation of infusions between 1 and 4 wk weakly affected total mosquito collections, with Cx. stigmatosoma collections moderately enhanced by comparatively young and organically enriched infusions. A suction trap mounted above 100 liters of organic infusion housed in a 121-liter black plastic container collected the most gravid mosquitoes over the greatest range of experimental conditions, and a 35-liter infusion with side-mounted suction traps was a promising lesser-volume alternative design. PMID:27280347

  10. Mosquitoes, models, and dengue.

    PubMed

    Lifson, A R

    1996-05-01

    In the last 10 years dengue has spread markedly through Latin America and the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil). The mosquito Aedes aegypti has taken advantage of increased urbanization and crowding to transmit the dengue virus. The mosquito infests tires, cans, and water jars near dwellings. The female mosquito practices multiple, interrupted feeding. Thus, mosquito infesting and feeding practices facilitate dengue transmission in crowded conditions. Factors contributing to the spread of dengue include numbers of infected and susceptible human hosts, strain of dengue virus, size of mosquito population, feeding habits, time from infection to ability to transmit virus for both vector and host, likelihood of virus transmission from human to mosquito to human, and temperature (which affects vector distribution, size, feeding habits, and extrinsic incubation period). Public health models may use simulation models to help them plan or evaluate the potential impact of different intervention strategies and/or of environmental changes (e.g., global warming). Other factors contributing to the dengue epidemic are international travel, urbanization, population growth, crowding, poverty, a weakened public health infrastructure, and limited support for sustained disease control programs. Molecular epidemiology by nucleic acid sequence analysis is another sophisticated technique used to study infectious diseases. It showed that dengue type 3 isolated from Panama and Nicaragua in 1994 was identical to that responsible for the major dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Sri Lanka and India in the 1980s. Public health officials must remember three priorities relevant to dengue and other emerging infections: the need to strengthen surveillance efforts, dedicated and sustained involvement in prevention and control needs at the local level, and a strong

  11. Mosquito Larvae in Tires from Mississippi, United States: The Efficacy of Abiotic and Biotic Parameters in Predicting Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mosquito Populations and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Donald A.; Abuzeineh, Alisa A.; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F.; Schelble, Stephanie S.; Glasgow, William C.; Flanagan, Stephen D.; Skiff, Jeffrey J.; Reeves, Ashton; Kuehn, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Container systems, including discarded vehicle tires, which support populations of mosquitoes, have been of interest for understanding the variables that produce biting adults that serve as both nuisances and as public health threats. We sampled tires in six sites at three times in 2012 across the state of Mississippi to understand the biotic and abiotic variables responsible for explaining patterns of larvae of common species, species richness, and total abundance of mosquitoes. From 498 tires sampled, we collected >58,000 immatures representing 16 species, with the most common species including Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex quinquefasciatus (L.), Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis (Coquillett), and Culex territans (Walker) accounting for ∼97% of all larvae. We also documented 32 new county records for resident species and recent arrivals in the state, including Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) and Culex coronator (Dyar & Knab). Cluster analysis, which was used to associate sites and time periods based on similar mosquito composition, did reveal patterns across the state; however, there also were more general patterns between species and genera and environmental factors. Broadly, Aedes was often associated with factors related to detritus, whereas Culex was frequently associated with habitat variables (e.g., tire size and water volume) and microorganisms. Some Culex did lack factors connecting variation in early and late instars, suggesting differences between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival. General patterns between the tire environment and mosquito larvae do appear to exist, especially at the generic level, and point to inherent differences between genera that may aid in predicting vector locations and populations. PMID:26334813

  12. Mosquito Larvae in Tires from Mississippi, United States: The Efficacy of Abiotic and Biotic Parameters in Predicting Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mosquito Populations and Communities.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Abuzeineh, Alisa A; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F; Schelble, Stephanie S; Glasgow, William C; Flanagan, Stephen D; Skiff, Jeffrey J; Reeves, Ashton; Kuehn, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Container systems, including discarded vehicle tires, which support populations of mosquitoes, have been of interest for understanding the variables that produce biting adults that serve as both nuisances and as public health threats. We sampled tires in six sites at three times in 2012 across the state of Mississippi to understand the biotic and abiotic variables responsible for explaining patterns of larvae of common species, species richness, and total abundance of mosquitoes. From 498 tires sampled, we collected >58,000 immatures representing 16 species, with the most common species including Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex quinquefasciatus (L.), Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis (Coquillett), and Culex territans (Walker) accounting for ∼97% of all larvae. We also documented 32 new county records for resident species and recent arrivals in the state, including Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) and Culex coronator (Dyar & Knab). Cluster analysis, which was used to associate sites and time periods based on similar mosquito composition, did reveal patterns across the state; however, there also were more general patterns between species and genera and environmental factors. Broadly, Aedes was often associated with factors related to detritus, whereas Culex was frequently associated with habitat variables (e.g., tire size and water volume) and microorganisms. Some Culex did lack factors connecting variation in early and late instars, suggesting differences between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival. General patterns between the tire environment and mosquito larvae do appear to exist, especially at the generic level, and point to inherent differences between genera that may aid in predicting vector locations and populations. PMID:26334813

  13. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1995-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs and Imeques C-mem-ini-kem acclimation facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O, kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. In the spring of 1994, juvenile summer steelhead were acclimated at Bonifer and Minthorn. At Imeques C-mem-ini-kem, juvenile spring chinook were acclimated in the spring and fall. A total of 92 unmarked and 42 marked summer steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from October 1, 1993 through May 2, 1994 and held at Minthorn. An estimated 234,432 green eggs were taken from 48 females. The eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and early rearing. Fingerlings were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for final rearing and release into the Umatilla River in 1995. Fall chinook and coho salmon broodstock were not collected in 1994. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla River releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries. Total estimated juvenile adult survival rates are detailed in this document.

  14. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H’), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Methods Oviposition sites were sampled during 2–3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. Results In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H’ = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 1.61) and Michoacán (H’ = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H’ = 1.93), Colima (H’ = 1.95), Sinaloa (H’ = 1.99) and Jalisco (H’ = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H’ = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Conclusion This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico’s National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection. PMID:24450800

  15. Detection and Monitoring of Spatio-temporal Change in the Distribution of Mosquito Vector Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes transmit blood-borne disease agents that cause morbidity and mortality in human and animal populations. Preemption of epidemics/epizootics of mosquito-borne disease is predicated on the timely and effective application of vector control. Such timing is decided on the basis of adult mosq...

  16. Geographic Variation of Photoperiodic Diapause but Not Adult Survival or Reproduction of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North America

    PubMed Central

    Leisnham, P. T.; Towler, L.; Juliano, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate differences across latitude can result in seasonal constraints and selection on life-history characters. Because Aedes albopictus (Skuse) invaded North America in the mid-1980s, it has spread across a range of ≈14° latitude and populations in the north experience complete adult mortality because of cold winter temperatures that are absent in the south. Life-table experiments were conducted to test for differences in the adult survival and reproductive schedules of Ae. albopictus females from three populations from the northern (Salem, NJ; Springfield, IL; Eureka, MO; ≈39° N) and southern (Palm Beach, Palmetto, Tampa, FL; ≈27–28° N) extremes of the species distribution in North America. There were consistent differences between northern and southern populations in incidence of photoperiodically-induced egg diapause. Under short daylength, diapause eggs constituted twice the proportion of total viable eggs from northern females (81.9–92.1%) than southern females (35.9–42.7%). There were no consistent differences between northern and southern populations in resource allocation between reproduction and maintenance, reproduction over time, and reproductive investment among offspring, and no apparent trade-offs between diapause incidence with reproduction or longevity. Our results suggest that the main response of North American Ae. albopictus to unfavorable winter climates is via the life history strategy of producing diapausing eggs, rather than quantitative variation in reproduction, and that there are no detectable costs to adult survival. Inherent geographic variation in the expression of diapause, consistent with the latitudinal extremes of A. albopictus, indicates evolutionary loss of diapause response in southern populations because of the invasion of A. albopictus in North America. PMID:22707762

  17. [Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology in natural and artificial breeding places in rural areas of the northern Paraná State, Brazil. I.--Collections from a riverbed].

    PubMed

    Lopes, J; Lozovei, A L

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the Culicidae species apt to colonize the waters of a creek with reduced gallery forest in the southern region of Brazil. Captures were performed using a water insect-collecting net. The following species were captured. Aedes crinifer, Aedomya squamipennis, Anopheles fluminensis, An. intermedius, An. albitarsis, An. argyritarsis, An. evansae, An. strodei, An. oswaldoi, An. Triannulatus, Chagasia fajardi, Culex bidens, Cx. group coronator, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. Mollis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. coppenamensis, Cx. vaxus, Cx. group inhibitor, Cx. intrincatus, Cx. (Melanoconion) sp, Psorophora saeva (?) and Uranotaenia pulcherrima. As for the species which showed the highest frequency rate, the following aspects were studied: population fluctuation, environmental factor correlated with geographic distribution along the area. It was concluded that superficial waters with reduced gallery forest may serve as a refuge for some Culicidae. This fact may contribute to the domiciliation process of the species. PMID:8539529

  18. Laboratory and field testing of bednet traps for mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Andris, Heri; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Barbara, Kathryn A; Munif, Amrul

    2010-06-01

    Surveillance of medically important mosquitoes is critical to determine the risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. The purpose of this research was to test self-supporting, exposure-free bednet traps to survey mosquitoes. In the laboratory we tested human-baited and unbaited CDC light trap/cot bednet (CDCBN) combinations against three types of traps: the Mbita Trap (MIBITA), a Tent Trap (TENT), and a modified Townes style Malaise trap (TSM). In the laboratory, 16 runs comparing MBITA, TSM, and TENT to the CDCBN were conducted for a total of 48 runs of the experiment using 13,600 mosquitoes. The TENT trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The CDCBN collected significantly more than the MBITA and there was no difference between the TSM and the CDCBN. Two field trials were conducted in Cibuntu, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. The first test compared human-baited and unbaited CDCBN, TENT, and TSM traps during six nights over two consecutive weeks per month from January, 2007 to September, 2007 for a total of 54 trapnights. A total of 8,474 mosquitoes representing 33 species were collected using the six trapping methods. The TENT-baited trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than both the CDCBN and the TSM. The second field trial was a comparison of the baited and unbaited TENT and CDCBN traps and Human Landing Collections (HLCs). The trial was carried out from January, 2008 to May, 2008 for a total of 30 trap nights. A total of 11,923 mosquitoes were collected representing 24 species. Human Landing Collections captured significantly more mosquitoes than either the TENT or the CDCBN. The baited and unbaited TENT collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The TENT trap was found to be an effective, light-weight substitute for the CDC light-trap, bednet combination in the field and should be considered for use in surveys of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, arboviruses, and filariasis.

  19. Mosquito proboscis: An elegant biomicroelectromechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X. Q.; Wu, C. W.

    2010-07-01

    The mouthparts of female mosquitoes have evolved to form a special proboscis, a natural biomicroelectromechanical system (BMEMS), which is used for painlessly penetrating human skin and sucking blood. Scanning electron microscope observations show that the mosquito proboscis consists of a small bundle of long, tapering, and feeding stylets that are collectively called the fascicle, and a large scaly outer lower lip called the labium. During blood feeding, only the fascicle penetrates into the skin while the labium buckles back to remain on the surface of the skin. Here, we measured the dynamic force of penetration of the fascicle into human skin to reveal the mechanical principle underlying the painless process of penetration. High-speed video observations of movements associated with insertion of the fascicle indicate that the “smart” mosquito does not directly pierce its victim’s skin with the fascicle. Instead, it uses the two maxillas as variable frequency microsaws with nanosharp teeth to advance into the skin tissue. This elegant BMEMS enables the mosquito to insert its feeding fascicle into human skin using an exceedingly small force (average of 16.5μN ).

  20. Mosquito proboscis: an elegant biomicroelectromechanical system.

    PubMed

    Kong, X Q; Wu, C W

    2010-07-01

    The mouthparts of female mosquitoes have evolved to form a special proboscis, a natural biomicroelectromechanical system (BMEMS), which is used for painlessly penetrating human skin and sucking blood. Scanning electron microscope observations show that the mosquito proboscis consists of a small bundle of long, tapering, and feeding stylets that are collectively called the fascicle, and a large scaly outer lower lip called the labium. During blood feeding, only the fascicle penetrates into the skin while the labium buckles back to remain on the surface of the skin. Here, we measured the dynamic force of penetration of the fascicle into human skin to reveal the mechanical principle underlying the painless process of penetration. High-speed video observations of movements associated with insertion of the fascicle indicate that the "smart" mosquito does not directly pierce its victim's skin with the fascicle. Instead, it uses the two maxillas as variable frequency microsaws with nanosharp teeth to advance into the skin tissue. This elegant BMEMS enables the mosquito to insert its feeding fascicle into human skin using an exceedingly small force (average of 16.5 μN). PMID:20866651

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of mosquitoes in stream pools of a biosphere reserve of Southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, S; Arunprasanna, V; Kannan, M; Dinakaran, S; Krishnan, M

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of mosquitoes in stream pools were examined in a biosphere reserve of the Southern Western Ghats, India. The immature mosquitoes in stream pools were collected from stream substrates of bedrock pool, boulder cavity and sand puddle. The collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified. In total, 16 species from four genera of mosquitoes were collected. The mosquito species from Culex and Anopheles were predominantly occurred. The bedrock pool had the highest diversity and abundance of mosquitoes. The statistical analyses showed that the substrate specificity and the seasons were positively related to the distribution of mosquitoes rather than spatial pattern. This study described the spatial and temporal pattern of mosquitoes in stream pools of the Southern Western Ghats. This information would be helpful to National Vector borne disease control program for surveillance and control.

  2. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance.

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-07-04

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control.

  3. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    PubMed Central

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control. PMID:27373794

  4. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control.

  5. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance.

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control. PMID:27373794

  6. Established Population of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes albopictus in Romania, 2012-14.

    PubMed

    Prioteasa, Liviu F; Dinu, Sorin; Fălcuţă, Elena; Ceianu, Cornelia S

    2015-06-01

    During an entomological investigation carried out in Bucharest and surroundings in fall of 2012, 45 adult mosquitoes (38 females and 7 males) of Aedes albopictus were collected in a neighborhood from the southern area of the city. The morphological identification of the species was further confirmed by sequencing 2 mitochondrial DNA markers: the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Aedes albopictus was collected again in 2013 in the same area from July until October. During late summer the species was found also in another location in the city, downtown Bucharest. Larvae were found in water barrels and other types of household containers, as well as in rain catch basins. In 2014, following a nuisance complaint of a Bucharest inhabitant, the entomological investigation found aggressive Ae. albopictus adults on his property that harbored many mosquito larvae in container-type breeding habitats. These findings are the 1st records of this invasive species and of its breeding population in Romania, and show maintenance of the species over 2 winter seasons. Surveillance of the species outside the area of the capital city was not performed, therefore it is not known whether Ae. albopictus has been introduced in other regions of the country. The presence of Ae. albopictus has been reported every year (2012-14) to competent public health authorities, stressing on the importance of surveillance and of implementation of control measures.

  7. A study of population changes in adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) during a mosquito control programme in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Holmes, P R

    1986-02-01

    The effectiveness of insecticidal control measures on adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, was examined. Direct treatment of the study site with cypermethrin applied as a fog caused a temporary reduction both in total numbers (males and females) and in the proportion of older females. When cypermethrin was applied as an ultra low volume formulation at dusk and dawn numbers of males were greatly reduced, but numbers of females were not affected. It appears that the adulticiding operations had little overall effect on the total numbers or survival rate of females, or breeding success. The oviposition cycle duration was estimated to be two days, with the survival rate per oviposition cycle calculated as 30%. With these values it is thought unlikely that filariasis would be transmitted in Dubai.

  8. Cultural Codes as Catalysts for Collective Conscientisation in Environmental Adult Education: Mr. Floatie, Tree Squatting and Save-Our-Surfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how cultural codes in environmental adult education can be used to "frame" collective identity, develop counterhegemonic ideologies, and catalyse "educative-activism" within social movements. Three diverse examples are discussed, spanning environmental movements in urban Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, the redwoods of…

  9. Genetics of Mosquito Vector Competence

    PubMed Central

    Beerntsen, Brenda T.; James, Anthony A.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2000-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Efforts to control mosquito-borne diseases have been impeded, in part, by the development of drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, and environmental concerns over the application of insecticides. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel disease control strategies that can complement or replace existing control methods. One such strategy is to generate pathogen-resistant mosquitoes from those that are susceptible. To this end, efforts have focused on isolating and characterizing genes that influence mosquito vector competence. It has been known for over 70 years that there is a genetic basis for the susceptibility of mosquitoes to parasites, but until the advent of powerful molecular biological tools and protocols, it was difficult to assess the interactions of pathogens with their host tissues within the mosquito at a molecular level. Moreover, it has been only recently that the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogen destruction, such as melanotic encapsulation and immune peptide production, have been investigated. The molecular characterization of genes that influence vector competence is becoming routine, and with the development of the Sindbis virus transducing system, potential antipathogen genes now can be introduced into the mosquito and their effect on parasite development can be assessed in vivo. With the recent successes in the field of mosquito germ line transformation, it seems likely that the generation of a pathogen-resistant mosquito population from a susceptible population soon will become a reality. PMID:10704476

  10. Urbanization Increases Aedes albopictus Larval Habitats and Accelerates Mosquito Development and Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiji; Kamara, Fatmata; Zhou, Guofa; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Li, Chunyuan; Liu, Yanxia; Zhou, Yanhe; Yao, Lijie; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aedes albopictus is a very invasive and aggressive insect vector that causes outbreaks of dengue fever, chikungunya disease, and yellow fever in many countries. Vector ecology and disease epidemiology are strongly affected by environmental changes. Urbanization is a worldwide trend and is one of the most ecologically modifying phenomena. The purpose of this study is to determine how environmental changes due to urbanization affect the ecology of Aedes albopictus. Methods Aquatic habitats and Aedes albopictus larval population surveys were conducted from May to November 2013 in three areas representing rural, suburban, and urban settings in Guangzhou, China. Ae. albopictus adults were collected monthly using BG-Sentinel traps. Ae. albopictus larva and adult life-table experiments were conducted with 20 replicates in each of the three study areas. Results The urban area had the highest and the rural area had the lowest number of aquatic habitats that tested positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Densities in the larval stages varied among the areas, but the urban area had almost two-fold higher densities in pupae and three-fold higher in adult populations compared with the suburban and rural areas. Larvae developed faster and the adult emergence rate was higher in the urban area than in suburban and rural areas. The survival time of adult mosquitoes was also longer in the urban area than it was in suburban and rural areas. Study regions, surface area, water depth, water clearance, surface type, and canopy coverage were important factors associated with the presence of Ae. albopictus larvae. Conclusions Urbanization substantially increased the density, larval development rate, and adult survival time of Ae. albopictus, which in turn potentially increased the vector capacity, and therefore, disease transmissibility. Mosquito ecology and its correlation with dengue virus transmission should be compared in different environmental settings. PMID:25393814

  11. Development of a novel sticky trap for container-breeding mosquitoes and evaluation of its sampling properties to monitor urban populations of Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Facchinelli, L; Valerio, L; Pombi, M; Reiter, P; Costantini, C; Della Torre, A

    2007-06-01

    Collection methods currently used for large-scale sampling of adult Stegomyia mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) present several operational limitations, which constitute major drawbacks to the epidemiological surveillance of arboviruses, the evaluation of the impact of control strategies, and the surveillance of the spreading of allochthonous species into non-endemic regions. Here, we describe a new sticky trap designed to capture adult container-breeding mosquitoes and to monitor their population dynamics. We tested the sampling properties of the sticky trap in Rome, Italy, where Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus is common. The results of our observations, and the comparison between sticky trap catches and catches made with the standard oviposition trap, are presented. The sticky trap collected significantly larger numbers of Ae. albopictus females than any other Culicidae species representing >90% of the total catches. A maximum of 83 An. albopictus females was collected in a single week. A high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient r= 0.96) was found between the number of females and the number of eggs collected by the traps. The functional relationship between the number of eggs and the number of adult females was assessed by major axis regression fitted to log(1 +x)-transformed trap counts as y= 0.065 + 1.695x. Trap samples significantly departed from a random distribution; Taylor's power law was fitted to the trap samples to quantify the degree of aggregation in the catches, returning the equations s(2)= 2.401 m(1.325) for the sticky trap and s(2)= 13.068 m(1.441) for the ovitrap, with s(2) and m denoting the weekly catch variance and mean, respectively, indicating that eggs were significantly more aggregated than mosquitoes (P < 0.0001). Taylor's power law parameters were used to estimate the minimum number of sample units necessary to obtain sample estimates with a fixed degree of precision and sensitivity. For the range of densities encountered in our

  12. Vector competence of New Zealand mosquitoes for selected arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Laura D; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Mackereth, Graham

    2011-07-01

    New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission.

  13. Potential for New York mosquitoes to transmit West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M; Oliver, J

    2000-03-01

    We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City Metropolitan Area during the recent (1999) WN outbreak were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that had died during this outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 weeks later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Culex pipiens mosquitoes were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection did transmit WN virus by bite. In contrast, Aedes vexans were only moderately susceptible to oral infection; however, those individuals inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite.

  14. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  15. Characterizing the relationship between Asian tiger mosquito abundance and habitat in urban New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferwerda, Carolin

    2009-12-01

    Since its introduction to North America in 1987, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has spread rapidly. Due to its unique ecology and preference for container breeding sites, Ae. albopictus commonly inhabits urban/suburban areas and is often in close contact with humans. An aggressive pest, this mosquito species is a vector of multiple arboviruses. In order for mosquito control efforts to remain effective, control of this important vector must be guided by spatially explicit habitat models that aid in predicting mosquito outbreaks. Using linear regression, I determined the relationship between adult Ae. albopictus abundance and climate, census, and land use factors in nine urban/suburban study sites in central New Jersey. Systematically collected adult counts (females and males) from July to October 2008, served as estimates of abundance. Fine-scale land use/land cover data were obtained from object-oriented classifications of 2007 CIR orthophotos in Definiens eCognition. Mosquito abundance data were tested for spatial autocorrelation via Moran's I, semivariograms, and hotspot analysis in order to reveal consistent patterns in abundance. Spatial pattern analysis produced little evidence of consistent spatial autocorrelation, though several sites exhibited recurring hotspots, especially in areas near residential housing and vegetation. Stepwise multiple regression was able to explain 20-25 percent of variation in Ae. albopictus abundance at the 'backyard' or cell level and 72-78 percent of variation in abundance at the 'neighborhood' or study site level. Meteorological variables (temperature on the trap date and precipitation), census variables (vacant housing units and population density), and more detailed land use/land cover classes (deciduous woody vegetation, rights-of-way and vacant lots) were frequently selected in all eight models, though many other independent variables were included in the individual models. The results of the spatial statistics

  16. Conidiobolus macrosporus (Entomophthorales), a mosquito pathogen in Central Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new fungal pathogen of Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) adults, Conidiobolus macrosporus (Ancylistaceae), was detected and isolated during a survey of mosquito pathogens close to the city of Aruanã, Goiás State of Brazil, in December 2014. The morphological characteristics of C. macrosporus are pres...

