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Sample records for adult nigerian subjects

  1. Lung function in young Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Jaja, S I

    1991-01-01

    Static and dynamic long volumes have been measured in 181 (123 males and 58 females) apparently healthy Nigerian adults. The age range in both sexes was between 17 and 34 years (22.0 +/- 3.2 years in males and 21.3 +/- 3.2 years in females). In the male subjects mean height, weight and body surface area were 170.0 +/- 6.0 cm, 62.0 +/- 8.5 kg and 1.72 +/- 0.19 m2 respectively. In the female subjects mean height, was 162.3 +/- 15.3 cm, mean weight was 57.2 +/- 8.4 kg and mean body surface area was 1.60 +/- 0.12 m2. In both sexes, caucasian prediction formulae overestimated the TLC, FVC and RV/TLC% of the subjects. Observed FEV % in our subjects was higher than in the caucasians. The elevated FEV1 % and reduced FVC, RV/TLC % and TLC in Nigerian subjects may suggest and increased elastic recoil of the lungs and chestwall in them. Regression coefficients and constants for predicting TLC, FVC, FEV1, IC, ERV and RV in Nigerian subjects are presented.

  2. A cephalometric investigation of horizontal lip position in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ikenna Isiekwe, Gerald; Olatokunbo DaCosta, Oluranti; Chukwudi Isiekwe, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) identify soft tissue cephalometric norms for horizontal lip position in an adult Nigerian population; (2) compare values for Nigerian males and females; and (3) compare Nigerian norms with established norms for Caucasians and other populations. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Lagos University Teaching Hospital Dental Clinic, Idi-araba, Lagos, Nigeria. One hundred students (44 males and 56 females) of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, aged 18-25 years, of Nigerian ancestry, with a normal class I occlusion and no facial asymmetry. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of the subjects were taken in natural head position. Radiographs were manually traced and 11 soft tissue cephalometric parameters measured. These were derived from the Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone, Merrifield and Holdaway soft tissue analyses. Male and female values were compared using Student's t-test with a level of significance at P<0·05. Statistically significant differences were observed between Nigerian males and females in eight of the variables studied, with males having more protrusive upper and lower lips than the females. Variables, which did not vary by sex, were soft tissue facial angle, nose prominence and soft tissue chin thickness. In addition, Nigerian norms were higher than norms reported by Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone and Holdaway for Caucasian populations, while the Z-angle was lower than the norm established by Merrifield. Gender-specific soft tissue norms for horizontal lip position should be used for orthodontic treatment planning in Nigerian subjects. Nigerians have more protrusive upper and lower lips compared to Caucasians.

  3. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  4. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults.

    PubMed

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1(st) of September 2013 and 31(st) of March 2014. Mean age of respondents was 66.42 ± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants' medical ailments (65%), partners' failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient.

  5. The sagittal diameter of the lumbar vertebral canal in normal adult Nigerians.

    PubMed Central

    Amonoo-Kuofi, H S

    1985-01-01

    An osteometric study of the anteroposterior diameter of the lumbar vertebral canal and intervertebral foramina of normal adult Nigerians is reported. The results show that the midsagittal diameter of the canal is subject to racial variations, and is determined primarily by the thickness and orientation of the lamina and to a lesser extent by the height of the pedicle. The significance of the findings is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:4066472

  6. Xanthogranulomatous orchitis in an adult Nigerian.

    PubMed

    Salako, Abdulkadir A; Olasode, Babatunde J; Eziyi, Amogu K; Osasan, Stephen A

    2006-02-01

    Xanthogranulomatous orchitis (XGO) is a rare benign disease of the testis which has not been previously documented in tropical Africa. We report a case of a 24-year-old Nigerian man who presented with a painless left hemiscrotal swelling. Our clinical diagnosis was left testicular cancer. Testicular tumor markers were normal. At surgical exploration, we found a left testicular tumor. Histopathological examination of the specimen showed XGO of the left testis. He had left radical orchiectomy and left inguinal node dissection. He has remained stable 8 months after the treatment. Xanthogranulomatous orchitis cannot be distinguished clinically from testicular cancer unless by histopathological examination. Orchiectomy is the treatment of choice. However, in all patients and particularly young patients and those with a single testis, histopathological confirmation is suggested to avoid unnecessary radical orchiectomy, useless irradiation and ill-timed chemotherapy.

  7. Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of double-modality therapy, phonophoresis and cryotherapy in the management of musculoskeletal injuries in adult Nigerian subjects.

    PubMed

    Onuwe, H A; Amadi, K; Odeh, S O

    2013-12-20

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of double-modality therapy, phonophoresis and cryotherapy in the management of pain among subjects who suffered from musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs).Sixty (60) subjects were assigned randomly to one of three groups: DMT group (n=20) received cryotherapy and 15% methyl salicylate phonophoresis, PHONO group (n=20) received 15% methyl salicylate phonophoresis and CRYO group (n=20) received cryotherapy and "sham‟ phonophoresis. Ultrasound at an intensity of 1.5 W/cm² and frequency of 1MHz was used to apply methyl salicylate while intermittent cryotherapy was the mode of application. Subjects‟ pre- and post-treatment pain perception scores (PPS) using visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed and the sessions of treatment in all groups were recorded. Treatment was administered on alternate days and discharges were made in all groups when subjects were pain free. A total of 275 treatment sessions was recorded - 72 (26.2%) in DMT, 105 (38.2%) in PHONO and 98 (35.6%) in CRYO group respectively which indicated no significant difference (P>0.05). Nineteen (19), thirteen (13) and twelve (12) subjects were pain free in DMT, CRYO or PHONO groups respectively after 1 to 5 treatments. The difference in the severity of pain was significant (P<0.05) in each group post-treatment which suggests that DMT, phonophoresis and cryotherapy were equally effective. The study has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy of DMT, but it was not superior to the single treatment protocol of phonophoresis or cryotherapy. However, it might take fewer sessions in the DMT group to treat and make more than 90% of the subjects pain free and fit to return to active performance.

  8. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Nwhator, S O; Isiekwe, G I; Soroye, M O; Agbaje, M O

    2015-01-01

    To provide baseline data about bad-breath perception and misconceptions among Nigerian adults. Multi-center cross-sectional study of individuals aged 18-64 years using examiner-administered questionnaires. Age comparisons were based on the model of emerging adults versus full adults. Data were recoded for statistical analyses and univariate and secondary log-linear statistics applied. Participants had lopsided perceptions about bad-breath. While 730 (90.8%) identified the dentist as the expert on halitosis and 719 (89.4%) knew that bad-breath is not contagious, only 4.4% and 2.5% associated bad-breath with tooth decay and gum disease respectively. There were no significant sex differences but the older adults showed better knowledge in a few instances. Most respondents (747, 92.9%) would tell a spouse about their bad-breath and 683 (85%) would tell a friend. Participants had lop-sided knowledge and perceptions about bad-breath. Most Nigerian adults are their "brothers' keepers" who would tell a spouse or friend about their halitosis so they could seek treatment.

  9. Subjective Wellbeing, Work-School Conflict and Proactive Coping among Nigerian Non-Traditional Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebayo, D. O.; Sunmola, A. M.; Udegbe, I. B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of participating in two domains, work and school, on the subjective wellbeing (SWB) and work-school conflict (WSC), as well as the moderating role of proactive coping between WSC and SWB among Nigerian nontraditional students. Design/methodology/approach: Using a cross-sectional survey,…

  10. Subjective Wellbeing, Work-School Conflict and Proactive Coping among Nigerian Non-Traditional Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebayo, D. O.; Sunmola, A. M.; Udegbe, I. B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of participating in two domains, work and school, on the subjective wellbeing (SWB) and work-school conflict (WSC), as well as the moderating role of proactive coping between WSC and SWB among Nigerian nontraditional students. Design/methodology/approach: Using a cross-sectional survey,…

  11. Hydrocelectomy under local anaesthesia in a Nigerian adult population.

    PubMed

    Agbakwuru, E A; Salako, A A; Olajide, A O; Takure, A O; Eziyi, A K

    2008-09-01

    Hydrocele is abnormal collection of serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis or a patent processus vaginalis. It is commonly encountered in our practice and often requires surgical treatment. However in our setting and in many underdeveloped countries, availability of general anaesthetic service is poor due to lack of trained personnel and equipment. To ascertain the practicability and acceptability of hydrocelectomy under sedation and local anaesthesia in Nigerian adults with hydrocele A prospective study was carried out over a two year period on patients that had hydrocelectomy at the surgery unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa. Consecutive patients with diagnosis of hydrocele who consented had hydrocelectomy using intramuscular diazepam sedation and spermatic-cord block with 0.5% plane xylocaine and the scrotum infiltrated with same along the line of incision. Fifty adult patients were studied: age range 15-94 years. Eighty percent of the patients had unilateral hydrocele and the commonest type was vaginal hydrocele (94%). All patients had hydrocelectomy, 96% were under local anaesthesia while 4% were converted to general anaesthesia. All patients except one prefer to have future surgery under such local anaesthesia and sedation. Hydrocelectomy under local anaesthesia and sedation is practicable and was tolerated and accepted by the adults patients studied.

  12. The Struggle and Problems Facing Nigerian Adult Educators: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderinto, J. A.

    A study was conducted to determine the handicaps and problems facing Nigerian adult educators. The sample population was 90 adult educators drawn from both the public higher institutions and voluntary adult education agencies in Nigeria. The Educational Handicaps and Problem Questionnaire (EHPQ) developed from the study of Brunner and Nicholls…

  13. Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Obuna, Johnson Akuma; Ogiji, Emeka; Ezenkwa, Simon Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (an essential trace element) and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity) have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443) aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs), consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061). Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432), Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009). It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects. PMID:27486364

  14. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of normal Northern Nigerian adults using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Rabi Yahaya; Abdu, Lawal; Pam, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements of normal Northern Nigerian adults using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Subjects and Methods: The OCT procedure was carried out with the Carl Zeiss Stratus OCT Model 3000 software version 4.0 (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany). The fast RNFL scan protocol was used to obtain RNFL thickness measurements. Student's t-test was used to compare mean RNFL thickness values. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Average RNFL thickness was correlated with age. Results: Two hundred and twenty eyes of 110 subjects aged 18–51 years were examined. The average RNFL thickness was 104.17 ± 10.71 μm. The mean values for the RNFL thickness were 129.15 ± 16.87 μm, 135.34 ± 20.40 μm, 85.10 ± 23.60 μm, and 67.19 ± 13.27 μm for the inferior, superior, nasal, and temporal quadrants, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found between males and females for the mean RNFL thickness (t = 3.30, P = 0.001) and for the mean superior and inferior RNFL thickness. There was a statistically significant difference between right and left eyes (t = 3.73, P = 0.001) for the mean RNFL thickness. A negative correlation was found between RNFL thickness and age (r = −0.313, P = 0.002). Conclusion: Normal RNFL thickness measurements in healthy Nigerian adults are presented. The RNFL was found to be thicker in females and in right eyes. The values were comparable to those of the Indian population but higher than some Caucasian values. PMID:27044727

  15. Assessment of the risk factors for hearing loss in adult Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    Background: A reduction in hearing sensitivity is common in adults and was previously considered to be normal as age increases. However, other health variables may play a role in the sensory changes. This prospective, comparative, hospital-based study assessed the risk factors (RFs) associated with sensorineural hearing losses (SNHL) in adult patients in a specialized tertiary hospital clinic in South-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Patients with clinical diagnosis of hearing impairment (bilateral SNHL) were the test subjects and age and sex-matched comparable group without SNHL were the Controls. Using a structured questionnaire, variables assessed included current and past medical history, family and social history, use of medications including ototoxic drugs, and prolonged medications. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients participated in the study comprising of 76 test subjects with SNHL (including 14 with suspected ARHL) and 51 controls. 59.8% of the participants were males. Univariate analysis revealed statistically-significant differences in family history, alcohol consumption, smoking, exposure to noise, previous ear discharge, previous head injury, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, ototoxic drugs usage, prolonged medication and obesity between the two categories of subjects. Logistic regression analysis revealed family history, smoking, noise exposure, head injury, hypertension had significantly increased odds of developing SNHL. Conclusion: It was concluded that the RFs for SNHL in adult Nigerians were multifactorial while some of the RFs may be amenable to primary prevention. Legislation and public health education could facilitate reduction of SNHL in our community. PMID:24249950

  16. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements of normal Northern Nigerian adults using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Sani, Rabi Yahaya; Abdu, Lawal; Pam, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    To assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements of normal Northern Nigerian adults using optical coherence tomography (OCT). The OCT procedure was carried out with the Carl Zeiss Stratus OCT Model 3000 software version 4.0 (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany). The fast RNFL scan protocol was used to obtain RNFL thickness measurements. Student's t-test was used to compare mean RNFL thickness values. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Average RNFL thickness was correlated with age. Two hundred and twenty eyes of 110 subjects aged 18-51 years were examined. The average RNFL thickness was 104.17 ± 10.71 μm. The mean values for the RNFL thickness were 129.15 ± 16.87 μm, 135.34 ± 20.40 μm, 85.10 ± 23.60 μm, and 67.19 ± 13.27 μm for the inferior, superior, nasal, and temporal quadrants, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found between males and females for the mean RNFL thickness (t = 3.30, P = 0.001) and for the mean superior and inferior RNFL thickness. There was a statistically significant difference between right and left eyes (t = 3.73, P = 0.001) for the mean RNFL thickness. A negative correlation was found between RNFL thickness and age (r = -0.313, P = 0.002). Normal RNFL thickness measurements in healthy Nigerian adults are presented. The RNFL was found to be thicker in females and in right eyes. The values were comparable to those of the Indian population but higher than some Caucasian values.

  17. Anaemia in Relation to Body Mass Index (BMI) and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State.

    PubMed

    Ugwuja, Emmanuel Ike; Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Obuna, Akuma Johnson; Awelegbe, Femi; Uro-Chukwu, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia, a multifactorial health challenge has been found to affect every stage of human development with negative health impacts. Providing information on the factors associated with Anaemia will help in formulating mitigating strategies against this important public health problem. To determine the prevalence of Anaemia and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographic characteristics in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria. Adults (n=428) aged ≥ 18 y (mean=38.4±13.7 y) randomly selected from 130 political wards from the 13 Local Government Areas of the state were studied. Sociodemographic data was collected with questionnaire while blood samples were collected for hemoglobin determination using colorimetric cyanmethemoglobin method. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS(®) for Windows(®) ver. 16). In general, 21.7% of the subjects were anemic with Anaemia prevalence of 9.9%, 15.8% and 39.8% in male, non-pregnant and pregnant female, respectively. About four percent (3.7%) of the subjects were underweight, while 37.6% had excess weight with hemoglobin concentration having no relationship with BMI and sociodemographic parameters. It may be conclude that the Anaemia in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State has no definite relationship with BMI and sociodemographic characteristics studied. Further studies are needed to document other factors that may be associated with Anaemia among adults in the State.

  18. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Christiana, Udenze Ifeoma; Casimir, Amadi E.; Nicholas, Awolola Awodele; Christian, Makwe C.; Obiefuna, Ajie I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome and to determine the relationship between components of the metabolic syndrome and CRP in adult Nigerians. Subjects and Methods: This was a case–control study of fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty age- and sex-matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Blood pressure and anthropometry measurements were taken and venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparisons of continuous variables and categorical variables were done using the Student's t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The age- and sex-matched males and females with and without the metabolic syndrome did not differ in their sociodemographic characteristics. They however differed in some clinical and laboratory parameters such as diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.048), waist circumference (P = 0.002), body mass index (P = 0.012), waist/hip ratio (P = 0.023), high density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.012), and insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.042). There was a statistically significant increase in the inflammatory marker, CRP (P = 0.019), the cytokines, IL6 (P = 0.040), and TNF-α (P = 0.031) between the subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. There was also a significant association between CRP, waist circumference, IR, and HDL in the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in

  19. The psychological condition of a cohort of Nigerian diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Akinlade, K S; Ohaeri, J U; Suberu, M A

    1996-03-01

    The emotional condition and cognitive function of 37 insulin requiring (IDD) and 46 non-insulin requiring (NIDD) diabetics (in stable conditions) were compared, using the Hospital Anxiety and Depressive Scale (HAD) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). About 5% of IDD and 4% of NIDD had threshold score for clinical anxiety; while 37.8% of IDD and 15.2% of NIDD had depression. The prevalence rate of depression for the entire cohort was 25.3%, while the rate for anxiety was 4.8%. Only the illiterates among IDD had up to threshold score for depression. The most common reported symptoms were, the feelings of not being able to enjoy things as usual, and not looking forward with enjoyment to things. Cognitive function was predominantly normal, not being significantly associated with HAD scale scores, age, duration of illness and level of education. Compared with previous reports in the same hospital, diabetics experienced significantly less depressive symptoms than cancer patients. The findings are similar to reports from developed countries in showing that IDD subjects are more emotionally disturbed than NIDD subjects; and that depression is a commonly feature of chronic debilitating illness. Clinicians need to be sensitive to the emotional condition of their patients, because depression impairs the ability to comply with treatment and therefore mars prognosis.

