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Sample records for adult nigerian subjects

  1. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  2. The sagittal diameter of the lumbar vertebral canal in normal adult Nigerians.

    PubMed Central

    Amonoo-Kuofi, H S

    1985-01-01

    An osteometric study of the anteroposterior diameter of the lumbar vertebral canal and intervertebral foramina of normal adult Nigerians is reported. The results show that the midsagittal diameter of the canal is subject to racial variations, and is determined primarily by the thickness and orientation of the lamina and to a lesser extent by the height of the pedicle. The significance of the findings is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:4066472

  3. Xanthogranulomatous orchitis in an adult Nigerian.

    PubMed

    Salako, Abdulkadir A; Olasode, Babatunde J; Eziyi, Amogu K; Osasan, Stephen A

    2006-02-01

    Xanthogranulomatous orchitis (XGO) is a rare benign disease of the testis which has not been previously documented in tropical Africa. We report a case of a 24-year-old Nigerian man who presented with a painless left hemiscrotal swelling. Our clinical diagnosis was left testicular cancer. Testicular tumor markers were normal. At surgical exploration, we found a left testicular tumor. Histopathological examination of the specimen showed XGO of the left testis. He had left radical orchiectomy and left inguinal node dissection. He has remained stable 8 months after the treatment. Xanthogranulomatous orchitis cannot be distinguished clinically from testicular cancer unless by histopathological examination. Orchiectomy is the treatment of choice. However, in all patients and particularly young patients and those with a single testis, histopathological confirmation is suggested to avoid unnecessary radical orchiectomy, useless irradiation and ill-timed chemotherapy.

  4. Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of double-modality therapy, phonophoresis and cryotherapy in the management of musculoskeletal injuries in adult Nigerian subjects.

    PubMed

    Onuwe, H A; Amadi, K; Odeh, S O

    2013-12-20

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of double-modality therapy, phonophoresis and cryotherapy in the management of pain among subjects who suffered from musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs).Sixty (60) subjects were assigned randomly to one of three groups: DMT group (n=20) received cryotherapy and 15% methyl salicylate phonophoresis, PHONO group (n=20) received 15% methyl salicylate phonophoresis and CRYO group (n=20) received cryotherapy and "sham‟ phonophoresis. Ultrasound at an intensity of 1.5 W/cm² and frequency of 1MHz was used to apply methyl salicylate while intermittent cryotherapy was the mode of application. Subjects‟ pre- and post-treatment pain perception scores (PPS) using visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed and the sessions of treatment in all groups were recorded. Treatment was administered on alternate days and discharges were made in all groups when subjects were pain free. A total of 275 treatment sessions was recorded - 72 (26.2%) in DMT, 105 (38.2%) in PHONO and 98 (35.6%) in CRYO group respectively which indicated no significant difference (P>0.05). Nineteen (19), thirteen (13) and twelve (12) subjects were pain free in DMT, CRYO or PHONO groups respectively after 1 to 5 treatments. The difference in the severity of pain was significant (P<0.05) in each group post-treatment which suggests that DMT, phonophoresis and cryotherapy were equally effective. The study has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy of DMT, but it was not superior to the single treatment protocol of phonophoresis or cryotherapy. However, it might take fewer sessions in the DMT group to treat and make more than 90% of the subjects pain free and fit to return to active performance.

  5. Subjective Wellbeing, Work-School Conflict and Proactive Coping among Nigerian Non-Traditional Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebayo, D. O.; Sunmola, A. M.; Udegbe, I. B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of participating in two domains, work and school, on the subjective wellbeing (SWB) and work-school conflict (WSC), as well as the moderating role of proactive coping between WSC and SWB among Nigerian nontraditional students. Design/methodology/approach: Using a cross-sectional survey,…

  6. The Struggle and Problems Facing Nigerian Adult Educators: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderinto, J. A.

    A study was conducted to determine the handicaps and problems facing Nigerian adult educators. The sample population was 90 adult educators drawn from both the public higher institutions and voluntary adult education agencies in Nigeria. The Educational Handicaps and Problem Questionnaire (EHPQ) developed from the study of Brunner and Nicholls…

  7. Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Obuna, Johnson Akuma; Ogiji, Emeka; Ezenkwa, Simon Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (an essential trace element) and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity) have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443) aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs), consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061). Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432), Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009). It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects. PMID:27486364

  8. Assessment of the risk factors for hearing loss in adult Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    Background: A reduction in hearing sensitivity is common in adults and was previously considered to be normal as age increases. However, other health variables may play a role in the sensory changes. This prospective, comparative, hospital-based study assessed the risk factors (RFs) associated with sensorineural hearing losses (SNHL) in adult patients in a specialized tertiary hospital clinic in South-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Patients with clinical diagnosis of hearing impairment (bilateral SNHL) were the test subjects and age and sex-matched comparable group without SNHL were the Controls. Using a structured questionnaire, variables assessed included current and past medical history, family and social history, use of medications including ototoxic drugs, and prolonged medications. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients participated in the study comprising of 76 test subjects with SNHL (including 14 with suspected ARHL) and 51 controls. 59.8% of the participants were males. Univariate analysis revealed statistically-significant differences in family history, alcohol consumption, smoking, exposure to noise, previous ear discharge, previous head injury, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, ototoxic drugs usage, prolonged medication and obesity between the two categories of subjects. Logistic regression analysis revealed family history, smoking, noise exposure, head injury, hypertension had significantly increased odds of developing SNHL. Conclusion: It was concluded that the RFs for SNHL in adult Nigerians were multifactorial while some of the RFs may be amenable to primary prevention. Legislation and public health education could facilitate reduction of SNHL in our community. PMID:24249950

  9. Informed consent in human subject research: a comparison of current international and Nigerian guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Joseph O; Porteri, Corinna

    2010-03-01

    Informed consent is a basic requirement for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. Currently, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are widely accepted as international codes regulating human subject research and the informed consent sections of these documents are quite important. Debates on the applicability of these guidelines in different socio-cultural settings are ongoing and many workers have advocated the need for national or regional guidelines. Nigeria, a developing country, has recently adopted its national guideline regulating human subject research: the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC) code. A content analysis of the three guidelines was done to see if the Nigerian guidelines confer any additional protection for research subjects. The concept of a Community Advisory Committee in the Nigerian guideline is a novel one that emphasizes research as a community burden and should promote a form of "research friendship" to foster the welfare of research participants. There is also the need for a regular update of the NHREC code so as to address some issues that were not considered in its current version.

  10. The psychological condition of a cohort of Nigerian diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Akinlade, K S; Ohaeri, J U; Suberu, M A

    1996-03-01

    The emotional condition and cognitive function of 37 insulin requiring (IDD) and 46 non-insulin requiring (NIDD) diabetics (in stable conditions) were compared, using the Hospital Anxiety and Depressive Scale (HAD) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). About 5% of IDD and 4% of NIDD had threshold score for clinical anxiety; while 37.8% of IDD and 15.2% of NIDD had depression. The prevalence rate of depression for the entire cohort was 25.3%, while the rate for anxiety was 4.8%. Only the illiterates among IDD had up to threshold score for depression. The most common reported symptoms were, the feelings of not being able to enjoy things as usual, and not looking forward with enjoyment to things. Cognitive function was predominantly normal, not being significantly associated with HAD scale scores, age, duration of illness and level of education. Compared with previous reports in the same hospital, diabetics experienced significantly less depressive symptoms than cancer patients. The findings are similar to reports from developed countries in showing that IDD subjects are more emotionally disturbed than NIDD subjects; and that depression is a commonly feature of chronic debilitating illness. Clinicians need to be sensitive to the emotional condition of their patients, because depression impairs the ability to comply with treatment and therefore mars prognosis.

  11. Relationship between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome among Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Abiodun; Adegoke, Olajire O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Awotidebe, Taofeek O

    2013-01-01

    The study determined the diastolic and systolic pressure, anthropometric parameters, serological parameters comprising fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as well as the socio-economic status (SES) of inhabitants of Ilora with a view to providing information on impact of SES on metabolic syndrome (MetS). One hundred participants (54 males and 46 females) whose ages ranged from 30 and 70 years, participated in the study. Participants were recruited from the three wards of the town using multi-stage random sampling procedure. Subjects' weights, height, blood pressure, waist circumference (WC) were measured using standard instruments. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured using a glucometer on participants' blood samples taken after at least 8h of fasting. Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed using enzyme colometric assay kits in the laboratory. SES of the participants was determined by using a questionnaire, which sought information on annual income, occupation and education. Participants who had MetS were determined using the new International Diabetes Foundation definition of MetS. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The mean scores for the males and females systolic blood pressure (SBP) were 123.20 ± 20.72 mmHg and 117.78 ± 14.64 mmHg, and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 78.63 ± 11.72 mmHg and 75.98 ± 13.06 mmHg, respectively. The mean of serological variables scores for the males and females, respectively, were FBG (4.95 ± 0.81 mmol/L and 4.84 ± 1.36 mmol/L), TG (1.28 ± 0.75 mmol/L and 1.35 ± 1.05 mmol/L), HDL-C (1.26 ± 0.21 mmol/L and 2.32 ± 7.34 mmol/L). The mean SES scores for the males and females were 14.35 ± 4.75 and 13.13 ± 4.66, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 43.5% in females and 9.3% in males. Significant differences were found in SBP and FBG across the three SES groups (F=3

  12. Accuracy of subjective assessment of fever by Nigerian mothers in under-5 children

    PubMed Central

    Odinaka, Kelechi Kenneth; Edelu, Benedict O.; Nwolisa, Emeka Charles; Amamilo, Ifeyinwa B.; Okolo, Seline N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many mothers still rely on palpation to determine if their children have fever at home before deciding to seek medical attention or administer self-medications. This study was carried out to determine the accuracy of subjective assessment of fever by Nigerian mothers in Under-5 Children. Patients and Methods: Each eligible child had a tactile assessment of fever by the mother after which the axillary temperature was measured. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 19 (IBM Inc. Chicago Illinois, USA, 2010). Result: A total of 113 mother/child pairs participated in the study. Palpation overestimates fever by 24.6%. Irrespective of the surface of the hand used for palpation, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of tactile assessment were 82.4%, 37.1%, 51.9% and 71.9%, respectively. The use of the palmer surface of the hand had a better sensitivity (95.2%) than the dorsum of the hand (69.2%). The use of multiple sites had better sensitivity (86.7%) than the use of single site (76.2%). Conclusion: Tactile assessment of childhood fevers by mothers is still a relevant screening tool for the presence or absence fever. Palpation with the palmer surface of the hand using multiple sites improves the reliability of tactile assessment of fever. PMID:25114371

  13. Artemether-Lumefantrine Exposure in HIV-Infected Nigerian Subjects on Nevirapine-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sunil; Fehintola, Fatai; Huang, Liusheng; Olson, Alexander; Adedeji, Waheed A; Darin, Kristin M; Morse, Gene D; Murphy, Robert L; Taiwo, Babafemi O; Akinyinka, Olusegun O; Adewole, Isaac F; Aweeka, Francesca T; Scarsi, Kimberly K

    2015-12-01

    Coadministration of nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) and artemether-lumefantrine is reported to result in variable changes in lumefantrine exposure. We conducted an intensive pharmacokinetic study with 11 HIV-infected adults who were receiving artemether-lumefantrine plus nevirapine-based ART, and we compared the results with those for 16 HIV-negative adult historical controls. Exposure to artemether and lumefantrine was significantly lower and dihydroartemisinin exposure was unchanged in subjects receiving nevirapine-based ART, compared with controls. Nevirapine exposure was unchanged before and after artemether-lumefantrine administration.

  14. Study of the location and morphology of the pterion in adult nigerian skulls.

    PubMed

    Adejuwon, Sunday A; Olopade, Funmilayo E; Bolaji, Modupe

    2013-01-01

    The pterion which marks the union of 4 bones of the cranium is located superior to the zygomatic arch and posterior to the frontozygomatic suture. It is an important neurosurgical landmark for the lateral/pterional approach and has racial differences in both its location and pattern of union of the bones. This study aims to analyze the location and types of pterion in adult Nigerian skulls. Bilateral sides of 37 adult dry skulls were studied. The pterion types were classified; linear distances from the centre of the pterion to the midpoint of the zygomatic arch and to the frontozygomatic suture were measured; these were analyzed for side and gender differences. Sphenoparietal was the most common pterion type (86.1%) followed by frontotemporal (8.3%), stellate (5.6%), and epipteric types (0%). The mean distances from the pterion to the midpoint of zygomatic arch were 39.74 ± 0.505 mm and 37.95 ± 0.657 mm in males and females, respectively, while the distances to the frontozygomatic suture were 31.87 ± 0.642 mm and 30.35 ± 0.836 mm. The vertical position of the pterion was significantly higher in males than females. Bilateral occurrence is statistically insignificant. This information will be of neurosurgical and anthropological importance.

  15. Study of the Location and Morphology of the Pterion in Adult Nigerian Skulls

    PubMed Central

    Adejuwon, Sunday A.; Olopade, Funmilayo E.; Bolaji, Modupe

    2013-01-01

    The pterion which marks the union of 4 bones of the cranium is located superior to the zygomatic arch and posterior to the frontozygomatic suture. It is an important neurosurgical landmark for the lateral/pterional approach and has racial differences in both its location and pattern of union of the bones. This study aims to analyze the location and types of pterion in adult Nigerian skulls. Bilateral sides of 37 adult dry skulls were studied. The pterion types were classified; linear distances from the centre of the pterion to the midpoint of the zygomatic arch and to the frontozygomatic suture were measured; these were analyzed for side and gender differences. Sphenoparietal was the most common pterion type (86.1%) followed by frontotemporal (8.3%), stellate (5.6%), and epipteric types (0%). The mean distances from the pterion to the midpoint of zygomatic arch were 39.74 ± 0.505 mm and 37.95 ± 0.657 mm in males and females, respectively, while the distances to the frontozygomatic suture were 31.87 ± 0.642 mm and 30.35 ± 0.836 mm. The vertical position of the pterion was significantly higher in males than females. Bilateral occurrence is statistically insignificant. This information will be of neurosurgical and anthropological importance. PMID:25938098

  16. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ezuruike, Udoamaka; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients. This was done through a literature analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of their herbal medicines and prescription drugs, based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. Fifty percent of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified HDIs. By comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for the management of diabetes against those of the prescription drugs, several scenarios of potential HDIs were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points toward cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential HDIs. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines. PMID:27559312

  17. Relationship of anthropometric indicators with blood pressure levels and the risk of hypertension in Nigerian adults

    PubMed Central

    Adedoyin, Rufus A; Mbada, Chidozie E; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Studies on cardiovascular risks in relation to anthropometric factors are limited in Sub-Sahara Africa. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between anthropometric parameters and blood pressure; and to evaluate body mass index (BMI) across the range of underweight and obesity as a primary risk factor of hypertension in adult Nigerians. Material and methods: 2097 adults aged between 20 and 100 years consented and participated in this door-to-door survey. All participants underwent blood pressure and anthropometric measurements using standard procedures. The population study was separated in normotensive and hypertensive males and females and the possible risk for hypertension were categorized into different classes of value based on BMI definition. Results: The relative risks (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) of developing hypertension among the obese compared with the underweight, normal weight, and overweight persons were (OR 5.75; CI 5.67–5.83), (OR 1.73; CI 1.65–1.81), and (OR 1.54; CI 1.46–1.62) for all the participants, respectively. Among obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 Kg/m2) males, the OR for hypertension was three times (OR 2.78; CI 2.76–2.80) that of normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5–24.9 Kg/m2) males. Females with obesity had a risk of hypertension three times (OR 3.34; CI 3.33–3.35) that of normal weight females. Conclusion: Our results indicated that the there was a significant positive correlation of obesity indicator with blood pressure. In Nigeria, we found a strong gradient between higher BMI and increased risk of hypertension among all ages. Approaches to reduce the risk of hypertension may include prevention of overweight and obesity. PMID:20428404

  18. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Okwuonu, C. G.; Chukwuonye, I. I.; Ogah, S. O.; Abali, C.; Adejumo, O. A.; Oviasu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher – administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18–78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria. PMID:26060365

  19. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others.

  20. Comprehensive Reference Ranges for Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Parameters Derived from Normal Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash’le

    2014-01-01

    -pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations. PMID:24832127

  1. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-01-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior. PMID:27065759

  2. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.

  3. Mastoid triangle for sex determination in adult Nigerian population: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Ajua, Christiana O; Didia, Blessing C

    2013-11-01

    In the quest for a simple, reliable technique to estimate the sex of human remains several novel metric skeletal indices have been reported. Only a few have been examined for utility in populations different from those in which they were developed. In this study, the mastoid process was evaluated for sex determination using 102 lateral cephalograms of a Nigerian sample of known age and sex. The asterion-mastoidale distance and mastoid triangular area were sexually dimorphic with mean values higher in males compared with females (p = 0.02). On analysis of the discriminant function, overall accuracy for sex classification was 55%. On cross-validation, the triangular area accurately identified 80% of females and 48% of males. The asterion-mastoidale distance was slightly more accurate at sexing the sample. The practical utility of the mastoid triangle area technique to differentiate sex in Nigerian populations is not supported by the results of this study.

  4. Intussusception and volvulus secondary to jejunal adenocarcinoma in an adult Nigerian male: a case report.

    PubMed

    Okolo, C A; Afolabi, A O; Sahabi, S M

    2010-12-01

    A 31 year-old Nigerian man with jejuno-jejunal intussusception with the lead point being an adenocarcinoma complicated by small intestinal volvulus is presented. The subtle clinical features of an underlying small bowel malignancy were masked by the overwhelming clinical and radiological features of intussusception. rare case is reported to remind clinicians to have an increased index of suspicion of malignancy in patients who present with the usual features of chronic anemia, weight loss and loss of appetite with an intra-abdominal mass. The presentation of acute intestinal obstruction, with mesenteric vein thrombosis probably due to intussusception or volvulus should not however lower the suspicion. Histological evaluation of surgical biopsies is of immense importance.

  5. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  6. Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Umar, Maimuna; Oguche, Friday; Aliyu, Salamatu U.; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Accurate assessment of physical activity to identify current levels and changes within the population is dependent on the precision of the measurement tools. The aim of this study was to compare components of physical activity measured with an adapted version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Hausa IPAQ-SF) and the accelerometer in a sample of Nigeria adults. Methods One hundred and forty-four participants (Mean age = 32.6±9.9 years, 40.3% women) in a cross-sectional study wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days and completed the Hausa IPAQ-SF questionnaire on the eighth day. Total physical activity, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) and sedentary time assessed by Hausa IPAQ-SF and accelerometer were compared. The absolute and criterion- related validity of the Hausa IPAQ-SF was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and Spearman Correlation Coefficients, respectively. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated to classify individuals according to the global standard guideline for sufficient physical activity. Results Compared with the accelerometer, higher time in MVPA and total physical activity were reported on the Hausa IPAQ-SF (p<0.001), while low to moderate correlations (Rs = 0.03–0.38) were found between the two methods. The 95% limits of agreement were wide between methods for total physical activity (−23019 to 20375 METmin.d−1) and sedentary time (−510 to 150 min.d−1). The sensitivity (76.2%) of Hausa IPAQ-SF to identify insufficiently active people was good, but its specificity (33.3%) to correctly classify sufficiently active people was low. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF overestimated components of physical activity among Nigerian adults, and demonstrated poor to moderate evidence of absolute and criterion validity. Further evaluation of IPAQ and other self-report physical activity instruments in other Africa populations could enhance accurate evaluation of physical activity data

  7. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  8. Establishment of reference values of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subsets in healthy Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Oladepo, D K; Idigbe, E O; Audu, R A; Inyang, U S; Imade, G E; Philip, A O; Okafor, G O; Olaleye, D; Mohammed, S B; Odunukwe, N N; Harry, T O; Edyong-Ekpa, M; Idoko, J; Musa, A Z; Adedeji, A; Nasidi, A; Ya'aba, Y; Ibrahim, K

    2009-09-01

    A total of 2,570 apparently healthy human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults from the six geopolitical zones in the country were enrolled in our study in 2006. The samples were assayed using the Cyflow technique. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The majority (64%) of the participants had CD4 counts within the range of 501 to 1,000 cells/microl. The reference range for CD4 was 365 to 1,571 cells/microl, while the reference range for CD8 was 145 to 884 cells/microl.

  9. Cracked tooth syndrome: characteristics and distribution among adults in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Udoye, Christopher I; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2009-03-01

    This study highlighted the characteristics and distribution of cracked tooth syndrome (CTS) and the associated factors in adult attendees in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital. Three hundred seventy patients aged 18 years to 77 years with CTS-like conditions were included and studied over 12 months. The following information was recorded: suspected tooth and the dental arch, restorative status of the tooth, age and sex of the patient, results of bite test and transillumination, and the pulpal and periapical status of the tooth. CTS was seen most often in the 41 to 50 years age band (36.4%), in molars (63.6%), and in the maxillary arch (51.5%). Also, it was more frequent in men (55.8%). About 82% of CTS occurred in amalgam-restored teeth. All cases had a positive response to the bite test and a normal response to the electric pulp test. Only 10% gave a positive history of masticatory accident as against none with history of bruxism habits. It was concluded that patients with unexplained pain in a vital, amalgam-restored tooth (especially in maxillary molars), with or without a history of a masticatory accident, may have a cracked or fractured tooth.

  10. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; John, Collins; Ohagwu, Kenneth Arinze; Imoh, Miracle Erinma; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel; Oviasu, Efosa

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major health problem, and there is an increasing trend of overweight and obese individuals in developing countries. Being overweight or obese is known to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates in various countries around the world. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Nigeria. Method A systematic review of papers published on the prevalence of obesity among adults in the country was carried out. We covered work published in MEDLINE, PubMed, Google, and African Journals Online using the terms “prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria” or “overweight and obesity in Nigeria.” In addition, personal inquiries were made. The search limits were articles published from January 2001 to September 2012. Only studies that used the body mass index to assess for overweight and obesity were included. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria out of the 75 studies reviewed. In Nigeria, the prevalence of overweight individuals ranged from 20.3%–35.1%, while the prevalence of obesity ranged from 8.1%–22.2%. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals in Nigeria is of epidemic proportions. There is a need to pay closer attention to combating these health disorders. PMID:23573067

  11. Lifetime prevalence and incidence of parasomnias in a population of young adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, O S A

    2010-07-01

    Lifetime prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for parasomnias were determined. Past experiences of non-REM, REM, and sleep-transition parasomnias were recorded. Diaries of night sleep duration, parasomnias, perception of aliens, levels of physical activity, headaches and intake of all substances, drugs, and tobacco were kept for 14 consecutive days. A total of 276 subjects were studied. Lifetime prevalences (95% CI) were 725 (668-776) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 43 (25-74) for sleepwalking, 112 (80-155) for sleep terror, 475 (416-533) for nightmares, 225 (179-277) for sleep paralysis, 43 (25-74) for sleep starts, 322 (270-380) for sleep talking, and 344 (291-402) for enuresis. Incidences (95% CI) were 210 (166-262) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 14 (6-37) for sleepwalking, 11 (4-31) for sleep terror, 170 (131-219) for confusional arousal, 18 (8-42) for nightmares, 14 (6-37) for sleep paralysis, 33 (17-61) for sleep starts, and 4 (1-20) for sleep enuresis. Multivariate analysis showed associations of increase occurrence of parasomnias and duration of sleep >7 h (p < 0.05) and intake of alcohol (p < 0.001), but heavy workload before sleep was associated with decreased occurrence of parasomnias (p < 0.01). Gender, smoking, caffeinated drinks, hypnotics, and headaches were not associated with parasomnias. Incidence of presence of aliens (95% CI) in the room was 25(0/infinity) (12-51). This study shows that more than 70% of the population have experienced parasomnias at any time in the past. Nightmares, enuresis, sleep paralysis and night terrors are the commonest parasomnias experienced in the past, while confusional arousal, sleep starts, and nightmares are the commonest parasomnias currently experienced. Incidence estimates show that all parasomnias persist into adulthood at reduced rates, but reduction of occurrence was greatest for enuresis. Long duration of night sleep and intake of alcohol predisposed subjects to higher occurrence of parasomnias.

  12. Serum and seminal plasma hormonal profiles of infertile Nigerian male.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B

    2006-12-01

    Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in infertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of seminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (P<0.005) than that of controls but the serum levels of testosterone were significantly higher (P<0.05) in azoospermic than oligospermic subjects and controls. There was no significant correlation between serum hormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (P<0.05). We concluded that male infertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.

  13. The Nigerian Paradox

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    Today , an estimated ten million (of thirty million) Nigerian school-aged children are not in school;15 the country’s literacy rate is estimated at 61...Development and Cooperation (SDC) offers some insight. It contends, “The fact that too many developing countries are in dire economic straits today —even...Consequently, Nigerians today simply don’t view themselves as corrupt and meet 7 attempts to highlight corruption as a problem of their society with extreme

  14. Subjective Experiences of Older Adults Practicing Taiji and Qigong

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; DeCelle, Sharon; Reed, Mike; Rosengren, Karl; Schlagal, Robert; Greene, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi)/Qigong (Ch'i Kung) intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual) but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong. PMID:21773028

  15. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care. PMID:21194477

  16. Music in Nigerian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a brief history of music education in Nigerian educational institutions along with the goals and objectives. States music educators are traditional master musicians or Western educated professionals. Claims the focus of music education is on Western music. Makes recommendations for a radical revision of the curriculum and changes in…

  17. Morphological Uniformity and the Null Subject Parameter in Adult SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, William D.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the application of the Null Subject Parameter. Data reveals that some second-language learners exhibit knowledge that English is morphologically nonuniform yet still accept English null subject sentences. Findings disprove the Morphological Uniformity Hypothesis, indicating that any reformulation of the Null Subject Parameter must…

  18. Nigerian University Libraries: What Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguolu, I. E.

    1996-01-01

    Nigerian university libraries are threatened by underfunding and inadequate collections and facilities. This article examines factors influencing the future prospects of Nigerian university libraries. Discusses Nigeria's mineral oil resources; political instability and stratification of ethnic groups; and the National Universities Commission, the…

  19. Interrelations between Subjective Health and Episodic Memory Change in Swedish and Canadian Samples of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B.; Backman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance,…

  20. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  1. Adults' Autonomic and Subjective Emotional Responses to Infant Vocalizations: The Role of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Ashley M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge--as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress…

  2. Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…

  3. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  4. Attachment, self-compassion, empathy, and subjective well-being among college students and community adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Shaffer, Phillip A

    2011-02-01

    Research on subjective well-being suggests that it is only partly a function of environmental circumstances. There may be a personality characteristic or a resilient disposition toward experiencing high levels of well-being even in unfavorable circumstances. Adult attachment may contribute to this resilient disposition. This study examined whether the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being was mediated by Neff's (2003a, 2003b) concept of self-compassion. It also examined empathy toward others as a mediator in the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being. In Study 1, 195 college students completed self-report surveys. In Study 2, 136 community adults provided a cross-validation of the results. As expected, across these 2 samples, findings suggested that self-compassion mediated the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being, and emotional empathy toward others mediated the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being.

  5. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  6. Subjective health literacy and older adults' assessment of direct-to-consumer prescription drug ads.

    PubMed

    An, Soontae; Muturi, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Older adults are increasingly the intended target of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug ads, but limited evidence exists as to how they assess the educational value of DTC ads and, more importantly, whether their assessment depends on their level of health literacy. In-person interviews of 170 older adults revealed that those with low subjective health literacy evaluated the educational value of DTC ads significantly lower than did those with high subjective health literacy. The results prompt us to pay more scholarly attention to determining how effectively DTC ads convey useful medical information, particularly to those with limited health literacy.

  7. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  8. Help-Seeking Response to Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Toward a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begum, Aysha; Whitley, Rob; Banerjee, Sube; Matthews, David; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Subjective memory complaint is a term used to refer older adults who report memory problems. Extensive literature exists on its etiology and impact on long-term cognitive decline, and some physicians consider it important in the early detection of dementia. Despite the salient features reported by both patients and clinicians, few people…

  9. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Comparisons, and the Subjective Assessment of Ambient Problems among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from adults age 65 and older in the District of Columbia and two adjoining counties in Maryland, we examine the association between community-level structural disadvantage and individuals' subjective assessments of neighborhood problems. In addition, we test whether or not perceptions of relative financial equality or inequality with…

  10. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  11. Subjective Social Status and Positive Indicators of Well-Being among Emerging Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…

  12. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  13. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Southern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, David; Alvarez, Rosa M.; Lobaton, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M.; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective…

  14. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  15. Metabolite alterations in the hippocampus of high-functioning adult subjects with autism.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuaki; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Sugihara, Genichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Matsumoto, Kaori; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Isoda, Haruo; Sakahara, Harumi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Takei, Nori; Mori, Norio

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate metabolite alterations in the hippocampal formation as they relate to aggression in high-functioning adults with autism. We measured concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho), and creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr) in the hippocampal formation by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 12 non-medicated male subjects with autism and 12 age- and sex-matched controls. Aggression was scored in the autistic subjects using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The concentrations of Cho and Cr+PCr in the hippocampal formation in autistic subjects were significantly higher than the corresponding values in control subjects, and a significant positive correlation was observed between the concentrations of these metabolites in the hippocampal formation and scores on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire in autistic subjects. Results suggest that high-functioning adult subjects with autism have abnormal metabolite concentrations in the hippocampal formation, which may in part account for their aggression.

  16. Subjective and Objective Cancer Screening Knowledge Among White- and Blue-Collar Chinese Midlife Adults.

    PubMed

    Hou, Su-I

    2016-08-26

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Chinese, yet little is known about cancer knowledge among this population. The study described the subjective and objective cancer screening knowledge among white- versus blue-collar Chinese midlife adults. A convenient sample of white-collar adults age 40+ years was recruited from government and academic agencies; and blue-collar adults age 40+ years were recruited from manufactory companies in Taiwan. An eight-item cancer screening knowledge test (CSKT) was used to measure objective knowledge and one five-point Likert scale item for assessing subjective (perceived) cancer screening knowledge. A total of 208 white- and 533 blue-collar workers completed the survey during 2008-2011. Mean ages between groups were comparable (41.1 versus 46.3 years), as well as family cancer history (41.5 %). About 76 % of the white-collar and 43 % of the blue-collar adults had college education. The mean score of the CSKT was lower in the blue-collar versus white-collar workers, 5.4 (SD = 1.76) versus 6.1 (SD = 1.40), indicating on average, 68 versus 76 % of the participants answered the cancer knowledge correctly. The subjective knowledge levels were, however, higher among the blue-collar workers (mean rating of 3.22 versus 2.78). The CSKT showed a good mix of relatively easy and moderately difficult items in both groups. Study showed that overall cancer screening knowledge was low among Chinese midlife adults. Although blue-collar workers scored lower on CSKT, the perceived knowledge level was higher. Results also suggest attention to communicating cancer screening information among Chinese blue-collar midlife workers in particular.

  17. Subjective Memory Complaint and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Mónica; Costa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Older adults report subjective memory complaints (SMCs) but whether these are related to depression remains controversial. In this study we investigated the relationship between the SMCs and depression and their predictors in a sample of old adults. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 620 participants aged 55 to 96 years (74.04 ± 10.41). Outcome measures included a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, a SMC scale (QSM), a Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), a Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results. The QSM mean total score for the main results suggests that SMCs are higher in old adults with depressed symptoms, comparatively to nondepressed old adults. The GDS scores were positively associated with QSM but negatively associated with education, MMSE, and MoCA. GDS scores predicted almost 63.4% of variance. Scores on QSM and MoCA are significantly predicted by depression symptomatology. Conclusion. Depression symptoms, lower education level, and older age may be crucial to the comprehension of SMCs. The present study suggested that depression might play a role in the SMCs of the older adults and its treatment should be considered. PMID:26880907

  18. Objective and subjective quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorders in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, David; Alvarez, Rosa M; Lobatón, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-05-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective QoL measures. Outcome on objective QoL was extremely poor. Social networks were most frequently composed of family members. Community-oriented resources were absent in most cases. For two-thirds of the families, the ability to act as proxies for subjective QoL was seriously limited by the participants' poor social and communicative abilities. The results are indicative of the need for additional support to families of adults with ASD and increased community-based resources. Further conceptualization of indicators and measurement of subjective QoL in individuals with severe disabilities and ASD is also needed in order to include their own perspective in the evaluation of service provision.

  19. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia.

  20. Prevalence of low back pain and associated risk factors amongst adult patients presenting to a Nigerian family practice clinic, a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Adebusoye, Lawrence A.; Alonge, Temitope O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem with concomitant disability which has assumed a public health importance in our setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LBP and associated risk factors amongst adult patients attending the General Outpatients’ Clinic of the University College Hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 485 respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demography, lifestyle, occupation and other risk factors associated with LBP. Results There were 288 (59.4%) female and 197 (40.6%) male respondents. The point prevalence of LBP was 46.8%. Occupational activities, previous back injury and tobacco smoking were significant associated factors for the total population. For the female respondents, logistic regression analysis showed that a waist circumference of 88 cm or more, dysmenorrhea, previous back injury and being engaged in an occupation were the most significant factors associated with LBP. However, previous back injury was the most significant factor associated with LBP for the male respondents. Conclusion The prevalence of LBP amongst adult patients in our setting is high, with preventable and treatable predisposing factors. Public health efforts should be directed at educating people on occupational activities and lifestyle habits.

  1. John Henryism and blood pressure among Nigerian civil servants

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, N.; Bunker, C. H.; Ukoli, F. A.; Kuller, L. H.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Among urban Nigerian civil servants, higher socioeconomic status is related to increased blood pressure. In the United States, the relation between increased blood pressure and low socioeconomic status or low level of education has been found to be potentiated by high effort active coping (John Henryism) among African- Americans. Thus, the potentiating effect of high effort active coping as measured by the John Henryism Active Coping Scale, on socioeconomic status, as measured by job grade, was considered in relation to blood pressure in a Nigerian civil servant population. DESIGN: The influence of John Henryism on the association between educational level or socioeconomic status and increased blood pressure was examined during a comprehensive blood pressure survey. John Henryism refers to a strong behavioural predisposition to actively cope with psychosocial environmental stressors. SETTING: Benin City, Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Nigerian civil servant sample of 658 adults, aged 20 to 65 years. MAIN RESULTS: Among those with high John Henryism scores of upper socioeconomic status, whether measured by education level or job grade, there was a trend toward higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, adjusted for age and body mass index, in men and women, though not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This trend is consistent with recent findings of increased blood pressure among women and African- Americans with high John Henryism and high status jobs.   PMID:9616424

  2. Is subjective hyperhidrosis assessment sufficient enough? prevalence of hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Tomasz; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Idestal, Anette; Royton, Anders; Abi-Khalil, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults. Additionally, this work aimed at comparing the subjective and objective (gravimetric) method of hyperhidrosis assessment. Healthy medical students, volunteering to take part in this study, were included. The participants filled out a questionnaire assessing the occurrence and subjective intensity of hyperhidrosis in different areas of the body. Additionally, the students were subjected to gravimetric assessment in four localizations: the face, palms, axillae and abdomino-lumbar area. Two hundred and fifty-three students (102 males and 151 females, mean age 24.3 ± 3.21 years) were included in the study. Forty-two (16.7%) participants declared that they suffer from hyperhidrosis. Out of the 42 students declaring any type of hyperhidrosis, only 20 (47.6%) exceeded the gravimetric reference values. From among the students that exceeded the normative values for palmar hyperhidrosis, only 10 (55.6%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. In the group of students that exceeded the normative values for axillary hyperhidrosis, 16 (39%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. Subjectively declared hyperhidrosis incidence may significantly exceed the real-life occurrence of this disease. Basing studies solely on data gathered from questionnaires, may lead to false results. It is imperative, when assessing patients suffering from hyperhidrosis, to use both objective and subjective methods of evaluation.

  3. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Hollis C.; Stevens, Courtney J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Hutchison, Kent E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions. PMID:22899923

  4. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p < 0.001). The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p = 0.020). No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance. Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality. PMID:27507944

  5. A comparison of older adults' subjective experience with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities

    PubMed Central

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semi-structured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t-tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:24334299

  6. HIV-positive nigerian adults harbor significantly higher serum lumefantrine levels than HIV-negative individuals seven days after treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Chijioke-Nwauche, Ifeyinwa; van Wyk, Albert; Nwauche, Chijioke; Beshir, Khalid B; Kaur, Harparkash; Sutherland, Colin J

    2013-09-01

    Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections. Each of the constituent components of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen for malaria treatment in Nigeria, and nevirapine, a major component of highly active antiretroviral therapy, are drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system, which is also known to be induced by nevirapine. We examined potential interactions between lumefantrine and nevirapine in 68 HIV-positive adults, all of whom were diagnosed with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections by microscopy. Post hoc PCR analysis confirmed the presence of P. falciparum in only a minority of participants. Day 7 capillary blood levels of lumefantrine were significantly higher in HIV-positive participants than in 99 HIV-negative controls (P = 0.0011). Associations between day 7 levels of lumefantrine and risk of persistent parasitemia could not be evaluated due to inadequate power. Further investigations of the impact of nevirapine on in vivo malaria treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients are thus needed.

  7. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults.

  8. [The age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects].

    PubMed

    Teplov, K V; Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A; Moiseenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article was designed to consider the congenital age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects (including the type of the papillary patterns, axial tri-radii, the termini of palmar main lines, the rudiments of palmar lines, the dermatoglyphic ridge count between the stable anatomical structures). The objective of the study was to look for the new diagnostic markers of the biological age. It included the identification of the palm prints obtained from 180 Caucasoid men and 120 women at the age varying from 16 to 80 years. The results of the mathematical and statistical analysis provided the basis for drawing up the list of 18 attributes of palm dermatoglyphics significantly (p<0.05) differing in the frequency of occurrence between the representatives of individual age groups. The methods are proposed allowing to use these findings for the expert evaluation of the age of unknown subjects.

  9. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of intravenous ampicillin plus sulbactam in healthy elderly and young adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Rho, J P; Jones, A; Woo, M; Castle, S; Smith, K; Bawdon, R E; Norman, D C

    1989-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ampicillin and sulbactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, were evaluated in two different age groups. Twelve healthy elderly subjects (age 65-93 years) and 12 healthy young adult subjects (age 20-35 years) received both a dose of ampicillin 1 g plus sulbactam 0.5 g and a higher dose of ampicillin 2 g plus sulbactam 1 g after a one-week period between doses. A reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography method was used for the quantitation of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and urine. The pharmacokinetic parameters for both ampicillin and sulbactam were calculated by computer-based two-compartment nonlinear model. After a 30-min infusion, serum concentrations of both drugs declined in a biexponential manner for both doses. Elderly subjects demonstrated significantly lower total clearances (Clt) than young adult subjects of ampicillin 1 g (220.0 +/- 104.2 vs 360.0 +/- 95.8 ml/min/1.73 m2), ampicillin 2 g (72.6 +/- 36.6 vs 306.8 +/- 109.77 ml/min/1.73 m2), sulbactam 0.5 g (122.3 +/- 47.8 vs 263.9 +/- 93.7 ml/min/1.73 m2), and sulbactam 1 g (171.2 +/- 85.8 vs 391.7 +/- 70.8 ml/min/1.73 m2), respectively. Significance was defined as P less than 0.05. Renal clearance was also significantly reduced in the elderly subjects. Area under the curve was found to be significantly increased in the elderly subjects compared to the young subjects for both ampicillin and sulbactam as were the beta elimination half-lives. No significant difference in the apparent volume of distribution, when adjusted for body weight, was found for either sulbactam (P greater than 0.95) or ampicillin (P greater than 0.95) between the two groups. Linear regression analysis revealed that age was significantly correlated with the Clt of ampicillin 1 g (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001), ampicillin 2 g (r = 0.90, P less than 0.001), sulbactam 0.5 g (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001), and sulbactam 1 g (r = 0.93, P less than 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed a slight

  10. Facial soft tissue thickness among various vertical facial patterns in adult Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Waqar; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-12-01

    Facial reconstruction techniques are used to obtain an approximation of an individual's appearance thus helping identification of unidentified decedents from their dried skeletal remains. Many of these techniques rely on the sets of average facial soft tissue thickness (FST) values at different anatomical landmarks provided by the previous studies. FST is influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity and the body mass index of the individual. Recent literature has shown that the anthropological variations of the skull may also affect FST at certain points. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of such variations in vertical skull morphology on FST as around one third of different population groups have either a long or short facial pattern as compared to the average facial pattern. Moreover, this study also provides a FST database for the adult Pakistani subjects that may have potential implications in the facial reconstruction of the local subjects. A retrospective analysis of 276 lateral cephalograms of adult subjects having normal sagittal facial pattern was performed. Subjects were categorized into three vertical facial patterns (long face=95, average face=102, short face=79) according to the vertical dimensions of the skull and the FST was measured at 11 midline points. To compare the FST between males and females Mann-Whitney U test was used. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare FST among three vertical facial patterns. The results of our study revealed significant differences in FST at nine landmarks between males and females. These sex-based differences were more pronounced in the long and short facial patterns as compared to the average facial pattern. FST at stomion, pogonion, gnathion and menton was significantly greater in the short facial pattern as compared to the long facial pattern in both the sexes. The results of the present study highlight the importance of anthropological analysis of the skull and taking the vertical skeletal dimension

  11. Conceptions of traditional cosmological ideas among literate and nonliterate Nigerians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunniyi, M. B.

    This paper examines the nature of selected traditional cosmological concepts among literate and nonliterate Nigerians. An analysis of the data reveals that the subjects, irrespective of their level of education, class, sex, age, religion, tribe, or locality, hold in varying degrees certain traditional as well as scientific concepts about the natural phenomena. An exposure of some of the subjects to an history/philosophy of science course appears to enhance their preference for a scientific worldview vis a vis a traditional point-of-view. The implications of these findings for traditional societies deserve a closer consideration.

  12. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (<75 mg) on sustained attention are limited and use short-term tests. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  13. Comparative analysis of NK cell receptor repertoire in adults and very elderly subjects with cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Vega, Guillermo; Rangel-Ramírez, Velia; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Garcia-Sepúlveda, Christian; Noyola, Daniel E; González-Amaro, Roberto

    2017-01-16

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in children and young adults has been associated with changes in the innate immune system. We herein analyzed the possible effect of very long term HCMV infection on the expression of several NK cell receptors. Ninety HCMV-seropositive individuals were included and classified as young adults (n=30), elderly (n=30) and very elderly subjects (n=30). A peripheral blood sample was obtained and the expression of NK cell receptors (NKG2A, NKG2C, ILT2, CD161, KIR2DL1, KIR3DL1, and KIR3DL2) by NK and other lymphocyte subsets was assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, the frequency of the sixteen KIR genes was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. We found a significant increase in the number of NKG2C+ NK and T cells in elderly individuals compared to young adults accompanied by an opposite trend in the number of NKG2A+ lymphocytes, and ILT2+ cells were also increased in elderly individuals. A significant increase in the levels of CD3-CD56+NKG2C+CD57+ cells was also detected in the elderly groups. Finally, KIR gene analysis revealed that the KIR genotype 2 was significantly less frequent in the elderly individuals. Our results support that long-term infection by HCMV exerts a significant progressive effect on the innate immune system.

  14. Measurement of neural respiratory drive via parasternal intercostal electromyography in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    MacBean, V; Hughes, C; Nicol, G; Reilly, C C; Rafferty, G F

    2016-11-01

    Neural respiratory drive, quantified by the parasternal intercostal muscle electromyogram (EMGpara), provides a sensitive measure of respiratory system load-capacity balance. Reference values for EMGpara-based measures are lacking and the influence of individual anthropometric characteristics is not known. EMGpara is conventionally expressed as a percentage of that obtained during a maximal inspiratory effort (EMGpara%max), leading to difficulty in applying the technique in subjects unable to reliably perform such manoeuvres. To measure EMGpara in a large, unselected cohort of healthy adult subjects in order to evaluate relevant technical and anthropometric factors. Surface second intercostal space EMGpara was measured during resting breathing and maximal inspiratory efforts in 63 healthy adult subjects, median (IQR) age 31.0 (25.0-47.0) years, 28 males. Detailed anthropometry, spirometry and respiratory muscle strength were also recorded. Median (IQR EMGpara was 4.95 (3.35-6.93) µV, EMGpara%max 4.95 (3.39-8.65)% and neural respiratory drive index (NRDI, the product of EMGpara%max and respiratory rate) was 73.62 (46.41-143.92) %.breath/min. EMGpara increased significantly to 6.28 (4.26-9.93) µV (p  <  0.001) with a mouthpiece, noseclip and pneumotachograph in situ. Median (IQR) EMGpara was higher in female subjects (5.79 (4.42-7.98) µV versus 3.56 (2.81-5.35) µV, p  =  0.003); after controlling for sex neither EMGpara, EMGpara%max or NRDI were significantly related to anthropometrics, age or respiratory muscle strength. In subjects undergoing repeat measurements within the same testing session (n  =  48) or on a separate occasion (n  =  19) similar repeatability was observed for both EMGpara and EMGpara%max. EMGpara is higher in female subjects than males, without influence of other anthropometric characteristics. Reference values are provided for EMGpara-derived measures. Expressing EMGpara as a percentage of maximum confers no

  15. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  16. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  17. A Survey of Marital Success and Failure Among Sampled Educated Nigerians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebunmi, Akin

    In Nigeria, various forms of polygamy and monogamy are practiced; however, monogamy is more or less practiced by many Christians and a greater percentage of younger men. A survey of marital success and failure was conducted with samples of Nigerian Diploma students and selected educated community members. Subjects completed two instruments, the…

  18. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p < 0.05); significantly lower condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p < 0.05). In the whole sample condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p < 0.01) as well as condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p < 0.01) were significantly higher in males than in females. Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population. PMID:23241136

  19. Successful Aging and Subjective Well-Being Among Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This research integrates successful aging and developmental adaptation models to empirically define the direct and indirect effects of 2 distal (i.e., education and past life experiences) and 5 proximal influences (i.e., physical functioning, cognitive functioning, physical health impairment, social resources, and perceived economic status) on subjective well-being. The proximal influences involved predictors outlined in most extant models of successful aging (e.g., Rowe & Kahn, 1998 [Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon Books.]). Our model extends such models by including distal impact as well as interactions between distal and proximal impacts. Design and Methods: Data were obtained from 234 centenarians and 72 octogenarians in the Georgia Centenarian Study. Structural equation modeling was conducted with Mplus 6.1. Results: Results showed significant direct effects of physical health impairment and social resources on positive aspects of subjective well-being among oldest-old adults. We also found significant indirect effects of cognitive functioning and education on positive affect among oldest-old adults. Social resources mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and social resources mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. In addition, physical health impairment mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and physical health impairment mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. Implications: Integrating 2 different models (i.e., successful aging and developmental adaptation) provided a comprehensive view of adaptation from a developmental perspective. PMID:25112594

  20. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  1. Improved Glycemic Control in Intensively Treated Adult Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Using Insulin Guidance Software

    PubMed Central

    Bookout, Tevin R.; McFann, Kim K.; Kelly, William C.; Beatson, Christie; Ellis, Samuel L.; Gutin, Raymond S.; Gottlieb, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Management of type 1 diabetes could be significantly improved with the availability of computerized insulin algorithms for home use. Methods This was a 1-year open label randomized control trial involving 123 adult subjects with type 1 diabetes (hemoglobin A1c values 7.5–11%) assigned to either the insulin guidance software (ACCU-CHEK® [Roche, Indianapolis, IN] Advisor) for personal data assistant (experimental group) or the control group. The primary aim of the study was to see if subjects using insulin dosing advisor software will improve glucose control over 1 year. The principal end point was an improvement in A1c at 6 and 12 months by ≥0.4%. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the two groups. Mean A1c was 8.54 ± 0.11% in the control group and 8.42 ± 0.11% (P = 0.4265) in the experimental group. The mean A1c was significantly lower from 3 to 12 months in the experimental group (P < 0.02). A1c reduction of ≥0.6% was maintained at 12 months in the experimental group. Also, a significantly higher number of subjects achieved A1c <7.5% in the experimental group from 3 to 9 months. Within target range glycemia (70–150 mg/dL) was higher in the experimental group at 3–9 months without any change in insulin dose or weight. Above target range glycemia was lower in the experimental group throughout the study. Frequency of testing per day was higher in the experimental group. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was not different between groups; however, the experimental group experienced more severe hypoglycemic events. Conclusions This is the first report that shows improved glycemic control can be maintained over 12 months in patients with type 1 diabetes by using Advisor with no change in insulin dose and weight. PMID:18715213

  2. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  3. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important

  4. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  5. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma.