  17. Neutrophil adherence to isolated adult cardiac myocytes. Induction by cardiac lymph collected during ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Youker, K; Smith, C W; Anderson, D C; Miller, D; Michael, L H; Rossen, R D; Entman, M L

    1992-01-01

    Canine neutrophils can be induced to adhere in vitro to isolated adult cardiac myocytes by stimulation of the neutrophils with chemotactic factors such as zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) only if the myocytes have been previously exposed to cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These cytokines induce synthesis and surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the myocyte, and neutrophil adhesion is almost entirely CD18 and ICAM-1 dependent. The present study examines cardiac-specific lymph collected from awake dogs during 1-h coronary occlusion and 3 d of reperfusion for its ability to induce both ICAM-1 expression in cardiac myocytes, and neutrophil-myocyte adherence. Reperfusion lymph induced ICAM-1 expression in isolated myocytes, and myocyte adherence to ZAS-stimulated neutrophils that was completely inhibited by anti-CD18 and anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies. This activity peaked at 90 min of reperfusion and persisted for up to 72 h. Preischemic lymph was not stimulatory. IL-1 appeared not to be a stimulating factor in lymph in that dilutions of lymph were found to inhibit the stimulatory effects of recombinant IL-1 beta. However, investigation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) revealed that recombinant IL-6 stimulated myocyte adhesiveness for ZAS-stimulated neutrophils (ED50 = 0.002 U/ml) and expression of ICAM-1 by isolated myocytes. IL-6 neutralizing antibody markedly reduced the ability of reperfusion lymph to stimulate adhesion and ICAM-1 expression, and estimates of levels of IL-6 in reperfusion lymph ranged from 0.035 to 0.14 U/ml. These results indicate that cytokines capable of promoting neutrophil-myocyte adhesion occur in extracellular fluid during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium, and that one of these cytokines is IL-6. Neutrophil-myocyte adhesion may be of pathogenic significance because it may enhance the cytotoxic activity of the neutrophil. Images PMID:1346618

  18. Zika Virus Emergence in Mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18∶00 to 21∶00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment. PMID

  19. Analysis of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in southwestern Nigeria revealed no West Nile virus activity

    PubMed Central

    Sule, Waidi Folorunso; Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amplification and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquitoes are driven by presence and number of viraemic/susceptible avian hosts. Methods In order to predict risk of WNV infection to humans, we collected mosquitoes from horse stables in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sorted and tested in pools with real-time RT-PCR to detect WNV (or flavivirus) RNA using WNV-specific primers and probes, as well as, pan-flavivirus-specific primers in two-step real-time RT-PCR. Minimum infection rate (MIR) was used to estimate mosquito infection rate. Results Only two genera of mosquitoes were caught (Culex, 98.9% and Aedes, 1.0%) totalling 4,112 females. None of the 424 mosquito pools tested was positive for WNV RNA; consequently the MIR was zero. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of amplicons detected in pan-flavivirus primer-mediated RT-PCR gave a consensus sequence of 28S rRNA of Culex quinquefasciatus suggesting integration of flaviviral RNA into mosquito genome. Conclusion While the latter finding requires further investigation, we conclude there was little or no risk of human infection with WNV in the study areas during sampling. There was predominance of Culex mosquito, a competent WNV vector, around horse stables in the study areas. However, mosquito surveillance needs to continue for prompt detection of WNV activity in mosquitoes. PMID:27279943

  20. Characterization of a new ultra-low volume fuselage spray configuration on Air Force C-130H airplane used for adult mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl; Latham, Mark; de Szalay, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) tested a new fuselage boom configuration on the C-130H airplane. We used into-the-wind and crosswind field trials to characterize a BVA oil (BVA Inc, Wixom, MI) droplet spectra produced by fuselage booms with flat-fan nozzles (8001, 8005) at the Air Force Range at Avon Park, FL. Across all trials, median droplet diameter (DV50) for 8001 and 8005 nozzles were 11.4 microm and 54.3 microm, respectively. For 8005 nozzles 22% of droplets collected were 7 microm to 25 microm size range while 75% of droplets from 8001 nozzles were < 7 microm. Fuselage configuration parameters and field data were also used as input variables into the Agricultural Dispersal (AGDISP) computer model to predict aerosol deposition and droplet fate. AGDISP predictions were compared with field data from crosswind tests and the model was found to fit reasonably well to empirical data. However, AGDISP predictions were better correlated with empirical findings for larger droplets than smaller droplets and for locations closer to the release point than further downwind.

  1. Preliminary Biological Studies on Larvae and Adult Anopheles Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Miraflores, a Malaria Endemic Locality in Guaviare Department, Amazonian Colombia

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    In the malaria endemic municipality of Miraflores in southeastern Amazonian Colombia, several aspects of the biology of local Anopheles species were investigated to supplement the limited entomological surveillance information available and to provide baseline data for malaria prevention and vector control. Anopheles darlingi Root, 1926 was the most abundant species (95.6%), followed by Anopheles braziliensis (Chagas) (3.6%) and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l. (Peryassu) (0.7%). During the dry season, exophagic activity was prevalent only between 1800–2100 hours; after this (2100–0600 hours) only endophagy was encountered. In contrast, during the rainy season, both endophagy and exophagy occurred throughout the collection period. The human biting rate for An. darlingi was 8.6. This species was positive for Plasmodium vivax VK210 with a sporozoite rate = 0.13 (1/788). Breeding sites corresponded to stream (n = 7), flooded excavations (n = 4), flooded forest (n = 1), wetlands (n = 2), and an abandoned water reservoir (n = 1). An. darlingi predominated in these sites in both seasons. Based on these data, An. darlingi is the main local malaria vector, and we recommend that local prevention and control efforts focus on strengthening entomological surveillance to determine potential changes of species biting behavior and time to reduce human–vector interactions. PMID:25276930

  2. Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Gardner, Allison M; Bara, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species.

  3. How mosquitoes fly in the rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Shankles, Peter; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. If raindrops are 50 times heavier than mosquitoes, how do mosquitoes fly in the rain? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we measure the impact force between a falling drop and a free-flying mosquito. High-speed videography of mosquitoes and custom-built mimics reveals a mosquito's low inertia renders it impervious to falling drops. Drops do not splash on mosquitoes, but simply push past them allowing a mosquito to continue on its flight path undeterred. We rationalize the force imparted using scaling relations based on the time of rebound between a falling drop and a free body of significantly less mass.

  4. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

  5. Pupal productivity & nutrient reserves of Aedes mosquitoes breeding in sewage drains & other habitats of Kolkata, India: implications for habitat expansion & vector management

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Soumyajit; Mohan, Sushree; Saha, Nabaneeta; Mohanty, Siba Prasad; Saha, Goutam K.; Aditya, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: The quality of breeding sites is reflected through the pupal productivity and the life history traits of Aedes mosquitoes. Using nutrient reserves and pupal productivity of Aedes as indicators, the larval habitats including sewage drains were characterized to highlight the habitat expansion and vector management. Methods: The pupae and adults collected from the containers and sewage drains were characterized in terms of biomass and nutrient reserves and the data were subjected to three way factorial ANOVA. Discriminant function analyses were performed to highlight the differences among the habitats for sustenance of Aedes mosquitoes. Results: Survey of larval habitats from the study area revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in the pupal productivity of Aedes among the habitats and months. Despite sewage drains being comparatively less utilized for breeding, the pupae were of higher biomass with corresponding adults having longer wings in contrast to other habitats. The nutrient reserve of the adults emerging from pupae of sewage drains was significantly higher (P<0.05), compared to other habitats, as reflected through the discriminant function analysis. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, sewage drains were equally congenial habitat as were plastic, porcelain and earthen habitats. Availability of Aedes immature in sewage drains poses increased risk of dengue, and thus vector control programme should consider inclusion of sewage drains as breeding habitat of dengue vector mosquitoes. PMID:26905248

  6. Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Jáder da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.

    2010-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector. PMID:21122222

  7. Relative abundance of tree hole-breeding mosquitoes in Boone County, Missouri, USA, with emphasis on the vector potential of Aedes triseriatus for canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis (Spirurida: Filariidae).

    PubMed

    Debboun, Mustapha; Green, Theodore J; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Hall, Robert D

    2005-09-01

    Aedes (Protomacleaya) triseriatus currently shares its habitat in the USA with the introduced species Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus. In the late 1980s, before the introduction of these 2 species, Ae. triseriatus was the dominant tree hole- and artificial container-breeding mosquito in central Missouri. Aedes triseriatus represented 89% of the mosquito immatures collected from water-filled tree holes and artificial containers at 3 forested field sites in central Missouri, from May to October, 1986 to 1988. Laboratory-reared female Ae. triseriatus were able to support larval development of Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) to the infective 3rd larval stage. A blood meal from a microfilaremic Collie-mix dog was sufficient to infect adult female mosquitoes, indicating that Ae. triseriatus is a possible vector of canine heartworm in central Missouri. Confirmation of the vector status of this species depends on the yet-to-be observed transmission of D. immitis by Ae. triseriatus in the field, possibly by experimental infection of dogs by wild-caught mosquitoes. Defining the role of this species in epizootic outbreaks could contribute toward accurate risk assessment as the abundance of Ae. triseriatus increases and decreases in response to the success of Ae. albopictus, Ae. japonicus, or other introduced container-breeding mosquitoes.

  8. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories. PMID:18697324

  9. Blood Meal Analysis of Mosquitoes Involved in a Rift Valley fever Outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Bloodfed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the bloodmeals. Bloodmeals from individual mosquito abdomens were sc...

  10. Blood-feeding ecology of mosquitoes in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tuten, H C; Bridges, W C; Paul, K S; Adler, P H

    2012-12-01

    To determine if the unique host assemblages in zoos influence blood-feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), a sampling programme was conducted in Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos, South Carolina, U.S.A., from April 2009 to October 2010. A total of 4355 female mosquitoes of 14 species were collected, of which 106 individuals of nine species were blood-fed. The most common taxa were Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab), Culex pipiens complex (L.) and Culex restuans (Theobald). Molecular analyses (cytochrome b) of bloodmeals revealed that mosquitoes fed on captive animals, humans and wildlife, and took mixed bloodmeals. Host species included one amphibian, 16 birds, 10 mammals (including humans) and two reptiles. Minimum dispersal distances after feeding on captive hosts ranged from 15.5 m to 327.0 m. Mosquito-host associations generally conformed to previous accounts, indicating that mosquito behaviour inside zoos reflects that outside zoos. However, novel variation in host use, including new, exotic host records, warrants further investigation. Zoos, thus, can be used as experiment environments in which to study mosquito behaviour, and the findings extrapolated to non-zoo areas, while providing medical and veterinary benefits to zoo animals, employees and patrons.

  11. Genetic Control Of Malaria Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kyle Jarrod; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of genetically modifying mosquito vectors to impair their ability to transmit the malaria parasite have been known for well over a decade. However, means to spread resistance or population control genes into wild mosquito populations remains an unsolved challenge. Two recent reports give hope that CRISPR technology may allow such challenge to be overcome. PMID:26809567

  12. De Havilland F-8 Mosquito

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    De Havilland F-8 Mosquito: This de Havilland F-8 Mosquito was flown at Langley by NACA pilot Bill Gray during longitudinal stability and control studies of the aircraft. This fast twin engine design was noteworthy for its wooden construction and its versatility.

  13. De Havilland F-8 Mosquito

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    De Havilland F-8 Mosquito: Not a Royal Air Force de Havilland DH-98, but an Air Force de Havilland F-8 Mosquito. A pair of these Canadian built, U. S. Army Air Force procured aircraft were flown at Langley. The Americans used these aircraft as photo-reconnaissance and meteorological aircraft.

  14. Nectar feeding by the early-spring mosquito Aedes provocans.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Gadawski, R M

    1994-07-01

    Nectar feeding by males and females of the mosquito Aedes provocans was studied at a site near Belleville, Ontario, Canada. Canada plum, Prunus nigra, and especially pin cherry, P. pensylvanica, bloomed contemporaneously with the emergence of Ae. provocans and were important nectar sources for adult mosquitoes during their first week of life. Blossoms of P. pensylvanica shielded for 24 h from foragers produced an average of 0.14 mg of sugar (approximately 2.3J). This nectar was avidly sought by both sexes of Ae. provocans; > 97% of the blossoms were visited by mosquitoes in the first few days of blooming. Young adult mosquitoes were found on blossoms at all hours of the day and night; feeding on P. nigra was strongly eocrepuscular, whereas on P. pensylvanica feeding was much less strongly periodic. Adults foraged for nectar in an energy-conserving, pedestrian strategy, devoting 56% (females) and 68% (males) of their time on blossoms to nectar feeding during foraging bouts that lasted a median of 5.3 min. Both sexes sought nectar soon after emergence--males before they had completed hypopygial rotation or swarmed, and females before mating or host seeking. Female Ae. provocans sought nectar in all stages of oogenesis, but primarily at the initiation of a gonotrophic cycle. Energy stores in the crop averaged 18J per female, with a distribution that depended on gonotrophic age and parity.

  15. Delayed action insecticides and their role in mosquito and malaria control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuncheng; Gourley, Stephen A; Liu, Rongsong

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the management of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. One possible approach to slowing down the evolution of resistance is to use late-life-acting (LLA) insecticides that selectively kill only the old mosquitoes that transmit malaria, thereby reducing selection pressure favoring resistance. In this paper we consider an age-structured compartmental model for malaria with two mosquito strains that differ in resistance to insecticide, using an SEI approach to model malaria in the mosquitoes and thereby incorporating the parasite developmental times for the two strains. The human population is modeled using an SEI approach. We consider both conventional insecticides that target all adult mosquitoes, and LLA insecticides that target only old mosquitoes. According to linearised theory the potency of the insecticide affects mainly the speed of evolution of resistance. Mutations that confer resistance can also affect other parameters such as mean adult life span and parasite developmental time. For both conventional and LLA insecticides the stability of the malaria-free equilibrium, with only the resistant mosquito strain present, depends mainly on these other parameters. This suggests that the main long term role of an insecticide could be to induce genetic changes that have a desirable effect on a vital parameter such as adult life span. However, when this equilibrium is unstable, numerical simulations suggest that a potent LLA insecticide can slow down the spread of malaria in humans but that the timing of its action is very important.

  16. Molecular detection and genotyping of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in mosquitoes during a 2010 outbreak in the Republic of Korea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seo, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Ramey, Andrew M.; Lee, Ji-Hyee; Kyung, Soon-Goo; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, In-Soo; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis. To reduce the impact of Japanese encephalitis among children in the Republic of Korea (ROK), the government established a mandatory vaccination program in 1967. Through the efforts of this program only 0-7 (mean 2.1) cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported annually in the ROK during the period of 1984-2009. However, in 2010 there was an outbreak of 26 confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis, including 7 deaths. This represented a >12-fold increase in the number of confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK as compared to the mean number reported over the last 26 years and a 3.7-fold increase over the highest annual number of cases during this same period (7 cases). Surveillance of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the 2010 outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK. A total of 6,328 culicine mosquitoes belonging to 12 species from 5 genera were collected at 6 survey sites from June through October 2010 and assayed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of JEV. A total of 34/371 pooled samples tested positive for JEV (29/121 Culex tritaeniorhynchus, 4/64 Cx. pipiens, and 1/26 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus) as confirmed by sequencing of the pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes. The maximum likelihood estimates of JEV positive individuals per 1,000 culicine vectors for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus were 11.8, 5.6, and 2.8, respectively. Sequences of the JEV pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes amplified from the culicine mosquitoes by RT-PCR were compared with those of JEV genotypes I-V. Phylogenetic analyses support the detection of a single genotype (I) among samples collected from the ROK in 2010.

  17. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Mosquitoes during a 2010 Outbreak in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Ramey, Andrew M.; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kyung, Soon-Goo; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, Yun Sang; Cho, In-Soo; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis. To reduce the impact of Japanese encephalitis among children in the Republic of Korea (ROK), the government established a mandatory vaccination program in 1967. Through the efforts of this program only 0–7 (mean 2.1) cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported annually in the ROK during the period of 1984–2009. However, in 2010 there was an outbreak of 26 confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis, including 7 deaths. This represented a >12-fold increase in the number of confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK as compared to the mean number reported over the last 26 years and a 3.7-fold increase over the highest annual number of cases during this same period (7 cases). Surveillance of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the 2010 outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK. A total of 6,328 culicine mosquitoes belonging to 12 species from 5 genera were collected at 6 survey sites from June through October 2010 and assayed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of JEV. A total of 34/371 pooled samples tested positive for JEV (29/121 Culex tritaeniorhynchus, 4/64 Cx. pipiens, and 1/26 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus) as confirmed by sequencing of the pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes. The maximum likelihood estimates of JEV positive individuals per 1,000 culicine vectors for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus were 11.8, 5.6, and 2.8, respectively. Sequences of the JEV pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes amplified from the culicine mosquitoes by RT-PCR were compared with those of JEV genotypes I-V. Phylogenetic analyses support the detection of a single genotype (I) among samples collected from the ROK in 2010. PMID:23390520

  18. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    PubMed

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication. PMID:17067048

  19. Distribution of Mosquito Larvae on Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, the Federated States of Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Sota; Toma, Takako; Taulung, Livinson

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of mosquito larvae were carried out in six areas of Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, the Federated States of Micronesia in December 2009 and June 2012. A total of 962 larvae of six species were collected from 106 natural and artificial habitats. They were identified as Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. marshallensis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. annulirostris, and Cx. kusaiensis. This is the first report from Kosrae Island for three of these species—Ae. marshallensis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. annulirostris. The most abundant species was Ae. albopictus, followed by Ae. marshallensis, and these two species were found in all areas. Relatively large numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. kusaiensis were found in five areas. Fewer Cx. annulirostris were found, and only in three areas. Aedes aegypti larvae were collected from a single habitat at Tafunsak in 2009. To prevent the outbreak of dengue fever, environmental management should focus on the destruction, alteration, disposal and recycling of containers that produce larger numbers of adult Aedes mosquitoes. PMID:24478593

  20. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hongfei; Degaetano, Arthur T.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  1. Mosquitoes: A Resource Book for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This booklet was written for anyone interested in growing mosquitoes and experimenting with them. There are three major sections: (1) rationale for studying mosquitoes, (2) raising mosquitoes, and (3) some scientific findings. The first section describes basic information about mosquitoes. The second section includes information about materials,…

  2. Malaria mosquitoes host-locate and feed upon caterpillars.

    PubMed

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts.

  3. Malaria Mosquitoes Host-Locate and Feed upon Caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts. PMID:25372720

  4. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-10-20

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences.

  5. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences. PMID:26492260

  6. Mosquito-Host Interactions during and after an Outbreak of Equine Viral Encephalitis in Eastern Panama

    PubMed Central

    Navia-Gine, Wayra G.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

  7. Adult Education. Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices: A Collection from the National Diffusion Network (NDN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    This booklet provides descriptions of 16 adult education programs that have been validated as successful by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel (JDRP), U.S. Department of Education and that are being promoted by the National Diffusion Network (NDN). Although the programs were developed by individual school districts in response to local needs,…

  8. New Adult Level Curriculum Materials in the Government Documents Collection. 1989-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Diana J., Comp.

    The purpose of this bibliography is to provide a list of government documents of special interest to students in education, especially adult students, teachers, and university faculty. Types of materials indexed include: curriculum guides and supplements, sources of government and non-government print and non-print resources, bibliographies,…

  9. Evaluation of various substances to increase adult Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) collections on alsynite cylinder traps in north Florida.

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E

    1999-09-01

    During 1993-1995, field studies evaluated various volatile substances to increase the catch of adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., on adhesive-coated translucent fiberglass (Alsynite) cylinder traps. Dry ice, 1-octen-3-ol (referred to as octenol), acetone, 4:1:8 mixture of 1 octen-3-ol: 3-n-propylphenol: 4-methylphenol, and an eye gnat (Hippelates) attractant were tested. Using dry ice as a baseline, the latter 4 treatments also were considered as possible alternatives to carbon dioxide. Dry ice significantly increased fly collections on cylinders as much as 25-fold compared with cylinders with no odor. Although trap collections increased by approximately 4% with addition of octenol (release rate approximately 18.0 mg/h), it was not significantly different when compared with dry ice alone. Fly collections on cylinders baited with octenol only were significantly lower than dry ice and not significantly different from cylinders with no odor. Collections from Alsynite cylinders baited with either acetone released at approximately 62.0 mg/h or eye gnat bait plus sand caught significantly more stable flies than no odor. However, neither substance increased fly collections as much as dry ice. The 4:1:8 phenolic mixture (released at either 0.7 mg/h or 20.0 mg/h) significantly increased fly collection on cylinders nearly 6-fold compared with no odor and warrants further investigation as an alternative to carbon dioxide for sampling stable flies.

  10. Wolbachia Enhances West Nile Virus (WNV) Infection in the Mosquito Culex tarsalis

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Brittany L.; Hughes, Grant L.; Paul, Oluwatobi; Matacchiero, Amy C.; Kramer, Laura D.; Rasgon, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Novel strategies are required to control mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit. One attractive approach involves maternally inherited endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. After artificial infection with Wolbachia, many mosquitoes become refractory to infection and transmission of diverse pathogens. We evaluated the effects of Wolbachia (wAlbB strain) on infection, dissemination and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) in the naturally uninfected mosquito Culex tarsalis, which is an important WNV vector in North America. After inoculation into adult female mosquitoes, Wolbachia reached high titers and disseminated widely to numerous tissues including the head, thoracic flight muscles, fat body and ovarian follicles. Contrary to other systems, Wolbachia did not inhibit WNV in this mosquito. Rather, WNV infection rate was significantly higher in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes compared to controls. Quantitative PCR of selected innate immune genes indicated that REL1 (the activator of the antiviral Toll immune pathway) was down regulated in Wolbachia-infected relative to control mosquitoes. This is the first observation of Wolbachia-induced enhancement of a human pathogen in mosquitoes, suggesting that caution should be applied before releasing Wolbachia-infected insects as part of a vector-borne disease control program. PMID:25010200

  11. Modulation of La Crosse Virus Infection in Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes Following Larval Exposure to Coffee Extracts.

    PubMed

    Eastep, Nicole E; Albert, Rachel E; Anderson, Justin R

    2012-01-01

    The mosquito-borne La Crosse virus (LACV; Family Bunyaviridae) may cause encephalitis, primarily in children, and is distributed throughout much of the eastern United States. No antivirals or vaccines are available for LACV, or most other mosquito-borne viruses, and prevention generally relies on mosquito control. We sought to determine whether coffee extracts could interfere with LACV replication and vector mosquito development. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee demonstrated significant reductions in LACV replication in direct antiviral assays. This activity was not due to the presence of caffeine, which did not inhibit the virus life cycle. Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito larvae suffered near total mortality when reared in high concentrations of regular and decaffeinated coffee and in caffeine. Following larval exposure to sublethal coffee concentrations, adult A. albopictus mosquitoes had significantly reduced whole-body LACV titers 5 days post-infection, compared to larvae reared in distilled water. These results suggest that it may be possible to both control mosquito populations and alter the vector competence of mosquitoes for arthropod-borne viruses by introducing antiviral compounds into the larval habitat.

  12. Modulation of La Crosse Virus Infection in Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes Following Larval Exposure to Coffee Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eastep, Nicole E.; Albert, Rachel E.; Anderson, Justin R.