  20. Informed consent in human subject research: a comparison of current international and Nigerian guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Joseph O; Porteri, Corinna

    2010-03-01

    Informed consent is a basic requirement for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. Currently, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are widely accepted as international codes regulating human subject research and the informed consent sections of these documents are quite important. Debates on the applicability of these guidelines in different socio-cultural settings are ongoing and many workers have advocated the need for national or regional guidelines. Nigeria, a developing country, has recently adopted its national guideline regulating human subject research: the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC) code. A content analysis of the three guidelines was done to see if the Nigerian guidelines confer any additional protection for research subjects. The concept of a Community Advisory Committee in the Nigerian guideline is a novel one that emphasizes research as a community burden and should promote a form of "research friendship" to foster the welfare of research participants. There is also the need for a regular update of the NHREC code so as to address some issues that were not considered in its current version.

  1. Renal disease in adult Nigerians with sickle cell anemia: a report of prevalence, clinical features and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, R A; Akinlade, K S; Kuti, M A O; Olawale, O O; Akinola, N O

    2012-01-01

    Renal abnormalities in adult Nigerians with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have not been extensively studied. To determine the prevalence, pattern and the associated risk factors of renal disease, 72 subjects with SCA from two centers in the southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Socio-demographic data, body mass index and clinical findings were documented. The urine analysis, serum bio-chemistry, hemogram and renal factors attributable to SCA were determined. Presence of albuminuria of at least 1+ or microalbuminuria in those negative with dipstick; and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Cockcroft-Gault formula categorized subjects to various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Subjects with and without albuminuria were compared to determine the relative risk associated with renal disease. Four (5.6%) subjects had macro-albuminuria, while 32 (44.4%) had micro-albuminuria and 30 (41.7%) had hemoglobinuria. In the subjects with albuminuria, age, hematocrit, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea and creatinine clearance were numerically higher while the eGFR was numerically lower. There was no significant difference in the clinical parameters studied in the two groups of subjects. The diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the albuminuric group. Based on eGFR, 22 (30.6%) subjects had hyperfiltration (GFR > 140 mL/min/1.73 m2), of whom 36.4% had albuminuria, 18 (25.0%) had stage 1 CKD, 30 (41.7%) had stage 2 CKD and two (2.7%) subjects had stage 3 CKD with albuminuria. None had stage 4 and 5 CKD. We conclude that renal abnormalities, importantly albuminuria, is common in adult Nigerians with SCA and the pattern and incidence are similar to those reported from other parts of the world. Regular blood pressure monitoring, early diagnosis and active intervention are advocated to delay progression to end-stage kidney disease in view of poor outcomes of renal replacement therapy in SCA patients with nephropathy.

  2. Degrees of kidney disease in nigerian adults with sickle-cell disease.

    PubMed

    Aneke, John C; Adegoke, Adegbola O; Oyekunle, Anthony A; Osho, Patrick O; Sanusi, Abubakra A; Okocha, Emmanuel C; Ibeh, Nancy C; Akinola, Norah O; Durosinmi, Muheez A

    2014-01-01

    To study degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using creatinine clearance in adult Nigerian patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD). One hundred SCD patients, made up of 79 HbSS (homozygous haemoglobin S) patients and 21 HbSC (heterozygous haemoglobins S and C) patients, were investigated prospectively, along with 50 normal controls. Their sociodemographic data, weight and drug history were documented. Each participant underwent dipstick urinalysis, and creatinine clearance was calculated following a 24-hour urine collection and serum creatinine measurement. They were categorized into stages of CKD based on the creatinine clearance. Of the 79 HbSS patients, 14 (18%), 28 (35%), 33 (42%) and 4 (5%) had stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 CKD, respectively. In the HbSC group, 3 (14%), 9 (43%) and 9 (43%) patients had stage 1, 2 and 3 CKD, respectively. Proteinuria was noted in 16 (20%) HbSS patients but not in any of the HbSC patients. Of the subjects aged ≤24 years (n = 49), 9 (18%), 18 (37%), 21 (43%) and 1 (2%) had stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 CKD, respectively. Of those aged >24 years (n = 51), 8 (16%), 19 (37%), 21 (41%) and 3 (6%) had stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 CKD, respectively. None of the subjects had stage 5 CKD. In this study, the adult subjects with SCD had various degrees of CKD. Adequate follow-up and active intervention are advocated to delay the onset of end-stage nephropathy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Oculopalpebral dimensions of adult Nigerians: report from the Enugu normative ocular anthropometry study.

    PubMed

    Eze, Boniface I; Uche, Judith N; Shiweobi, Jude O; Mba, Chibuike N

    2013-01-01

    To determine the normal oculopalpebral anthropometric measurements of a Nigerian adult population. A population-based prospective observational random survey was conducted in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria between January and April 2010. The participants were healthy adults comprising 248 males and 252 females aged 18-76 years. One thousand eyes were examined. Demographic data, and bilateral direct manual millimetre measurements of the horizontal palpebral fissure (HPF), vertical palpebral fissure (VPF), upper lid crease (ULC), brow height (BH), and margin reflex distance (MRD) were obtained from all participants. Data were categorised by demographic variables and analysed to yield frequencies, percentages and proportions. Between-gender comparisons, using the independent t test, were considered significant at p < 0.05. The mean age of the participants was 36.5 ± 14.6 years. There was no significant difference between the genders in mean age (men: 37.3 ± 15.7 vs. women: 35.8 ± 13.3, p = 0.2302). The mean values of the parameters were (male, female) HPF: 32.8 ± 2.0 vs. 32.6 ± 3.0; VPF: 10.6 ± 1.2 vs. 10.6 ± 1.2; ULC: 8.2 ± 2.5 vs. 7.9 ± 2.2; BH: 13.1 ± 2.4 vs. 13.6 ± 2.7; and MRD: 4.1 ± 0.5 vs. 4.2 ± 0.8. Significant between-gender difference was observed only in BH measurements (p = 0.029) and variable trends with age. Oculopalpebral measurements of normal adult Nigerians in Enugu showed variations by age and gender. This may have implications for clinical evaluation and surgical management of oculopalpebral disorders in adult South-Eastern Nigerians. Future longitudinal studies are needed. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Socio-demographic and clinical correlates of subjective quality of life among Nigerian outpatients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Adelufosi, A O; Ogunwale, A; Abayomi, O; Mosanya, J T

    2013-10-30

    This study aimed to measure the subjective quality of life (QOL) of Nigerian outpatients with schizophrenia and to examine its socio-demographic as well as clinical determinants. A total of 313 outpatients with schizophrenia participated in the study. Data were collected on socio-demographics, outpatient clinic attendance, perceived social support, perceived satisfaction with hospital care, medication adherence, illness severity and QOL. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the amount of variance in the QOL domain scores explained by socio-demographic and clinical variables. Employment status, perceived social support, satisfaction with outpatient care, antipsychotic medication dose, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores and medication adherence had significant relationships with all the QOL domains. Average monthly allowance and outpatient clinic default were significantly associated with all QOL domains except social relationship. Socio-demographic and clinical factors explained only a modest part (29.4%) of the variance in the QOL scores. It is likely that unmeasured 'internalised' determinants contribute in a much larger sense to the variation in subjective QOL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy of subjective assessment of fever by Nigerian mothers in under-5 children

    PubMed Central

    Odinaka, Kelechi Kenneth; Edelu, Benedict O.; Nwolisa, Emeka Charles; Amamilo, Ifeyinwa B.; Okolo, Seline N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many mothers still rely on palpation to determine if their children have fever at home before deciding to seek medical attention or administer self-medications. This study was carried out to determine the accuracy of subjective assessment of fever by Nigerian mothers in Under-5 Children. Patients and Methods: Each eligible child had a tactile assessment of fever by the mother after which the axillary temperature was measured. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 19 (IBM Inc. Chicago Illinois, USA, 2010). Result: A total of 113 mother/child pairs participated in the study. Palpation overestimates fever by 24.6%. Irrespective of the surface of the hand used for palpation, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of tactile assessment were 82.4%, 37.1%, 51.9% and 71.9%, respectively. The use of the palmer surface of the hand had a better sensitivity (95.2%) than the dorsum of the hand (69.2%). The use of multiple sites had better sensitivity (86.7%) than the use of single site (76.2%). Conclusion: Tactile assessment of childhood fevers by mothers is still a relevant screening tool for the presence or absence fever. Palpation with the palmer surface of the hand using multiple sites improves the reliability of tactile assessment of fever. PMID:25114371

  6. Mass media exposure, social stratification, and tobacco consumption among Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Tafawa, Adebola Odunlami; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, David R

    2012-03-01

    Mass media exposure is a strong determinant of tobacco use yet little is known about this relationship in African countries. We explored socio-demographic and socio-contextual correlates of tobacco consumption and associations between mass media exposure, gender and the use of any and various forms of tobacco among Nigerians. The study included 47,805 adults from the cross-sectional and nationally representative Nigeria demographic and health survey 2008. Weighted binary logistic models predicted any tobacco use whereas weighted multinomial logistic models predicted smoking and smokeless tobacco, all compared with no tobacco use. Approximately 4.2% of Nigerian adults used tobacco--2.7% smoked tobacco whereas 1.5% used smokeless tobacco. Tobacco use was more prevalent among men than women (12% vs. 0.6%; p value <0.0001). Gender modified the associations between tobacco use and radio exposure or TV exposure (p values ranged = 0.02-0.05). Among men, some radio exposure and high radio exposure were associated with increased odds of any tobacco use, compared with no radio exposure. Among men, infrequently reading newspapers/magazines and frequently reading newspapers/magazines were associated with higher odds of smokeless tobacco use, compared with not reading newspapers/magazines. Among women, infrequently reading newspapers/magazines was associated with reduced odds of smokeless tobacco use, compared with not reading newspaper/magazines. The relationships between mass media exposure and tobacco consumption differed by gender and were more pronounced among men. Research on radio programs may help to form policies that can address tobacco use among Nigerian men.

  7. Relationship between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome among Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Abiodun; Adegoke, Olajire O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Awotidebe, Taofeek O

    2013-01-01

    The study determined the diastolic and systolic pressure, anthropometric parameters, serological parameters comprising fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as well as the socio-economic status (SES) of inhabitants of Ilora with a view to providing information on impact of SES on metabolic syndrome (MetS). One hundred participants (54 males and 46 females) whose ages ranged from 30 and 70 years, participated in the study. Participants were recruited from the three wards of the town using multi-stage random sampling procedure. Subjects' weights, height, blood pressure, waist circumference (WC) were measured using standard instruments. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured using a glucometer on participants' blood samples taken after at least 8h of fasting. Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed using enzyme colometric assay kits in the laboratory. SES of the participants was determined by using a questionnaire, which sought information on annual income, occupation and education. Participants who had MetS were determined using the new International Diabetes Foundation definition of MetS. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The mean scores for the males and females systolic blood pressure (SBP) were 123.20 ± 20.72 mmHg and 117.78 ± 14.64 mmHg, and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 78.63 ± 11.72 mmHg and 75.98 ± 13.06 mmHg, respectively. The mean of serological variables scores for the males and females, respectively, were FBG (4.95 ± 0.81 mmol/L and 4.84 ± 1.36 mmol/L), TG (1.28 ± 0.75 mmol/L and 1.35 ± 1.05 mmol/L), HDL-C (1.26 ± 0.21 mmol/L and 2.32 ± 7.34 mmol/L). The mean SES scores for the males and females were 14.35 ± 4.75 and 13.13 ± 4.66, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 43.5% in females and 9.3% in males. Significant differences were found in SBP and FBG across the three SES groups (F=3

  8. A metrical study of the laryngeal skeleton in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ajmani, M L

    1990-08-01

    Laryngeal cartilages were studied in 40 dissection room specimens of adult age groups ranging from 17 to 50 years in both the sexes. Various dimensions of the laryngeal skeleton were measured and statistical analysis of the data for male and female were evaluated separately. Conspicuous and highly significant differences of the dimensions between male and female laryngeal cartilages were observed. The incidence of the cuneiform cartilage and cartilago triticea was greater in the female than in the male.

  9. A metrical study of the laryngeal skeleton in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed Central

    Ajmani, M L

    1990-01-01

    Laryngeal cartilages were studied in 40 dissection room specimens of adult age groups ranging from 17 to 50 years in both the sexes. Various dimensions of the laryngeal skeleton were measured and statistical analysis of the data for male and female were evaluated separately. Conspicuous and highly significant differences of the dimensions between male and female laryngeal cartilages were observed. The incidence of the cuneiform cartilage and cartilago triticea was greater in the female than in the male. PMID:2081705

  10. Artemether-Lumefantrine Exposure in HIV-Infected Nigerian Subjects on Nevirapine-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sunil; Fehintola, Fatai; Huang, Liusheng; Olson, Alexander; Adedeji, Waheed A; Darin, Kristin M; Morse, Gene D; Murphy, Robert L; Taiwo, Babafemi O; Akinyinka, Olusegun O; Adewole, Isaac F; Aweeka, Francesca T; Scarsi, Kimberly K

    2015-12-01

    Coadministration of nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) and artemether-lumefantrine is reported to result in variable changes in lumefantrine exposure. We conducted an intensive pharmacokinetic study with 11 HIV-infected adults who were receiving artemether-lumefantrine plus nevirapine-based ART, and we compared the results with those for 16 HIV-negative adult historical controls. Exposure to artemether and lumefantrine was significantly lower and dihydroartemisinin exposure was unchanged in subjects receiving nevirapine-based ART, compared with controls. Nevirapine exposure was unchanged before and after artemether-lumefantrine administration.

  11. Study of the location and morphology of the pterion in adult nigerian skulls.

    PubMed

    Adejuwon, Sunday A; Olopade, Funmilayo E; Bolaji, Modupe

    2013-01-01

    The pterion which marks the union of 4 bones of the cranium is located superior to the zygomatic arch and posterior to the frontozygomatic suture. It is an important neurosurgical landmark for the lateral/pterional approach and has racial differences in both its location and pattern of union of the bones. This study aims to analyze the location and types of pterion in adult Nigerian skulls. Bilateral sides of 37 adult dry skulls were studied. The pterion types were classified; linear distances from the centre of the pterion to the midpoint of the zygomatic arch and to the frontozygomatic suture were measured; these were analyzed for side and gender differences. Sphenoparietal was the most common pterion type (86.1%) followed by frontotemporal (8.3%), stellate (5.6%), and epipteric types (0%). The mean distances from the pterion to the midpoint of zygomatic arch were 39.74 ± 0.505 mm and 37.95 ± 0.657 mm in males and females, respectively, while the distances to the frontozygomatic suture were 31.87 ± 0.642 mm and 30.35 ± 0.836 mm. The vertical position of the pterion was significantly higher in males than females. Bilateral occurrence is statistically insignificant. This information will be of neurosurgical and anthropological importance.

  12. Study of the Location and Morphology of the Pterion in Adult Nigerian Skulls

    PubMed Central

    Adejuwon, Sunday A.; Olopade, Funmilayo E.; Bolaji, Modupe

    2013-01-01

    The pterion which marks the union of 4 bones of the cranium is located superior to the zygomatic arch and posterior to the frontozygomatic suture. It is an important neurosurgical landmark for the lateral/pterional approach and has racial differences in both its location and pattern of union of the bones. This study aims to analyze the location and types of pterion in adult Nigerian skulls. Bilateral sides of 37 adult dry skulls were studied. The pterion types were classified; linear distances from the centre of the pterion to the midpoint of the zygomatic arch and to the frontozygomatic suture were measured; these were analyzed for side and gender differences. Sphenoparietal was the most common pterion type (86.1%) followed by frontotemporal (8.3%), stellate (5.6%), and epipteric types (0%). The mean distances from the pterion to the midpoint of zygomatic arch were 39.74 ± 0.505 mm and 37.95 ± 0.657 mm in males and females, respectively, while the distances to the frontozygomatic suture were 31.87 ± 0.642 mm and 30.35 ± 0.836 mm. The vertical position of the pterion was significantly higher in males than females. Bilateral occurrence is statistically insignificant. This information will be of neurosurgical and anthropological importance. PMID:25938098

  13. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ezuruike, Udoamaka; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients. This was done through a literature analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of their herbal medicines and prescription drugs, based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. Fifty percent of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified HDIs. By comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for the management of diabetes against those of the prescription drugs, several scenarios of potential HDIs were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points toward cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential HDIs. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines. PMID:27559312

  14. Relationship of anthropometric indicators with blood pressure levels and the risk of hypertension in Nigerian adults

    PubMed Central

    Adedoyin, Rufus A; Mbada, Chidozie E; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Studies on cardiovascular risks in relation to anthropometric factors are limited in Sub-Sahara Africa. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between anthropometric parameters and blood pressure; and to evaluate body mass index (BMI) across the range of underweight and obesity as a primary risk factor of hypertension in adult Nigerians. Material and methods: 2097 adults aged between 20 and 100 years consented and participated in this door-to-door survey. All participants underwent blood pressure and anthropometric measurements using standard procedures. The population study was separated in normotensive and hypertensive males and females and the possible risk for hypertension were categorized into different classes of value based on BMI definition. Results: The relative risks (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) of developing hypertension among the obese compared with the underweight, normal weight, and overweight persons were (OR 5.75; CI 5.67–5.83), (OR 1.73; CI 1.65–1.81), and (OR 1.54; CI 1.46–1.62) for all the participants, respectively. Among obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 Kg/m2) males, the OR for hypertension was three times (OR 2.78; CI 2.76–2.80) that of normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5–24.9 Kg/m2) males. Females with obesity had a risk of hypertension three times (OR 3.34; CI 3.33–3.35) that of normal weight females. Conclusion: Our results indicated that the there was a significant positive correlation of obesity indicator with blood pressure. In Nigeria, we found a strong gradient between higher BMI and increased risk of hypertension among all ages. Approaches to reduce the risk of hypertension may include prevention of overweight and obesity. PMID:20428404

  15. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others.