    PubMed

    Accordini, Simone; Calciano, Lucia; Bombieri, Cristina; Malerba, Giovanni; Belpinati, Francesca; Lo Presti, Anna Rita; Baldan, Alessandro; Ferrari, Marcello; Perbellini, Luigi; de Marco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) study (www.geird.org), 326 subjects (aged 20-64) with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes) was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS) and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR). SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4) was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04), whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r(2) = 0.94) in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09). Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1) or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A) only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever

  6. Awareness of periodontal diseases amongst Nigerian diabetics.

    PubMed

    Ayanbadejo, P O; Savage, K O; Jeboda, S O

    2004-03-01

    This prospective study sample consisted of 261 Nigerians made up of 155 diabetics seen at the medical outpatient clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos and general hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria and 106 health controls randomly selected. The subjects were required to complete a questionnaire containing the biographic data and occupation, and assessment of their knowledge, attitude and practice towards periodontal health and utilisation of appropriate professional care. They were then examined and assessed using the CPITN code. Their ages ranged from 5 to 65 years. Close to three-quarters of the subjects (73.5% for diabetics and 74.5% for controls) were 45 years or older. Furthermore, 6% of the low skilled diabetics new about periodontal disease while only 27.2% of those in the medium and highly skilled group had some knowledge of periodontal disease. This relationship was found to be statistically significant (X2 = 12-22 ; df = 2, p < 0.05). Similarly, statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between diabetics and controls with regards to knowledge about the demonstrated between diabetic and controls with regards to knowledge about the cause/s of periodontal disease and awareness of gum bleeding. 73.6% of the controls had never been to the dentist before unlike 62.1% of diabetics. All subjects in either group who claimed not to bleed scored at least the minimum on the CPITN code. While 52.3% of diabetics and 22.5% of control had a CPITN score of 2,54% of those in the control group and 30% of diabetics recorded a score of 3 on the CPITN code. In conclusion, the level of awareness of periodontal disease is quite low amongst both groups, hence there is a need to promote periodontal health awareness in the general populace as well as clinics.

  7. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-28

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population.

  8. Serum immunoglobulins in Nigerian neonates.

    PubMed

    Akinwolere, O A; Akinkugbe, F M; Oyewole, A I; Salimonu, L S

    1989-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins G, M and A levels were studied in 187 Nigerian neonates. Estimations were done by the radial immunodifusion method of Mancini. Immunoglobulin G shows a fall in value in the first few days of life to about 62% of the value in the last days of the neonatal period. There is however a gradual increase in the level of IgM to about double at the end of the neonatal period. IgA level remained relatively constantly low throughout this period. The effect of maternal education on the levels of immunoglobulins of their neonates was also investigated. This had a positive influence at the secondary educational level, affecting only the IgG and IgA.

  9. Sacrococcygeal Teratoma in Nigerian Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A. Olufemi; Lagundoye, S. B.; Bankole, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    Two-thirds of all teratomas seen in 31 Nigerian children at Ibadan were situated in the sacrococcygeal region. About one-quarter of all the sacrococcygeal teratomas were malignant as shown on radiological and pathological examinations. The malignant tumours had papillary carcinomatous pattern, probably derived from the choroid plexus. The clinicopathological features of one patient with malignant change is described to illustrate the biological behaviour of this tumour. Malignancy in all the sacrococcygeal tumours appears to be associated with growth of the tumour into the pelvic cavity and metastasis initially to inguinal lymph nodes and later to distant sites. Inferior venacavogram can be of great value in defining the extent of the intrapelvic mass and the displacement of the genito-urinary organs, particularly when surgery is contemplated. ImagesFig. PMID:5440177

  10. Aging, Subjective Experience, and Cognitive Control: Dramatic False Remembering by Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Bishara, Anthony J.; Hessels, Sandra; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects than are young adults; however, that research has failed to equate differences in original learning. In 4 experiments, the authors show that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects produced by a misleading prime. Even when original learning…

  11. The Subject-Person of Adult Education in the Crisis of Modernity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Mathias

    1990-01-01

    The crisis of modernity increases the tension between individual and societal development. Brookfield's critical thinking model of adult education tries to reduce societal dimensions into personal growth. Jarvis' adult learning model reduces personal development to adaptation to societal demands. Adult education needs new models to reconcile the…

  12. Adult Daughters’ Influence on Mothers’ Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2010-01-01

    This study of mother–adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother–adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother–daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers’ ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms. PMID:19805795

  13. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function

  14. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  15. Penetration of Ceftaroline into the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pushkin, Richard; Jandourek, Alena; Knebel, William; Khariton, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to (i) evaluate ceftaroline concentrations in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and (ii) develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for plasma and ELF to be used in PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment simulations. Ceftaroline concentrations in ELF and plasma at steady state (day 4) were measured in healthy adult subjects for two dosages: 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) and 600 mg every 8 h (q8h). Both were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. The penetration of free ceftaroline into ELF, assuming 20% protein binding in plasma and no protein binding in ELF, was ≈23%. The population PK model utilized a two-compartment model for both ceftaroline fosamil and ceftaroline. Goodness-of-fit criteria revealed the model was consistent with observed data and no systematic bias remained. At 600 mg q12h and a MIC of 1 mg/liter, 98.1% of simulated patients would be expected to achieve a target free drug concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) in plasma of 42%, and in ELF 81.7% would be expected to achieve a target fT>MIC of 17%; at 600 mg q8h, 100% were predicted to achieve an fT>MIC in plasma of 42% and 94.7% to achieve an fT>MIC of 17% in ELF. The literature and data suggest the 600 mg q12h dose is adequate for MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. There is a need for clinical data in patients with MRSA pneumonia and data to correlate PK/PD relationships in ELF with clinical outcomes. PMID:27431215

  16. Penetration of Ceftaroline into the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Riccobene, Todd A; Pushkin, Richard; Jandourek, Alena; Knebel, William; Khariton, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to (i) evaluate ceftaroline concentrations in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and (ii) develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for plasma and ELF to be used in PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment simulations. Ceftaroline concentrations in ELF and plasma at steady state (day 4) were measured in healthy adult subjects for two dosages: 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) and 600 mg every 8 h (q8h). Both were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. The penetration of free ceftaroline into ELF, assuming 20% protein binding in plasma and no protein binding in ELF, was ≈23%. The population PK model utilized a two-compartment model for both ceftaroline fosamil and ceftaroline. Goodness-of-fit criteria revealed the model was consistent with observed data and no systematic bias remained. At 600 mg q12h and a MIC of 1 mg/liter, 98.1% of simulated patients would be expected to achieve a target free drug concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) in plasma of 42%, and in ELF 81.7% would be expected to achieve a target fT>MIC of 17%; at 600 mg q8h, 100% were predicted to achieve an fT>MIC in plasma of 42% and 94.7% to achieve an fT>MIC of 17% in ELF. The literature and data suggest the 600 mg q12h dose is adequate for MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. There is a need for clinical data in patients with MRSA pneumonia and data to correlate PK/PD relationships in ELF with clinical outcomes.

  17. The 10-year course of adult aggression toward others in patients with borderline personality disorder and axis II comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Ivey, Alexandra M; Cohn, Danielle M; Conkey, Lindsey C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2017-02-27

    This study had two aims. The first was to assess and compare various types of aggressive behavior toward others reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects over time. The second was to determine the best baseline and time-varying predictors of aggressive behavior in these borderline patients. At baseline, a series of interviews and self-report measures were administered to 290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects. Measures assessing aggression toward others, axis I and II disorders as well as adult adversity were re-administered every two years over the course of ten years. It was found that borderline patients reported significantly higher rates of verbal, emotional, and physical aggression toward others than comparison subjects but the rates of these forms of aggression toward others declined significantly for those in both study groups. Multivariate analyses indicated that the strongest predictors of adult aggression towards others were severity of adult adversity and a substance use disorder. Taken together, these results suggest that borderline patients commonly report aggression toward others but that this aggression declines significantly over time. These results also suggest that this aggression toward others is most strongly associated with adult experiences of adversity and concurrent substance abuse.

  18. Assessing Error Awareness as a Mediator of the Relationship between Subjective Concerns and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Rachel F.; Laming, Gemma; Chen, Li Peng Evelyn; Crole, Alice; Hester, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Subjective concerns of cognitive decline (SCD) often manifest in older adults who exhibit objectively normal cognitive functioning. This subjective-objective discrepancy is counter-intuitive when mounting evidence suggests that subjective concerns relate to future clinical progression to Alzheimer’s disease, and so possess the potential to be a sensitive early behavioural marker of disease. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether individual variability in conscious awareness of errors in daily life might mediate this subjective-objective relationship. Methods 67 cognitively-normal older adults underwent cognitive, SCD and mood tests, and an error awareness task. Results Poorer error awareness was not found to mediate a relationship between SCD and objective performance. Furthermore, non-clinical levels of depressive symptomatology were a primary driving factor of SCD and error awareness, and significantly mediated a relationship between the two. Discussion We were unable to show that poorer error awareness mediates SCD and cognitive performance in older adults. Our study does suggest, however, that underlying depressive symptoms influence both poorer error awareness and greater SCD severity. Error awareness is thus not recommended as a proxy for SCD, as reduced levels of error awareness do not seem to be reflected by greater SCD. PMID:27832173

  19. International note: temperament and character's relationship to subjective well-being in Salvadorian adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Nima, Ali A; Archer, Trevor

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between personality and Subjective Well-Being in a sample of 135 Salvadorian adolescents and young adults (age mean = 21.88 sd. = 4.70). Personality was assessed through self-reports using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Subjective Well-Being was also self-reported using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to determine relationships between personality and Subjective Well-Being. Regarding temperament dimensions, Harm Avoidance was positively associated to negative affect and negatively associated to positive affect, while Persistence was positively associated to positive affect. Regarding character dimensions, only Self-directedness was related to Subjective Well-Being: positively related to life satisfaction and positive affect. The results presented here mirror findings using the temperament and character model of personality among European and North American adolescents.

  20. Enteric pathogens, immune status and therapeutic response in diarrhea in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from north India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Arun Kumar; Uppal, Beena; Chadha, Sanjim; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Ghosh, Roumi; Dewan, Richa

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal infection causing diarrheal disease is a dominant contributor to high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This intervention study aimed to assess the response of specific anti-microbial and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on enteropathogens identified in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from northern India. Seventy five ART naive (group 1) and seventy five ART adherent (group 2) HIV/AIDS adult subjects with diarrhea were enrolled. Stool samples from all subjects were examined for enteropathogens by wet mount, staining methods, culture and ELISA. Subjects with enteropathogens were started on specific therapy as per National AIDS Control Organisation, Government of India's guidelines. Follow-up stool samples were examined after 2-4 weeks of completion of therapy for persistence/clearing of enteropathogens. CD4+ T lymphocyte count was done for all subjects. At enrollment, group 1 had 26.13% bacterial, 57.66% parasitic & 16.22% fungal pathogens while group 2 had 11.9%, 69.05% & 19.05% pathogens, respectively. Parasitic diarrhea was more common than bacterial diarrhea. The coccidian parasites (Cryptosporidium spp. & Isospora belli) were the common parasites identified. Clearance of enteric pathogens was significant after specific anti-microbial therapy (p = 0.0001). Persistence of enteropathogens was seen primarily for coccidian parasites. Clearance of enteropathogens after specific therapy and the diagnostic yield of stool specimens were influenced by the CD4+ counts. Immune competence coupled with specific anti-microbial therapy displays the best response against enteric pathogens.

  1. Macro-Language Policy and Planning and Lack of Proficiency in Language Learning and Use by Nigerian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbite, Wale

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the problem of non-proficiency in language learning and use among Nigerian students is investigated. Using empirical data and information from available literature on the subject as evidence, it was observed that the language deficiencies of the students could be attributed to the lack of fit between the formulation of the national…

  2. Accreditation Role of the National Universities Commission and the Quality of the Educational Inputs into Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibijola; Yinka, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation role of the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the quality of the educational inputs into Nigerian university system was investigated in this work, using a descriptive research of survey design. The population consisted of public Universities in South-West, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 300 subjects, consisting of 50…

  3. The Use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in Decision Making in the South-West Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, I. A.; Omirin, Fadekemi F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding…

  4. Outcome over seven years of healthy adults with and without subjective cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Reisberg, Barry; Shulman, Melanie B.; Torossian, Carol; Leng, Ling; Zhu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) in older persons without manifest symptomatology is a common condition with a largely unclear prognosis. We hypothesized that (1) examining outcome for a sufficient period by using conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia would clarify SCI prognosis, and (2) with the aforementioned procedures, the prognosis of SCI subjects would differ significantly from that of demographically matched healthy subjects, free of SCI, termed no cognitive impairment (NCI) subjects. Methods A consecutive series of healthy subjects, aged ≥40 years, presenting with NCI or SCI to a brain aging and dementia research center during a 14-year interval, were studied and followed up during an 18-year observation window. The study population (60 NCI, 200 SCI, 60% female) had a mean age of 67.2 ± 9.1 years, was well-educated (mean, 15.5 ± 2.7 years), and cognitively normal (Mini-Mental State Examination, 29.1 ± 1.2). Results A total of 213 subjects (81.9% of the study population) were followed up. Follow-up occurred during a mean period of 6.8 ± 3.4 years, and subjects had a mean of 2.9 ± 1.6 follow-up visits. Seven NCI (14.9%) and 90 SCI (54.2%) subjects declined (P < .0001). Of NCI decliners, five declined to MCI and two to probable Alzheimer’s disease. Of SCI decliners, 71 declined to MCI and 19 to dementia diagnoses. Controlling for baseline demographic variables and follow-up time, Weibull proportional hazards model revealed increased decline in SCI subjects (hazard ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.9–10.3), whereas the accelerated failure time model analysis with an underlying Weibull survival function showed that SCI subjects declined more rapidly, at 60% of the rate of NCI subjects (95% confidence interval, 0.45–0.80). Furthermore, mean time to decline was 3.5 years longer for NCI than for SCI subjects (P = .0003). Conclusions These results indicate that SCI in subjects with normal cognition is a harbinger

  5. Record Management in Nigerian Secondary School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakpodia, E. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examined the usefulness of record management in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Record keeping is one of the administrative principles in secondary school administration and it cannot be overemphasized in any organisation. The continuity of any school organisation depends on availability of useful records of past activities. In a complex…

  6. Matriculation Related Wastage in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Ojogwu, Chiaka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide substantial evidence on the rate of matriculation related wastage in Nigerian universities. Five federal universities were used for the study. The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) admission list and the university matriculation clearance documents of the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 admission years…

  7. Word Stress in Cameroon and Nigerian Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, Augustin Simo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the strategies used by Cameroonians and Nigerians to cope with the notorious complexity of English word stress. Stress placement is similar among these two groups, but differs significantly from what obtains in traditional native English speech, received pronunciation (RP), for example. Some of the stress…

  8. Analysis of reliability, accuracy, sensitivity and predictive value of a subjective method to classify facial pattern in adults

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Gilberto Vilanova; Rino, José; de Paiva, João Batista; Capelozza, Leopoldino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Craniofacial pattern diagnosis is vital in Orthodontics, as it influences decision-making regarding treatment options and prognosis. Capelozza Filho proposed a subjective method for facial classification comprising five patterns: I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of a subjective classification method of facial patterns applied to adults. Methods: A sample consisting of 52 adults was used for this study. Frontal and lateral view photographs were taken with subjects at rest position, including frontal smile. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were organized in a PowerPoint® presentation and submitted to 20 raters. Method performance was assessed by examining reproducibility with Kappa test and calculating accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values, for which 70% was set as critical value. The gold standard of the classification was personally set by the author of the method. Results: Reproducibility was considered moderate (Kappa = 0.501); while accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values yielded similar results, but below 70%. Conclusions: The subjective method of facial classification employed in the present study still needs to have its morphological criteria improved in order to be used to discriminate the five facial patterns. PMID:28125141

  9. Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future…

  10. Analysis of Exposure-Dose Variation of Inhaled Particles in Adult Subjects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although internal dose is a key factor for determining the health risk of inhaled pollutant particles, available dose information is largely limited to young healthy adults under a few typical exposure conditions. Extrapolation of the limited dose information to different populat...

  11. Psychosocial Development and Subjective Well-Being in an Age Cross-Section of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch, Stephanie A.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the internal consistency and construct validity of an expanded version of the Inventory of Psychosocial Development (E-IPD), which included the generativity and ego integrity scales creatd by Boylin et al. Total E-IPD scores from 79 adults were found to have high internal consistency, but many individual stage scales did not. (Author)

  12. Anxious Provision and Discourses of Certainty: The Sutured Subject of Mentally Ill Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a five-year study which explored the engagement of a group of long-term mentally ill adults in community provision in which they learned basic, expressive literacy. The research mapped points in the learning, writing and auto/biographic engagement where set identities were being troubled, and frisson created in the challenge…

  13. Subject Bibliography of Supplementary Adult Literacy Materials Purchased through LSCA Title VI Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Library Commission, Jackson.

    This annotated bibliography of supplementary materials for adult literacy students in Mississippi arranges the annotations in the following categories: automobiles; biography; communication skills; consumer information; coping skills; English as a second language; fiction; health, nutrition, and safety; history and government; insurance; job…

  14. Feeling Caught between Parents: Adult Children's Relations with Parents and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2006-01-01

    Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…

  15. Knowledge and perceptions of prostate cancer among Nigerian male immigrants.

    PubMed

    Akpuaka, Stella O; Clarke-Tasker, Veronica A; Nichols-English, Gloria J; Daniel, Marlon G; Akpuaka, Aloysius I

    2013-01-01

    Studies focusing on prostate cancer in the Nigerian population, especially Nigerian male immigrants residing in the United States, are limited. Nigerian immigrants are one of the fastest growing populations of Africans currently residing in the United States. According to a report from Migration Policy Institute in Washington DC, 1.4 million African immigrants live in the United States, of which 13.1% or 185,787 are Nigerian-born individuals (Terrazas, 2009). A great number of these African immigrants (159,928/11.3%) currently reside in the Washington metropolitan area. Similar to African American males in the United States, Nigerian men are at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In Nigeria, prostate cancer constitutes 11% of all male cancers making it the #1 ranking cancer among Nigerian men.

  16. Sweet taste and chorda tympani transection alter capsaicin-induced lingual pain perception in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Schöbel, N; Kyereme, J; Minovi, A; Dazert, S; Bartoshuk, L; Hatt, H

    2012-10-10

    Sweetness signals the nutritional value of food and may moreover be accompanied by a sensory suppression that leads to higher pain tolerance. This effect is well documented in infant rats and humans. However, it is still debated whether sensory suppression is also present in adult humans. Thus, we investigated the effects of sweet taste on the perception of the painful trigeminal stimulus capsaicin in two groups of healthy adult human subjects. A solution of 100 μM capsaicin was applied to the tip of the subject's tongues in order to stimulate trigeminal Aδ- and C-fiber nociceptors. When swallowed, 1M sucrose reduced the capsaicin-induced burning sensation by 29% (p ≤ 0.05) whereas a solution of similar taste intensity containing 1 μM quinine did not. Similarly, sucrose application to the frontal hemitongue suppressed the perception of the burning sensation induced by contralaterally applied capsaicin by 25% (p ≤ 0.01). We furthermore investigated the effects of documented unilateral transection of the chorda tympani nerve on capsaicin perception. In accordance with the ipsi-to-contralateral effect of sucrose on capsaicin perception in healthy subjects, hemiageusic subjects were more sensitive for capsaicin on the tongue contralateral to the taste nerve lesion (+38%; p ≤ 0.01). Taken together, these results argue I) for the existence of food intake-induced sensory suppression, if not analgesia, in adult humans and II) a centrally mediated suppression of trigeminal sensation by taste inputs that III) becomes disinhibited upon peripheral taste nerve lesion.

  17. Factors associated with subjective burden in siblings of adults with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J S; Kim, H W; Greenley, J R

    1997-04-01

    Experiences of subjective burden were analyzed in a sample of 164 siblings of persons with serious mental illness. Findings indicated that the well sibling's experience of burden was consistently related to the symptomatology of the ill sibling. In addition, those who viewed the ill sibling's behavior as outside his or control exhibited lower levels of subjective burden than did those who viewed the behavior as within the sibling's control. Implications for research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  18. Challenges, Benefits, and Recommendations for Continued Nigerian Peacekeeping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    the U.S. Naval Health Research Center determined that the Nigerian military had an estimated infection rate of about 15%, as compared to about 5...UNSCR) 1983 which “Encourages the incorporation, as appropriate, of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support, including voluntary and...Nigerian Army: In the Shadow of Corruption,” Modern Ghana News, accessed September 17, 2012, http://www.modernghana.com/news/259133/1/nigerian-army-in-the

  19. Linear and angular control of circular walking in healthy older adults and subjects with cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Goodworth, Adam D; Paquette, Caroline; Jones, Geoffrey Melvill; Block, Edward W; Fletcher, William A; Hu, Bin; Horak, Fay B

    2012-05-01

    Linear and angular control of trunk and leg motion during curvilinear navigation was investigated in subjects with cerebellar ataxia and age-matched control subjects. Subjects walked with eyes open around a 1.2-m circle. The relationship of linear to angular motion was quantified by determining the ratios of trunk linear velocity to trunk angular velocity and foot linear position to foot angular position. Errors in walking radius (the ratio of linear to angular motion) also were quantified continuously during the circular walk. Relative variability of linear and angular measures was compared using coefficients of variation (CoV). Patterns of variability were compared using power spectral analysis for the trunk and auto-covariance analysis for the feet. Errors in radius were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar damage as compared to controls. Cerebellar subjects had significantly larger CoV of feet and trunk in angular, but not linear, motion. Control subjects also showed larger CoV in angular compared to linear motion of the feet and trunk. Angular and linear components of stepping differed in that angular, but not linear, foot placement had a negative correlation from one stride to the next. Thus, walking in a circle was associated with more, and a different type of, variability in angular compared to linear motion. Results are consistent with increased difficulty of, and role of the cerebellum in, control of angular trunk and foot motion for curvilinear locomotion.

  20. Subjective Sexual Well-Being in Chilean Adults: Evaluation of a Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo

    2016-05-18

    Research on sexuality has traditionally focused on sexual satisfaction, with studies into subjective sexual well-being being a recent phenomenon. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior, happiness, health, and subjective sexual well-being. The data were collected from 862 people aged between 18 and 50 years in Santiago, Chile, and were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results showed that sexual behavioral indicators (sexual frequency, sexual caresses, and touching), happiness, and perception of health taken as a whole predicted 47.4% of subjective sexual well-being (SSWB). Analysis of the four items of subjective sexual well-being separately showed that the dimension of physical satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators with a prediction percentage of 33.5%, whereas emotional satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators and happiness, with a percentage of prediction of 43.3%. Satisfaction with sexual function was associated with perception of health and one sexual behavior indicator, with a prediction percentage of 29.2% of this variable. The importance of sex was associated with three sexual behavior variables that predicted 26.2% of this variable. The results confirm that subjective sexual well-being can be predicted and that its four dimensions present a different behavior compared to the study predictors.

  1. When does meaning making predict subjective well-being? Examining young and older adults in two cultures.

    PubMed

    Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Two studies in different cultures (Study 1: USA, N=174, Study 2: Trinidad, N=167) examined whether meaning making, (i.e., both searching for meaning, and directing behaviour) is positively related to subjective well-being (SWB) by age (younger, older adults). In both studies, participants self-reported engagement in meaning making, and SWB (e.g., affect, future time perspective, psychological well-being). In Study 1, young Americans (compared to older) more frequently used their past to direct behaviour but doing so was unrelated to SWB. In older Americans, both types of meaning making were positively associated with SWB. In Study 2, Trinidadian younger adults were again more likely than older adults to engage in meaning making. Unlike in the American sample, however, directing behaviour was positively related to SWB for both young and older adults. The studies demonstrate that whether meaning making shows benefits for SWB may depend on type of meaning, age and culture. Note that although meaning making was sometimes unrelated to SWB, no detrimental relations to meaning making were found. The discussion focuses on the role of moderators in understanding when meaning making should lead to benefits versus costs to SWB.

  2. Non-Pharmacologic Interventions for Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Preliminary Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Smart, Colette M; Karr, Justin E; Areshenkoff, Corson N; Rabin, Laura A; Hudon, Carol; Gates, Nicola; Ali, Jordan I; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Buckley, Rachel F; Chetelat, Gael; Hampel, Harald; Jessen, Frank; Marchant, Natalie L; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Tales, Andrea; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Wesselman, Linda

    2017-03-07

    In subjective cognitive decline (SCD), older adults present with concerns about self-perceived cognitive decline but are found to have clinically normal function. However, a significant proportion of those adults are subsequently found to develop mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's dementia or other neurocognitive disorder. In other cases, SCD may be associated with mood, personality, and physical health concerns. Regardless of etiology, adults with SCD may benefit from interventions that could enhance current function or slow incipient cognitive decline. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, is to examine the benefits of non-pharmacologic intervention (NPI) in persons with SCD. Inclusion criteria were studies of adults aged 55 + with SCD defined using published criteria, receiving NPI or any control condition, with cognitive, behavioural, or psychological outcomes in controlled trails. Published empirical studies were obtained through a standardized search of CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES, supplemented by a manual retrieval of relevant articles. Study quality and bias was determined using PEDro. Nine studies were included in the review and meta-analysis. A wide range of study quality was observed. Overall, a small effect size was found on cognitive outcomes, greater for cognitive versus other intervention types. The available evidence suggests that NPI may benefit current cognitive function in persons with SCD. Recommendations are provided to improve future trials of NPI in SCD.

  3. Distinctive modulation of inflammatory and metabolic parameters in relation to zinc nutritional status in adult overweight/obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Laura; Muti, Elisa; Malavolta, Marco; Cipriano, Catia; Giacconi, Robertina; Tesei, Silvia; Piacenza, Francesco; Pierpaoli, Sara; Gasparini, Nazzarena; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Boscaro, Marco; Polito, Angela; Mauro, Beatrice; Maiani, Francesca; Raguzzini, Anna; Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Emanuelli, Monica; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with low grade of inflammation and chronic inflammatory response characterized by abnormal production and activation of some pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Taking into account that obesity is the direct result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, the nutritional factors in the diet, with particular focus on zinc, may play a pivotal role in the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. Considering the potential interactions among zinc nutritional status, inflammation, overweight/obesity and insulin secretion, the aim of the present work was to clarify the influence of zinc dietary intake on some metabolic, inflammatory and zinc status parameters in adult overweight/obese subjects. We found a close interrelationship between nutritional zinc and obesity. In particular, subjects with a lower zinc dietary intake display a deeper inflammatory status, general impairment of the zinc status, an altered lipid profile and increased insulin production with respect to obese subjects with normal zinc dietary intake. Moreover, in the presence of low dietary zinc intake, the obese subjects are less capable to respond to oxidative stress and to inflammation leading to the development of obesity or to a worsening of already preexisting obesity status. In conclusion, a possible zinc supplementation in obese subjects with a deeper inflammatory status and more altered zinc profile may be suggested in order to limit or reduce the inflammation, taking also into account that zinc supplementation normalizes "inflammaging" as well as zinc profile leading to a correct intra- and extracellular zinc homeostasis.

  4. Executive Functions in Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Roeliena C.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D.

    2016-01-01

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (>50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as well as subjective complaints (self- and proxy…

  5. An Examination of the Relationship between Passion and Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Francois L.; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Activity engagement has long been linked to improved subjective well-being (SWB) in old age. However, recent studies testing Vallerand et al.'s (2003) Dualistic Model of Passion suggest that the type of passionate activity that underlies activity engagement might influence the extent to which individuals benefit from an active lifestyle. In the…

  6. The Influence of Executive Functioning on Facial and Subjective Pain Responses in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is known to reduce reliability of subjective pain reports. Although facial expressions of pain are generally considered to be less affected by this decline, empirical support for this assumption is sparse. The present study therefore examined how cognitive functioning relates to facial expressions of pain and whether cognition acts as a moderator between nociceptive intensity and facial reactivity. Facial and subjective responses of 51 elderly participants to mechanical stimulation at three intensities levels (50 kPa, 200 kPa, and 400 kPa) were assessed. Moreover, participants completed a neuropsychological examination of executive functioning (planning, cognitive inhibition, and working memory), episodic memory, and psychomotor speed. The results showed that executive functioning has a unique relationship with facial reactivity at low pain intensity levels (200 kPa). Moreover, cognitive inhibition (but not other executive functions) moderated the effect of pressure intensity on facial pain expressions, suggesting that the relationship between pressure intensity and facial reactivity was less pronounced in participants with high levels of cognitive inhibition. A similar interaction effect was found for cognitive inhibition and subjective pain report. Consequently, caution is needed when interpreting facial (as well as subjective) pain responses in individuals with a high level of cognitive inhibition. PMID:27274618

  7. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  8. Complement components in Nigerians with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Onyemelukwe, G C

    1989-10-01

    Serum complement components C1q, C3, C4, factor B, and C3d breakdown products were measured in asthmatic Nigerians and in age-matched and sex-matched controls. C3 mean level was higher than in controls while C1q and C4 mean levels were lower than in controls. High levels of C3d in asthmatic patients suggest the possible role of C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins in the etiopathogenesis of perennial asthma in Nigerian patients in a tropical environment with ubiquitous airborne allergens and infective agents. The significantly elevated levels of IgM and IgG may suggest recurrent respiratory challenge of perennial antigens in our environment.

  9. Pituitary-gonadal function in adult male rats subjected to chronic water restriction.

    PubMed

    Armario, A; Campmany, L; Lopez-Calderon, A

    1987-01-01

    The effect of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis has been studied in adult male rats. Water restriction did not modify FSH, LH and testosterone levels. However, both LH and testosterone responses to acute noise stress were impaired by water restriction. It was unlikely that the inhibition of the pituitary-gonadal response to stress was due to an alteration of the circadian pattern of LH since no evidence for such a daily rhythm was found in either of the two experimental groups. The effects of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis appear to be at least partially a consequence of the resulting reduction in food intake, so that the pituitary-gonadal response to stress would be a more sensitive index of abnormalities induced by protein-calorie deficit than basal concentrations of LH, FSH, or T.

  10. Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, R; Bertocci, G

    2010-04-01

    Wheelchairs are primarily designed for mobility and are not necessarily intended for use as motor vehicle seats. However, many wheelchairs serve as vehicle seats for individuals unable to transfer to a vehicle seat. Subjecting wheelchairs to sled testing, in part establishes the crashworthiness of wheelchairs used as motor vehicle seats. Computer simulations provide a supplemental approach for sled testing, to assess wheelchair response and loading under crash conditions. In this study a nonlinear, dynamic, computer model was developed and validated to simulate a wheelchair and occupant subjected to a frontal impact test (ANSI/RESNA WC19). This simulation model was developed utilizing data from two frontal impact 20 g/48 km/h sled tests, which consisted of identical, adult manual wheelchairs secured with 4-point tiedowns, occupied with a 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test device (ATD), restrained with a 3-point occupant restraint system. Additionally, the model was validated against sled data using visual comparisons of wheelchair and occupant kinematics, along with statistical assessments of outcome measures. All statistical evaluations were found to be within the acceptance criteria, indicating the model's high predictability of the sled tests. This model provides a useful tool for the development of crashworthy wheelchair design guidelines, as well as the development of transit-safe wheelchair technologies.

  11. Prospective memory on a novel clinical task in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Chi, Susan Y.; Wang, Cuiling; Fogel, Joshua; Kann, Sarah J.; Aronov, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relevance of prospective memory to everyday functioning and the ability to live independently, prospective memory tasks are rarely incorporated into clinical evaluations of older adults. We investigated the validity and clinical utility of a recently developed measure, the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test (RPA-ProMem), in a demographically diverse, non-demented, community-dwelling sample of 257 older adults (mean age = 80.78 years, 67.7% female) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 18), non-amestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI, n = 38), subjective cognitive decline (SCD, n = 83) despite intact performance on traditional episodic memory tests, and healthy controls (HC, n = 118). Those with aMCI and naMCI performed significantly worse than controls on the RPA-ProMem and its subtasks (time-based, event-based, short-term, long-term). Also, those with SCD scored significantly lower than controls on long-term, more naturalistic subtasks. Additional results supported the validity and inter-rater reliability of the RPA-ProMem and demonstrated a relation between test scores and informant reports of real-world functioning. The RPA-ProMem may help detect subtle cognitive changes manifested by individuals in the earliest stages of dementia, which may be difficult to capture with traditional episodic memory tests. Also, assessment of prospective memory can help guide the development of cognitive interventions for older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:24875614

  12. Screaming Trees: The Nigerian Deforestation Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Screaming Trees: The Nigerian Deforestation Crisis (U) 5a...Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT Nigeria has the highest rate of deforestation in the world and the Government of Nigeria (GON) has failed to...implement an effective response to this worsening crisis. Deforestation degrades land quality and agricultural output, resulting in forced migration

  13. Waardenburg's syndrome: case reports in two Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Amoni, S S; Abdurrahman, M B

    1979-01-01

    We saw two cases of Waardenburg's syndrome in Nigerian children. A 9-year-old girl had congenital deaf-mutism, high-arched palate, complete heterochromia iridis with pigment mottling in the posterior pole of the eye with the hypochromic iris, dyspigmented frontal scalp hair, a history of vitiligo, but with no dystopia canthorum. An 11-year-old boy had a harelip with cleft palate, heterochromia iridis, blonde fundus on the eye with blue iris, and dystopia canthorum.

  14. Neonatal Administration of Memantine Enhances Social Cognition in Adult Rats Subjected to Early Maternal Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Mendoza, Eduardo; Nieves, Nayadoleni; Merchor, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder; however, all the available treatment options are used when the disease becomes clinically significant in adolescence or early adulthood. Using a developmental rat model of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal treatment with memantine, an NMDA receptor modulator, can improve schizophrenic-like symptoms in adulthood. Early maternal deprivation in rats produces deficits in social interaction behaviors in adulthood. In contrast, memantine administrated in neonatal rats subjected to early maternal deprivation significantly reduces deficits in social interaction behaviors in adulthood. These results raise the possibility that pharmacological treatment with memantine at the early developmental stage helps people with a risk to develop schizophrenic-like symptoms. PMID:28035183

  15. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.

  16. An Analysis of Female Research Productivity in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the research output of female staff and the factors that affect their research productivity in the Nigerian university system. The study was carried out with a view to promoting strategies that will enhance productivity and increase the research output of female staff in Nigerian universities. The study adopted a survey…

  17. Managing Language Testing in Nigerian Large Classes: Processes and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abioye, Taiwo

    2010-01-01

    The demand for literacy in a developing country like Nigeria has multiple results such as the expansion, by leaps and bounds, of the average Nigerian classroom. This paper highlights the reasons for large classes in Nigerian secondary schools, the educational and psychological dimensions of language testing in large classes, the challenges of such…

  18. Bilingualism in Education: The Nigerian Experience Re-examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, Chuka Eze

    1983-01-01

    Because most Nigerian children receive only limited schooling, it is important to use this time as effectively as possible. One way to improve Nigerian schools is by teaching children in their native language, so that they will not be hindered by the need to master two languages and cultures. (IS)

  19. An Appraisal of Globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifedili, Chika Josephine A.; Ojogwu, C. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies. Different Educational Policies that the Nigerian Government had previously embarked upon were assessed. The failures of various policies were looked into based on who originated the policies; drew up the policies; the budgetary allocation to education; other sources of funds…

  20. Moral Reasoning of Nigerian and Pakistani Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maqsud, M.

    1977-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the universality of Piaget's and Kohlberg's stages of development of moral judgment in Nigerian and Pakistani cultures. Results show that the moral reasoning of Nigerian and Pakistani Muslim adolescents are greatly affected by their cultural values. (Editor/RK)

  1. Evaluating an Educational Program for Parents: A Nigerian Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoha, Dorothy; Saidu, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Despite the evidence pointing to its detrimental child outcomes, physical punishment remains one of the most commonly used techniques to discipline children in many Nigerian homes. Research has revealed that a majority of Nigerian parents are not aware of the negative consequences. They are also not aware of nonaversive ways to discipline…

  2. Academic Quality Assurance Variables in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, Eucharia O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I.; Timothy, Alexander E.; Essien, Margaret I.

    2016-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality assurance in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  3. Academic Quality Control in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, E. O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I.; Essien, M. I.; Timothy, A. Essien

    2014-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality control in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  4. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of KNS-760704 (dexpramipexole) in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Bozik, Michael E; Mather, James L; Kramer, William G; Gribkoff, Valentin K; Ingersoll, Evan W

    2011-08-01

    Dexpramipexole (KNS-760704; [6R]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-N6-propyl-2,6-benzothiazole-diamine) is a novel synthetic amino-benzothiazole in development for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Preclinical studies have shown that dexpramipexole is neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo, is highly orally bioavailable and water soluble, and rapidly achieves and maintains high central nervous system concentrations relative to plasma. Two phase 1 clinical studies were conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of single and multiple doses of dexpramipexole in 54 healthy male and female adults. The effect of food on the single-dose PK of dexpramipexole was also evaluated. Single doses (50 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg) and multiple doses (50 mg twice daily, 100 mg twice daily, or 150 mg twice daily) of dexpramipexole over 4.5 days were safe and well tolerated. Dexpramipexole was rapidly absorbed, with time to maximum plasma concentration ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 hours and half-life ranging from 6.4 to 8.1 hours under fasted conditions, and was mostly eliminated in urine as unchanged parent drug (84%-90% of dose). Food had no effect on the single-dose PK of dexpramipexole. These findings support the ongoing development of dexpramipexole for the treatment of ALS and further evaluation of the compound's therapeutic potential in other neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  6. [Subjective memory complaints in young adults: the influence of the emotional state].

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Porcar, Olga; Mirete-Fructuoso, Marcos; Molina-Rodríguez, Sergio; Soto-Amaya, Johnathan

    2014-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. Many young people today display memory complaints that are not linked to their real cognitive performance. A number of studies have sought to identify the factors involved in this problem, such as anxious-depressive symptoms, the variables of anxiety traditionally being measured as somatic or cognitive manifestations with an activation that is unspecific or not linked to any particular stimulus. AIMS. To perform an exploratory analysis to determine the role played by symptoms of depression and of various subtypes of specific and unspecific anxiety in memory complaints in young adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The sample used in this study was made of 193 university students, 71% of whom were females, with a mean age of 22.22 ± 3.67 years. The variable 'Memory complaints' was measured with the Memory Failures Questionnaire, and the Brief Symptom Check List was used to measure the variables 'Depression', 'Social anxiety', 'Obsessive-compulsive anxiety', 'Agoraphobic anxiety', 'Somatisation' and 'Insomnia'. RESULTS. The variables of specific anxiety show a greater correlation with memory complaints than unspecific anxiety. Multiple regression analysis explained 34.9% of the variance of memory complaints, although the only variable that made a significant contribution was 'Social anxiety', which alone explains 34.4%. CONCLUSIONS. A distinct influence between the different types of anxiety and memory complaints has been observed. The findings obtained are a novelty in this area of knowledge by pointing to a greater relevance of the variables of specific anxiety in comparison to unspecific anxiety in explaining memory complaints and the need to take a personalised approach.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Dolutegravir When Administered With Mineral Supplements in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Arya, Niki; Wynne, Brian; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    All commercially available integrase inhibitors are 2-metal binders and may be affected by co-administration with metal cations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium and iron supplements on dolutegravir pharmacokinetics and strategies (dose separation and food) to attenuate the effects if significant reductions in dolutegravir exposure were observed. This was an open-label, crossover study that randomized 24 healthy subjects into 1 of 2 cohorts to receive 4 treatments: (1) dolutegravir alone, fasting; (2) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting; (3) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate with a moderate-fat meal; (4) dolutegravir administered 2 hours before calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting. Plasma dolutegravir AUC(0–∞), Cmax, and C24 were reduced by 39%, 37%, and 39%, respectively, when co-administered with calcium carbonate while fasting and were reduced by 54%, 57%, and 56%, respectively, when co-administered with ferrous fumarate while fasting. Dolutegravir administration 2 hours before calcium or iron supplement administration (fasted), as well as administration with a meal, counteracted the effect. Dolutegravir and calcium or iron supplements can be co-administered if taken with a meal. Under fasted conditions, dolutegravir should be administered 2 hours before or 6 hours after calcium or iron supplements. PMID:25449994

  8. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of escalating high doses of ivermectin in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Cynthia A; Furtek, Christine I; Porras, Arturo G; Chen, Cong; Tipping, Robert; Clineschmidt, Coleen M; Sciberras, David G; Hsieh, John Y K; Lasseter, Kenneth C

    2002-10-01

    Safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the antiparasitic drug ivermectin, administered in higher and/or more frequent doses than currently approved for human use, were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study. Subjects (n = 68) were assigned to one of four panels (3:1, ivermectin/placebo): 30 or 60 mg (three times a week) or 90 or 120 mg (single dose). The 30 mg panel (range: 34 7-594 microg/kg) also received a single dose with food after a 1-week washout. Safety assessments addressed both known ivermectin CNS effects and general toxicity. The primary safety endpoint was mydriasis, accurately quantitated by pupillometry. Ivermectin was generally well tolerated, with no indication of associated CNS toxicity for doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose of 200 microg/kg. All dose regimens had a mydriatic effect similar to placebo. Adverse experiences were similar between ivermectin and placebo and did not increase with dose. Following single doses of 30 to 120 mg, AUC and Cmax were generally dose proportional, with t(max) approximately 4 hours and t1/2 approximately 18 hours. The geometric mean AUC of 30 mg ivermectin was 2.6 times higher when administered with food. Geometric mean AUC ratios (day 7/day 1) were 1.24 and 1.40 for the 30 and 60 mg doses, respectively, indicating that the accumulation of ivermectin given every fourth day is minimal. This study demonstrated that ivermectin is generally well tolerated at these higher doses and more frequent regimens.