    2012-01-01

    The mosquito-borne La Crosse virus (LACV; Family Bunyaviridae) may cause encephalitis, primarily in children, and is distributed throughout much of the eastern United States. No antivirals or vaccines are available for LACV, or most other mosquito-borne viruses, and prevention generally relies on mosquito control. We sought to determine whether coffee extracts could interfere with LACV replication and vector mosquito development. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee demonstrated significant reductions in LACV replication in direct antiviral assays. This activity was not due to the presence of caffeine, which did not inhibit the virus life cycle. Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito larvae suffered near total mortality when reared in high concentrations of regular and decaffeinated coffee and in caffeine. Following larval exposure to sublethal coffee concentrations, adult A. albopictus mosquitoes had significantly reduced whole-body LACV titers 5 days post-infection, compared to larvae reared in distilled water. These results suggest that it may be possible to both control mosquito populations and alter the vector competence of mosquitoes for arthropod-borne viruses by introducing antiviral compounds into the larval habitat. PMID:22470349

  13. Cloning and analysis of a cecropin gene from the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Vizioli, J; Bulet, P; Charlet, M; Lowenberger, C; Blass, C; Müller, H M; Dimopoulos, G; Hoffmann, J; Kafatos, F C; Richman, A

    2000-02-01

    Parasites of the genus Plasmodium are transmitted to mammalian hosts by anopheline mosquitoes. Within the insect vector, parasite growth and development are potentially limited by antimicrobial defence molecules. Here, we describe the isolation of cDNA and genomic clones encoding a cecropin antibacterial peptide from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The locus was mapped to polytene division 1C of the X chromosome. Cecropin RNA was induced by infection with bacteria and Plasmodium. RNA levels varied in different body parts of the adult mosquito. During development, cecropin expression was limited to the early pupal stage. The peptide was purified from both adult mosquitoes and cell culture supernatants. Anopheles gambiae synthetic cecropins displayed activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. PMID:10672074

  14. A reappraisal of the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of myxomatosis in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Service, M. W.

    1971-01-01

    Field experiments were made in southern England to re-examine the possibility that mosquitoes in Britain might feed on wild rabbits and hence be vectors of myxomatosis. Mosquitoes of several species were attracted to rabbits enclosed in cylindrical traps and in a trap in which the animal was placed in a wire mesh cage. Substantial numbers of mosquitoes were also caught biting, or attempting to bite, tethered rabbits which were not in cages or traps. Evidence that mosquitoes fed on wild rabbits under natural conditions was obtained from results of precipitin tests made on blood-smears collected from mosquitoes caught resting amongst vegetation. On a few evenings mosquitoes were seen to be attracted to healthy wild rabbits and apparently attempting to feed on them. Batches of two mosquito species collected from the field were infected with myxoma virus. It was concluded that contrary to previous beliefs mosquitoes in Britain feed to a certain extent on wild rabbits, and therefore are potential vectors of myxomatosis. No attempts were made to assess their relative importance in the transmission of the disease, which in Britain is transmitted mainly by the rabbit flea. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:4401995

  15. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera

  16. Survey of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M.; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera

  17. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera.

  18. 76 FR 52687 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for the Bureau of Indian Education Adult Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Program. The information collection is currently authorized by OMB Control number 1076-0120, which expires... will be able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0120. Title: Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  19. Gene Expression Studies in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xlao-Guang; Mathur, Geetika; James, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on gene expression in mosquitoes is motivated by both basic and applied interests. Studies of genes involved in hematophagy, reproduction, olfaction, and immune responses reveal an exquisite confluence of biological adaptations that result in these highly-successful life forms. The requirement of female mosquitoes for a bloodmeal for propagation has been exploited by a wide diversity of viral, protozoan and metazoan pathogens as part of their life cycles. Identifying genes involved in host-seeking, blood feeding and digestion, reproduction, insecticide resistance and susceptibility/refractoriness to pathogen development is expected to provide the bases for the development of novel methods to control mosquito-borne diseases. Advances in mosquito transgenesis technologies, the availability of whole genome sequence information, mass sequencing and analyses of transcriptomes and RNAi techniques will assist development of these tools as well as deepen the understanding of the underlying genetic components for biological phenomena characteristic of these insect species. PMID:19161831

  20. Collecting saliva and measuring salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase in frail community residing older adults via family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Nancy A; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-12-18

    Salivary measures have emerged in bio-behavioral research that are easy-to-collect, minimally invasive, and relatively inexpensive biologic markers of stress. This article we present the steps for collection and analysis of two salivary assays in research with frail, community residing older adults-salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. The field of salivary bioscience is rapidly advancing and the purpose of this presentation is to provide an update on the developments for investigators interested in integrating these measures into research on aging. Strategies are presented for instructing family caregivers in collecting saliva in the home, and for conducting laboratory analyses of salivary analytes that have demonstrated feasibility, high compliance, and yield quality specimens. The protocol for sample collection includes: (1) consistent use of collection materials; (2) standardized methods that promote adherence and minimize subject burden; and (3) procedures for controlling certain confounding agents. We also provide strategies for laboratory analyses include: (1) saliva handling and processing; (2) salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase assay procedures; and (3) analytic considerations.

  1. Collecting Saliva and Measuring Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-amylase in Frail Community Residing Older Adults via Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Nancy A.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary measures have emerged in bio-behavioral research that are easy-to-collect, minimally invasive, and relatively inexpensive biologic markers of stress. This article we present the steps for collection and analysis of two salivary assays in research with frail, community residing older adults-salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. The field of salivary bioscience is rapidly advancing and the purpose of this presentation is to provide an update on the developments for investigators interested in integrating these measures into research on aging. Strategies are presented for instructing family caregivers in collecting saliva in the home, and for conducting laboratory analyses of salivary analytes that have demonstrated feasibility, high compliance, and yield quality specimens. The protocol for sample collection includes: (1) consistent use of collection materials; (2) standardized methods that promote adherence and minimize subject burden; and (3) procedures for controlling certain confounding agents. We also provide strategies for laboratory analyses include: (1) saliva handling and processing; (2) salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase assay procedures; and (3) analytic considerations. PMID:24378361

  2. Collective Bargaining Agreement by and Between Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Faculty Association of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District 10, July 1973-June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Park Technical Inst., Fond du Lac, WI.

    This is the collective bargaining agreement between the Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Faculty Association of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District 10 covering the period July 1973-June 1974. Contents cover academic freedom; advancement on the salary schedule; aggrieved person; arbitration and…

  3. With Reference to Appalachia. A Collection of Mid-Twentieth-Century Facts and Viewpoints Selected on the Basis of Pertinence to Adult Education in Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Ruth H., Comp.

    Data describing conditions, resources, deficiencies, problems, and potentialities in Appalachia are presented as the first step of an evaluative and program-improvement study for the Appalachian Adult Basic Education Demonstration Center. The rationale for this data collection is that an adult education program can be significant only as it…

  4. Detection of avian Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences from mosquitoes captured in Minami Daito Island of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Sasaki, Emi; Sumiyama, Daisuke; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sawabe, Kyoko; Matsui, Shin; Horie, Sayaka; Akatani, Kana; Takagi, Masaoki; Omori, Sumie; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2008-11-01

    Several species of birds in Minami Daito Island, an oceanic island located in the far south from the main islands of Japan, were found to be infected with avian Plasmodium. However, no vector species of the avian malaria in this island have been revealed yet. To speculate potential vectors, we collected mosquitoes there and investigated using a PCR procedure whether the mosquitoes harbor avian malaria or not. Totally 1,264 mosquitoes including 9 species were collected during March 2006 to February 2007. The mosquitoes collected were stored every species, sampled date and location for DNA extraction. Fifteen out of 399 DNA samples showed positive for the partial mtDNA cytb gene of avian Plasmodium. Estimated minimum infection rate among collected mosquitoes was 1.2% in this study. Four species of mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Lutzia fuscanus and Mansonia sp. had avian Plasmodium gene sequences. Detected DNA sequences from A. albopictus and L. fuscanus were identical to an avian Plasmodium lineage detected in bull-headed shrike (Lanius bucephalus) captured in the island. Different sequences were detected from C. quinquefasciatus, which were corresponding to an avian Plasmodium from a sparrow (Passer montanus) and Plasmodium gallinaceum. Our results suggest that A. albopictus, Lutzia fuscanus, C. quinquefasciatus, and Mansonia sp. could be potential vectors of avian malaria in Minami Daito Island. This study was the first report of molecular detection of avian Plasmodium from mosquitoes in Japan.

  5. Discovery, distribution, and abundance of the newly introduced mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA.

    PubMed

    Andreadis, T G; Anderson, J F; Munstermann, L E; Wolfe, R J; Florin, D A

    2001-11-01

    The earliest documented specimen of an exotic east Asian mosquito Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) japonicis japonicus (Theobald) in the Western Hemisphere is reported along with the results of a state wide survey to determine the distribution and abundance of this mosquito in Connecticut. Ochlerotatus japonicus was collected from 87 locations in eight counties. It is established throughout the state and occurs in a variety of natural and artificial container habitats including discarded tire casings, bird baths, wooden barrels, porcelain bath tubs (used for watering animals), plastic milk cartons, toys, vinyl tarpaulins (covering wood piles and swimming pools), exposed rock holes in stream beds, tree holes, subterranean catch basins, surface water rain pools, and spring-fed depressions. Larvae were particularly common in containers with water, decaying leaves, and algae, in shaded and sunlit areas and, in rock-pool habitats along streambeds, in association with Ochlerotatus atropalpus (Coquillett). Adult females were collected in sod grass-infused gravid and CO2- baited light traps, from early June through October, with peak collections in September. Biting females were collected by human bait method augmented with CO2, verifying its capacity to feed on humans. The ovitraps used in this study were not effective for recovering this species. Our results suggest that Oc. japonicus was introduced into Connecticut between 1992 and 1998. Because of the ability of Oc. japonicus to transmit West Nile virus, and because of the recent detection of this virus in field-collected specimens, the introduction of Oc. japonicus is considered a significant public health development. PMID:11761373

  6. Evaluation of efficacy and human health risk of aerial ultra-low volume applications of pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide for adult mosquito management in response to West Nile virus activity in Sacramento County, California.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Paula A; Schleier, Jerome J; Reed, Marcia; Kelley, Kara; Goodman, Gary W; Brown, David A; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-03-01

    The Sacramento and Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District (SYMVCD, also referred to as "the District") conducts surveillance and management of mosquitoes in Sacramento and Yolo counties in California. Following an increase in numbers and West Nile virus (WNV) infection rates of Culex tarsalis and Culex pipiens, the District decided on July 26, 2007, to conduct aerial applications of Evergreen EC 60-6 (60% pyrethrins: 6% piperonyl butoxide) over approximately 215 km2 in the north area of Sacramento County on the nights of July 30, July 31, and August 1, 2007. At the same time, the District received notification of the first human WNV case in the area. To evaluate the efficacy of the applications in decreasing mosquito abundance and infection rates, we conducted pre- and post-trapping inside and outside the spray zone and assessed human health risks from exposure to the insecticide applications. Results showed a significant decrease in abundance of both Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens, and in the minimum infection rate of Cx. tarsalis. Human-health risks from exposure to the insecticide were below thresholds set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:20402352

  7. Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  8. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova. PMID:26364191

  9. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova.

  10. Mosquito and arbovirus activity during 1997-2002 in a wetland in northeastern Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Cupp, E W; Tennessen, K J; Oldland, W K; Hassan, H K; Hill, G E; Katholi, C R; Unnasch, T R

    2004-05-01

    The species composition and population dynamics of adult mosquitoes in a wetland near Iuka, MS, were analyzed over a 6-yr period (1997-2002) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection rates of arboviruses determined during five of those years. Blood meals of three likely vector species were identified using a PCR-based method that allows identification of the host to species. Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab) composed 51.9% of the population during the 6-yr period with 295 females collected per trap night. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus was detected in six genera of mosquitoes [Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker), Culex restuans Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab), Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, Aedes vexans (Meigen), Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Psorophora ferox Humboldt) with positive pools occurring in 1998, 1999, and 2002. Culiseta melanura Coquillett occurred at a low level (< 1%) and was not infected. Saint Louis encephalitis virus was detected once in a single pool of Cx. erraticus in 1998. Neither West Nile virus nor LaCrosse virus was found. Minimum infection rates per 1000 females tested of competent vectors of EEE virus were variable and ranged from 0.14 for Cx. erraticus to 40.0 for Oc. triseriatus. Thirty-nine species of birds were identified in the focus with blood-engorged mosquitoes found to contain meals (n = 29) from eight avian species. The majority of meals was from the great blue heron, Ardea herodias L. (n = 55%), but when bird abundance data were adjusted for avian mass, the brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater (Boddaert); blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata (L.); and northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos (L.), were overrepresented as hosts.

  11. Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The incredible mosquito species diversity in the Neotropics can provoke major confusion during vector control programs when precise identification is needed. This is especially true in French Guiana where studies on mosquito diversity practically ceased 35 yr ago. In order to fill this gap, we propose here an updated and comprehensive checklist of the mosquitoes of French Guiana, reflecting the latest changes in classification and geographical distribution and the recognition of current or erroneous synonymies. This work was undertaken in order to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes in a broad range of disciplines such as ecology, biogeography, and medical entomology. Thirty-two valid species cited in older lists have been removed, and 24 species have been added including 12 species (comprising two new genera and three new subgenera) reported from French Guiana for the first time. New records are from collections conducted on various phytotelmata in French Guiana and include the following species: Onirion sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (2000), Sabethes (Peytonulus) hadrognathus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) paradoxus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) soperi Lane and Cerqueira, Sabethes (Sabethinus) idiogenes Harbach, Sabethes (Sabethes) quasicyaneus Peryassú, Runchomyia (Ctenogoeldia) magna (Theobald), Wyeomyia (Caenomyiella) sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (1990), Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) ypsipola Dyar, Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia) lamellata (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne), Wyeomyia (Miamyia) oblita (Lutz), and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab). At this time, the mosquitoes of French Guiana are represented by 235 species distributed across 22 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies.

  12. [BLOODSUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN, THE TULA REGION ARE POTENTIAL VECTORS OF DIROFILARIAS].

    PubMed

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    Bloodsucking mosquitoes were collected in Tula and its Region in May to August 2013-2014. The fauna included 17 species from 5 genera in the subfamily Culicinae and Anopheles maculipennis complex in the subsystem Anophelinae. Ochlerotatus cantans was a dominant species in the collections. The dominant species also included Aedes einereus, Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. diantaeus, Och. intrudens, Och. Cataphylla, and Culex pipiens. The possible value of different mosquito species Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis as vectors of dirofilarasis was discussed.

  13. Native microbiome impedes vertical transmission of Wolbachia in Anopheles mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Grant L.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Johnson, Rebecca M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Patt, Alyssa A.; Cui, Long; Nossa, Carlos W.; Barry, Rhiannon M.; Sakamoto, Joyce M.; Hornett, Emily A.; Rasgon, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Over evolutionary time, Wolbachia has been repeatedly transferred between host species contributing to the widespread distribution of the symbiont in arthropods. For novel infections to be maintained, Wolbachia must infect the female germ line after being acquired by horizontal transfer. Although mechanistic examples of horizontal transfer exist, there is a poor understanding of factors that lead to successful vertical maintenance of the acquired infection. Using Anopheles mosquitoes (which are naturally uninfected by Wolbachia) we demonstrate that the native mosquito microbiota is a major barrier to vertical transmission of a horizontally acquired Wolbachia infection. After injection into adult Anopheles gambiae, some strains of Wolbachia invade the germ line, but are poorly transmitted to the next generation. In Anopheles stephensi, Wolbachia infection elicited massive blood meal-induced mortality, preventing development of progeny. Manipulation of the mosquito microbiota by antibiotic treatment resulted in perfect maternal transmission at significantly elevated titers of the wAlbB Wolbachia strain in A. gambiae, and alleviated blood meal-induced mortality in A. stephensi enabling production of Wolbachia-infected offspring. Microbiome analysis using high-throughput sequencing identified that the bacterium Asaia was significantly reduced by antibiotic treatment in both mosquito species. Supplementation of an antibiotic-resistant mutant of Asaia to antibiotic-treated mosquitoes completely inhibited Wolbachia transmission and partly contributed to blood meal-induced mortality. These data suggest that the components of the native mosquito microbiota can impede Wolbachia transmission in Anopheles. Incompatibility between the microbiota and Wolbachia may in part explain why some hosts are uninfected by this endosymbiont in nature. PMID:25114252

  14. Mosquito repellency of the seeds of celery (Apium graveolens L.).

    PubMed

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Rattanachanpichai, E; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2004-06-01

    When the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of Apium graveolens seeds (one hexane, two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory, all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female, adult Aedes aegypti. The hexane fraction, however, was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory, with median effective doses (ED50) and ED95 of 0.41 and 2.93 mg/cm2 skin, respectively. Only this fraction, which was also found to provide protection against mosquito bites for 3.5 h when applied, in the laboratory, at a concentration of 250 mg/ml, was then investigated for its repellency in the field and its stability. In storage, it was found to retain its repellency for at least 2 months, although significant reductions in its repellency were observed (in terms of shortened complete-protection times) after 3 months, whatever the temperature of storage (-20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, or room temperature). When applied to the skin of volunteers under field conditions, the hexane fraction showed strong repellent activity against a wide range of mosquito species belonging to various genera (Ae. gardnerii, Ae. lineatopennis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis). It appeared not to cause dermal irritation or any other adverse effect, either during 6 months of use or in the following 3 months of follow-up. Mosquito repellents based on extracts of Ap. graveolens seeds could be developed commercially, as an effective personal-protection measure against mosquito bites and the diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  15. Mosquito repellency of the seeds of celery (Apium graveolens L.).

    PubMed

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Rattanachanpichai, E; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2004-06-01

    When the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of Apium graveolens seeds (one hexane, two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory, all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female, adult Aedes aegypti. The hexane fraction, however, was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory, with median effective doses (ED50) and ED95 of 0.41 and 2.93 mg/cm2 skin, respectively. Only this fraction, which was also found to provide protection against mosquito bites for 3.5 h when applied, in the laboratory, at a concentration of 250 mg/ml, was then investigated for its repellency in the field and its stability. In storage, it was found to retain its repellency for at least 2 months, although significant reductions in its repellency were observed (in terms of shortened complete-protection times) after 3 months, whatever the temperature of storage (-20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, or room temperature). When applied to the skin of volunteers under field conditions, the hexane fraction showed strong repellent activity against a wide range of mosquito species belonging to various genera (Ae. gardnerii, Ae. lineatopennis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis). It appeared not to cause dermal irritation or any other adverse effect, either during 6 months of use or in the following 3 months of follow-up. Mosquito repellents based on extracts of Ap. graveolens seeds could be developed commercially, as an effective personal-protection measure against mosquito bites and the diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens. PMID:15228722

  16. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 2--Sundarbans, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K

    2005-06-01

    Mosquitoes of 19 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 6 genera, Aedes, Aedeomyia, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia, were recorded in Sundarbans mangrove forest in West Bengal, India. With 6 and 5 species, respectively, the 2 genera Culex and Anopheles were found to be more diverse while less than 3 species were recorded in the other 4 genera. Adults were mainly collected resting on walls in the guesthouse, tree holes in the forest, landing on humans in the guesthouse, and in the forest, and in light traps. Larvae were obtained from tree holes in the forest. The list of species recorded is not conclusive due to the restriction in access to most parts of the mangroves due to the presence of tigers. The occurrence of the urban species Cx. quinquefasciatus within the Sajnakhali sanctuary is indicative of the need to monitor environmental changes that result with the introduction of man-made facilities.

  17. Genetic Variations in Bionomics of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquito Population in Minna, North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukubuiwe, Azubuike C; Olayemi, Israel K; Jibrin, Aisha I

    2016-01-01

    The need to have an improved knowledge on the bioecology of Culex quinquefasciatus, a prerequisite in the development of cost-effective control strategies, has informed the present preliminary investigation to put in better perspective variations that exist in the egg rafts of the species. Freshly laid egg rafts were collected and incubated at ambient temperature in well-labeled plastic trays. The results showed overall inconsistency in all indices monitored for the egg rafts. Generally, survivorship was high for the species. All immature stage and adult parameters measured varied significantly among the egg rafts and between/within sexes of the species. Therefore, this study suggests the presence of inherent variation in the bionomics of egg rafts of C. quinquefasciatus, probably influenced by the environment and hence underscores the need for additional studies to further elucidate the roles of genetics and environment in vectorial competence of the species, in order to develop robust sustainable mosquito vector control protocols.

  18. Genetic Variations in Bionomics of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquito Population in Minna, North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ukubuiwe, Azubuike C.; Olayemi, Israel K.; Jibrin, Aisha I.

    2016-01-01

    The need to have an improved knowledge on the bioecology of Culex quinquefasciatus, a prerequisite in the development of cost-effective control strategies, has informed the present preliminary investigation to put in better perspective variations that exist in the egg rafts of the species. Freshly laid egg rafts were collected and incubated at ambient temperature in well-labeled plastic trays. The results showed overall inconsistency in all indices monitored for the egg rafts. Generally, survivorship was high for the species. All immature stage and adult parameters measured varied significantly among the egg rafts and between/within sexes of the species. Therefore, this study suggests the presence of inherent variation in the bionomics of egg rafts of C. quinquefasciatus, probably influenced by the environment and hence underscores the need for additional studies to further elucidate the roles of genetics and environment in vectorial competence of the species, in order to develop robust sustainable mosquito vector control protocols. PMID:27013900

  19. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 2--Sundarbans, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K

    2005-06-01

    Mosquitoes of 19 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 6 genera, Aedes, Aedeomyia, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia, were recorded in Sundarbans mangrove forest in West Bengal, India. With 6 and 5 species, respectively, the 2 genera Culex and Anopheles were found to be more diverse while less than 3 species were recorded in the other 4 genera. Adults were mainly collected resting on walls in the guesthouse, tree holes in the forest, landing on humans in the guesthouse, and in the forest, and in light traps. Larvae were obtained from tree holes in the forest. The list of species recorded is not conclusive due to the restriction in access to most parts of the mangroves due to the presence of tigers. The occurrence of the urban species Cx. quinquefasciatus within the Sajnakhali sanctuary is indicative of the need to monitor environmental changes that result with the introduction of man-made facilities. PMID:16033114

  20. Dynamic gut microbiome across life history of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Gilbreath, Thomas M; Kukutla, Phanidhar; Yan, Guiyun; Xu, Jiannong

    2011-01-01

    The mosquito gut represents an ecosystem that accommodates a complex, intimately associated microbiome. It is increasingly clear that the gut microbiome influences a wide variety of host traits, such as fitness and immunity. Understanding the microbial community structure and its dynamics across mosquito life is a prerequisite for comprehending the symbiotic relationship between the mosquito and its gut microbial residents. Here we characterized gut bacterial communities across larvae, pupae and adults of Anopheles gambiae reared in semi-natural habitats in Kenya by pyrosequencing bacterial 16S rRNA fragments. Immatures and adults showed distinctive gut community structures. Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria were predominant in the larval and pupal guts while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the adult guts, with core taxa of Enterobacteriaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. At the adult stage, diet regime (sugar meal and blood meal) significantly affects the microbial structure. Intriguingly, blood meals drastically reduced the community diversity and favored enteric bacteria. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the enriched enteric bacteria possess large genetic redox capacity of coping with oxidative and nitrosative stresses that are associated with the catabolism of blood meal, suggesting a beneficial role in maintaining gut redox homeostasis. Interestingly, gut community structure was similar in the adult stage between the field and laboratory mosquitoes, indicating that mosquito gut is a selective eco-environment for its microbiome. This comprehensive gut metatgenomic profile suggests a concerted symbiotic genetic association between gut inhabitants and host.