  16. Prevalence of cutaneous drug eruptions in adult Nigerians with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Salami, T A T; Asalu, A F; Samuel, S O

    2010-06-01

    Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions are dreaded complication of drug use and this is more so when it occurs in the setting of human immune virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aims to look at the prevalence of cutaneous drug eruptions in adult Nigerians with HIV/AIDS and find out the etiological agents, outcome, and prognosis of such occurrence in Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua Edo State Nigeria. A retrospective study of cutaneous drug eruptions in patients with HIV/AIDS managed in this centre over the past five years (between January 2001 and December 2005 prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy) was carried out. A total of 900 patients with HIV/AIDS were managed during this period (antiretroviral treatment was not available during this period). Twenty five of these patients (2.8%) not had cutaneous drug eruptions (2.8%). Erythema multiforme major or Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS)-40% and Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)-20% were the most frequent types of adverse cutaneous drug events found while combination antituberculosis agent of Isoniazid/Thiacethazone (64%) and anti malarial Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine (20%) were the notable culprit drugs found to be responsible for these. There was a 20% fatality rate. Treatment of tuberculosis which is the most common AIDS presenting illness with anti tuberculosis regimen that includes thiacethazone and the ready availability of anti malarials over the counter without prescription are responsible for the findings of this study. Avoiding drugs such as those found to be culprit agents in this study in patients with HIV/AIDS; right prescription practice by health practitioners as well as more intense health education of the public on the hazards of self prescription will all go a long way in minimising the occurrence of these events.

  17. Pulpal sequelae after trauma to anterior teeth among adult Nigerian dental patients

    PubMed Central

    Oginni, Adeleke O; Adekoya-Sofowora, Comfort A

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies show that about 11.6% to 33.0% of all boys and about 3.6% to 19.3% of all girls suffer dental trauma of varying severity before the age of 12 years. Moderate injuries to the periodontium such as concussion and subluxation are usually associated with relatively minor symptoms and hence may go unnoticed by the patient or the dentist, if consulted. Patients with these kinds of injuries present years after a traumatic accident most of the time with a single discoloured tooth. This study sets out to document the incidence of various posttraumatic sequelae of discoloured anterior teeth among adult Nigerian dental patients. Methods One hundred and sixty eight (168) traumatized discoloured anterior teeth in 165 patients were studied. Teeth with root canal treatment were excluded from the study. Partial obliteration was recorded when the pulp chamber or root canal was not discernible or reduced in size on radiographs, total obliteration was recorded when pulp chamber and root canal were not discernible. A retrospective diagnosis of concussion was made from patient's history of trauma to the tooth without abnormal loosening, while subluxation was made from patient's history of trauma to the tooth with abnormal loosening. Results Of the 168 traumatized discoloured anterior teeth, 47.6% and 31.6% had partial and total obliteration of the pulp canal spaces respectively, 20.8% had pulpal necrosis. Concussion and subluxation injuries resulted more in obliteration of the pulp canal space, while fracture of the teeth resulted in more pulpal necrosis (p < 0.001). Injuries sustained during the 1st and 2nd decade of life resulted more in obliteration of the pulp canal space, while injuries sustained in the 3rd decade resulted in more pulpal necrosis. Conclusion Calcific metamorphosis developed more in teeth with concussion and subluxation injuries. Pulpal necrosis occurred more often in traumatized teeth including fractures. PMID:17764551

  18. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Okwuonu, C. G.; Chukwuonye, I. I.; Ogah, S. O.; Abali, C.; Adejumo, O. A.; Oviasu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher – administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18–78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria. PMID:26060365

  19. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.

  20. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-01-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior. PMID:27065759

  1. Thyroid, cortisol and growth hormone levels in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Udenze, Ifeoma Christiana; Olowoselu, Olusola Festus; Egbuagha, Ephraim Uchenna; Oshodi, Temitope Adewunmi

    2017-01-01

    The similarities in presentation of cortisol excess, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome suggest that subtle abnormalities of these endocrine hormones may play a causal role in the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of cortisol, thyroid and growth hormones in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome and determine the relationship between levels of these hormones and components of the syndrome. This was a case control study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty, age and sex matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Written Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Socio demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected after an over-night fast. The Ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparison of continuous variables was done using the Student's t test. Correlation analysis was employed to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Triiodotyronine (T3) was significantly decreased (p<0.001) and thyroxine (T4 ) significantly increased ( p<0.001) in metabolic syndrome compared to healthy controls. T3 correlated positively and significantly with waist circumference (p=0.004), glucose (p= 0.002), total cholesterol ( p=0.001) and LDL- cholesterol ( p<0.001 ) and negatively with body mass index ( p<0.001 )and triglyceride ( p=0.026). T4 had a negative significant correlation with waist circumference (p=0.004). Cortisol and growth hormone levels were similar in metabolic syndrome and controls. Cortisol however had a positive significant correlation with waist/hip ratio (p<0.001) while growth hormone correlated positively with

  2. Comprehensive Reference Ranges for Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Parameters Derived from Normal Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash’le

    2014-01-01

    -pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations. PMID:24832127

  3. Mastoid triangle for sex determination in adult Nigerian population: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Ajua, Christiana O; Didia, Blessing C

    2013-11-01

    In the quest for a simple, reliable technique to estimate the sex of human remains several novel metric skeletal indices have been reported. Only a few have been examined for utility in populations different from those in which they were developed. In this study, the mastoid process was evaluated for sex determination using 102 lateral cephalograms of a Nigerian sample of known age and sex. The asterion-mastoidale distance and mastoid triangular area were sexually dimorphic with mean values higher in males compared with females (p = 0.02). On analysis of the discriminant function, overall accuracy for sex classification was 55%. On cross-validation, the triangular area accurately identified 80% of females and 48% of males. The asterion-mastoidale distance was slightly more accurate at sexing the sample. The practical utility of the mastoid triangle area technique to differentiate sex in Nigerian populations is not supported by the results of this study.

  4. Relationship between the concentration of volatile sulphur compound and periodontal disease severity in Nigerian young adults.

    PubMed

    Ehizele, Adebola O; Ojehanon, Patrick I

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in mouth air and the severity of periodontal diseases in young adults. A total of 400 subjects were studied. Estimation of periodontal disease severity was done using the basic periodontal examination (BPE) and the baseline measurement of the concentration of VSC in the mouth air of the subjects was done objectively using the Halimeter(®). The mean concentration of VSC for the group with BPE code 0 was 91.0 ± 5.9 parts per billion (ppb), 156.4 ± 9.4 ppb for BPE code 1, 275.2 ± 38.5 ppb for BPE code 2, 353.5 ± 72.3 ppb for BPE code 3, and 587.0 ± 2.1 ppb for BPE code 4 (P = 0.001). Majority (79.0%) of the subjects with BPE code 0 had concentration of VSC <181 ppb. Sixty-two (54.9%) with BPE code 1 had concentration of VSC <181 ppb, 34% with BPE code 2 had concentration of VSC <181 ppb and 42.9% with BPE code 3 had concentration of VSC <181 ppb. Only 6.5% of the subjects with BPE code 0 had VSC concentration >250 ppb, whereas all (100%) of those with BPE code 4 had VSC concentration >250 ppb (P = 0.001). It was concluded that a relationship exists between the periodontal pocket depth and the concentration of VCS in mouth air of young adults.

  5. Intussusception and volvulus secondary to jejunal adenocarcinoma in an adult Nigerian male: a case report.

    PubMed

    Okolo, C A; Afolabi, A O; Sahabi, S M

    2010-12-01

    A 31 year-old Nigerian man with jejuno-jejunal intussusception with the lead point being an adenocarcinoma complicated by small intestinal volvulus is presented. The subtle clinical features of an underlying small bowel malignancy were masked by the overwhelming clinical and radiological features of intussusception. rare case is reported to remind clinicians to have an increased index of suspicion of malignancy in patients who present with the usual features of chronic anemia, weight loss and loss of appetite with an intra-abdominal mass. The presentation of acute intestinal obstruction, with mesenteric vein thrombosis probably due to intussusception or volvulus should not however lower the suspicion. Histological evaluation of surgical biopsies is of immense importance.

  6. Giant ureteric and staghorn calculi in a young adult Nigerian male: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gali, B M; Ali, A; Ibrahim, A G; Bakari, A; Minoza, K

    2010-01-01

    Ureteric calculi are usually small and solitary.The term giant has been applied to ureteric calculi that aremore than five cms in length and/or 50g or more in weight. These are uncommon and may present with few or no urological symptoms and might be ignored or be missed. To present a rare case of a giant left ureteric calculus associated with an ipsilateral staghorn calculus. A 31-year-old Nigerian male presented with recurrent left abdominal pain, dysuria, urinary frequency, and fever which had been on for 10 years. Patient was clinically evaluated. He had plain abdominal X-rays, abdominal ultrasonography and intravenous urography. He had to undergo nephrouterorectomy. Patient took analgesics and antibiotics purchased from patent chemist shops for relief of symptoms by himself. He was fit except for a hard cylindrical mass felt arising from the pelvis. Abdomino-pelvic ultrasound scan, plain abdominal X-ray and Intravenous urogram showed a giant ureteric calculus with an ipsilateral staghorn calculus in a nonfunctioning hydronephrotic left kidney. There was no evidence of underlying anatomic or metabolic abnormalities. He had left nephroureterectomy. The ureteric calculus measured 10.5 x 3.0cm and weighed 20.1gm. Giant ureteric calculi are rare. The association giant ureteric calculus with an ipsilateral staghorn renal calculus without underlying anatomic abnormalities appear not have been reported earlier.

  7. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Young Adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ayoka, A O; Ogunlade, O; Akintomide, A O; Akomolafe, R O; Ajayi, O E

    2014-06-19

    This study assessed healthy young adults to determine the normal limits for electrocardiographic variables and cut-off values for left ventricular hypertrophy. It was a cross sectional descriptive study in which the participants were evaluated clinically by standard 12-lead resting electrocardiogram (ECG) at 25 mm/s during quiet respiration. The heart rate, P wave duration, axis and amplitude, PR and QT intervals, QRS duration, axis and amplitude and T wave axis were assessed. Three hundred and twenty four (324) volunteers comprising of 175 males and 149 females aged 20 to 30 years (mean, 23.01 ± 2.88 years) participated in the study. The normal limits for heart rate, P wave duration, amplitude and axis in lead II, QRS duration and axis, T wave axis, PR interval, QT interval and QTc respectively were; 61-93 beats per minute,0.08-0.12s,1.00-2.00 mm,22.00-79.000,78.00-106.00 ms,15.50-81.000, 24.25-69.000,0.12-0.19s, 0.32-0.40s and 0.36-0.44s. The cut-off values for Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell and Araoye criteria for assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) were higher than those previously in use in medical practice. Gender difference exists in some cut-off values for LVH. This study defined the normal limits for electrocardiographic variables for young adult Nigerians. Racial factor should be taken into consideration in interpretation of ECG.

  8. The Making of Entrepreneurial Subjectivity in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi; Brunila, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the idea of entrepreneurial subjectivity and the ways in which it is shaped by the entrepreneurial discourse in adult education. As a result, we argue that educational practices related to adults form a particular kind of ideal subjectivity that we refer to as entrepreneurial. In order to understand how this entrepreneurial…

  9. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  10. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  11. Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Umar, Maimuna; Oguche, Friday; Aliyu, Salamatu U.; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Accurate assessment of physical activity to identify current levels and changes within the population is dependent on the precision of the measurement tools. The aim of this study was to compare components of physical activity measured with an adapted version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Hausa IPAQ-SF) and the accelerometer in a sample of Nigeria adults. Methods One hundred and forty-four participants (Mean age = 32.6±9.9 years, 40.3% women) in a cross-sectional study wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days and completed the Hausa IPAQ-SF questionnaire on the eighth day. Total physical activity, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) and sedentary time assessed by Hausa IPAQ-SF and accelerometer were compared. The absolute and criterion- related validity of the Hausa IPAQ-SF was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and Spearman Correlation Coefficients, respectively. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated to classify individuals according to the global standard guideline for sufficient physical activity. Results Compared with the accelerometer, higher time in MVPA and total physical activity were reported on the Hausa IPAQ-SF (p<0.001), while low to moderate correlations (Rs = 0.03–0.38) were found between the two methods. The 95% limits of agreement were wide between methods for total physical activity (−23019 to 20375 METmin.d−1) and sedentary time (−510 to 150 min.d−1). The sensitivity (76.2%) of Hausa IPAQ-SF to identify insufficiently active people was good, but its specificity (33.3%) to correctly classify sufficiently active people was low. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF overestimated components of physical activity among Nigerian adults, and demonstrated poor to moderate evidence of absolute and criterion validity. Further evaluation of IPAQ and other self-report physical activity instruments in other Africa populations could enhance accurate evaluation of physical activity data

  12. The relationship between obesity and peripheral arterial disease in adult Nigerian diabetics.

    PubMed

    Oyelade, Bolaji Oyelade; Olaolorun, Akintayo D; Odeigah, Louis O; Amole, Isaac O; Aderibigbe, Sunday A

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to identify any relationship between obesity and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in diabetic subjects. Male and female diabetic subjects aged 50-89 years. Body mass index (BMI) was used to estimate total body weight and the waist-to- hip ratio (WHR) as well as waist circumference (WC) were used for abdominal fat distribution estimation. Peripheral arterial disease was defined by an ankle brachial index <0.9. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was observed in 52.5% of the subjects. BMI, WHR and WC did not correlate with PAD. None of the parameters (i.e BMI, WHR and WC) used to assess the relationship between obesity and PAD was found to correlate with PAD.

  13. Body Weight Misperception and Dissatisfaction Among Overweight and Obese Adult Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- and medium-income countries has a negative impact on overall health. Correct perception of one’s body weight is a step in seeking healthy help toward weight reduction in overweight and obese individuals. Objective This study was carried out to assess the body weight misperception and dissatisfaction among overweight and obese adults in an urban African setting. Methods This study was part of a larger cross-sectional study that was designed to plan an intervention for overweight and obese adults in an urban African setting. For this study, we randomly selected only overweight and obese adults (≥18 years old) who consented to participate in the study from 15 enumeration areas in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. We followed the World Health Organization guidelines for conducting community surveys in recruiting overweight and obese participants. We assessed body weight perception and dissatisfaction through their responses to the following: “How do you describe your weight?” and “I feel bad about myself because of my weight.” Data for this study were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. Results We recruited 567 participants, of whom more than half (n=304, 53.6%) misperceived their weight as either underweight or normal weight, and 61.2% (n=186) of whom were women. The strength of agreement between the actual body mass index and weight perception was very poor (κ=.032, SE .015, P=.04). The strongest predictor of weight perception was sex (female) with an odds ratio of 1.63 (95% CI 1.13-2.35). About 41.1% (n=233) of the participants were dissatisfied with their weight, of whom 30.0% (n=70) were men. Age (young adult) was a predictor of weight dissatisfaction with an odds ratio of 2.37 (95% CI 1.62-3.46). Conclusions More than half of the participants misperceived their body weight as either underweight or normal weight, and the majority of them were

  14. Establishment of reference values of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subsets in healthy Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Oladepo, D K; Idigbe, E O; Audu, R A; Inyang, U S; Imade, G E; Philip, A O; Okafor, G O; Olaleye, D; Mohammed, S B; Odunukwe, N N; Harry, T O; Edyong-Ekpa, M; Idoko, J; Musa, A Z; Adedeji, A; Nasidi, A; Ya'aba, Y; Ibrahim, K

    2009-09-01

    A total of 2,570 apparently healthy human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults from the six geopolitical zones in the country were enrolled in our study in 2006. The samples were assayed using the Cyflow technique. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The majority (64%) of the participants had CD4 counts within the range of 501 to 1,000 cells/microl. The reference range for CD4 was 365 to 1,571 cells/microl, while the reference range for CD8 was 145 to 884 cells/microl.

  15. Curvilinear formulae for predicting peak expiratory flow rate in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Njoku, C H; Anah, C O

    2001-01-01

    Predicted values of Peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) using linear formulae do not closely agree with observed trends. Predicted values tend to be higher than observed values among youths and the elderly while they are usually lower than observed values among people within the prime of life. All prediction formulae in Nigeria are linear. In this study, more fitting curvilinear formulae were derived for male and female subjects from PEF values obtained from a study of 1009 subjects made up of 668 males and 341 females between the ages of 15 and 82 years living and/or working in Port Harcourt, Nigeria and its environs. We hope that these formulae may be put to greater use since they agree more closely with the observed trends.