  9. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Tafenoquine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine or Artemether-Lumefantrine in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Khadeeja; Goyal, Navin; Bouhired, Samia; Hussaini, Azra; Jones, Siôn W.; Koh, Gavin C. K. W.; Kostov, Ivan; Taylor, Maxine; Wolstenholm, Allen; Duparc, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Tafenoquine is in development as a single-dose treatment for relapse prevention in individuals with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Tafenoquine must be coadministered with a blood schizonticide, either chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This open-label, randomized, parallel-group study evaluated potential drug interactions between tafenoquine and two ACTs: dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Healthy volunteers of either sex aged 18 to 65 years without glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were randomized into five cohorts (n = 24 per cohort) to receive tafenoquine on day 1 (300 mg) plus once-daily dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on days 1, 2, and 3 (120 mg/960 mg for 36 to <75 kg of body weight and 160 mg/1,280 mg for ≥75 to 100 kg of body weight), or plus artemether-lumefantrine (80 mg/480 mg) in two doses 8 h apart on day 1 and then twice daily on days 2 and 3, or each drug alone. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tafenoquine, piperaquine, lumefantrine, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin were determined by using noncompartmental methods. Point estimates and 90% confidence intervals were calculated for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) comparisons of tafenoquine plus ACT versus tafenoquine or ACT. All subjects receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine experienced QTc prolongation (a known risk with this drug), but tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant additional effect. Tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant effects on dihydroartemisinin, piperaquine, artemether, or lumefantrine pharmacokinetics. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine coadministration increased the tafenoquine Cmax by 38% (90% confidence interval, 25 to 52%), the AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞) by 12% (1 to 26%), and the half-life (t1/2) by 29% (19 to 40%), with no effect on the AUC from time zero to the time of the last nonzero concentration (AUC0

  10. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Tafenoquine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine or Artemether-Lumefantrine in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Green, Justin A; Mohamed, Khadeeja; Goyal, Navin; Bouhired, Samia; Hussaini, Azra; Jones, Siôn W; Koh, Gavin C K W; Kostov, Ivan; Taylor, Maxine; Wolstenholm, Allen; Duparc, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Tafenoquine is in development as a single-dose treatment for relapse prevention in individuals with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Tafenoquine must be coadministered with a blood schizonticide, either chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This open-label, randomized, parallel-group study evaluated potential drug interactions between tafenoquine and two ACTs: dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Healthy volunteers of either sex aged 18 to 65 years without glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were randomized into five cohorts (n = 24 per cohort) to receive tafenoquine on day 1 (300 mg) plus once-daily dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on days 1, 2, and 3 (120 mg/960 mg for 36 to <75 kg of body weight and 160 mg/1,280 mg for ≥75 to 100 kg of body weight), or plus artemether-lumefantrine (80 mg/480 mg) in two doses 8 h apart on day 1 and then twice daily on days 2 and 3, or each drug alone. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tafenoquine, piperaquine, lumefantrine, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin were determined by using noncompartmental methods. Point estimates and 90% confidence intervals were calculated for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) comparisons of tafenoquine plus ACT versus tafenoquine or ACT. All subjects receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine experienced QTc prolongation (a known risk with this drug), but tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant additional effect. Tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant effects on dihydroartemisinin, piperaquine, artemether, or lumefantrine pharmacokinetics. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine coadministration increased the tafenoquine Cmax by 38% (90% confidence interval, 25 to 52%), the AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) by 12% (1 to 26%), and the half-life (t1/2) by 29% (19 to 40%), with no effect on the AUC from time zero to the time of the last nonzero concentration (AUC0

  11. The effect of cognitive training on the subjective perception of well-being in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bureš, Vladimír; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Ponce, Daniela; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing number of studies indicating the major consequences of the subjective perception of well-being on mental health and healthcare use. However, most of the cognitive training research focuses more on the preservation of cognitive function than on the implications of the state of well-being. This secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of individualised television-based cognitive training on self-rated well-being using the WHO-5 index while considering gender and education as influencing factors. The effects of cognitive training were compared with leisure activities that the elderly could be engaged in to pass time. Methods Cognitively healthy participants aged 60 years or above screened using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design and underwent 24 training sessions. Data acquired from the WHO-5 questionnaire administered before and after intervention were statistically analysed using a mixed design model for repeated measures. The effect of individualised cognitive training was compared with leisure activities while the impact of gender and education was explored using estimated marginal means. Results A total of 81 participants aged 67.9 ± 5.59 [60–84] without cognitive impairments and absent of depression symptoms underwent the study. Participants with leisure time activities declared significantly higher scores compared to participants with cognitive training M = 73.48 ± 2.88, 95% CI [67.74–79.22] vs M = 64.13 ± 3.034, 95% CI [58.09–70.17] WHO-5 score. Gender and education were found to moderate the effect of cognitive training on well-being when compared to leisure activities. Females engaged in leisure activities in the control group reported higher by M = 9.77 ± 5.4, 95% CI [−0.99–20.54] WHO

  12. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl.

    PubMed

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-04-04

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa.

  13. Comparative study of meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2004-04-01

    The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident.

  14. Serodiagnosis of Acute Typhoid Fever in Nigerian Pediatric Cases by Detection of Serum IgA and IgG Against Hemolysin E and Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Davies, D Huw; Jain, Aarti; Nakajima, Rie; Liang, Li; Jasinskis, Algis; Supnet, Medalyn; Felgner, Philip L; Teng, Andy; Pablo, Jozelyn; Molina, Douglas M; Obaro, Stephen K

    2016-08-03

    Inexpensive, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic tests are currently unavailable for typhoid fever. To identify candidate serodiagnostic markers, we have probed microarrays displaying the full Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) proteome of 4,352 different proteins + lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), with sera from Nigerian pediatric typhoid and other febrile cases, Nigerian healthy controls, and healthy U.S. adults. Nigerian antibody profiles were broad (∼500 seropositive antigens) and mainly low level, with a small number of stronger "hits," whereas the profile in U.S. adults was < 1/5 as broad, consistent with endemic exposure in Nigeria. Nigerian profiles were largely unaffected by clinical diagnosis, although the response against t1477 (hemolysin E) consistently emerged as stronger in typhoid cases. The response to LPS was also a strong discriminator of healthy controls and typhoid, although LPS did not discriminate between typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) disease. As a first step toward the development of a point-of-care diagnostic, t1477 and LPS were evaluated on immunostrips. Both provided good discrimination between healthy controls and typhoid/NTS disease. Such a test could provide a useful screen for salmonellosis (typhoid and NTS disease) in suspected pediatric cases that present with undefined febrile disease.

  15. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  16. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2016-10-18

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  17. Effects of ketoconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics of safinamide and its plasma metabolites in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Krösser, Sonja; Marquet, Anne; Gallemann, Dieter; Wolna, Peter; Fauchoux, Nicolas; Hermann, Robert; Johne, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this mechanistic drug interaction study was to investigate the effects of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of safinamide. Ketoconazole was applied as a potent prototypic inhibitor of cytochrome CYP3A4, to determine the role of CYP3A4 in the metabolic clearance of safinamide. In an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence cross-over study, 14 healthy adult subjects (7 males/7 females) received two single doses of 100 mg safinamide: alone and on top of multiple doses of ketoconazole (200 mg b.i.d.) given over 6 days. Serial blood samples were collected over 240 h post dose to quantify safinamide parent drug and metabolite concentrations for pharmacokinetic evaluation. Safinamide exposure was essentially unchanged when administered with and without ketoconazole: C(max) and AUC(0-∞) point estimates (90% CIs) for the treatment comparison were 106.6 (101.0; 112.4) and 112.9 (109.8; 116.03), respectively. Similarly, ketoconazole did not influence the formation and clearance of safinamide metabolites to a clinically relevant extent. Overall, the study shows that CYP3A4 plays a minor role in the metabolism of safinamide in vivo. Therefore, safinamide can be administered together with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors without any requirement for dose adjustment.

  18. Cellular Aging and Restorative Processes: Subjective Sleep Quality and Duration Moderate the Association between Age and Telomere Length in a Sample of Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cribbet, Matthew R.; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M.; Uchino, Bert N.; Williams, Paula G.; Smith, Timothy W.; Gunn, Heather E.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Design: Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Setting: Social Neuroscience Laboratory. Participants: One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. Conclusions: The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging. Citation: Cribbet MR; Carlisle M; Cawthon RM; Uchino BN; Williams PG; Smith TW; Gunn HE; Light KC. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and

  19. Spirituality, gender and age factors in cybergossip among Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, David Adebayo

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the patterns of spirituality, gender, and age in cybergossip practices among Nigerian adolescents. The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Five hundred thirty adolescent students, randomly selected from four major cities in Nigeria, participated in the study. Their age range was 16 to 21. General Spirituality and Gossip Purpose scales were used to collect data from the participants. Data collected were subjected to t test statistics. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the cybergossiping practices of adolescents based on their levels of spirituality. This reveals that spirituality is not an inhibiting factor in cybergossiping practices among the adolescents. However, there is significant difference between male and female youths in their cybergossiping practices. The results showed that females are more likely than males to be involved in cybergossiping activities. There is also significant difference between early and late adolescents' cybergossiping activities. The implication is that gossip and cybergossip is a natural tendency that involves communicative expression with a pleasure-seeking purpose. It is a habit that excludes no one despite spiritual, gender, or age factors. Therefore, this behavior should be positively directed away from abusive computing and communication. This work is unique because of the need for parents, guardians, and psychologists to design measures to identify and manage various moderating variables in children's computing practices for optimal positive outcomes.

  20. Association of low birth weight with beta cell function in the adult first degree relatives of non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J T; Levy, J C; Page, R C; Shaw, J A; Hattersley, A T; Turner, R C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between birth weight and beta cell function in the first degree relatives of non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of 101 adults of known birth weight from 47 families which had at least one member with non-insulin dependent diabetes. SUBJECTS--101 white adults aged mean 43 (SD 7) years. SETTING--Oxfordshire, England. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Glucose tolerance was measured by continuous infusion glucose tolerance test. beta cell function and insulin sensitivity were calculated from the fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations with homeostasis model assessment. beta cell function was standardised to allow for the confounding effects of age and obesity. RESULTS--Twenty seven subjects had non-insulin dependent diabetes, 32 had impaired glucose tolerance, and 42 were normoglycaemic. Birth weight correlated with the beta cell function of the complete cohort (rs = 0.29, p = 0.005), the non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects (rs = 0.50, p = 0.023), and the non-diabetic subjects (rs = 0.29, p = 0.013). The non-insulin dependent diabetic (n = 27) and the non-diabetic (n = 74) subjects had similar mean (inter-quartile range) centile birth weight 50% (19%-91%), and 53% (30%-75%) respectively. Non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects had significantly lower beta function than the non-diabetic subjects: 69% (48%-83%) v 97% (86%-120%), p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS--The cause of the association between low birth weight and reduced beta cell function in adult life is uncertain. Impaired beta cell function in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects was not accounted for by low birth weight, and genetic or environmental factors are likely to be necessary for development of diabetes. PMID:8461648

  1. The burden of Fallot’s tetralogy among Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Madise-Wobo, Akpoembele D.; Falase, Bode A.; Omokhodion, Samuel I.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are only very few reports on Fallot’s tetralogy in Africa especially from sub-Saharan Africa. At best tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is only mentioned as part of reports of surveys of other congenital heart diseases or as case reports in the region. There has been no report on cohorts of children with TOF in West Africa. This article describes the pattern and presentation of children diagnosed with TOF patients in a tertiary hospital in sub-Saharan Africa over a 9-year period. Methods Prospective and consecutive review of all subjects with diagnosis of TOF confirmed with echocardiography at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) between January 2007 and December 2015. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Descriptive statistics were presented as percentages or means and standard deviation. Means of normally distributed variables were compared using the Students’ t-test and proportions using Chi-square test. Skewed distributions were analyzed using appropriate non-parametric tests. Level of significance set at P<0.05. Results The prevalence of TOF among children presenting at LASUTH at the study period was 4.9 per 1,000 while its prevalence among those with congenital heart disease was 16.9%. There was a male predominance with a mean age of 50.9±45.9 (months) and median age of 36 months. Most children presented within 1–5 years of age. The most common indication for evaluation was cyanosis. One hundred and nineteen out of 165 (72.1%) children were clinically cyanosed on presentation. Conclusions TOF is prevalent among Nigerian children. Cyanosis was the commonest presenting feature and indication for evaluation. Most of the subjects presented late hence were diagnosed after 1 year of age. There is a need to increase awareness of TOF in Nigeria to encourage early diagnosis and hence better outcomes in these subjects. PMID:27747169

  2. Sexual problems among married Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ojomu, F; Thacher, T; Obadofin, M

    2007-01-01

    We interviewed and examined 293 married women, 15-49 years of age, seeking primary care at a teaching hospital in central Nigeria. One or more sexual problems were identified in 71% of women. The proportion of specific sexual problems was 39% for a desire problem, 40% for an arousal problem, 31% for a sex pain problem and 55% for an orgasmic problem. Poor marital communication, lack of foreplay, Islamic religion and advancing age were independently associated with a desire problem. Absence of foreplay was independently associated with an arousal problem. Lack of foreplay, lower abdominal pain, gynaecological conditions, working outside the home and younger age were independently associated with a sex pain problem. The absence of foreplay, poor marital communication and being a housewife were independently associated with an orgasmic problem. Sexual problems are common among married Nigerian women seeking outpatient care.

  3. Nigerian refineries strive for product balance

    SciTech Connect

    Obuasi, P.A.

    1985-06-17

    This article discusses the growth patterns of the Nigerian refining industry. Production and consumption are expected to follow the pattern of consumption of fuel products by the domestic market, Presently, however, production and consumption are not evenly balanced for most fuel products, and non-fuel products are domestically consumed but not produced. Some progress has been made in the effort to match production and consumption of fuel products. But the progress that would have been made to balance non-fuel products has been nullified by 50% of the Daduna refinery being idle. This is due to problems associated with importation of heavy crude oil into Nigeria and also a weak market for asphalt in Nigeria.

  4. Two subjective factors as moderators between critical incidents and the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders: adult attachment and perception of social support.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Palmans, Vicky

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the result of a research which investigated the influence of the subjective factors 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' in the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in a population of 544 subjects working for a security company and the Belgian Red Cross. The analysis of the results suggests that 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' moderate between a critical incident and the occurrence of a PTSD. In other words, these independent variables differentiate between individuals who are more, and who are less prone, to suffer from a PTSD after having experienced a critical incident. The results of this research shed light on subjective risk factors related to PTSD. The findings can also suggest guidelines for the treatment of individuals suffering from a PTSD.

  5. Validity and test re-test reliability of the neck disability index in the Nigerian clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Odole, A C; Adegoke, B O A; Akomas, N C

    2011-06-01

    The neck disability index (NDI) is a valid and widely used clinical instrument, which enjoys the recommendation of the World Health Organization for outcome assessment in neck pain. Its psychometric properties have not been investigated in the Nigerian clinical setting. This study investigated the content validity and test-retest reliability of the NDI in order to encourage its integration in the Nigerian clinical setting. Content validity of NDI was assessed through an expert panel review for content relevance/coverage and pretesting. Thirty two subjects with neck pain, recruited through a purposive sampling technique participated in the study. The NDI was administered twice within 48 hours interval. Data were summarized in percentages. Intra class correlation coefficient was used to analyze data for test-retest reliability with alpha set at 0.05. Participants were 1 males, 21 females with a majority within age group 38-57. Twenty four (75%) participants had mild to moderate disability, 7 (21.9%) had severe to complete disability and one individual had no disability. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.969, P=0.01) between the scores obtained from the first administration of the NDI and the second administration. The NDI is a valid and reliable outcome measure and it is recommended for integration into the assessment of neck pain in the Nigerian clinical setting.

  6. Body size preference among Yoruba in three Nigerian communities.

    PubMed

    Okoro, E O; Oyejola, B A; Etebu, E N; Sholagberu, H; Kolo, P M; Chijioke, A; Adebisi, S A

    2014-03-01

    Following our previous observation of an aversion to weight reduction in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes, we measured several parameters of body dimensions and preferences in otherwise healthy adults in three communities to study the phenomenon further. The study population of 524 participants (304 F) was 99.8% of Yoruba ethnic origin with a mean age of 43.9 ± 17.2 years. Females had a significantly (p > 0.001) higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference compared to the males; the values being 24.55 ± 5.5 vs. 21.75 ± 3.71 kg/m(2); 84.98 ± 12.67 vs. 80.92 ± 9.85 cm; 96.32 ± 12.94 vs. 89.36 ± 8.06 cm, respectively. There was a high level of satisfaction amongst respondents with their body size (Kendall's t = 0.52, p < 0.001) which they also predicted with a high degree of certainty even without the prior use of a weighing scale. The relationship between current body size (CBI) and BMI emerged as CBI = 1.22 + 0.32 BMI. In the 41% of respondents who expressed unhappiness with their current body size, there was a strong aversion for a smaller body size and the preference was often for a bigger body figure. Strikingly, many more women than men were less dissatisfied with their bigger body sizes. Stepwise regression indicated that CBI and gender were the two most important variables that best related to casual blood sugar (RBS) among the factors entered. The mathematical relationship between these variables that emerged was: [Formula: see text] where gender = 0 for male and 1 for female. The results suggest that larger body sizes were positively viewed in these communities consistent with our previous observations in type 2 diabetes.

  7. Characterizing the subjective experience of episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking in healthy younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    De Brigard, Felipe; Giovanello, Kelly S; Stewart, Gregory W; Lockrow, Amber W; O'Brien, Margaret M; Spreng, R Nathan

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates remarkable overlap in the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and episodic counterfactual thinking. However, the extent to which the phenomenological characteristics associated with these mental simulations change as a result of ageing remains largely unexplored. The current study employs adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview to compare the phenomenological characteristics associated with both positive and negative episodic past, future, and counterfactual simulations in younger and older adults. Additionally, it explores the influence of perceived likelihood in the experience of such simulations. The results indicate that, across all simulations, older adults generate more external details and report higher ratings of vividness, composition, and intensity than young adults. Conversely, younger adults generate more internal details across all conditions and rated positive and negative likely future events as more likely than did older adults. Additionally, both younger and older adults reported higher ratings for sensory, composition, and intensity factors during episodic memories relative to future and counterfactual thoughts. Finally, for both groups, ratings of spatial coherence and composition were higher for likely counterfactuals than for both unlikely counterfactuals and future simulations. Implications for the psychology of mental simulation and ageing are discussed.

  8. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools.

    PubMed

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.

  9. Anti-trypanosomal activity of nigerian plants and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Ngozi Justina; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Adikwu, Michael Umale; Mbah, Chika John

    2015-04-28

    African trypanosomiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease causing serious risks to the lives of about 60 million people and 48 million cattle globally. Nigerian medicinal plants are known to contain a large variety of chemical structures and some of the plant extracts have been screened for antitrypanosomal activity, in the search for potential new drugs against the illness. We surveyed the literatures on plants and plant-derived products with antitrypanosomal activity from Nigerian flora published from 1990 to 2014. About 90 plants were identified, with 54 compounds as potential active agents and presented by plant families in alphabetical order. This review indicates that the Nigerian flora may be suitable as a starting point in searching for new and more efficient trypanocidal molecules.

  10. Profile of dementia in a Nigerian community--types, pattern of impairment, and severity rating.

    PubMed Central

    Ogunniyi, A.; Gureje, O.; Baiyewu, O.; Unverzagt, F.; Hall, K. S.; Oluwole, S.; Osuntokun, B. O.; Hendrie, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    Out of 2494 subjects screened in a Nigerian community, 28 patients with dementia were identified. Alzheimer's disease was diagnosed in 18 patients (64.3%), 16 of whom had probable Alzheimer's disease. Eight patients (28.6%) had vascular dementia while one patient each had parkinsonism with dementia and depression with dementia. Patients with Alzheimer's disease were significantly older, predominantly females and illiterates. Cognitive deficit commonly took the form of memory and judgment impairment while financial mismanagement was the most frequent impaired activity of daily living. More than half of the cases had mild disease on severity rating and were comprised mainly of Alzheimer's disease subjects. These results confirm the higher frequency of Alzheimer's disease over the other types as reported in other communities. PMID:9195799

  11. Productive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Cahalin, Lawrence P.; Gerst, Kerstin; Burr, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines relationships among three measures of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, happiness and depressive symptoms), and two global measures of productive activity (number of activities and time commitment). We argue that participation in multiple productive activities should increase subjective well-being because these…

  12. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  13. Breast Cancer: The Perspective of Northern Nigerian Women

    PubMed Central

    Azubuike, Samuel O.; Celestina, U Onuoha

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rising incidence of breast cancer is complicated by late presentation, which marks breast cancer diagnosis in Nigeria with about 70% of cases presenting at advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study is to determine the general level of awareness of breast cancer, breast cancer risk factors, signs/symptoms as well as preventive measures nothern Nigerian women. It also aimed at determining their attitudes toward breast cancer cure, prevention and cause. Finally, it aims to determine their practices toward breast cancer and its associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional community survey was used to study 230 women aged 15–60 years in Chikun Local Government Area. The subjects were selected based on nonprobability sampling. Data collected using self-administered questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science students (version 16). Test of associations employed Chi-square statistical tool with the level of significance taken at 0.05. Results: About 75.2% knew about breast cancer with health facility (29.13%) being the greatest source of information. An average of 29.35% had knowledge of the risk factors tested. Mean knowledge of the signs and symptoms was 50.1% Average knowledge of breast cancer screening methods was 34.26% with breast self-examination (BSE) (46.1%) being the most recognized. In relation to perception, about 21.7% strongly agreed with the fact that breast cancer is treatable following early detection while 18.3% strongly agreed that screening is effective in detecting breast cancer. Concerning practice, an average of 10.2% practiced any of the screening methods, with BSE (17.4%) being the most practiced. Strongest reasons for nonpractice was ignorance (17.4%). An association was established between knowledge and practice of all the screening methods (P = 0.001 respectively). Conclusions: There is insufficient knowledge, as well as poor practices in relation to important factors associated with

  14. Gross motor development of Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Iloeje, S O; Obiekwe, V U; Kaine, W N

    1991-01-01

    A prospective study of 320 Nigerian children was undertaken to determine their pattern of motor development by recording the age at attainment of 12 gross-motor milestones. The children were all born full term and were neurologically normal at birth. They were recruited in the first week of life and seen at regular intervals in a well-baby clinic, where their parents were questioned about the ages at attainment of milestones. Results show that most gross-motor milestones were attained at earlier ages by these children than by children studied to establish norms for the traditional tests of motor development that have long been in use. Our findings confirm several previous reports which emphasize the more rapid attainment of motor milestones such as 'sit without support', 'crawl', 'stand well alone' and 'walk well alone' by black as compared with white children. But, conversely, a number of transitional milestones such as 'roll over', 'pull self to stand' and 'stand holding on' were achieved later by children in this study than by their non-African counterparts. Girls in this study were slightly advanced, relative to boys, in their attainment of most milestones. The results of this study have been incorporated into a chart which can be used in well-baby clinics to detect children with motor delay.

  15. Some metallogenetic features of the Nigerian basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woakes, Michael; Rahaman, M. A.; Ajibade, A. C.

    The Nigerian basement consists of Eburnean granitic and metamorphic rocks into which are folded Upper Proterozoic supra-crustal low grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks forming N-S elongate belts. Pan-African granitoids mark the last major event and they have intrusive and/or tectonic relationships with the earlier units. Structural features are often complex. The Basement can be divided into the Eastern and Western Provinces, where the latter is marked by the occurrence of a variety of metallogenetic types and greater development of the supracrustal N-S belts, while the Eastern province is dominated by Pan-African granitoid rocks and a paucity of metallic mineral occurrences. The principle metallogenetic types that are (or have been) exploited are iron deposits, gold vein mineralization and SnTaNb-bearing pegmatites. Small occurrences are known of chromite, asbestos, CuNi sulphides, manganese and a variety of industrial minerals including talc, kyanite and magnesite. Metallogenetic types found in other Pan-African terrains that are markedly absent in Nigeria include basemetal deposits of plate accretion type (e.g. Saudi Arabia) and uranium (e.g. of Rossing type). It is suggested that Nigeria's relatively low metal production from basement deposits is attributable to a regional low metallogenetic inheritance which in turn has discouraged intensive prospecting but there is good potential especially for industrial mineral deposits.

  16. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  17. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years.

  18. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  19. Association of malocclusion and functional occlusion with subjective symptoms of TMD in adults: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    PubMed

    Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Mack, Florian; John, Ulrich; Kocher, Thomas; Alte, Dietrich

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of exclusively representative population-based studies on adults has shown that only few and inconsistent associations could be detected between malocclusions and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD)--and none for functional occlusion factors (occlusal interferences, non-working side contacts, etc). The aim of this study was to analyze associations between morphologic occlusion as well as factors of functional occlusion and subjectively perceived symptoms of TMD--again on the basis of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), providing a sample of 4310 subjects (out of 7008 subjects yielding a response rate of 68.8%) aged 20 to 81 years, and other international representative studies from the systematic review. Besides occlusal factors also parafunctions and socioeconomic status (SES) were taken into account (including age and sex). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used--adjusted for SES. In this study, none of the occlusal factors were significantly associated with the indication of more frequent subjective TMD symptoms. However, the parafunction "frequent clenching" was connected with subjective TMD symptoms (odds ratio = 3.4). Compared with other population-based studies few and (across studies) inconsistent associations between malocclusions and subjective TMD symptoms could be ascertained. No significant associations of factors of functional occlusion with TMD symptoms were identifiable.

  20. The epidemiology of infections due to Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in a northern Nigerian community.

    PubMed

    Blakebrough, I S; Greenwood, B M; Whittle, H C; Bradley, A K; Gilles, H M

    1982-11-01

    The epidemiology of infection due to Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica was studied in a northern Nigerian community. A low meningococcal carriage rate was observed throughout the two-year survey. Initially, most meningococci isolated from nasopharyngeal carriers belonged to serogroup C or to serogroup Y. Following an outbreak of group A meningococcal disease, more group A meningococcal carriers were detected. Antibody studies indicated that infection with group A meningococci had been more widespread in the community than was suggested by regular carrier surveys. Carriage of meningococci was detected most frequently in children one to nine years of age. Children were identified as the first carriers in households more frequently than adults. The half-life of carriage was three months. The meningococcal carriage rate did not increase during the hot dry season when epidemics of meningococcal disease occur most frequently in Nigeria. Neisseria lactamica was isolated from the nasopharynx of children more frequently than were meningococci.

  1. Assessing Adult Learner's Numeracy as Related to Gender and Performance in Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Anyikwa, Blessing E.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated adult learner numeracy as related to gender and performance in arithmetic among 32 Nigerian adult learners from one government accredited adult literacy centre in Lagos State using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of descriptive survey design. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive statistics…

  2. The Nigerian national blindness and visual impairment survey: Rationale, objectives and detailed methodology

    PubMed Central

    Dineen, Brendan; Gilbert, Clare E; Rabiu, Mansur; Kyari, Fatima; Mahdi, Abdull M; Abubakar, Tafida; Ezelum, Christian C; Gabriel, Entekume; Elhassan , Elizabeth; Abiose, Adenike; Faal, Hannah; Jiya, Jonathan Y; Ozemela, Chinenyem P; Lee, Pak Sang; Gudlavalleti, Murthy VS

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite having the largest population in Africa, Nigeria has no accurate population based data to plan and evaluate eye care services. A national survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and determine the major causes of blindness and low vision. This paper presents the detailed methodology used during the survey. Methods A nationally representative sample of persons aged 40 years and above was selected. Children aged 10–15 years and individuals aged <10 or 16–39 years with visual impairment were also included if they lived in households with an eligible adult. All participants had their height, weight, and blood pressure measured followed by assessment of presenting visual acuity, refractokeratomery, A-scan ultrasonography, visual fields and best corrected visual acuity. Anterior and posterior segments of each eye were examined with a torch and direct ophthalmoscope. Participants with visual acuity of < = 6/12 in one or both eyes underwent detailed examination including applanation tonometry, dilated slit lamp biomicroscopy, lens grading and fundus photography. All those who had undergone cataract surgery were refracted and best corrected vision recorded. Causes of visual impairment by eye and for the individual were determined using a clinical algorithm recommended by the World Health Organization. In addition, 1 in 7 adults also underwent a complete work up as described for those with vision < = 6/12 for constructing a normative data base for Nigerians. Discussion The field work for the study was completed in 30 months over the period 2005–2007 and covered 305 clusters across the entire country. Concurrently persons 40+ years were examined to form a normative data base. Analysis of the data is currently underway. Conclusion The methodology used was robust and adequate to provide estimates on the prevalence and causes of blindness in Nigeria. The survey would also provide information on barriers to accessing services, quality of life of

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Fosamprenavir plus Ritonavir in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Adult Subjects with Hepatic Impairment▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Elías, María J.; Morellon, María Larrousse; Ortega, Enrique; Hernández-Quero, José; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Clotet, Bonaventura; Felizarta, Franco; Gutiérrez, Felix; Pineda, Juan A.; Nichols, Garrett; Lou, Yu; Wire, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    The effect of hepatic impairment on fosamprenavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetics was investigated. Sixty human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects, including 13, 20, and 10 subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment, respectively, and a comparator group of 17 subjects with normal hepatic function, were enrolled. Subjects with normal hepatic function received fosamprenavir at 700 mg plus ritonavir at 100 mg twice daily, whereas subjects with hepatic impairment received adjusted doses in anticipation of increased exposures. For subjects with mild hepatic impairment, the studied regimen of fosamprenavir 700 mg twice daily plus ritonavir 100 mg once daily delivered 17% higher values for the maximum plasma amprenavir concentration at the steady state (Cmax), 22% higher values for the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve over the dosing interval at the steady state [AUC(0-τ)], similar values for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval (Cτ), and 114% higher unbound Cτ values. For subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, the studied dosage regimen of fosamprenavir at 300 mg twice daily plus ritonavir at 100 mg once daily delivered 27% lower plasma amprenavir Cmax values, 27% lower AUC(0-24) values, 57% lower Cτ values, and 21% higher unbound amprenavir Cτ values. For subjects with severe hepatic impairment, the studied dosage regimen of fosamprenavir at 300 mg twice daily plus ritonavir at 100 mg once daily delivered 19% lower plasma amprenavir Cmax values, 23% lower AUC(0-24) values, 38% lower Cτ values, and similar unbound amprenavir Cτ values. With a reduced ritonavir dosing frequency of 100 mg once daily, the plasma ritonavir AUC(0-24) values were 39% lower, similar, and 40% higher for subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment, respectively. The results of the study support the use of reduced fosamprenavir/ritonavir doses or dosing frequencies in the treatment of patients with hepatic

  4. Statistical Evaluation of the Impact of ICT on Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Iwasokun Gabriel; Kayode, Alese Boniface; Aderonke, Thompson; Bethy, Favour; Ola, Aranuwa Felix

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes twenty-four performance indices that were freely considered by the authors as relevant for the conceptualization and evaluation of the impact of ICT on the Nigerian Universities. The indices are contained in the questionnaire that was administered on forty five out of sixty three public universities that span the six…

  5. Class, Gender, and Life Chances: A Nigerian University Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biraimah, Karen L.

    1987-01-01

    Among 500 students surveyed at the University of Ife (Nigeria), female students represented an elite segment of Nigerian society but held equal or lower educational and career expectations than did the more socially and economically diverse male student sample. Male students' lower-SES background did not appear to limit university access,…

  6. Modes of Funding Nigerian Universities and the Implications on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the modes of funding Nigerian universities with a view to assessing their adequacy and effectiveness. The implications of the mechanisms of funding on university performance were investigated. The history of university funding in Nigeria was explored in order to determine the causes of shift in financing the system since 1948…

  7. Gender Analysis of Student Enrollment in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Kola; Akpotu, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    The paper analysed the trend and pattern of gender enrollment in Nigerian Universities between 1989 and 1997. It critically examined the gender disparity in university enrollment generally, as well as among some selected disciplines and the country's Geo-political zones. The analysis revealed that gap existed between female and male in the…

  8. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  9. Nigerian Medical Students' Opinions about the Undergraduate Curriculum in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Bawo; Omoaregba, Joyce; Okogbenin, Esther; Buhari, Olubunmi; Obindo, Taiwo; Okonoda, Mayowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The number of psychiatrists in Nigeria is inadequate to meet the treatment needs for neuropsychiatric disorders. Developing mental health competency in the future Nigerian physician workforce is one approach to filling the treatment gap. The authors aimed to assess medical students' attitudes to this training and its relevance to their…

  10. Web 2.0 and Nigerian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunmisi, Sowemimo Ronke; Odunewu, Abiodun Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    Web 2.0 applications to library services are aimed at enhancing the provision of relevant and cost-effective information resources for quality education and research. Despite the richness of these web applications and their enormous impact on library and information services as recorded in the developed world, Nigerian academic libraries are yet…

  11. Public-Private Partnership and Infrastructural Development in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduwaiye, R. O.; Sofoluwe, A. O.; Bello, T. O.; Durosaro, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) services are related to infrastructural development in Nigerian Universities. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The population for the study encompassed all the 20 universities in South-west Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select 12…

  12. Responsiveness of Nigerian Students to Pictorial Depth Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. S.; Seddon, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Three groups of Nigerian high school and college students were tested for response to four pictorial depth cues. Students had more difficulty with cues concerning the relative size of objects and the foreshortening of straight lines than with cues involving overlap of lines and distortion of the angles between lines. (Author/JEG)

  13. Stimulant Use as Correlate of Abusive Behavior among Nigerian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbochuku, E. O.; Akerele, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulant use and abusive behaviour have been associated with the phenomenon of "out of control" tendency with the potential for self-destruction. This study presents a report on frequency of use by Nigerian undergraduates of five stimulants: amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, cola-nut and tobacco. The population of the study was made up of…

  14. Dialogue and Discourse in a Nigerian English Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akindele, Femi

    Although many studies have been undertaken by literary critics and stylisticians on African English literary texts generally and Nigerian English prose fiction specifically, there has been little or no analysis of dialogue and discourse in such texts. An examination of the phenomenon of speech as manifested in conversational pieces in Nigerian…

  15. Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education and Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omoregie, Norah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines quality assurance in Nigerian University education and credentialing. The research contends that university education in Nigeria which hitherto enjoyed tremendous global respectability and acceptability is fast loosing its high esteem in the face of labour market and members of community because the currently certified Nigerian…

  16. E-Training Adoption in the Nigerian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainab, Bello; Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Pangil, Faizuniah Bt; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that aid e-training adoption in the Nigerian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on a review of past literature from databases, reports, newspapers, magazines, etc. The literature recognised the role of perceived cost, computer self-efficacy, availability of…

  17. Space and House Form: Teaching Cultural Significance to Nigerian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aradeon, David

    1981-01-01

    It is necessary to understand how the people of Nigeria have created spaces appropriate in their lifestyles before designing architecture for the specifics of the diverse cultures in the country. Only by understanding why Nigerians live as they do can relevant spaces be developed for them. (MLW)

  18. The Need for Social Studies in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Social studies in Nigerian schools would improve student's appreciation of their culture and instill a sense of national citizenship as well as broaden their interests and promote international understanding. Attempts are being made to replace the inadequate instruction of history and geography with a social studies component. (JH)

  19. Challenges of Globalization and Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkang, Iniobong Ekong

    2013-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the state of quality assurance mechanisms in Nigerian universities with a view to proffering measures that would enhance the quality of education obtained in the institutions. The population consisted of professors from federal universities in the south-south region of Nigeria, numbering 624. The stratified…

  20. Brief communication: Emergence chronology of permanent teeth in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Esan, Temitope A; Oyedele, Titus A

    2014-03-01

    This study measured the mean age, duration, and sequence of the emergence of permanent dentition in Nigerian children and compared the findings with other population groups. The cross-sectional study involved 1,078 Nigerian children, aged 4-16 years old, from selected primary and secondary schools in the Ife Central local government area in Ile-Ife, Osun State. In general, compared to boys, girls had an earlier mean age of emergence of all the permanent teeth. Children from high socioeconomic class had an earlier mean age of emergence for the maxillary incisors (6.43 and 7.58 years) and mandibular incisors (5.28 and 6.44 years) compared to children from middle and low socioeconomic classes, although socioeconomic effects were more mixed for premolars and molars. Compared to their counterparts in the USA, Australia, Belgium, and Iran, Nigerian children showed an earlier mean age of emergence of all the permanent teeth studied except for Pakistani boys, who had an earlier mean age of emergence of the maxillary premolars and second molar. Poorer economic status has been associated with delayed dental development; however, when compared to other populations, the Nigerian children in this study have earlier mean emergence ages than children from wealthier countries such as the USA and Australia.

  1. Demonstrating Functional Interactive Language Teaching in the Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Rachael O.; Oni-Buraimoh, Olawunmi O.

    2014-01-01

    Applied linguistics affords Linguists the opportunity of solving language related problems using various methods. In this paper, we x-ray the Nigerian University classroom situation in the teaching of the English language viz-a-viz the use of functional interactive method. Following Littlewood (1981) and Krashen (1982), we posit that the teaching…

  2. Employability of Nigerian Graduates, the Role of Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun-Oyebanji, Olayemi Jumoke

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the worrisome issue of employability of Nigerian university graduates in recent times, which have become a great concern to all and sundry. Certain indices such as, lack of complementary life skills, low moral standards, low employment generating capacity of the Nigerina economy, and the certification mentality, are discussed.…

  3. Nigerian University and Manpower Development in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyebe, Adam Adem

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines Nigerian university system in relation to manpower development in a rapidly changing world of work. This is for purposes of identifying areas that need urgent attention in order to reposition the system to produce high quality manpower. The study reveals that the expansion in the university system is characterized by a mixed…

  4. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  5. Academic Utilization of Government Publications in Three Nigerian University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwor, Roseline Ngozi; Mole, Austin J. C.; Ihekwoaba, Emmanuel Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the current state of academic utilization of government publications in Nigerian university libraries. Using a descriptive survey, the study focused on three academic libraries in Southeastern Nigeria serving a population of 11,996 undergraduate and postgraduate student library users, 592 of whom answered a…

  6. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

  7. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures.

  8. Perceptions of Nigerian medical specialists on research

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir A.; Lawal, Abdul; Omolase, Charles O.; Ologunsua, Yinka; Samaila, Elsie

    2011-01-01

    The current research aimed at collating the views of medical specialists on disease priorities, class and outcomes of health research in Nigeria, and draw appropriate policy implications. Structured questionnaires were distributed to consent 90 randomly selected medical specialists practising in six Nigerian tertiary health institutions. Participants' background information, relative disease priority, research types and class, type and class of publication media, frequency of publications, challenges faced in publishing research, impact of their research on health practice or policy, and inventions made were probed. Fifty-one out of the 90 questionnaires distributed were returned giving a response rate of 63.3%. Sixty-four point six percent indicated that the highest priority should be given to non communicable diseases while still recognizing that considerations should be giving to the others. They were largely “always” involved in simple low budget retrospective studies or cross-sectional and medical education studies (67.8%) and over a third (37.5%) had never been involved in clinical trials. They largely preferred to “always” publish in PubMed indexed journals that are foreign-based (65.0%). They also indicated that their research works very rarely resulted in inventions (4%) and change (4%) in clinical practice or health policy. Our study respondents indicated that they were largely involved in simple low budget research works that rarely had significant impacts and outcomes. We recommend that adequate resources and research infrastructures particularly funding be made available to medical specialists in Nigeria. Both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Nigeria should emphasize research training in their curricula.

  9. Febrile illness experience among Nigerian nomads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the febrile illness experience of Nigerian nomadic Fulani is necessary for developing an appropriate strategy for extending malaria intervention services to them. An exploratory study of their malaria illness experience was carried out in Northern Nigeria preparatory to promoting malaria intervention among them. Methods Ethnographic tools including interviews, group discussions, informal conversations and living-in-camp observations were used for collecting information on local knowledge, perceived cause, severity and health seeking behaviour of nomadic Fulani in their dry season camps at the Gongola-Benue valley in Northeastern Nigeria. Results Nomadic Fulani regarded pabboje (a type of "fever" that is distinct from other fevers because it "comes today, goes tomorrow, returns the next") as their commonest health problem. Pabboje is associated with early rains, ripening corn and brightly coloured flora. Pabboje is inherent in all nomadic Fulani for which treatment is therefore unnecessary despite its interference with performance of duty such as herding. Traditional medicines are used to reduce the severity, and rituals carried out to make it permanently inactive or to divert its recurrence. Although modern antimalaria may make the severity of subsequent pabboje episodes worse, nomads seek treatment in private health facilities against fevers that are persistent using antimalarial medicines. The consent of the household head was essential for a sick child to be treated outside the camp. The most important issues in health service utilization among nomads are the belief that fever is a Fulani illness that needs no cure until a particular period, preference for private medicine vendors and the avoidance of health facilities. Conclusions Understanding nomadic Fulani beliefs about pabboje is useful for planning an acceptable community participatory fever management among them. PMID:22292982

  10. Geriatric Prescription in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Osemeke, Nwani Paul; Hart, Onwukwe Chikezie; Cosmas, Nwosu Maduaburochukwu; Ohumagho, Isah Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the medications prescribed for elderly inpatients on specific days during hospital admission with a view to detecting areas of irrational prescription. Methods: It was a prospective study of all patients aged 65 years and above admitted to the medical wards of a Nigerian tertiary hospital over a 12-month period. The World Health Organization/International Network of Rational Use of Drugs (WHO/INRUD) drug use indicators were used to assess drug prescriptions on various days of admission. Results: A total of 1513 patient encounters involving 345 patients aged between 65 and 92 years were assessed on hospital days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28. The average number of medicines per encounter ranged from 6.1 ± 2.5 on hospital day 1 to 7.8 ± 2.4 on hospital day 28. This difference was statistically significant (F = 14.42; P < 0.05). The percentage of encounters with an antibiotic prescribed ranged from 50.4% on hospital day 1 to 62.9% on hospital day 28 while the percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed decreased from 72.8% on hospital day 1 to 50.0% on day 28. Conclusions: This study suggests some degree of irrational prescribing as evident by the high average number of medicine per encounter and the high percentages of encounters with an antibiotic or injection prescribed. However, there is a need to develop standard values for the WHO/INRUD indicators based on the recently published national treatment guidelines for common elderly diseases which will serve as yardsticks to assess elderly inpatients prescriptions using WHO/INRUD core indicators in future studies. PMID:28104970

  11. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet…

  12. Resources for Educators of Adults. Annotated Bibliography for the Education of Public Offenders: by Descriptive Subject Headings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Michael J.; And Others

    This bibliography is presented to assist educators who are engaged in research activities with inmate or ex-inmate populations. The first part contains entries under descriptive subject headings (alphabetically by author); the second part contains abstracts of the material listed in part 1 (alphabetically by title). The descriptive headings…

  13. The prevalence and profile of non-affective psychosis in the Nigerian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    GUREJE, OYE; OLOWOSEGUN, OLUYOMI; ADEBAYO, KAZEEM; STEIN, DAN J.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of non-affective psychosis among adult Nigerians. It was part of the Nigerian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing and was conducted in 8 out of the 22 states in Nigeria, representing about 22% of the national population. Face-to-face interviews with adults aged 18 years and over were administered using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3 (CIDI.3). Clinical reappraisal was conducted by clinicians on a subsample of respondents. The CIDI.3 was found to have acceptable agreement with clinician-administered assessments, with kappa values ranging between 0.52 to 0.72, respectively, for narrowly-defined and broad categories of non-affective psychosis. The lifetime prevalence of non-affective psychosis was 2.1%, with visual hallucinations being the most commonly reported symptom and delusions of reference the least. Non-affective psy-chosis was significantly more common among urban dwellers. Persons with non-affective psychosis were at elevated risk to report both lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV disorders as well as to experience impairment in basic and instrumental role functioning. Only a minority had received any treatment. PMID:20148161

  14. Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour.

    PubMed

    Adelakun, O E; Oyelade, O J; Ade-Omowaye, B I O; Adeyemi, I A; Van de Venter, M

    2009-06-01

    Studies on the chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour were carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160 degreeC for 10-60 mins. The roasted seeds were subjected to proximate, yield and antioxidative activity determination. Pre-treatment by roasting was found to increase the yield, but was found to be time dependent. The range means obtained for protein, fat, ash, fiber and sugar contents were 42.14-38.10, 31.04-17.22, 4.06-3.42, 3.45-3.60 and 8.82-8.65, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased by roasting, while in vitro digestibility showed that most antioxidative activities were available in the intestinal phase of gastrointestinal tracts.

  15. Developmental aspects of automatic word processing: language lateralization of early ERP components in children, young adults and middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Reading words elicits a very early evoked potential termed "recognition potential" with a latency of about 150 ms and clearly located in left posterior regions. A review of the current literature indicates that N150 marks the automatic lexical classification of a word, is relatively independent of the task, and is followed by a later negative and more anterior component which is sensitive to the task. However, from the literature it is not clear whether the left lateralization of the neural networks involved in word recognition changes with age and experience, and how this lateralization is related with behavioral performance. To this aim, based on a previously validated paradigm [Spironelli, C., Angrilli, A., 2006. Language lateralization in Phonological, Semantic and Orthographic tasks: a slow evoked potential study. Behavioral Brain Research 175, 296-304; Spironelli, C., Angrilli, A., 2007. Influence of Phonological, Semantic and Orthographic tasks on the early linguistic components N150 and N350. International Journal of Psychophysiology 64, 190-198], we ran an experiment on three samples of subjects, 28 children (mean: 10 years), 22 young adults (23 years) and 20 middle-aged subjects (59 years). Subjects had to read the same sample of words in three blocked tasks, Orthographic, Phonological and Semantic, while EEG was recorded from 38 scalp locations. Analysis performed on N150 and four regions of interest/quadrants revealed typical significant left posterior negativity in young and aged subjects, but reversed lateralization and greater right negativity in children compared with the two adult groups. Analysis of the later N350 revealed a significant three-way group x laterality x task interaction, showing greater left negativity on the Phonological task only in the two adult groups, and a bilateral component in children. Results indicate that the functional lateralization of linguistic neural networks involved in automatic word recognition and in phonological

  16. Complications of female circumcision in Nigerian Igbos.

    PubMed

    Egwuatu, V E; Agugua, N E

    1981-11-01

    An analysis is made of 43 children and 15 adult female patients who presented with post-circumcision complications at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, between January 1973 and December 1980; 57 patients had been circumcised within 21 days of birth and one patient in the seventh month of her first pregnancy. Age of presentation varied with the severity of the symptoms: 21 children and 11 adults presented with varying degrees of labial occlusion, while 9 children and 4 adults had implantation dermoids. Urinary retention was the problem in 12 children and one adult.

  17. Serum total anti-oxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, I; Ighodayenowho, O K; Nwoke, E

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoke has been reported to contain free radicals. The interaction of these free radicals with the body defense system and associated health risk among Nigerian smokers have remained scarcely investigated despite the high numbers of smokers in our society. This study thus, investigates the serum total antioxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers in apparent good health and who have been smoking between 1.4 sticks of cigarette/day for about 1-3 years. Twenty(20) consenting smokers between 19 and 45 years consisting of fifteen (15) males and 5 females were recruited after examination to certify their apparent good health. Twenty (20) non-smokers, who were matched in age and sex were included as control subjects. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was observed to be higher in male non-smokers (1.92 +/- 0.2 2mM) when compared with their female counterparts (1.88 +/- 0.16 mM). Among smokers, the males subjects showed a decreased TAC (Male: 1.45 +/- 0.23 mM and female; 1.65 +/- 0.16 mM) with a strong statistical difference between the TAC of smokers and non-smokers (t = 2.095, n = 20 and P < 0.05). Data suggest lower oxidant defense and hence, increased susceptibility to free radical associated diseases especially among the male smokers. Conserted efforts need to be made by governmental agents to enforce legislation that could reduce the rate of smoking. Campaigns should also be initiated to educate the lay public on the dangers of cigarette smoking.