  1. Community knowledge and experience of mosquitoes and personal prevention and control practices in Lhasa, Tibet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobo; Wan, Fangjun; Cirendunzhu; Cirenwangla; Bai, Li; Pengcuociren; Zhou, Lin; Baimaciwang; Guo, Yuhong; Dazhen; Xu, Junfang; Sang, Shaowei; Li, Xiaolu; Gu, Shaohua; Wu, Haixia; Wang, Jun; Dawa; Xiraoruodeng; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-09-23

    Since 2009, great public attention has been paid in Lhasa City (Tibet, China) to mosquito bites and accompanying inflammatory complications. However, the potential contribution of knowledge levels, experiences, disease control and preventive practices (KEP) towards mosquitoes has not received much attention. To investigate community KEP concerning mosquitoes in Lhasa, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sub-districts of urban Lhasa in 2012. Questionnaires were designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics and KEP concerning the harmful effects of mosquitoes on participants. The scoring for KEP was developed after consultation of literature. A total of 591 eligible questionnaires were examined. The majority of respondents were female (61.8%) with a mean age of 46 years. Nearly all of the respondents were of Tibetan nationality (97.4%) and living in registered native households (92.7%), who have less than primary school education. The averages of overall score, knowledge score, experience score, and practice score were 9.23, 4.53, 1.80, 2.90, respectively. The registered household with the highest overall score, knowledge score and practice score was non-native. Female subjects with monthly incomes between 1000 and 3000 RMB had higher experience scores. The correlation analysis revealed that significant positive linear correlations existed between knowledge and experience, knowledge and practices, and experience and practices towards mosquitoes. Past experiences with mosquitoes can result in a better knowledge of effective mosquito control practices in the present and the future. Though the average of overall scores related to mosquitoes is high among the participants in Lhasa, however, the knowledge about the ecological habits of mosquitoes should be strengthened. The findings in this study may help to develop strategies and measures of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in the future, not only in Lhasa, but also in similar altitude

  2. Community Knowledge and Experience of Mosquitoes and Personal Prevention and Control Practices in Lhasa, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaobo; Wan, Fangjun; Cirendunzhu; Cirenwangla; Bai, Li; Pengcuociren; Zhou, Lin; Baimaciwang; Guo, Yuhong; Dazhen; Xu, Junfang; Sang, Shaowei; Li, Xiaolu; Gu, Shaohua; Wu, Haixia; Wang, Jun; Dawa; Xiraoruodeng; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, great public attention has been paid in Lhasa City (Tibet, China) to mosquito bites and accompanying inflammatory complications. However, the potential contribution of knowledge levels, experiences, disease control and preventive practices (KEP) towards mosquitoes has not received much attention. To investigate community KEP concerning mosquitoes in Lhasa, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sub-districts of urban Lhasa in 2012. Questionnaires were designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics and KEP concerning the harmful effects of mosquitoes on participants. The scoring for KEP was developed after consultation of literature. A total of 591 eligible questionnaires were examined. The majority of respondents were female (61.8%) with a mean age of 46 years. Nearly all of the respondents were of Tibetan nationality (97.4%) and living in registered native households (92.7%), who have less than primary school education. The averages of overall score, knowledge score, experience score, and practice score were 9.23, 4.53, 1.80, 2.90, respectively. The registered household with the highest overall score, knowledge score and practice score was non-native. Female subjects with monthly incomes between 1000 and 3000 RMB had higher experience scores. The correlation analysis revealed that significant positive linear correlations existed between knowledge and experience, knowledge and practices, and experience and practices towards mosquitoes. Past experiences with mosquitoes can result in a better knowledge of effective mosquito control practices in the present and the future. Though the average of overall scores related to mosquitoes is high among the participants in Lhasa, however, the knowledge about the ecological habits of mosquitoes should be strengthened. The findings in this study may help to develop strategies and measures of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in the future, not only in Lhasa, but also in similar altitude

  3. La Crosse Virus Field Detection and Vector Competence of Culex Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M. Camille; Yang, Fan; Jackson, Dorian M.; Dotseth, Eric J.; Paulson, Sally L.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral pediatric encephalitis in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. Here, we report field and laboratory evidence that suggest LACV may be using Culex mosquitoes as additional vectors in this region. This bunyavirus was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in two pools of Culex mosquitoes in southwestern Virginia and in six pools in West Virginia. To assess vector competence, we offered LACV blood meals to field-collected Culex restuans Theobald, Cx. pipiens L., and Aedes triseriatus (Say). Both Culex species were susceptible to infection. LACV-positive salivary expectorate, indicative of the ability to transmit, was detected in a small proportion of Cx. restuans (9%) and Cx. pipiens (4%) compared with Ae. triseriatus (40%). In a companion study of Cx. restuans only, we found that adults derived from nutritionally stressed larvae were significantly more likely to disseminate and transmit LACV. Our results indicate a potential role of Culex spp. in LACV dynamics that should be explored further in endemic areas. PMID:26175029

  4. Adult Learners in Cyberspace: A Collective Case Study of Reentry Women in a Virtual Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study is to describe and explore a virtual learning community as experienced by women reentering higher education in an online graduate degree program. The grand tour question for this study was: How do reentry women in an online graduate program describe their experience in a virtual learning community? …

  5. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., "two boys") can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children's understanding of this distinction…

  6. 76 FR 78018 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for the Bureau of Indian Education Adult Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... information collection. BIE published a 60-day notice in the Federal Register on August 23, 2011. (76 FR 52687... currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0120, which expires December 31, 2011. DATES: Interested... identifiable information, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number:...

  7. Mosquito Defense Strategies against Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Penghua; Xiao, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne viral diseases are a major concern of global health and result in significant economic losses in many countries. As natural vectors, mosquitoes are very permissive to and allow systemic and persistent arbovirus infection. Intriguingly, persistent viral propagation in mosquito tissues neither results in dramatic pathological sequelae nor impairs the vectorial behavior or lifespan, indicating that mosquitoes have evolved mechanisms to tolerate persistent infection and developed efficient antiviral strategies to restrict viral replication to nonpathogenic levels. Here we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding mosquito antiviral immunity and advances in the strategies by which mosquitoes control viral infection in specific tissues.

  8. Chikungunya Virus Infection of Aedes Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hui Vern; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sam, I-Ching; Sulaiman, Wan Yusof Wan; Vythilingam, Indra

    2016-01-01

    In vivo infection of mosquitoes is an important method to study and characterize arthropod-borne viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for infection of CHIKV in two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, together with the isolation of CHIKV in different parts of the infected mosquito such as midgut, legs, wings, salivary gland, head, and saliva. This allows the study of viral infection, replication and dissemination within the mosquito vector. PMID:27233266

  9. Landscape Ecology of Sylvatic Chikungunya Virus and Mosquito Vectors in Southeastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Chen, Rubing; Faye, Oumar; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Watts, Douglas; Weaver, Scott C.; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2012-01-01

    The risk of human infection with sylvatic chikungunya (CHIKV) virus was assessed in a focus of sylvatic arbovirus circulation in Senegal by investigating distribution and abundance of anthropophilic Aedes mosquitoes, as well as the abundance and distribution of CHIKV in these mosquitoes. A 1650 km2 area was classified into five land cover classes: forest, barren, savanna, agriculture and village. A total of 39,799 mosquitoes was sampled from all classes using human landing collections between June 2009 and January 2010. Mosquito diversity was extremely high, and overall vector abundance peaked at the start of the rainy season. CHIKV was detected in 42 mosquito pools. Our data suggest that Aedes furcifer, which occurred abundantly in all land cover classes and landed frequently on humans in villages outside of houses, is probably the major bridge vector responsible for the spillover of sylvatic CHIKV to humans. PMID:22720097

  10. Human-to-mosquito transmission efficiency increases as malaria is controlled.

    PubMed

    Churcher, Thomas S; Trape, Jean-François; Cohuet, Anna

    2015-01-19

    The efficiency of malaria transmission between human and mosquito has been shown to be influenced by many factors in the laboratory, although their impact in the field and how this changes with disease endemicity are unknown. Here we estimate how human-mosquito transmission changed as malaria was controlled in Dielmo, Senegal. Mathematical models were fit to data collected between 1990 and the start of vector control in 2008. Results show that asexual parasite slide prevalence in humans has reduced from 70 to 20%, but that the proportion of infectious mosquitoes has remained roughly constant. Evidence suggests that this is due to an increase in transmission efficiency caused by a rise in gametocyte densities, although the uneven distribution of mosquito bites between hosts could also contribute. The resilience of mosquito infection to changes in endemicity will have important implications for planning disease control, and the development and deployment of transmission-reducing interventions.

  11. Converting Mosquito Surveillance to Arbovirus Surveillance with Honey-Baited Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards.

    PubMed

    Flies, Emily J; Toi, Cheryl; Weinstein, Philip; Doggett, Stephen L; Williams, Craig R

    2015-07-01

    Spatially and temporally accurate information about infectious mosquito distribution allows for pre-emptive public health interventions that can reduce the burden of mosquito-borne infections on human populations. However, the labile nature of arboviruses, the low prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, the expensive labor costs for mosquito identification and sorting, and the specialized equipment required for arbovirus testing can obstruct arbovirus surveillance efforts. The recently developed techniques of testing mosquito expectorate using honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards or sugar bait stations allows a sensitive method of testing for infectious, rather than infected, mosquito vectors. Here we report the results from the first large-scale incorporation of honey-baited cards into an existing mosquito surveillance program. During 4 months of the peak virus season (January-April, 2014) for a total of 577 trap nights, we set CO2-baited encephalitis vector survey (EVS) light traps at 88 locations in South Australia. The collection container for the EVS trap was modified to allow for the placement of a honey-baited nucleic acid preservation card (FTA™ card) inside. After collection, mosquitoes were maintained in a humid environment and allowed access to the cards for 1 week. Cards were then analyzed for common endemic Australian arboviruses using a nested RT-PCR. Eighteen virus detections, including 11 Ross River virus, four Barmah Forest virus, and three Stratford virus (not previously reported from South Australia) were obtained. Our findings suggest that adding FTA cards to an existing mosquito surveillance program is a rapid and efficient way of detecting infectious mosquitoes with high spatial resolution.

  12. Abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes in urban rivers proximate to their larval habitats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghai; Huang, Minsheng; Leng, Peien

    2016-11-01

    Whether ecological restoration of polluted urban rivers would provide suitable breeding habitats for some mosquitoes was not clear yet. It was therefore important to determine how altered river conditions influence mosquito ecology. Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained to determine the effects of river systems on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes in two coastal cities in Eastern China. In total, 5 species within two genera of mosquitoes were collected and identified in habitat with vegetation from three positive rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the most abundant and widely distributed species. A new species (Culex fuscanus) was reported in certain districts. Physico-chemical parameters of river water were important, but not the only, set of influences on immature mosquito breeding. Aquatic vegetation could increase the likelihood of mosquito breeding while artificial aeration might prevent the approach of mosquitoes. Slow-moving water might be a new potential marginal habitat type for some Culex and Aedes albopictus. Variation of river system with ecological restoration might influence the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes. PMID:27515809

  13. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna in an area endemic for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Sebesta, O; Halouzka, J; Hubálek, Z; Juricová, Z; Rudolf, I; Sikutová, S; Svobodová, P; Reiter, P

    2010-06-01

    Mosquito collections with CDC light traps using dry ice and pigeon-baited traps were carried out in south Moravia (Czech Republic) from April to October in 2007 and 2008 at two study sites. In 2007, 11 two-day captures were carried out in two-week intervals, and 1,490 female mosquitoes of nine species were caught. In 2008, 15 two-day trappings of mosquitoes were carried out: 6,778 females of 22 species of mosquitoes were trapped. The results showed marked differences in abundance and species composition of mosquitoes between both study sites and between the trapping methods. In the floodplain forest ecosystem of the Soutok study area, Aedes vexans predominated. The species composition in the Nesyt study site was more varied and the most common species was Culex pipiens. At the latter study site, Anopheles hyrcanus (var. pseudopictus) and Uranotaenia unguiculata, mosquito species with largely southern Eurasian distribution, were repeatedly demonstrated. The largest capture of mosquitoes was in traps with CO2 placed at a height 1 m above the ground. The capture of mosquitoes in the pigeon-baited traps as well as in the traps with CO2 placed in the canopy of trees was markedly lower in both study sites, with the predominant species being Culex pipiens.

  14. Abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes in urban rivers proximate to their larval habitats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghai; Huang, Minsheng; Leng, Peien

    2016-11-01

    Whether ecological restoration of polluted urban rivers would provide suitable breeding habitats for some mosquitoes was not clear yet. It was therefore important to determine how altered river conditions influence mosquito ecology. Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained to determine the effects of river systems on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes in two coastal cities in Eastern China. In total, 5 species within two genera of mosquitoes were collected and identified in habitat with vegetation from three positive rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the most abundant and widely distributed species. A new species (Culex fuscanus) was reported in certain districts. Physico-chemical parameters of river water were important, but not the only, set of influences on immature mosquito breeding. Aquatic vegetation could increase the likelihood of mosquito breeding while artificial aeration might prevent the approach of mosquitoes. Slow-moving water might be a new potential marginal habitat type for some Culex and Aedes albopictus. Variation of river system with ecological restoration might influence the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes.

  15. Effect of habitat complexity on the predation of Buenoa fuscipennis (Heteroptera: Notonectidae) on mosquito immature stages and alternative prey.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sylvia; Zanotti, Gabriela; Castro, Andrés; Quiroga, Laura; Vargas, Daniel Vazquez

    2013-12-01

    Notonectids are well-known predators in aquatic habitats, where mosquito larvae, chironomids, and cladocerans constitute their main diet. Our purpose was to assess the effect of structural complexity on the predatory ability of Buenoa fuscipennis, a common predator in aquatic habitats of Buenos Aires city (Argentina). Buenoa fuscipennis showed type 2 functional responses in both the presence and absence of prey refuge and no differences in attack rate or handling time between refuge treatments. Regarding mosquito size classes, B. fuscipennis exhibited a significantly higher preference for 2(nd) instar larvae and no predation on pupae. In the presence of mosquito larvae and alternative prey, B. fuscipennis preferred mosquitoes over chironomid larvae and adult cladocerans over mosquito larvae. No switching behavior was detected in our experiments. Habitat structure only slightly affected the predator´s consumption rates on mosquito larvae. Overall, preference for prey did not vary with the presence of refuge, except for the preference for mosquitoes over chironomid larvae, which was significantly decreased in the presence of refuge as a consequence of reduced predation on mosquito larvae. The results suggest that B. fuscipennis could efficiently control mosquitoes in structurally simple habitats where chironomids are the most abundant alternative prey but not in temporary pools where cladocerans are abundant. PMID:24581348

  16. Insect-specific viruses detected in laboratory mosquito colonies and their potential implications for experiments evaluating arbovirus vector competence.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Bethany G; Vasilakis, Nikos; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolod L; Thangamani, Saravanan; Tesh, Robert B

    2015-02-01

    Recently, there has been a dramatic increase in the detection and characterization of insect-specific viruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Evidence suggests that these viruses are ubiquitous in nature and that many are maintained by vertical transmission in mosquito populations. Some studies suggest that the presence of insect-specific viruses may inhibit replication of a super-infecting arbovirus, thus altering vector competence of the mosquito host. Accordingly, we screened our laboratory mosquito colonies for insect-specific viruses. Pools of colony mosquitoes were homogenized and inoculated into cultures of Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The infected cells were examined by electron microscopy and deep sequencing was performed on RNA extracts. Electron micrograph images indicated the presence of three different viruses in three of our laboratory mosquito colonies. Potential implications of these findings for vector competence studies are discussed.

  17. Inside Flow of Mosquito's Proboscis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Terada, Nobuyuki; Mochizuki, Osamu

    2006-11-01

    Mosquito has a magnificent pump mechanism which has been never achieved by technology. We want to apply this high performance mechanism to a micro-TAS system which is designed for a daily check of blood to keep a human health. We need a high powered pump similar to a mosquito's sucking blood mechanism and a low-resistance micro channel mimicked a surface of proboscis. The details of mosquito's pump mechanism, however, have not been ascertained yet. Therefore we tried to investigate the mosquito's pump mechanism by measuring the flow due to suction. A visualization of flow was done by a confocal micro-PIV system. We could analyze the velocity vector profile in the proboscis. The velocity distribution in the proboscis is necessary to estimate the friction drag. In the experiment, a live mosquito was fixed on the glass plate and fed nano-particles near the tip of proboscis. We found that the inside flow of proboscis deviate from Hargen-Poisueuille Flow. It indicates that the surface of inside proboscis has unknown fact for the friction drag reduction.

  18. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... an immune response that would protect against the mosquito-borne virus, according to a statement from the ... American neighborhood for fear of an infectious disease. Mosquito-control efforts in Wynwood have been difficult because ...

  19. Operations of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1984-1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Gary A.

    1987-05-01

    The Bonifer Springs salmon and steelhead juvenile release and adult collection facility is located in the upper Umatilla River drainage at Meacham Creek mile 2.0. The facility is one of two that are operated on the Umatilla Indian Reservation under contract with Bonneville Power Administration. Construction of the Bonifer facility was completed in the fall of 1983 and operations began in early 1984. The facility consists of a one acre spring-fed pond and a concrete fishway and adult fish holding area at the pond outlet. The facility is used for holding and spawning of adult summer steelhead and for acclimation/release of juvenile fall and spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead. The acclimation capacity is approximately 20,000 lbs. of fish. Minthorn Springs Creek is located about four miles east of Mission, Oregon, on the Umatilla Indian Reservation. It forms from several springs located immediately south of the Umatilla River. The total length of Minthorn Springs Creek is about one mile and the mouth is located at Umatilla River mile 63.7. The fishway and adult holding area of the Minthorn facility are located in Minthorn Springs Creek immediately upstream from the mouth. The juvenile raceways are located in the same general area about 25 feet from the bank of Minthorn Springs Creek. Like the Bonifer Springs project, the Minthorn facility is used for adult fish holding and for temporary rearing or acclimation of juvenile salmon and steelhead to imprint the fish on the particular water source and reduce stress from trucking prior to their downstream migration. The facility was completed in December of 1985 and first used for juvenile acclimation in the Spring of 1986. An existing pond was not available at the Minthorn site so two concrete raceways (120 x 12 feet) were constructed for juvenile holding/rearing. At a water depth of 3 feet and a single-pass water exchange rate of about 800 gpm through each raceway, the facility has a rearing capacity of about 15

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family in three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Xu, Yongyu; Cui, Feng

    2016-09-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family functions in the ATP-dependent transportation of various substrates across biological membranes. ABC proteins participate in various biological processes and insecticide resistance in insects, and are divided into eight subfamilies (A-H). Mosquitoes are important vectors of human diseases, but the mechanism by which the ABC transporter family evolves in mosquitoes is unknown. In this study, we classified and compared the ABC transporter families of three mosquitoes, namely, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. The three mosquitoes have 55, 69, and 70 ABC genes, respectively. The C. p. quinquefasciatus had approximately 40% and 65% expansion in the ABCG subfamily, mainly in ABCG1/G4, compared with the two other mosquito species. The ABCB, ABCD, ABCE, and ABCF subfamilies were conserved in the three mosquito species. The C. p. quinquefasciatus transcriptomes during development showed that the ABCG and ABCC genes were mainly highly expressed at the egg and pupal stages. The pigment-transport relative brown, white, and scarlet, as well as the ABCF subfamily, were highly expressed at the egg stage. The highly expressed genes in larvae included three ABCA3 genes. The majority of the highly expressed genes in adults were ABCG1/4 genes. These results provided insights into the evolution of the ABC transporter family in mosquitoes. PMID:27521922

  1. Human exposure to mosquito-control pesticides--Mississippi, North Carolina, and Virginia, 2002 and 2003.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    Public health officials weigh the risk for mosquito-borne diseases against the risk for human exposure to pesticides sprayed to control mosquitoes. Response to outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases has focused on vector control through habitat reduction and application of pesticides that kill mosquito larvae. However, in certain situations, public health officials control adult mosquito populations by spraying ultra-low volume (ULV) (<3 fluid ounces per acre [oz/acre]) mosquito-control (MC) pesticides, such as naled, permethrin, and d-phenothrin. These ULV applications generate aerosols of fine droplets of pesticides that stay aloft and kill mosquitoes on contact while minimizing the risk for exposure to persons, wildlife, and the environment. This report summarizes the results of studies in Mississippi, North Carolina, and Virginia that assessed human exposure to ULV naled, permethrin, and d-phenothrin used in emergency, large-scale MC activities. The findings indicated ULV application in MC activities did not result in substantial pesticide exposure to humans; however, public health interventions should focus on the reduction of home and workplace exposure to pesticides. PMID:15931155

  2. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Godoy, Raquel S M; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo F

    2015-10-30

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes.

  3. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Raquel S. M.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Martins, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes. PMID:26514271

  4. Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Uejio, Christopher K; Hayden, Mary H; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time.

  5. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  6. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  7. The urban mosquito hazard today

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, P. F.

    1963-01-01

    Of all the main types of mosquito living to a greater or lesser extent in association with man—urban invaders, infiltrators and colonizers—the most formidable and successful is probably Culex fatigans. Able to use man-made breeding-places, breeding freely in highly contaminated water and possessing the genetical and physiological plasticity to resist insecticides, this mosquito has increased extensively in urban environments in recent years. Considering that it merits greater study than it has hitherto received, the author discusses its principal characteristics in relation to those of other man-associated mosquitos and suggests a number of lines of research which should be followed for the development of effective control methods. PMID:20604163

  8. Update on the American Mosquito Control Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Mosquito Control Association in a non-profit scientific organization dedicated to promoting the highest standard in professional mosquito control. It is comprised of more than 1300 members representing students, scientists, regulators, industry, mosquito control employees and many other...

  9. New Innovations in Biological Control of Mosquitoes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of mosquitoes is a component of an integrated pest management strategy and includes general predators, parasites and pathogens. Pathogens of mosquitoes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protists. The most successful group for applied mosquito control include the bacteria Baci...

  10. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes in Taiwan during 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Su, Chien-Ling; Yang, Cheng-Fen; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Lin, Cheo; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chen, Li-Yu; Chang, Shu-Fen; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI), providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy. PMID:25275652

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Mosquitoes in Taiwan during 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chien-Ling; Yang, Cheng-Fen; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Lin, Cheo; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chen, Li-Yu; Chang, Shu-Fen; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI), providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy. PMID:25275652

  12. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  13. Direct PCR of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.

    PubMed

    Werblow, A; Flechl, E; Klimpel, S; Zittra, C; Lebl, K; Kieser, K; Laciny, A; Silbermayr, K; Melaun, C; Fuehrer, H-P

    2016-03-01

    Millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. The identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as Culex pipiens pipiens/Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), presents a major problem. In addition, the detection and discrimination of newly introduced species can be challenging, particularly to researchers without previous experience. Because of their medical importance, the clear identification of all relevant mosquito species is essential. Using the direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method described here, DNA amplification without prior DNA extraction is possible and thus species identification after sequencing can be achieved. Different amounts of tissue (leg, head; larvae or adult) as well as different storage conditions (dry, ethanol, -20 and -80 °C) and storage times were successfully applied and showed positive results after amplification and gel electrophoresis. Overall, 28 different indigenous and non-indigenous mosquito species were analysed using a gene fragment of the COX1 gene for species differentiation and identification by sequencing this 658-bp fragment. Compared with standard PCR, this method is time- and cost-effective and could thus improve existing surveillance and control programmes. PMID:26663040

  14. Direct PCR of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.

    PubMed

    Werblow, A; Flechl, E; Klimpel, S; Zittra, C; Lebl, K; Kieser, K; Laciny, A; Silbermayr, K; Melaun, C; Fuehrer, H-P

    2016-03-01

    Millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. The identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as Culex pipiens pipiens/Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), presents a major problem. In addition, the detection and discrimination of newly introduced species can be challenging, particularly to researchers without previous experience. Because of their medical importance, the clear identification of all relevant mosquito species is essential. Using the direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method described here, DNA amplification without prior DNA extraction is possible and thus species identification after sequencing can be achieved. Different amounts of tissue (leg, head; larvae or adult) as well as different storage conditions (dry, ethanol, -20 and -80 °C) and storage times were successfully applied and showed positive results after amplification and gel electrophoresis. Overall, 28 different indigenous and non-indigenous mosquito species were analysed using a gene fragment of the COX1 gene for species differentiation and identification by sequencing this 658-bp fragment. Compared with standard PCR, this method is time- and cost-effective and could thus improve existing surveillance and control programmes.