  16. Awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs in Nigerian adolescents compared with adults.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Morenikeji A; Obembe, Adebimpe O; Olaogun, Matthew O; Adebiyi, Ayoade M; Ugalahi, Theresa; Dada, Olumuyiwa; Kanu, Alfred; Adebiyi, Olubunmi C; Akilo, Folarin; Ogunkoya, Bukola; Fawale, Bimbo

    2015-03-01

    Stroke, a significant health problem affecting adults, is increasing among younger age groups, particularly because of changing lifestyles. The aim of the study was to compare the awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs among students and teachers in selected secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional survey involving 703 (589 students and 114 teachers) respondents in selected secondary schools in Osun, Nigeria. Information on the awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs was collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Hypertension (69.4%) was the most commonly identified stroke risk factor, with more teachers (79.8%) identifying correctly than the students (67.4%). Weakness (51.9%) was the most commonly identified warning sign of stroke with more students (53.8%) identifying correctly than the teachers (42.1%). There were significant differences in the awareness of some risk factors (age, obesity, family history, alcohol use, diet, transient ischemic attack, and hyperlipidemia) and warning signs (dizziness, weakness, and vision problems) between students and teachers. Predictors for adequate awareness of risk factors were being a teacher, not being obese and being hypertensive, whereas predictors for adequate awareness of warning signs were stroke in the family and being hypertensive. There was inadequate awareness of risk factors and warning signs among the respondents with students having better awareness of warning signs and teachers having better awareness of risk factors. Stroke campaigns should emphasize stroke risk factors particularly among adolescents and warning signs in adults. The use of media, particularly television, is recommended. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reassessing Subjectivity, Criticality, and Inclusivity: Marcuse's Challenge to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Although Herbert Marcuse did not write as an adult educator, his analysis of subjectivity, criticality, and inclusivity has implications for adult education. He demonstrated how apparently humanistic tolerance for diversity can be manipulated to reinforce dominant ideology, and he made a case for aesthetic education as a site for critical…

  18. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; John, Collins; Ohagwu, Kenneth Arinze; Imoh, Miracle Erinma; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel; Oviasu, Efosa

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major health problem, and there is an increasing trend of overweight and obese individuals in developing countries. Being overweight or obese is known to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates in various countries around the world. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Nigeria. Method A systematic review of papers published on the prevalence of obesity among adults in the country was carried out. We covered work published in MEDLINE, PubMed, Google, and African Journals Online using the terms “prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria” or “overweight and obesity in Nigeria.” In addition, personal inquiries were made. The search limits were articles published from January 2001 to September 2012. Only studies that used the body mass index to assess for overweight and obesity were included. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria out of the 75 studies reviewed. In Nigeria, the prevalence of overweight individuals ranged from 20.3%–35.1%, while the prevalence of obesity ranged from 8.1%–22.2%. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals in Nigeria is of epidemic proportions. There is a need to pay closer attention to combating these health disorders. PMID:23573067

  19. Cracked tooth syndrome: characteristics and distribution among adults in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Udoye, Christopher I; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2009-03-01

    This study highlighted the characteristics and distribution of cracked tooth syndrome (CTS) and the associated factors in adult attendees in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital. Three hundred seventy patients aged 18 years to 77 years with CTS-like conditions were included and studied over 12 months. The following information was recorded: suspected tooth and the dental arch, restorative status of the tooth, age and sex of the patient, results of bite test and transillumination, and the pulpal and periapical status of the tooth. CTS was seen most often in the 41 to 50 years age band (36.4%), in molars (63.6%), and in the maxillary arch (51.5%). Also, it was more frequent in men (55.8%). About 82% of CTS occurred in amalgam-restored teeth. All cases had a positive response to the bite test and a normal response to the electric pulp test. Only 10% gave a positive history of masticatory accident as against none with history of bruxism habits. It was concluded that patients with unexplained pain in a vital, amalgam-restored tooth (especially in maxillary molars), with or without a history of a masticatory accident, may have a cracked or fractured tooth.

  20. Decoding the Neoliberal Subjectivity in Self-Helping Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung

    2017-01-01

    This article explores and explains the subjectivity of self-helping adult learners, as depicted in contemporary, best-selling self-help books. It interrogates how those self-help texts embody particular features of self-helping subjectivity by appropriating neoliberalist perspectives on self and the world. It illuminates four salient features of…

  1. Lifetime prevalence and incidence of parasomnias in a population of young adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, O S A

    2010-07-01

    Lifetime prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for parasomnias were determined. Past experiences of non-REM, REM, and sleep-transition parasomnias were recorded. Diaries of night sleep duration, parasomnias, perception of aliens, levels of physical activity, headaches and intake of all substances, drugs, and tobacco were kept for 14 consecutive days. A total of 276 subjects were studied. Lifetime prevalences (95% CI) were 725 (668-776) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 43 (25-74) for sleepwalking, 112 (80-155) for sleep terror, 475 (416-533) for nightmares, 225 (179-277) for sleep paralysis, 43 (25-74) for sleep starts, 322 (270-380) for sleep talking, and 344 (291-402) for enuresis. Incidences (95% CI) were 210 (166-262) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 14 (6-37) for sleepwalking, 11 (4-31) for sleep terror, 170 (131-219) for confusional arousal, 18 (8-42) for nightmares, 14 (6-37) for sleep paralysis, 33 (17-61) for sleep starts, and 4 (1-20) for sleep enuresis. Multivariate analysis showed associations of increase occurrence of parasomnias and duration of sleep >7 h (p < 0.05) and intake of alcohol (p < 0.001), but heavy workload before sleep was associated with decreased occurrence of parasomnias (p < 0.01). Gender, smoking, caffeinated drinks, hypnotics, and headaches were not associated with parasomnias. Incidence of presence of aliens (95% CI) in the room was 25(0/infinity) (12-51). This study shows that more than 70% of the population have experienced parasomnias at any time in the past. Nightmares, enuresis, sleep paralysis and night terrors are the commonest parasomnias experienced in the past, while confusional arousal, sleep starts, and nightmares are the commonest parasomnias currently experienced. Incidence estimates show that all parasomnias persist into adulthood at reduced rates, but reduction of occurrence was greatest for enuresis. Long duration of night sleep and intake of alcohol predisposed subjects to higher occurrence of parasomnias.

  2. Pattern of Utilisation of Dental Health Care Among HIV-positive Adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Adedigba, Michael A; Adekanmbi, Victor T; Asa, Sola; Fakande, Ibiyemi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the pattern of dental care utilisation of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 239 PLHIV patients in three care centres was done. Information on sociodemographics, dental visit, risk groups, living arrangement, medical insurance and need of dental care was recorded. The EC Clearinghouse and WHO clinical staging was used to determine the stage of HIV/AIDS infection following routine oral examinations under natural daylight. Multivariate logistic regression models were created after adjusting for all the covariates that were statistically significant at univariate/bivariate levels. The majority of subjects were younger than 50 years, about 93% had not seen a dentist before being diagnosed HIV positive and 92% reported no dental visit after contracting HIV. Among nonusers of dental care, 14.3% reported that they wanted care but were afraid to seek it. Other reasons included poor awareness, lack of money and stigmatisation. Multivariate analysis showed that lack of dental care was associated with employment status, living arrangements, educational status, income per annum and presenting with oral symptoms. The area under the receiver operating curve was 84% for multivariate logistic regression model 1, 70% for model 2, 67% for model 3 and 71% for model 4, which means that the predictive power of the models were good. Contrary to our expectations, dental utilisation among PLHIV was generally poor among this group of patients. There is serious and immediate need to improve the awareness of PLHIVs in African settings and barriers to dental care utilisation should also be removed or reduced.

  3. Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Nwanguma, B C; Okorie, C H

    2013-10-01

    Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. Blood Glucose Control and Medication Adherence Among Adult Type 2 Diabetic Nigerians Attending A Primary Care Clinic in Under-resourced Environment of Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, Iloh GU; Ofoedu, John N; Uchenna, Njoku P; Nkwa, Amadi A; Uchamma, Godswill-Uko E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite the evidence that goal blood glucose control reduces preventable emergency hospitalizations, the control of blood glucose has been variable in Nigeria. Aim: The study was designed to determine the blood glucose control and medication adherence among adult type 2 diabetic Nigerians attending a primary care clinic in under-resourced environment of Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 120 adult type 2 diabetic patients who were on treatment for at least 3 months at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia. A patient was said to have a goal blood glucose control if the fasting blood glucose was 70-130 mg/dL. Adherence was assessed in the previous 30 days using pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire on self-reported therapy. Operationally, an adherent patient was one who scored 4 points in the previous 30 days. The reasons for non-adherence were documented. Results: The blood glucose control and medication adherence rates were 61.7% and 72.5%, respectively. Blood glucose control was significantly associated with adherence to treatment (P=0.025) and medication duration ≥3 years (P=0.045). The most common reason for non-adherence was financial constraints (P=0.033). Conclusion: Glycaemic control and medication adherence among the study population were good and should constitute logical targets for intervention. PMID:22866268

  5. Subjective Age and Changes in Memory in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Caudroit, Johan; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The subjective experience of aging, indexed by how old or young an individual feels, has been related to well-being and health-related outcomes among older adults. The present study examined whether subjective age is associated with memory level and changes, as indexed by measures of immediate and delayed recall. A complementary purpose was to test the mediating role of depressive symptoms and physical activity in the relation between subjective age and memory changes. Participants were drawn from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Subjective age, baseline memory measures, and covariates were assessed during the 2008 wave (N = 5809), depressive symptoms and physical activity were assessed again in the 2010 wave, and the follow-up memory measures were assessed in the 2012 wave. Regression analyses that included demographic, metabolic, and vascular covariates revealed that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with better concurrent performance and with slower decline in immediate and delayed recall. Bootstrap procedures indicated that fewer depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Additional analyses revealed that memory level and change were unrelated to changes in subjective age. Beyond chronological age, the subjective experience of age is associated with cognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Serum and seminal plasma hormonal profiles of infertile Nigerian male.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B

    2006-12-01

    Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in infertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of seminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (P<0.005) than that of controls but the serum levels of testosterone were significantly higher (P<0.05) in azoospermic than oligospermic subjects and controls. There was no significant correlation between serum hormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (P<0.05). We concluded that male infertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.

  7. Mental distances and relationship to body mass index in young healthy Nigerian adults: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Jaja, B N; Fyneface-Ogan, S

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine normal ranges of sterno-mental distance (SMD) and thyromental distance (TMD) and to examine the relationship of these measurements to each other and the body mass index (BMI). The SMD, TMD and BMI were assessed in a total of 409 apparently healthy adult subjects comprising 218 male and 190 female participants who volunteered for the study. The parameters were measured by standard methods and the obtained data analysed for the degree of association using Pearson Correlation Statistics. Mean values of SMD and TMD were significantly higher in males than in females. The BMI was statistically same in both sexes. Sterno-mental distance correlated positively with TMD in both sexes (r = 0.86, p = 0.005) while BMI correlated negatively with SMD (r = -0.166, p = 0.108) as well as to the TMD (r = -0.147, p = 0.04) in both sexes. In young healthy adult populations the SMD and TMD are strongly related to each other but are unrelated to the BMI. Males tend to have on average longer SMD and TMD as compared to females. Our findings could be a useful tool during pre-anaesthetic airway assessment of patients.

  8. Alteration of adults' subjective feeling of familiarity toward infants' sounds.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Y; Itakura, S

    2008-08-01

    Many adults may have lower subjective feelings of familiarity toward infants' vocalizations since infants' sounds are different from those of adults. However, mothers frequently exposed to infants' vocalizations may be more familiar and less averse. To test this hypothesis, 21 mothers (M age = 31.1 yr., SD = 4.3) of infants (M age = 8.2 mo., SD = 3.5), 18 mothers (M age = 34.4 yr., SD = 4.8) of children between two and five years of age (M age = 2.8 yr., SD = 1.0), and 17 women (M age = 29.2 yr., SD = ll.1) with no children were exposed to 20 types of sounds. Of these sounds, 14 were produced by infants. Although the mothers of infants did not recognize sounds as those of an infant's vocalization, they showed higher subjective feelings of familiarity toward the timbres of the vowel-like stimuli than did the other groups. By contrast, the subjective feelings of familiarity for nonspeech sounds did not differ among groups. Maternal experiences may change women's recognition of perceived sounds.

  9. Assessment of food chemical intolerance in adult asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, L.; Yan, K. Y.; Loblay, R. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of food chemical intolerance in asthmatic subjects can be reliably assessed by changes in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in response to double blind, placebo controlled challenges on a strict elimination diet. However, this method is cumbersome and time consuming. A study was undertaken to determine whether changes in bronchial responsiveness to histamine following food chemical challenge without an elimination diet might be a faster, more convenient method. METHODS: Eleven adult asthmatic subjects were challenged twice with metabisulphite, aspirin, monosodium glutamate, artificial food colours, sodium nitrite/ nitrate, 0.5% citric acid solution (placebo), and sucrose (placebo) on separate days. During the first set of challenges subjects consumed a normal diet. Bronchial responsiveness to histamine was assessed 90 minutes after each challenge. A greater than twofold increase in bronchial responsiveness was considered positive. For one month prior to and during the second set of challenges subjects followed a strict elimination diet and FEV1 was monitored during and for two hours after each challenge. A fall in FEV1 of 20% or more was considered positive. RESULTS: Of the 77 food chemical challenges performed on an unmodified diet, 20 were positive (six placebo responses). In two subjects it was not possible to perform a histamine test after one of the chemical challenges because of poor spirometric function. Of the 77 food chemical challenges performed on an elimination diet, 11 were positive (no placebo responses). Excluding the two challenges in which there were no corresponding histamine tests, only on two occasions did the positive responses in both methods coincide, giving the unmodified diet method a sensitivity of 22%. CONCLUSIONS: Strict dietary elimination and measurement of FEV1 after double blind food chemical challenge remains the most reliable method for the detection of food chemical intolerance in

  10. Distance stereotest using a 3-dimensional monitor for adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongshin; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of a contour-based 3-dimensional (3-D) monitor distance stereotest (distance 3-D stereotest) and to measure the maximum horizontal disparity that can be fused with disparity vergence for determining the largest measurable disparity of true stereopsis. Observational case series. Sixty-four normal adult subjects (age range, 23 to 39 years) were recruited. Contour-based circles (crossed disparity, 5000 to 20 seconds of arc; Microsoft Visual Studio C(++) 6.0; Microsoft, Inc, Seattle, Washington, USA) were generated on a 3-D monitor (46-inch stereoscopic display) using polarization glasses and were presented to subjects with normal binocularity at 3 m. While the position of the stimulus changed among 4 possible locations, the subjects were instructed to press the corresponding position of the stimulus on a keypad. The results with the new distance 3-D stereotest were compared with those from the distance Randot stereotest. The results of the distance 3-D stereotest and the distance Randot stereotests were identical in 64% and within 1 disparity level in 97% of normal adults. Scores obtained with the 2 tests showed a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.324, P = .009). The half-width of the 95% limit of agreement was 0.47 log seconds of arc (1.55 octaves) using the distance 3-D stereotest--similar to or better than that obtained with conventional distance stereotests. The maximum binocular disparity that can be fused with vergence was 1828 ± 794 seconds of arc (range, 4000 to 500). The distance 3-D stereotest showed good concordance with the distance Randot stereotest and relatively good test-retest reliability, supporting the validity of the distance 3-D stereotest. The normative data set obtained from the present study can serve as a useful reference for quantitative assessment of a wide range of binocular sensory abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Olfactory and gustatory function in healthy adult Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Wei, Yongxiang; Yu, Di; Zhang, Jinfeng; Liu, Yuehong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of age and gender on olfactory and gustatory function and to establish test methodology and normative values in Chinese subjects. Cross-sectional study. The center laboratory and the Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital. The T&T olfactometer, the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test, olfactory event-related potentials (oERPs), trigeminal event-related potentials (tERPs), and the triple drop method for gustatory testing were used to examine the chemosensation in 90 healthy adults (45 men and 45 women). Older subjects (age 51-65 years) showed worse olfaction compared with younger subjects (age 18-35 years) when both T&T (younger -1.71 ± 0.41, older -0.92 ± 0.95; P < 0.01) and Sniffin' Sticks (threshold, discrimination, identification score: younger 33.17 ± 2.83, older 30.89 ± 3.35; P < 0.05) testing were performed. Measurement of oERPs revealed that older patients (N1 471 ± 85 ms, P2 676 ± 93 ms) had longer latencies compared with younger ones (N1 368 ± 57 ms, P2 561 ± 74 ms, P < 0.05) of N1/P2 wave. The results of trigeminal nerve-related potential examination showed that N1/P2 latencies were longer and amplitudes were lower in older people (N1 384 ± 98 ms/-5.01 ± 4.00 uv, P2 568 ± 95 ms/6.53 ± 3.62 uv) compared with younger patients (N1 316 ± 31 ms/-7.20 ± 3.43 uv, P2 472 ± 66 ms/8.72 ± 3.09 uv; P < 0.05). Gustation was normal in all subjects, and there was no significant difference between younger and older groups. Age and gender affect olfaction in Chinese adults as measured by standard testing methods used in other human populations. In healthy Chinese subjects, gustation was normal and did not vary with age. Our data provide preliminary normative values for future investigation of chemosensation in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. No Clinically Significant Difference Between Adult and Pediatric IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Scores in Adults.