  18. Alzheimer disease pathology in subjects without dementia in 2 studies of aging: the Nun Study and the Adult Changes in Thought Study.

    PubMed

    SantaCruz, Karen S; Sonnen, Joshua A; Pezhouh, Maryam Kherad; Desrosiers, Mark F; Nelson, Peter T; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with antemortem preservation of cognition who show autopsy evidence of at least moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology suggest the possibility of brain reserve, that is, functional resistance to structural brain damage. This reserve would, however, only be relevant if the pathologic markers correlate well with dementia. Using data from the Nun Study (n = 498) and the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study (n = 323), we show that Braak staging correlates strongly with dementia status. Moreover, participants with severe(Braak stage V-VI) AD pathology who remained not demented represent only 12% (Nun Study) and 8% (ACT study) of nondemented subjects. Comparison of these subjects to those who were demented revealed that the former group was often significantly memory-impaired despite not being classified as demented. Most of these nondemented participants showed only stage V neurofibrillary pathology and frontal tangle counts that were slightly lower than a comparable (Braak stage V) dementia group. In summary, these data indicate that, in individuals with AD-type pathology who do not meet criteria for dementia, neocortical neurofibrillary tangles are somewhat reduced and incipient cognitive decline is present. Our data provide a foundation for helping to define additional factors that may impair, or be protective of, cognition in older adults.

  19. The Relieving Effects of BrainPower Advanced, a Dietary Supplement, in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingfen; Shi, Rong; Chen, Su; Dai, Lihua; Shen, Tian; Feng, Yi; Gu, Pingping; Shariff, Mina; Nguyen, Tuong; Ye, Yeats; Rao, Jianyu; Xing, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47–88), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML) and attention/concentration deficits (SAD) were evaluated before and after 12-week supplementation of BrainPower Advanced capsules (n = 47) or placebo (n = 51), using a 5-point memory questionnaire (1 = no/slight, 5 = severe). Objective memory function was evaluated using 3 subtests of visual/audio memory, abstraction, and memory recall that gave a combined total score. The BrainPower Advanced group had more cases of severe SML (severity ⩾ 3) (44/47) and severe SAD (43/47) than the placebo group (39/51 and 37/51, < 0.05, < 0.05, resp.) before the treatment. BrainPower Advanced intervention, however, improved a greater proportion of the severe SML (29.5%)(13/44) (P < 0.01) and SAD (34.9%)(15/43)(P < 0.01) than placebo (5.1% (2/39) and 13.5% (5/37), resp.). Thus, 3-month BrainPower Advanced supplementation appears to be beneficial to older adults with SMCs. PMID:27190539

  20. Relationship specialization amongst sources and receivers of social support and its correlations with loneliness and subjective well-being: a cross sectional study of Nepalese older adults.

    PubMed

    Chalise, Hom Nath; Saito, Tami; Takahashi, Miyako; Kai, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Social support, subjective well-being (SWB), and loneliness are issues of central importance in research concerned with the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people in the 21st century. However, very little is known about the situation in low-income countries such as in Nepal. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships significant in social support (received (SSR) and provided (SSP)) and analyze their connections with loneliness and SWB. The subjects, not suffering from dementia, were 60 years and above living in Kathmandu city. The data was analyzed using logistic regression with some confounding variables controlled. The results indicate that loneliness is high and SWB is low amongst Nepalese older adults. SSR from children living together and SSP to spouse, children living together and friends and neighbors reduce loneliness. SSP to children living apart increases SWB-life satisfaction. SSR from children living together and SSP to children (living together and apart) increases SWB-life stability. However, SSP to relatives reduces SWB-life satisfaction and SSR from relatives reduces SWB-life stability in Nepalese older adult men.

  1. Low insulin-like growth factor-1 levels are associated with anaemia in adult non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Succurro, Elena; Arturi, Franco; Caruso, Vittoria; Rudi, Stefania; Sciacqua, Angela; Andreozzi, Francesco; Hribal, Marta L; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2011-02-01

    Anaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among factors responsible for anaemia, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a plausible candidate. We evaluated the association of IGF-1 with haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and anaemia in a cohort of 1,039 Caucasians subjects. Subjects with anaemia exhibited lower IGF-1 (p=0.006), and higher hsCRP levels (p=0.003). To estimate the independent contribution of variables to Hb concentration, a multivariable regression analysis was modeled including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, IGF-1, fibrinogen, hsCRP, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). The variables significantly associated with Hb concentration were gender (p<0.0001), IGF-1 (p<0.0001), waist circumference (p=0.02), hsCRP (p<0.04), MCH (p<0.0001), MCV (p<0.0001), serum iron (p=0.001), IGF-1 (p=0.003), hsCRP (p=0.008), and waist circumference (p=0.01), accounting for 54.0% of its variation. Hb concentration was significant lower in subjects in the lowest IGF-1 quartile as compared with those in the third (p=0.02) and fourth (p=0.001). In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, fibrinogen, hsCRP, MCH, MCV, serum iron, eGFR, and treatment with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, subjects in the first quartile of IGF-1 had a 2.49-fold higher risk of having anaemia as compared with those in the fourth (odds ratio 2.70, 95% confidence interval 1.02-7.16). Our data suggest that low IGF-1 may be an important contributor to mild anaemia.

  2. Influence of Coping, Social Support, and Depression on Subjective Health Status Among HIV-Positive Adults With Different Sexual Identities

    PubMed Central

    Mosack, Katie E.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Remien, Robert H.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Morin, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations between psychosocial variables (coping self-efficacy, social support, and cognitive depression) and subjective health status among a large national sample (N = 3,670) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with different sexual identities. After controlling for ethnicity, heterosexual men reported fewer symptoms than did either bisexual or gay men and heterosexual women reported fewer symptoms than did bisexual women. Heterosexual and bisexual women reported greater symptom intrusiveness than did heterosexual or gay men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression independently explained symptom reports and symptom intrusiveness for heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression explained symptom intrusiveness among heterosexual women. Cognitive depression significantly contributed to the number of symptom reports for heterosexual and bisexual women and to symptom intrusiveness for lesbian and bisexual women. Individuals likely experience HIV differently on the basis of sociocultural realities associated with sexual identity. Further, symptom intrusiveness may be a more sensitive measure of subjective health status for these groups. PMID:19064372

  3. Relative bioavailability and safety of aripiprazole lauroxil, a novel once-monthly, long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, following deltoid and gluteal administration in adult subjects with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Turncliff, Ryan; Hard, Marjie; Du, Yangchun; Risinger, Robert; Ehrich, Elliot W

    2014-11-01

    Aripiprazole lauroxil is a linker lipid ester of aripiprazole for extended-release intramuscular (IM) injection. This multicenter, randomized, open-label study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), relative bioavailability, and tolerability of a single IM deltoid or gluteal injection of aripiprazole lauroxil in adult subjects with chronic stable schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Forty-six subjects were randomized 1:1 to aripiprazole lauroxil 441 mg IM in the deltoid or gluteal muscle. Samples were collected through 89 days post-dose to measure levels of aripiprazole lauroxil, N-hydroxymethyl aripiprazole, aripiprazole, and dehydro-aripiprazole. Forty-three (93.5%) subjects completed all study assessments; most were CYP2D6 extensive or immediate metabolizers (96%); two (4%) were poor metabolizers. The PK of aripiprazole following aripiprazole lauroxil was characterized by a steady rise in plasma concentrations (Tmax 44-50 days), a broad peak, and prolonged exposure attributable to the dissolution of aripiprazole lauroxil and formation rate-limited elimination of aripiprazole (t1/2=15.4-19.2 days). Deltoid vs. gluteal administration resulted in slightly higher Cmax aripiprazole concentrations [1.31 (1.02, 1.67); GMR 90% CI]; total exposure (AUCinf) was similar between sites of administration [0.84 (0.57, 1.24)]. N-hydroxymethyl-aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole exposures were 10% and 33-36%, respectively, of aripiprazole exposure following aripiprazole lauroxil. The most common adverse events were injection site pain in 20 subjects (43.5%) and headache in 6 subjects (13.0%) of mild intensity occurring at a similar rate with deltoid and gluteal administration. Exposure ranges with deltoid and gluteal administration overlapped, suggesting that these sites may be used interchangeably. Despite a higher incidence of adverse events, deltoid muscle provides a more accessible injection site and could facilitate patient acceptance.

  4. Psychiatric referrals during peace and wartimes: a Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Okulate, Gbenga T

    2005-07-01

    Using a questionnaire administered by us, we sought to investigate the differences between patients referred to the psychiatric department of a Nigerian military general hospital during peacetime and those referred during the civil war in Liberia in which Nigerian soldiers were involved as peacekeepers. Referrals to psychiatry in peacetime were quite few but increased considerably during the period of combat in direct relation to the increase in the number of surgical wounded in action cases. Organic mental disorders and anxiety disorders were more frequently referred in peacetime than in war, whereas substance abuse disorders were more frequent during the combat period. Non-psychotic psychiatric conditions were less referred in the wartime group, partly because of nonrecognition at the mission areas and also because of recovery in front-line areas or consideration of their evacuation as a nonpriority. Mental health workers engaged at the mission areas require more training in the identification of such cases.

  5. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study on acceptability, safety and efficacy of oral administration of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.) in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to assess acceptability and side-effects of consumption of sacha inchi oil, rich in α-linolenic acid and sunflower oil, rich in linoleic acid, in adult human subjects. Thirty subjects received 10 or 15ml daily of sacha inchi or sunflower oil for 4months. Acceptability was assessed with daily self-report and with a Likert test at the end of the study. Safety was assessed with self- recording of side-effects and with hepatic and renal markers. Primary efficacy variables were the change in lipid profile. Subjects reported low acceptability of sacha inchi oil at week-1 (37.5%). However, since week-6, acceptability was significantly increased to 81.25-93.75%. No differences were observed in acceptability with respect to sex or oil volume (P>0.05). Most frequent adverse effects during first weeks of consuming sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil were nauseas. The side-effects were reduced with time. Biochemical markers of hepatic and kidney function were maintained unchanged. Serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels and arterial blood pressure were lowered with both oils (P<0.05). Higher HDL-cholesterol was observed with sacha inchi oil at month-4. In conclusion, sacha inchi oil consumed has good acceptability after week-1 of consumption and it is safety.

  6. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA.

  7. Effect of Vortioxetine on Cardiac Repolarization in Healthy Adult Male Subjects: Results of a Thorough QT/QTc Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Nomikos, George G; Karim, Aziz; Munsaka, Melvin; Serenko, Michael; Liosatos, Maggie; Harris, Stuart

    2013-10-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo- and positive-controlled, parallel-group study evaluated the effect of vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), an investigational multimodal antidepressant, on QT interval in accordance with current guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH-E14). A total of 340 healthy men were randomized to receive 1 of 4 treatments for 14 days: (1) vortioxetine 10 mg once daily (QD), (2) vortioxetine 40 mg QD, (3) placebo QD, or (4) placebo QD on Days 1 through 13 followed by a single dose of moxifloxacin 400 mg (positive control). The primary endpoint was the largest time-matched, baseline-adjusted least-squares (LS) mean difference for the individual-corrected QT interval (QTcNi [linear]) between vortioxetine and placebo. Alternative QT correction formulas (i.e., Fredericia [QTcF], Bazett [QTcB], Framingham [QTcFm], and QTcNi [nonlinear]) were used as secondary endpoints. The upper bound of the 2-sided 90% confidence interval around the LS mean difference from placebo for baseline-adjusted QTcNi (linear), QTcF, QTcB, QTcFm, and QTcNi (nonlinear) did not exceed 10 ms at any time point after multiple doses of vortioxetine 10 mg (therapeutic) or 40 mg (supratherapeutic). Overall, the study results indicate that vortioxetine is unlikely to affect cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects.

  8. Interest in neurology during medical clerkship in three Nigerian medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study sought to ascertain perception of Nigerian medical students of neurology in comparison with 7 other major medical specialties. To also determine whether neurology was the specialty students consider most difficult and the reasons for this and to appraise their opinion on how neurosciences and neurology were taught in their different universities. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from randomly selected clinical students from 3 medical colleges in Nigeria (University of Ibadan, Ibadan; University of Ilorin, Ilorin; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo). Results Of 320 questionnaires sent out, 302 were returned given 94% response rate. Students felt they knew neurology least of all the 8 medical specialties, and were not confident of making neurological diagnoses. About 82% of the students indicated they learnt neurology best from bedside teaching, followed by use of medical textbooks. Close to 15% found online resources very useful for learning neurology and 6% indicated that group discussion was quite useful in the acquisition of knowledge on neurology. Histology and biochemistry were the preclinical subjects participants opined were least useful in learning neurology. The most frequent reasons students felt neurology was difficult were problems with understanding neuroanatomy (49%), insufficient exposure to neurological cases (41%), too many complex diagnoses (32%) and inadequate neurology teachers (32%). Conclusions Nigerian medical students perceived neurology as the most difficult medical specialty and are not interested in specializing in it. Neurology education could be improved upon by provision of more bedside tutorials and increased availability of online resources to enhance learning. There is need to emphasize increased frequency of small group discussions amongst students so that they will be used to teamwork after graduation. PMID:20487554

  9. Biological characterization of Nigerian chicken anaemia virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, D O; Olaleye, O D; Todd, D

    2010-12-01

    Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) DNA was extracted from thymus, liver and bone marrow samples obtained from broiler and pullet chicken flocks in southwestern Nigeria, which presented with clinical signs and lesions suggestive of both infectious bursal disease and chicken infectious anaemia. While CAV was successfully isolated in MDCC-MSB1 cells from four of the pooled tissue samples, the remaining two samples failed to grow in cells. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) characterization using four MAbs produced against the reference Cuxhaven-1 (Cux-1) CAV isolate showed that Nigerian CAV isolates are antigenically related to each other and to the Cux-1 virus. Pathogenicity studies with the Cux-1 virus and one of the Nigerian isolates (NGR-1) revealed that NGR-1 was more pathogenic that the former. We conclude that although Nigerian CAV isolates are antigenically related to each other, they differ in terms of cell culture growth characteristics and probably pathogenicity. These findings further confirm that CAV exists and can no longer be ignored in poultry disease diagnosis in Nigeria. Cases hitherto diagnosed as IBD may actually be CIA or a co-infection of the two.

  10. Nigerian and Canadian Student Perception of Technical Teacher Training Problems. Report I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Darrell; Cap, Orest

    The purpose or immediate goal of the Nigerian Technical Teacher Training Project was to provide for a Bachelor of Education degree program, but the long-range goal was to develop and to provide Nigeria with a pool of trained technical instructors. Perceptions of the program were gathered from a sample of 34 Nigerian students who had participated…

  11. Attitude of Nigerian Secondary School Teachers to Peer Evaluation of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshua, Monday T.; Joshua, Akon M.; Bassey, Bassey A.; Akubuiro, Idorenyin M.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the general attitude of Nigerian secondary school teachers toward peer evaluation of teachers. It also sought to determine whether teacher characteristics such as gender, school geographical location, academic qualification and teaching experience affected Nigerian teachers' attitude toward peer evaluation of teachers. To…

  12. Homophobic Bullying in Nigerian Schools: The Experiences of LGBT University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanlawon, Kehinde

    2017-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on homophobic bullying in Nigerian schools. Using data from 14 in-depth interviews and public media sources that were analyzed thematically, this formative research examined homophobic bullying using Nigerian universities as a case study to bring attention to the need for policies and interventions to make schools…

  13. Attitudes of Student Teachers Towards Teaching in Mother Tongue in Nigerian Primary Schools: Implications for Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejieh, Michael U. C.

    2004-01-01

    Following the results of the Ife Six-Year Primary Project designed to use an indigenous Nigerian language as a medium of instruction in primary schools, some suggestions have been made to introduce it in all Nigerian primary schools. This study investigates the attitudes of student teachers towards mother-tongue instruction. Data for the study…

  14. Effective and Efficient ESL and Nigerian Mother-Tongue Literacy Acquisition: Can Literature Be a Catalyst?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onukaogu, Chukwuemeka Eze

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of literature in the acquisition of literacy in English as a Second Language and Nigerian mother tongues. Provides a critique of the Nigerian literacy instruction model, and discusses how to help students acquire effective and efficient literacy. (Author/VWL)

  15. Enlightenment and Attitudes of the Nigerian Elite on the Roles of Languages in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbite, Wale

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the effect of enlightenment on attitudes of the Nigerian elite to the roles assigned to English and indigenous languages in Nigeria. From the results of a preliminary investigation into the attitudes of undergraduate students in a Nigerian University, it was presumed that enlightenment of citizens on the importance of…

  16. Analysis of Factors Enhancing Pitfall in Research and Teaching of the Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tafida; Umar, Kasim; Paul, Chima

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses factors enhancing pitfall in research and teaching in the Nigerian university system. Using data generated from secondary sources, it was found that so many factors are responsible for the constant decay in teaching and research in the Nigerian universities. The paper however found from literature that the high rate of pitfalls…

  17. Global Digital Revolution and Africa: Transforming Nigerian Universities to World Class Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isah, Emmanuel Aileonokhuoya; Ayeni, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the global digital revolution and the transformation of Nigerian universities. The study overviewed university developments world wide in line with what obtains in Nigeria. The study highlighted the several challenges that face Nigerian universities inclusive of poor funding, poor personnel and the poor exposure to global…

  18. Academics' Attitudes toward the Utilization of Institutional Repositories in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukwoma, Scholastica C.; Dike, V. W.

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the attitudes of academics concerning the utilization of institutional repositories (IRs) in Nigerian universities. The study took the form of a descriptive survey, gathering data from the five Nigerian universities with IRs. The result showed that the universities developed IRs to create a forum for their…

  19. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting with cor pulmonale in a Nigerian.

    PubMed

    Fawibe, Ademola Emmanuel; Kolo, Philip Manman; Ogunmodede, James Ayodele; Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Salami, Kazeem Alakija

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.

  20. Prepositional Intraference in ESL and Its Teaching: The Educated Nigerian English Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic habit of "prepositional intraference" in Educated Nigerian English (ENE) with a view to establishing why and how Nigerians produce prepositional intraference variations and how the variations distinguish ENE morphosyntax from native English morphosyntax, particularly Standard British English (SBE).…

  1. Sleep pattern and practice among adolescents school children in Nigerian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Maduabuchi, Josephat Chinawa; Obu, Herbert Anayo; Chukwu, Barthlomew Friday; Aronu, Ann Ebele; Manyike, Pius Chukwuka; Chinawa, Awoere Tamunosiki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some adolescents may have sleep disorder at some point during adolescence. Determining the pattern and practice of sleep among adolescents could be useful to establish a lasting sleep hygiene program among adolescents. The objectives of this study are to describe sleep pattern and practice among adolescent in Nigerian secondary schools. Methods Sleep habits were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools from February to April 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria. Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used. Results A total of 443 subjects, comprising 263 (59.4%) females and 180 (40.6%) males completed the questionnaire. The mean duration of night sleep of the subjects during weekday was 7.84 (1.9) hours and 8.65 (2.07) hours during the weekend. 22.8% (101/443) had abnormal sleep onset latency (< 5 minutes and > 30 minutes). The gender of the subjects did not influence the sleep onset latency (χ2 = 32.89, p= 0.57). Twenty six (5.9%)of the subjects reported difficulty falling asleep. Conclusion Adolescents have varying degrees of sleeping practice and hygiene. PMID:25883740

  2. Gastric digestion of α-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

    2014-08-28

    In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of α-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of α-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of α-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between α-LA and OA.

  3. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children.

  4. Adult and child use of love, like, don't like and hate during family mealtimes. Subjective category assessments as food preference talk.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Food preference is now a ubiquitous concept in eating research, and closely associated with actual consumption, particularly in relation to children's food preferences. Research in this area is beginning to reveal the effects of parent-child interaction on eating practices though relatively little attention has been paid to the discursive and lexical processes involved. Food preferences are typically associated with the terms 'likes' and 'dislikes' in food preference research. By contrast, adults and children typically use the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate' to construct and manage food preferences in everyday meal conversations. A corpus of 270 video- and audio-recorded English and Scottish family mealtimes, involving children aged 1-17 years, was searched and analysed for any and all occurrences of subjective category assessments (SCAs; e.g., 'I like X'), featuring the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate'. Discursive psychology was used to analyse the transcripts and recordings, and illustrated the disparity between adult and child use of SCAs and food preference talk. Within the data set, parents typically made claims about what their children like, and in doing so claimed epistemic primacy over their children's food preferences. Children, by contrast, typically made claims about their own 'don't likes' and likes, and these were frequently countered by their parents or treated as inappropriate claims. Implications for how parents and researchers might reorient to the food preferences lexicon are discussed.

  5. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  6. Housing satisfaction among chronically homeless adults: identification of its major domains, changes over time, and relation to subjective well-being and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Mares, Alvin S; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2012-06-01

    There is limited consensus on the critical domains of housing satisfaction among chronically homeless adults and little information on changes in housing satisfaction over time or whether housing satisfaction at initial entry into housing is correlated with subsequent subjective well-being or other outcomes. The current study tracked housing satisfaction over a 2-year period in a multi-site supported housing initiative and examined the predictive value of clients' housing satisfaction when they were first housed on various subjective and functional outcomes. A total of 756 participants from 11 sites were enrolled in the study. Six domains of housing satisfaction were identified: good environment, control and consumer choice, physical quality, geographic proximity to desirable resources, positive case manager contact, and frequency of landlord interaction. Over 2 years, there were slight declines in housing satisfaction on physical quality of housing and satisfaction with case manager contact, and an increase in satisfaction with landlord interaction. Consistent with some previous research, housing satisfaction was not predictive of housing tenure, clinical outcomes, or duration of program participation. While becoming housed is a significant gain for chronically homeless people, their satisfaction with housing did not predict functional outcomes.

  7. Subjective and objective cognitive function among older adults with a history of traumatic brain injury: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Langa, Kenneth M.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is extremely common across the lifespan and is an established risk factor for dementia. The cognitive profile of the large and growing population of older adults with prior TBI who do not have a diagnosis of dementia, however, has not been well described. Our aim was to describe the cognitive profile associated with prior TBI exposure among community-dwelling older adults without dementia—an understudied but potentially vulnerable population. Methods and findings In this population-based cohort study, we studied 984 community-dwelling older adults (age 51 y and older and their spouses) without dementia who had been randomly selected from respondents to the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to participate in a comprehensive TBI survey and who either reported no prior TBI (n = 737) or prior symptomatic TBI resulting in treatment in a hospital (n = 247). Mean time since first TBI was 38 ± 19 y. Outcomes assessed included measures of global cognitive function, verbal episodic memory, semantic fluency, and calculation as well as a measure of subjective memory (“How would you rate your memory at the present time?”). We compared outcomes between the two TBI groups using regression models adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and depression. Sensitivity analyses were performed stratified by TBI severity (no TBI, TBI without loss of consciousness [LOC], and TBI with LOC). Respondents with TBI were younger (mean age 64 ± 10 y versus 68 ± 11 y), were less likely to be female, and had higher prevalence of medical comorbidities and depression than respondents without TBI. Respondents with TBI did not perform significantly differently from respondents without TBI on any measure of objective cognitive function in either raw or adjusted models (fully adjusted: global cognitive function score 15.4 versus 15.2, p = 0.68; verbal episodic memory score 4.4 versus 4.3, p = 0.79; semantic fluency score 15.7 versus

  8. Granulocyte elastase activity and PGE2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in relation to the presence of subgingival periodontopathogens in subjects with untreated adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, L J; Söder, P O; Leung, W K; Corbet, E F; Samaranayake, L P; Söder, B; Davies, W I

    1999-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between the levels of granulocyte elastase and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in GCE and the concomitant presence of periodontopathogens in untreated adult periodontitis (AP). GCF and subgingival plaque were sampled by paper strips and paper points respectively, from various periodontal sites in 16 AP subjects. Granulocyte elastase activity in GCF was analyzed with a low molecular weight substrate specific for granulocyte elastase, pGluProVal-pNA, and the maximal rate of elastase activity (MR-EA, mAbs/min/site) was calculated. PGE2 levels in GCF were determined by radioimmunoassay. 5 species-specific DNA probes were used to detect the presence of A. actinomyceterncomitans (A.a., ATCC 43718), B. forsythus (B.f, ATCC 43037), P. gingivalis (P.g., ATCC 33277), P. intermedia (P.i., ATCC 33563), and T. denticola (T.d., ATCC 35405), with a sensitivity of 10(3) cells/paper point. No A.a. was detectable from all sites sampled. The predominant combination of species detected was B.f., P.g., P.i. & T.d. and it was significantly higher at periodontitis sites (68%) than at healthy (7%) or gingivitis sites (29%) (p<0.05). Overall, MR-EA values were strongly correlated with PGE2 levels (r=0.655, p<0.001), especially at these periodontitis sites co-infected by B.f., P.g., P.i. & T.d. (r=0.722, p<0.001). The periodontitis sites co-infected by the 4 species were observable from 15 subjects. These sites were sub-grouped into 8 subjects with a high MR-EA and 7 subjects with a low MR-EA. The PGE2 levels in the high MR-EA group were significantly higher than in the low MR-EA group (p<0.05). No significant differences in clinical or bacterial data were found between the two groups. While within the high MR-EA group, similar results were found between the paired periodontitis sites in each subject with highest and lowest MR-EA values. This study shows that the local host response to bacterial challenge in untreated periodontal pockets is diverse in

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taegon; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lee, Jongtae; Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    BR-TD-1001 was developed as a booster for the immunity maintenance of diphtheria and tetanus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of BR-TD-1001 (test vaccine) in comparison with placebo and an active comparator in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active comparator, phase I clinical trial was conducted. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in a ratio of 2:2:1, and were administered a single intramuscular dose of test vaccine, active comparator, or placebo, respectively. All subjects were monitored for 4 weeks after injection. The antibody titers of the patients 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination were compared with the baseline. The frequencies of all adverse events including adverse drug reactions in the test group were not statistically different from those of the other treatment groups (P = 0.4974, 0.3061). No serious adverse event occurred, and no subject was withdrawn from the study for safety. The seroprotection rates against both tetanus and diphtheria at 4 weeks after vaccination were over 0.95. For anti-tetanus antibody, the geometric mean titer in the test group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P = 0.0364, 0.0033). The geometric mean titer of anti-diphtheria antibody in the test group was significantly higher than the value of the placebo (P = 0.0347) while it was not for the value of the active comparator (P = 0.8484). In conclusion, BR-TD-1001 was safe, well-tolerated, and showed sufficient immunogenicity as a booster for diphtheria and tetanus.

  10. Short-term effects of particle size fractions on circulating biomarkers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects and healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Naddafi, Kazem; Kashani, Homa; Faridi, Sasan; Kunzli, Nino; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Momeniha, Fatemeh; Gholampour, Akbar; Arhami, Mohammad; Zare, Ahad; Pourpak, Zahra; Hoseini, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud

    2017-04-01

    Systemic inflammation biomarkers have been associated with risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify associations of acute exposure to particulate matter (PM10 (PM < 10 μm), PM2.5-10 (PM 2.5-10 μm), PM2.5 (PM < 2.5 μm), PM1-2.5 (PM 1-2.5 μm), and PM1 (PM < 1 μm)) with systemic inflammation using panels of elderly subjects and healthy young adults. We followed a panel of 44 nonsmoking elderly subjects living in a retirement home and a panel of 40 healthy young adults living in a school dormitory in Tehran city, Iran from May 2012 to May 2013. Blood biomarkers were measured one every 7-8 weeks and included white blood cells (WBC), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor-II (sTNF-RII), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). We measured hourly indoor and outdoor exposure to PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5, PM1-2.5, and PM1 mass concentration to derive weighted averages of personal exposure based on simultaneously collected time-activity data. The random intercept linear mixed effects model was used for data analysis. We observed significant positive associations for WBC and IL-6 with exposure to PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5, PM1-2.5, and PM1; sTNF-RII with PM2.5, PM1-2.5, and PM1; hsCRP with PM2.5 and PM1; and vWF with PM10 and PM2.5-10, PM2.5, and PM1-2.5 mass concentration in elderly subjects from the current-day and multiday averages. For healthy young adults, we found significant positive associations for WBC and IL-6 with exposure to PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5, and PM1-2.5, but no with PM1. The results showed that increase of hsCRP, sTNF-RII, and vWF were not significantly associated with any of the PM sizes investigated in the healthy young subjects. Our results provided some evidence that short-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5, PM1-2.5, and PM1 was associated with inflammation and coagulation blood markers, but associations were depended on PM size and also differed across the

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine in the management of hypertension in an urban Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a common non communicable condition worldwide. In developing countries (including Nigeria), the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common. This study investigated the frequency and factors associated with use of CAM among hypertensive subjects in an urban Nigerian community. Perspectives about the management of hypertension were obtained from CAM practitioners in the community. Methods Four hundred and forty hypertensive subjects in Idikan community, Ibadan, were interviewed using a semi-structured survey instrument. Association between categorical variables was tested using the chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify independent predictor variables of CAM use, with CAM use as the outcome variable and the demographic and belief items as predictor variables. In-depth interviews were conducted with all known CAM practitioners in the community on issues relating to their beliefs, knowledge, practice and experiences in managing patients with hypertension in the community. Results In the study sample, 29% used CAM in the management of their hypertension. Among those using CAM, the most common forms used were herbs (63%) and garlic (21%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that four variables were independent predictors of CAM use: being male (OR 2.58, p < 0.0001), belief in supernatural causes of hypertension (OR 2.11, p = 0.012), lack of belief that hypertension is preventable (OR 0.57, p = 0.014) and having a family history of hypertension (OR1.78, p = 0.042). Other factors such as age, educational level and occupation were not independent predictors of CAM use. Interviews with CAM practitioners revealed that they believed hypertension was caused by evil forces, stress or "too much blood in the body". They also thought they could cure hypertension but that reduced costs (compared to hospitals) was one of the reasons most of their clients consult them. Conclusions The use of CAM is common

  12. Acceptance and perception of Nigerian patients to medical photography.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, W L; Mofikoya, B O; Akadiri, O A; James, O; Fashina, A A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the acceptance and perception of Nigerian patients to medical photography. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among Nigerian patients attending oral and maxillofacial surgery and plastic surgery clinics of 3 tertiary health institutions. Information requested included patients' opinion about consent process, capturing equipment, distribution and accessibility of medical photographs. The use of non-identifiable medical photographs was more acceptable than identifiable to respondents for all purposes (P = 0.003). Most respondents were favourably disposed to photographs being taken for inclusion in the case note, but opposed to identifiable photographs being used for other purposes most especially in medical websites and medical journals. Female respondents preferred non-identifiable medical photographs to identifiable ones (P = 0.001). Most respondents (78%) indicated that their consent be sought for each of the outline needs for medical photography. Half of the respondents indicated that identifiable photographs may have a negative effect on their persons; and the most commonly mentioned effects were social stigmatization, bad publicity and emotional/psychological effects. Most of the respondents preferred the use of hospital-owned camera to personal camera/personal camera-phone for their medical photographs. Most respondents (67.8%) indicated that they would like to be informed about the use of their photographs on every occasion, and 74% indicated that they would like to be informed of the specific journal in which their medical photographs are to be published. In conclusion, non-identifiable rather than identifiable medical photography is acceptable to most patients in the studied Nigerian environment. The use of personal camera/personal camera-phone should be discouraged as its acceptance by respondents is very low. Judicious use of medical photography is therefore advocated to avoid breach of principle of

  13. HUMAN RIGHTS AND NIGERIAN PRISONERS--ARE PRISONERS NOT HUMANS?

    PubMed

    Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V

    2014-12-01

    In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century.

  14. Studies on Nigerian crudes. 3; Analysis of sulfurized asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Oyekunle, L.O.; Onyehanere, L.N. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the residual asphalts obtained from three Nigerian medium crudes chemically treated with elemental sulfur at 210 to 250{degrees} C. The course of the reaction was followed by monitoring the growth of the asphaltene content of the products. The sulfurization reaction led to 5- to 10-fold increases in the asphaltene content of the products. The asphaltene content of one of the samples initially increased with temperature from 210 to 240{degrees}C. and then dropped sharply. The results obtained revealed that the optimum temperature of the sulfurization reaction was 240{degrees}C.

  15. The pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among Nigerian medical students.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U; Odejide, A O; Ikuesan, B A; Adeyemi, J D

    1989-07-01

    In a cross-sectional study of the patterns of isolated sleep paralysis among 164 Nigerian medical students, 26.1% admitted having experienced this phenomenon. About 31% of the females and 20% of the males had had this experience. Of those with sleep paralysis, 32.6% had hypnogenic hallucinations during the episode, mainly visual. Sleep paralysis was not significantly associated with psychosocial distress or differences in personality profile. Although the rate differs across cultures, the myths associated with sleep paralysis are similar.

  16. Effects of puddings containing whey protein and polydextrose on subjective feelings of appetite and short-term energy intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Marcela; Walz, Florencia; Goñi, Eva; Passutti, Giovanna; Osella, Carlos; Drago, Silvina R

    2017-01-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of puddings with whey protein (WP) and polidextrose (PX) on appetite feelings and energy intake. A single-blind randomized, crossover study was carried out in 25 healthy adults. Participants consumed two different puddings, including control or test pudding (12.9 g WP and 6 g PX). Two testing days were completed, including satiety questionnaires and ad libitum lunch. For all participants, energy intake at lunch was similar after consumption of control or test pudding. Consumption of test pudding did not favor subjective feelings of appetite during satiation period, but it decreased iAUC for desire to eat by 24.2% (p = .049) and marginally decreased iAUC for hunger (p = .081) by 24.3% as compared with the control during the satiety. These data suggest that the consumption of pudding with WP and PX might be a useful strategy to decrease desire of eat.

  17. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone.

  18. Effect of occupational exposure to local powdered tobacco (snuff) on pulmonary function in south eastern Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Maduka, S O; Osim, E E; Nneli, R O; Anyabolu, A E

    2009-12-01

    The effect of occupational exposure to local powdered tobacco (snuff) on pulmonary function was studied. Snuff industry workers in Onitsha and Enugu markets were studied and compared with age, weight, and height-matched control not exposed to any known air pollutant. The pulmonary indices studied include forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] and ratio of FEV1/FVC as percentage using a vitalograph spirometer and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate [PEFR], using a mini Wright Peak Expiratory Flow Meter. The respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms frequently associated with these workers were also analyzed and dust sampling in both test and control environments was also done. The mean anthropometric parameters, [age, height and body weight] between the two groups were not statistically different. The results obtained showed statistically significant impairment of lung function of workers chronically exposed to snuff. FVC, FEV1 and PEFR in the exposed [test] subjects were significantly decreased in comparison with the control subjects [P<0.05]. However, the mean value of FEV1/FVC [%] of the test subjects was 86.8% which was within the normal range and was not significantly different from control. This signified that the test subjects had restrictive pattern of lung function defect. All respiratory symptoms, such as cough, chest tightness had a higher prevalence in test subjects than their control group. The lung function indices of snuff-producing workers proportionately decreased with their length of exposure in the industry. The respirable dust level in the vicinity [indoor] of the snuff-workers [1.11+/-0.35 mg/m3] was significantly [P<0.001] higher than in the control environment[0.37+/-0.086 mg/m3]. Although it was not possible to determine all the factors that may be responsible for lung function impairment, the dust sampling result showed that chronic exposure to Nigerian snuff [powered tobacco] dust impairs lung function and the

  19. Hepatoprotective and Pancreatoprotective Properties of the Ethanolic Extract of Nigerian Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Babatunde, Ibrahim Ridwan; Abdulbasit, Amin; Oladayo, Mustafa Ibrahim; Olasile, Onanuga Ismail; Olamide, Folarin Roehan; Gbolahan, Balogun Wasiu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increased oxidative stress is associated with the progression of diabetic mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract of Nigerian propolis (N. propolis) on markers of oxidative stress, histology of the liver and pancreas and glycaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Alloxan-induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats were treated with either metformin (150 mg/kg/d) or N. propolis (200 mg/kg/d and 300 mg/kg/d) for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed; blood was collected for biochemical analysis while their pancreases and liver were excised and processed for histological studies. Results: Serum oxidative stress markers and blood glucose concentration were compared between the treated and control rats. In contrast to the non-treated diabetic rats, blood glucose concentration were not significantly different between treated rats and control (P < 0.05) at 28 days of treatment with N. propolis and metformin. Serum malondialdehyde levels was reduced while superoxide dismutase levels were elevated in the N. propolis group; these levels were converse in the diabetic group, these differences are statistically significant (P<0.05) when compared with the control. Histologically, there was improvement in the treated group compared to the untreated group. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the N. propolis confers protection against hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in both liver and pancreas of adult Wistar rats. PMID:26401394

  20. Social pressures to drink or drink a little more: the Nigerian experience

    PubMed Central

    Ibanga, Akanidomo K J; Adetula, Victor A. O.; Dagona, Zubairu K

    2009-01-01

    This study set out to investigate the pressures experienced by different individuals to drink, or drink a little more than intended, by someone who drinks or drinks more than they do. A total of 2099 Nigerian adults between the ages of 18 and 65 years were randomly sampled. The frequency with which they experienced such other drinkers encouraging them to drink or drink more than intended from various sources was examined. Logistic regression was used to identify significant individual predictors of receiving pressure by sources of influence. Focus group discussions were also held to examine how these pressures are applied in various settings. Results indicated that male friends or acquaintances were the sources respondents reported influenced them the most to drink or drink more. Significant predictors of pressure varied by source but tended to include religion (5 of 6 sources) and gender (3 of 6). Results showed that pressure to drink or drink a little more was seen to come more from males than from females. It raises the need to have a better knowledge of these factors, particularly as they may relate to heavy or problematic drinking, and their implications for prevention and treatment. PMID:20651928

  1. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA) Triangle in Nigerians' Skulls

    PubMed Central

    Orish, C. N.; Didia, B. C.; Fawehinmi, H. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females) from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than female parameters. The left opistocranium-asterion length was 71.09 ± 0.56 and 61.68 ± 3.35 mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was 69.73 ± 0.49 and 60.92 ± 2.10 mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm2 and 1305.68 mm2 for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals. PMID:24949204

  2. Nigerian bonny light crude oil induces endocrine disruption in male rats.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ebokaiwe, Azubike P; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to Nigerian bonny light crude oil (BLCO) in the southern part of Nigeria has been reported to be associated with reproductive toxicity, but there is paucity of information on its interference with steroidogenesis. This study investigated the influence of BLCO on testicular steroidogenesis and plasma levels of hormones from the pituitary and thyroid components of the brain-pituitary-testicular axis. Adult male Wistar rats were orally treated with BLCO dissolved in corn oil at 0, 200 and 800 mg/kg for 7 days. Immunoblot analysis revealed that BLCO exposure suppressed steroid acute regulatory protein and androgen-binding protein expression with concomitant decrease in 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. BLCO exposure significantly decreased plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin and intratesticular testosterone, but elevated thyrotropin, triiodothyronine and thyroxine above the control values. The data presented herein indicate that undue exposure to BLCO has an inhibitory effect on testicular steroidogenesis. The underlying mechanisms for BLCO-induced testicular dysfunction may involve its disruptive effect on the brain-pituitary-testicular axis. These observations highlight the potential risk to public health for a population where, unfortunately, oil spillages occur frequently.

  3. Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria among Nigerian type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed Central

    Alebiosu, C. O.; Osinupebi, O. A.; Olajubu, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria is a risk factor for symptomatic urinary infection and septicemia among predisposed individuals such as diabetics. We investigated the pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among our type 2 diabetics with a view to documenting the prevalence, type of organisms responsible and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern. One hundred and twenty-four type 2 Nigerian diabetics (55 males and 69 females) submitted midstream urine specimens for culture. Thirty-three patients had significant bacteriuria (9 males and 24 females), showing the frequency of occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria to be 26.6%. The most common organism isolated was Klebsiella pneumonia at 42.4%. Gram-negative bacilli made up about 23 (69.7%) of the isolates. Isolates were poorly sensitive to the readily available antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole), but a large number of the organisms isolated were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Sensitivity to erythromycin, nalidixic acid and cefuroxime was moderate. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is, thus, more prevalent among the Nigerian diabetic population than in the non-diabetics. A changing pattern of disease is observed with Klebsiella sp. now accounting for the majority of asymptomatic bacteriuria among diabetics. The organisms are not sensitive to the commonly available antibacterial agents. PMID:12793791

  4. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in African American and Nigerian Women

    PubMed Central

    Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Aloia, John F.; Dugas, Lara R.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Shoham, David A.; Bertino, Anne-Marie; Yeh, James K.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives African Americans have substantially lower levels of circulating 25(OH)D than whites. We compared population-based samples of 25(OH)D in women of African descent from Nigeria and metropolitan Chicago. Methods 100 Women of Yoruba ethnicity from southwest Nigeria and 94 African American women from metropolitan Chicago were recruited and compared using a standardized survey protocol and the same laboratory assay for 25(OH)D. Results Mean 25(OH)D levels were 64 nmol/L among the Nigerians and 29 nmol/L among the African Americans. Only 10% of the values were shared in common between the groups, and 76% of the Nigerians were above the currently defined threshold for adequate circulating 25(OH)D compared to 5% of the African Americans. Modest associations were seen between 25(OH)D and measures of obesity, although adjustment for these traits did not materially affect the group differences. Conclusion These data support the presumption that skin color is an adaptive trait which has evolved in part to regulate 25(OH)D. It remains undetermined, however, whether lower values observed in African Americans have negative health consequences. PMID:23559500

  5. Stem cells in Dentistry: knowledge and attitude of Nigerian Dentists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several controversies exist about the methods of harvesting and eventual utilization of stem cells in Medicine and Dentistry. The objective of the study was to investigate the awareness, attitude and knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among Nigerian Dentists. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists selected from both private and public health sectors, in some of the major cities in Nigeria. Results The majority of the participants were ≤35 years in age, male, Pentecostal Christians, possessed a postgraduate qualification, had practiced for ≤5 years and were specialists or specializing. In this study, 153(81.0%) of the participants reported awareness about the use of stem cells in dentistry which was significantly associated with qualification and type of practice. Most of the respondents 114 (60.3%) had a poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry. This was significantly associated with type of practice and awareness about stem cell use in dentistry but binary logistic regression showed awareness as the only determinant of knowledge. About three-quarters 142 (75.1%) of the participants exhibited positive attitude towards stem cell use. This had a positive non-significant association with knowledge and reported awareness. Conclusion Data from this study revealed a high level of awareness, positive attitude to and poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among a cross section of Nigerian Dentists. PMID:23767980

  6. Predictors of Obesity Among Nigerian Immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Obisesan, Olawunmi; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Brunet, Michael; Obisesan, Adekunle; Akinola, Olubusayo; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent cardiovascular disease risk factor globally and in African-descent populations. A cross-sectional study of obesity among a Nigerian immigrant sample population in the United States was conducted. Data was obtained through a web-based survey. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression were used to determine sociodemographic and behavioral determinants of obesity. The results showed no significant relationship between obesity and education, socioeconomic status, length of stay, and level of physical activity. However, we identified a significant association between weekly consumption of alcohol and all obesity (OR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.091, 2.919), and moderate/morbid obesity (OR 2.46, 95 % CI 1.213, 4.999), and between gender and moderate/morbid obesity-men were less likely (OR .030, 95 % CI .001, .733) to be obese. These findings provide strong evidence to inform targeted screening for excessive alcohol consumption along with other primary prevention strategies that may reduce the prevalence of obesity among the Nigerian immigrant population.

  7. Chemometric dissimilarity in nutritive value of popularly consumed Nigerian brown and white common beans.

    PubMed

    Moyib, Oluwasayo Kehinde; Alashiri, Ganiyy Olasunkanmi; Adejoye, Oluseyi Damilola

    2015-01-01

    Brown beans are the preferred varieties over the white beans in Nigeria due to their assumed richer nutrients. This study was aimed at assessing and characterising some popular Nigerian common beans for their nutritive value based on seed coat colour. Three varieties, each, of Nigerian brown and white beans, and one, each, of French bean and soybean were analysed for 19 nutrients. Z-statistics test showed that Nigerian beans are nutritionally analogous to French bean and soybean. Analysis of variance showed that seed coat colour varied with proximate nutrients, Ca, Fe, and Vit C. Chemometric analysis methods revealed superior beans for macro and micro nutrients and presented clearer groupings among the beans for seed coat colour. The study estimated a moderate genetic distance (GD) that will facilitate transfer of useful genes and intercrossing among the beans. It also offers an opportunity to integrate French bean and soybean into genetic improvement programs in Nigerian common beans.