  15. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster

    PubMed Central

    Culler, Lauren E.; Ayres, Matthew P.; Virginia, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator–prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model to evaluate how temperature affects survival of mosquitoes from the immature to the adult stage. Our studies showed that warming increased development rate of immature mosquitoes (Q10 = 2.8) but also increased daily mortality from increased predation rates by a dytiscid beetle (Q10 = 1.2–1.5). Despite increased daily mortality, the model indicated that faster development and fewer days exposed to predators resulted in an increased probability of mosquito survival to the adult stage. Warming also advanced mosquito phenology, bringing mosquitoes into phenological synchrony with caribou. Increases in biting pests will have negative consequences for caribou and their role as a subsistence resource for local communities. Generalizable frameworks that account for multiple effects of temperature are needed to understand how climate change impacts coupled human–natural systems. PMID:26378217

  16. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster.

    PubMed

    Culler, Lauren E; Ayres, Matthew P; Virginia, Ross A

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator-prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model to evaluate how temperature affects survival of mosquitoes from the immature to the adult stage. Our studies showed that warming increased development rate of immature mosquitoes (Q10 = 2.8) but also increased daily mortality from increased predation rates by a dytiscid beetle (Q10 = 1.2-1.5). Despite increased daily mortality, the model indicated that faster development and fewer days exposed to predators resulted in an increased probability of mosquito survival to the adult stage. Warming also advanced mosquito phenology, bringing mosquitoes into phenological synchrony with caribou. Increases in biting pests will have negative consequences for caribou and their role as a subsistence resource for local communities. Generalizable frameworks that account for multiple effects of temperature are needed to understand how climate change impacts coupled human-natural systems.

  17. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster.

    PubMed

    Culler, Lauren E; Ayres, Matthew P; Virginia, Ross A

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator-prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model to evaluate how temperature affects survival of mosquitoes from the immature to the adult stage. Our studies showed that warming increased development rate of immature mosquitoes (Q10 = 2.8) but also increased daily mortality from increased predation rates by a dytiscid beetle (Q10 = 1.2-1.5). Despite increased daily mortality, the model indicated that faster development and fewer days exposed to predators resulted in an increased probability of mosquito survival to the adult stage. Warming also advanced mosquito phenology, bringing mosquitoes into phenological synchrony with caribou. Increases in biting pests will have negative consequences for caribou and their role as a subsistence resource for local communities. Generalizable frameworks that account for multiple effects of temperature are needed to understand how climate change impacts coupled human-natural systems. PMID:26378217

  18. Spread of Ixodes scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae) in Indiana: collections of adults in 1991-1994 and description of a Borrelia burgdorferi-infected population.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R; Timmons, L; Karris, K

    1996-09-01

    Collection records for the adult black legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in Indiana for the period 1991-1994 are presented and a new, established population of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected I. scapularis is described. The number of I. scapularis adults collected in Indiana increased progressively from 19 in 1991 to > 200 in 1994, and the number of Indiana counties reporting at least 1 adult increased from 13 to 29. Also, during this period, 4 countries in northwestern Indiana yielded > 10 specimens each, and B. burgdorferi-infected ticks were collected in 2 of these counties. An established population of I. scapularis, as evidenced by the presence of questing larvae, nymphs, and adults, was discovered in Jasper County in 1993. Twelve of 39 adults (31%) and 4 of 44 nymphs (9%) collected with cloth drags were infected with B. burgdorferi. Three of 49 (6%) white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, collected from the site were also infected with B. burgdorferi. We believe that this focus was established at least 8 yr ago, and that a tick originating from this focus was responsible for a case of Lyme disease reported from this county in 1985.

  19. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  20. Design for mosquito abundance, diversity, and phenology sampling within the National Ecological Observatory Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoekman, D.; Springer, Yuri P; Barker, C.M.; Barrera, R.; Blackmore, M.S.; Bradshaw, W.E.; Foley, D. H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Hayden, M. H.; Holzapfel, C. M.; Juliano, S. A.; Kramer, L. D.; LaDeau, S. L.; Livdahl, T. P.; Moore, C. G.; Nasci, R.S.; Reisen, W.K.; Savage, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) intends to monitor mosquito populations across its broad geographical range of sites because of their prevalence in food webs, sensitivity to abiotic factors and relevance for human health. We describe the design of mosquito population sampling in the context of NEON’s long term continental scale monitoring program, emphasizing the sampling design schedule, priorities and collection methods. Freely available NEON data and associated field and laboratory samples, will increase our understanding of how mosquito abundance, demography, diversity and phenology are responding to land use and climate change.

  1. [INFECTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) WITH DIROFILARIAE (SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN THE TULA REGION].

    PubMed

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens. PMID:27405207

  2. [INFECTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) WITH DIROFILARIAE (SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN THE TULA REGION].

    PubMed

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens.

  3. Vertical distribution and species coexistence of tree hole mosquitoes in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, E T; Meek, C L; Yates, M M

    1988-03-01

    Vertical distribution and species coexistence of mosquitoes inhabiting a deciduous forest in southern Louisiana were determined using 470 ml black jars for larval collections at ground level and 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 m on selected trees. Specific preferences for discrete microhabitats by Aedes triseriatus, Ae. hendersoni, Ae. vexans and Ae. albopictus were not evident. Niche overlap indices, however, showed little overlap of these species and seemed to indicate that the mosquitoes partitioned the ovipositional/larval sites. Competition between the most abundant species, Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus, was not apparent. The tree hole mosquito community structure appeared to be mediated by the predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis.

  4. Infection of laboratory-colonized Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes by Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Marta; Tong, Carlos; Guzmán, Mitchel; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Meister, Stephan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Maguina, Paula; Conn, Jan E; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2014-04-01

    Anopheles darlingi Root is the most important malaria vector in the Amazonia region of South America. However, continuous propagation of An. darlingi in the laboratory has been elusive, limiting entomological, genetic/genomic, and vector-pathogen interaction studies of this mosquito species. Here, we report the establishment of an An. darlingi colony derived from wild-caught mosquitoes obtained in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos in the Loreto Department. We show that the numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults continue to rise at least to the F6 generation. Comparison of feeding Plasmodium vivax ex vivo of F4 and F5 to F1 generation mosquitoes showed the comparable presence of oocysts and sporozoites, with numbers that corresponded to blood-stage asexual parasitemia and gametocytemia, confirming P. vivax vectorial capacity in the colonized mosquitoes. These results provide new avenues for research on An. darlingi biology and study of An. darlingi-Plasmodium interactions.

  5. Effects of wind on the behaviour and distribution of mosquitoes and blackflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Service, M. W.

    1980-12-01

    Flight activity of haematophagous insects can be greatly reduced by wind, but species inhabiting woods and other sheltered sites will be less affected than those living in more exposed areas. If flight is suppressed this may lead to reductions in blood-feeding and oviposition and thus a reduction in their reproductive capacity. Although wind usually inhibits flight it appears that newly emerged adults of some mosquito species are specially adapted to take-off and flight in windy weather, thus promoting dispersal and colonization of new areas. Dispersal of simuliids and mosquitoes can be very important in control programmes as they can create problems of recolonization. Because air turbulence and convection are usually greatest during the day, simuliids and day-flying mosquitoes are more likely to be swept into the upper air and carried long distances than mosquito species that are active at night.

  6. Infection of Laboratory-Colonized Anopheles darlingi Mosquitoes by Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Marta; Tong, Carlos; Guzmán, Mitchel; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Meister, Stephan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Maguina, Paula; Conn, Jan E.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi Root is the most important malaria vector in the Amazonia region of South America. However, continuous propagation of An. darlingi in the laboratory has been elusive, limiting entomological, genetic/genomic, and vector–pathogen interaction studies of this mosquito species. Here, we report the establishment of an An. darlingi colony derived from wild-caught mosquitoes obtained in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos in the Loreto Department. We show that the numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults continue to rise at least to the F6 generation. Comparison of feeding Plasmodium vivax ex vivo of F4 and F5 to F1 generation mosquitoes showed the comparable presence of oocysts and sporozoites, with numbers that corresponded to blood-stage asexual parasitemia and gametocytemia, confirming P. vivax vectorial capacity in the colonized mosquitoes. These results provide new avenues for research on An. darlingi biology and study of An. darlingi–Plasmodium interactions. PMID:24534811

  7. Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle EH; Hassan, Mo'awia M; El-Motasim, Waleed M; Malcolm, Colin A; Knols, Bart GJ; El-Sayed, Badria

    2008-01-01

    Background The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of anopheline mosquitoes in Africa, and the first series of attempts to do this in Sudan are reported here. In addition, experiments in a large field cage under near-natural conditions are described. Methods Mosquitoes were irradiated in Khartoum and transported as adults by air to the field site earmarked for future releases (400 km from the laboratory). The field cage was prepared for experiments by creating resting sites with favourable conditions. The mating and survival of (irradiated) laboratory males and field-collected males was studied in the field cage, and two small-scale competition experiments were performed. Results Minor problems were experienced with the irradiation of insects, mostly associated with the absence of a rearing facility in close proximity to the irradiation source. The small-scale transportation of adult mosquitoes to the release site resulted in minimal mortality (< 6%). Experiments in the field cage showed that mating occurred in high frequencies (i.e. an average of 60% insemination of females after one or two nights of mating), and laboratory reared males (i.e. sixty generations) were able to inseminate wild females at rates comparable to wild males. Based on wing length data, there was no size preference of males for mates. Survival of mosquitoes from the cage, based on recapture after mating, was satisfactory and approximately 60% of the insects were recaptured after one night. Only limited information on male competitiveness was obtained due to problems associated with individual egg laying of small numbers of wild females. Conclusion It is concluded that although conditions are challenging, there are no major obstacles associated with the small

  8. Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The close relationship between vector-borne diseases and their environment is well documented, especially for diseases with water-dependent vectors such as avian malaria. Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of avian malaria and also the definitive hosts in the disease life cycle. Factors pertinent to mosquito ecology are likely to be influential to observed infection patterns; such factors include rainfall, season, temperature, and water quality. Methods The influence of mosquito abundance and occurrence on the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in the Ploceidae family (weavers) was examined, taking into account factors with an indirect influence upon mosquito ecology. Mosquitoes and weaver blood samples were simultaneously collected in the Western Cape, South Africa over a two-year period, and patterns of vector abundance and infection prevalence were compared. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and salinity measurements were taken at 20 permanent waterbodies. Rainfall during this period was also quantified using remotely sensed data from up to 6 months prior to sampling months. Results Sixteen wetlands had weavers infected with avian malaria. More than half of the mosquitoes caught were trapped at one site; when this site was excluded, the number of mosquitoes trapped did not vary significantly between sites. The majority of mosquitoes collected belonged to the predominant vector species group for avian malaria (Culex culex species complex). Seasonal variation occurred in infection and mosquito prevalence, water pH and water temperature, with greater variability observed in summer than in winter. There was a significant correlation of infection prevalence with rainfall two months prior to sampling months. Mosquito prevalence patterns across the landscape also showed a close relationship to patterns of rainfall. Contrary to predictions, a pattern of asynchronous co-variation occurred between mosquito prevalence and infection prevalence. Conclusion Overall

  9. What does not kill them makes them stronger: larval environment and infectious dose alter mosquito potential to transmit filarial worms

    PubMed Central

    Breaux, Jennifer A.; Schumacher, Molly K.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, larval environments can modify adult phenotypes. For mosquitoes and other vectors, when physiological impacts of stressors acting on larvae carry over into the adult stage they may interact with infectious dose of a vector-borne pathogen, producing a range of phenotypes for vector potential. Investigation of impacts of a common source of stress, larval crowding and intraspecific competition, on adult vector interactions with pathogens may increase our understanding of the dynamics of pathogen transmission by mosquito vectors. Using Aedes aegypti and the nematode parasite Brugia pahangi, we demonstrate dose dependency of fitness effects of B. pahangi infection on the mosquito, as well as interactions between competitive stress among larvae and infectious dose for resulting adults that affect the physiological and functional ability of mosquitoes to act as vectors. Contrary to results from studies on mosquito–arbovirus interactions, our results suggest that adults from crowded larvae may limit infection better than do adults from uncrowded controls, and that mosquitoes from high-quality larval environments are more physiologically and functionally capable vectors of B. pahangi. Our results provide another example of how the larval environment can have profound effects on vector potential of resulting adults. PMID:24827444

  10. Species composition and feeding success of mosquitoes attracted to caged dogs in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R

    1985-06-01

    A field study using caged dogs in mosquito bait traps was conducted in eastcentral Indiana to determine the species composition of mosquitoes coming to feed. Fourteen species of mosquitoes from 5 genera were collected; Aedes trivittatus predominated. Feeding success rates were measured as the percentage of mosquitoes collected that had a fresh blood meal. The species having the highest rates were: Culex erraticus, Aedes stimulans and Ae. trivittatus. Aedes vexans and Cx. pipiens/restuans had markedly lower feeding success rates. A New Jersey light trap operated at the same site each year yielded a different species composition. Because of its propensity for feeding on dogs, Ae. trivittatus may be considered as a major potential vector of heartworm disease in dogs, even where it is one of several possible vector species present in abundance.

  11. Improving the Quality of Adult Mortality Data Collected in Demographic Surveys: Validation Study of a New Siblings' Survival Questionnaire in Niakhar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Masquelier, Bruno; Kanté, Almamy Malick; Douillot, Laetitia; Duthé, Géraldine; Sokhna, Cheikh; Delaunay, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Background In countries with limited vital registration, adult mortality is frequently estimated using siblings' survival histories (SSHs) collected during Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). These data are affected by reporting errors. We developed a new SSH questionnaire, the siblings' survival calendar (SSC). It incorporates supplementary interviewing techniques to limit omissions of siblings and uses an event history calendar to improve reports of dates and ages. We hypothesized that the SSC would improve the quality of adult mortality data. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective validation study among the population of the Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Senegal. We randomly assigned men and women aged 15–59 y to an interview with either the DHS questionnaire or the SSC. We compared SSHs collected in each group to prospective data on adult mortality collected in Niakhar. The SSC reduced respondents' tendency to round reports of dates and ages to the nearest multiple of five or ten (“heaping”). The SSC also had higher sensitivity in recording adult female deaths: among respondents whose sister(s) had died at an adult age in the past 15 y, 89.6% reported an adult female death during SSC interviews versus 75.6% in DHS interviews (p = 0.027). The specificity of the SSC was similar to that of the DHS questionnaire, i.e., it did not increase the number of false reports of deaths. However, the SSC did not improve the reporting of adult deaths among the brothers of respondents. Study limitations include sample selectivity, limited external validity, and multiple testing. Conclusions The SSC has the potential to collect more accurate SSHs than the questionnaire used in DHS. Further research is needed to assess the effects of the SSC on estimates of adult mortality rates. Additional validation studies should be conducted in different social and epidemiological settings. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN06849961

  12. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.; Rowan, Gerald D.

    1990-03-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Regularly-scheduled maintenance was completed in 1989. Equipment and pumps received maintenance and repair. An automatic dialing system was incorporated into the alarm system at the Minthorn facility. A security company has replaced the function of the Umatilla Tribal Police which was to contact fisheries personnel in case of an alarm. The configuration of the alarm system was upgraded to activate the alarm faster and provide better access to project personnel with a pager system. A survey was completed in 1988 by Thomas Bumstead of Albrook Hydraulics Lab in Pullman, WA. to determine potential measures to address the change in course of the Umatilla River around Minthorn as a result of the flood of 1986. Options and recommendations were submitted in a report in 1989. Fish Management Consultants Inc. submitted the final reports of evaluations for both the Bonifer and Minthorn facilities. A total of 150 adult steelhead were collected for broodstock at Threemile Dam from December through March and held at Minthorn. Forty-two pairs were spawned (37 pairs from Minthorn and 5 pairs collected and immediately spawned at Threemile Dam). The 241,682 eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and later moved to Oak Springs Hatchery for rearing. An estimated 368 adult hatchery steelhead returned to the Umatilla River in 1988-89 (based on Threemile Dam trap counts and harvest below Threemile Dam) these, and 349 were released upriver. Of seven returned to the Bonifer trap where the smolts were initially released. Acclimation of 79,984 spring chinook salmon and 22

  13. Host reproductive phenology drives seasonal patterns of host use in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; McClure, Christopher J W; Ligon, Russell A; Graham, Sean P; Guyer, Craig; Hill, Geoffrey E; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Eubanks, Micky D; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2011-03-07

    Seasonal shifts in host use by mosquitoes from birds to mammals drive the timing and intensity of annual epidemics of mosquito-borne viruses, such as West Nile virus, in North America. The biological mechanism underlying these shifts has been a matter of debate, with hypotheses falling into two camps: (1) the shift is driven by changes in host abundance, or (2) the shift is driven by seasonal changes in the foraging behavior of mosquitoes. Here we explored the idea that seasonal changes in host use by mosquitoes are driven by temporal patterns of host reproduction. We investigated the relationship between seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes and host reproductive phenology by examining a seven-year dataset of blood meal identifications from a site in Tuskegee National Forest, Alabama USA and data on reproduction from the most commonly utilized endothermic (white-tailed deer, great blue heron, yellow-crowned night heron) and ectothermic (frogs) hosts. Our analysis revealed that feeding on each host peaked during periods of reproductive activity. Specifically, mosquitoes utilized herons in the spring and early summer, during periods of peak nest occupancy, whereas deer were fed upon most during the late summer and fall, the period corresponding to the peak in births for deer. For frogs, however, feeding on early- and late-season breeders paralleled peaks in male vocalization. We demonstrate for the first time that seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes track the reproductive phenology of the hosts. Peaks in relative mosquito feeding on each host during reproductive phases are likely the result of increased tolerance and decreased vigilance to attacking mosquitoes by nestlings and brooding adults (avian hosts), quiescent young (avian and mammalian hosts), and mate-seeking males (frogs).

  14. Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Gardner, Allison M; Bara, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species. PMID:26314023

  15. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs.

  16. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs. PMID:26816489

  17. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs. PMID:26816489

  18. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  19. Are mosquitoes gourmet or gourmand?

    PubMed

    Edman, J D

    1989-12-01

    The scientific contributions of Professor Brian Hocking are summarized, especially his writings on the specificity of blood feeding. Mosquito host-seeking behavior and feeding success are discussed within the context of human pest and vector species and in light of anticipated social and environmental changes.

  20. Mosquitoes feeding on insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Harris, P; Riordan, D F; Cooke, D

    1969-04-11

    Caged Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis are attracted to insect larvae, engorge on their body fluids, and produce viable eggs. Attractiveness of the larvae is related to their size, shape, and color but not to their movement. The possibility that wild mosquitoes substitute insect hemolymph for vertebrate blood is discussed. PMID:5774191

  1. Integrated control of peridomestic larval habitats of Aedes and Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in atoll villages of French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Lardeux, Frederic; Sechan, Yves; Loncke, Stepiiane; Deparis, Xavier; Cheffort, Jules; Faaruia, Marc

    2002-05-01

    An integrated larval mosquito control program was carried out in Tiputa village on Rangiroa atoll of French Polynesia. Mosquito abundance before and after treatment was compared with the abundance in an untreated village. Mosquito larval habitats consisted of large concrete or polyurethane cisterns, wells, and 200-liter drums. Depending on the target species, larval habitat category, its configuration, and purpose (drinking consumption or not), abatement methods consisted of sealing the larval habitats with mosquito gauze, treating them with 1% Temephos, covering the water with a 10-cm thick layer of polystyrene beads or introducing fish (Poecillia reticulata Rosen & Bailey). All premises of the chosen village were treated and a health education program explained basic mosquito ecology and the methods of control. A community health agent was trained to continue the control program at the end of the experiment. Entomological indices from human bait collections and larval surveys indicated that mosquito populations were reduced significantly, compared with concurrent samples from the untreated control village, and that mosquito control remained effective for 6 mo after treatment. Effects of the treatment were noticed by the inhabitants in terms of a reduction in the number of mosquito bites. In the Polynesian context, such control programs may succeed in the long-term only if strong political decisions are taken at the village level, if a community member is designated as being responsible for maintaining the program, and if the inhabitants are motivated sufficiently by the mosquito nuisance to intervene.

  2. Insecticide resistance and malaria transmission: infection rate and oocyst burden in Culex pipiens mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium relictum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The control of most vectors of malaria is threatened by the spread of insecticide resistance. One factor that has been hitherto largely overlooked is the potential effects of insecticide resistance on the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria: are insecticide-resistant mosquitoes as good vectors of Plasmodium as susceptible ones? The drastic physiological changes that accompany the evolution of insecticide resistance may indeed alter the ability of vectors to transmit diseases, a possibility that, if confirmed, could have major epidemiological consequences. Methods Using a novel experimental system consisting of the avian malaria parasite (Plasmodium relictum) and its natural vector (the mosquito Culex pipiens), two of the most common mechanisms of insecticide resistance (esterase overproduction and acetylcholinesterase modification) were investigated for their effect on mosquito infection rate and parasite burden. For this purpose two types of experiments were carried out using (i) insecticide-resistant and susceptible laboratory isogenic lines of Cx. pipiens and (ii) wild Cx. pipiens collected from a population where insecticide resistant and susceptible mosquitoes coexist in sympatry. Results The isogenic line and wild-caught mosquito experiments were highly consistent in showing no effect of either esterase overproduction or of acetylcholinesterase modification on either the infection rate or on the oocyst burden of mosquitoes. The only determinant of these traits was blood meal size, which was similar across the different insecticide resistant categories in both experiments. Conclusions Insecticide resistance was found to have no effect on Plasmodium development within the mosquito. This is the first time this question has been addressed using a natural mosquito-Plasmodium combination, while taking care to standardize the genetic background against which the insecticide resistance genes operate. Infection rate and oocyst burden are but two of

  3. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Vectors of Pathogens in Northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mazzon, Luca; Cazzin, Stefania; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and daily activity of mosquito vectors of pathogens affecting animals and humans were studied in northeastern Italy at a site within the Po River Delta Park. A CDC-CO2 trap and a gravid trap were operated at 2-h intervals for 24 h every 15 d from May to October 2010. Overall, 5,788 mosquitoes comprising six species were collected, namely Culex pipiens L. (75.1% of total), Aedes caspius (Pallas) (15.2%), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (6.9%), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (2.6%), Culiseta annulata (Schrank) (0.2%), and Culex modestus Ficalbi (<0.1%). The relative abundance of these species increased from May until the beginning of July and then decreased, disappearing at the beginning of October. The diel host-seeking patterns and oviposition site-seeking patterns were species specific and were differentially affected by the ecological variables recorded at the day and hour of mosquito collection or two weeks before collection. Knowledge of the seasonal and daily host-seeking patterns of mosquitoes highlights the time periods of the day and the seasons of potential exposure for animals and humans to mosquito-borne pathogens, therefore delineating the best time for the application of preventive measures. Furthermore, knowledge of the oviposition site-seeking activity of the mosquitoes optimizes the capture of gravid females, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting pathogens.