    PubMed

    Stegmeier, Nicole; Oak, Sameer R; O'Rourke, Colin; Strnad, Greg; Spindler, Kurt P; Jones, Morgan; Farrow, Lutul D; Andrish, Jack; Saluan, Paul

    Two versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation form currently exist: the original version (1999) and a recently modified pediatric-specific version (2011). Comparison of the pediatric IKDC with the adult version in the adult population may reveal that either version could be used longitudinally. We hypothesize that the scores for the adult IKDC and pediatric IKDC will not be clinically different among adult patients aged 18 to 50 years. Randomized crossover study design. Level 2. The study consisted of 100 participants, aged 18 to 50 years, who presented to orthopaedic outpatient clinics with knee problems. All participants completed both adult and pediatric versions of the IKDC in random order with a 10-minute break in between. We used a paired t test to test for a difference between the scores and a Welch's 2-sample t test to test for equivalence. A least-squares regression model was used to model adult scores as a function of pediatric scores, and vice versa. A paired t test revealed a statistically significant 1.6-point difference between the mean adult and pediatric scores. However, the 95% confidence interval (0.54-2.66) for this difference did not exceed our a priori threshold of 5 points, indicating that this difference was not clinically important. Equivalence testing with an equivalence region of 5 points further supported this finding. The adult and pediatric scores had a linear relationship and were highly correlated with an R(2) of 92.6%. There is no clinically relevant difference between the scores of the adult and pediatric IKDC forms in adults, aged 18 to 50 years, with knee conditions. Either form, adult or pediatric, of the IKDC can be used in this population for longitudinal studies. If the pediatric version is administered in adolescence, it can be used for follow-up into adulthood.

  13. Subjective Experiences of Older Adults Practicing Taiji and Qigong

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; DeCelle, Sharon; Reed, Mike; Rosengren, Karl; Schlagal, Robert; Greene, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi)/Qigong (Ch'i Kung) intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual) but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong. PMID:21773028

  14. Causes of lead toxicity in a Nigerian city

    PubMed Central

    Wright, N; Thacher, T; Pfitzner, M; Fischer, P; Pettifor, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Up to 70% of young Nigerian children have been reported to have blood lead concentrations ⩾10 µg/dl. Aims: To better elucidate risk factors for lead toxicity among Nigerian families with children at risk for lead toxicity. Methods: Two geographic wards in Jos, Nigeria were selected for study, one previously reported to have a high mean blood lead level (37 (SD 13) µg/dl) and one with a lower mean blood lead level (17 (SD 10) µg/dl) in young children. Data pertaining to potential risk factors for lead exposure were collected from children and adults in 34 households. Results: The mean (SD) blood lead concentration of 275 subjects, aged 3 weeks to 90 years, was 8.7 (5.7) µg/dl (range 1–34 µg/dl); 92 (34%) had concentrations ⩾10 µg/dl. In multivariate analysis, an age of 5 years and under, flaking house paint, residence near a gasoline seller, male gender, increasing maternal and paternal education, and use of a lead ore eye cosmetic were independently associated with greater blood lead concentration. Vehicle ownership was associated with reduced lead concentration. Compared with the low-lead ward, residence in the high-lead ward remained significantly associated with greater lead values, indicating that additional factors likely contribute to lead exposure. Conclusion: Although the cause of increased lead levels in Jos appears to be multi-factorial, several remediable sources contribute to lead exposure in Nigeria. PMID:15723911

  15. Guilty or Not Guilty? How Nigerian Families Impede the Aspirations of Nigerian Girls for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onochie, Okeke Chinedu Ifedi

    2010-01-01

    The females' relatively low participation in higher education is discussed within the Nigerian society in a way that such issues are discursively placed in often contradictory, as well as extremely complicated contexts. Dominant discussions draw on the interplay between gender and students' performance across subjects, as well as on the influences…

  16. A Mixed-Methods Study on Acceptability, Tolerability, and Substitution of Brown Rice for White Rice to Lower Blood Glucose Levels among Nigerian Adults.

    PubMed

    Adebamowo, Sally N; Eseyin, Olabimpe; Yilme, Susan; Adeyemi, David; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Adebamowo, Clement A

    2017-01-01

    Whole-grain products such as brown rice have been associated with lower risk of metabolic disorders including diabetes. We examined the acceptability and tolerability of substituting brown rice for white rice and the feasibility of introducing brown rice into the diet through a long-term trial to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Fifty-one adults residing in Abuja, Nigeria, participated in this study. Using purposeful sampling for focus group discussions (FGDs), participants were enrolled based on their age (19-25 vs. 40-60 years) and body mass index (BMI) (normal weight vs. overweight/obese). Participants tasted four meals with different constitution of brown and white rice (25:75%, 50:50%, 75:25%, and 100% brown rice). Twelve FGDs were conducted, six before and six after the food tasting. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was measured after consumption of each rice meal. The mean age of the participants was 39 (±14) years, their mean BMI was 25.6 (±5.2) and about half of them were male. Most of the participants (61%) reported that rice was their main source of carbohydrate and 67% consumed rice at least five times/week. Before the food tasting, participants considered white polished rice superior to brown rice with regard to quality, taste, and nutritional value. After the food tasting, most of the participants (49%) indicated a preference for the 100% brown rice, 19% preferred the 25% brown rice, 18% preferred the 50% brown rice, and 7% preferred the 75% brown rice meals. Factors that may affect the acceptability of brown rice include its appearance, longer cooking time, cost, limited availability, and poor appreciation of its nutritional value. In general, 2-h postprandial glucose levels were lower, after consumption of meals with higher proportion of brown rice. This study provides valuable insight into the acceptability of brown rice as a substitute for white rice in Nigeria. If confirmed in larger studies, these results highlight the importance of

  17. Morphological Uniformity and the Null Subject Parameter in Adult SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, William D.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the application of the Null Subject Parameter. Data reveals that some second-language learners exhibit knowledge that English is morphologically nonuniform yet still accept English null subject sentences. Findings disprove the Morphological Uniformity Hypothesis, indicating that any reformulation of the Null Subject Parameter must…

  18. Music in Nigerian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a brief history of music education in Nigerian educational institutions along with the goals and objectives. States music educators are traditional master musicians or Western educated professionals. Claims the focus of music education is on Western music. Makes recommendations for a radical revision of the curriculum and changes in…

  19. Oral fructose-induced changes in blood ethanol oxidokinetic data among healthy Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, I; Anosike, Emmanuel O

    2004-06-01

    Reports on the influence of fructose on blood alcohol clearance have not always been consistent. Notwithstanding, information concerning the Nigerian population is yet to be documented. In this present study, ten consenting adults in apparent sound health, and who did not have any traceable history of alcohol or drug abuse were selected. The subjects were non-smoking Nigerians with an average age of 23.3 years and body weight of 55 kg, and were matched in body frame size and weight. The volunteers were given 0.55g (20%) ethanol/kg body weight as single dose about 4 hours after their breakfast meal, and on another occasion, 0.25g fructose/kg body weight was used to sober the intoxicating effect produced by 0.55g (20%) ethanol/kg body weight. In each case, the blood alcohol level (BAL) was determined every 30 minutes using about 0.5 ml whole blood obtained by venipuncture. The mean peak BAL obtained for the male and female subjects (0.093% vs 0.096%) imply that the women were more intoxicated, though for a shorter time (314 minutes vs 280 minutes). This investigation also demonstrates that the group of women cleared blood alcohol faster (0.026%/hr) and oxidized blood alcohol more rapidly (115.8 mg/kg/hr) than the men, who respectively recorded mean values of 0.021%/hr and 102 mg/kg/hr. However, among the male and female volunteers, oral fructose intake significantly (p<0.05) increased the blood ethanol clearance rate by 66.7 and 92.3%, decreased intoxication time by 41.7 and 40%, reduced peak BAL by 18.3 and 0%, but enhanced blood ethanol oxidation rate by 71.2 and 66.7%, respectively. The oxidokinetic data obtained suggest that Nigerian women may be more susceptible to alcohol's effects than Nigerian men, and oral fructose seems promising in the treatment of Nigerian alcoholics.

  20. Interrelations between Subjective Health and Episodic Memory Change in Swedish and Canadian Samples of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B.; Backman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance,…

  1. Interrelations between Subjective Health and Episodic Memory Change in Swedish and Canadian Samples of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B.; Backman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance,…

  2. Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the concentration of volatile sulfur compound in mouth air of a group of nigerian young adults.

    PubMed

    Ehizele, Ao; Akhionbare, O

    2013-07-01

    The major goal of non-surgical periodontal therapy is to reduce or eliminate the subgingival pathogenic microbial flora that is known to be associated with volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the concentration of VSC in mouth air of young adults. Four hundred subjects, grouped into two based on the absence or presence of periodontal diseases, were involved in this study. Basic periodontal examination was used for the grouping. The measurement of the concentration of the VSC in the mouth air of the subjects was done objectively, using the Halimeter, before and after the therapy, and at recall visits 2 weeks and 6 weeks after therapy. Chi-square and Paired t-test were used to find statistical significance. The results revealed that at baseline, 78.7% (48/61) of the subjects who had VSC concentration more than 250 parts per billion (ppb) were from the group with periodontal disease. Immediately after non-surgical periodontal therapy, only 8.5% (17/200) of the subjects with periodontal disease had VSC concentration of more than 250 ppb while all the subjects with no periodontal disease had VSC concentration less than 181 ppb. The same pattern of reduction in the concentration of the VSC and improvement in oral hygiene was also obtained 2 weeks and 6 weeks after therapy. It can be concluded that non-surgical periodontal therapy brought about reduction in the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air of young adults.

  3. Subjective burden among spousal and adult-child informal caregivers of older adults: results from a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Oldenkamp, Marloes; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Slaets, Joris; Stolk, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Smidt, Nynke

    2016-12-07

    Pressures on informal caregivers are likely to increase due to increasing life expectancy and health care costs, which stresses the importance of prevention of subjective burden. The present study examined the correlates of overall subjective burden and multiple burden dimensions among spousal and adult-child caregivers of Dutch older adults, both cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-months follow-up). In 2010 and 2011 baseline and follow-up data was collected in a sample of informal caregivers and care recipients in the Northern provinces of the Netherlands. Subjective burden included 7 burden dimensions and a summary score for overall subjective burden, based on the Care-Related Quality of Life Instrument (CarerQoL-7D). Objective stressors were the time investment in caregiving (hours of household care, personal care, practical care) and the health situation of the care recipient, including multimorbidity, functional limitations (Katz Index of Independence Basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and cognitive functioning problems (EQ-5D + C). Correlates of subjective burden were evaluated with linear and logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 356 caregivers at baseline (43% spousal, 57% adult-child caregivers), and 158 caregivers at follow-up (45% spousal, 55% adult-child caregivers). At baseline and follow-up, spousal caregivers experienced a higher overall subjective burden, and reported more often mental health problems, physical health problems, and problems with combining daily activities, compared to adult-child caregivers. For spousal caregivers, a poorer health situation of the care recipient was associated with higher subjective burden, while adult-child caregivers reported higher levels of subjective burden when their time investment in caregiving was high. Subjective burden at follow-up was mainly explained by baseline subjective burden. These results indicate that for effective

  4. Nigerian University Libraries: What Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguolu, I. E.

    1996-01-01

    Nigerian university libraries are threatened by underfunding and inadequate collections and facilities. This article examines factors influencing the future prospects of Nigerian university libraries. Discusses Nigeria's mineral oil resources; political instability and stratification of ethnic groups; and the National Universities Commission, the…

  5. Nigerian University Libraries: What Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguolu, I. E.

    1996-01-01

    Nigerian university libraries are threatened by underfunding and inadequate collections and facilities. This article examines factors influencing the future prospects of Nigerian university libraries. Discusses Nigeria's mineral oil resources; political instability and stratification of ethnic groups; and the National Universities Commission, the…

  6. Subjective memory complaints are associated with poorer cognitive performance in adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Kamkwalala, Asante; Hulgan, Todd; Newhouse, Paul

    2017-05-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy in the US, HIV-positive adults now routinely survive into old age. However, increased life expectancy with HIV introduces the added complication of age-related cognitive decline. Aging with HIV has been associated with poorer cognitive outcomes compared to HIV-negative adults. While up to 50% of older HIV-positive adults will develop some degree of cognitive impairment over their lifetime, cognitive symptoms are often not consistently monitored, until those symptoms are significant enough to impair daily life. In this study we found that subjective memory complaint (SMC) ratings correlated with measurable memory performance impairments in HIV-positive adults, but not HIV-negative adults. As the HIV-positive population ages, structured subjective cognitive assessment may be beneficial to identify the early signs of cognitive impairment, and subsequently allow for earlier interventions to maintain cognitive performance as these adults continue to survive into old age.

  7. Adults' Autonomic and Subjective Emotional Responses to Infant Vocalizations: The Role of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Ashley M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge--as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress…

  8. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  9. Adults' Autonomic and Subjective Emotional Responses to Infant Vocalizations: The Role of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Ashley M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge--as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress…

  10. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  11. Adult Biography Reviews in "Booklist": Have the Subjects Changed in Twenty Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Timothy R.

    All adult biographies reviewed in "Booklist" in 1960 through 1964 and 1987 through 1989 were examined to see if the gender, racial or ethnic background, geographic setting, and occupation of the subjects changed over time. A total of 879 reviews from the 1960s and 1,103 reviews from the 1980s were examined. The analysis shows that subjects of…

  12. Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…

  13. Weekend experiences and subjective well-being of retired older adults.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Byung-Gook; Heo, Seongmoo

    2014-07-01

    To examine how involvement in activities is related to subjective well-being (SWB) among older adults in particular during weekends. To explore the situational and behavioral factors such as day of week, type of activities, and social context and their impact on subjective well being of older adults. The experience sampling method (ESM) was used with retired older adults. Participants reported lower levels of SWB on the weekend. They experienced higher levels of SWB when they were engaged in active leisure on the weekend. Social contexts were significant predictors of older adults' SWB on the weekend. These findings extend the body of knowledge that involvement in active leisure and socializing with friends improve SWB of older adults.

  14. Subjective well-being of adults with homozygous sickle cell disease in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J A; Lipps, G E

    2011-03-01

    This study compared the subjective well-being of adults with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease to a matched group of healthy adult peers. The differential influence of sociodemographic factors on the subjective well-being of Sickle Cell patients was also examined. The Ferran and Powers Quality of Life Index and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were used to assess subjective well-being. Seventy-five homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease patients and sixty-seven matched controls (adults with normal haemoglobin: AA) from the Sickle Cell Disease Cohort Study in Jamaica were interviewed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences between the groups. Patients with Sickle cell (SS) disease were less satisfied than matched controls with their lives overall, their health and functioning, social and economic situation and psychological functioning. Sickle cell disease patients reported lower levels of positive affect but similar levels of negative affect as controls. Unemployed sickle cell disease patients were less satisfied than all other adults with their lives overall, health and functioning, psychological functioning and social and economic situation. Sickle cell disease patients with lower occupational status were less satisfied with their family life than all other adults. These findings suggest that subjective well-being is compromised in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease. These patients may benefit from interventions designed to improve their subjective well-being.

  15. Attachment, self-compassion, empathy, and subjective well-being among college students and community adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Shaffer, Phillip A

    2011-02-01

    Research on subjective well-being suggests that it is only partly a function of environmental circumstances. There may be a personality characteristic or a resilient disposition toward experiencing high levels of well-being even in unfavorable circumstances. Adult attachment may contribute to this resilient disposition. This study examined whether the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being was mediated by Neff's (2003a, 2003b) concept of self-compassion. It also examined empathy toward others as a mediator in the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being. In Study 1, 195 college students completed self-report surveys. In Study 2, 136 community adults provided a cross-validation of the results. As expected, across these 2 samples, findings suggested that self-compassion mediated the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being, and emotional empathy toward others mediated the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being.

  16. Reinforcing and subjective effects of methylphenidate in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    English, Joseph; Robinson, Rachel; Hallyburton, Matt; Chrisman, Allan K.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There has been controversy over the abuse potential of methylphenidate (MPH) in the context of treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective The objective of this study was to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of oral MPH in adults with and without ADHD. Materials and methods Following screening, 33 adults (n= 16 with ADHD; n=17 free from psychiatric diagnoses) completed four pairs of experimental sessions, each of which included a sampling session and a self-administration session. During sampling sessions, subjects received in randomized order 0 (placebo), 20, 40, and 60 mg MPH. During self-administration sessions, subjects completed a progressive ratio (PR) task to earn portions of the dose received on the corresponding sampling session. Subjective effects were recorded throughout all sessions. The main outcome measure for the study was the number of ratios completed on the PR task. Secondary measures included peak subjective effects and area-under-the-curve values for subjective effects. Results Compared to the control group, the ADHD group completed more ratios on the PR task. Both groups showed robust effects of methylphenidate on subjective endpoints. Main effects of group were noted on subjective effects involving concentration and arousal. Conclusions Compared to placebo, MPH produced reinforcing effects only for the ADHD group and not for the control group. Increases in stimulant-related subjective effects in non-ADHD subjects were not associated with drug reinforcement. PMID:19104775

  17. Subjective burden and personal gains among older parents of adults with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Greenberg, Jan S; Allen, Susan M; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2010-06-01

    Whereas many studies have examined the long-term toll of coping with an adult child's serious mental illness, relatively few have examined both the subjective burden and personal gains associated with this parenting role. This study investigated the stressors and resources related to burden and gains among older parents of adults with serious mental illness. The study was a secondary analysis of data collected in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Regression analysis of telephone and mailed responses of 111 parents of adults with serious mental illness was used to examine the stressors and resources associated with parental burden and gains. Stressors that were positively associated with subjective burden included the amount of care provided to a child with serious mental illness; parents and children living in the same household was also positively associated, although it was not statistically significant (p=.07). Parents who received more assistance from an adult child with serious mental illness and those who were support group members reported less subjective burden and more gains. A higher number of confidants were also positively associated with gains. Parents who provided more assistance with activities of daily living to their adult child reported higher levels of gains. Findings suggest that recovery-oriented approaches to supporting families in later stages of life may involve creating opportunities for adults with serious mental illness to play positive roles in the lives of aging parents and in helping older parents recognize ways in which successfully coping with caregiving challenges may lead to personal gains.