  8. Malocclusion and early orthodontic treatment requirements in the mixed dentitions of a population of Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    daCosta, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Aikins, Elfleda Angelina; Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; Adediran, Virginia Efunyemi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of dental features that indicate a need for early intervention and to ascertain the prevalence of different methods of early treatment among a population of Nigerian children in mixed dentition. Methods: Occlusal relationships were evaluated in 101 children in mixed dentition between the ages of 6 and 12 years who presented at the Orthodontic Unit, Department of Child Dental Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 2 years period. The need for different modes of early orthodontic treatment was also recorded. Results: Anterior tooth rotations (61.4%) and increased overjet (44.6%) were the most prevalent occlusal anomalies. Others included deep bite (31.7%), reverse overjet (13.9%), and anterior open bite (14.8%). Severe maxillary spacing and crowding were exhibited in 12.0% and 5.0%, respectively. About a third (35.7%) of the subjects presented with crossbite while lip incompetence was observed in 43.6% of the subjects. About 44% of the subjects also presented with various oral habits with digit (15.8%) and lip sucking (9.9%) being the most prevalent. Subjects were recommended for treatment with 2 by 4 fixed orthodontic appliances (22.3%), habit breakers (20.7%), removable orthodontic appliances (16.5%), and extractions (15.7%). Conclusions: Increased overjet and anterior tooth rotation were the majority of occlusal anomalies seen, which are not only esthetically displeasing but may also cause an increased susceptibility to trauma to these teeth. Treatment options varied from extractions only to the use of appliance therapy. PMID:27556019

  9. The natural radioactivity in some Nigerian foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olomo, James B.

    1990-12-01

    The average activity concentrations of seven locally produced food commodities that form the total diets of a baby, a teenager or an adult male in Nigeria were measured by means of a well-calibrated high-resolution lithium-drifted germanium (Ge(Li)) spectrometer system. The food commodities were collected at several centers such as a nuclear research center as well as metropolitan and industrial areas. The emission lines identified with reliable regularity belonged to the 238U and 232Th decay series. The other isotope is a non-related naturally occurring radionuclide, 40K. Average total specific-activity values of 7.29 ± 1.08, 6.27 ± 1.01 and 11.23 ± 1.64 Bq/kg for 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively, were obtained for the seven food commodities studied. The food samples were also checked for fission-product residues ( 137Cs and 90Sr) from atmospheric weapons tests which are slowly being purged from the food chain. Their estimation revealed that they were below the minimum detectable limit determined at a two-standard deviation analytical error.

  10. Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Kvale, Mark N; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Cao, Yang; Chan, David; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Eshragh, Jasmin; Finn, Andrea; Gollub, Jeremy; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lao, Richard; Lu, Yontao; Ludwig, Dana; Mathauda, Gurpreet K; McGuire, William B; Mei, Gangwu; Miles, Sunita; Mittman, Michael; Patil, Mohini; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Shapero, Michael; Shen, Ling; Shenoy, Tanu; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Wan, Eunice; Webster, Teresa; Whitmer, Rachel A; Wong, Simon; Zau, Chia; Zhan, Yiping; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    The Kaiser Permanente (KP) Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH), in collaboration with the University of California-San Francisco, undertook genome-wide genotyping of >100,000 subjects that constitute the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. The project, which generated >70 billion genotypes, represents the first large-scale use of the Affymetrix Axiom Genotyping Solution. Because genotyping took place over a short 14-month period, creating a near-real-time analysis pipeline for experimental assay quality control and final optimized analyses was critical. Because of the multi-ethnic nature of the cohort, four different ethnic-specific arrays were employed to enhance genome-wide coverage. All assays were performed on DNA extracted from saliva samples. To improve sample call rates and significantly increase genotype concordance, we partitioned the cohort into disjoint packages of plates with similar assay contexts. Using strict QC criteria, the overall genotyping success rate was 103,067 of 109,837 samples assayed (93.8%), with a range of 92.1-95.4% for the four different arrays. Similarly, the SNP genotyping success rate ranged from 98.1 to 99.4% across the four arrays, the variation depending mostly on how many SNPs were included as single copy vs. double copy on a particular array. The high quality and large scale of genotype data created on this cohort, in conjunction with comprehensive longitudinal data from the KP electronic health records of participants, will enable a broad range of highly powered genome-wide association studies on a diversity of traits and conditions.

  11. Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lapham, Kyle; Kvale, Mark N; Lin, Jue; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Fang, Lynn; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; McGuire, William B; Miles, Sunita; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil; Schaefer, Catherine; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-08-01

    The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement was considered an important biomarker to develop on these subjects. To assay relative telomere length (TL) on this large cohort over a short time period, we created a novel high throughput robotic system for TL analysis and informatics. Samples were run in triplicate, along with control samples, in a randomized design. As part of quality control, we determined the within-sample variability and employed thresholds for the elimination of outlying measurements. Of 106,902 samples assayed, 105,539 (98.7%) passed all quality control (QC) measures. As expected, TL in general showed a decline with age and a sex difference. While telomeres showed a negative correlation with age up to 75 years, in those older than 75 years, age positively correlated with longer telomeres, indicative of an association of longer telomeres with more years of survival in those older than 75. Furthermore, while females in general had longer telomeres than males, this difference was significant only for those older than age 50. An additional novel finding was that the variance of TL between individuals increased with age. This study establishes reliable assay and analysis methodologies for measurement of TL in large, population-based human studies. The GERA cohort represents the largest currently available such resource, linked to comprehensive electronic health and genotype data for analysis.

  12. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  13. Evaluation of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of an Oral, Inactivated Whole-Cell Shigella flexneri 2a Vaccine in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Harro, Clayton; DeNearing, Barbara; Bream, Jay; Bauers, Nicole; Dally, Len; Flores, Jorge; Van de Verg, Lillian; Sack, David A.; Walker, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Shigella causes high morbidity and mortality worldwide, but there is no licensed vaccine for shigellosis yet. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated whole-cell Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine, Sf2aWC, given orally to adult volunteers. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 82 subjects were randomized to receive three doses of vaccine in dose escalation (2.6 ± 0.8 × 108, × 109, × 1010, and × 1011 vaccine particles/ml). Vaccine safety was actively monitored, and antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were determined in serum, antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS), and fecal samples. Cytokines were measured in the serum. Sf2aWC was well tolerated and generally safe at all four dose levels. The vaccine resulted in a dose-dependent immune response. At the highest dose, the vaccine induced robust responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in both serum and ALS samples. The highest magnitude and frequency of responses occurred after the first dose in almost all samples but was delayed for IgG in serum. Fifty percent of the vaccinees had a >4-fold increase in anti-LPS fecal antibody titers. Responses to invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa) were low. The levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-2, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-10 were increased, and IL-8 was decreased immediately after first dose, but these changes were very transient. This phase I trial demonstrated that the Sf2aWC vaccine, a relatively simple vaccine concept, was safe and immunogenic. The vaccine elicited immune responses which were comparable to those induced by a live, attenuated Shigella vaccine that was protective in prior human challenge studies. PMID:26865592

  14. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies.

  15. Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kvale, Mark N.; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Cao, Yang; Chan, David; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Eshragh, Jasmin; Finn, Andrea; Gollub, Jeremy; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Lao, Richard; Lu, Yontao; Ludwig, Dana; Mathauda, Gurpreet K.; McGuire, William B.; Mei, Gangwu; Miles, Sunita; Mittman, Michael; Patil, Mohini; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Shapero, Michael; Shen, Ling; Shenoy, Tanu; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Wan, Eunice; Webster, Teresa; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Wong, Simon; Zau, Chia; Zhan, Yiping; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente (KP) Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH), in collaboration with the University of California—San Francisco, undertook genome-wide genotyping of >100,000 subjects that constitute the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. The project, which generated >70 billion genotypes, represents the first large-scale use of the Affymetrix Axiom Genotyping Solution. Because genotyping took place over a short 14-month period, creating a near-real-time analysis pipeline for experimental assay quality control and final optimized analyses was critical. Because of the multi-ethnic nature of the cohort, four different ethnic-specific arrays were employed to enhance genome-wide coverage. All assays were performed on DNA extracted from saliva samples. To improve sample call rates and significantly increase genotype concordance, we partitioned the cohort into disjoint packages of plates with similar assay contexts. Using strict QC criteria, the overall genotyping success rate was 103,067 of 109,837 samples assayed (93.8%), with a range of 92.1–95.4% for the four different arrays. Similarly, the SNP genotyping success rate ranged from 98.1 to 99.4% across the four arrays, the variation depending mostly on how many SNPs were included as single copy vs. double copy on a particular array. The high quality and large scale of genotype data created on this cohort, in conjunction with comprehensive longitudinal data from the KP electronic health records of participants, will enable a broad range of highly powered genome-wide association studies on a diversity of traits and conditions. PMID:26092718

  16. Evaluation of public awareness and attitude to pulmonary tuberculosis in a Nigerian rural community

    PubMed Central

    Anochie, Philip Ifesinachi; Onyeneke, Edwina Chinwe; Onyeozirila, Anthony Chidiebere; Igbolekwu, Leonard Chibuzo; Onyeneke, Bestman Chukwuemeka; Ogu, Angelina Chinyere

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Community based interventions have long been linked to tuberculosis control efforts. Effectively treated and cured patients living within their home communities are often the best advocates and may become the drivers of social mobilization to support control of tuberculosis. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional knowledge, attitude, behavioral and practice (KABP) survey on tuberculosis was carried out in a rural Nigerian community. We used the multi-stage sampling method for subject selection. We administered an interview schedule consisting of a pre-tested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, together with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results We applied the questionnaire to 1186 people in designated rural households. Most of the participants, (1154, 97.3%) had prior knowledge and awareness about tuberculosis as a disease, 612 (51.6%) considered tuberculosis a result of HIV/AIDS epidemics or malnutrition, and 451 (38%) believed that it can be cured by Western medicine. The unwillingness of respondents to relate with TB patients was generally high (97%, 1150), even where levels of awareness and knowledge were high. Conclusion These results should be used to orient tuberculosis control programs, especially those aimed at mobilizing people for tuberculosis control and eradication. PMID:24432287

  17. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds.

  18. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) variants circulating in Nigerian dogs

    PubMed Central

    Apaa, T. T.; Daly, J. M.; Tarlinton, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a highly contagious viral disease with three variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c) currently circulating in dogs worldwide. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalent CPV-2 variant in faecal samples from 53 dogs presenting with acute gastroenteritis suspected to be and consistent with CPV-2 to Nigerian Veterinary Clinics in 2013–2014. Seventy-five per cent of these dogs tested positive for CPV-2 in a commercial antigen test and/or by PCR. Partial sequencing of the VP2 gene of six of these demonstrated them to be CPV-2a. Most of the dogs (60 per cent) were vaccinated, with 74 per cent of them puppies less than six months old. PMID:27933190

  19. alpha-1-antitrypsin in breast milk of healthy Nigerian mothers.

    PubMed

    Omeme, J A; Lantos, J D; Ihongbe, J C

    1981-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitryspin (x-1-AT) may play a possible role as effector of immunological stasis. This study examines the levels of this glycoprotein in 73 breast milk samples from 60 healthy Nigerian mothers. Levels of x-1-AT were measured by single radial immunodiffusion according to the method of Mancini. Serum protein was measured by Lowry's method, albumin by Doumas' method. Highest mean levels of x-1-AT were found in colostrum (25 mg/dl). The level was significantly higher compared to transitional milk (14.2 mg/dl) or mature milk (165 mg/dl) (p0.001). Breast milk contains substantial amounts of x-1-AT which is not destroyed by pasturization at 56 degrees Centigrade. The immunological protective properties of breast milk are ideal for newborn babies, particularly those who are low birthweight and are thus most susceptible to neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

  20. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia.

    PubMed

    Emokpae, M A; Osadolor, H B; Omole Ohonsi, A

    2011-11-23

    Studies on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in infertility are scarce and this seeks to determine the proportion of infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia that had subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone were determined using ELECSYS 1010 auto analyzer. Two hundred infertile women were evaluated and 67(33.7%) had hyperprolactinaemia. Subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in 14.9% of women with hyperprolactinaemia, 4.5% and 10.5% of women with primary and secondary infertility, while hyperprolactinaemia was observed in 29.9% and 70.1% in primary and secondary infertility respectively. Mean levels of thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin were higher in secondary infertility than primary infertility. Subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinaemia were higher in secondary infertility than primary infertility. The ratio of proportions between hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinaemia was 1:7.

  1. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a Nigerian family: 4 case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The risk of developing schizophrenia is higher among persons with an affected sibling compared to the general population. Beliefs about aetiology influence presentation, management and treatment outcomes. There are no reports on multiple occurrences of this disorder in a family in this part of the world. In this case series we also highlight how cultural beliefs hamper and shape management. Case presentation We report a case series of schizophrenia spectrum disorders affecting four women in a Nigerian family of Ibo tribal origin who responded marginally to pharmacological interventions and required insight oriented psychotherapy and family therapy in resolving psychosocial problems. Conclusion While western taught disease models might explain these presentations, it is not usually accepted by lay persons from developing cultures. Limitations in contemporary treatment approaches necessitate the development of culturally relevant psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:19126216

  2. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male.

    PubMed

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebaek, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2014-10-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly.

  3. Locally-brewed Nigerian lager beers and high blood pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Adeniyi, F.A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Volunteers who consumed 88g alcohol/day (= 2.48L of lager beer) had elevated levels of systolic and mean arterial Blood Pressure. The association between consumption of locally brewed Nigerian lager beer with arterial hypertension was independent of age and weight. The true mechanism for the development of hypertension in these alcohol-users is at present not clear. All brands of lager beer investigated contain as much as five times the sodium content of potable water. It is desirable to evaluate the consequences of ingesting such quantities of sodium in lager beers. The effect of alcohol on other monovalent and divalent cations may shed some light onto the true mechanism for the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced hypertension. 15 references, 3 tables.

  4. Nigerian Petroleum Trust Fund buys HIV test kits.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The purchase of HIV screening kits by the Nigerian Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF) in January 1999 has been criticized. The PTF announced at the First National AIDS conference in Abuja that it would distribute screening and confirmatory HIV diagnostic kits to all federal health institutions and selected secondary health facilities. Local AIDS workers argued that the large sum spent on screening kits is unwise. Funding for prevention campaigns among the most vulnerable drug-using groups and obtaining medications for opportunistic infections are the areas that are in need of more assistance. Criticisms against the PTF stem from the fact that it is the only well-placed indigenous agency that could fund HIV programs on a massive scale, but it has tended to be rather wasteful in spending.

  5. Restless Legs Syndrome in a Nigerian Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Fawale, Michael B.; Ismaila, Isiaka Alani; Mustapha, Adekunle F.; Komolafe, Morenikeji A.; Adedeji, Tewogbade A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is highest in the elderly in Caucasian populations; the prevalence of RLS in elderly Africans is not known. This study aimed at determining the frequency and associations of RLS in a Nigerian elderly population. Methods: The study population comprised of 633 consecutive elderly individuals aged 65–105 years attending the general outpatient clinic of the State Hospital, Ilesa, for minor complaints and routine check-up. The diagnosis of RLS was made using the 2003 minimal criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data, including sleep duration, were also obtained. Results: Restless legs syndrome was found in 3.5% of the study population with a male-female ratio of 2:1. There was no significant age (p = 0.427) or gender (p = 0.178) influence on the prevalence of RLS except in the 75- to 84-year age group where there was significant male preponderance (p = 0.044). A strong independent association between RLS and sleep duration (OR, 3.229; 95% CI, 1.283–8.486; p = 0.013) and past history of head injury (OR, 4.691; 95% CI, 1.750–12.577; p = 0.002) was found. Conclusions: Our finding support previous reports of a possible lower prevalence of RLS in Africans. Restless legs syndrome independently increases the odds of habitual sleep curtailment in elderly individuals. Head injury may be a risk factor for future RLS; this requires further investigation as indirect evidence for a possible link between RLS and traumatic brain injury exists. Citation: Fawale MB, Ismaila IA, Mustapha AF, Komolafe MA, Adedeji TA. Restless legs syndrome in a Nigerian elderly population. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):965–972. PMID:27070251

  6. Antitrypanosomal activity of some medicinal plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Gbotosho, Grace O; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O; Brun, Reto; Oduola, Ayoade M

    2012-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with complex clinical presentation, diagnosis, and difficult treatment. The available drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis are old, expensive, and less effective, associated with severe adverse reactions and face the problem of drug resistance. This situation underlines the urgent need for the development of new, effective, cheap, and safe drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. The search for new antitrypanosomal agents in this study is based on ethnomedicine. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species from Nigerian ethnomedicine was evaluated against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900. Cytotoxic activity was determined against mammalian L6 cells. Alamar blue assay was used to measure the endpoint of both antitrypanosomal and toxicity assays. The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labiatae) showed the highest antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) of 2.08 ± 0.01 μg/ml) and a high selective index of 29. Furthermore, the hexane, ethyl acetate, or methanol extracts of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth. ex Baker) Meeuwen, Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae), and Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) displayed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) 2.1-17.2 μg/ml) with high selectivity indices (20-80) for trypanosomes. The antitrypanosomal activity of T. catappa and T. orientalis against T. brucei rhodesiense (STIB 900) is being reported for the first time in Nigerian ethnomedicine, and these plants could be a potential source of antitrypanosomal agents.

  7. Lead and other metals in dried fish from Nigerian markets

    SciTech Connect

    Okoye, C.O.B. )

    1994-06-01

    The Nigerian economy had remarkable industrial growth between 1970 and 1980 and industrialization and urbanization have been sustained albeit at a slower rate. Nevertheless, waste management remains grossly underdeveloped. Environmental concern is only a recent phenomenon, resulting thus far in the launching of a monthly clean-up campaign in 1984 and the establishment of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) in 1988. The level of public awareness has not been encouraging. The indiscriminate discharge of largely untreated factory and urban effluents has continued. Streets and home surroundings become littered soon after clean-up exercises. Inadequate facilities contribute to the unwholesome situation. Refuse collecting centers are mostly without any holding containers, and solid wastes, the focus of the monthly clean-up, are left on the bare ground. Heavy automobile traffic and high lead content of the local automobile fuels have not helped matters. Heavy metals in the human environment are of global concern. In developed countries, limits of concentrations in fish and other foods have been set to safeguard public health, but Nigeria has yet to set any standards because of lack of baseline data. Within the last decade, scientists have been reporting on heavy metal levels in fish from the aquatic environment of Nigeria. Among the metals, lead was the most prominent, with a mean value comparable to the set limits in Great Britain and New Zealand. The present study was aimed at further establishing the levels of contamination in fish by lead and other metals in the Nigerian aquatic systems. Smoke-dried fish, being the most consumed by the local population, was chosen for the survey on the levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc. Possible surface contamination arising from observed poor handling practices was also investigated. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Determination of cadmium and lead in urine of some Nigerian subjects.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, A O; Famuyiwa, S O; Adenuga, A A; Fatoki, O S

    2002-09-01

    Forty-one urine samples of smokers and non-smokers from Ile-Ife, Nigeria were analyzed for normal cadmium and lead levels after acid digestion. Results of the preliminary study show that concentrations of cadmium obtained were generally low compared with lead. The mean urinary levels from non-smokers ranged from 0.05 - 0.02 to 0.16 - 0.01 wg ml-1 and from 0.02 - 0.03 to 0.88 - 0.04 wg ml-1 for cadmium and lead respectively, whilst, for smokers, urinary levels varied between 0.07 - 0.01 and 0.23 - 0.02 wg ml-1 and between 0.28 - 0.03 and 1.02 - 0.02 wg ml-1 were obtained for cadmium and lead, respectively. Cd levels in urine of smokers and non-smokers are higher than the recommended normal level of 0.0085 wg ml-1, while levels of Pb are above the 0.08-0.15 wg ml-1 exposure range. Results of spiking experiments with urine gave high percentage recoveries for both elements (Cd, 87.9 - 0.40%) and (Pb, 90.40 - 0.12%). Blank determination was done for background correction.

  9. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  10. Analysis of Application of 1:3 Ratio in Employments of Academic and Non-Academic Staff in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghaji Ifedili, Chika Josephine

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the application of 1:3 in employments of academic and non-academic staff in Nigerian Universities, as recommended by the National Universities Commission (N.U.C.), following the general feeling that Nigerian Universities were highly bureaucratised; non-teaching staff was over employed while some universities lacked…

  11. Impact of Job Satisfaction and Burnout on Attitudes towards Strike Action among Employees of a Nigerian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ineme, Kubiat M.; Ineme, Mfon E.

    2016-01-01

    The Nigerian tertiary educational system has been ravaged by incessant strike action, which appears to defy all attempts to find solutions. This paper reports on a study that examines the impact of job satisfaction and burnout on attitudes towards strike actions among employees of a Nigerian university. A total of 576 employees participated in the…

  12. Sperm chromatin structure assay results in Nigerian men with unexplained infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kolade, Charles Oluwabukunmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several publications have established a relationship between sperm DNA damage and male factor infertility, based on data from America, Europe, and Asia. This study aimed to compare the extent of sperm DNA damage in sperm samples from Nigerian men with unexplained infertility and in sperm samples from a fertile group composed of sperm donors who had successfully impregnated a female partner naturally or through assisted conception. Methods A total of 404 men underwent male fertility evaluation at Androcare Laboratories and Cryobank participated in this study. Semen analysis and a sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) were performed on all subjects. Results The men in the unexplained infertility group were slightly older than the men in the fertile sperm group (36±10 years vs. 32±6 years, p=0.051). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in semen analysis parameters (p≥0.05). Men in the unexplained infertility group with normal semen parameters had a significantly higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) than men in the fertile sperm group (27.5%±7.0% vs. 14.1%±5.3%, p<0.05). In the unexplained infertility group, 63% of the men had a DFI greater than 20%, compared to 4% in the fertile sperm group. In the unexplained infertility group, 15.2% of the subjects had a DFI greater than 30%, compared to 1% in the fertile sperm group. Conclusion Our study showed that the SCSA may be a more reliable predictor of fertility potential than traditional semen analysis in cases of unexplained infertility. PMID:26473109

  13. A review of Quality of Life studies in Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Aloba, O; Fatoye, O; Mapayi, B; Akinsulore, S

    2013-09-01

    The concept of Quality of Life is becoming an increasingly important measure of the impact of psychiatric disorders and is now recognized as useful in the healthcare evaluation of patients with psychiatric disorders. The aim of this review was to document and analyze the research data on quality of life in Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders. The electronic databases, Medline and Pubmed were searched for published articles on quality of life in Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders. A total of 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies employed the generic World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief version, which is the only quality of life instrument whose psychometric properties have been evaluated among Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders. Some of the studies revealed that quality of life was significantly associated with socio demographic factors such marital and employment status and social support. Poor quality of life was reported to be associated with illness related factors such as co morbid medical problems, presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and non adherence to medications. All the studies with the exception of two were conducted in centers located in South-western Nigeria. Quality of life in Nigerian patients suffering from psychiatric disorders is under-researched. There is need for more studies to prospectively investigate quality of life and associated factors among Nigerian patients with psychiatric disorders.

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those Igbo descent (10.6%) and those of Igede (10.2%) and Tiv (1.8%) ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females). Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9%) than Igede (10.5%), Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv (5.0%) children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500). The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively). Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351). In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection.

  15. Prevalence and type of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an apparently healthy Nigerian population: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a premalignant plasma-cell disorder has not been determined in our geographic area Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried on apparently healthy Nigerians selected by multistage sampling technique from the cosmopolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects enrolled into the study had 2-step screening for the presence, type and concentration of monoclonal band. Agarose-gel electrophoresis was performed on all serum samples, and any serum sample with a discrete band of monoclonal protein or thought to have a localized band was subjected to Immunofixation. Subjects were also evaluated for Bence jones proteinuria, haematological and biochemical parameters. Results Four hundred and ten subjects with a mean age of 45.68 ± 10.3 years, a median of 45.00 years and a range of 20 to 80 years were enrolled into the study. MGUS was identified in only one (0.24 percent) of the 410 study subject. This subject was demonstrated to have a double monoclonal gammopathy; IgGλ at 16.9 g/L and IgAκ at 8.5 g/L. None of them including the sole subject with MGUS had a monoclonal urinary light chain. Conclusion Among residents of Lagos, Nigeria, MGUS was found in only 0.24% percent of apparently normal persons with a median age of 45 years. This suggests that MGUS which represents the earliest stage of monoclonal plasma/lymphoid cell proliferation is not a common finding in the relatively young population of Nigeria. Future epidemiologic studies dealing with plasma cell disorders in older people are required to carefully examine the relationship between environmental factors and prevalence of MGUS and its ultimate progression to MM. PMID:22742514

  16. A Discourse of Disconnect: Young People from the Eastern Cape Talk about the Failure of Adult Communications to Provide Habitable Sexual Subject Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jearey-Graham, Nicola; Macleod, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Face-to-face adult communication with young people about sexuality is, for the most part, assigned to two main groups of people: educators tasked with teaching school-based sexuality education that is provided as part of the compulsory Life Orientation (LO) learning area, and parents. In this paper, we report on a study conducted with Further…

  17. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata is regarded as one of the Asian citrus psyllid’s most important natural enemies and is thus currently being mass-reared and released by a number of laboratories in North America. It may not always be possible to immediately release newly-emerged adults, in which case it would be a...

  18. Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension: A comparative study with lisinopril

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Daniel Chukwu; Aneke, Eddy Ikemefuna; Obika, Leonard Fidelis; Nwachukwu, Nkiru Zuada

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the three basic components of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: Plasma renin, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and plasma aldosterone (PA) in mild to moderate essential hypertensive Nigerians and compared with that of lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor. Materials and Methods: A double-blind controlled randomized clinical study was used. Seventy-eight newly diagnosed but untreated mild to moderate hypertensive subjects attending Medical Outpatients Clinic of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu were recruited for the study. Those in Group A received placebo (150 mg/kg/day), Group B were given lisinopril (10 mg once daily) while those in Group C received aqueous extract of HS (150 mg/kg/day). After 4 weeks of treatment, the levels of plasma renin, serum ACE, and PA were determined. Results: HS and lisinopril significantly (P < 0.001) reduced PA compared to placebo by 32.06% and 30.01%, respectively. Their effects on serum ACE and plasma renin activity (PRA) were not significant compared to placebo; they reduced ACE by 6.63% and 5.67% but increased plasma PRA by 2.77% and 5.36%, respectively. Conclusion: HS reduced serum ACE and PA in mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians with equal efficacy as lisinopril. These actions are possibly due to the presence of anthocyanins in the extract. PMID:26600645

  19. Application of a. Delta. P technique to monitor oxidation of Nigerian coals

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunsola, O.I.; Mikula, R.J. )

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, the results of a study on the effect of oxidation on the {Delta}P index and acidity of three Nigerian coals are reported. The coals are oxidized in air over a period of 35 days at both 100 and 50{degrees} C. The heating value, slurry pH (acidity), and the {Delta}P index of three Nigerian coal samples were monitored as a function of oxidation time. The results revealed a decrease in {Delta}P index and an increase in the acidity of all three coals with increase in oxidation time. The heating value of the coals was also reduced by the oxidation.

  20. Echocardiographic Assessment of Cardiac Changes During Normal Pregnancy Among Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Adeyeye, V. O.; Balogun, M. O.; Adebayo, R. A.; Makinde, O. N.; Akinwusi, P. O.; Ajayi, E. A.; Ogunyemi, S. A.; Akintomide, A. O.; Ajayi, E. O.; Adeyeye, A. G.; Ojo, T. O.; Abiodun, O. O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological process associated with an increased hemodynamic load and cardiac structural remodeling. Limited echocardiographic information exists on cardiac chambers, left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions, and LV mass during trimesters of normal pregnancy among African women. MATERIALS AND METHODS Echocardiography was done at the beginning of the second trimester, beginning of the third trimester, and middle of the third trimester for 100 normal pregnant women and at one visit for age-matched 100 nonpregnant women. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 software. Analysis of variance was used to compare within trimesters, and a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The mean (SD) ages of the patients and controls were 28.20 (±5.91) and 28.35 (±6.06) years, respectively (age range = 19–44 years, P = 0.86). Cardiac chambers, LV systolic function, and LV mass and its index increased significantly during pregnancy. A significant increase in A-wave velocity but slight increase in E-wave velocity and a reduction in tissue e′ velocity at the septal margin but a progressive increase in a′ velocity were also observed (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Cardiac chamber dimensions, LV wall thickness, and mass, most indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, though within normal range, were significantly higher in pregnant than in nonpregnant Nigerian women. PMID:27656092

  1. Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, A A; Fakoya, F A; Awopetu, I; Omobuwajo, O R; Adesanya, S A

    2007-09-25

    The toxicity and mutagenic potential of most African plants implicated in the management of cancer have not been investigated. The ethanolic extracts of selected Nigerian plants were subsequently studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of chromosomal aberrations in vivo in rat lymphocytes. Morinda lucida root bark, Nymphaea lotus whole plant and Garcinia kola root were active in the three test systems. Bryophyllum calycinum whole plant, Annona senegalensis root, Hymenocardia acida stem bark, Erythrophleum suaveolens leaves and Spondiathus preussii stem bark were toxic to brine shrimps and caused chromosomal damage in rat lymphocytes. Ficus exasperata leaves, Chrysophyllum albidum root bark and Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were non-toxic to all the three test systems. Chenopodium ambrosioides whole plant was non-toxic to brine shrimps and rat lymphocyte chromosomes but showed inhibition in the conventional telomerase assay indicating a possible selectivity for human chromosomes. The result justified the use of the first eight plants and Chenopodium ambrosioides in the management of cancer in south west Nigeria although they appear to be non-selective and their mode of action may be different from plant to plant. All these plants except Chenopodium ambrosioides are also mutagenic and cytotoxic.

  2. Dual phylogenetic origins of Nigerian lions (Panthera leo)

    PubMed Central

    Tende, Talatu; Bensch, Staffan; Ottosson, Ulf; Hansson, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Lion fecal DNA extracts from four individuals each from Yankari Game Reserve and Kainji-Lake National Park (central northeast and west Nigeria, respectively) were Sanger-sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The sequences were aligned against 61 lion reference sequences from other parts of Africa and India. The sequence data were analyzed further for the construction of phylogenetic trees using the maximum-likelihood approach to depict phylogenetic patterns of distribution among sequences. Our results show that Nigerian lions grouped together with lions from West and Central Africa. At the smaller geographical scale, lions from Kainji-Lake National Park in western Nigeria grouped with lions from Benin (located west of Nigeria), whereas lions from Yankari Game Reserve in central northeastern Nigeria grouped with the lion populations in Cameroon (located east of Nigeria). The finding that the two remaining lion populations in Nigeria have different phylogenetic origins is an important aspect to consider in future decisions regarding management and conservation of rapidly shrinking lion populations in West Africa. PMID:25077018

  3. Pregnancy, obstetric and neonatal outcomes in HIV positive Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ezechi, O C; Gab-Okafor, C V; Oladele, D A; Kalejaiye, O O; Oke, B O; Ohwodo, H O; Adu, R A; Ekama, S O; Musa, Z; Onwujekwe, D I; David, A N; Ujah, I A O

    2013-09-01

    While the effect of HIV infection on some maternal outcomes is well established, for some others there is conflicting information on possible association with HIV. In this study we investigated pregnancy and neonatal outcome of HIV positive women in large HIV treatment centre over a period of 84 months. They were managed according to the Nigerian PMTCT protocol. Adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome were observed in 48.3% HIV positives compared 30.3% to the negatives (OR: 2.08; CI: 1.84-2.34). Low birth weight ( OR:2.95; CI:1.95-3.1), preterm delivery (OR:2.05; CI:1.3-3.1), perinatal death (OR:1.9;CI:1.3-3.2), and spontaneous abortion (OR:1.37; CI:1.1-2.3) were factors found to be independently associated with HIV. Low CD4 count (OR: 2.45; CI: 1.34- 4.56) and opportunistic infections (OR: 2.11; CI: 1.56-3.45) were to be associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. This study confirms the association of HIV, severe immunosuppression and opportunistic infection and adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome.

  4. Pattern and correlates of premenstrual symptomatology amongst Nigerian University students.

    PubMed

    Adewuya, Abiodun O; Loto, Olabisi M; Adewumi, Tomi A

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the pattern and correlates of premenstrual symptomatology amongst Nigerian female undergraduates. Female University students (n = 409) completed questionnaires detailing sociodemographic, menstruation/gynecological history and personality traits. They were then rated with a checklist for premenstrual symptoms. The most frequent premenstrual symptoms were 'breast tenderness' (35.5%), 'sleeplessness' (15.6%), 'decreased interest in usual activities' (15.4%), 'lethargy/easy fatigability/lack of energy' (13.2%) and 'change in appetite' (13.2%). The prevalence of premenstrual symptomatology was 50.1% and the correlates of increasing premenstrual symptomatology included increasing age, increasing severity of menstrual pain, personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness and increasing body mass index. Although the rate of premenstrual symptomatology in sub-Saharan African women was comparable with that in the western cultures, there may be cross-cultural differences in the pattern of presentation. Dysmenorrhoea and personality traits should be taken into consideration when planning and implementing effective strategy to manage perimenstrual problems in this region.

  5. A Strange Manifestation of Malaria in a Native Nigerian Boy

    PubMed Central

    Magro, Paola; Izzo, Ilaria; Saccani, Barbara; Casari, Salvatore; Caligaris, Silvio; Tomasoni, Lina Rachele; Matteelli, Alberto; Lombardi, Annamaria; Meini, Antonella; Castelli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The protective role of Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) in malaria endemic areas has been proved, and prevalence of HbS gene in malaria endemic areas is high. Splenic infarction is a well-known complication of SCT, while the association with malaria is considered rare. A Nigerian boy was admitted to our ward after returning from his country of origin, for P. falciparum malaria. He underwent abdominal ultrasound for upper right abdominal pain, showing cholecystitis and multiple splenic lesions suggestive of abscesses. Empiric antibiotic therapy was undertaken. Bartonella, Echinococcus, Entamoeba serologies, blood cultures, Quantiferon test, copro-parasitologic exam were negative; endocarditis was excluded. He underwent further blood exams and abdomen MRI, confirming the presence of signal alterations areas, with radiographic appearance of recent post-infarction outcomes. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed a percentage of HbS of 40.6% and a diagnosis of SCT was then made. Splenic infarction should be taken into account in patients with malaria and localized abdominal pain. Moreover, diagnosis of SCT should be considered. PMID:28293411

  6. Tolerance of nitrobacter to toxicity of some Nigerian crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Odokuma, L.O. )

    1994-03-01

    Crude oil spillage in aquatic systems affects thousands of aquatic species including bacteria. Some of the crude oil components are rapidly evaporated or biologically degraded. Other components continue to remain for several months and perhaps several years. Some of these components may be toxic to microorganisms, while some may stimulate microbial activity especially at low concentrations. The use of bacteria as bioassay organisms is now gaining wide acceptance. It offers a number of advantages such as ease of handling, economy of space, short life cycles and low cost. Their uses in bioassays are based on cell lysis, mutagenic properties and the inhibition of physiological processes such as respiration. Recently, a number of workers have proposed the use of Nitrobacter as a test organism. The organism has a number of advantages in toxicity testing: obligate autotrophy, its sensitivity to various toxicants and its predominance in wastewater environments are some of them . Of recent, the inhibition of bacterial enzyme biosynthesis have been suggested in bacterial assays. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of six Nigerian crude oils on the cell reproduction rate (LC, lethal concentration), cellular respiration (EC, effective concentration) and biosynthesis of enzyme responsible for nitrite oxidation (IC, inhibition concentration) in Nitrobacter. In addition, the goal was to identify which of these was the most sensitive to crude oil and which may thus be used for detecting the toxicity of these chemicals. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Adjusting flow station job to remote Nigerian location yields savings

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, R.; Williams, E.C. )

    1994-05-02

    In September 1991, Chevron Nigeria Ltd. and Nigerian National Petroleum Crop. contracted Offshore Pipelines to design, procure, construct, install, and commission the Opuekeba 30,000 b/d crude-oil flow station on an offshore platform near Olero Creek, Nigeria, approximately 22 miles from the nearest deepwater access. Chevron's original project plan included bringing the flow station to the site in small packages and then assembling it in a lengthy field hook-up process. Offshore Pipelines developed a plan early in the project to maximize construction and hook-up in the fabrication yard, then transport the nearly complete structures to site by way of a newly dredged canal. What proved to be most difficult was the site location in Nigeria. Job planning and communication were important in the successful completion of the project. Keeping the components of the large and complex facility simple proved to be effective and efficient and played a key role in completing the project on time and within budget. The paper discusses overcoming obstacles, lift and depth constraints, dredging, fabrication, installation, and large-time problems.

  8. Model experiments of steam stimulation in Nigerian tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Omole, O.; Omolara, D.A. )

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of producing heavy oil from the Nigerian tar sand deposit by steam stimulation was investigated in the laboratory using a scaled and five unscaled physical models (tar sands packs). The effect of oil saturation and different matrix grain size on oil recovery were also studied. A fabricated 91.44 cm (diameter), 33 cm (high) high pressure cast iron vessel (prototype scaled down by a factor of 104), a 15 cm (diameter), 22.1 cm (high) high pressure stainless steel vessel, and two pressure reducing valves were used for the study. Steam was obtained from a locally fabricated boiler. Heavy oil was obtained from oil seeping from the deposit. The result of the study showed that heavy oil could be produced from the section of the deposit containing mobile heavy oil by steam stimulation. When the same amount of steam was injected into similar sand packs containing different oil saturation, the highest oil recovery was obtained from the sandpack with the lowest oil saturation. This implies that more steam will be required to produce from highly saturated heavy oil deposits. A greater amount of oil was produced from a sand pack with larger matrix grain size than from another sand pack with smaller matrix grain size for the same oil saturation steam quantity, and quality.

  9. Dual phylogenetic origins of Nigerian lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Tende, Talatu; Bensch, Staffan; Ottosson, Ulf; Hansson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Lion fecal DNA extracts from four individuals each from Yankari Game Reserve and Kainji-Lake National Park (central northeast and west Nigeria, respectively) were Sanger-sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The sequences were aligned against 61 lion reference sequences from other parts of Africa and India. The sequence data were analyzed further for the construction of phylogenetic trees using the maximum-likelihood approach to depict phylogenetic patterns of distribution among sequences. Our results show that Nigerian lions grouped together with lions from West and Central Africa. At the smaller geographical scale, lions from Kainji-Lake National Park in western Nigeria grouped with lions from Benin (located west of Nigeria), whereas lions from Yankari Game Reserve in central northeastern Nigeria grouped with the lion populations in Cameroon (located east of Nigeria). The finding that the two remaining lion populations in Nigeria have different phylogenetic origins is an important aspect to consider in future decisions regarding management and conservation of rapidly shrinking lion populations in West Africa.

  10. Molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in Nigerian ticks.

    PubMed

    Ogo, Ndudim Isaac; de Mera, Isabel G Fernández; Galindo, Ruth C; Okubanjo, Oluyinka O; Inuwa, Hauwa Mairo; Agbede, Rowland I S; Torina, Alessandra; Alongi, Angelina; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-07-06

    A molecular epidemiology investigation was undertaken in two Nigerian states (Plateau and Nassarawa) to determine the prevalence of pathogens of veterinary and public health importance associated with ticks collected from cattle and dogs using PCR, cloning and sequencing or reverse line blot techniques. A total of 218 tick samples, Amblyomma variegatum (N=153), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (N=45), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (N=20) were sampled. Pathogens identified in ticks included piroplasmids (Babesia spp., Babesia bigemina and Babesia divergens), Anaplasma marginale and Rickettsia africae. Piroplasmids were identified in A. variegatum, A. marginale was found in R. decoloratus, while R. africae was detected in all tick species examined. Ehrlichia spp. and Theileria spp. were not identified in any of the ticks examined. Of the 218 ticks examined, 33 (15.1%) contained pathogen DNA, with the presence of B. divergens and R. africae that are zoonotic pathogens of public health and veterinary importance. The variety of tick-borne pathogens identified in this study suggests a risk for the emergence of tick-borne diseases in domestic animals and humans, especially amongst the Fulani pastoralists in Plateau and Nassarawa states of Nigeria.

  11. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  12. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  13. "Elections" or "Selections"? Blogging and Twittering the Nigerian 2007 General Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifukor, Presley

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the linguistic construction of textual messages in the use of blogs and Twitter in the Nigerian 2007 electoral cycle comprising the April 2007 general elections and rerun elections in April, May, and August 2009. A qualitative approach of discourse analysis is used to present a variety of discursive acts that blogging and…

  14. Workload, Social Support, and Work-School Conflict among Nigerian Nontraditional Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebayo, D. O.

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the increasing number of nontraditional students in Nigerian universities and the consequences associated with combining multiple roles, this study is designed to examine the relationship among nontraditional students with respect to workload, social support, and work-school conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey, data are…

  15. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  16. Competency Level of Nigerian Primary 4 Pupils in Life Skills Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewale, J. Gbenga

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of education in Nigeria is to develop in children the ability to adapt to their changing environment. This goal could be achieved through competency in life skills. Therefore, this study examines the competency level of Nigerian Primary 4 pupils in the life skills achievement test. The test was administered on a sample of 22,638…

  17. Multitasking, but for What Benefit? The Dilemma Facing Nigerian University Students Regarding Part-Time Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Evans, Carl; Obalola, Musa Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    Students working part-time while studying for a full-time university degree are commonplace in many Western countries. This paper, however, examines the historically uncommon part-time working activities and career aspirations among Nigerian university students. In particular, how working is perceived to contribute to developing employability…

  18. Towards a Psychological Frame for Explicating Student Unrest in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Imhanlahimi, Joseph E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focused on three dominant psychological theories--Cognitive Dissonance, Relative Deprivation and Campus Ecology that have been evolved to explain student unrest, to determine their ability to account for the phenomenon in Nigerian universities. It found that none of the theories could all alone holistically account for all the causal…

  19. A Sociolinguistic Study of Meaning-Making in a Nigerian Linguistic Landscape: The Example of Ibadan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adetunji, Akinbiyi

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has gone into the sociolinguistics of the linguistic landscape (space for and language of public signs) in the "peripheral," non-native contexts of English Language use and users, none has been specifically devoted to a Nigerian context. This dissertation is intended to fill this wide gap. Focusing on the Ibadan…

  20. Water Source Pollution and Disease Diagnosis in a Nigerian Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangodoyin, A. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…

  1. Discrepancies between Official Science Curriculum and Actual Classroom Practice: The Nigerian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olorundare, Solomon A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper was based on an investigation of how an officially prescribed science curriculum was interpreted and translated by teachers into actual classroom practice in Nigerian primary schools. Mismatches between official and hidden curricula were rampant and often beyond teachers' control. The teacher's role was "policy broker," not…

  2. The Cyber-Framing of Nigerian Nationhood: Diaspora and the Imagined Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odutola, Kole Ade

    2010-01-01

    Postings generated during "natural" online interactions among geographically dispersed/diasporic Nigerians contain ideas from different intellectual sources. A few of the ideas encapsulated within texts produced were brought to the fore, discussed, and analyzed. The consequent search for the presence of indigenous knowledge within the…

  3. Faculty Perceptions of Nigerians Enrolled in Technical Teacher Training Programs. Report II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Darrell; Cap, Orest

    The purpose or immediate goal of the Nigerian Technical Teacher Training Project was to provide for a Bachelor of Education degree program, but the long-range goal was to develop and provide Nigeria with a pool of trained technical instructors. An evaluation of the program was made by gathering the perceptions of the implementation of the program…

  4. Ordeals of Physics Instruction in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Way Forward for the Attainment of Global Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderonmu, Temitope S. B.; Obafemi, Deborah T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Physics instruction in secondary schools is a fundamental panacea towards achieving scientific knowledgeable citizens which can propel a nation in the realization of a sustainable economic force. This paper therefore x-rayed ordeals of physics instruction in Nigerian secondary schools and the way forward for the attainment of global…

  5. Revitalising the Nigerian University System: The Imperatives of a Market Driven Funding Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiemeka, Nnorom; Nwagwu, Nwakaire Onuzuruike

    2015-01-01

    The needs assessment report of Nigerian public universities (2012) exposed a disturbing level of decay in public universities in Nigeria. The report, among other things advocated better financial management as a panacea for revitalising the university system. This paper compared the direct funding allocation mechanism (which is the major way of…

  6. Managing Research Output for Knowledge Creation in South-South Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akuegwu, B. A.; Edet, A. O.; Uchendu, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    This ex-post facto designed study investigated the extent of Deans and Heads of Departments' effectiveness in managing research output for knowledge creation in South-South Nigerian universities. One research question and one hypothesis were drawn along the four dimensions of knowledge creation namely: socialization, combination, externalization…

  7. Investigating a Nigerian XXL-Cohort Wiki-Learning Experience: Observation, Feedback and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aborisade, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A regular feature of the Nigerian tertiary education context is large numbers of students crammed into small classrooms or lecture theatres. This context had long begged for the creation of innovative learning spaces and adoption of engaging pedagogies. Recourse to technology support and experimenting with the WIKI as a learning tool at the…

  8. Socio-Economic Factors in the Application of Information and Communication Technologies in Nigerian Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehikhamenor, Fabian A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses information and communication technologies (ICT) in Nigerian print media and explores socioeconomic factors associated with the adoption and use of ICT by the media. Topics include ICT in the Third World; organizational goals; profitability; organizational communication; productivity; openness of workers to change; inflation; wages;…

  9. A Factor-Analytic Study of Some of the Nigerian Science Teachers' Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2005-01-01

    The study set out to assess the needs of Nigerian science teachers, which the teachers believe are militating against their desired productivity. It seeks to find out the special needs and wants of science teachers in trying to discharge their duties well, and to find out the underlying relationship among these specials needs and wants. Six…

  10. Formal Operational Precocity and Achievement in Biology among Some Nigerian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehindero, Olusola Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Compares the performances on a battery of six Piagetian tasks of 80 Nigerian high school students classified as high and low achievers in biology. The relationship between performance of very bright biology students (high achievers) and intellectual precocity is also investigated. (HM)

  11. Strategies for School Environmental Management in Nigerian Secondary Schools: A Case of Calabar, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obong, Linus Beba; Okey, Stella-Maris; Aniah, E. J.; Okaba, Lydia A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper on strategies for school environmental management in Nigerian secondary schools was carried out in Calabar, Nigeria. To guide the study three research questions were formulated. This was achieved through administration of structured questionnaires in three randomly sampled schools. Findings show regular grass clearing, sweeping of the…

  12. The Roles of Higher Education in Economic Development: Challenges and Prospects of Nigerian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoku, Chimezie; Anyanwu, Jerome; Kaegon, Lies Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper was on the roles of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) especially universities in economic development, paying particular attention to the challenges and prospects of the Nigerian Universities. The role of higher education as a major driver of economic development is well established, and this role will increase as…

  13. Re-Engineering Values Education in Nigerian Schools as Catalyst for National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enu, Donald Bette; Esu, A. E. O.