  4. Colonization of abandoned swimming pools by larval mosquitoes and their predators following Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Carlson, John C; Wesson, Dawn; Jordan, Frank

    2008-06-01

    Thousands of flooded swimming pools were abandoned in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina and provided a natural experiment to examine colonization of a novel aquatic habitat by mosquito larvae and their aquatic predators. We conducted a randomized survey of flooded swimming pools in two neighborhoods in January 2006 and found that 64% contained mosquito larvae, 92% contained predatory invertebrates, and 47% contained fishes. We collected 12,379 immature mosquitoes representing five species, primarily Culiseta inornata, and secondarily, the arboviral vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Dragonfly nymphs in the families Aeshnidae and Libellulidae were the most common predatory invertebrates collected among a total of 32 non-mosquito invertebrate species. Eleven species of fishes were collected, with Gambusia affinis accounting for 76% of the catch. Diversity of fishes in swimming pools was positively correlated with proximity to a levee breach and the fish assemblage found in swimming pools was similar to that found along shorelines of Lake Pontchartrain and drainage canals that flooded the study area. Mosquito larvae were rare or absent from pools containing fishes; however, path analysis indicated that the presence of top predators or abundant competitors may somewhat mitigate the effect of Gambusia affinis on mosquito presence.

  5. Artificial Selection for Different Host Preferences in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    Most mosquito species display host preferences that are a crucial determinant of the transmission rate of mosquito-borne pathogens. Although a transgenic approach, based on driving genes for zoophily into vector populations, has been advocated as a malaria control strategy by the World Health Organization since 1982, the genes involved in mosquito host choice remain poorly understood. Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet mosquitoes were artificially selected for two different host preferences in a specially designed experimental enclosure. Of 3,035 mosquitoes obtained from larvae and pupae collected from the wild (the F0 generation), 27% preferentially fed on pigeons and 16% fed on mice. Following artificial selection for these host preferences over successive generations, the percentage of mosquitoes that preferred to feed on pigeons or mice gradually increased, eventually stabilizing at ∼55 and 34%, respectively, after the sixth generation. Intergenerational differences in host preferences were significant (P < 0.001). Furthermore, differences in host preferences between mosquitoes selected to prefer pigeons and those selected to prefer mice were both significant and consistent over almost six generations.

  6. Experimental Assessment of the Impacts of Northern Long-Eared Bats on Ovipositing Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Reiskind, Michael H.; Wund, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of predation as a mortality factor in adult mosquitoes has received only limited attention in the scientific literature. Despite the lack of consensus among researchers as to whether bats are important predators of mosquitoes, there have been no attempts to directly document the effect of bats on mosquito populations or behavior. We conducted an enclosure experiment to test the hypothesis that bats reduce the local abundance of ovipositing female mosquitoes by examining whether the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trouessart) had an effect on Culex spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) oviposition, using naturally occurring mosquitoes, either through direct predation or trait mediated effects on mosquito behavior. We found a signiÞcant, 32% reduction in egg-laying activity associated with bat predation. Artificial oviposition habitats directly outside bat enclosures experienced no reduction in oviposition; we attributed the observed reduction in egg-laying activity to direct predation on ovipositing females by bats and not changes in mosquito behavior. In addition, we noted a decrease in the number of larval mosquitoes in enclosures exposed to bat predation. These results suggest the impact of aerial predators on pathogen transmission may be large, and warrants further scientific investigation. PMID:19769034

  7. A Multicomponent Animal Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Beitzel, Brett; Auguste, Albert J; Dupuis, Alan P; Lindquist, Michael E; Sibley, Samuel D; Kota, Krishna P; Fetterer, David; Eastwood, Gillian; Kimmel, David; Prieto, Karla; Guzman, Hilda; Aliota, Matthew T; Reyes, Daniel; Brueggemann, Ernst E; St John, Lena; Hyeroba, David; Lauck, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H; Gestole, Marie C; Cazares, Lisa H; Popov, Vsevolod L; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Kenny, Tara; White, Bailey; Ward, Michael D; Loaiza, Jose R; Goldberg, Tony L; Weaver, Scott C; Kramer, Laura D; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-09-14

    RNA viruses exhibit a variety of genome organization strategies, including multicomponent genomes in which each segment is packaged separately. Although multicomponent genomes are common among viruses infecting plants and fungi, their prevalence among those infecting animals remains unclear. We characterize a multicomponent RNA virus isolated from mosquitoes, designated Guaico Culex virus (GCXV). GCXV belongs to a diverse clade of segmented viruses (Jingmenvirus) related to the prototypically unsegmented Flaviviridae. The GCXV genome comprises five segments, each of which appears to be separately packaged. The smallest segment is not required for replication, and its presence is variable in natural infections. We also describe a variant of Jingmen tick virus, another Jingmenvirus, sequenced from a Ugandan red colobus monkey, thus expanding the host range of this segmented and likely multicomponent virus group. Collectively, this study provides evidence for the existence of multicomponent animal viruses and their potential relevance for animal and human health.

  8. A Multicomponent Animal Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Beitzel, Brett; Auguste, Albert J; Dupuis, Alan P; Lindquist, Michael E; Sibley, Samuel D; Kota, Krishna P; Fetterer, David; Eastwood, Gillian; Kimmel, David; Prieto, Karla; Guzman, Hilda; Aliota, Matthew T; Reyes, Daniel; Brueggemann, Ernst E; St John, Lena; Hyeroba, David; Lauck, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H; Gestole, Marie C; Cazares, Lisa H; Popov, Vsevolod L; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Kenny, Tara; White, Bailey; Ward, Michael D; Loaiza, Jose R; Goldberg, Tony L; Weaver, Scott C; Kramer, Laura D; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-09-14

    RNA viruses exhibit a variety of genome organization strategies, including multicomponent genomes in which each segment is packaged separately. Although multicomponent genomes are common among viruses infecting plants and fungi, their prevalence among those infecting animals remains unclear. We characterize a multicomponent RNA virus isolated from mosquitoes, designated Guaico Culex virus (GCXV). GCXV belongs to a diverse clade of segmented viruses (Jingmenvirus) related to the prototypically unsegmented Flaviviridae. The GCXV genome comprises five segments, each of which appears to be separately packaged. The smallest segment is not required for replication, and its presence is variable in natural infections. We also describe a variant of Jingmen tick virus, another Jingmenvirus, sequenced from a Ugandan red colobus monkey, thus expanding the host range of this segmented and likely multicomponent virus group. Collectively, this study provides evidence for the existence of multicomponent animal viruses and their potential relevance for animal and human health. PMID:27569558

  9. Monitoring of West Nile virus in mosquitoes between 2011-2012 in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Antal, László; Tóth, Mihály; Kemenesi, Gábor; Soltész, Zoltán; Dán, Adám; Erdélyi, Károly; Bányai, Krisztián; Bálint, Adám; Jakab, Ferenc; Bakonyi, Tamás

    2014-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a widely distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus. WNV strains are classified into several genetic lineages on the basis of phylogenetic differences. Whereas lineage 1 viruses are distributed worldwide, lineage 2 WNV was first detected outside of Africa in Hungary in 2004. Since then, WNV-associated disease and mortality in animal and human hosts have been documented periodically in Hungary. After the first detection of WNV from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 2010, samples were collated from several sources and tested in a 2-year monitoring program. Collection areas were located in the Southern Transdanubium, in northeastern Hungary, in eastern Hungary, and in southeastern Hungary. During the 2 years, 23,193 mosquitoes in 645 pools were screened for WNV virus presence with RT-PCR. Three pools were found positive for WNV in 2011 (one pool of Ochlerotatus annulipes collected in Fényeslitke in June, one pool of Coquillettidia richiardii collected in Debrecen, Fancsika-tó, in July, and one pool of Cx. pipiens captured near Red-Footed Falcon colonies at Kardoskút in September). The minimal infection rate (MIR=proportion of infected mosquitoes per 1000 mosquitoes) of all mosquito pools was 0.25, whereas the MIR of infected species was 2.03 for O. annulipes, 0.63 for C. richiardii, and 2.70 for C.x pipiens. Molecular data have demonstrated that the same lineage 2 WNV strain has circulated in wild birds, horses, humans, and mosquitoes in Hungary since 2004. Mosquito-based surveillance successfully complemented the ongoing, long-term passive surveillance system and it was useful for the early detection of WNV circulation.

  10. Fauna and Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes in Neka County, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Ataei, Abolfazl; Anjamrooz, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ecological studies on mosquitoes are very important in vector control programs. There are a few studies about the ecology of mosquitoes in northern Iran. This study was carried out to detect fauna and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes. Methods: This study aimed to determine fauna and the ecology of mosquitoes in Neka County, Mazandaran Province, northern Iran from April to December, 2009. The larval collection was conducted using standard dipper, and the characteristics of larval habitat were investigated based on degree of transparency of water, type of water (stagnant or running), plant vegetation, sunny or shady, temperature and altitude of the natural or artificial breeding places. Results: The mosquito larvae were collected from 72 habitats and identified using systematic keys. Nine species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles claviger (0.31%), An. maculipennis (0.54%), An. plumbeus (10.28%), An. superpictus (0.01%), Culiseta annulata (1.07%), Cs. longiareolata (8.91%), Culex mimeticus (0.03%), Cx. pipiens (63.99%), and Ochlerotatus geniculatus (14.85%). The range of temperature in the larval habitats was 19.6–22.5 °C. Significant difference was observed in the rate of temperature among the species in the larval habitats (P< 0.05). A checklist of mosquitoes including seven genera and 32 species has been provided for Mazandaran Province. Conclusion: The most dominant species were Cx. pipiens. They were collected from the larval habitats like Border Rivers, ponds, rain water pools, discarded tires and tree holes. Culiseta annulata was included to the checklist of mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province. PMID:26623437

  11. Study of mosquito fauna in rice ecosystems around Hanoi, northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Van Soai, Nguyen; Van Anh, Dinh Thi; Nguyen, Yen T; Takagi, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    Species of the Culex vishnui subgroup, Cx. fuscocephala and Cx. gelidus, which are known Japanese encephalitis (JE) vectors, are distributed in rice agroecosystems in Asian countries. Hence, although ecological studies of rice agroecosystems in northern Vietnam are necessary, very few integrated studies of breeding habitats of mosquitoes, including JE vectors, have been conducted. We carried out a field study and investigated the mosquito fauna in six rice production areas in northern Vietnam during the rainy and dry seasons of 2009. Mosquitoes and potential mosquito predators were collected from aquatic habitats by using larval dippers. We collected 1780 Culex individuals (including 254 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus; 113 Cx. vishnui, 58 Cx. vishnui complex, consisting of Cx. vishnui and Cx. pseudovishnui; 12 Cx. gelidus; 1 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus; and 1 Cx. fuscocephala), 148 Anopheles individuals (including 5 An. vagus), 1 Mansonia annulifera, and 1 Mimomyia chamberlaini during the rainy season. During the dry season, we collected 176 Culex individuals (including 33 Cx. vishnui, 24 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 8 Cx. vishnui complex, and 1 Cx. gelidus) and 186 Anopheles individuals (including 9 An. tessellatus, 2 An. kochi, and 2 An. barbumbrosus). We found mosquitoes in all aquatic habitats, namely, rice fields, ditches, ponds, wetlands, irrigation canals, and rice nurseries, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui complex were found in all the above six areas. Heteroptera such as Micronecta, Veliidae, and Pleidae were abundant and widely distributed in both the seasons. The abundance of mosquito larvae was higher in the rice fields, ditches, and ponds during the rainy season than during the dry season. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui complex, Cx. fuscocephala, and Cx. gelidus were abundant in rice agroecosystems (rice fields, ditches, ponds, and wetlands) in northern Vietnam, and their abundance was high during the rainy season. These findings deepen our understanding of

  12. Estimation of sodium and potassium intakes assessed by two 24 h urine collections in healthy Japanese adults: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Sasaki, Yuki; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-10-14

    Excess Na intake and insufficient K intake are well-known risk factors for CVD. International comparative studies have reported that Japan has the highest intake of Na and the lowest intake of K in the world. However, no recent study has precisely assessed Na and K intakes in Japanese adults. In the present study, Na and K intakes were estimated from two 24 h urine collections implemented in twenty-three out of forty-seven prefectures in Japan. Apparently healthy men (n 384) and women (n 376), aged 20 to 69 years, who had been working in welfare facilities were recruited, with data collection conducted in February and March 2013. The mean Na excretion was 206·0 mmol/d in men and 173·9 mmol/d in women. The respective values of K excretion were 51·6 and 47·2 mmol/d. The excretion of both Na and K varied considerably among the prefectures, and was higher in subjects with a higher BMI. In contrast, only K excretion was associated with age. After estimating the usual intakes of Na and K, it was found that none of the male subjects met the recommended Na intake values of the WHO, and that only 3·2 % met those of the Japanese government. The respective values for females were 0·1 and 5·0 %. For K intake, 7·5 % of the total subjects met the recommended values of the WHO and 21·7 % met those of the Japanese government. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need for the development of an effective intervention programme to reduce Na intake and promote K intake in the Japanese population.

  13. Evidence of carbamate resistance in urban populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes resistant to DDT and deltamethrin insecticides in Lagos, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Resistance monitoring is essential in ensuring the success of insecticide based vector control programmes. This study was carried out to assess the susceptibility status of urban populations of Anopheles gambiae to carbamate insecticide being considered for vector control in mosquito populations previously reported to be resistant to DDT and permethrin. Methods Two – three day old adult female Anopheles mosquitoes reared from larval collections in 11 study sites from Local Government Areas of Lagos were exposed to test papers impregnated with DDT 4%, deltamethrin 0.05% and propoxur 0.1% insecticides. Additional tests were carried out to determine the susceptibility status of the Anopheles gambiae population to bendiocarb insecticide. Members of the A. gambiae complex, the molecular forms, were identified by PCR assays. The involvement of metabolic enzymes in carbamate resistance was assessed using Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist assays. The presence of kdr-w/e and ace-1R point mutations responsible for DDT-pyrethroid and carbamate resistance mechanisms was also investigated by PCR. Results Propoxur resistance was found in 10 out of the 11 study sites. Resistance to three classes of insecticides was observed in five urban localities. Mortality rates in mosquitoes exposed to deltamethrin and propoxur did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05) but was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in populations exposed to DDT. All mosquitoes tested were identified as A. gambiae s.s (M form). The kdr -w point mutation at allelic frequencies between 45%-77% was identified as one of the resistant mechanisms responsible for DDT and pyrethroid resistance. Ace-1R point mutation was absent in the carbamate resistant population. However, the possible involvement of metabolic resistance was confirmed by synergistic assays conducted. Conclusion Evidence of carbamate resistance in A. gambiae populations already harbouring resistance to DDT and permethrin is a

  14. Outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand and virus detection in field population of vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Pengsakul, Theerakamol; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Chanama, Sumalee; Anantapreecha, Surapee; Molito, Chusak; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Thammapalo, Suwich; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2009-09-01

    We investigated chikungunya fever outbreak in the southern part of Thailand. Human plasma specimens obtained from suspected patients and adult wild-caught mosquitoes were detected for chikungunya virus employing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique. Chikungunya virus was detected in about half of the blood specimens whereas a range of 5.5 to 100% relative infection rate was found in both sexes of the vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus Skuse. The infection rate in Ae. albopictus was higher than in Ae. aegypti, with relative infection rate in male of both species being higher than in female. The appearance of chikungunya virus in adult male mosquitoes of both species reveals a role of transovarial transmission of the virus in field population of the mosquito vectors. These findings have provided further understanding of the relationship among mosquito vectors, chikungunya virus and epidemiology of chikungunya fever in Thailand.

  15. Redescription of Chironomus javanus and Chironomus kiiensis (Diptera: Chironomidae) Larvae and Adults Collected from a Rice Field in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Chironomus javanus (Kieffer) and Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga were redescribed from materials collected from a rice field in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The larvae can only be distinguished after careful preparation and examination using a compound microscope, but the pupae were not useful to differentiate C. javanus from C. kiiensis. The adult specimens showed clear body and wing characteristics for rapid and accurate identification. PMID:24575227

  16. More Than Just Chinese Food...A Collection of Writings by Adult ESL Learners and Three Approaches to Teaching and Writing in the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Pauline; And Others

    This book consists of a collection of stories written by adults who attend a bilingual ESL (English as a Second Language) program co-sponsored by the Toronto Board of Education and Chinese Information and Community Services. All the writings deal with Chinese culture but the book may be used by people of diverse backgrounds and of varying levels…

  17. Mosquito population dynamic (Diptera: Culicidae) in a eutrophised dam.

    PubMed

    Wermelinger, E D; Benigno, C V; Machado, R N M; Cabello, P H; Meira, A M; Ferreira, A P; Zanuncio, J C

    2012-11-01

    This study observed the mosquito population in a rural eutrophised dam. Larvae of L3 and L4 stages and pupae were dipped out during twelve month collections and the reared to the adult stage for identification. The collections were done along nine metres from the edge of the dam divided in three parts (P1, P2 and P3), each part being 3 m long. P1 did not have vegetation (grass) along its edge,which would reach or sink into the water to promote some shade on the marginal water. A total of 217 adults of four species was identified with the following constancies and frequencies: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (83% and 40.6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (Brèthes, 1926) (92% and 26.7%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia and Lopez, 1940) (83% and 14.3%) and Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901) (33% and 18.4%). C. quinquefasciatus, A. evansae, A. rangeli and C. nigripalpus were more frequent in the quarters Nov./Dec./Jan. (85.7%), May/June/July (75%), Aug./Sept./Oct. (29.4%) and Aug./Sept./Oct. (23.5%) particularly in the months of December (88.4%) Sept.tember (48.94), (38.3) and August (47.62) respectively. The presence of C. quinquefasciatus and the high incidence of Daphinia sp. and also the levels of Organic Nitrogen (0.28 mg/L) and of total Phosphorus (0.02 mg/L) are indications of the eutrophication of the dam. There was a difference regarding the total of Anopheles (A. avansae + A. rangeli) and Culex species (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis) between P1 and P2 (χ(2) = 0.0097), P1 and P3 (χ(2) = 0.0005), but not between P2 and P3 (χ(2) = 0.2045).The high C. quinquefasciatus constancy and frequency were confirmed to be a good biological indicator for a eutrophised environment and A. evansae showed a good potential for this environment. Vegetation can be an important factor for anopheline population dynamic also in eutrophic breeding sites.

  18. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H

    2013-02-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes.

  19. The use of ABO blood groups as markers for mosquito biting studies.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J H; Smalley, M E

    1978-01-01

    Discrepancies between malaria inoculation rates measured entomologically and parasitologically may be explained, at least in part, if infants and children receive less mosquito bites per night than do adults. We found that this problem could be studied by choosing women and children of different ABO blood groups. In preliminary laboratory studies it was found that the blood group of a mosquito's blood meal could be determined in parous and nulliparous mosquitoes for at least 24 hours, and, nullipares up to 34 hours, after feeding. An antiserum against the O group was necessary to distinguish non A or B red cells from those of animal origin. Cross reactions did occur, presumably as a result of the digestion by mosquitoes of the red cell surfaces, but in every case the strongest and earliest developing agglutination was that of the host. Field studies were made using women and children sleeping under mosquito nets, the holes in which made the nets a trapping device. The women, on average, received over seven times more bites per night than did the children. The migration of blood-fed mosquitoes from one net to another was negligible.

  20. The Aquaporin Gene Family of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Lisa L.; Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Carpenter, Victoria K.; Dawe, Angus L.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the principal vector of the Dengue and yellow fever viruses. During feeding, an adult female can take up more than its own body weight in vertebrate blood. After a blood meal females excrete large amounts of urine through their excretion system, the Malpighian tubules (MT). Diuresis starts within seconds after the mosquito starts feeding. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane transporters that regulate the flow of water, glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Our aim was to identify aquaporins that function as water channels, mediating transcellular water transport in MTs of adult female Ae. aegypti. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a bioinformatics approach we screened genome databases and identified six putative AQPs in the genome of Ae. aegypti. Phylogenetic analysis showed that five of the six Ae. aegypti AQPs have high similarity to classical water-transporting AQPs of vertebrates. Using microarray, reverse transcription and real time PCR analysis we found that all six AQPs are expressed in distinct patterns in mosquito tissues/body parts. AaAQP1, 4, and 5 are strongly expressed in the adult female MT. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the MT-expressed mosquito AQPs resulted in significantly reduced diuresis. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the notion that AQP1, 4, and 5 function as water transporters in the MTs of adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate the importance of these AQPs for mosquito diuresis after blood ingestion and highlight their potential as targets for the development of novel vector control strategies. PMID:21249121

  1. Early warning of West Nile virus mosquito vector: climate and land use models successfully explain phenology and abundance of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in north-western Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging global health threat. Transmission risk is strongly related to the abundance of mosquito vectors, typically Culex pipiens in Europe. Early-warning predictors of mosquito population dynamics would therefore help guide entomological surveillance and thereby facilitate early warnings of transmission risk. Methods We analysed an 11-year time series (2001 to 2011) of Cx. pipiens mosquito captures from the Piedmont region of north-western Italy to determine the principal drivers of mosquito population dynamics. Linear mixed models were implemented to examine the relationship between Cx. pipiens population dynamics and environmental predictors including temperature, precipitation, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the proximity of mosquito traps to urban areas and rice fields. Results Warm temperatures early in the year were associated with an earlier start to the mosquito season and increased season length, and later in the year, with decreased abundance. Early precipitation delayed the start and shortened the length of the mosquito season, but increased total abundance. Conversely, precipitation later in the year was associated with a longer season. Finally, higher NDWI early in the year was associated with an earlier start to the season and increased season length, but was not associated with abundance. Proximity to rice fields predicted higher total abundance when included in some models, but was not a significant predictor of phenology. Proximity to urban areas was not a significant predictor in any of our models. Predicted variations in start of the season and season length ranged from one to three weeks, across the measured range of variables. Predicted mosquito abundance was highly variable, with numbers in excess of 1000 per trap per year when late season temperatures were low (average 21°C) to only 150 when late season temperatures were high (average 30°C). Conclusions Climate data collected early in

  2. Midgut Microbial Community of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito Populations from India

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Kshitij; Mendki, Murlidhar J.; Parikh, Rasesh Y.; Kulkarni, Girish; Tikar, Sachin N.; Sukumaran, Devanathan; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, Brahma D.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Veer, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is a ubiquitous species that serves as a major vector for west nile virus and lymphatic filariasis. Ingestion of bloodmeal by females triggers a series of physiological processes in the midgut and also exposes them to infection by these pathogens. The bacteria normally harbored in the midgut are known to influence physiology and can also alter the response to various pathogens. The midgut bacteria in female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected over a large geographical area from India was studied. Examination of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from culturable microflora revealed the presence of 83 bacterial species belonging to 31 bacterial genera. All of these species belong to three phyla i.e. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Phylum Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum (37 species), followed by Firmicutes (33 species) and Actinobacteria (13 species). Phylum Proteobacteria, was dominated by members of γ-proteobacteria class. The genus Staphylococcus was the largest genus represented by 11 species whereas Enterobacter was the most prevalent genus and recovered from all the field stations except Leh. Highest bacterial prevalence was observed from Bhuj (22 species) followed by Nagrota (18 species), Masimpur (18 species) and Hathigarh (16 species). Whereas, least species were observed from Leh (8 species). It has been observed that individual mosquito harbor extremely diverse gut bacteria and have very small overlap bacterial taxa in their gut. This variation in midgut microbiota may be one of the factors responsible for variation in disease transmission rates or vector competence within mosquito population. The present data strongly encourage further investigations to verify the potential role of the detected bacteria in mosquito for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and west nile virus. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on midgut microbiota of wild Cx. quinquefasciatus from over a

  3. Detection of Quang Binh virus from mosquitoes in China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shuqing; Zhao, Qiumin; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhou, Hongning; Cao, Wuchun; Zhang, Jiusong

    2014-02-13

    Flaviviruses present a wide range of genetic diversity and exhibit diverse host relationships. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses have recently been isolated and characterized worldwide. Yunnan Province of China is one of the richest areas of species diversity and is the center of multi-species evolution in mainland Asia, which supports the circulation of numerous arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). In a screening program of arboviruses, mosquitoes were collected during the mosquito activity season in the Yunnan Province from 2007 to 2010. Eleven flavivirus strains, named Yunnan Culex flaviviruses (YNCxFVs), were obtained from Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis specimens. Sequence analyses based on partial nonstructural protein (NS) 5 gene indicated that the YNCxFVs shared 92.8-99.6% nucleotide identity with each other and were similar to the Culex-related flaviviruses. The complete genome of one representative isolate, LSFlaviV-A20-09, was sequenced. The genome was 10,865 nucleotides long and contained a single, long open reading frame (ORF) of 10,080 nucleotides that encoded a 3360-aa polyprotein. This genome was most closely related to the Quang Binh virus (QBV) VN180 strain, an insect-specific flavivirus isolated from Culex mosquitoes in Vietnam, but only had 83.0% nucleotide and 93.8% amino acid identities for the ORF sequence. The genome has approximately 66.3%-68.5% nucleotide sequence and 69.3-73.3% amino acid sequence identities to other Culex flaviviruses, and only has 47.9-57.9% nucleotide sequence and 38.7-55.1% amino acid sequence identities to Coquillettidia-related, Mansonia-related and Aedes-related flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the LSFlaviV-A20-09 fell into the Culex-related flavivirus clade. Our discoveries provide more information regarding the heterogeneity of viruses that infect mosquitoes.