  18. Nigerian Unity: In the Balance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    converted indigenous Nigerians, so that approximately 50 percent of Nigerians today may be Muslim and 40 percent Christian—and both now compete ...the foreign colonialists but failed to integrate the country into a whole. As they competed for power, prestige, and asso- ciated benefits...63 Thus began the problems that continue into today, including competing sectional and sectar- ian interests and the tendency of political leaders

  19. Subjective health literacy and older adults' assessment of direct-to-consumer prescription drug ads.

    PubMed

    An, Soontae; Muturi, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Older adults are increasingly the intended target of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug ads, but limited evidence exists as to how they assess the educational value of DTC ads and, more importantly, whether their assessment depends on their level of health literacy. In-person interviews of 170 older adults revealed that those with low subjective health literacy evaluated the educational value of DTC ads significantly lower than did those with high subjective health literacy. The results prompt us to pay more scholarly attention to determining how effectively DTC ads convey useful medical information, particularly to those with limited health literacy.

  20. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  1. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  2. Subjective-Objective Sleep Discrepancy in Older Adults With MCI and Subsyndromal Depression.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Gebara, Marie Anne; Kho, Terry; Butters, Meryl A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Albert, Steven M; Dew, Mary Amanda; Erickson, Kirk I; Reynolds, Charles F; Karp, Jordan F

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of discrepancies between self-reported sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep efficiency (actigraphy) in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subsyndromal depression. This was a secondary analysis of a clincial trial with 59 adults aged 60 years and older with MCI and subsyndromal depression. We included baseline data on participants' subjective sleep quality, objective sleep efficiency, depressive symptoms, insomnia diagnosis, and cognitive functioning. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-measured sleep efficiency were not significantly correlated ( r = -.06; P = .64), with 61% of participants having subjective-objective sleep discrepancies. Correlates of subjective-objective sleep discrepancy included the presence of an insomnia diagnosis and impaired memory, particularly delayed memory. These findings are important because subjective underestimation of symptoms in older adults with memory impairments may result in sleep disturbances going unrecognized in clinical practice; on the other hand, an insomnia disorder may be a possible remediable contribution to subjective overestimation of sleep disturbances.

  3. Increased dietary vitamin K intake is associated with less severe subjective memory complaint among older adults.

    PubMed

    Soutif-Veillon, Anne; Ferland, Guylaine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Féart, Catherine; Annweiler, Cedric

    2016-11-01

    Increased dietary intake of vitamin K, a fat-soluble nutrient involved in brain health and function, has been associated with better cognitive performance in older adults. Our objective was to determine whether the dietary vitamin K intake was associated with the presence and severity of subjective memory complaint among older adults. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. One hundred sixty older adults taking no vitamin K antagonist were included. The daily dietary vitamin K intake was assessed using a 50-item food frequency questionnaire. The subjective memory complaint was assessed at the same time using the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q; score 0-30, best). Serious subjective memory complaint was defined as MAC-Q score ≤15. Age, gender, body mass index, education level, number of comorbidities, history of stroke, objective cognitive disorders, functional autonomy, mood, serum concentrations of vitamin B12, TSH, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as potential confounders. Compared to participants without serious subjective memory complaint, those with serious subjective memory complaint (n=110) had a lower mean dietary vitamin K intake (298.0±191.8μg/day versus 393.8±215.2μg/day, P=0.005). Increased log dietary vitamin K intake was positively associated with the MAC-Q score used as a quantitative variable (fully adjusted β=0.79, P=0.031), and inversely with serious subjective memory complaint (fully adjusted OR=0.34, P=0.017). Increased dietary vitamin K intake was associated with fewer and less severe subjective memory complaint in older adults taking no vitamin K antagonists. These findings provide epidemiological data supporting future vitamin K replacement trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Subjective Social Status and Positive Indicators of Well-Being among Emerging Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…

  5. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  6. Subjective Social Status and Positive Indicators of Well-Being among Emerging Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Comparisons, and the Subjective Assessment of Ambient Problems among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from adults age 65 and older in the District of Columbia and two adjoining counties in Maryland, we examine the association between community-level structural disadvantage and individuals' subjective assessments of neighborhood problems. In addition, we test whether or not perceptions of relative financial equality or inequality with…

  8. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  9. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Southern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, David; Alvarez, Rosa M.; Lobaton, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M.; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective…

  10. Help-Seeking Response to Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Toward a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begum, Aysha; Whitley, Rob; Banerjee, Sube; Matthews, David; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Subjective memory complaint is a term used to refer older adults who report memory problems. Extensive literature exists on its etiology and impact on long-term cognitive decline, and some physicians consider it important in the early detection of dementia. Despite the salient features reported by both patients and clinicians, few people…

  11. Help-Seeking Response to Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Toward a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begum, Aysha; Whitley, Rob; Banerjee, Sube; Matthews, David; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Subjective memory complaint is a term used to refer older adults who report memory problems. Extensive literature exists on its etiology and impact on long-term cognitive decline, and some physicians consider it important in the early detection of dementia. Despite the salient features reported by both patients and clinicians, few people…

  12. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  13. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  14. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Comparisons, and the Subjective Assessment of Ambient Problems among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from adults age 65 and older in the District of Columbia and two adjoining counties in Maryland, we examine the association between community-level structural disadvantage and individuals' subjective assessments of neighborhood problems. In addition, we test whether or not perceptions of relative financial equality or inequality with…

  15. Assessing the Effects of Older Adult Education on Subjective Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Morris A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reviews research on the effects of educational programs on the subjective well-being of older adults. Describes the constructs of happiness, morale, and life satisfaction by specifying their location on temporal, cognitive, and affective dimensions. Recommends outcome measures and research designs for assessing and upgrading educational…

  16. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  17. Insulin secretory reserve in diabetic Nigerian Africans.

    PubMed

    Bella, A F; Adelaja, B; John-Alo, C; Adetuyibi, A

    1990-03-01

    The insulin secretory capacity of three groups of Nigerian African diabetics was assessed by measuring the concentration of C-peptide before and after stimulation with oral glucose. Group 1 subjects had a history of keto-acidosis and were treated with insulin. Those in group 2 had no history of keto-acidosis but required insulin to normalize blood glucose while those in group 3 also had no history of keto-acidosis and were treated with diet alone or in combination with oral hypoglycaemic drugs. C-peptide levels (mean +/- s.e.m.) showed group 1 subjects to be insulin deficient (fasting 0.08 +/- 0.04 pmol/ml, peak 0.14 +/- 0.03 pmol/ml), group 2 to have reduced insulin secretion (fasting 0.16 +/- 0.01 pmol/ml, peak 0.35 +/- 0.01 pmol/ml) and group 3 to have a moderately reduced fasting insulin and a higher peak insulin secretion (fasting 0.27 +/- 0.03 pmol/ml, peak 1.49 +/- 0.4 pmol/ml) compared with a non-diabetic control group (fasting 0.30 +/- 0.03 pmol/ml, peak 1.16 +/- 0.1 pmol/ml). Although the aetiology of diabetes in the Nigerian African is unclear, a spectrum of the disease exists which is similar to that in Caucasian population.

  18. Compared to what? The effects of a frame of reference on older adults' subjective memory.

    PubMed

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Horhota, Michelle; Hull, Rose; McRoberts, Sarah M; Fishbaugh, Megan E

    2016-01-01

    It is often unclear what comparisons older adults make when evaluating their own memory. If thinking about their memory relative to others, they may assess their own abilities differently than if comparing it to their past capabilities. To test the effect of reference frames on memory assessments and memory performance, we randomly assigned 120 older adults to one of three conditions in which we manipulated frames of reference (control, past-self comparison, or other adults comparison) on a memory self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants also completed general and specific memory predictions and an objective memory test. Participants in the past-self condition reported significantly lower global memory self-efficacy compared with the other adults and control conditions. No condition differences emerged for memory predictions, objective memory, or the likelihood of over- or underpredicting memory performance. These findings suggest that reference frames impact global memory self-efficacy, but do not influence the accuracy of subjective memory judgments.

  19. Metabolite alterations in the hippocampus of high-functioning adult subjects with autism.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuaki; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Sugihara, Genichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Matsumoto, Kaori; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Isoda, Haruo; Sakahara, Harumi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Takei, Nori; Mori, Norio

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate metabolite alterations in the hippocampal formation as they relate to aggression in high-functioning adults with autism. We measured concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho), and creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr) in the hippocampal formation by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 12 non-medicated male subjects with autism and 12 age- and sex-matched controls. Aggression was scored in the autistic subjects using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The concentrations of Cho and Cr+PCr in the hippocampal formation in autistic subjects were significantly higher than the corresponding values in control subjects, and a significant positive correlation was observed between the concentrations of these metabolites in the hippocampal formation and scores on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire in autistic subjects. Results suggest that high-functioning adult subjects with autism have abnormal metabolite concentrations in the hippocampal formation, which may in part account for their aggression.

  20. Childhood Trauma Associated with Enhanced High Frequency Band Powers and Induced Subjective Inattention of Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yeonsoo; Jin, Min Jin; Lee, Yeon Jeong; Hahn, Sang Woo

    2017-01-01

    Childhood trauma can lead to various psychological and cognitive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG) powers could be closely correlated with inattention. In this study, we explored the relationship between high frequency EEG powers, inattention, symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and childhood traumatic experiences. A total of 157 healthy Korean adult volunteers were included and divided into two groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score. The subjective inattention scores, ADHD scale, and anxiety and depression symptom were evaluated. EEG was recorded and quantitative band powers were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1) the high CTQ group showed significantly increased delta, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma, and significantly decreased low alpha power compared to the low CTQ group; (2) the high CTQ group had higher inattention score compared to the low CTQ group; (3) the high CTQ group had higher adult ADHD scores; (4) CTQ scores showed significant positive correlations with inattention scores, and adult ADHD scores; (5) unexpectedly, the inattention scores showed significant positive correlations with beta powers and a negative correlation with low alpha power; and (6) the moderated mediation model was confirmed: the depression fully mediated the path from state anxiety to inattention, and the CTQ significantly moderated the pathway between anxiety and depression. Our results show the possibility that childhood adversity may cause subjective inattention and adult ADHD symptoms. Depressive symptoms fully mediated the path from anxiety to inattention, especially in those who report severe childhood traumatic experiences.

  1. Subjective Burden and Personal Gains among Older Parents of Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Aschbrenner, KA; Greenberg, JS; Allen, SA; Seltzer, MM

    2010-01-01

    Objective While numerous studies have examined the long-term toll of coping with an adult child’s serious mental illness, relatively few studies have examined both the subjective burden and personal gains associated with this parenting role. The purpose of this study is to investigate the stressors and resources related to burden and gains among older parents of adults with serious mental illness. Methods This study involves a secondary analysis of data collected in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analysis is based on 111 respondents who were identified as parents of adults with serious mental illness in the study. Regression analysis was used to examine the stressors and resources associated with parental burden and gains. Results Stressors that were positively associated with subjective burden included the amount of care provided to a child with serious mental illness and parent-child coresidence. Parents who received more assistance from an adult with serious mental illness and those who were support group members reported less subjective burden and more gains. A higher number of confidants was also positively associated with gains. Interestingly, parents who provided more assistance with activities of daily living to their adult child reported higher levels of gains. Conclusions Findings suggest that recovery-oriented approaches to supporting families in later stages of the life course may involve creating opportunities for adults with serious mental illness to play positive roles in the lives of aging parents and in helping older parents recognize ways in which successfully coping with caregiving challenges may lead to personal gains. PMID:20513684

  2. Subjective cognitive complaints, personality and brain amyloid-beta in cognitively normal older adults

    PubMed Central

    Snitz, Beth E.; Weissfeld, Lisa A.; Cohen, Ann D.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Nebes, Robert D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; McDade, Eric; Price, Julie C.; Mathis, Chester A.; Klunk, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Subjective cognitive complaints in otherwise normal aging are common but may be associated with preclinical Alzheimer Disease in some individuals. Little is known about who is mostly likely to show associations between cognitive complaints and preclinical Alzheimer pathology. We sought to 1) demonstrate associations between subjective complaints and brain amyloid-β in cognitively normal older adults; 2) to explore personality factors as potential moderators of this association. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Clinical neuroimaging research center. Participants Community volunteer sample of 92 healthy older adults, screened for normal cognition with comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Measurements Subjective cognitive self-report measures included the Memory Functioning Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and the Subjective Cognitive Complaint Scale. Personality was measured with the NEO Five Factor Inventory. Brain amyloid-β deposition was assessed with Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET imaging. Results One of three cognitive complaint measures, the Memory Functioning Questionnaire, was associated with global PiB retention (standardized beta =−.230, p=.046, adjusting for age, sex and depressive symptoms). Neuroticism moderated this association such that only high neuroticism individuals showed the predicted pattern of high complaint – high amyloid-β association. Conclusions Evidence for association between subjective cognition and brain amyloid-β deposition in healthy older adults is demonstrable but measure-specific. Neuroticism may moderate the MFQ – amyloid-β association such that it is observed in the context of higher trait neuroticism. Subjective cognitive complaints and neuroticism may reflect a common susceptibility toward psychological distress and negative affect, which are in turn risk factors for cognitive decline in aging and incident Alzheimer Disease. PMID:25746485

  3. Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Personality and Brain Amyloid-beta in Cognitively Normal Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Snitz, Beth E; Weissfeld, Lisa A; Cohen, Ann D; Lopez, Oscar L; Nebes, Robert D; Aizenstein, Howard J; McDade, Eric; Price, Julie C; Mathis, Chester A; Klunk, William E

    2015-09-01

    Subjective cognitive complaints in otherwise normal aging are common but may be associated with preclinical Alzheimer disease in some individuals. Little is known about who is mostly likely to show associations between cognitive complaints and preclinical Alzheimer pathology. We sought to demonstrate associations between subjective complaints and brain amyloid-β in cognitively normal older adults; and to explore personality factors as potential moderators of this association. Cross-sectional observational study. Clinical neuroimaging research center. Community volunteer sample of 92 healthy older adults, screened for normal cognition with comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Subjective cognitive self-report measures included the Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and the Subjective Cognitive Complaint Scale. Personality was measured with the NEO Five Factor Inventory. Brain amyloid-β deposition was assessed with Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET imaging. One of three cognitive complaint measures, the MFQ, was associated with global PiB retention (standardized beta = -0.230, p = 0.046, adjusting for age, sex and depressive symptoms). Neuroticism moderated this association such that only high neuroticism individuals showed the predicted pattern of high complaint-high amyloid-β association. Evidence for association between subjective cognition and brain amyloid-β deposition in healthy older adults is demonstrable but measure-specific. Neuroticism may moderate the MFQ-amyloid-β association such that it is observed in the context of higher trait neuroticism. Subjective cognitive complaints and neuroticism may reflect a common susceptibility toward psychological distress and negative affect, which are in turn risk factors for cognitive decline in aging and incident Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Examples of Lesson Plans in Elementary Subjects for Adults. Content Materials in Education for Adult Responsibilities. California Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Adult Education.

    Lesson plans prepared by Adult Basic Education teachers who attended one-day mini-workshops and the participants of a six-session course held at the University of Southern California are presented. The plans are in outline format. The content areas covered are: Consumer Education (Buying Foods, Bank Checking Accounts, Telephone and Directory,…

  5. Trichomonal urethritis in Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Sogbetun, A O; Osoba, A O

    1974-09-01

    The incidence and mode of presentation of trichomonal urethritis in Nigerian males have benn investigated. Nineteen (10.6%) out of 179 patients presenting with non-gonococcal urethritis were found to harbour the parasite. The commonest symptoms were urethral discharge and/or urethral irritation. The usefulness of examining wet preparations of the urethral exudate in diagnosis is stressed. No significant difference has been found between the incidence of the condition in Nigerians as compared with other ethnic groups. Attention is drawn to the possibility of T. vaginalis playing a role in male infertility, its superinfection in longstanding urethritis is stressed, and the therapeutic efficacy of metronidazole is appraised.