    2011-01-01

    The decay in the Nigerian society has affected the standard of values and moral character formation. This has manifested in so many anti-social vices. Anti-social behaviour exhibited include corruption, dishonesty, greed, violent crimes, lack of accountability, indiscipline, disrespect to constituted authorities, laziness, low moral courage among…

  14. Restructuring as a Panacea for the Sustainable Development of the Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arikewuyo, M. Olalekan

    2009-01-01

    The Nigerian university system, in spite of its astronomical growth in size, has been beset by a barrage of problems, which are threatening its ability to perform the traditional roles of teaching, research and services. Such problems as highlighted in this paper include: unplanned expansion leading to proliferation of both private and public…

  15. Nigerian Students' Perceptions and Cultural Meaning Construction Regarding Academic Integrity in the Online International Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    By presenting perceptions of Nigerian students enrolled in the online international postgraduate programmes of the University of Liverpool regarding academic integrity, this paper aims to explore Western ideas, such as originality and plagiarism that are extraneous in the students' local cultures. Different historical and cultural circumstances…

  16. Open-Distance Education as a Mechanism for Sustainable Development: Reflections on the Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderinoye, Rashid; Ojokheta, Kester

    2004-01-01

    This article examines open-distance learning in Nigeria and the role it plays in personal, community, and national development. Following consultation with existing literature, a qualitative survey was conducted using questionnaires, interviews, and participatory experience. Although particular emphasis was paid to the Nigerian context, the…

  17. Collaboration with Other International Agencies in Community Development Programmes: The Nigerian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, Christie Ade

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of the activities of the World Organization for Early Childhood Education in Nigeria in the areas of the development of grass-roots day-care centers, Van Leer Nigerian Education Trust activities, the training of nursery school teachers, and the celebration of Children's Day. (AC)

  18. The Understanding of Pictorial Spatial Relationships by Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, John R.; Seddon, G. Malcolm

    1977-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to assess the proportion of students at different levels in a Nigerian secondary school who interpret selected diagrams in 3 or 2 dimensional terms and to see if there are differences between these interpretations and those of English students. (Author/AM)

  19. Effects of Non Indigene Discrimination on Contemporary Nigerian Society: Christian Religious Knowledge Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoku, Nkechi C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was designed to look into the non-indigene discrimination that migrated into Nigerian society from European countries. Non-indigene saga is a new trend that has threatened the unity, peace and progress of Nigeria as a pluralistic nation. The paper further explores the causes, forms and effects of non-indigene discrimination. It also…

  20. Effective Technological Delivery in Nigerian Polytechnics: Need for Academic Manpower Development Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, J. K.; Uko-Aviomoh, E. E.

    2004-01-01

    Technical education, especially as provided in the Nigerian polytechnics, leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. The production function of the polytechnics in terms of producing quality middle-level manpower through effective teaching delivery depends largely on the quantity and quality of…

  1. Secret Cults in Nigerian Institutions of Higher Learning: Need for a Radical Intervention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popoola, B. I.; Alao, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper appraises the phenomenon of campus secret cults in Nigeria. Specifically, the paper sets off by exploring various definitions of secret cults before tracing the history of campus cults in Nigerian higher institutions. The paper identifies various reasons for the emergence of secret cults and discusses the consequences of cult activities…

  2. Importance of Audiovisual Instruction in the Associateship Diploma in Education in Nigerian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agun, Ibitayo

    1976-01-01

    The Associateship Diploma in Education is seen as an important means of promoting and encouraging the use of audiovisual aids in Nigerian primary schools. Objectives of audiovisual instruction, a course outline, and procedures for teaching the course are suggested, and use of aids in primary schools is surveyed. (Author/MLW)

  3. The Influence of Ownership and Type of University on Work Environment in South West Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arogundade, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of ownership and type of university on work environment in South West Nigerian universities. The study population consists of all academic staff of the ten public and nine private universities in South West Nigeria. In all, 500 respondents selected from eight universities constituted the sample of the study. The…

  4. Effective Teaching with ICT in Nigerian Higher Institutions: A Solution to Graduates' Unemployability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Femi, Sunday Akinwumi; Yemisi, Etomi Edwin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effective teaching with the aid of ICT in Nigerian higher education institutions as a proposed solution to graduates' unemployability. The survey method was utilized for this study. Respondents were randomly selected from students and teachers of selected higher institutions in Nigeria. The findings reveal that, even though…

  5. Defining Traditional Forms of Communication in Nigerian Culture within the Context of Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbondah, Chris; Siddens, Paul J., III

    Drum language, gong language, masquerades, and puppet theater, the traditional forms of communication found in Nigerian culture, reflect tensions that exist between oral and literate cultures. Drum language ranges from simple signals to elaborately coded messages and is learned through both formal and informal educational processes. Formal…

  6. Education as a Panacea to Women Active Participation in Nigerian Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odionye, Ada E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate into the acute and perennial under-representation of women in Nigerian Politics. In Nigeria women make up half of the population and they have been known to have contributed in no small measure to the development and sustenance of the society yet they are hardly there in the political scene. We have…

  7. Parent-Child Interaction in Nigerian Families: Conversation Analysis, Context and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Annabel; Radford, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a conversation analysis (CA) approach to explore parent-child interaction (PCI) within Nigerian families. We illustrate how speech and language therapists (SLTs), by using CA, can tailor recommendations according to the interactional style of each individual family that are consonant with the family's cultural beliefs. Three…

  8. Narratives of Nigerian Educated Women Pursuing Higher Education Degrees in Western Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulus, Vincent Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The impetus for conducting this research is near and dear to my heart along with desiring to make a change for the better. In conducting interviews of Nigerian women's experiences, struggles and accessibility to secondary education, the research shows significant barriers to secondary education in their narrative experiences that their male…

  9. Academic Motivation and Self-Determination among Three Ethnic Groups of Nigerian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olagbami, Abiola Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    The need related behavioral dynamics that are revealed in self-determination and academic motivation research control factors which pinpoint and examine settings that facilitate self-motivation and well-being. This study examined differences in motivational and self-determination behaviors among three ethnic groups of Nigerian university students…

  10. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of nigerian newborns.

    PubMed

    Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Adesiyun, Omotayo O; Suleiman, Mohammed B; Bello, Mustapha

    2012-07-31

    The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA) of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  11. Validation of the Domains of Creativity Scale for Nigerian Preservice Science, Technology, and Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Fatade, Alfred O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Investigation into the factor structure of Domains of Creativity Scale has been on for sometimes now. The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale on Nigerian preservice science, technology, and mathematics teachers. Method: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed…

  12. Strategies for Enhancing Quality Assurance in Business Teacher Education Programme in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the strategies for enhancing quality assurance in business teacher education programme in Nigerian universities. Two research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. This study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised 129 Business Education lecturers in state and federal…

  13. Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET): Understanding the Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dike, Victor Ebipuruonwu

    2013-01-01

    The descriptive mixed-methods study explores and describes the challenges and prospects of the growth and development of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) schools and science-based technology education in Nigeria. It is not understood how Nigerians in the United States perceive the impacts of governmental policies on education…

  14. College Lecturers' Perspectives on the Role of Nigerian Creole in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukwuoma, Collins U.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the philosophical teaching perspectives of lecturers in teacher preparatory colleges in the Niger Delta of Nigeria as it relates to their choice of the language for classroom instruction. Specifically, the study explored the lecturers' perceptions regarding the role of Nigerian Creole in teacher…

  15. Readability of Igbo Language Textbook in Use in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eze, Nneka Justina

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of Igbo language textbook in use in Nigerian secondary schools. Five Igbo Language textbook were evaluated. The study employed an evaluation research design. The study was conducted in South Eastern Geopolitical zone of Nigeria which is predominantly the Igbo tribe of Nigeria. Four hundred secondary school…

  16. Relationship between the Onset Age of Bilingualism and Development of Cognitive Control among Nigerians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shujairi, Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim; Buba, Jamila AbdulAzeez; Ya'u, Mohammed Sani

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of studies suggests that bilingual persons are better than monolinguals on a variety of cognitive measures. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between the onset age of bilingual and the development of cognitive control among Nigerians. 10 bilingual students studying at University Putra Malaysia have been…

  17. Conditions Restraining the Teaching of Major Nigerian Languages in Secondary School in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidi-Ehiem, Ugochi Ijeoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the conditions handicapping the teaching of major Nigerian languages in secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A random sample of 953 students and 602 language teachers completed a corresponding copies of questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 1555 copies of questionnaire…

  18. Adaptation of calcium absorption during treatment of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children has been effectively treated with Ca supplementation. High values of Ca absorption efficiency have been observed in untreated children, but whether Ca absorption efficiency changes during treatment with Ca is unknown. Our objective in conducting this study wa...

  19. Meals and dephytinization affect calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with rickets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional rickets resulting from calcium insufficiency is common in Nigeria, and high dietary phytate is thought to inhibit calcium and zinc absorption. We compared the effects of a high-phytate meal and enzymatic dephytinization on calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with and without...

  20. Medical Students' Evaluation of Physiology Learning Environments in Two Nigerian Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaehie, U. S. B.; Nwobodo, E.; Oze, G.; Nwagha, U. I.; Orizu, I.; Okeke, T.; Anyanwu, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of biomedical knowledge and the pursuit of more meaningful learning have led to world-wide evidence-based innovative changes in medical education and curricula. The recent emphasis on problem-based learning (PBL) and student-centred learning environments are, however, not being implemented in Nigerian medical schools. Traditional…

  1. Challenges of Material Resource Management among Social Studies Lecturers in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dania, P. O.; Obro, S.; Owhorhu, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The study is focused on the challenges of material resource management among social studies lecturers in Nigerian Universities. The study population is one thousand eight hundred and fifty five (1855). The sample size comprises one hundred staff, one hundred and twenty students, and forty internal material resource managers were randomly selected…

  2. Critical Multimodal Literacy: How Nigerian Female Students Critique Texts and Reconstruct Unequal Social Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates how three female Nigerian high school students were taught to deploy critical multimodal literacy to interrogate texts and reconstruct unequal social structures. A class of ninth-grade students in an all-women school was given instruction through the analysis of how multiple modes were used to represent meanings in…

  3. Evaluating Pragmatic Competence in Nigerian Undergraduates' Language Errors within Descriptive ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Anas Sa'idu; Nair, Subadrah Madhawa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the level of pragmatic competence for ESL writing skills among Nigerian undergraduates. Methodologically, it adopts descriptive research design within the explanatory framework of the QUAN-Qual model. The instruments used are descriptive essay text and focus group interview questions. In writing the descriptive essays, a…

  4. Teachers' Opinions on the Incorporation of Environmental Education in the Nigerian Primary School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jekayinfa, Alice Arinlade; Yusuf, Abdul Raheem

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the report of a research carried out in Kwara Sate of Nigeria to seek the opinions of teachers on the incorporation of Environmental Education (EE) in the Nigerian Primary School Curriculum. The descriptive survey method was employed for the study. 200 teachers were selected through stratified random sampling technique to cater…

  5. Environmental Literacy among Preservice Social Studies Teachers: A Review of the Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Biodun; Ifegbesan, Ayodeji

    2011-01-01

    This mini-survey assessed the environmental literacy level of preservice teachers in a Nigerian university through 199 social studies teacher-trainees. It found a high level of awareness/knowledge on local environmental problems but low level on global environmental issues. Although a positive disposition toward environmental issues was…

  6. Promoting Peace and Culture in Nigerian Higher Institutions through the Use of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekwueme, L. U.; Odunuga, A. F.; Ogunrinade, D. O. A.

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the history of education in Nigerian higher Institutions presents series of student's unrest, riots, cultism, and violence, vandalisation of school's properties in reaction to inadequacies and neglect of certain vital elements needed for the smooth running of educational programmes. Music as an art that attracts students of all ages and…

  7. Factors Which Influence the Development of Intelligence and Performance Among Nigerian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebunmi, Akin

    Several themes relevant to the personality development and intellectual functioning of children are presented in this position paper. Inferences for the education of Nigerian children are also drawn. Among general factors considered influential in children's intellectual development, three are emphasized: the way in which intelligence is defined,…

  8. Formal Body Bequest Program in Nigerian Medical Schools: When Do We Start?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, Oluwole Busayo

    2011-01-01

    Human body dissection is a prerequisite for the training of health professionals and the conduct of medical research. However, most Nigerian medical schools experience difficulty obtaining an adequate and regular supply of human tissue. Presently, the major source of anatomical material comes from unclaimed bodies collected from hospital…

  9. Use of high-ethanol-resistant yeast isolates from Nigerian palm wine in lager beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Agu, R C; Anyanwu, T U; Onwumelu, A H

    1993-11-01

    High-ethanol-resistant yeasts, characterized as Saccharomyces sp., were isolated from Nigerian palm wine with added sucrose for high gravity brewing. The yeast isolates that survived the highest ethanol production were used to ferment brewery wort and produced 8.2 to 8.5% (v/v) ethanol; values almost double that of the control yeast from a local brewery.

  10. A Conceptual Model for School-Based Management Operation and Quality Assurance in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayeni, Adeolu Joshua; Ibukun, Williams Olusola

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the School-Based Management Committee's (SBMC) involvement and effectiveness in school governance, curriculum implementation and students' learning outcomes in Nigerian secondary schools; the major challenges facing effective operation of SBMCs were identified as low capacity of key members of the SBMCs; poor attendance of…

  11. Phenotype, hormonal profile and genotype of subjects with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: report of a family with four adult males and one child with disorder of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, B; Philibert, P; Eunice, M; Audran, F; Paris, F; Khurana, M L; Ammini, A C; Charles, S

    2009-08-01

    There is little information on the molecular basis of intrafamilial and inter-familial phenotypic heterogeneity with the same androgen receptor (AR) mutation in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. A genetic analysis was performed in a large kindred with ambiguous genitalia and the genotype-phenotype correlations were analysed. The index case was brought for sex assignment. Family history revealed four other affected members who had hypospadias and varying degrees of virilisation. All the affected males had hemizygous mutations in the third exon of the AR gene (A596T). One was also found to have a heterozygous mutation in the fourth exon of the 5 alpha reductase type 2 gene (G196S). This affected male with double mutations was better virilised compared with the other affected members with a single mutation. The degree of virilisation correlated with serum testosterone levels. Gynaecomastia was not present in any of these subjects. It is concluded that the subject with dual gene defects also had higher levels of testosterone and pubertal virilsation. Testosterone levels possibly govern the degree of pubertal virilisation in subjects with A596T gene defects. It is not clear whether the better pubertal virilsation and higher testosterone are in any way causally related to the SRD5A2 gene defect.

  12. Early Experience with Stapled Gastrointestinal Anastomoses in a Nigerian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, AO; Olasehinde, O; Arowolo, OA; Alatise, OI; Agbakwuru, EA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand-sewn gastrointestinal anastomoses has been the traditional approach to gastrointestinal anastomosis in Nigeria while stapled anastomoses are infrequently performed in few centers. Objectives: To describe the outcome of our initial experience with stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses in a semi-urban patient population. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients who had stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses between January 2011 and June 2014 in a Nigerian tertiary hospital were prospectively evaluated. Indications for operation, procedures performed and anastomoses constructed and postoperative outcome of each patient were documented. Results: Nineteen patients including seven males and 12 females had stapled anastomoses within the period. Their ages ranged between 41 and 68 (mean 52.5) years. Six (31.6%) Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomies, 6 (31.6%) ileo-colic, 3 (15.8%) ileo-ileal, 2 (10.5%) colo-colic, and 2 (10.5%) colo-anal anastomoses were performed. Indications include antral gastric cancer in 4 (21.1%), right colon cancer 4 (21.1%), ileal perforations in 3 (15.8%) while 2 (10.5%) each had left colon cancer, common bile duct obstruction, rectal cancer and ruptured appendix. Mean duration of operation was 108 ± 46 min and mean duration of postoperative stay was 5 ± 2.6 days. No intraoperative complications were recorded and no anastomotic leakage occurred. At a median follow-up of 5 months no staple related stricture had occurred. Conclusions: Stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses are associated with a good outcome in our center. We propose a prospective, large-population randomized comparison of the technique with hand-sewn anastomoses. PMID:26425069

  13. Evaluation of the Nigerian population policy--myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Adekunle, A O; Otolorin, E O

    2000-01-01

    The National Population Policy (NPP) was promulgated to improve the living standards and quality of life of Nigerians by reducing the persistently high level of fertility and population growth, and achieving an even rural-urban development. The aim of this study was to review Nigeria's demographic patterns in the last decade against the 1995 and AD 2000 benchmarks stipulated in the NPP. The results revealed that the total fertility rate fell significantly to 6.2 in the earlier half of the decade but is still far from the targeted figure of 4.0. The infant mortality rate had risen in the past five years, and although the crude death rate declined by 21.49% in 1995, it has remained stagnant since then. There has been no appreciable decline in the rate of natural increase which was expected to fall by 31.03% in AD 2000. The current contraceptive prevalence rate of 11.0% is a far cry from the targeted 80% set in the population policy. In general, the situation that influenced the decision to promulgate the NPP in 1988 has not improved much: the national decline in fertility is not appreciable neither is the increase in welfare significant. The key issues in the reproductive health sectors include the limited availability and poor quality of services, which lead to high maternal and infant mortality rates, inadequate adolescent outreach, and limited use of contraceptives. This evaluation of the policy's targets and objectives in the light of the 1995 and AD 2000 benchmarks reveals that the NPP has failed due to an underestimation of the huge financial resources required for implementation, lack of political will, poor and uncoordinated organisation, 'gender-divide' and the prolonged political instability in the country.

  14. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in Nigerian children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Adegun, P T

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may result in long term renal dysfunction. The prevalence, potential risk factors, and clinical significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) were investigated in 196 Nigerian children with SCA in stable state. These children had clinical evaluation and assessment of their mid-stream urine (MSU) for pyuria, culture, and sensitivity tests; urinalysis for proteinuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hematocrit, serum creatinine and uric acid estimation. Children with confirmed ASB were compared with those without ASB. Those with confirmed ASB were monitored for 6 months for persistence of significant growth, development of symptomatic UTI, and evaluation of renal functions. The prevalence of probable and confirmed ASB in this cohort of SCA children were 12.2% and 6.6%, respectively. Confirmed ASB was more prevalent among older (P = 0.046) and female (P = 0.003) SCA children, particularly those with pyuria (odd Ratio, OR = 5.4, 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.7-11.0, P < 0.001) and proteinuria (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 3.9-8.7, P = 0.006). Previous symptomatic UTI was not associated with ASB. Also, the mean eGFR, serum creatinine, and uric acid were not different in the group with ASB and those without ASB (P > 0.05). At the end of 6 month follow-up, two (15.4%) of the 13 children with ASB had persistence of significant growth, but none develop symptomatic UTI. Also, none of the two with persistent ASB had hypertension or deranged renal function. ASB is a significant problem in older age female SCA children, although renal functions were not different among those with and without ASB. A large scale randomized placebo-controlled trial of conventional treatment for ASB in SCA is advocated to define its long-term clinical significance.

  15. Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets.

    PubMed

    Breymeyer, Kara L; Lampe, Johanna W; McGregor, Bonnie A; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a positive association of diet and obesity with depression. Researchers have examined several diet-mood hypotheses, including investigating the extent to which carbohydrates may impact mood. There is limited research on how glycemic load, a characteristic of carbohydrates, impacts mood in healthy adults. Eighty-two healthy weight and overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover controlled feeding study testing low-compared to high-glycemic load diets. All participants completed self-report mood and energy level questionnaires during each arm of the intervention. Diets were isocaloric and were matched by macronutrient content as a percent of total energy. Mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales; tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, total mood disturbance (TMD), and negative affect (NA) in addition to the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and end of both 28-day feeding periods. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on mood, controlling for baseline POMS and CES-D scores, diet type, diet sequence, feeding period, sex, and percent body fat classification. The consumption of the high-glycemic load diet resulted in a 38% higher score for depressive symptoms on the CES-D (P = 0.002) compared to the low-glycemic load diet as well as 55% higher score for TMD (P = 0.05), and 26% higher score for fatigue/inertia (P = 0.04). In subgroup analyses, the overweight/obese participants had 40% higher scores on the CES-D scale compared to healthy weight participants (P = 0.05). In conclusion, a high-glycemic load diet was associated with higher depression symptoms, total mood disturbance, and fatigue compared to a low-glycemic load diet especially in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT

  16. Molecular characteristics and prognostic features of breast cancer in Nigerian compared with UK women.

    PubMed

    Agboola, A J; Musa, A A; Wanangwa, N; Abdel-Fatah, T; Nolan, C C; Ayoade, B A; Oyebadejo, T Y; Banjo, A A; Deji-Agboola, A M; Rakha, E A; Green, A R; Ellis, I O

    2012-09-01

    Although breast cancer (BC) incidence is lower in African-American women compared with White-American, in African countries such as Nigeria, BC is a common disease. Nigerian women have a higher risk for early-onset, with a high mortality rate from BC, prompting speculation that risk factors could be genetic and the molecular portrait of these tumours are different to those of western women. In this study, 308 BC samples from Nigerian women with complete clinical history and tumour characteristics were included and compared with a large series of BC from the UK as a control group. Immunoprofile of these tumours was characterised using a panel of 11 biomarkers of known relevance to BC. The immunoprofile and patients' outcome were compared with tumour grade-matched UK control group. Nigerian women presenting with BC were more frequently premenopausal, and their tumours were characterised by large primary tumour size, high tumour grade, advanced lymph node stage, and a higher rate of vascular invasion compared with UK women. In the grade-matched groups, Nigerian BC showed over representation of triple-negative and basal phenotypes and BRCA1 deficiency BC compared with UK women, but no difference was found regarding HER2 expression between the two series. Nigerian women showed significantly poorer outcome after development of BC compared with UK women. This study demonstrates that there are possible genetic and molecular differences between an indigenous Black population and a UK-based series. The basal-like, triple negative and BRCA1 dysfunction groups of tumours identified in this study may have implications in the development of screening programs and therapies for African patients and families that are likely to have a BRCA1 dysfunction, basal like and triple negative.

  17. Nigerian Dental Technology Students and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Knowledge, Misconceptions and Willingness to Care

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Omili, MA; Akeredolu, PA

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students’ knowledge and misconceptions about HIV infection and their willingness to care for HIV-infected patients. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. Data was subjected to descriptive, non-parametric and parametric statistics using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago Illinois, USA). P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents was high with some misconceptions. Specifically, the misconceptions about HIV transmission through a mosquito bite (P = 0.02) and shaking of hands (P = 0.03) were higher among respondents in the higher class than those in lower class. However, 10.6% (21/198), 6.1% (12/198) and 4.0% (8/198) of the respondents erroneous described HIV as harmless, self-limitation and antibiotics responsive infection respectively. Of the respondents, 78.8% (156/198) and 83.3% (165/198) of them expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients and expressed need for training in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients respectively. Overall, the respondents opined that the dental therapists are the most suitable dental professional to pass HIV-related information to patients in the dental setting ahead of dentists and dental surgery assistants. Conclusion: The expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients, knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents were high with existent misconceptions. There were no significant differences in the knowledge about HIV infection

  18. Synchronicity of frequently sampled thyrotropin (TSH) and leptin concentrations in healthy adults and leptin-deficient subjects: evidence for possible partial TSH regulation by leptin in humans.

    PubMed

    Mantzoros, C S; Ozata, M; Negrao, A B; Suchard, M A; Ziotopoulou, M; Caglayan, S; Elashoff, R M; Cogswell, R J; Negro, P; Liberty, V; Wong, M L; Veldhuis, J; Ozdemir, I C; Gold, P W; Flier, J S; Licinio, J

    2001-07-01

    Leptin signals the status of energy reserves to the brain. Leptin stimulates biosynthesis of TRH in vitro and influences the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in vivo in rodents. Because blood levels of both leptin and TSH display diurnal variation with a distinct nocturnal rise, we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between fluctuations in circulating leptin and TSH. We measured serum leptin and TSH levels every 7 min for 24 h in five healthy men and found that both leptin and TSH levels are highly organized and pulsatile. A similar pattern of leptin and TSH rhythms was observed, with TSH and leptin levels reaching a nadir in late morning and a peak in the early morning hours. Importantly, cosinor analysis on the absolute leptin and TSH levels revealed a statistically significant fit for a 24-h period and the two hormones showed similar probabilities of rhythm and superimposable peak values. Furthermore, this study shows a strong positive Pearson correlation between the 24-h patterns of variability of leptin and TSH in healthy subjects. Finally, the ultradian fluctuations in leptin levels showed pattern synchrony with those of TSH as determined by cross-correlation analysis, by cross-approximate enthropy and Bayessian analysis applied independently. To further explore whether these associations could reflect an underlying regulation of TSH secretion by leptin, we also studied frequently sampled leptin and TSH levels in four brothers, members of a family with leptin deficiency (one normal homozygote, two heterozygotes, and one leptin-deficient homozygote). Leptin levels of the homozygous leptin-deficient subject are detectable but bioinactive, and the rhythm of his TSH is disorganized. 24-h pattern of leptin and TSH variability in the heterozygous subjects, although significantly correlated, showed a weaker correlation compared with the strong correlation in the normal subjects. These data are consistent with the possibility that

  19. Prevalence, Clinical Profile, Iron Status, and Subject-Specific Traits for Excessive Erythrocytosis in Andean Adults Living Permanently at 3,825 Meters Above Sea Level

    PubMed Central

    De Ferrari, Aldo; Miranda, J. Jaime; Gilman, Robert H.; Dávila-Román, Victor G.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Huicho, Luis; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Wise, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is a prevalent condition in populations living at high altitudes (> 2,500 m above sea level). Few large population-based studies have explored the association between EE and multiple subject-specific traits including oxygen saturation, iron status indicators, and pulmonary function. METHODS: We enrolled a sex-stratified and age-stratified sample of 1,065 high-altitude residents aged ≥ 35 years from Puno, Peru (3,825 m above sea level) and conducted a standardized questionnaire and physical examination that included spirometry, pulse oximetry, and a blood sample for multiple clinical markers. Our primary objectives were to estimate the prevalence of EE, characterize the clinical profile and iron status indicators of subjects with EE, and describe subject-specific traits associated with EE. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of EE was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.3%-6.0%). Oxygen saturation was significantly lower among EE than non-EE group subjects (85.3% vs 90.1%, P < .001) but no difference was found in iron status indicators between both groups (P > .09 for all values). In multivariable logistic regression, we found that age ≥ 65 years (OR = 2.45, 95% CI, 1.16-5.09), male sex (3.86, 1.78-9.08), having metabolic syndrome (2.66, 1.27-5.75) or being overweight (5.20, 1.95-16.77), pulse oximetry < 85% (14.90, 6.43-34.90), and % predicted FVC < 80% (13.62, 4.40-41.80) were strongly associated with EE. Attributable fractions for EE were greatest for being overweight (26.7%), followed by male sex (21.5%), pulse oximetry < 85% (16.4%), having metabolic syndrome (14.4%), and % predicted FVC < 80% (9.3%). CONCLUSIONS: We found a lower prevalence of EE than in previous reports in the Peruvian Andes. Although the presence of hypoxemia and decreased vital capacity were strongly associated with excessive erythrocytosis, being overweight or having metabolic syndrome were associated with an important fraction of cases in our study population. PMID

  20. Definitions and the experience of fertility problems: infertile and sub-fertile women, childless mothers, and honorary mothers in two southern Nigerian communities.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Bruce; Hollos, Marida

    2014-03-01

    Although infertility causes women considerable grief, social stigma, and economic deprivation, scholars have paid little attention to infertility's definitions that may depart from the standard Western usage and how such definitions influence the way women experience the condition. This article, by listening to individual women's experiences of infertility in two Nigerian communities, examines these definitions and differentiates between culturally salient categories of infertility. In distinguishing between different kinds of childless women and those with low fertility, we intend to enhance understandings of infertility by considering women's subjective understandings of the condition and thus moving beyond the current medical definition. By comparing women's experiences in two different ethnic groups in Nigeria, we show how distinct forms of kinship structures and social organizations shape the ways low fertility is defined, managed, and experienced.

  1. Definitions and the Experience of Fertility Problems: Infertile and Sub-fertile Women, Childless Mothers, and Honorary Mothers in Two Southern Nigerian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Bruce; Hollos, Marida

    2015-01-01

    Although infertility causes women considerable grief, social stigma, and economic deprivation, scholars have paid little attention to infertility’s definitions that may depart from the standard Western usage and how such definitions influence the way women experience the condition. This article, by listening to individual women’s experiences of infertility in two Nigerian communities, examines these definitions and differentiates between culturally salient categories of infertility. In distinguishing between different kinds of childless women and those with low fertility, we intend to enhance understandings of infertility by considering women’s subjective understandings of the condition and thus moving beyond the current medical definition. By comparing women’s experiences in two different ethnic groups in Nigeria, we show how distinct forms of kinship structures and social organizations shape the ways low fertility is defined, managed, and experienced. PMID:24578250

  2. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic interaction between repeated doses of rifapentine or rifampin and a single dose of bedaquiline in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Winter, Helen; Egizi, Erica; Murray, Stephen; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann; Rouse, Doris J; Severynse-Stevens, Diana; Pauli, Elliott

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the effects of rifapentine or rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of bedaquiline and its M2 metabolite in healthy subjects using a two-period single-sequence design. In period 1, subjects received a single dose of bedaquiline (400 mg), followed by a 28-day washout. In period 2, subjects received either rifapentine (600 mg) or rifampin (600 mg) from day 20 to day 41, as well as a single bedaquiline dose (400 mg) on day 29. The pharmacokinetic profiles of bedaquiline and M2 were compared over 336 h after the administration of bedaquiline alone and in combination with steady-state rifapentine or rifampin. Coadministration of bedaquiline with rifapentine or rifampin resulted in lower bedaquiline exposures. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the maximum observed concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve to the last available concentration time point (AUC0-t), and AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-inf) of bedaquiline were 62.19% (53.37 to 72.47), 42.79% (37.77 to 48.49), and 44.52% (40.12 to 49.39), respectively, when coadministered with rifapentine. Similarly, the GMRs and 90% CIs for the Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf of bedaquiline were 60.24% (51.96 to 69.84), 41.36% (37.70 to 45.36), and 47.32% (41.49 to 53.97), respectively, when coadministered with rifampin. The Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf of M2 were also altered when bedaquiline was coadministered with rifapentine or rifampin. Single doses of bedaquiline, administered alone or with multiple doses of rifapentine or rifampin, were well tolerated, with no safety concerns related to coadministration. Daily administration of rifapentine to patients with tuberculosis presents the same drug interaction challenges as rifampin and other rifamycins. Strong inducers of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 should be avoided when considering the use of bedaquiline. (This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT02216331.).

  3. Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Repeated Doses of Rifapentine or Rifampin and a Single Dose of Bedaquiline in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Helen; Egizi, Erica; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann; Rouse, Doris J.; Severynse-Stevens, Diana; Pauli, Elliott

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of rifapentine or rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of bedaquiline and its M2 metabolite in healthy subjects using a two-period single-sequence design. In period 1, subjects received a single dose of bedaquiline (400 mg), followed by a 28-day washout. In period 2, subjects received either rifapentine (600 mg) or rifampin (600 mg) from day 20 to day 41, as well as a single bedaquiline dose (400 mg) on day 29. The pharmacokinetic profiles of bedaquiline and M2 were compared over 336 h after the administration of bedaquiline alone and in combination with steady-state rifapentine or rifampin. Coadministration of bedaquiline with rifapentine or rifampin resulted in lower bedaquiline exposures. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the maximum observed concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve to the last available concentration time point (AUC0–t), and AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUC0–inf) of bedaquiline were 62.19% (53.37 to 72.47), 42.79% (37.77 to 48.49), and 44.52% (40.12 to 49.39), respectively, when coadministered with rifapentine. Similarly, the GMRs and 90% CIs for the Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–inf of bedaquiline were 60.24% (51.96 to 69.84), 41.36% (37.70 to 45.36), and 47.32% (41.49 to 53.97), respectively, when coadministered with rifampin. The Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–inf of M2 were also altered when bedaquiline was coadministered with rifapentine or rifampin. Single doses of bedaquiline, administered alone or with multiple doses of rifapentine or rifampin, were well tolerated, with no safety concerns related to coadministration. Daily administration of rifapentine to patients with tuberculosis presents the same drug interaction challenges as rifampin and other rifamycins. Strong inducers of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 should be avoided when considering the use of bedaquiline. (This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under identifier

  4. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in a Nigerian Population

    PubMed Central

    Maruf, Fatai A.; Udoji, Nwannedimma V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This survey explored prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associations with socio-demographic variables in a Nigerian population. Methods This cross-sectional survey involved 1521 adults in Nnewi. Age, sex, educational and occupational status, and BMI were recorded. Results Prevalence of overweight was higher in males (32.3%; 95% CI, 29.5%–35.2%) than in females (29.8%; 95% CI, 26.8%–33.0%); the reverse was the case for prevalence of obesity (19.6%; 95% CI, 17.3%–22.2% in males and 36.0%; 95% CI, 32.8%–39.4% in females). Higher odds ratios (ORs) for overweight and obesity were observed in participants aged 41–60 years (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.57–2.61 for overweight and OR 4.29; 95% CI, 3.25–5.67 for obesity) and those >60 years (OR 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21–2.43 for overweight and OR 4.21; 95% CI, 2.86–6.19 for obesity) compared to those aged 18–40 years. Female sex was associated with higher ORs for overweight (OR 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96–1.51) and obesity (OR 2.21; 95% CI, 1.73–2.83). Participants with secondary education had marginally higher ORs for overweight (OR 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88–1.51) and obesity (OR 1.17; 95% CI, 0.86–1.59) than those with tertiary education, and so were those with primary education for obesity (OR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.74–1.89) but higher OR for overweight (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 0.98–2.13). Unskilled participants had about the same OR for overweight and obesity as professionals, and while skilled participants had about the same OR for overweight as professionals, their OR for obesity (OR 1.27; 95% CI, 0.67–2.43) was fairly higher than that for professionals. Conclusions Prevalence of overweight is higher in males than in females, but the reverse is the case for prevalence of obesity. Older age and female sex are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, while working at a skilled occupation is associated with obesity, and tertiary educational attainment is associated with overweight. PMID:26005065

  5. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  6. EMG activity of finger flexor muscles and grip force following low-dose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Kafri, Michal; Zaltsberg, Nir; Dickstein, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Somatosensory stimulation modulates cortical and corticospinal excitability and consequently affects motor output. Therefore, low-amplitude transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has the potential to elicit favorable motor responses. The purpose of the two presented pilot studies was to shed light on TENS parameters that are relevant for the enhancement of two desirable motor outcomes, namely, electromyographic (EMG) activity and contraction strength of the finger flexors and wrist muscles. In 5 and 10 healthy young adults (in Study I and Study II, respectively) TENS was delivered to the volar aspect of the forearm. We manipulated TENS frequency (150 Hz vs. 5 Hz), length of application (10, 20, and 60 min), and side of application (unilateral, right forearm vs. bilateral forearms). EMG amplitude and grip force were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post), and following 15 min of no stimulation (Study I only). The results indicated that low-frequency bursts of TENS applied to the skin overlying the finger flexor muscles enhance the EMG activity of the finger flexors and grip force. The increase in EMG activity of the flexor muscles was observed after 20 min of stimulation, while grip force was increased only after 1 h. The effects of uni- and bilateral TENS were comparable. These observations allude to a modulatory effect of TENS on the tested motor responses; however, unequivocal conclusions of the findings are hampered by individual differences that affect motor outcomes, such as in level of attention.

  7. Extended Broca's area in the functional connectome of language in adults: combined cortical and subcortical single-subject analysis using fMRI and DTI tractography.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Golby, Alexandra; Wells, William M; Pujol, Sonia; Tie, Yanmei; Rigolo, Laura; Yarmarkovich, Alexander; Pieper, Steve; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Jolesz, Ferenc; Kikinis, Ron

    2013-07-01

    Traditional models of the human language circuitry encompass three cortical areas, Broca's, Geschwind's and Wernicke's, and their connectivity through white matter fascicles. The neural connectivity deep to these cortical areas remains poorly understood, as does the macroscopic functional organization of the cortico-subcortical language circuitry. In an effort to expand current knowledge, we combined functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging to explore subject-specific structural and functional macroscopic connectivity, focusing on Broca's area. Fascicles were studied using diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking seeded from volumes placed manually within the white matter. White matter fascicles and fMRI-derived clusters (antonym-generation task) of positive and negative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal were co-registered with 3-D renderings of the brain in 12 healthy subjects. Fascicles connecting BOLD-derived clusters were analyzed within specific cortical areas: Broca's, with the pars triangularis, the pars opercularis, and the pars orbitaris; Geschwind's and Wernicke's; the premotor cortex, the dorsal supplementary motor area, the middle temporal gyrus, the dorsal prefrontal cortex and the frontopolar region. We found a functional connectome divisible into three systems-anterior, superior and inferior-around the insula, more complex than previously thought, particularly with respect to a new extended Broca's area. The extended Broca's area involves two new fascicles: the operculo-premotor fascicle comprised of well-organized U-shaped fibers that connect the pars opercularis with the premotor region; and (2) the triangulo-orbitaris system comprised of intermingled U-shaped fibers that connect the pars triangularis with the pars orbitaris. The findings enhance our understanding of language function.

  8. Reproductive health knowledge, sexual partners, contraceptive use and motives for premarital sex among female sub-urban Nigerian secondary students.

    PubMed

    Moronkola, O A; Fakeye, J A

    Adolescents in sub-Saharan African countries constitute a large proportion of the population. They are sexually active, engage in unsafe reproductive health behavior with attendant consequences but lack appropriate reproductive health education. In the Nigeria Nation Reproductive Health Strategy Framework and Plan, the status of adolescents' reproductive health care is considered low. This study assessed reproductive health knowledge, sexual partners, contraceptive use, and motives for premarital sex among female sub-urban Nigerian secondary students. The study was cross-sectional, involving 500 senior secondary 1 and 2 female sub-urban students. The instrument used was a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. More than 70.0% of the respondents had knowledge of all reproductive health items; male and female condoms were popular contraceptives. At least 53.4% were sexually active and a majority (49.6%) had boyfriends as sex partners. Peer pressure (31.6%) and fun/pleasure (29.2%) were major motives for engaging in premarital sex. Majority (40.3%) terminated pregnancies through self-medication. Though respondents had knowledge of reproductive health, there is need to introduce health education (incorporating reproductive health education) as a core subject in schools as well as provision of youth-friendly health facilities.

  9. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Rin; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and subcutaneous fat areas were measured by computed tomography using a single computed tomography slice at the L4-5 lumbar level. We analyzed the association between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors. Results A positive correlation was found between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and variables such as body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, visceral fat, and the visceral-subcutaneous fat ratio. However, there was no significant correlation between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and subcutaneous fat or blood pressure. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between a triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio ≥3 and diabetes, a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, a waist circumference ≥90 cm, and a visceral fat area ≥100 cm2. The triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was not significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusion There were significant associations between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and body mass, waist circumference, diabetes, and visceral fat among a clinical sample of Korean men. In the clinical setting, the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio may be a simple and useful indicator for visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26634102

  10. Nigerian dental students' willingness to treat HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Ehigiator, Osarobo; Oboro, Helen Oziofu; Ehizele, Adebola Oluyemisi; Umoh, Agnes; Ezeja, Ejike Bartholomew; Omili, Michael; Ehigiator, Laura

    2010-04-01

    Dental care of HIV-positive individuals plays a vital role in improving their nutritional intake, medication tolerance and effectiveness, treatment success rate, and quality of life. It is therefore important to ensure optimal dental care of this group of people, especially since more of them, with or without knowledge of their serologic status, are now utilizing dental services. The objective of this study was to assess Nigerian dental students' willingness to treat HIV-positive individuals. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of all seventy-six final-year dental students of the University of Benin, Nigeria, was conducted in December 2007 using a self-administered questionnaire that elicited information on the students' demography, self-rated knowledge on HIV/AIDS, attitude towards homosexuals, infection control practices, occupational risk perception, and willingness to provide care for HIV-positive individuals. The response rate was 76.3 percent. Over 77 percent of the respondents were in the twenty-five to thirty years age group. The male-female ratio was approximately 1.6:1. HIV-related knowledge was reported as high by only 31 percent of the respondents. Eighty-one percent showed great interest in HIV-related information, while about half (53.4 percent) exhibited significant worry about occupational contagion. Forty-eight (82.7 percent) desired more knowledge about safety precautions during treatment of HIV patients. Fifty respondents (86.2 percent) reported good infection control practices. About three-fourths (74.2 percent) rated the risk of HIV contagion from patients high, while only one-fourth (25.8 percent) reported having an unsympathetic attitude towards homosexuals. Almost all respondents (98.3 percent) agreed that oral care for HIV-positive individuals improves their quality of life, but only 58.8 percent expressed a willingness to treat HIV-positive patients and only 46.5 percent said they will render volunteer dental services in HIV centers. HIV

  11. The Effect of Intra- and Intergenerational Caregiving on Subjective Well-Being – Evidence of a Population Based Longitudinal Study among Older Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether intra- and intergenerational caregiving affect subjective well-being (SWB) of the caregivers longitudinally. Methods Data were drawn from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS), which is a population-based longitudinal study of individuals living in Germany aged 40 and over. The waves in 2002, 2008 and 2011 were used (with 10,434 observations). SWB was examined in a broad sense, covering affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB), positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as functional and mental health. While intragenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for spouse/partner, intergenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for mother, father, mother-in-law, father-in-law, partner’s mother or partner’s father. Results Fixed effects regressions adjusting for sociodemographic factors, social network, self-efficacy and morbidity showed that intergenerational informal care did not affect the various SWB outcome measures. Intragenerational caregiving affected CWB (women) and mental health (total sample and men), whereas it did not affect the other outcome variables. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of intragenerational caregiving for mental health (men) and cognitive well-being (women). Consequently, interventions to avoid mental illness due to intragenerational caregiving are urgently needed. PMID:26859511

  12. Evaluation of the effect of food and gastric pH on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of cabozantinib in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh; Holland, Jaymes; Mamelok, Richard; Laberge, Marie-Kristine; Grenier, Julie; Swearingen, Dennis; Armas, Danielle; Lacy, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Cabozantinib is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of patients with progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. Cabozantinib exhibits a pH-dependent solubility profile in vitro. Two phase 1 clinical pharmacology studies were conducted in healthy subjects to evaluate whether factors that may affect cabozantinib solubility and gastric pH could alter cabozantinib bioavailability: a food effect study (study 1) and a drug-drug interaction (DDI) study with the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) esomeprazole (study 2). Following a high-fat meal (study 1), cabozantinib Cmax and AUC were increased (40.5% and 57%, respectively), and the median tmax was delayed by 2 hours. Cabozantinib should thus not be taken with food (patients should not eat for at least 2 hours before and at least 1 hour after administration). In the DDI study (study 2), the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) around the ratio of least-squares means of cabozantinib with esomeprazole versus cabozantinib alone for AUC0-inf were within the 80%-125% limits; the upper 90%CI for Cmax was 125.1%. Because of the low apparent risk of a DDI, concomitant use of PPIs or weaker gastric pH-altering agents with cabozantinib is not contraindicated.

  13. Effects of a program to prevent social isolation on loneliness, depression, and subjective well-being of older adults: a randomized trial among older migrants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Kai, Ichiro; Takizawa, Ayako

    2012-01-01

    Social isolation among the elderly is a concern in developed countries. Using a randomized trial, this study examined the effect of a social isolation prevention program on loneliness, depression, and subjective well-being of the elderly in Japan. Among the elderly people who relocated to suburban Tokyo, 63 who responded to a pre-test were randomized and assessed 1 and 6 months after the program. Four sessions of a group-based program were designed to prevent social isolation by improving community knowledge and networking with other participants and community "gatekeepers." The Life Satisfaction Index A (LSI-A), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Ando-Osada-Kodama (AOK) loneliness scale, social support, and other variables were used as outcomes of this study. A linear mixed model was used to compare 20 of the 21 people in the intervention group to 40 of the 42 in the control group, and showed that the intervention program had a significant positive effect on LSI-A, social support, and familiarity with services scores and a significant negative effect on AOK over the study period. The program had no significant effect on depression. The findings of this study suggest that programs aimed at preventing social isolation are effective when they utilize existing community resources, are tailor-made based on the specific needs of the individual, and target people who can share similar experiences.