  4. Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Carolyn S.; Baier, Felix; Omondi, Aman B.; Spitzer, Sarabeth A.; Lutomiah, Joel; Sang, Rosemary; Ignell, Rickard; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2014-01-01

    Female mosquitoes are major vectors of human disease and the most dangerous are those that preferentially bite humans. A ‘domestic’ form of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has evolved to specialize in biting humans and is the major worldwide vector of dengue, yellow fever, and Chikungunya viruses. The domestic form coexists with an ancestral, animal-biting ‘forest’ form along the coast of Kenya. We collected the two forms, established laboratory colonies, and document striking divergence in preference for human versus animal odour. We further show that the evolution of preference for human odour in domestic mosquitoes is tightly linked to increases in the expression and ligand-sensitivity of the odorant receptor AaegOr4, which we found recognises a compound present at high levels in human odour. Our results provide a rare example of a gene contributing to behavioural evolution and provide insight into how disease-vectoring mosquitoes came to specialise on humans. PMID:25391959

  5. Residual effectiveness of lambda-cyhalothrin harbourage sprays against foliage-resting mosquitoes in north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Muzari, Odwell M; Adamczyk, Rebecca; Davis, Joseph; Ritchie, Scott; Devine, Gregor

    2014-03-01

    The residual efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin sprayed on foliage was evaluated against various mosquito species in sections of forest in Cairns, Queensland, Australia Weekly sweep-net collections in treated and untreated areas before and after spraying showed 87-100% reductions in mosquito numbers for the first 9 wk postspray. After that period, reductions fluctuated but remained >71% up to 14 wk posttreatment. Mosquito mortality ranged from 96 to 100% in contact bioassays of treated leaves during the 14 wk study. Our results demonstrate that spraying harborage vegetation with lambda-cyhalothrin is an extremely effective strategy for the control of sylvan and peridomestic mosquito species in tropical north Queensland. PMID:24724295

  6. No evidence for the persistence of Schmallenberg virus in overwintering mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Scholte, E J; Mars, M H; Braks, M; Den Hartog, W; Ibañez-Justicia, A; Koopmans, M; Koenraadt, C J M; De Vries, A; Reusken, C

    2014-03-01

    In 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel member of the Simbu serogroup, genus Orthobunyavirus, was identified as the causative agent of a disease in ruminants in Europe. Based on the current knowledge on arthropods involved in the transmission of Simbu group viruses, a role of both midges and mosquitoes in the SBV transmission cycle cannot be excluded beforehand. The persistence of SBV in mosquitoes overwintering at SBV-affected farms in the Netherlands was investigated. No evidence for the presence of SBV in 868 hibernating mosquitoes (Culex, Anopheles, and Culiseta spp., collected from January to March 2012) was found. This suggests that mosquitoes do not play an important role, if any, in the persistence of SBV during the winter months in northwestern Europe.

  7. Occurrence of Japanese encephalitis virus mosquito vectors in relation to urban pig holdings.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Johanna; Chirico, Jan; Boqvist, Sofia; Thu, Ho Thi Viet; Magnusson, Ulf

    2012-12-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is transmitted to humans from pigs or birds by mosquitoes. In this study, the association between urban pig keeping and mosquito vectors was analyzed. A total of 7, 419 mosquitoes were collected overnight in urban households with and without pigs in Can Tho City, Vietnam. The most prevalent vectors were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (36%), Cx. gelidus (24%), and Cx. quinquefasciatus (15%), which were present in all parts of the city. Pigs were associated with increased numbers of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Traps close to pigs had higher numbers of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus than traps close to humans. Increased number of persons in the household was associated with increased numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus. We demonstrate that JEV vector species are present at urban households with and without pigs, and show that keeping pigs in an urban area increase the number of mosquitoes competent as vectors for JEV.

  8. Dengue virus-mosquito interactions.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B

    2008-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is more widely dispersed now than at any time in the past, placing billions of humans at risk of infection with one or more of the four dengue viruses. This review presents and discusses information on mosquito-dengue infection dynamics and describes the prominent role that temperature and rainfall play in controlling dengue viral transmission including discussions of the effect of interannual climate variations and the predicted effect of global warming. Complementary human determinants of dengue epidemiology include viremia titer, variation in viremic period, enhanced viremias, and threshold viremia. Topics covered include epidemiological phenomena such as traveling waves, the generation of genetic diversity of dengue viruses following virgin soil introductions and in hyperendemic settings, and evidence for and against viral virulence as a determinant of the severity of dengue infections. Also described is the crucial role of monotypic and heterotypic herd immunity in shaping dengue epidemic behavior.

  9. Wolbachia infections in mosquitoes and their predators inhabiting rice field communities in Thailand and China.

    PubMed

    Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun; Zhang, Chongxing

    2016-07-01

    Wolbachia are inherited, endocytoplasmic bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. Here is the first systematic report on the study of Wolbachia infection in mosquitoes and their predators from both Thailand and China. In Thailand, 632 mosquito specimens (20 spp.) and 424 insect predators (23 spp.) were collected from the rice agroecosystem, mostly from the Central region, followed by the Northeast, the North and the South and were inhabiting rice fields, wetlands and ditches. In China, 928 mosquitoes (15 spp.) and 149 insect predators (16 spp.) were collected from rice fields along the Weishan Lake in Shandong province. Specimens were classified in the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Odonata and Hemiptera. Using wsp, ftsZ, 16S rRNA and groE gene amplifications, Wolbachia were detected in 12 mosquito spp. and 6 predator spp. from Thailand and 11 mosquito spp. and 5 predator spp. from China. The relative Wolbachia densities of these species were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the predator, Agriocnemis femina, had the highest bacterial densities. These results imply that Wolbachia of supergroup B are distributed throughout these insects, probably via horizontal transmission in rice agroecosystems. PMID:27012719

  10. Japanese encephalitis virus in culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: culicidae) of the republic of Korea, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Takhampunya, Ratree; Tippayachai, Bousaraporn; Chong, Sung-Tae; Park, Jee-Yong; Kim, Myung-Soon; Seo, Hyun-Ji; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Klein, Terry A

    2015-02-01

    A total of 150,805 culicine female mosquitoes were captured by Mosquito Magnet, black light, and New Jersey light traps, and at resting collections in the Republic of Korea from 2008 to 2010 as part of the U.S. Forces Korea malaria and Japanese surveillance programs. Mosquitoes were identified and culicine mosquitoes placed in pools of up to 30 mosquitoes each, by species and date of collection, and screened for flaviviruses using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. A total of 98/6,845 (1.4%) pools were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). A total of 92/2,031 (4.5%) pools of Culex tritaeniorhynchus were positive for JEV and accounted for 93.9% (92/98) of all JEV positive pools. A total of 4/804 (0.5%) and 2/175 (1.1%) pools of C. pipiens and C. bitaeniorhynchus, respectively, were positive for JEV. The JEV maximum likelihood estimations (estimated number of viral RNA positive mosquitoes per 1,000) for C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. bitaeniorhynchus, and C. pipiens were 1.71, 1.02, and 0.36 respectively. JEV is a severe health threat for local populations and of significant concern for nonimmune (unvaccinated) U.S. soldiers, civilians, and family members deployed to the Republic of Korea.

  11. Determining meteorological drivers of salt marsh mosquito peaks in tropical northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Carter, Jane; Kurucz, Nina; McDonnell, Joseph; Whelan, Peter I

    2015-12-01

    In northern Australia the northern salt marsh mosquito Aedes vigilax is a vector of Ross River virus and is an appreciable pest. A coastal wetland adjacent to Darwin's residential suburbs offers a favorable habitat for Ae. vigilax, and despite vigilant mosquito control efforts, peaks of Ae. vigilax occur in excess of 500/trap/night some months. To improve mosquito control for disease and nuisance biting to nearby residential areas, we sought to investigate meteorological drivers associated with these Ae. vigilax peaks. We fitted a cross-sectional logistic regression model to weekly counts of female Ae. vigilax mosquitoes collected between July, 1998 and June, 2009 against variables, tide, rainfall, month, year, and larval control. Aedes vigilax peaks were associated with rainfall during the months September to November compared with January, when adjusted for larval control and tide. To maximize mosquito control efficiency, larval control should continue to be implemented after high tides and with increased emphasis on extensive larval hatches triggered by rainfall between September and November each year. This study reiterates the importance of monitoring and evaluating service delivery programs. Using statistical modelling, service providers can obtain solutions to operational problems using routinely collected data. These methods may be applicable in mosquito surveillance or control programs in other areas. PMID:26611962

  12. Species Diversity, Seasonal, and Spatial Distribution of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Captured in Aotus Monkey-Baited Traps in a Forested Site Near Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Schoeler, George B; Gozalo, Alfonso S; Carbajal, Faustino; Lopez-Sifuentes, Victor; Turell, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relative abundance, diversity, seasonal, and vertical distributions of potential mosquito vectors in the Amazon Basin, Peru. A total of 66,097 mosquitoes (50 mosquito species from 12 genera) were collected from May 2001 through March 2002 at a forested site near Iquitos, Peru. Mosquitoes were collected using Aotus nancymae Hershkovitz monkey-baited CDC light traps set for 12-h day and night periods at varying heights (e.g., ground and canopy) in the forest. Of the 12 genera, three accounted for 75% of all mosquitoes collected: Culex (33%), Aedes (23%), and Psorophora (18%). The most prevalent species collected were Aedes serratus (Theobald), Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, Psorophora albigenu (Peryassu), and a combination of Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon and Mansonia titillans (Walker), which accounted for 56% of all mosquitoes captured. In general, mosquitoes were collected more often at night and on the ground. Exceptions include Coquillettidia venezuelensis (Theobald), which were collected in relatively even numbers at both day and night and most Mansonia and some species of Anopheles, which were collected more often in the canopy. Total mosquito populations had two peaks, June-July (Ma. indubitans/titillans and Cq. venezuelensis) and December-January (Ps. albigenu, Cx. pedroi, and Ae. serratus). Observations of the eight most collected mosquitoes indicated that behavioral shifts were not observed between collection months. These data provide a better understanding of the species diversity, population density, and seasonal distribution of potential mosquito vectors within the Amazon Basin region and allow for the development of appropriate vector and disease prevention strategies.

  13. Mosquito Host Selection Varies Seasonally with Host Availability and Mosquito Density

    PubMed Central

    Thiemann, Tara C.; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Host selection by vector mosquitoes is a critical component of virus proliferation, particularly for viruses such as West Nile (WNV) that are transmitted enzootically to a variety of avian hosts, and tangentially to dead-end hosts such as humans. Culex tarsalis is a principal vector of WNV in rural areas of western North America. Based on previous work, Cx. tarsalis utilizes a variety of avian and mammalian hosts and tends to feed more frequently on mammals in the late summer than during the rest of the year. To further explore this and other temporal changes in host selection, bloodfed females were collected at a rural farmstead and heron nesting site in Northern California from May 2008 through May 2009, and bloodmeal hosts identified using either a microsphere-based array or by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Host composition during summer was dominated by four species of nesting Ardeidae. In addition, the site was populated with various passerine species as well as domestic farm animals and humans. When present, Cx. tarsalis fed predominantly (>80%) upon the ardeids, with Black-crowned Night-Herons, a highly competent WNV host, the most prevalent summer host. As the ardeids fledged and left the area and mosquito abundance increased in late summer, Cx. tarsalis feeding shifted to include more mammals, primarily cattle, and a high diversity of avian species. In the winter, Yellow-billed Magpies and House Sparrows were the predominant hosts, and Yellow-billed Magpies and American Robins were fed upon more frequently than expected given their relative abundance. These data demonstrated that host selection was likely based both on host availability and differences in utilization, that the shift of bloodfeeding to include more mammalian hosts was likely the result of both host availability and increased mosquito abundance, and that WNV-competent hosts were fed upon by Cx. tarsalis throughout the year. PMID:22206038

  14. Socioeconomic status affects mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitat type availability and infestation level.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Zara; Ladeau, Shannon L; Armbruster, Peter; Biehler, Dawn; Leisnham, Paul T

    2013-07-01

    Mosquito populations are largely regulated by processes occurring at the larval stage. We sampled mosquito larval microhabitats (mostly water-holding containers) in six neighborhoods in the Washington, DC, area that varied in socioeconomic status (SES) and housing structure (row houses vs. stand-alone houses) to test associations among these neighborhood characteristics, microhabitat abundance and parameters, and mosquito occurrence and densities. Thirty-four percent (33.9%) of sampled microhabitats contained mosquito larvae, and 93.1% of larvae were Aedes albopictus Skuse or Culex pipiens L. Five specific container types (drains, corrugated flexible drainpipes, planters, garbage cans, and buckets) accounted for the majority of water-holding (56.0%) and mosquito-positive (50.6%) microhabitats sampled. We found no associations between SES or housing structure with total microhabitat abundance per yard, mosquito occurrence or mosquito densities per microhabitat. In contrast, container purpose varied with SES, with low SES neighborhoods having greater numbers of disused containers and lower numbers of functional containers than low and medium SES neighborhoods. Ae. albopictus were 83% more abundant in disused containers, whereas Cx. pipiens were more abundant in structural and functional containers, possibly owing to species-specific oviposition and development related to water quality. Ae. albopictus densities increased over the summer, whereas Cx. pipiens densities remained constant. Ae. albopictus is usually the dominant pest in urban areas in the eastern United States; therefore, integrated mosquito management programs should incorporate the elimination of disused containers to reduce its infestation and adult production, especially in low SES neighborhoods where they occur most frequently. PMID:23926774

  15. Socioeconomic status affects mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitat type availability and infestation level.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Zara; Ladeau, Shannon L; Armbruster, Peter; Biehler, Dawn; Leisnham, Paul T

    2013-07-01

    Mosquito populations are largely regulated by processes occurring at the larval stage. We sampled mosquito larval microhabitats (mostly water-holding containers) in six neighborhoods in the Washington, DC, area that varied in socioeconomic status (SES) and housing structure (row houses vs. stand-alone houses) to test associations among these neighborhood characteristics, microhabitat abundance and parameters, and mosquito occurrence and densities. Thirty-four percent (33.9%) of sampled microhabitats contained mosquito larvae, and 93.1% of larvae were Aedes albopictus Skuse or Culex pipiens L. Five specific container types (drains, corrugated flexible drainpipes, planters, garbage cans, and buckets) accounted for the majority of water-holding (56.0%) and mosquito-positive (50.6%) microhabitats sampled. We found no associations between SES or housing structure with total microhabitat abundance per yard, mosquito occurrence or mosquito densities per microhabitat. In contrast, container purpose varied with SES, with low SES neighborhoods having greater numbers of disused containers and lower numbers of functional containers than low and medium SES neighborhoods. Ae. albopictus were 83% more abundant in disused containers, whereas Cx. pipiens were more abundant in structural and functional containers, possibly owing to species-specific oviposition and development related to water quality. Ae. albopictus densities increased over the summer, whereas Cx. pipiens densities remained constant. Ae. albopictus is usually the dominant pest in urban areas in the eastern United States; therefore, integrated mosquito management programs should incorporate the elimination of disused containers to reduce its infestation and adult production, especially in low SES neighborhoods where they occur most frequently.

  16. [Mosquito fauna (Diptera:Culicidae) from Falcon State, Venezuela. I. New records and current checklist].

    PubMed

    Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y

    1994-01-01

    A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature. PMID:9239851

  17. [Mosquito fauna (Diptera:Culicidae) from Falcon State, Venezuela. I. New records and current checklist].

    PubMed

    Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y

    1994-01-01

    A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature.

  18. Recombinant bacteria for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Federici, B A; Park, H-W; Bideshi, D K; Wirth, M C; Johnson, J J

    2003-11-01

    Bacterial insecticides have been used for the control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes for more than two decades. Nevertheless, due primarily to their high cost and often only moderate efficacy, these insecticides remain of limited use in tropical countries where mosquito-borne diseases are prevalent. Recently, however, recombinant DNA techniques have been used to improve bacterial insecticide efficacy by markedly increasing the synthesis of mosquitocidal proteins and by enabling new endotoxin combinations from different bacteria to be produced within single strains. These new strains combine mosquitocidal Cry and Cyt proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis with the binary toxin of Bacillus sphaericus, improving efficacy against Culex species by 10-fold and greatly reducing the potential for resistance through the presence of Cyt1A. Moreover, although intensive use of B. sphaericus against Culex populations in the field can result in high levels of resistance, most of this can be suppressed by combining this bacterial species with Cyt1A; the latter enables the binary toxin of this species to enter midgut epithelial cells via the microvillar membrane in the absence of a midgut receptor. The availability of these novel strains and newly discovered mosquitocidal proteins, such as the Mtx toxins of B. sphaericus, offers the potential for constructing a range of recombinant bacterial insecticides for more effective control of the mosquito vectors of filariasis, Dengue fever and malaria. PMID:14506223

  19. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  20. North American wetlands and mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D

    2012-12-10

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  1. Complete Dosage Compensation in Anopheles stephensi and the Evolution of Sex-Biased Genes in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaofang; Biedler, James K.; Qi, Yumin; Hall, Andrew Brantley; Tu, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Complete dosage compensation refers to hyperexpression of the entire X or Z chromosome in organisms with heterogametic sex chromosomes (XY male or ZW female) in order to compensate for having only one copy of the X or Z chromosome. Recent analyses suggest that complete dosage compensation, as in Drosophila melanogaster, may not be the norm. There has been no systematic study focusing on dosage compensation in mosquitoes. However, analysis of dosage compensation in Anopheles mosquitoes provides opportunities for evolutionary insights, as the X chromosome of Anopheles and that of its Dipteran relative, D. melanogaster formed independently from the same ancestral chromosome. Furthermore, Culicinae mosquitoes, including the Aedes genus, have homomorphic sex-determining chromosomes, negating the need for dosage compensation. Thus, Culicinae genes provide a rare phylogenetic context to investigate dosage compensation in Anopheles mosquitoes. Here, we performed RNA-seq analysis of male and female samples of the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Autosomal and X-linked genes in An. stephensi showed very similar levels of expression in both males and females, indicating complete dosage compensation. The uniformity of average expression levels of autosomal and X-linked genes remained when An. stephensi gene expression was normalized by that of their Ae. aegypti orthologs, strengthening the finding of complete dosage compensation in Anopheles. In addition, we comparatively analyzed the differentially expressed genes between adult males and adult females in both species, investigated sex-biased gene chromosomal distribution patterns in An. stephensi and provided three examples where gene duplications may have enabled the acquisition of sex-specific expression during mosquito evolution. PMID:26078263

  2. Blood Meal Preference of Some Anopheline Mosquitoes in Command and Non-command Areas of Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to compare the entomological situation by analyzing the blood meal of mosquitoes of canal irrigated and non-irrigated areas of Bikaner in order to explore scientific information on the vector biology and malaria burden profile and to plan proper strategies for malaria control and eradication. Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected and the abdomen of the blood fed females were crushed on a filter paper for blood meal analysis and subjected to precipitin test. Results: The blood meal analysis showed that Anopheles subpictus had a preference towards cattle blood, An. culicifacies and An. stephensi preferred human blood, while, An. annularis was noted to feed only on bovine blood. Conclusion: Although An. annularis, has been recently reported from the area, was found to feed exclusively on bovine blood, earlier reports suggest that this species is a vector of malaria and therefore preventive measures should be taken well in advance before this species gets established in the area. PMID:23378966

  3. Does the mosquito have more of a role in certain cancers than is currently appreciated? - The mosquito cocktail hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Ward, A; Johansson, O

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer recognises five viruses, one bacterium and three parasites as having a causal relationship to cancer, and one virus, HIV, that by suppressing the immune system assists in the development of cancer. In addition numerous researchers have claimed links between cancer and other viruses and bacteria, many of which have been isolated from tumours. Excluding the non-causal HIV, 33 infectious agents linked with cancer have been identified in the literature, 27 of which have one thing in common: they are all present in mosquitoes. There are over 3000 species of mosquito and very few have been fully analysed, so the six remaining infectious agents may be present in some unexamined species. This hypothesis proposes that more cancers than are presently appreciated may arise from the long-term outcome of a mosquito bite, which by releasing a complex cocktail of up to 60 infectious agents directly into the blood stream, often results in contemporaneous immuno-suppression and a multiplicity of co-infections. These co-infections may act synergistically in whole, or in part, and in complex ways. Whether and if so which type of cancer ensues will depend on the constituent ingredients in the cocktail, determined by multiple factors such as the mosquito's drinking and feeding patterns, number of previous blood-meals and the variety of intermediate hosts from which these meals are taken. Only a few mosquito species carry malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya and the other recognised serious human ailments. This hypothesis suggests that the number of species carrying the cancer cocktail will be few in number but collectively have a worldwide presence.

  4. Challenges in undertaking mosquito surveillance at UK seaports and airports to prevent the entry and establishment of invasive vector species.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gai; Vaux, Alex; Medlock, Jolyon

    2013-01-01

    Port health authorities have played an important role in the control of infectious diseases worldwide. The International Health Regulations (2005) further clarifies this role and provides a legal statutory instrument that aims to assist the international community to prevent and respond to global public health risks. Eleven UK sea and airports participated in a pilot, investigating the challenges ports could face in attempting to monitor for mosquitoes. The study also examined the types of habitat that could support mosquitoes. There is a concern that exotic vector species, such as Aedes albopictus, could invade and become established in the UK. Environments in and around the ports differed, and this was reflected in the species of mosquitoes caught. Ports used different methods to collect mosquitoes and developed a range of techniques for surveying, which suited the conditions at their port. This paper discusses the implications of invasive mosquito surveillance to UK port health authorities.