  6. Interrelations between subjective health and episodic memory change in Swedish and Canadian samples of older adults.

    PubMed

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B; Bäckman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance, both concurrently and across a three-year longitudinal interval. Persons aged 75-84 years, and participating in the Swedish Kungsholmen Project (n = 105) or the Canadian Victoria Longitudinal Study (n = 71), were examined. Results showed that in both samples, while the cross-sectional relationship was non-significant, longitudinal change in perceptions of subjective health were related to change in episodic memory performance. Next, the two samples were combined in additional analyses. Here, results further revealed that the associations between longitudinal change in subjective health and memory performance generalized across samples independently of demographic, changing physical health status, and subjective memory decline differences. Thus, the present findings suggest that subjective health may be added to the growing number of individual-difference variables that are predictive of episodic memory change in very old age.

  7. Subjective Memory Complaint and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Mónica; Costa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Older adults report subjective memory complaints (SMCs) but whether these are related to depression remains controversial. In this study we investigated the relationship between the SMCs and depression and their predictors in a sample of old adults. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 620 participants aged 55 to 96 years (74.04 ± 10.41). Outcome measures included a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, a SMC scale (QSM), a Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), a Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results. The QSM mean total score for the main results suggests that SMCs are higher in old adults with depressed symptoms, comparatively to nondepressed old adults. The GDS scores were positively associated with QSM but negatively associated with education, MMSE, and MoCA. GDS scores predicted almost 63.4% of variance. Scores on QSM and MoCA are significantly predicted by depression symptomatology. Conclusion. Depression symptoms, lower education level, and older age may be crucial to the comprehension of SMCs. The present study suggested that depression might play a role in the SMCs of the older adults and its treatment should be considered. PMID:26880907

  8. Objective and subjective quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorders in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, David; Alvarez, Rosa M; Lobatón, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-05-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective QoL measures. Outcome on objective QoL was extremely poor. Social networks were most frequently composed of family members. Community-oriented resources were absent in most cases. For two-thirds of the families, the ability to act as proxies for subjective QoL was seriously limited by the participants' poor social and communicative abilities. The results are indicative of the need for additional support to families of adults with ASD and increased community-based resources. Further conceptualization of indicators and measurement of subjective QoL in individuals with severe disabilities and ASD is also needed in order to include their own perspective in the evaluation of service provision.

  9. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Umoh, AO

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. Aim: The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Results: Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in

  10. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Body composition by a three compartment model in adult Indian male and female subjects.

    PubMed

    Borgonha, S; Kuriyan, R; Shetty, P; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Kurpad, A V

    1997-07-01

    The body composition of 10 adult Indian male and female subjects was investigated by a three compartment model, using measurements of Total Body Water (TBW) by deuterium dilution, and of body density by hydrodensitometry. The three compartment model yielded significantly different (P < 0.005) estimates of percent body fat of 15.9+/-3.8 and 19.7+/-4.2% and of the Fat Free Mass (FFM) of 41+/-3.3 kg and 33.9+/-4.1 kg in the male and female subjects respectively. The hydration of the FFM was 0.704+/-0.032 in the males and 0.719+/-0.024 in the females; this difference was not signifcant between groups. The density of the FFM, measured from estimates of percent body fat by the 3 compartment approach and of body density by hydrodensitometry, was 1.107+/-0.014 in the males and 1.101+/-0.001 in the females with no significant differences between the groups. This study demonstrates differences in body composition between BMI matched healthy adult male and female subjects. Although there are significant differences for % Fat and FFM between the sexes, there are no significant differences in the hydration fraction and the density of the FFM.

  12. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    PubMed

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  13. Subjective sleep characteristics associated with anxiety and depression in older adults: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Olivier; Lorrain, Dominique; Belleville, Geneviève; Grenier, Sébastien; Préville, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Sleep complaints are often associated with anxiety and depression, but the specific complaints related to each syndrome are poorly characterized, especially in older adults. The objective was to identify subjective sleep characteristics specific to anxiety and depression in this population. A random sample of 2393 individuals aged 65 years or older was used. Anxiety and depression were categorized using DSM-V criteria for phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, unspecified anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, and depressive episode with insufficient symptoms. Subjective sleep characteristics were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression models predicting anxiety or depression were used to determine the independent sleep characteristics associated with each syndrome adjusting for age, sex, education level, cognitive functioning, anxiolytic/sedative/hypnotic use, antidepressants use, subjective health, chronic diseases, cardiovascular conditions, and anxiety or depression (as appropriate). Nearly all Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subscales were significantly associated with anxiety, but these subscales shared variance and only sleep duration in hours, sleep disturbance score, and daytime functioning score were independently related to anxiety. Within these significant subscales, the main specific sleep complaints associated with anxiety were daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances related to coughing/snoring, feeling cold, and bad dreams. The use of sleeping medication was the only specific sleep characteristic associated with depression. These results suggest that in older adults, symptoms of short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances are independently related to anxiety while the use of sleep medication is independently associated to depression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p < 0.001). The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p = 0.020). No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance. Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality. PMID:27507944

  15. Coping with illness and subjective theories of illness in adult patients with haematological malignancies: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Michael; Koenigsmann, Michael; Frommer, Joerg

    2009-03-01

    In parallel to development of individualised antineoplastic treatment, scientific interest in patients' subjective theories of illness (STOI) has emerged in the oncological community. STOI depend decisively on patients' information about their disease. Coping with illness is dependent from the individual situation and context, and it is generally modulated by patients' STOI. The purpose is fivefold: (1) to provide a thorough literature review about coping and about STOI in adult haematological patients, (2) to survey through which indicators the topics were operationalized in studies, (3) to clarify the kind of coherence between these two topics, (4) to explicate the interaction between STOI and other variables, and (5) to verify the clinical relevance of both topics. We searched 19 electronic databanks for English biomedical literature manuscripts (1995-2008) on this subject. Twenty-six studies met our criteria and varied in haematological entity, treatment concept, sample size and methodological design. We conclude that a subjective-individual regulation of patient's mental stability during a cytotoxic chemotherapy is important. Successful coping strategies develop not only based on objective, but also subjective evaluation mechanisms. We deduce consequences for doctor-patient communication and psychosocial care in haematology. The newly developed process model of subjective regulation in cancer patients, in general, views the oncological treatment process as a procedural mental evaluation.

  16. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Hollis C.; Stevens, Courtney J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Hutchison, Kent E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions. PMID:22899923

  17. Is subjective hyperhidrosis assessment sufficient enough? prevalence of hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Tomasz; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Idestal, Anette; Royton, Anders; Abi-Khalil, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults. Additionally, this work aimed at comparing the subjective and objective (gravimetric) method of hyperhidrosis assessment. Healthy medical students, volunteering to take part in this study, were included. The participants filled out a questionnaire assessing the occurrence and subjective intensity of hyperhidrosis in different areas of the body. Additionally, the students were subjected to gravimetric assessment in four localizations: the face, palms, axillae and abdomino-lumbar area. Two hundred and fifty-three students (102 males and 151 females, mean age 24.3 ± 3.21 years) were included in the study. Forty-two (16.7%) participants declared that they suffer from hyperhidrosis. Out of the 42 students declaring any type of hyperhidrosis, only 20 (47.6%) exceeded the gravimetric reference values. From among the students that exceeded the normative values for palmar hyperhidrosis, only 10 (55.6%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. In the group of students that exceeded the normative values for axillary hyperhidrosis, 16 (39%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. Subjectively declared hyperhidrosis incidence may significantly exceed the real-life occurrence of this disease. Basing studies solely on data gathered from questionnaires, may lead to false results. It is imperative, when assessing patients suffering from hyperhidrosis, to use both objective and subjective methods of evaluation.

  18. A comparison of older adults' subjective experience with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities

    PubMed Central

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semi-structured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t-tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:24334299

  19. Subjective health and memory self-efficacy as mediators in the relation between subjective age and life satisfaction among older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Caudroit, Johan; Chalabaev, Aïna

    2011-05-01

    Perceiving oneself as younger than one's actual age functions as a self-enhancing positive illusion that promotes life satisfaction. However, no research has yet focused on the mechanisms through which a youthful subjective age could be related to higher life satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to identify the mediating role of resources, such as subjective health and memory self-efficacy, in the relation between subjective age and life satisfaction among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 250 older individuals aged from 60 to 77 years who completed measures of subjective age, subjective health, memory self-efficacy, and life satisfaction. Path analysis revealed that subjective age was positively related to both subjective health and memory self-efficacy, and that subjective health and memory self-efficacy were both positively related to life satisfaction. Bootstrap procedures further indicated that subjective age has significant total and specific indirect contribution to life satisfaction through subjective health and memory self-efficacy. This study fills a gap in existing literature and suggests that a youthful subjective age is associated with higher life satisfaction because it is related to higher evaluation of health and memory self-efficacy. It provides an initial support for a resource-based explanation of the relation between subjective age and life satisfaction.

  20. Effect of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia on some haematological parameters in adolescent and adult Nigerian HbAA and HbAS blood genotypes.

    PubMed

    Eteng, M U

    2002-01-01

    To compare the susceptibility of HbAA and HbAS blood genotypes to Plasmodium falciparum in human subjects. Prospective Cross Sectional Study. Department of Biochemistry College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Cross Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of 120 individuals comprising 60 subjects (41 males and 19 females) and 60 patients (33 males and 27 females) aged between 15 and 30 years were enlisted in this study. The susceptibility of the HbAA and HbAS blood genotypes to Plasmodium falciparum in human subjects was based on the frequency of occurrence of parasitaemia and the accompanying haematological changes in each group. Among a sample population of 120 subjects and patients, 86 were HbAA and 34 were HbAS representing 72% and 28% of the sample population. Parasites were detected in the red cells of 15 out of the 34 HbAS subjects i.e. 44% of the group or 13% of the sample population. Compared with the control group, the parasitaemic HbAA group had significantly lower PCV and Hb, and significantly higher serum iron, TIBC and transferrin, but a similar percentage transferrin saturation. All the differences were highly significant (p < 0.001). In the parasitaemic HbAS group, PCV and percentage transferrin saturation were slightly lower while TIBC and transferrin were slightly higher when compared with the control. These differences were not significant. The greater susceptibility of HbAA individuals to Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the enhanced severity of an attack in this group maybe due to low red cell membrane resistance to the invading parasite and a non-hypoxic environment within the red cell which enhances its development.

  1. [The age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects].

    PubMed

    Teplov, K V; Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A; Moiseenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article was designed to consider the congenital age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects (including the type of the papillary patterns, axial tri-radii, the termini of palmar main lines, the rudiments of palmar lines, the dermatoglyphic ridge count between the stable anatomical structures). The objective of the study was to look for the new diagnostic markers of the biological age. It included the identification of the palm prints obtained from 180 Caucasoid men and 120 women at the age varying from 16 to 80 years. The results of the mathematical and statistical analysis provided the basis for drawing up the list of 18 attributes of palm dermatoglyphics significantly (p<0.05) differing in the frequency of occurrence between the representatives of individual age groups. The methods are proposed allowing to use these findings for the expert evaluation of the age of unknown subjects.

  2. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of intravenous ampicillin plus sulbactam in healthy elderly and young adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Rho, J P; Jones, A; Woo, M; Castle, S; Smith, K; Bawdon, R E; Norman, D C

    1989-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ampicillin and sulbactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, were evaluated in two different age groups. Twelve healthy elderly subjects (age 65-93 years) and 12 healthy young adult subjects (age 20-35 years) received both a dose of ampicillin 1 g plus sulbactam 0.5 g and a higher dose of ampicillin 2 g plus sulbactam 1 g after a one-week period between doses. A reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography method was used for the quantitation of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and urine. The pharmacokinetic parameters for both ampicillin and sulbactam were calculated by computer-based two-compartment nonlinear model. After a 30-min infusion, serum concentrations of both drugs declined in a biexponential manner for both doses. Elderly subjects demonstrated significantly lower total clearances (Clt) than young adult subjects of ampicillin 1 g (220.0 +/- 104.2 vs 360.0 +/- 95.8 ml/min/1.73 m2), ampicillin 2 g (72.6 +/- 36.6 vs 306.8 +/- 109.77 ml/min/1.73 m2), sulbactam 0.5 g (122.3 +/- 47.8 vs 263.9 +/- 93.7 ml/min/1.73 m2), and sulbactam 1 g (171.2 +/- 85.8 vs 391.7 +/- 70.8 ml/min/1.73 m2), respectively. Significance was defined as P less than 0.05. Renal clearance was also significantly reduced in the elderly subjects. Area under the curve was found to be significantly increased in the elderly subjects compared to the young subjects for both ampicillin and sulbactam as were the beta elimination half-lives. No significant difference in the apparent volume of distribution, when adjusted for body weight, was found for either sulbactam (P greater than 0.95) or ampicillin (P greater than 0.95) between the two groups. Linear regression analysis revealed that age was significantly correlated with the Clt of ampicillin 1 g (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001), ampicillin 2 g (r = 0.90, P less than 0.001), sulbactam 0.5 g (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001), and sulbactam 1 g (r = 0.93, P less than 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed a slight

  3. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults. Copyright © 2016

  4. Facial soft tissue thickness among various vertical facial patterns in adult Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Waqar; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-12-01

    Facial reconstruction techniques are used to obtain an approximation of an individual's appearance thus helping identification of unidentified decedents from their dried skeletal remains. Many of these techniques rely on the sets of average facial soft tissue thickness (FST) values at different anatomical landmarks provided by the previous studies. FST is influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity and the body mass index of the individual. Recent literature has shown that the anthropological variations of the skull may also affect FST at certain points. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of such variations in vertical skull morphology on FST as around one third of different population groups have either a long or short facial pattern as compared to the average facial pattern. Moreover, this study also provides a FST database for the adult Pakistani subjects that may have potential implications in the facial reconstruction of the local subjects. A retrospective analysis of 276 lateral cephalograms of adult subjects having normal sagittal facial pattern was performed. Subjects were categorized into three vertical facial patterns (long face=95, average face=102, short face=79) according to the vertical dimensions of the skull and the FST was measured at 11 midline points. To compare the FST between males and females Mann-Whitney U test was used. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare FST among three vertical facial patterns. The results of our study revealed significant differences in FST at nine landmarks between males and females. These sex-based differences were more pronounced in the long and short facial patterns as compared to the average facial pattern. FST at stomion, pogonion, gnathion and menton was significantly greater in the short facial pattern as compared to the long facial pattern in both the sexes. The results of the present study highlight the importance of anthropological analysis of the skull and taking the vertical skeletal dimension

  5. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Interaction between PA-824 and Midazolam in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Helen; Egizi, Erica; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann; Rouse, Doris J.; Severynse-Stevens, Diana; Pauli, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic interaction between PA-824, a novel antitubercular nitroimidazo-oxazine, and midazolam, a CYP3A4 substrate, in 14 healthy adult male and female subjects. The study followed up on observations in vitro that PA-824 caused weak and time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4. Subjects received a single oral dose of midazolam (2 mg), followed by a 2-day washout. After the washout, all subjects received PA-824 (400 mg) once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, all subjects received the final PA-824 dose coadministered with a 2-mg oral dose of midazolam. The pharmacokinetic endpoints AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, and Cmax for midazolam and 1-hydroxy midazolam were compared between midazolam administered alone versus midazolam coadministered with PA-824. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the mean midazolam values of Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–∞ parameters were reduced by ca. 16, 15, and 15%, respectively, when PA-824 was coadministered with midazolam. The total exposure (AUC) of 1-hydroxy midazolam was 13 to 14% greater when coadministered with PA-824 compared to midazolam administered alone. The Cmax of 1-hydroxy midazolam was similar between treatments. Based on these results, PA-824 does not inhibit or induce CYP3A4 to a clinically meaningful extent and is not likely to markedly affect the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 metabolized drugs. PMID:23689718

  6. The role of electrocardiogram in the diagnosis of dextrocardia with mirror image atrial arrangement and ventricular position in a young adult Nigerian in Ile-Ife: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ogunlade, Oluwadare; Ayoka, Abiodun O; Akomolafe, Rufus O; Akinsomisoye, Olumide S; Irinoye, Adedayo I; Ajao, Adewale; Asafa, Muritala A

    2015-09-28

    Dextrocardia with situs inversus is a rare congenital disease. In patients with this condition, the heart is presented as a mirror image of itself with its apex pointing to the right. The pulmonary and abdominal anatomies are reversed. Dextrocardia with situs inversus occurs at birth but its diagnosis may be in adulthood. This case advances knowledge by graphically describing the unusual electrocardiographic features of dextrocardia in a young adult. We report a case of a 22-year-old Nigerian man of Yoruba ethnicity who presented himself for preadmission medical test. He had a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram which revealed uncommon features: inversion of P waves in leads I, aVL and aVR; dominantly negative QRS waves in leads I, V1 to V6; reverse R wave progression in chest leads; low voltage in V4 to V6; extreme QRS axis; flattened T waves in V4 to V6 and aVR; and inverted T waves in lead I and aVL. An electrocardiogram diagnosis of dextrocardia was made. The differential diagnosis considered was right ventricular hypertrophy. A cardiovascular examination showed pulse rate of 70 beats per minute, blood pressure of 119/62mmHg, visible cardiac impulse at right precordium, apex beat was located at his fifth right intercostal space mid-clavicular line. A chest X-ray (posterior anterior view) including upper abdomen showed dextrocardia; his aortic arch was located on the right. His stomach bubble was located below his right hemidiaphragm. His trachea was slightly deviated to the left. The findings in his lung fields were not remarkable. Abdominopelvic ultrasonography showed that right-sided intra-abdominal organs (liver, gallbladder) were located on the left while left-sided organs (stomach, spleen) were located on the right. His abdominal aorta was on the right while his inferior vena cava was located on the left. A diagnosis of dextrocardia with situs inversus was made ultrasonographically. A properly interpreted electrocardiogram was useful in suspecting the

  7. Prevalence of low back pain and associated risk factors amongst adult patients presenting to a Nigerian family practice clinic, a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Adebusoye, Lawrence A.; Alonge, Temitope O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem with concomitant disability which has assumed a public health importance in our setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LBP and associated risk factors amongst adult patients attending the General Outpatients’ Clinic of the University College Hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 485 respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demography, lifestyle, occupation and other risk factors associated with LBP. Results There were 288 (59.4%) female and 197 (40.6%) male respondents. The point prevalence of LBP was 46.8%. Occupational activities, previous back injury and tobacco smoking were significant associated factors for the total population. For the female respondents, logistic regression analysis showed that a waist circumference of 88 cm or more, dysmenorrhea, previous back injury and being engaged in an occupation were the most significant factors associated with LBP. However, previous back injury was the most significant factor associated with LBP for the male respondents. Conclusion The prevalence of LBP amongst adult patients in our setting is high, with preventable and treatable predisposing factors. Public health efforts should be directed at educating people on occupational activities and lifestyle habits.