  14. Perceived crime and traffic safety is related to physical activity among adults in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neighborhood safety is inconsistently related to physical activity, but is seldom studied in developing countries. This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety and physical activity among Nigerian adults. Methods In a cross-sectional study, accelerometer-based physical activity (MVPA), reported walking, perceived crime and traffic safety were measured in 219 Nigerian adults. Logistic regression analysis was conducted, and the odds ratio for meeting health guidelines for MVPA and walking was calculated in relation to four safety variables, after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Sufficient MVPA was related to more perception of safety from traffic to walk (OR=2.28, CI=1.13- 6.25) and more safety from crime at night (OR=1.68, CI=1.07-3.64), but with less perception of safety from crime during the day to walk (OR=0.34, CI=0.06- 0.91). More crime safety during the day and night were associated with more walking. Conclusions Perceived safety from crime and traffic were associated with physical activity among Nigerian adults. These findings provide preliminary evidence on the need to provide safe traffic and crime environments that will make it easier and more likely for African adults to be physically active. PMID:22520066

  15. Molecular Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on Dried Blood Spots from Febrile Nigerian Children Compared to Culture

    PubMed Central

    Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Schleiss, Mark R.; Hassan-Hanga, Fatimah; Onuchukwu, Chuma; Umoru, Dominic; Obaro, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nigeria has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal disease in the world, but accurate surveillance is lacking. Molecular detection of infectious pathogens in dried blood spots (DBS) is an ideal method for surveillance of infections in resource-limited settings because of its low cost, minimal blood volumes involved, and ease of storage at ambient temperature. Our study aim was to evaluate a Streptococcus pneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) assay on DBS from febrile Nigerian children on Whatman 903 and FTA filter papers, compared to the gold standard of culture. Methods Between September 2011 to May 2015, blood was collected from children 5 years of age or under who presented to six hospital study sites throughout northern and central Nigeria with febrile illness, and inoculated into blood culture bottles or spotted onto Whatman 903 or FTA filter paper. Culture and rt-PCR were performed on all samples. Results A total of 537 DBS specimens from 535 children were included in the study, of which 15 were culture-positive for S. pneumoniae. The rt-PCR assay detected S. pneumoniae in 12 DBS specimens (2.2%). One positive rt-PCR result was identified in a culture-negative specimen from a high-risk subject, and two positive rt-PCR results were negative on repeat testing. Six culture-confirmed cases of S. pneumoniae bacteremia were missed. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivities of Whatman 903 and FTA DBS for detection of S. pneumoniae were 57.1% (95% CI 18.4–90.1%) and 62.5% (95% CI 24.5–91.5%), respectively. Nonspecific amplification was noted in an additional 22 DBS (4.1%). Among these, six were positive for a non-S. pneumoniae pathogen on culture. Conclusions Rt-PCR was able to detect S. pneumoniae from clinical DBS specimens, including from a culture-negative specimen. Our findings show promise of this approach as a surveillance diagnostic, but also raise important cautionary questions. Several DBS specimens were detected as

  16. Juvenile Xanthogranuloma Presenting as Bilateral Non-Infiltrative Extraconal Superior Orbital Tumour in a 27 Year Old Nigerian Woman: Features, Management and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chuka, Okosa Michael; Darlinton, Anyiam Daniel Chukwuemeka

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Orbital masses in adults are often caused by systemic diseases or are associated with systemic manifestations. Juvenile xanthogranuloma as a cause is rare and unreported in Africa. We present clinical features, management, and outcomes of bilateral orbital adult onset juvenile xanthogranuloma. Case Presentation: A 27 year old Nigerian woman presented with bilateral upper-lid lumps having lasted 5 months. These increased in size for about 1 month and stopped. Lid swelling was preceded by itchy eyes, redness of conjunctiva, and occasional mild pain. There were no visual or systemic symptoms. The lumps were firm, slightly mobile, not tender, and not attached to skin but rather to deeper structures. There was restriction on up-gaze but no proptosis or diplopia. Hematological, biochemical, and X-ray investigations were normal. Prednisolone tablets 10 mg daily for two weeks were not useful. Tissue biopsy was invaluable in diagnosis of this rare condition and disclosed juvenile xanthogranuloma. Partial surgical excision was done under lidocaine infiltration. No recurrence has occurred in 40 months of follow-up. No systemic disease has manifested. Conclusion: Juvenile xanthogranuloma can present as bilateral superior orbital tumor in adults; functional and cosmetic aims were achieved by sub-total excision. PMID:23071425

  17. The Absence of a Clinically Significant Effect of Food on the Single Dose Pharmacokinetics of Vorapaxar, a PAR-1 Antagonist, in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Behm, Martin O; Kosoglou, Teddy; Miltenburg, André M M; Li, Jing; Statkevich, Paul; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Martinho, Monika; Fackler, Paul

    2013-10-01

    In this open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover study, 16 healthy subjects received a single oral 2.5-mg dose of vorapaxar in the fed (i.e., standardized high-fat breakfast) and fasted (i.e., an overnight fast) state with a 6-week washout. Plasma samples for vorapaxar assay were obtained pre-dose and up to 72 hours post-dose. Least squares (LS) geometric mean AUC0-72 hr and Cmax were analyzed by ANOVA. If 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the geometric mean ratios (GMRs; fed/fasted) of AUC0-72 hr and Cmax were within the 50-200% range, then food was deemed not to have a clinically important effect. The LS geometric mean (90% CI) AUC0-72 hr and Cmax of vorapaxar in the fasted state were 314 (284-348) ng hr/mL and 23.4 (20.7-26.4) ng/mL, respectively. The GMRs (fed/fasted) and 90% CIs for AUC0-72 hr and Cmax were 96.9 (92.2-102) and 79.1 (67.6-92.5), respectively. Vorapaxar was generally safe and well tolerated in the presence and absence of food. Concomitant food decreased the rate (i.e., 21% reduction in Cmax and 45-min delay in Tmax ) with no effect on the extent of vorapaxar absorption when administered as a single 2.5-mg dose. Thus, vorapaxar can be administered without regard to food.

  18. Medical students' evaluation of physiology learning environments in two Nigerian medical schools.

    PubMed

    Anyaehie, U S B; Nwobodo, E; Oze, G; Nwagha, U I; Orizu, I; Okeke, T; Anyanwu, G E

    2011-06-01

    The expansion of biomedical knowledge and the pursuit of more meaningful learning have led to world-wide evidence-based innovative changes in medical education and curricula. The recent emphasis on problem-based learning (PBL) and student-centred learning environments are, however, not being implemented in Nigerian medical schools. Traditional didactic lectures thus predominate, and learning is further constrained by funding gaps, poor infrastructure, and increasing class sizes. We reviewed medical students' perceptions of their exposed learning environment to determine preferences, shortcomings, and prescriptions for improvements. The results confirm declining interest in didactic lectures and practical sessions with preferences for peer-tutored discussion classes, which were considered more interactive and interesting. This study recommends more emphasis on student-centered learning with alternatives to passive lecture formats and repetitive cookbook practical sessions. The institutionalization of student feedback processes in Nigerian medical schools is also highly recommended.

  19. Some correlates of electronic health information management system success in nigerian teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Adebowale I; Popoola, Sunday O

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, an electronic health information management system (EHIMS) is crucial for patient care in hospitals. This paper explores the aspects and elements that contribute to the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of study comprised 442 health information management personnel in five teaching hospitals that had implemented EHIMS in Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The findings revealed that there is a positive, close relationship between all the identified factors and EHIMS's success: technical factors (r = 0.564, P < 0.05); social factors (r = 0.616, P < 0.05); organizational factors (r = 0.621, P < 0.05); financial factors (r = 0.705, P < 0.05); and political factors (r = 0.589, P < 0.05). We conclude that consideration of all the identified factors was highly significant for the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals.

  20. Masculinity scripts and abstinence-related beliefs of rural Nigerian male youth.

    PubMed

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke Otutubikey

    2008-01-01

    This study interrogates the direct perspectives of rural Nigerian male youth regarding the preventive practice of "abstinence until marriage." The study shows that norms of masculinity suffuse Nigerian male youth narratives surrounding the benefits and hazards of abstinence. Key gender norms that frame male youth views of the consequences of abstention included those that cast men as strong-willed and resolute, represent sexual activity as a central marker of malehood, depict male sexuality as naturally dominant and aggressive, emphasize male sexual potency, associate maleness with power and leadership, and portray sexual activity as normal, proper, and permissible for males. Inattention to the norms and scripts that organize sexual behavior, especially among male youth, portends danger for abstinence-until-marriage programs.

  1. Analysis of some Nigerian solid mineral ores by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiajunwa, E. I.

    2001-11-01

    Determination of major, minor and trace elements in some Nigerian solid mineral ores by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy is described. Concentration values of major, minor and trace elements for Z>18 are reported. The mineral ores studied include (i) tantalite-coloumbite minerals, (ii) bismuth minerals and (iii) lead minerals. The accuracy and precision of the technique for chemical analysis was assured by analysing the geological standards mica-Fe (biotite) and NBS 278 (obsidian).

  2. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Olukoya, Daniel K; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions.

  3. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A.; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A.; Olukoya, Daniel K.; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P.

    2016-01-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions. PMID:27487957

  4. The History of the Nigerian Army and the Implications for the Future of Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-31

    eligious cleavages are more serious; Muslim fundamentalism and evangelical Christian militancy are on the rise; and northern Muslim anxiety over southern... nervously for the final catalyst. “God, don’t let it be another palliative palace coup”, was the generally expressed sentiment about a military coup...the development of the Nigerian military mind. It strengthens the assertions of Agwunobi from chapter 1 that speak to the erosion in professionalism

  5. Acid Inhibitory Effect of a Combination of Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate (CDFR0209) Compared With Delayed-Release Omeprazole 40 mg Alone in Healthy Adult Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Yang, Sung-Won; Kim, Hyunil; Kwak, Seong Shin; Kim, Young-Sang; Cho, Doo-Yeoun

    2017-01-23

    CDFR0209, a combination of an immediate-release formulation of omeprazole 40 mg and sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg, has been developed to treat acid-related disorders. We compared the acid inhibitory effects of CDFR0209 and delayed-release omeprazole (omeprazole-DR, Losec 40 mg) after repeated dosing in Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy adult male subjects. In this 2-period crossover study, 30 subjects were randomized to CDFR0209 or omeprazole-DR daily for 7 days. An ambulatory continuous 24-hour intragastric pH recording was performed at baseline and on days 1 and 7 of each administration period. Integrated gastric acidity was calculated from time-weighted average hydrogen ion concentrations at each hour of the 24-hour record. An analysis of variance model was used to test the pharmacodynamic equivalence of CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR, using the natural logarithmic transformation of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity for the 24-hour interval after the seventh dose of each omeprazole formulation. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (CDFR0209/omeprazole-DR) of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity was 0.98 (90%CI, 0.93-1.07). Both CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR are equally effective in decreasing integrated gastric acidity at steady state.

  6. A comparative analysis of noss profiles on nigerian and American preservice, secondary science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobern, William W.

    In this study American preservice science TEACHERS' responses on Kimball's Nature of Science Survey (NOSS) were used as a basis for analyzing the sense of the nature of science held by a group of Nigerian preservice science teachers. From an item-by-item comparison two salient differences were noted. These differences are quite interesting and important, and one would expect to see replication attempts in the near future. The primary difference was that the Nigerian students were much more inclined to see science as a way of producing useful technology. Given the national interests of a developing nation this is an understandable perception and one common among government policy makers. Nevertheless, it is a view with potential long-range dangers if this view of science is effectively transferred from teacher to student. For example, such a view is likely to raise false expectations in the general population, which when not achieved could result in widespread rejection of science. The second distinctive of the Nigerian students' sense of the nature of science had to do with the openness of science. These students perceived scientists as nationalistic and secretive about their work. This finding is troubling and indicates an important line of investigation: What image of science, especially Western science, is carried in the international media? How is that image understood in non-Western nations? What are the implications for international scientific cooperation?

  7. Asthma: the psychosocial impact among a sample of south western Nigerians.

    PubMed Central

    Erhabor, Gregory E.; Kuteyi, Folake; Obembe, Femi

    2002-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from asthma continues to increase worldwide. Investigations conducted in Western countries have shown that psychiatric morbidity may play a role in increasing mortality due to asthma. However, the association between psychopathology and asthma has not been fully investigated among Nigerian patients. 50 asthmatics seen in the Chest Clinic of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTCH), Ile-Ife, were examined using the 30-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-30). A control group of 48 Nigerians with a similar socio-demographic background were also studied. A significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorder (50%) were found in the asthmatic group, while only 27.1% of the control group had psychopathology. Twenty-one (87.5%) of the asthmatics with frequent attacks had psychopathology compared to only four (25%) with less frequent attacks. Psychiatric morbidity did not show any relationship to the level of educational attainment or other socio-demographic variables. This result suggests a high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among Nigerian asthmatics. The management of asthma should take a wholistic approach: physical, as well as the psychosocial factors should be considered. PMID:12443002

  8. Knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study examined the knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians and identified how the knowledge and attitudes vary with gender, age, religion, education and related factors. Methods Data were collected using qualitative method in 2 districts of the Federal Capital Territory. In the study, eight (8) Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and twenty seven (27) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. Participants for the research were recruited among healthy Nigerians, individuals with complex diseases, health care professionals, community leaders and health policy makers. Result Analysis of the result showed that most respondents in both FGDs and KIIs had limited knowledge about genomics test initially. Their understanding of the test however improved after explanation on its concept. Participants showed positive attitude towards genomics tests. Nevertheless they expressed fear over direct to consumer personal genomics testing, testing unborn babies and disclosure of results to third parties. Culture and religion were found to influence the perspectives of respondents on genomics test particularly those aspects that could either directly contradict their beliefs and practices or lead to actions which contradict them. Conclusion In conclusion, most Nigerians interviewed had limited knowledge of genomics test but with supportive attitude towards its use in predicting future risk of complex diseases after understanding the test concept. Genomics testing for complex diseases was not a common practice in Nigeria. PMID:24766930

  9. Knowledge and perception of the Nigerian Abortion Law by abortion seekers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adinma, E D; Adinma, J I B; Ugboaja, J; Iwuoha, C; Akiode, A; Oji, E; Okoh, M

    2011-11-01

    One in four pregnancies worldwide is voluntarily terminated. Approximately 20 million terminations are performed under unsafe conditions, mostly in developing countries with restrictive abortion laws. A total of 100 consecutive abortion-seekers were interviewed, to ascertain their knowledge and perceptions on the Nigerian Abortion Law. The majority (55.0%) of the respondents were students. Most of them (97%) had at least secondary education and the majority (62.0%) were within the 20-24 years age range. Only 31.0% of the women interviewed were aware of the Nigerian Abortion Law. While 16% perceived the law as being restrictive, 2% opined that' it was alright'; 1% perceived it as very restrictive and 12% had no opinion on the abortion law. Knowledge of the abortion law had no significant relationship with either the educational level of the respondent or the number of previous pregnancy terminations and overall demand for abortion services. It is necessary to ensure a wide dissemination of the abortion law and its provisions to the Nigerian public, in order to arm them with the necessary information to participate actively in debates on abortion law reforms.

  10. Life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment of Nigerian liquefied natural gas addressing uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-03-17

    Natural gas (NG) has been regarded as a bridge fuel toward renewable sources and is expected to play a greater role in future global energy mix; however, a high degree of uncertainty exists concerning upstream (well-to-tank, WtT) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of NG. In this study, a life-cycle (LC) model is built to assess uncertainty in WtT GHG emissions of liquefied NG (LNG) supplied to Europe by Nigeria. The 90% prediction interval of GHG intensity of Nigerian LNG was found to range between 14.9 and 19.3 g CO2 eq/MJ, with a mean value of 16.8 g CO2 eq/MJ. This intensity was estimated considering no venting practice in Nigerian fields. The mean estimation can shift up to 25 g CO2 eq when considering a scenario with a higher rate of venting emissions. A sensitivity analysis of the time horizon to calculate GHG intensity was also performed showing that higher GHG intensity and uncertainty are obtained for shorter time horizons, due to the higher impact factor of methane. The uncertainty calculated for Nigerian LNG, specifically regarding the gap of data for methane emissions, recommends initiatives to measure and report emissions and further LC studies to identify hotspots to reduce the GHG intensity of LNG chains.

  11. Depression and Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Ezeobele, I; Malecha, A; Landrum, P; Symes, L

    2010-04-01

    This phenomenological study, using the Husserlian philosophy, explored the perceptions of Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States and their portrayal of depression. Through face-to-face, semi-structured, audio-taped interviews incorporating open-ended questions and probes to facilitate discussion, the study examined a purposive sample of 19 Nigerian-born immigrant women's perception of depression. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven step method of data analysis. The findings from the study uncovered six themes: (1) craziness and madness; (2) curse and evil spirit possession; (3) denial and secrecy; (4) isolation and rejection; (5) spirituality and religion; and (6) need for education. Findings indicated that Nigerian-born women were not able to differentiate depression from other types of mental illnesses. The women described depression as something that affects others and not them. The women's perception provided insight into why the clergy was preferred for treatment of depression rather than health care professionals. The findings of the study should increase the awareness of nurses and other health care professionals of the need to focus on evidence-based, culturally specific research, and illuminate issues surrounding depression in this population.

  12. Searching for large genomic rearrangements of the BRCA1 gene in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Fackenthal, James D; Huo, Dezheng; Zheng, Yonglan; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2010-11-01

    BRCA1/2 germline mutations predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. Large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) have widened the mutational spectrum of the BRCA1 gene, but the frequencies vary in different populations. In this study, we want to determine the spectrum of LGRs in BRCA1 gene in Nigerian breast cancer patients. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay was used to screen BRCA1 rearrangements in 352 patients who previously tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 point mutations and small insertions/deletions. Positive MLPA result was confirmed and located by long-range PCR. The breakpoints of the candidate rearrangement were characterized by sequencing. A novel deletion of BRCA1 exon 21 (c.5277 + 480_5332 + 672del) was detected in 1 out of 352 Nigerian breast cancer patients (0.3% occurrence frequency). Further analysis of breakpoints revealed that the deletion involves two Alu-elements: one AluSg in intron 20 and the AluY in intron 21. These data suggest that while BRCA1 genomic rearrangement exists, they do not contribute significantly to BRCA1-associated risk in the Nigerian population.

  13. A comparative study of two communication models in HIV/AIDS coverage in selected Nigerian newspapers.

    PubMed

    Okidu, Onjefu

    2013-01-30

    The current overriding thought in HIV/AIDS communication in developing countries is the need for a shift from the cognitive model, which emphasises the decision-making of the individual, to the activity model, which emphasises the context of the individual. In spite of the acknowledged media shift from the cognitive to the activity model in some developing countries, some HIV/AIDS communication scholars have felt otherwise. It was against this background that this study examined the content of some selected Nigerian newspapers to ascertain the attention paid to HIV/AIDS cognitive and activity information. Generally, the study found that Nigerian newspapers had shifted from the cognitive to the activity model of communication in their coverage of HIV/AIDS issues. The findings of the study seem inconsistent with the theoretical argument of some scholars that insufficient attention has been paid by mass media in developing countries to the activity model of HIV/AIDS communication. It is suggested that future research replicate the study for Nigerian and other developing countries' mass media.

  14. A comparative study of two communication models in HIV/AIDS coverage in selected Nigerian newspapers.

    PubMed

    Okidu, Onjefu

    2013-01-01

    The current overriding thought in HIV/AIDS communication in developing countries is the need for a shift from the cognitive model, which emphasises the decision-making of the individual, to the activity model, which emphasises the context of the individual. In spite of the acknowledged media shift from the cognitive to the activity model in some developing countries, some HIV/AIDS communication scholars have felt otherwise. It was against this background that this study examined the content of some selected Nigerian newspapers to ascertain the attention paid to HIV/AIDS cognitive and activity information. Generally, the study found that Nigerian newspapers had shifted from the cognitive to the activity model of communication in their coverage of HIV/AIDS issues. The findings of the study seem inconsistent with the theoretical argument of some scholars that insufficient attention has been paid by mass media in developing countries to the activity model of HIV/AIDS communication. It is suggested that future research replicate the study for Nigerian and other developing countries' mass media.

  15. Determinants of HIV testing among Nigerian couples: a multilevel modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Lépine, Aurélia; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-06-01

    In this article we analyse the determinants of HIV testing among Nigerian couples using Demographic and Health Survey data set (2008). This study is motivated by the fact that although there is a strong willingness from the Nigerian Government to examine new HIV preventions approaches such as Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP) and Treatment as Prevention (TasP) for HIV serodiscordant couples, the implementation of such policies would require the HIV status of each partner in the couple to be known. This is far to be achieved in the Nigerian context since in Nigeria only 6% of couples know their HIV status. In order to identify potential policies that are needed to increase HIV testing uptake, we use a three-level random intercept logistic model to separately explore the determinants of knowing HIV status among female and male partners. The use of the multilevel modelling allows including the unobserved heterogeneity at the village and state level that may affect HIV testing behaviours. Our results indicate that education, wealth, stigma, HIV knowledge and perceived risk are predictors of HIV testing among both partners while routine provider initiated testing appears to be very effective to increase HIV testing among women. The introduction of financial incentives as well as an increase in routine testing and home-based testing may be needed for large scale increase in HIV testing prior to the implementation of new HIV prevention technologies among discordant couples.

  16. Dissecting the dissectors: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of body bequests by Nigerian anatomists.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Emeka G; Obikili, Emmanuel N

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy education in most African countries is limited by an insufficient number of cadavers for students to undertake dissection. This already significant shortage is exacerbated by an increasing number of medical schools and students. Virtual dissections are impractical in alleviating such a shortfall in African anatomy education, and further cadaver supply is challenged by unethical and dubious sources. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of whole body and organ donation by Nigerian anatomists with the aim of finding solutions to the problems associated with the availability of cadavers in Nigerian medical schools. Out of 46 anatomists that participated in the survey, only 23.9% would consider donating their whole bodies and 60.9% their organs. More than 95% of respondents did not believe that body bequests could become the sole source of cadavers for anatomic dissection in Nigeria. Age and gender were not statistically significant in the choice of being a body or organ donor. The unacceptability to one's family members regarding body donation was the major reason for respondents' unwillingness to make a whole body donation. None of the 14 medical schools sampled in this study have yet instituted a body registration and donation program. The anatomists showed a high level of knowledge and awareness of body bequest programs, which were not reflected by their attitudes and practice. The authors recommend proactive measures aimed at improving the perception and attitudes of Nigerian anatomists.

  17. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    of natural and man-made disasters but will also be used for monitoring rapidly changing and dynamic aspect of agriculture, the environment, pipeline oil spillages and other national remote sensing requirements. Commercial exploitation of this unique 24hr revisit EO data is planned to offset the government investment. The second national project is NigeriaSAT-2, which is a geostationary communications minisatellite that has been selected specifically to address the lack of communications infrastructure in Nigeria. Both NigeriaSAT-1 and NigeriaSAT-2 projects are being carried out in co-operation with the Surrey Space Centre (UK), combined with a detailed space know-how transfer and training to build up an indigenous Nigeria capability in space technology, EO and communications. While the acquisition and development space technology is the prime focus of the national space programme, an application center, education center and various space research centers are being formed to draw the maximum benefit of space activities for Nigeria. The paper will present the experience of Nigeria in examining the cost/benefit of an affordable space programme based upon small satellites with real applications that will benefit the people of the country. The Nigerian space policy and programme and its first two small satellite projects (NigeriaSAT-1/DMC and NigeriaSAT-2/GEMINI) will also be presented. This paper focuses on how a developing country can take advantage of a cheap and efficient means of gaining access to space and using space technology in achieving its socio-economic development plans.

  18. 78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Boko Haram Also Known as Nigerian Taliban Also Known as Jama...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Boko Haram Also Known as Nigerian Taliban Also Known as Jama'atu Ahlus... Nigerian Taliban, also known as Jama'atu Ahlus-Sunnah Lidda'Awati Wal Jihad, also known as Jama'atu...

  19. 78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Boko Haram Also Known as Nigerian Taliban Also Known as Jama...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Boko Haram Also Known as Nigerian Taliban Also Known as Jama'atu Ahlus... known as Nigerian Taliban, also known as Jama'atu Ahlus-Sunnah Lidda'Awati Wal Jihad, also known as...

  20. Is Rape in the Eye or in the Mind of the Offender? A Survey of Rape Perception among Nigerian University Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of the escalating incidents of rape in Nigerian higher institutions has, not unexpectedly, agitated the minds of both students and university workers on the one hand, and the general public, on the other. This development has forced the hands of the authorities in some of the Nigerian universities to give priority to finding a solution…

  1. The Role of Blood Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper in Development and Severity of Acne Vulgaris in a Nigerian Population.

    PubMed

    Ikaraoha, C I; Mbadiwe, N C; Anyanwu, C J; Odekhian, J; Nwadike, C N; Amah, H C

    2017-04-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disorder affecting human beings. There is a paucity of report on the role of heavy metals-lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)-globally, and trace metals-zinc (Zn) and copper (Cd)-particularly in Nigeria in the development/severity of acne vulgaris. This study is aimed to determine the blood levels of some heavy metals-cadmium and lead-and trace metals-zinc and copper-in acne vulgaris sufferers in a Nigerian population. Venous blood samples were collected from a total number of 90 non-obese female subjects consisting of 30 mild, 30 moderate and 30 severe acne vulgaris sufferers for blood Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn determination. They were age-matched with 60 females without acne vulgaris who served as the control subjects. Acne sufferers had significantly higher blood Cd and Pb (P = 0.0143 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significantly different blood levels of Cu and Zn (P = 0.910 and P = 0.2140 respectively) compared to controls. There were significant progressive increases in blood levels of Cd and Pb (P = 0.0330 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significant differences in the mean blood level of Cu and Zn (P = 0.1821 and P = 0.2728 respectively) from mild to moderate and severe acne vulgaris sufferers. Increases in blood Cd and Pb may play critical roles in the pathogenesis/severity of acne vulgaris, while Cu and Zn seem to play less significant roles in the development of this disorder in this environment.

  2. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  3. Adult Educators' Core Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned…

  4. Cell Proliferation (KI-67) Expression Is Associated with Poorer Prognosis in Nigerian Compared to British Breast Cancer Women.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Ayodeji O J; Banjo, Adekumbiola A F; Anunobi, Charles C; Salami, Babatunde; Agboola, Mopelola Deji; Musa, Adewale A; Nolan, Christopher C; Rakha, Emad A; Ellis, Ian O; Green, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Background. Black women with breast cancer (BC) in Nigeria have higher mortality rate compared with British women. This study investigated prognostic features of cell proliferation biomarker (Ki-67) in Nigerian breast cancer women. Materials and Methods. The protein expression of Ki-67 was investigated in series of 308 Nigerian women, prepared as a tissue microarray (TMA), using immunohistochemistry. Clinic-pathological parameters, biomarkers, and patient outcome of tumours expressing Ki-67 in Nigerian women were correlated with UK grade-matched series. Results. A significantly larger proportion of breast tumours from Nigerian women showed high Ki-67 expression. Those tumours were significantly correlated with negative expression of the steroid hormone receptors (ER and PgR), p21, p27, E-cadherin, BRCA-1, and Bcl-2 (all P < 0.001), but positively associated with EGFR (P = 0.003), p53, basal cytokeratins: CK56, CK14, triple negative, and basal phenotype using Nielsen's classification (all P < 0.001) compared to UK women. Multivariate analyses showed that race was also associated with BCSS independent of tumour size, lymph node status, and ER status. Conclusion. Ki-67 expression was observed to have contributed to the difference in the BCSS in Nigerian compared with British BC women. Therefore, targeting Ki-67 in the indigenous black women with BC might improve the patient outcome in the black women with BC.

  5. Breaking Bad News to a Prospective Cross-Sectional Sample of Patients’ Relatives in a Nigerian Neurosurgical Service

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Amos Olufemi; Fatiregun, Akinola A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Breaking of medical bad news is anecdotally deemed culturally unacceptable, even intolerable, to native Africans. We explored this hypothesis among a cohort of relatives of patients who had difficult neurosurgical diagnoses in an indigenous practice. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among a consecutive cohort of surrogates/relatives of concerned patients. Their opinion and preferences regarding the full disclosure of the grave neurosurgical diagnoses, and prognoses, of their wards were analyzed. Results: A total of 114 patients’ relatives, 83 (72.8%) females, were sampled. They were mainly young adults, mean age 40.2 (SD 14.2) years; 57% had only basic literacy education; but the majority, 97%, declared themselves to have serious religious commitments. Ninety nine percent of the study participants deemed it desirable that either they or the patients concerned be told the bad news; 80.7% felt that this is best done with both patients and relations in attendance; 3.5% felt only the patients need be told. These preferences are similar to those expressed by the patients themselves in an earlier study. But a nearly significant greater proportion of patients’ relatives (15 vs 5%, p = 0.06) would rather be the only ones to be told the patients’ bad news. Conclusion: This data-driven study showed that contrary to anecdotal belief about them, a cohort of native Nigerian-African surrogates of neurosurgical patients was well disposed to receiving, and appeared able to handle well, the full disclosure of difficult medical diagnostic/prognostic information. PMID:23935592

  6. Adult Learning, Currency and Subjectivity in PLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This inaugural issue of the Journal of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning begins with the article, "Semantic and Conceptual Ambiguities in Prior Learning Assessment" (Richard J. Hamilton). It is the basis for a session presented at the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning in June…

  7. Trial in Adult Subjects With Spinocerebellar Ataxia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Spinocerebellar Ataxias; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 8; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 10

  8. Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.

    PubMed

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry.

  9. Entrapment of adult fingers between window glass and seal entry of a motor vehicle side door: an experimental study for investigation of the force at the subjective pain threshold.

    PubMed

    Hohendorff, B; Weidermann, C; Pollinger, P; Burkhart, K J; Konerding, M A; Prommersberger, K J; Rommens, P M

    2011-07-28

    In modern motor vehicles with automatic power windows, a potential hazard exists for jam events of fingers between the window glass and seal entry. This study determined entrapment forces acting on adult fingers at the subjective maximum pain threshold during entrapment in such windows. The length and the girth of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of the triphalangeal fingers of the right hands of 109 participants (60 men, 49 women) were measured; the diameter was calculated from girth, which was assumed to be circular. The automatic power window system of a motor vehicle side door was changed to a mechanical system. During entrapment the force distributed across the four proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPs), and separately on the proximal interphalangeal (iPIP) and then the distal interphalangeal (iDIP) joints of the index finger was measured using a customized force sensor. The maximum bearable entrapment force was 97.2 ± 51.8 N for the PIPs, 43.4 ± 19.9 N for the iPIP, and 36.9 ± 17.8 N for the iDIP. The positive correlation between finger diameter and maximum entrapment force was significant. Particularly with regard to the risk to children's fingers, the 100 N statutory boundary value for closing force of electronic power windows should be reduced.

  10. Genetic differences in the body weight and haematological traits of Nigerian indigenous chickens infected with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Adenaike, A S; Mabunmi, A O; Takeet, M I; Adenaike, O D; Ikeobi, C O N

    2016-10-01

    In an effort to shed more light on the tolerance of indigenous chickens to coccidiosis, we compared the body weight, faecal oocyst load and haematological parameters based on sex and genotypes of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. Three hundred chicks from three genotypes (normal-feathered, frizzle-feathered and naked-neck) of Nigerian indigenous chickens which comprised 100 birds per genotype were raised for 6 weeks. At 3 weeks old, each chick was weighed and faecal, and blood samples were collected before inoculation. Subsequently, the birds were weighed and faecal samples collected at days 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 post-inoculation. Blood samples were collected from 50 chicks per genotype at 3 and 5 weeks post-inoculation. Blood parameters were determined and faecal samples subjected to McMaster egg counting technique. Results showed genotype, and sex had significant effects on body weight from day 1 to 15 post-inoculation. Normal-feathered chicks had the highest body weight while frizzle-feathered chicks showed lowest body weight at post-inoculation. E. tenella was identified in caecal and lower intestinal mucosa of the genotypes, but genotype had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the lesion score. There were no significant differences in haematological values among genotypes (p > 0.05) except for lymphocytes where naked-neck chicks had the highest lymphocytes' count (1.83 ± 0.02 %), followed by normal-feathered (1.79 ± 0.02 %) and the frizzle-feathered (1.68 ± 0.02 %). The present values of body weight, faecal oocyst and haematological parameters obtained seemed not to be convincing enough to suggest that the genotypes were different in terms of tolerance to coccidiosis.

  11. Death Education in the Nigerian Home: The Mother's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Tr. Reuben Uche

    1993-01-01

    Notes that, in Nigeria, the death-awareness movement is new and the subject of death is still taboo. Sees women as occupying middle place between life and death. Offers rationale for death education in home and delineates role of mother with regard to death. Identifies likely problems mother may encounter in course of discharging her death duties.…

  12. Drug leads agents from methanol extract of Nigerian bee (Apis mellifera) propolis

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Bashir; Shittu, Oluwatosin Kudirat; Abubakar, Asmau Niwoye; Olalekan, Ibrahim Azeez; Jimoh, Adisa Mohammed; Abdulazeez, Adeniyi Kamoru

    2016-01-01

    Background: Propolis is a bee (Apis mellifera) product of plant origin with varied chemical composition depending on the ecology of the botanical origin. It has been reported in literature to possess various therapeutic effects both traditionally, clinical trial, and animal study. Objectives: In the present study bioactive principle in methanol extract of Nigerian bee (A. mellifera) propolis was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) study. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of Nigerian bee (A. mellifera) propolis was characterized for its chemical composition by preliminary phytochemicals screening and GC/MS analysis using standard procedures and methods. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones phlobatannins, and steroids while GC/MS chromatogram revealed nineteen peaks representing 60 different chemical compounds. The first compounds identified with less retention time (RT) (13.33s) were methyl tetradecanoate, tridecanoic acid, methyl ester, decanoic acid, methyl ester while squalene, all-trans-squalene, 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E)- and farnesol isomer a took longest RT (23.647s) to identify. Methyl 14-methylpentadecanoate, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, methyl isoheptadecanoate, and methyl tridecanoate were the most concentrated constituent as revealed by there peak height (26.01%) while eicosanoic acid was the least concentrated (peak height 0.81%) constituent of Nigerian bee propolis. Conclusion: The presence of these chemical principles is an indication that methanol extract of Nigeria bee propolis, if properly screened could yield a drug of pharmaceutical importance. PMID:27069724

  13. Antiphospholipid syndrome in a young Nigerian girl presenting with gangrenous toes.

    PubMed

    Anakwue, Raphael Chinedu; Chijioke, Chioli; Mbah, Anthony; Onuh, Augustine; Okwara, Christian

    2013-10-23

    We report on a 21-year-old Nigerian girl with toe gangrene, which is one of the most unlikely forms of presentation of antiphospholipid syndrome among Africans. The essence of this case report is to raise awareness that, although antiphospholipid syndrome typically presents in Africans in association with a pregnancy-related event or a neuropathology, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all African patients with unexplained vasculitis. A high index of suspicion and early treatment will prevent toe amputations and reduce mortality rates.

  14. Three-Phase Fault Currents Evaluation for Nigerian 28-Bus 330kv Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adepoju, Gafari A.; Tijani, Muhammed A.; Sanusi, Mufutau A.; Olatunji, Dauda O.

    2012-03-01

    Fault studies are important power system analysis for stable and economical operations of power systems. Faults are categorised as symmetrical and unsymmetrical. In this paper, three-phase symmetrical fault is simulated using the Nigerian 28-Bus, 330kV Transmission Grid. Two different MatLab based programmes were developed; one program was for Load Flow Studies which determines prefault conditions for the power system based on Newton-Raphson method. The other program determines fault current magnitudes for threephase short-circuit on the power system. The information gained from the fault studies can be used for proper relay selections, settings, performances and coordination.

  15. Characteristics of lubricating grease produced from Nigerian tarsand-derived heavy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunsola, O.I.; Agoi-George, S.O. )

    1990-01-01

    The results of a study involving the laboratory production of lubricating grease from heavy oil extracted from the Nigerian tarsands are reported. Toluene-extracted oil from the tarsands was used in making a soap-based grease and a clay-based grease. The grease produced was then tested in accordance with the standard National Laboratory for Grease Institute (NLGI) specifications. The two types of grease produced from the tarsands oil conformed with the NLGI specifications and were in the category of grease suitable for use as lubricant for plain and roller bearings and as sealants.

  16. Sodium and oxygen in Nigerian coals: Possible effects on ash fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Ewa, I.O.B.; Elegbe, S.B.; Adetunji, J.

    1996-09-01

    Ash fouling during heat transfers in coal power-plants has been known to be an engineering problem caused by high sodium levels of the feed-coals. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used in determining the concentration of some alkali elements (Na, Ca, Mg) associated with ash fouling for eight Nigerian coals mined at Onyeama, Ogbete, Enugu, Gombe, Okaba, Afikpo, Lafia and Asaba. Sodium levels were generally low (0.001-0.036%). Oxygen concentrations considered as an indicative measure of the wettability of each of the coals were determined. The possible effects of the concentration of these elements on ash fouling were discussed. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Enhancing Students' Attitude towards Nigerian Senior Secondary School Physics through the Use of Cooperative, Competitive and Individualistic Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the attitude of students towards the use of cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning strategies in Nigerian senior secondary school physics. The design selected for this study was quasi-experimental. A total of 140 students took part in the study and they were selected by a random sampling…

  18. The Effect of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and School Location on Students Performance in Nigerian Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…

  19. The Effect of Concept Mapping and Problem Solving Teaching Strategies on Achievement in Biology among Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okechukwu, Rose N.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effect of concept-mapping and problem-solving teaching strategies on achievement in biology among Nigerian secondary school students. The method used for the study was a quasi-experimental pre-test treatment design. One hundred and thirteen senior secondary three (S.S. 111) students randomly selected from three mixed…

  20. The Organization and Administration of Nigerian Universities and the Satisfaction and Motivation of Lecturers in Some of These Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagbamiye, E. O.

    The extent to which the academic staff in the five oldest Nigerian universities expressed job satisfaction and motivation, in view of the seeming powerlessness of their Governing Councils, was studied. These universities are the University of Nigeria, Ibadan, Ahmadu Bello, Nsukka, and Ife and Lagos. A total of 157 teachers returned usable…

  1. Self-Concept, Computer Anxiety, Gender and Attitude towards Interactive Computer Technologies: A Predictive Study among Nigerian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2010-01-01

    Interactive Computer Technologies (ICTs) have crept into education industry, thus dramatically causing transformation in instructional process. This study examined the relative and combined contributions of computer anxiety, self-concept and gender to teachers' attitude towards the use of ICT(s). 454 Nigerian teachers constituted the sample. Three…

  2. Gender Differences in Forestalling Anti-Social Behaviours among Student Fitness Aspirants and Recreationists in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okunbor, A. O.; Agwubike, E. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research was quadrupled. It investigated the prevalence of anti-social behaviours in campuses of Nigerian universities. Several student fitness aspirants and recreationists perceived examination malpractices (85%), stealing (83%), armed robbery (81%), prostitution (82%), drunkenness (80%), smoking (79%), hard drug consumption…

  3. Enhancement of Pedagogical Skills in Nigerian Schools through Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Issues for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo

    2013-01-01

    The history of information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigerian schools is patchy. The first experience of Internet services started about 1990 with University of Ilorin through the assistance of McMaster University in Canada. Currently, though, many staff members of universities in Nigeria have email accounts, and over forty-four…

  4. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  5. Nigerian Library Staff and Their Perceptions of Health Risks Posed by Using Computer-Based Systems in University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwaifo, Stephen Osahon

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to examine the health risks faced when using computer-based systems by library staff in Nigerian libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a survey research approach to carry out this investigation. Findings: The investigation reveals that the perceived health risk does not predict perceived ease of use of…

  6. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  7. Developing a New Framework for Integration and Teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) in Nigerian Schools of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwakonye, Obioha; Alagbe, Oluwole; Oluwatayo, Adedapo; Alagbe, Taiye; Alalade, Gbenga

    2015-01-01

    As a result of globalization of digital technology, intellectual discourse on what constitutes the basic body of architectural knowledge to be imparted to future professionals has been on the increase. This digital revolution has brought to the fore the need to review the already overloaded architectural education curriculum of Nigerian schools of…

  8. The Adoption of the Mobile Phones in Maintaining Teaching and Learning Quality Assurance in Nigerian Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Omolara A.; Emunemu, Benedict O.

    2010-01-01

    The inability of the public sector to satisfy the growing demand for University education necessitated the entry of the private sector operators into the Nigerian University System, to expand educational access. In as much as higher education is crucial to economic growth, it is thus expedient to consider the place of maintenance of quality…

  9. Assessing the Internal Consistency of the Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA): A Nigerian Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegoke, Alfred A.

    Noting the lack of self-concept research in nonwestern cultures and the need to determine if a western measure of self-image is embedded in the same network of constructs in another culture, this study examined the appropriateness of using the Self Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA) with Nigerian students. Participating in the study…

  10. The Relevance of Art Education and the Education of the Nigerian Child: Implications for the Universal Basic Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emeji, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines relevant government policy documents on education and culture and discovers that Nigerian education authorities do not "discriminate" against art and culture in its articulation of educational policies per se, but lack of administrative machinery or political will has resulted in the deprivation of the Nigerian…

  11. The Views of Nigerian Teachers in Public and Private Primary Schools on the Teaching of Early Literacy in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okebukola, Foluso

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the bilingual policies and biliteracy programmes of African nations, this paper discusses the context of literacy education in Nigeria and examines Nigerian early literacy teachers' attitudes to teaching literacy and literacy teaching practices as informed by the National Policy on Education, Primary English Language Curriculum and the…

  12. Leadership Aspects of Hidden Curriculum Students Practice in Nigerian Universities: A Preview of Students' Union Government Contributions in University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emesini, Nnenna Orieoma

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the leadership aspect of Hidden Curriculum that students practice in Nigerian Universities and their contributions to university governance. Four research questions guided the study and Ex-Post-Facto Method was adopted as the design. Unstructured interviews with staff/students officials cum critical analysis of Students' Union…

  13. Examining Personalisation of Instruction, Attitudes toward and Achievement in Mathematics Word Problems among Nigerian Senior Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a personalised print-based instruction versus a non-personalised print-based instruction on the attitudes toward mathematics word problems of 350 senior secondary school year one Nigerian students within the blueprint of a quantitative research of pre-treatment-intervention-post-treatment non-equivalent…

  14. The Use of Teaching Methods and Styles in the Nigerian University System: The Curriculum and Policy Implications for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakare, Tewo V.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching methods at the University level are supposed to emanate from the Nigerian National Policy on Education and stated curriculum, which have been found to affect learning outcomes significantly. This study surveyed popular teaching methods at the undergraduate level in Universities within the South-West geo-political zone of Nigeria. Six…

  15. Digital Divide in the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Counsellor Education in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyo, Mfon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated digital divide in the utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in counsellor education in Nigerian universities. It had two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. It adopted a survey design and used ICT Utilization Questionnaire (IUQ) in gathering data from the…

  16. Temporal changes in the expression of TGF-beta 1 and EGF in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and associated precentral gyrus in adult Rhesus monkeys subjected to cord hemisection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Li; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xu-Yang; Li, Li-Yan; Ni, Wei; Zheng, Rong-Yuan; Yang, Hui-Juan; Lu, Yong-Chao; Qi, Jian-Guo; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2008-05-15

    It is well known that some growth factors can not only rescue neurons from death, but also improve motor functions following spinal cord injury. However, their cellular distribution in situ and temporal expressions following spinal cord injury have not been determined, especially in primates. This study investigated the temporal changes in the expression of two growth factors--epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) in the injured motoneurons of the spinal cord and the associated precentral gyrus in adult Rhesus monkeys subjected to spinal cord hemisection. Animals were allowed to survive 7, 14, 30 and 90 days post operation (dpo). Functional recovery of the hindlimbs was assessed using Tarlov scale. The immunohistological expressions of EGF and TGF-beta1 in the ventral horn motoneurons decreased sharply at 7 dpo in the cord segments caudal to the lesion site, which was followed by an increase and a peak between 14 and 30 dpo for EGF and at 90 dpo for TGF-beta1. Changes in the expression of EGF in the precentral gyrus were similar to that in the spinal cord. No TGF-beta1 immunoreactive neurons were detected in the precentral gyrus. In the spinal segments rostral to the lesion, the expressions of EGF and TGF-beta1 peaked at 30 dpo. The mRNA of EGF was detected in both spinal motoneurons and the precentral gyrus, while that of TGF-beta1, only in the spinal motoneuons, suggesting that the spinal motoneurons themselves could synthesize both the growth factors. Partial locomotor recovery in hindlimbs was seen, especially after 14 dpo. It was concluded that a possible association existed between the modulation of EGF and TGF-beta1 and the recovery of locomotor function, and their roles differed somewhat in the neuroplasticity observed after spinal cord injury in primates.

  17. Domestic financing of communication in developing countries: a preliminary investigation of the Nigerian case.

    PubMed

    Osakue, J

    1988-01-01

    A case study examines the Nigerian effort to finance their communication industry. The study revealed that except during the period 1981-85, planned public investment in the communication sector has been moderately high at a level of 6.1% of aggregate ex ante expenditure. For the period 1960-80, actual communications expenditure as a ratio of actual total expenditure was lower at an average of 4.5%. Total sector performance measured by the degree of resistance to plan distortions was lower for the communication sector relative to aggregate performance through the 24-period beginning in 1962, except during the 2nd development plan period between 1970-74. The trend in domestic public financing appears to have been dictated by 2 factors: The philosophy of economic planning and the fluctuations in economic fortunes. The oil book of the mid-1970s prompted the largest planned allocation of 9% during the period 1975-80, although realized expenditure fell slightly below to a level of 7.2%. These observed trends show clearly a lack of any strong commitment by the Nigerian government for communication services to meet the needs of a significantly portion of the population, especially those in the rural areas. This situation is not likely to change soon due to the country's presently poor economy and the overemphasis by the government on market forces.

  18. Anaphylaxis Complicated by Acute Respiratory Distress and Fatal Outcome in A Nigerian Family

    PubMed Central

    Agelebe, Efeturi; Musa, Tawakalit Lily; Ajayi, Idowu Adebowale

    2017-01-01

    Reports on hypersensitivity diseases in Nigerians are rare. We report the incidence of anaphylaxis in three siblings following fatal outcome in their mother. Urticarial rashes were noticed in three siblings’ resident in a South Western Nigerian town, one week before presentation at our facility. All the three siblings developed respiratory distress four days after the rash was noticed. Onset of respiratory distress made the family seek care at a private hospital, where they were admitted and treated with intravenous aminophylline and ceftriaxone. The mother of the children had experienced the same symptoms earlier also. She took treatment and died in the same private hospital, where her children received care. Death of the mother and worsening respiratory distress in the children made the father effect transfer of the children to the paediatric emergency unit of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. The three children made a slow but uneventful recovery after instituting appropriate management for anaphylaxis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The cases are discussed with a view to create awareness amongst health practitioners about the occurrence of anaphylaxis in our society. The need for prompt recognition and appropriate management, when confronted with this disease is also underscored. PMID:28274015

  19. Knowledge of the Nigerian Code of Health Research Ethics Among Biomedical Researchers in Southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunrin, Olubunmi A; Daniel, Folasade; Ansa, Victor

    2016-12-01

    Responsibility for protection of research participants from harm and exploitation rests on Research Ethics Committees and principal investigators. The Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics defines responsibilities of stakeholders in research so its knowledge among researchers will likely aid ethical conduct of research. The levels of awareness and knowledge of the Code among biomedical researchers in southern Nigerian research institutions was assessed. Four institutions were selected using a stratified random sampling technique. Research participants were selected by purposive sampling and completed a pre-tested structured questionnaire. A total of 102 biomedical researchers completed the questionnaires. Thirty percent of the participants were aware of the National Code though 64% had attended at least one training seminar in research ethics. Twenty-five percent had a fairly acceptable knowledge (scores 50%-74%) and 10% had excellent knowledge of the code (score ≥75%). Ninety-five percent expressed intentions to learn more about the National Code and agreed that it is highly relevant to the ethical conduct of research. Awareness and knowledge of the Code were found to be very limited among biomedical researchers in southern Nigeria. There is need to improve awareness and knowledge through ethics seminars and training. Use of existing Nigeria-specific online training resources is also encouraged.