  5. Biology of Culex sitiens, a Predominant Mosquito in Phang Nga, Thailand after a Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Prummongkol, Samrerng; Panasoponkul, Chotechuang; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Lek-Uthai, Usa

    2012-01-01

    A tsunami affected area in Phang Nga province, Thailand was explored randomly as some freshwater sites had changed into brackish-water sites. A survey of four areas found Culex sitiens to be the most dominant mosquito species.This mosquito prefers to breed in putrefied water with garbage and it was found in almost every stagnant, brackish-water site in full sunlight. The larval density was more than 300 larvae/dip/250 ml water. Its biting cycle, determined by human landing catch, was nocturnal, with a single peak at 19.00–20.00 hr. The maximum rate was 108 mosquitoes per person/hour. The biology of the mosquito was studied by colonization in natural water under laboratory conditions. The mean number of eggs per raft was 158.1 ± 31.7, hatchability 96.6 ± 4.1%, development from 1st instar larvae to adult was 8.8–11.7 days, and longevity of adult males was 7.3–41.3 days and females 11.0–52.7 days. The ratio of adult males to adult females was 1:1.1 ± 0.2. PMID:22950682

  6. Flock house virus replicates and expresses green fluorescent protein in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Ranjit; Cheng, Li-Lin; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Christensen, Bruce M

    2003-07-01

    Flock house virus (FHV) is a non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus of insect origin that belongs to the family Nodaviridae. FHV has been shown to overcome the kingdom barrier and to replicate in plants, insects, yeast and mammalian cells. Although of insect origin, FHV has not previously been shown to replicate in mosquitoes. We have tested FHV replication in vitro in C6/36 cells (derived from neonatal Aedes albopictus) and in vivo in four different genera of mosquitoes, Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Armigeres. FHV replicated to high titres in C6/36 cells that had been subcloned to support maximum growth of FHV. When adult mosquitoes were orally fed or injected with the virus, FHV antigen was detected in various tissues and infectious virus was recovered. Vectors developed from an infectious cDNA clone of a defective-interfering RNA, derived from FHV genomic RNA2, expressed green fluorescent protein in Drosophila cells and adult mosquitoes. This demonstrates the potential of FHV-based vectors for expression of foreign genes in mosquitoes and possibly other insects.

  7. On the analysis of effectiveness in mass application of mosquito repellent for dengue disease prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.; Nuraini, N.

    2012-05-01

    Dengue disease has been known as one of dangerous vector-borne diseases and become serious threat in many tropical countries. With no vaccine and antiviral available until nowadays, and frequent appearance of extraordinary dengue outbreaks, many governments are forced to declare national problem for dengue. At this moment, the only method available to prevent dengue disease transmission is to combat the disease-carrying mosquitoes as well as to reduce the contact between human and mosquitoes. The fast growing dengue transmission in many countries in recent years indicates that the mosquito control programs are far from successful. The use of mosquito repellent is one possible instrument which could be used as an effective mass treatment to prevent the dengue outbreak during endemic period. Here in this paper a Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (S-I-R) dengue transmission model with repellent mass treatment is being applied to portions of children and adult compartments. Analysis of the basic reproductive ratio (Ro) of the model is done. It is shown, with reasonable choices of portions of treated children and adults, in combination with reduction of mosquito population, the basic reproductive ratio can be significantly reduced and occurrence of endemic can be avoided. Numerical simulations are shown for various treatment scenarios.

  8. Effects of ultra-low volume pyrethrin, malathion, and permethrin on nontarget invertebrates, sentinel mosquitoes, and mosquitofish in seasonally impounded wetlands.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T; Lawler, S P; Dritz, D A

    1999-09-01

    Wildlife managers are concerned that insecticides used to control mosquitoes could suppress invertebrates on which wildlife feed. We assessed whether ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of pyrethrin, permethrin, and malathion for control of adult mosquitoes reduced macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass or killed mosquitofish in seasonal wetlands in California. Pyrethrin was applied over 3 seasonal wetlands on Sutter National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), and malathion or permethrin were each applied over 2 seasonal wetlands on the Colusa NWR. Three control wetlands were used per site. We measured aquatic macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass before and after insecticide application and compared the survival of mosquito larvae held in sentinel cages. At Colusa, we also used mosquitofish as sentinels, caged adult mosquitoes over the wetlands to test for pesticide efficacy and drift, and sampled night-flying insects using ultraviolet light traps. Results showed no detectable reductions in the abundance or biomass of aquatic macroinvertebrates in treated wetlands. Larval mosquitoes showed high survival in all areas. All adult mosquitoes died when caged over wetlands treated with malathion or permethrin, but all survived in controls. All mosquitofish survived. Flying insect abundance decreased after insecticide application in both treated and control wetlands but rebounded in 48 h. Results indicated that ULV applications of these insecticides to control adult mosquitoes are unlikely to have substantial effects on the aquatic insects or fish in seasonal wetlands.

  9. Effects of ultra-low volume pyrethrin, malathion, and permethrin on nontarget invertebrates, sentinel mosquitoes, and mosquitofish in seasonally impounded wetlands.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T; Lawler, S P; Dritz, D A

    1999-09-01

    Wildlife managers are concerned that insecticides used to control mosquitoes could suppress invertebrates on which wildlife feed. We assessed whether ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of pyrethrin, permethrin, and malathion for control of adult mosquitoes reduced macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass or killed mosquitofish in seasonal wetlands in California. Pyrethrin was applied over 3 seasonal wetlands on Sutter National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), and malathion or permethrin were each applied over 2 seasonal wetlands on the Colusa NWR. Three control wetlands were used per site. We measured aquatic macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass before and after insecticide application and compared the survival of mosquito larvae held in sentinel cages. At Colusa, we also used mosquitofish as sentinels, caged adult mosquitoes over the wetlands to test for pesticide efficacy and drift, and sampled night-flying insects using ultraviolet light traps. Results showed no detectable reductions in the abundance or biomass of aquatic macroinvertebrates in treated wetlands. Larval mosquitoes showed high survival in all areas. All adult mosquitoes died when caged over wetlands treated with malathion or permethrin, but all survived in controls. All mosquitofish survived. Flying insect abundance decreased after insecticide application in both treated and control wetlands but rebounded in 48 h. Results indicated that ULV applications of these insecticides to control adult mosquitoes are unlikely to have substantial effects on the aquatic insects or fish in seasonal wetlands. PMID:10480124

  10. Landscape Effects on the Presence, Abundance and Diversity of Mosquitoes in Mediterranean Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramon; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Environment determines the distribution of mosquito-borne diseases in that it influences the vector-host-pathogen transmission cycle, including vector distribution, abundance and diversity. In this study, we analyse the relationship between environmental variables estimated by remote sensing and the spatial distribution (presence, abundance and diversity) of seven mosquito species vectors of West Nile and other pathogens (Usutu, avian malaria and dirofilariasis) in the Doñana Natural Park, Spain. Traps were distributed over an area of 54,984 ha divided into six ecological units: marshland, sand dunes, scrubland, ricefields, crops and fishponds. We collected mosquitoes once a month from up to 112 locations using BG-Sentinel traps baited with BG-lure and CO2 during March-November 2010. Hydroperiod, NDVI and Inundation surface were estimated at several resolution scales (100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 metres) from corrected and normalized Landsat Images. We sampled 972,346 female mosquitoes, the most abundant species being Culex theileri, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex modestus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus detritus. Our results suggest that: (1) hydroperiod, inundation surface and NDVI are strongly related to the spatial distribution of mosquitoes; (2) the spatial scales used to measure these variables affected quantification of these relationships, the larger scale being more informative; (3) these relationships are species-specific; (4) hydroperiod is negatively related to mosquito presence and richness; (5) Culex abundance is positively related to hydroperiod; (6) NDVI is positively related to mosquito diversity, presence and abundance, except in the case of the two salt marsh species (Oc. caspius and Oc. detritus); and (7) inundation surfaces positively condition the abundance and richness of most species except the salt marsh mosquitoes. Remote sensing data provided reliable information for monitoring mosquito populations

  11. Landscape Effects on the Presence, Abundance and Diversity of Mosquitoes in Mediterranean Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramon; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Environment determines the distribution of mosquito-borne diseases in that it influences the vector-host-pathogen transmission cycle, including vector distribution, abundance and diversity. In this study, we analyse the relationship between environmental variables estimated by remote sensing and the spatial distribution (presence, abundance and diversity) of seven mosquito species vectors of West Nile and other pathogens (Usutu, avian malaria and dirofilariasis) in the Doñana Natural Park, Spain. Traps were distributed over an area of 54,984 ha divided into six ecological units: marshland, sand dunes, scrubland, ricefields, crops and fishponds. We collected mosquitoes once a month from up to 112 locations using BG-Sentinel traps baited with BG-lure and CO2 during March-November 2010. Hydroperiod, NDVI and Inundation surface were estimated at several resolution scales (100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 metres) from corrected and normalized Landsat Images. We sampled 972,346 female mosquitoes, the most abundant species being Culex theileri, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex modestus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus detritus. Our results suggest that: (1) hydroperiod, inundation surface and NDVI are strongly related to the spatial distribution of mosquitoes; (2) the spatial scales used to measure these variables affected quantification of these relationships, the larger scale being more informative; (3) these relationships are species-specific; (4) hydroperiod is negatively related to mosquito presence and richness; (5) Culex abundance is positively related to hydroperiod; (6) NDVI is positively related to mosquito diversity, presence and abundance, except in the case of the two salt marsh species (Oc. caspius and Oc. detritus); and (7) inundation surfaces positively condition the abundance and richness of most species except the salt marsh mosquitoes. Remote sensing data provided reliable information for monitoring mosquito populations

  12. Landscape Effects on the Presence, Abundance and Diversity of Mosquitoes in Mediterranean Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramon; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Environment determines the distribution of mosquito-borne diseases in that it influences the vector-host-pathogen transmission cycle, including vector distribution, abundance and diversity. In this study, we analyse the relationship between environmental variables estimated by remote sensing and the spatial distribution (presence, abundance and diversity) of seven mosquito species vectors of West Nile and other pathogens (Usutu, avian malaria and dirofilariasis) in the Doñana Natural Park, Spain. Traps were distributed over an area of 54,984 ha divided into six ecological units: marshland, sand dunes, scrubland, ricefields, crops and fishponds. We collected mosquitoes once a month from up to 112 locations using BG-Sentinel traps baited with BG-lure and CO2 during March-November 2010. Hydroperiod, NDVI and Inundation surface were estimated at several resolution scales (100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 metres) from corrected and normalized Landsat Images. We sampled 972,346 female mosquitoes, the most abundant species being Culex theileri, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex modestus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus detritus. Our results suggest that: (1) hydroperiod, inundation surface and NDVI are strongly related to the spatial distribution of mosquitoes; (2) the spatial scales used to measure these variables affected quantification of these relationships, the larger scale being more informative; (3) these relationships are species-specific; (4) hydroperiod is negatively related to mosquito presence and richness; (5) Culex abundance is positively related to hydroperiod; (6) NDVI is positively related to mosquito diversity, presence and abundance, except in the case of the two salt marsh species (Oc. caspius and Oc. detritus); and (7) inundation surfaces positively condition the abundance and richness of most species except the salt marsh mosquitoes. Remote sensing data provided reliable information for monitoring mosquito populations

  13. Spatio-temporal Modeling of Mosquito Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Y.; Dufourd, C.

    2011-11-01

    We consider a quasilinear parabolic system to model mosquito displacement. In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide density estimates of mosquito populations, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. After a brief introduction to mosquito dispersal modeling, we present some theoretical results. Then, considering a compartmental approach, we get a quasilinear system of PDEs. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering vector control scenarii, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and in the efficiency of vector control tools.

  14. Modeling Mosquito Distribution. Impact of the Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Y.

    2011-09-01

    In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide mosquito density estimate and mosquito distribution, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. Mosquito dispersal modeling, together with a compartmental approach, leads to a quasilinear parabolic system. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering various landscapes, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and, thus, in the efficiency or not of vector control.

  15. Synthetic predator cues impair immune function and make the biological pesticide Bti more lethal for vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Op De Beeck, Lin; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-03-01

    The control of vector mosquitoes is one of the biggest challenges facing humankind with the use of chemical pesticides often leading to environmental impact and the evolution of resistance. Although to a lesser extent, this also holds for Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), the most widely used biological pesticide to control mosquito populations. This raises the need for the development of integrated pest management strategies that allow the reduction of Bti concentrations without loss of the mosquito control efficiency. To this end, we tested in a laboratory experiment the combined effects of larval exposure to a sublethal Bti concentration and predation risk cues on life history and physiology of larval and adult Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Besides natural predator kairomones and prey alarm cues, we also tested synthetic kairomones of Notonecta predators. Neither Bti nor predation risk cues affected mortality, yet when both stressors were combined mortality increased on average by 133% compared to the treatment with only predation risk cues. This synergistic interaction was also present when Bti was combined with synthetic kairomones. This was further reflected in changes of the composite index of population performance, which suggested lowered per capita growth rates in mosquitoes exposed to Bti but only when Bti was combined with synthetic kairomones. Furthermore, predation risk cues shortened larval development time, reduced mass at metamorphosis in males, and had an immunosuppressive effect in larval and adult mosquitoes which may affect the mosquito vector competence. We provide the first demonstration that synthetic kairomones may generate similar effects on prey as natural kairomones. The identified immunosuppressive effect of synthetic kairomones and the novel lethal synergism type between a biological pesticide and synthetic predator kairomones provide an important proof of principle illustrating the potential of this combination for integrated

  16. Ecology of Culiseta Melanura and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Walton County, FL, During Winter Period 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Bingham, Andrea M; Hunt, Brenda; Morse, Gary; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2015-09-01

    Winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in northern Florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic EEEV winter transmission. Light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (November-April) of 2013 and 2014 in Walton County, FL. Overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the study period. Mosquito activity was linked to morning temperature, and females were captured when ambient morning temperatures were quite low (1-5°C). Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex territans Walker, and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) were the most commonly collected mosquito species (of 20 total species). Analysis of blood-engorged mosquitoes revealed a number of mosquito species feeding upon chickens, other birds, amphibians, and domestic and wild mammals. Cs. melanura fed primarily upon chickens and songbirds (Passeriformes), suggesting that this mosquito species is the likely winter vector of EEEV to sentinel chickens in northern Florida. Both resident and nonresident songbird species were fed upon, constituting 63.9 and 36.1% of total songbird meals, respectively. Our results suggest important roles for Cs. melanura and songbird hosts for the winter transmission of EEEV in northern Florida.

  17. Ecology of Culiseta Melanura and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Walton County, FL, During Winter Period 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Bingham, Andrea M.; Hunt, Brenda; Morse, Gary; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in northern Florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic EEEV winter transmission. Light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (November–April) of 2013 and 2014 in Walton County, FL. Overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the study period. Mosquito activity was linked to morning temperature, and females were captured when ambient morning temperatures were quite low (1–5°C). Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex territans Walker, and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) were the most commonly collected mosquito species (of 20 total species). Analysis of blood-engorged mosquitoes revealed a number of mosquito species feeding upon chickens, other birds, amphibians, and domestic and wild mammals. Cs. melanura fed primarily upon chickens and songbirds (Passeriformes), suggesting that this mosquito species is the likely winter vector of EEEV to sentinel chickens in northern Florida. Both resident and nonresident songbird species were fed upon, constituting 63.9 and 36.1% of total songbird meals, respectively. Our results suggest important roles for Cs. melanura and songbird hosts for the winter transmission of EEEV in northern Florida. PMID:26336227

  18. Ecology of Culiseta Melanura and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Walton County, FL, During Winter Period 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Bingham, Andrea M; Hunt, Brenda; Morse, Gary; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2015-09-01

    Winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in northern Florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic EEEV winter transmission. Light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (November-April) of 2013 and 2014 in Walton County, FL. Overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the study period. Mosquito activity was linked to morning temperature, and females were captured when ambient morning temperatures were quite low (1-5°C). Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex territans Walker, and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) were the most commonly collected mosquito species (of 20 total species). Analysis of blood-engorged mosquitoes revealed a number of mosquito species feeding upon chickens, other birds, amphibians, and domestic and wild mammals. Cs. melanura fed primarily upon chickens and songbirds (Passeriformes), suggesting that this mosquito species is the likely winter vector of EEEV to sentinel chickens in northern Florida. Both resident and nonresident songbird species were fed upon, constituting 63.9 and 36.1% of total songbird meals, respectively. Our results suggest important roles for Cs. melanura and songbird hosts for the winter transmission of EEEV in northern Florida. PMID:26336227

  19. Persistent Infection by Wolbachia wAlbB Has No Effect on Composition of the Gut Microbiota in Adult Female Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shicheng; Zhao, Jiangchao; Joshi, Deepak; Xi, Zhiyong; Norman, Beth; Walker, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    The bacteria in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi adult females from laboratory colonies were studied by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA genes, with respect to three experimental factors: stable or cured Wolbachia infection; sugar or blood diet; and age. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the community [>90% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs)]; most taxa were in the classes Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, and were assigned to Elizabethkingia (46.9%), Asaia (6.4%) and Pseudomonas (6.0%), or unclassified Enterobacteriaceae (37.2%). Bacterial communities were similar between Wolbachia-cured and Wolbachia-infected mosquito lines, indicating that the gut microbiota were not dysregulated in the presence of Wolbachia. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in mosquitoes fed a blood meal compared to those provided a sugar meal. Collectively, the bacterial community had a similar structure in older Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes 8 days after the blood meal, as in younger Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes before a blood meal, except that older mosquitoes had a higher proportion of Enterobacteriaceae and lower proportion of Elizabethkingia. Consistent presence of certain predominant bacteria (Elizabethkingia, Asaia, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae) suggests they would be useful for paratransgenesis to control malaria infection, particularly when coupled to a Wolbachia-based intervention strategy. PMID:27708633

  20. Laser-diffraction characterization of flat-fan nozzles used to develop aerosol clouds of aerially applied mosquito adulticides.

    PubMed

    Hornby, Jonathan A; Robinson, Jim; Opp, William; Sterling, Milton

    2006-12-01

    The importance of appropriate drop size and density for successful mosquito adulticide applications mandates the necessity for accurate determination of drop spectra of a particular nozzle. There is considerable disparity between mass median diameter (MMD) determinations for flat-fan nozzles relative to the horizontal or vertical orientation of the microscope slide used to collect the drops. To remove this ambiguity, the definitive MMDs of flat-fan nozzles used in aerially applied mosquito control adulticides were determined by laser-diffraction-based characterization and analysis. These data were compared with previous data, and the impact of these data on aerial adult mosquito control was discussed. At The Florida Wind Tunnel for Mosquito Control, the Malvern Spraytec Spray Particle Analysis System was used to characterize the entire aerosol plume of the nozzles. Nozzle characterizations were carried out at aircraft operational wind speeds and pressures with nozzles mounted at 135 degrees relative to the direction of air flow. The mean drop-diameter volumes (Dv) Dv(0.1), Dv(0.5), and Dv(0.9) with 95% confidence intervals for each scenario were determined. Characterizations of flat-fan nozzles of 80005 to 8005 for Orchex 796, Dibrom and a Permanone:Orchex 796 mix (1:1) resulted in no Dv(0.5) less than 50 microm and a maximum of 133 microm. The Dv(0.1) was greater than 25 min for 52% of the nozzles and ranged from 14 to 42 microm. The Dv(0.9) ranged from 130 to 296 microm. There was a decrease in drop-diameter values (Dv(0.1), Dv(0.5), Dv(0.9)) relative to increased wind speed and/or pressure for any particular nozzle. Relative to characterizations with Orchex 796, drop-diameter values for Dibrom varied from the same to slightly larger, whereas the Permanone:Orchex 796 mix values were larger except for 2. Relative to the goal of creating an aerosol cloud efficient in controlling adult mosquitoes, none of the nozzles were capable of producing a Dv(0.5) of less than

  1. Mercadeo Virus: A Novel Mosquito-Specific Flavivirus from Panama

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Guzman, Hilda; Beltrán, Davis; Díaz, Yamilka; López-Vergès, Sandra; Torres-Cosme, Rolando; Popov, Vsevolod; Widen, Steven G.; Wood, Thomas G.; Weaver, Scott C.; Cáceres-Carrera, Lorenzo; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses in the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) include many arthropod-borne viruses of public health and veterinary importance. However, during the past two decades an explosion of novel insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs), some closely related to vertebrate pathogens, have been discovered. Although many flavivirus pathogens of vertebrates have been isolated from naturally infected mosquitoes in Panama, ISFs have not previously been reported from the country. This report describes the isolation and characterization of a novel ISF, tentatively named Mercadeo virus (MECDV), obtained from Culex spp. mosquitoes collected in Panama. Two MECDV isolates were sequenced and cluster phylogenetically with cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV) and Nakiwogo virus (NAKV) to form a distinct lineage within the insect-specific group of flaviviruses. PMID:26304915

  2. A material isolated from human hands that attracts female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Schreck, C E; Smith, N; Carlson, D A; Price, G D; Haile, D; Godwin, D R

    1982-02-01

    The residue left on glass surfaces by human hands was found to be attractive to femaleAedes aegypti (L.) andAnopheles quadrimaculatus Say mosquitoes. The material lost half of its activity in 1 hr. A solvent wash technique was developed to recover and concentrate the residuum from handled glass beads. The residuum could be recovered effectively with absolute ethanol and less effectively with several other solvents. More mosquitoes were attracted to heated than to unheated residuum, an indication of its volatility. Also, attraction of the residuum decreased with decreasing concentration or dose. Concentrated residuum collections, stored under refrigeration and tested for longevity, showed no appreciable loss of attractiveness up to 60 days of storage.

  3. Study of the effect of the midgut bacterial flora of Culex quinquefasciatus on the susceptibility of mosquitoes to Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Mourya, D T; Gokhale, M D; Pidiyar, V; Barde, P V; Patole, M; Mishra, A C; Shouche, Y

    2002-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected from the field and microbial flora was isolated from their midgut. Isolates belonging to 13 different genera were obtained. Four most abundant isolates viz. Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacterjunii, Staphylococcus epidermis and Aeromonas culicicola were used to study their effect on the susceptibility of mosquitoes to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Incorporation of individual isolates in the mosquito bloodmeal resulted in an increased susceptibility of mosquitoes to the virus. However, only the effects of Pseudomonas sp. and Acinetobacterjunii could be statistically evaluated but they were found insignificant. PMID:12693864

  4. Larval ecology and mosquito fauna of upper Brahmaputra valley, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Khan, S A; Handique, R; Tewari, S C; Dutta, P; Narain, K; Mahanta, J

    1998-09-01

    Ninety-one mosquito species in 15 genera were collected from 22 habitat types of Upper Brahmaputra valley in Assam and bordering areas of Arunachal Pradesh. Nineteen species have been recorded for the first time in Assam including seven first records from the northeast region and three first country records. Jaccard's coefficient was used to quantify the similarity between 13 different geographical localities surveyed on the basis of their mosquito fauna. Group average sorting (UPGMA) cluster analysis was used to find out relationship between Jonai, Dhemaji, Dibrugarh, Tinsukia and north Lakhimpur (study zones) on the basis of their mosquito community. Immatures of three malaria vectors incriminated from the northeast India, viz. Anopheles dirus, An. minimus and An. philippinensis were collected exclusively from forest areas. Fourteen potential vectors of Japanese encephalitis incriminated from elsewhere in India were collected during the study. PMID:10497839

  5. Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Jana; Blacket, Mark J; Brown, Karen; Lynch, Stacey E

    2016-05-01

    DNA barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. In order to use DNA barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. This study obtained Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 species, six tribes and 12 genera; 17 of these species have not been previously barcoded. Three of the 29 species ─ Culex palpalis, Macleaya macmillani, and an unknown species originally identified as Tripteroides atripes ─ were initially misidentified as they are difficult to separate morphologically, highlighting the utility of DNA barcoding. While most species grouped separately (reciprocally monophyletic), the Cx. pipiens subgroup could not be genetically separated using COI. The average conspecific and congeneric p-distance was 0.8% and 7.6%, respectively. In our study, we also demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing exotics from endemic mosquitoes by identifying a single intercepted Stegomyia aegypti egg at an international airport. The use of DNA barcoding dramatically reduced the identification time required compared with rearing specimens through to adults, thereby demonstrating the value of this