  20. Some Correlates of Electronic Health Information Management System Success in Nigerian Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Adebowale I; Popoola, Sunday O

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, an electronic health information management system (EHIMS) is crucial for patient care in hospitals. This paper explores the aspects and elements that contribute to the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of study comprised 442 health information management personnel in five teaching hospitals that had implemented EHIMS in Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The findings revealed that there is a positive, close relationship between all the identified factors and EHIMS’s success: technical factors (r = 0.564, P < 0.05); social factors (r = 0.616, P < 0.05); organizational factors (r = 0.621, P < 0.05); financial factors (r = 0.705, P < 0.05); and political factors (r = 0.589, P < 0.05). We conclude that consideration of all the identified factors was highly significant for the success of EHIMS in Nigerian teaching hospitals. PMID:25983557

  1. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens and management of exposure incidents in Nigerian dental schools.

    PubMed

    Sofola, Oyinkansola O; Folayan, Morenike O; Denloye, Obafunke O; Okeigbemen, Sunny A

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens amongst Nigerian clinical dental students, their HBV vaccination status, and reporting practices. A cross-sectional study of all clinical dental students in the four Nigerian dental schools was carried out by means of an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that asked questions on demography, number and type of exposure, management of the exposures, personal protection against cross infection, and the reporting of such exposures. One hundred and fifty-three students responded (response rate of 84.5 percent). Only thirty-three (37.9 percent) were fully vaccinated against HBV. Ninety (58.8 percent) of the students have had at least one occupational exposure. There was no significantly associated difference between sex, age, location of school, and exposure. Most of the exposures (44.4 percent) occurred in association with manual tooth cleaning. There was inadequate protection of the eyes. None of the exposures were formally reported. It is the responsibility of training institutions to ensure the safety of the students by mandatory HBV vaccination prior to exposure and adequate training in work safety. Written policies and procedures should be developed and made easily accessible to all workers to facilitate prompt reporting and management of all occupational exposures.

  2. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-02-24

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol while it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced hyperglycemia, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, coronary risk index (CRI) and cardiovascular risk index (CVRI). In contrast, honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TGs and VLDL cholesterol. This study confirms the reproducibility of glucose lowering and hypolipidemic effects of honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

  3. Gambian-British and Nigerian-British Children's and Families' Experiences of Migration "Back" to West Africa. Research Briefing No. 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2013-01-01

    This research looks at the factors motivating Gambian-British and Nigerian-British parents to send their children "back" to West Africa and what this means for parents, children and families on both continents.

  4. Antelope Predation by Nigerian Forest Baboons: Ecological and Behavioural Correlates.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Volker; Lowe, Adriana; Jesus, Gonçalo; Alberts, Nienke; Bouquet, Yaëlle; Inglis, David M; Petersdorf, Megan; van Riel, Eelco; Thompson, James; Ross, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Baboons are well studied in savannah but less so in more closed habitats. We investigated predation on mammals by olive baboons (Papio anubis) at a geographical and climatic outlier, Gashaka Gumti National Park (Nigeria), the wettest and most forested site so far studied. Despite abundant wildlife, meat eating was rare and selective. Over 16 years, baboons killed 7 bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) and 3 red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus), mostly still-lying 'parked' infants. Taking observation time into account, this is 1 predation per group every 3.3 months - far lower than at other sites. Some features of meat eating resemble those elsewhere; predation is opportunistic, adult males monopolize most prey, a targeted killing bite is lacking and begging or active sharing is absent. Carcass owners employ evasive tactics, as meat is often competed over, but satiated owners may tolerate others taking meat. Other features are unusual; this is only the second study site with predation records for bushbuck and the only one for red-flanked duiker. The atypical prey and rarity of eating mammals probably reflects the difficulty of acquiring prey animals when vegetation cover is dense. Our data support the general prediction of the socioecological model that environments shape behavioural patterns, while acknowledging their intraspecific or intrageneric plasticity.

  5. Incidence of pelvic organ prolapse in Nigerian women.

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, J. E. N.; Obiechina, N. J. A.; Obionu, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence and types of utero-vaginal prolapse. METHODS: Retrospective medical records analyses of women who were subjected to reconstructive pelvic surgery for various types of pelvic relaxation at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi and the University Of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria was carried out. The study was conducted from January 1996 to December 1999 during which there were 7515 surgical admissions. The inclusion criteria were those women who complained of feeling a mass in the vagina with demonAstrable descent of the anterior and/or posterior and/or apical vaginal walls and/or perineal descent. Excluded were patients who had other symptoms other than utero-vaginal prolapse and those whose grades and sites of prolapse were not determinable from the clinical or surgical notes. Also excluded were patients with nerve injury or disease, connective tissue disorders and neuromuscular diseases. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 54 women (age < or = 40 years), and group II included 105 women (age > or = 40 years). The findings between those two groups were compared with reference to sites, types and degree of prolapse. Also, coexistence of pelvic relaxation and underlying medical conditions were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 159 subjects out of 492 charts studied met the inclusion criteria for the study. In group I, mean age was 32.839 with a standard deviation (SD) of +/- 6.012 years; and in group II the mean age was 56.543 with a SD of 8.094. Hypertrophic (elongated) cervix was determined in 15 (6.3%) subjects in group I for an incidence of 1.58% per year, cystocele (vaginal anterior wall descent) was present in 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year; rectocele (posterior vaginal wall descent) was identified in 15 (6.3%) women for an incidence of 1.58% per year; vaginal cough prolapse (apical descent) was present 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year

  6. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2016-08-18

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  7. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E.; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Gonzales, Gustavo F.

    2016-01-01

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  8. Prevalence of Hypertension in Nigerian Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Trend Analysis of Data from the Past Four Decades.

    PubMed

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C

    2017-01-12

    Despite four decades of research, there is no systematic review and trend analysis on paediatric (pre)hypertension in Nigeria. This article reviewed data from cross-sectional studies on the subject. From the initial 9334 articles identified, 30 studies that met the inclusion criteria were systematically reviewed. Data from studies that defined hypertension as blood pressure (BP) greater than the 95th percentile for age, height and sex gave a prevalence of 8.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-28.2%] for prehypertension and 5.1% (95% CI: 2.9-8.6%) for hypertension. For studies that defined hypertension as BP greater than 2 SD points from the mean of the population, the prevalence of hypertension was found to be 4.0% (95% CI: 2.8-5.7%). A significant negative trend (Z = -0.89; α < 0.01) with small magnitude (Q = -0.019; 95% CI: -0.070 to 0.028) was found for hypertension in the reviewed population. The prevalence of (pre)hypertension in Nigerian children and adolescents is moderate but has slightly declined over time.

  9. Oral and dental lesions in HIV infected Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Olusola Adetunji; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Abe, Elizabeth Oluwatoyin; Agelebe, Efeturi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral diseases in the HIV infected children though commonly encountered are under researched and often overlooked by physicians in developing countries. The aim of this study is to document the types and frequency of oral lesions in HIV infected children and examine the effects of management with HAART on their rates. Methods A cross sectional study designed to identify the oral lesions in consecutive HIV infected children and their distribution at a Paediatric Anti-retroviral clinic. Information on oral disease and clinical features of the subjects were obtained by history and clinical examination and laboratory investigations by the pediatricians and dental surgeons. Results The 58 children studied consisted of 34 boys and 24 girls with their ages ranging from 3 months to 13 years. Thirty seven (63.8%) of the 58 children had oral diseases. Enamel hypoplasia, candidiasis, caries, angular chelitis, and herpes labialis were the most common oral lesions found in the patients. Oral soft tissue lesions were less frequently encountered among children on HAART. Statistical significance was recorded among those infected with candidiasis. More than 60% of the children diagnosed with oral disease had no knowledge of the state of their oral health before the study. Conclusion Oral diseases are very common amongst the children studied. Awareness of oral disease among the children and their caregivers is low. Administration of HAART may have a preventive effect on the development of oral soft tissue disease. There is a need to integrate dental care into the paediatric HIV care programs. PMID:26161210

  10. The Algoma-type iron-formations of the Nigerian metavolcano-sedimentary schist belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mücke, A.; Annor, A.; Neumann, U.

    1996-01-01

    Field relationships as well as petrographical and geochemical considerations form the basis of a model for the origin of the protoliths of the iron-formations and the associated phyllitic host rock of the Palaeoproterozoic schist belts of northern Nigeria. The iron-formations which consist of both the magnetite-subfacies and silicatefacies occur as relatively small, sporadic tabular bodies throughout the belts. They are concordantly interbanded with metasedimentary phyllites with which they share common metamorphic and deformational imprints. The iron-formations have high contents of Mn, Ca, Fe and P2O5 and low concentrations of alkalis (Na,K, Rb) Ba and Sr, Ti, Al and Si, whereas the phyllite exhibits exactly the opposite character. These results and other features (e.g. the composition of tourmaline in the phyllite and the occurrence of hydroclastic Cr-Mn-spinel and sulphides in the iron-formation) indicate a supply of materials from two different sources to the marine basin of Nigeria probably during Birimian time: slow but continuous deposition of continentally derived material of pelitic to psammitic composition; and rapid, sometimes intermittent, sporadic pulses of submarine-volcanic exhalations. During regional metamorphism (probably of Eburnian age) at greenschist to lower amphibolite fades conditions, the continental materials were transformed into phyllites and the mudstone-like sediments derived from volcanic exhalations into iron-formations. In the northern Nigerian schist belts two types of metamorphic parageneses in the iron-formations are recognized, both with various subtypes and without transitions between these two facies: (1) silicate-rich parageneses without magnetite (silicatefacies) and (2) magnetite-rich parageneses (magnetite-subfacies). In contrast to these parageneses, the iron-formations in the higher-grade metamorphic terrains of central Nigeria turn out to be hematitic (hematite-subfacies), and are derived from magnetite-bearing iron

  11. The relationship of maternal bone density with nutritional rickets in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M; Thacher, Tom D

    2017-04-01

    Factors that affect maternal bone mineral density may be related to the risk of nutritional rickets in their offspring. Our aim was to determine the relationship between maternal areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and rickets in Nigerian children. Using a case-control design, we measured forearm aBMD in 56 and 135 mothers of children with and without nutritional rickets, respectively. Active rickets was confirmed or excluded in all children radiographically. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association of maternal aBMD, adjusted for parity, pregnancy and lactation status, duration of most recent completed lactation, age of menarche, height, body mass index, and maternal age with nutritional rickets. The median (range) age of all mothers was 30years (17-47years), and parity was 4 (1-12). A total of 36 (19%) were pregnant and 55 (29%) were currently breast feeding. Mean (±SD) metaphyseal forearm aBMDs were 0.321±0.057 and 0.316±0.053g/cm(2) in mothers of children with and without rickets, respectively (P=0.60). Diaphyseal forearm aBMDs were 0.719±0.071 and 0.715±0.072g/cm(2), respectively (P=0.69). In an adjusted analysis, maternal forearm aBMD, bone mineral content and bone area at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites were not associated with rickets in the child. In the adjusted analysis, rickets was associated with shorter duration of most recently completed lactation (aOR 0.91 for each additional month; 95% CI 0.83-0.99), older maternal age (aOR 1.07 for each additional year; 1.00-1.14), and less frequent maternal use of lead-containing eye cosmetics (aOR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05-0.64), without any difference in maternal blood lead levels. Maternal age, parity, age of menarche, height, and body mass index were not associated with having had a child with rickets in multivariate analysis. Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children was not associated with maternal forearm aBMD. Other unidentified maternal characteristics and practices likely contribute to the risk

  12. Anatomic variations in the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve among adults in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mofikoya, Bolaji O; Ugburo, Andrew O

    2012-01-01

    Dysesthesias due to palmar cutaneous branch of median nerve injuries infrequently follow carpal tunnel release surgeries. Objective: To determine the course of palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve in wrist of adult Nigerians, identify the common variations, determine its relations to the palmaris longus (PL) in the region of the distal wrist crease. And on these basis, suggest a safe incision for carpal tunnel surgery in Nigerians. Materials and Methods: Detailed anatomic dissection of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve was carried out with the aid of a loupe magnification on 40 Nigerian cadaver wrists. The origin, course in the distal forearm, wrist and proximal palm was traced. Measurements of the distances between the radial and ulnar branches of the nerve and the PL were made. The distance between origin of the nerve and the distal wrist crease was measured as well. The common branching pattern of the nerve was noted. Results: The palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve was present in all dissected wrists. The mean distance of the radial branch to PL was 0.81 cm (SD ± 0.3 cm), while the ulnar branch was 0.3 cm (SD ± 0.1 cm). from same structure. The mean distance from the origin to the distal wrist crease is 4.5 cm (SD ± 2.1 cm). We noted the terminal distal branching pattern of the nerve to be highly variable. Conclusion: The Palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve is safe with an incision made at least 0.5 cm ulnar to the PL in carpal tunnel surgeries in Nigerians. PMID:24027400

  13. Kidney Transplant in a 26-Year-Old Nigerian Patient with Sickle Cell Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, U. H.; Wachukwu, C.; Emem-Chioma, P.; Wokoma, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It has variable presentation, ranging from hyposthenuria to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Management of ESRD in SCD patients is froth with multiple challenges which has potential to impact negatively the outcome of the patient. Kidney transplant is the preferred renal replacement therapy in these patients. The objective of this case study is to report kidney transplant in a Nigerian young man with sickle cell nephropathy and to highlight the outcome and the challenges to kidney transplant in this patient. The index case is a 26-years-old sickle cell disease patient with ESRD complicated with cardiovascular, pulmonary, immunological, and infective challenges. These conditions were controlled, and the patient had a successful live-related kidney transplant. Kidney transplant is a viable option for sickle cell disease patients with ESRD. PMID:24555134

  14. Intracardiac bronchogenic cyst in a 2-year-old Nigerian boy

    PubMed Central

    Ogunkunle, Oluwatoyin Oluwafunmilayo; Animashaun, Deola

    2012-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumours are rare in the paediatric age group. Bronchogenic cysts, although relatively rare, represent the most common cystic lesion of the mediastinum. Intracardiac bronchogenic cysts however, are extremely rare. The authors are unaware of any case previously reported in a Nigerian child and hence report the case of a 2-year-old boy for its rarity and interest. The boy was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Clinical, radiological and electrographic findings were suggestive of mild pulmonary stenosis or an atrial septal defect (ASD). 2-dimensional echocardiography however, revealed in addition to a small ASD, an intracardiac mass attached to the tricuspid valve. The mass was surgically removed and found on histology to be a bronchogenic cyst. Our experience highlights the importance of echocardiography in the evaluation of asymptomatic patients with cardiac murmurs, in whom a rare lesion might have otherwise been missed. PMID:22605814

  15. Dissociative fugue symptoms in a 28-year-old male Nigerian medical student: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dissociative fugue is a psychiatric disorder characterized by amnesia coupled with sudden unexpected travel away from the individual’s usual surroundings and denial of all memory of his or her whereabouts during the period of wandering. Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder that is infrequently reported. Before now, no case of it had been reported in a medical student. Case presentation This article focuses on the report of a case of dissociative fugue symptoms in a 28-year-old male Nigerian medical student. Conclusion The observation in this case report brings to the fore that dissociative fugue is often related to stressful life events and can comorbid with a depressive disorder. PMID:23724873

  16. Observations on the alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme distribution in maternal and amniotic fluid compartments in Nigerian parturients.

    PubMed

    Okpere, E; Okorodudu, A; Gbinigie, O

    1988-01-01

    Estimation of the alkaline phosphates isoenzymes in paired maternal serum and amniotic fluids in term uncomplicated pregnancies and in patients with pre-eclampsia, showed poor correlation coefficients between the levels of both heat stable and heat labile isoenzymes. There was a statistically significant fall in AF (P less than .05) HSAP in pre-eclampsia and a highly significant rise of HLAP in meconial liquor. It is concluded that the poor correlation between the levels of HSAP in maternal serum and amniotic fluid (despite their common source of origin), the normal levels of HLAP in maternal serum in the presence of significantly high levels of HSAP in maternal serum in the presence of significantly diminished levels in amniotic fluid point to a state of relatively diminished permeability of the chorioamniotic membranes to the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in Nigerians.

  17. Pregnancy in a 24 year old Nigerian woman with chronic kidney disease: challenges and outcome.

    PubMed

    Okafor, U H; Nwobodo, M U; Ezeugwu, F O

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease worldwide. The developing countries including Nigeria are facing greater challenges because of the prevailing poverty and high burden of infectious diseases. There are various prevalent co-morbid conditions that influence and are influenced by the status of the kidney function of the patient. These conditions pose some peculiar challenges and management of the challenges will determine the outcome. The aim of this report is to highlight the chalIenges of pregnancy in women with chronic kidney disease and possible outcome. We report a 24 years Nigerian woman diagnosed with chronic kidney disease who presented with 10 weeks gestation and deteriorating kidney function. Her management was associated with various challenges including non adherance to medications and not regular to follow up visits. She later developed ecclampsia and had intra uterine fetal death. She had various interventional measures including haemodialysis. She recovered kidney function appreciably but has defaulted follow up since discharge.

  18. A developmental analysis of certain Piagetian concepts among some Nigerian children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehindero, O. J.

    The concepts of distance, area, and the coordinate reference systems were investigated in relation to the displacement volume task among 300 randomly selected primary and high school children in Nigeria. Piaget and Inhelder (1971) theorized a developmental progression in the acquisition of these concepts among Genevan children, and a number of studies have confirmed pancultural stability in the acquisition of these concepts. Four tasks were used to investigate the acquistion of these concepts developmentally, and the data obtained were analyzed by the chi-square, Pearson correlation coefficient and the 50% success criterion suggested by Laurendea and Pinard (1962, 1970). The data confirmed Piaget's theorizing but when compared with similar studies in Europe and America (Lovell (1971), Dasen (1972), & Karplus et al. (1977), a developmental lag of about two years was observed among the Nigerian Ss. The concept of horizontal decalages was discussed in relation to the data including some implications for science teaching particularly in developing countries.

  19. Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nlerum, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

  20. Tuberculous mastitis simulating carcinoma of the breast in a young Nigerian woman: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sabageh, Donatus; Amao, Emmanuel Afolabi; Ayo-Aderibigbe A, Adebisi; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous mastitis is an uncommon disease even in countries where tuberculosis is highly endemic. It typically presents a diagnostic challenge masquerading as carcinoma or other primary disease of the breast. We report the case of a young multiparous Nigerian woman who presented with a tender left breast lump and enlargement of the left axillary lymph nodes for which a provisional diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast was made after clinical and radiological evaluation. The mass was pathologically diagnosed as tuberculous mastitis and anti-tuberculous therapy was instituted although she later absconded. This case shows that TM may present a diagnostic challenge on clinical, radiologic and microbiological investigation. Therefore, a high index of suspicion as well as FNAC and/or histological evaluation of tissue samples remain very important its diagnosis.

  1. Hydrometallurgical application for treating a Nigerian chalcopyrite ore in chloride medium: Part I. Dissolution kinetics assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Alafara A.; Ayinla, Kuranga I.; Adekola, Folahan A.; Bale, Rafiu B.; Ghosh, Malay K.; Alabi, Abdul G. F.; Sheik, Abdul R.; Folorunso, Ismael O.

    2013-11-01

    The dissolution kinetics of a Nigerian chalcopyrite ore in hydrochloric acid was studied in this article. Acid concentration, reaction temperature, and ore particle size were chosen as experimental parameters. The chemical and morphological studies of the ore before and after leaching at optimal conditions were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is revealed that increasing the acid concentration and system temperature and decreasing the ore particle size greatly enhances the dissolution rate. The dissolution kinetics was found to follow the shrinking core model for the diffusion control mechanism where the activation energy ( E a) of 32.92 kJ·mol-1 was obtained for the process and supported by morphological changes at a higher dissolution of 91.33%.

  2. IRI-vTEC versus GPS-vTEC for Nigerian SCINDA GPS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoh, Daniel; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Cilliers, Pierre; Okere, Bonaventure; Okonkwo, Chinelo; Rabiu, Babatunde

    2015-04-01

    Following the recent proliferation of dual-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver systems across the African continent, there is a growing number of papers that compare vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) values derived from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model with those obtained from the GPS receiver measurements. In this work we report an investigation of IRI-vTEC versus GPS-vTEC comparisons for three Nigerian SCINDAGPS stations (Nsukka, Ilorin, and Lagos) for which data are available in the year 2012, and present a further review of the differences/similarities observed between them. Since a major interest in this work is to use the GPS measurements to improve the predictions of the IRI model for the region, we present a detailed regression analysis of differences between the two sources in a manner that will benefit this application.

  3. Study of uptake of zinc into blood from a Nigerian diet using INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, J. O.; Osoniyi, R. O.; Aboderin, A. O.

    2003-01-01

    This work describes our on-going investigations on the study of uptake of zinc from dietary intakes, into blood. The aim is to evaluate the possibility of successful application of dietary zinc therapy in the management of Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Seven adult subjects were involved in the current study. After the ingestion of an experimental diet, blood samples were withdrawn from the subjects at various time intervals. The blood samples were further separated into erythrocytes and plasma. Both blood components and the ingested diet were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for zinc. Significant increases in the levels of plasma zinc were recorded in the subjects within 2 hours after the ingestion of the diet and were sustained till about the fourth hour. We were not able to detect significant uptake of zinc in the erythrocytes. Either the levels of ingested zinc were too low or there were inhibitions of the absorption by the diet. Better response is expected in SCA patients since they are known to be frequently zinc-deficient.

  4. Knowledge, attitude and techniques of breastfeeding among Nigerian mothers from a semi-urban community

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mothers’ poor knowledge and negative attitude towards breastfeeding may influence practices and constitute barriers to optimizing the benefits of the baby-friendly initiative. This study assessed breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and techniques of postures, positioning, hold practice and latch-on among Nigerian mothers from a Semi-Urban community. Methods Three hundred and eighty three consenting lactating mothers who have breastfed for 6 months and up to two years volunteered for this cross-sectional survey, yielding a response rate of 95.7%. A self-administered questionnaire that sought information on maternal socio-demographic variables, knowledge, attitudes and breastfeeding techniques of mothers was employed. Results Based on cumulative breastfeeding knowledge and attitude scores, 71.3% of the respondents had good knowledge while 54.0% had positive attitude. Seventy one point three percent practiced advisable breastfeeding posture. Sitting on a chair to breastfeed was common (62.4%); and comfort of mother/baby (60.8%) and convenience (29.5%) were the main reasons for adopting breastfeeding positions. Cross-cradle hold (80.4%), football hold technique (13.3%), breast-to-baby (18.0%) and baby-to-breast latch-on (41.3%) were the common breastfeeding techniques. A majority of the respondents (75.7%) agreed that neck flexion, slight back flexion, arm support with pillow and foot rest was essential during breastfeeding. There was no significant association between breastfeeding posture practice and each of cumulative breastfeeding knowledge score levels (X2 = 0.044; p = 0.834) and attitude score levels (X2 = 0.700; p = 0.403). Conclusion Nigerian mothers demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitude towards breastfeeding. Most of the mothers practiced advisable breastfeeding postures, preferred sitting on a chair to breastfeed and utilized cross-cradle hold and baby-to-breast latch-on. PMID:24359943

  5. Prioritizing hazardous pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes: a risk-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Etchie, Ayotunde T; Etchie, Tunde O; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; SaravanaDevi, S; Wate, Satish R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To rank pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes according to their effect on human health using a risk-based approach. Methods Hazardous pollutants in drinking-water in the study area were identified from a literature search and selected pollutants were monitored from April 2010 to December 2011 in catchments, treatment works and consumer taps. The disease burden due to each pollutant was estimated in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using data on the pollutant’s concentration, exposure to the pollutant, the severity of its health effects and the consumer population. Findings The pollutants identified were microbial organisms, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc. All were detected in the catchments but only cadmium, cobalt, chromium, manganese and lead exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values after water treatment. Post-treatment contamination was observed. The estimated disease burden was greatest for chromium in both schemes, followed in decreasing order by cadmium, lead, manganese and cobalt. The total disease burden of all pollutants in the two schemes was 46 000 and 9500 DALYs per year or 0.14 and 0.088 DALYs per person per year, respectively, much higher than the WHO reference level of 1 × 10−6 DALYs per person per year. For each metal, the disease burden exceeded the reference level and was comparable with that due to microbial contamination reported elsewhere in Africa. Conclusion The estimated disease burden of metal contamination of two Nigerian water supply systems was high. It could best be reduced by protection of water catchment and pretreatment by electrocoagulation. PMID:23940402

  6. Analysis of the Determinants of Low Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake Among Nigerian Women

    PubMed Central

    Nwobodo, Humphrey; Ba-Break, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer causes an estimated 266,000 deaths globally, 85% of which occurs in developing countries. It is a preventable disease, if detected and treated early via screen and treat, yet its burden is still huge in Nigeria. In 2012, 21.8% cases of cervical cancer and 20.3% deaths due to cervical cancer were recorded in Nigeria. This review, therefore, aims at indentifying the determinants of low cervical cancer screening in Nigeria in order to contribute in reducing the burden of the disease. Literature were obtained from Global Health, Popline and PubMed databases; WHO and other relevant websites using Eldis search engine; and from libraries in the University of Leeds and WHO in Geneva. Conceptual framework for analyzing the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women was formed by inserting service delivery component of the WHO health system framework into a modified Health Belief Model. Wrong perception of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening due to low level of knowledge about the disease and inadequate cervical cancer prevention were identified as the major determinants of low cervical cancer screening uptake in Nigeria. Among women, belief in being at risk and/or severity of cervical cancer was low just as belief on benefits of cervical cancer screening, unlike high belief in barriers to screening. Support from the community and screening skills among health-workers were inadequate. Improving uptake of cervical cancer screening will reduce the burden of the disease. Therefore, researchers and other stakeholders interested in prevention of cervical cancer should carryout studies to identify interventions that could address the key determinants of low cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. PMID:28299143

  7. Dual indices for prioritizing investment in decentralized HIV services at Nigerian primary health care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Oyediran, Kola’ A; Mullen, Stephanie; Kolapo, Usman M

    2016-01-01

    Decentralizing health services, including those for HIV prevention and treatment, is one strategy for maximizing the use of limited resources and expanding treatment options; yet few methods exist for systematically identifying where investments for service expansion might be most effective, in terms of meeting needs and rapid availability of improved services. The Nigerian Government, the United States Government under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program and other donors are expanding services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV to primary health care facilities in Nigeria. Nigerian primary care facilities vary greatly in their readiness to deliver HIV/AIDS services. In 2012, MEASURE Evaluation assessed 268 PEPFAR-supported primary health care facilities in Nigeria and developed a systematic method for prioritizing these facilities for expansion of PMTCT services. Each assessed facility was scored based on two indices with multiple, weighted variables: one measured facility readiness to provide PMTCT services, the other measured local need for the services and feasibility of expansion. These two scores were compiled and the summary score used as the basis for prioritizing facilities for PMTCT service expansion. The rationale was that using need and readiness to identify where to expand PMTCT services would result in more efficient allocation of resources. A review of the results showed that the indices achieved the desired effect—that is prioritizing facilities with high need even when readiness was problematic and also prioritizing facilities where rapid scale-up was feasible. This article describes the development of the two-part index and discusses advantages of using this approach when planning service expansion. The authors' objective is to contribute to development of methodologies for prioritizing investments in HIV, as well as other public health arenas, that should improve cost-effectiveness and

  8. Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) – objectives and protocol

    PubMed Central

    Odili, Augustine N.; Ogedengbe, John O.; Nwegbu, Maxwell; Anumah, Felicia O.; Asala, Samuel; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition from a disease burden largely attributable to communicable diseases to that resulting from a combination of both communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases. Data on chronic disease incidence, lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors are sparse in this region. This report aimed at providing relevant information in respect to risk factors that increase blood pressure and lead to development of intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes. We presented the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) study. The challenges encountered in carrying out population study in this part of the world and the approaches at surmounting them were also presented. The preliminary data as at 20 November 2013 showed that out of the 205 individuals invited starting from early April 2013, 160 (72 women) consented and were enrolled; giving a response rate of 78%. Participants' age ranged from 18 to 80 years, with a mean (SD) of 39.8 (12.4) years and they were of 34 different ethnic groups spread over 24 states out of the 36 states that constitute Nigeria. The mean (SD) of office and home blood pressures were 113.0 (15.2) mm Hg systolic, 73.5 (12.5) mm Hg diastolic and 117.3 (15.0) mm Hg systolic, and 76.0 (9.6) mm Hg diastolic, respectively. Forty-three (26.8%) participants were hypertensive and 8 (5.0%) were diabetic. In addition to having the unique potential of recruiting a cohort that is a true representative of the entire Nigerian population, NIPREGH is feasible and the objectives realisable. PMID:25332707

  9. Evaluation of microalbuminuria in relation to asymptomatic bacteruria in Nigerian patients with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Iwalokun, B A; Iwalokun, S O; Hodonu, S O; Aina, O A; Agomo, P U

    2012-11-01

    Studies have identified microalbuminuria (MA) and asymptomatic bacteruria (ASB) as co-morbid factors in sickle cell anemia (SCA). However, the relationship between these comorbid factors remains unclear and data are lacking for Nigerian patients. This study determined the prevalence of MA and ASB in a cohort of patients with SCA in a steady state, in Lagos, Nigeria. Early morning mid-stream urine samples were collected in sterile bottles from 103 patients comprising 48 males and 55 females with a mean age of 10.4 years. Aerobic culture and colony count of organisms was done using conventional methods. Serum creatinine and hematological indices, including irreversibly sickled cells (ISC), were also assayed. Of the 103 urine samples screened, 23 (22.3%) had albuminuria (ALB), and consisted of nine males and 14 females (P > 0.05); 16.5% of the cases had MA (P <0.05). Age at onset of MA was seven years, and children accounted for 23.5% of all cases with ALB (P >0.05). The prevalence of confirmed ASB was 14.6%, with females accounting for 14 of 19 probable ASB cases (P <0.05). Univariate regression analysis demonstrated a significant (P <0.05) association between age at onset of MA, hemoglobin level, reticulocyte count, ISC and occurrence of ASB, but with only ISC evolving as an independent predictor. Twenty-eight bacterial isolates predominated by Escherichia coli (39.3%; P <0.05), of whom 89.3% were multi-drug resistant, were recovered from the ASB urine samples. In conclusion, both MA and ASB are common in Nigerian SCA patients, with the former occurring from the first decade of life.

  10. Dual indices for prioritizing investment in decentralized HIV services at Nigerian primary health care facilities.

    PubMed

    Fronczak, Nancy; Oyediran, Kola' A; Mullen, Stephanie; Kolapo, Usman M

    2016-04-01

    Decentralizing health services, including those for HIV prevention and treatment, is one strategy for maximizing the use of limited resources and expanding treatment options; yet few methods exist for systematically identifying where investments for service expansion might be most effective, in terms of meeting needs and rapid availability of improved services. The Nigerian Government, the United States Government under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program and other donors are expanding services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV to primary health care facilities in Nigeria. Nigerian primary care facilities vary greatly in their readiness to deliver HIV/AIDS services. In 2012, MEASURE Evaluation assessed 268 PEPFAR-supported primary health care facilities in Nigeria and developed a systematic method for prioritizing these facilities for expansion of PMTCT services. Each assessed facility was scored based on two indices with multiple, weighted variables: one measured facility readiness to provide PMTCT services, the other measured local need for the services and feasibility of expansion. These two scores were compiled and the summary score used as the basis for prioritizing facilities for PMTCT service expansion. The rationale was that using need and readiness to identify where to expand PMTCT services would result in more efficient allocation of resources. A review of the results showed that the indices achieved the desired effect-that is prioritizing facilities with high need even when readiness was problematic and also prioritizing facilities where rapid scale-up was feasible. This article describes the development of the two-part index and discusses advantages of using this approach when planning service expansion. The authors' objective is to contribute to development of methodologies for prioritizing investments in HIV, as well as other public health arenas, that should improve cost-effectiveness and

  11. Effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Onyechi, Kay C.N.; Eseadi, Chiedu; Umoke, Prince C.I.; Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, Amaka B.; Otu, Mkpoikanke S.; Obidoa, Jaachimma C.; Agu, Fedinand U.; Nwaubani, Okechukwu O.; Utoh-Ofong, Anthonia N.; Ncheke, Chijioke D.; Ugwuozor, Felix O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Smoking is a learned habit that has an impact on the psychological and biochemical health of individuals. It is the leading preventable cause of chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program (GCBHEP) on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners. Methods: The study used a pretest–posttest randomized control group design. Twenty inmates were identified through self-reporting, 1-to-1 counseling, and observation. The treatment group took part in a GCBHEP for 10 weeks, while the control group received 10 weeks’ conventional counseling. After the intervention program, both the treatment and control groups were evaluated. The repeated measures analysis of variance was used for data analysis and partial η2 was also used as a measure of effect size. Results: The findings showed that the GCBHEP had a strong effect on cigarette-smoking habits among the inmates in the treatment group compared with those in the control group. The effect of the GCBHEP by age was moderate, and modest by educational qualification. Conclusion: Group-focused cognitive behavioral health education is effective in breaking the habit of cigarette smoking among Nigerian prisoners. Therefore, future researchers are encouraged to adopt this approach in helping individuals with a smoking problem and other drug-abuse behaviors in Nigerian prisons. PMID:28072681

  12. Economic study of food crop sector performance in a petroleum-based export economy: the Nigerian case, 1965-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Ekpo, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Food sector performance of the Nigerian economy from 1965 to 1979 is analyzed using a Johnston-Mellor Adequacy, a framework to explore: 1) whether the rapid change in Nigeria's self-sufficiency should be attributed to the post 1974 oil price boom or other causes; 2) the conceptual differences between J-M adequacy and self-sufficiency and their implications in the Nigerian case; 3) how the lag of Nigerian food production behind demand was met; and 4) a government policy toward the food crop sector during the post-war period. Under a range of demand growth assumptions, the economy lost its food self-sufficiency in 1975. From 1975 to 1979, the period of the oil boom, excess demand was taken up mostly by food imports. Food adequacy was lost from 1969, and the failure of adequacy was greater than that of self-suffiency. The decline in the production of specific food crops was due to both hectare and yield effects, with the hectare effect predominating. There was little effort by government to stimulate food production in the country between 1960 and 1971; the characterization of government's policies from 1975 to 1982 reveals an attempt by government to design and implement policies and strategies that may increase food crop production. The poor performance of the food crop sector was attributable to both the oil boom and agricultural failure.

  13. Natural resource booms and Third World development: Assessing the subsectoral impacts of the Nigerian petroleum boom on agricultural export performance

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Linear and quadratic expansion model formulations are developed to assess the relative complexity of booming-non-booming sector interactions. Specific attention is given to the extent to which the growth rates of Nigerian agricultural exports have changed over time as: (a) the volume of oil exports, and (b) the growth rate of oil exports are allowed to vary over a set of hypothetical values which reflect Nigerian oil-boom realities. Four important conclusions emerge: (a) the quadratic expansion model most accurately captures Nigerian oil-agricultural exports are most clearly influenced by the oil boom; (c) the growth rate of capital-intensive agricultural exports are initially stimulated, and later stagnated by the oil boom, while the growth rate of subsidized labor intensive agricultural exports are first stagnated and then stimulated by the oil boom; and (d) the expansion method provides a useful alternative means of exploring theoretical and applied issues related to the Dutch Disease paradigm. the implications of the findings for agricultural and petroleum policy in Nigeria are assessed, and a research agenda for further booming-non-booming sector investigations is proposed.

  14. Moral Dilemmas of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rest, James R.

    This study describes moral dilemmas that young adults (ages 18-24) formulate spontaneously and examines the relationship between these dilemmas and the subjects' environment and scores on a standardized test. Fifty-two subjects were tested both in 1976 and 1978, creating 104 subject-oriented dilemmas. Thirty-two were in college, 17 were not, and…

  15. Evidence for subclinical H5N1 avian influenza infections among Nigerian poultry workers.

    PubMed

    Okoye, John O; Eze, Didacus C; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; White, Sarah K; Merrill, Hunter R; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-12-01

    In recent years Nigeria has experienced sporadic incursions of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza among poultry. In 2008, 316 poultry-exposed agricultural workers, and 54 age-group matched non-poultry exposed adults living in the Enugu or Ebonyi States of Nigeria were enrolled and then contacted monthly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like-illnesses. Annual follow-up sera and questionnaire data were collected at 12 and 24 months. Participants reporting influenza-like illness completed additional questionnaires, and provided nasal and pharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera. Swab and sera specimens were studied for evidence of influenza A virus infection. Sera were examined for elevated antibodies against 12 avian influenza viruses by microneutralization and 3 human viruses by hemagglutination inhibition. Four (3.2%) of the 124 acute influenza-like-illness investigations yielded molecular evidence of influenza, but virus could not be cultured. Serial serum samples from five poultry-exposed subjects had a ≥4-fold change in microneutralization titers against A/CK/Nigeria/07/1132123(H5N1), with three of those having titers ≥1:80 (maximum 1:1,280). Three of the five subjects (60%) reported a preceding influenza-like illness. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were ≥4-fold increases against one of the human viruses in 260 participants. While cross-reactivity from antibodies against other influenza viruses cannot be ruled out as a partial confounder, over the course of the 2-year follow-up, at least 3 of 316 (0.9%) poultry-exposed subjects had evidence for subclinical HPAI H5N1 infections. If these data represent true infections, it seems imperative to increase monitoring for avian influenza among Nigeria's poultry and poultry workers.

  16. Recent perspectives on the anticancer properties of aqueous extracts of Nigerian Vernonia amygdalina

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Carolyn Bingham; Johnson, William K; Pervin, Shehla; Izevbigie, Ernest B

    2016-01-01

    Innovative developments are necessary for treating and defeating cancer, an oftentimes deadly group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of women in the USA, and prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of American men. Although some efficacious BC drugs are pharmaceutically marketed, they affect the quality of life for some patients because they are toxic in that their usages have been accompanied by side effects such as stroke, thrombosis, slow heart rate, seizure, increased blood pressure, nausea, emesis, and more. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of molecular markers for early detection of this disease and discovery of targets for the development of novel, less toxic therapeutics. A botanical plant Vernonia amygdalina has been widely used in Nigerian and other Central and West African cultures for centuries as an herbal medicine. Mounting evidence suggests that treatment with low concentrations of aqueous leaf extracts of the edible Nigerian V. amygdalina plant (Niger-VA) arrests the proliferative activities and induces apoptosis in estrogen receptor-positive, estrogen receptor-negative, and triple-negative human breast cancerous cells and in androgen-independent human PC-3. Also, in athymic mice, Niger-VA potentiates increased efficacies and optimizes treatment outcomes when given as a cotreatment with conventional chemotherapy drugs. Evidence of its noticeable cytostatic activities ranging from changes in DNA synthesis to growth inhibition, mechanisms of inducing apoptosis in different cancer cell lines, and in vivo antitumorigenic activities and chemopreventive efficacy reinforce the idea that Niger-VA deserves increased attention for further development as a phytoceutical, anticancer drug entity. Hence, the present review article highlights impactful published literature on the anticancer

  17. Immunological profile in persons under antiretroviral therapy in a rural Nigerian hospital

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Baba Maiyaki; Gebi, Usman; Etiebet, Mary-Ann; Omuh, Helen; Ekedegwa, Patrick; Dakum, Patrick; Blattner, William

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with Nigeria having the third highest burden of HIV infection globally; efforts are made to increases access to HIV/AIDS care and treatment. This has currently reached rural areas with limited manpower and laboratory evaluation capacity. This review is necessitated by the paucity of interim report on treatment profile in Nigerian rural areas. We report on the immunological profile of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Otukpo General Hospital, a rural Nigerian hospital. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients receiving ART treatment and care, on April 2009, when 2347 patients were under ART therapy. Out of these, 96 patients were selected by simple random sampling from hospital register, with their data abstracted from standardized Ministry of Health registers and facility documents kept at the hospital, and analyzed for descriptive and biometric measures. Ninty-six patients (29% males) with a median age of 35 years, median baseline CD4 lymphocyte count 221 cells/mL, median one year CD4 lymphocyte count of 356 cells/mL and median one year CD4 lymphocyte increment of 124 cells/mL were studied. There is no statistically significant difference in baseline CD4 lymphocyte count when data is disaggregated by type of drug regimen (AZT, D4T and TDF). Fourty-four percent, 23% and 33% of patients were on TDF, D4T & AZT based regimen, respectively (P=0.66). Increment of >100 cells/mL was seen in 64.58% of the reviewed patients. There was a higher CD4 lymphocyte count increment in patients on TDF & D4T compared with those in AZT based regimens (ANOVA; P<0.0003). Multivariate linear regression model showed one year CD4 lymphocyte count, one year increment in CD4 lymphocyte count, WBC count, and absolute neutrophil count to be significant correlates of baseline CD4 lymphocyte count (P<0.0001). Equally, multivariate logistic regression found age

  18. Herbal medicine: a survey of use in Nigerian presurgical patients booked for ambulatory anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Utilization of herbal medicines in the preoperative period by Nigerian patients booked for day case surgery has not been explored. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 60 patients presenting for day-case surgery at a tertiary healthcare institution over a 3-week period in August 2011 was conducted. Using a structured questionnaire, inquiries were made concerning use of herbal medicines in the immediate preoperative period. Socio-demographic characteristics, information on use of concurrent medical prescriptions, types of herbs used, reasons for use, perceived side effects and perceived efficacy were obtained. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and Chi-square. Results Fifty-two (86.7%) were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 1 while 8 (13%) were ASA 2. Most patients (86.7%) had their procedures done under local infiltration with monitored anaesthesia care (MAC), while 5.0% and 8.3% had their procedures done under regional and general anaesthesia, respectively. About 48.3% of respondents were on concurrent medical prescriptions while 51.7% were not. Forty percent (40%) of patients admitted to use of herbal medicine, all by the oral route, in the immediate perioperative period; 87.5% did not inform their doctor of their herbal use. Types of herbs used included ‘dogonyaro’, ‘agbo’, ‘nchanwu’, and Tahitian noni. Treatment of malaria was commonest reason for use in 29.2% of patients, while cough and concurrent surgical condition were reasons given by 12.5% of patients, respectively. Seventy-nine percent (79.2%) of patients considered their herbal medications effective. Perceived side effects of herbal medication (16.6%) included fever, waist pain and intoxication. There were no variations in use between ASA 1 and ASA 2 patients and none between respondents on conventional medication against those that were not. Variables such as age less than 35 years, female gender, being married and being an urban dweller did not show

  19. Yawning and subjective sleepiness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Zilli, Iole; Giganti, Fiorenza; Uga, Valeria

    2008-09-01

    Yawning is related to sleep/wake transitions and time of day, probably reflecting the time course of sleepiness. As aging modifies sleep-wake and sleepiness rhythms, we suppose that yawning frequency and its time course vary as a function of age. Thirteen aged healthy subjects (77.15 +/- 4.09 years) and 12 young adults (24.41 +/- 3.31 years) were instructed to keep their habitual sleep schedules for three consecutive work-days, during which they were required to signal every yawning occurrence and to evaluate hourly their sleepiness level. Results showed that aged subjects yawn less frequently than young adults, particularly during morning and mid-afternoon hours. The time course of yawning was different between the two age groups: aged subjects showed earlier morning peak and evening rise compared with young adults; in addition, aged subjects showed two minor peaks in-between. Differences as a function of age in the time course of yawning were associated with differences in the time course of sleepiness. The only exception pertained to the early morning yawning peak, which was close to the awakening but it was not associated with high sleepiness in aged subjects. Our study discloses that aging modifies yawning frequency and its time course. Furthermore, as in the elderly yawning after the awakening is not associated with high sleepiness level as in young adult, we put forward that sleepiness level and the proximity of sleep/wake transitions could separately affect yawning.

  20. Climate impacts on palm oil yields in the Nigerian Niger Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoro, Stanley U.; Schickhoff, Udo; Boehner, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe A.; Huth, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil production has increased in recent decades and is estimated to increase further. The optimal role of palm oil production, however, is controversial because of resource conflicts with alternative land uses. Local conditions and climate change affect resource competition and the desirability of palm oil production. Based on this, crop yield simulations using different climate model output under different climate scenarios could be important tool in addressing the problem of uncertainty quantification among different climate model outputs. Previous studies on this region have focused mostly on single experimental fields, not considering variations in Agro-Ecological Zones, climatic conditions, varieties and management practices and, in most cases not extending to various IPCC climate scenarios and were mostly based on single climate model output. Furthermore, the uncertainty quantification of the climate- impact model has rarely been investigated on this region. To this end we use the biophysical simulation model APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) to simulate the regional climate impact on oil palm yield over the Nigerian Niger Delta. We also examine whether the use of crop yield model output ensemble reduces the uncertainty rather than the use of climate model output ensemble. The results could serve as a baseline for policy makers in this region in understanding the interaction between potentials of energy crop production of the region as well as its food security and other negative feedbacks that could be associated with bioenergy from oil palm. Keywords: Climate Change, Climate impacts, Land use and Crop yields.