  8. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (<75 mg) on sustained attention are limited and use short-term tests. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  9. Measurement of neural respiratory drive via parasternal intercostal electromyography in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    MacBean, V; Hughes, C; Nicol, G; Reilly, C C; Rafferty, G F

    2016-11-01

    Neural respiratory drive, quantified by the parasternal intercostal muscle electromyogram (EMGpara), provides a sensitive measure of respiratory system load-capacity balance. Reference values for EMGpara-based measures are lacking and the influence of individual anthropometric characteristics is not known. EMGpara is conventionally expressed as a percentage of that obtained during a maximal inspiratory effort (EMGpara%max), leading to difficulty in applying the technique in subjects unable to reliably perform such manoeuvres. To measure EMGpara in a large, unselected cohort of healthy adult subjects in order to evaluate relevant technical and anthropometric factors. Surface second intercostal space EMGpara was measured during resting breathing and maximal inspiratory efforts in 63 healthy adult subjects, median (IQR) age 31.0 (25.0-47.0) years, 28 males. Detailed anthropometry, spirometry and respiratory muscle strength were also recorded. Median (IQR EMGpara was 4.95 (3.35-6.93) µV, EMGpara%max 4.95 (3.39-8.65)% and neural respiratory drive index (NRDI, the product of EMGpara%max and respiratory rate) was 73.62 (46.41-143.92) %.breath/min. EMGpara increased significantly to 6.28 (4.26-9.93) µV (p  <  0.001) with a mouthpiece, noseclip and pneumotachograph in situ. Median (IQR) EMGpara was higher in female subjects (5.79 (4.42-7.98) µV versus 3.56 (2.81-5.35) µV, p  =  0.003); after controlling for sex neither EMGpara, EMGpara%max or NRDI were significantly related to anthropometrics, age or respiratory muscle strength. In subjects undergoing repeat measurements within the same testing session (n  =  48) or on a separate occasion (n  =  19) similar repeatability was observed for both EMGpara and EMGpara%max. EMGpara is higher in female subjects than males, without influence of other anthropometric characteristics. Reference values are provided for EMGpara-derived measures. Expressing EMGpara as a percentage of maximum confers no

  10. Comparative analysis of NK cell receptor repertoire in adults and very elderly subjects with cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Vega, Guillermo; Rangel-Ramírez, Velia; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Garcia-Sepúlveda, Christian; Noyola, Daniel E; González-Amaro, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in children and young adults has been associated with changes in the innate immune system. We herein analyzed the possible effect of very long term HCMV infection on the expression of several NK cell receptors. Ninety HCMV-seropositive individuals were included and classified as young adults (n=30), elderly (n=30) and very elderly subjects (n=30). A peripheral blood sample was obtained and the expression of NK cell receptors (NKG2A, NKG2C, ILT2, CD161, KIR2DL1, KIR3DL1, and KIR3DL2) by NK and other lymphocyte subsets was assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, the frequency of the sixteen KIR genes was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. We found a significant increase in the number of NKG2C+ NK and T cells in elderly individuals compared to young adults accompanied by an opposite trend in the number of NKG2A+ lymphocytes, and ILT2+ cells were also increased in elderly individuals. A significant increase in the levels of CD3-CD56+NKG2C+CD57+ cells was also detected in the elderly groups. Finally, KIR gene analysis revealed that the KIR genotype 2 was significantly less frequent in the elderly individuals. Our results support that long-term infection by HCMV exerts a significant progressive effect on the innate immune system. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Subjective memory complaints, cognitive performance, and psychological factors in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Susanne I; Negash, Selamawit; Sammel, Mary D; Bogner, Hillary; Harel, Brian T; Livney, Melissa G; McCoubrey, Hannah; Wolk, David A; Kling, Mitchel A; Arnold, Steven E

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are associated with performance on objective cognitive measures and psychological factors in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The cohort was composed of adults, 65 years and older with no clinical evidence of cognitive impairment (n = 125). Participants were administered: CogState computerized neurocognitive battery, Prospective Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, personality and meaning-in-life measures. SMCs were associated with poorer performance on measures of executive function (p = 0.001). SMCs were also associated with impaired delayed recall (p = 0.006) but this did not remain significant after statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons. SMCs were inversely associated with conscientiousness (p = 0.004) and directly associated with neuroticism (p < 0.001). Higher scores on SMCs were associated with higher perceived stress (p = 0.001), and ineffective coping styles (p = 0.001). Factors contributing to meaning-in-life were associated with fewer SMCs (p < 0.05). SMCs may reflect early, subtle cognitive changes and are associated with personality traits and meaning-in-life in healthy, older adults.

  12. John Henryism and blood pressure among Nigerian civil servants

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, N.; Bunker, C. H.; Ukoli, F. A.; Kuller, L. H.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Among urban Nigerian civil servants, higher socioeconomic status is related to increased blood pressure. In the United States, the relation between increased blood pressure and low socioeconomic status or low level of education has been found to be potentiated by high effort active coping (John Henryism) among African- Americans. Thus, the potentiating effect of high effort active coping as measured by the John Henryism Active Coping Scale, on socioeconomic status, as measured by job grade, was considered in relation to blood pressure in a Nigerian civil servant population. DESIGN: The influence of John Henryism on the association between educational level or socioeconomic status and increased blood pressure was examined during a comprehensive blood pressure survey. John Henryism refers to a strong behavioural predisposition to actively cope with psychosocial environmental stressors. SETTING: Benin City, Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Nigerian civil servant sample of 658 adults, aged 20 to 65 years. MAIN RESULTS: Among those with high John Henryism scores of upper socioeconomic status, whether measured by education level or job grade, there was a trend toward higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, adjusted for age and body mass index, in men and women, though not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This trend is consistent with recent findings of increased blood pressure among women and African- Americans with high John Henryism and high status jobs.   PMID:9616424

  13. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  14. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  15. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  16. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  17. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  18. Salt-sensitivity in normotensive and hypertensive Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Elias, S O; Azinge, E C; Umoren, G A; Jaja, S I; Sofola, O A

    2011-01-01

    Salt-sensitivity increases the risk for the development of high blood pressure in susceptible persons and also increases the risk for cardiovascular events and mortality. The study is to determine the pattern of salt-sensitivity among normotensive and hypertensive Nigerians. Twenty-eight (28) hypertensive subjects (HT) and twenty-five (25) age-matched normotensive controls (NT) were given 200 mmol/day salt as sodium chloride for 5 days after control parameters had been determined. Subjects were regarded as salt-sensitive when change in mean arterial blood pressure (cMABP) between baseline levels and that after salt loading was > or = 5 mmHg. Systolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure but not diastolic blood pressure rose significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 respectively) in NT subjects while all the parameters showed significant increases in hypertensive subjects (SBP p < 0.01; DBP p < 0.001; MABP p < 0.0001). More hypertensive subjects (60.7%) were salt-sensitive compared with normotensive (52.0%) subjects (p < 0.05). This study has demonstrated pressor responses to acute salt-loading in normotensive and hypertensive Nigerians and salt-sensitivity was higher in hypertensive subjects.

  19. HIV-positive nigerian adults harbor significantly higher serum lumefantrine levels than HIV-negative individuals seven days after treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Chijioke-Nwauche, Ifeyinwa; van Wyk, Albert; Nwauche, Chijioke; Beshir, Khalid B; Kaur, Harparkash; Sutherland, Colin J

    2013-09-01

    Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections. Each of the constituent components of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen for malaria treatment in Nigeria, and nevirapine, a major component of highly active antiretroviral therapy, are drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system, which is also known to be induced by nevirapine. We examined potential interactions between lumefantrine and nevirapine in 68 HIV-positive adults, all of whom were diagnosed with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections by microscopy. Post hoc PCR analysis confirmed the presence of P. falciparum in only a minority of participants. Day 7 capillary blood levels of lumefantrine were significantly higher in HIV-positive participants than in 99 HIV-negative controls (P = 0.0011). Associations between day 7 levels of lumefantrine and risk of persistent parasitemia could not be evaluated due to inadequate power. Further investigations of the impact of nevirapine on in vivo malaria treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients are thus needed.

  20. Conceptions of traditional cosmological ideas among literate and nonliterate Nigerians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunniyi, M. B.

    This paper examines the nature of selected traditional cosmological concepts among literate and nonliterate Nigerians. An analysis of the data reveals that the subjects, irrespective of their level of education, class, sex, age, religion, tribe, or locality, hold in varying degrees certain traditional as well as scientific concepts about the natural phenomena. An exposure of some of the subjects to an history/philosophy of science course appears to enhance their preference for a scientific worldview vis a vis a traditional point-of-view. The implications of these findings for traditional societies deserve a closer consideration.

  1. Demonstration of insulin resistance in untreated adult onset diabetic subjects with fasting hyperglycemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, H; Kimmerling, G; Olefsky, J M; Reaven, G M

    1975-01-01

    We have used a continuous intravenous infusion of glucose (6 mg/kg/min), insulin (80 mU/min), epinephrine (6 mug/min), and propranolol (0.08 mg/min) to directly assess insulin resistance in 14 untreated adult onset diabetics with a mean (plus or minus SE) fasting plasma glucose level of 217 plus or minus 17 mg/100 ml. During the infusion endogenous insulin secretion is inhibited and steady-state plasma glucose and insulin levels are achieved after 90 min. Since similar steady-state levels of plasma insulin are achieved in all subjects, the plasma glucose concentration observed during the steady-state period is a measure of an individual's insulin resistance. Under these conditions, the mean (plus or minus SE) steady-state plasma glucose level of the 14 diabetic patients was 350 plus or minus 16 mg/100 ml, while that of 12 normal subjects was 121 plus or minus 4 mg/100 ml. Additional studies were performed in which control subjects and patients with diabetes had their fasting plasma glucose levels acutely raised or lowered to comparable levels before receiving the basic infusion mixture of glucose, insulin, epinephrine, and propranolol. The results of these studies indicated that differences in initial plasma glucose levels could not account for the different glucose responses of the two groups to the basic infusion. Finally, the mean (plus or minus SE) steady-state plasma glucose level of 104 plus or minus 17 mg/100 ml observed during the same basic infusion in five patients with fasting hyperglycemia (mean plus or minus SE, 142 plus or minus 12 mg/100 ml) secondary to chronic pancreatitis suggested that neither chronic hyperglycemia nor hypoinsulinemia per se necessarily lead to insulin resistance. These results demonstrate that marked insulin resistance exists in adult onset diabetics with fasting hyperglycemia. Since previous studies have documented the presence of insulin resistance in patients with chemical diabetes, the possibility exists that insulin

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior of Nigerian Students Toward Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M; Randhawa, G

    2017-10-01

    The Nigerian transplantation program is evolving but is currently over-reliant on living donors. If deceased donation is to be viable in Nigeria, it is important to ascertain the views of the public. The objective of the study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Nigerian international students toward organ donation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Nigerian international students of the University of Bedfordshire through the use of a modified self-administered questionnaire. The participants were recruited by means of purposive sampling. Of the 110 questionnaires distributed, 103 were returned fully completed (response rate = 93.6%). A significant majority (93.2%) of the participants are aware of organ donation, and 76.7% have a good knowledge on the subject. Furthermore, more than half (52.8%) of the participants have a positive attitude toward organ donation, and less than half (42.8%) have favorable behavior toward it. Higher knowledge does not correlate to either positive attitude or behavior, but a positive attitude is correlated with favorable behavior toward donation. The attitudes and behavior of the respondents toward organ donation is not commensurate with the level of knowledge they possess. This highlights the urgent need for well-structured educational programs on deceased organ donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive and subjective acute dose effects of intramuscular ketamine in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Lofwall, Michelle R; Griffiths, Roland R; Mintzer, Miriam Z

    2006-11-01

    Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist. Given the purported role of the NMDA receptor in long-term potentiation, the primary purpose of the present study was to further understand the dose-related effects of ketamine on memory. The study was also designed to provide information about the relative effects of ketamine on memory versus nonmemory effects and to more fully characterize ketamine's overall pattern and time course of effects. Single intramuscular injections of ketamine (0.2 mg/kg, 0.4 mg/kg) were administered to 18 healthy adult volunteers using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Word lists were used to evaluate episodic memory (free recall, recognition memory, source memory) and metamemory. Working memory, time estimation, psychomotor performance, and subjective effects were assessed repeatedly for 5 hours after drug administration. Ketamine selectively impaired encoding (as measured by free recall) while sparing retrieval, working memory while sparing attention, and digit symbol substitution task speed while sparing accuracy. Ketamine did not significantly impair recognition or source memory, metamemory, or time estimation. There were no hallucinations or increases in mystical experiences with ketamine. Memory measures were less sensitive to ketamine effects than subjective or psychomotor measures. Subjective effects lasted longer than memory and most psychomotor impairments. Ketamine produces selective, transient, dose- and time-related effects. In conjunction with previous studies of drugs with different mechanisms of actions, the observed selectivity of effects enhances the understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms underlying memory, attention, psychomotor performance, and subjective experience.

  4. Relationship between the vertical craniofacial disproportions and the cervicovertebral morphology in adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Trajković, Milena; Lazić, Emira; Nedeljković, Nenad; Stamenković, Zorana; Glisić, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic diagnosis includes the interpretation of the relations between the craniofacial and cervical system, given the potential impact of the irregularities from one system to another. The aim of this study was to examine morphological characteristics of the cervical spine, depending on the parameters of the vertical craniofacial growth and gender in adult subjects. The sample comprised lateral cephalograms of 120 subjects with different vertical facial growth, aged 17.5-35 years. Measured parameters were the following: anterior and posterior vertebral body height (ABHC2-C5, PBHC2-C5), anterior and posterior intervertebral space (AISC2-C5, PISC2-C5), distance between vertebrae and point sella (SC2, SC3, SC4), pterygomaxillare (PmC2), gonion (GoC2) and basion (BaC4); cervical spine angulation (OPT/CVT) and inclination (OPT/HOR, CVT/HOR). Results showed that subjects with anterior facial growth rotation have greater values for BaC4, OPT/HOR, CVT/HOR, OPT/CVT, anterior and posterior vertebral body heights and intervertebral spaces, and lower values for GoC2 and PmC2. Higher values in males were found for anterior and posterior vertebral body heights, distances SC2, SC3, SC4, and BaC4. In females, the greater values were found for GoC2 and OPT/CVT. Subjects with anterior facial growth rotation have greater cervical spine inclination and angulation, higher cervical vertebrae and intervertebral spaces, longer upper cervical spines and shorter distances GoC2 and PmC2. Males show smaller cervical column curvature, but higher cervical vertebrae and greater length of the upper cervical spine.

  5. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report vs. Maternal Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 25 to 55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter’s QoL. PMID:26707626

  6. Subjective organisation in the free recall learning of adults with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

    2008-01-01

    Single trial methods reveal unimpaired free recall of unrelated words in Asperger's syndrome (AS). When repeated trials are used (free recall learning), typical individuals show improved recall over trials, subjective organisation of material (SO) and a correlation between free recall and SO. We tested oral (Experiment 1) and written (Experiment 2) free recall over 16 trials in adults with AS and typical individuals. Across both experiments AS participants showed marginally diminished recall. Poorer SO was seen in the Asperger group only in Experiment 2, but in both experiments, individual differences in SO in the Asperger group were less likely to converge over trials. This lack of convergence suggests that the AS group organise material in idiosyncratic ways.

  7. Successful Aging and Subjective Well-Being Among Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This research integrates successful aging and developmental adaptation models to empirically define the direct and indirect effects of 2 distal (i.e., education and past life experiences) and 5 proximal influences (i.e., physical functioning, cognitive functioning, physical health impairment, social resources, and perceived economic status) on subjective well-being. The proximal influences involved predictors outlined in most extant models of successful aging (e.g., Rowe & Kahn, 1998 [Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon Books.]). Our model extends such models by including distal impact as well as interactions between distal and proximal impacts. Design and Methods: Data were obtained from 234 centenarians and 72 octogenarians in the Georgia Centenarian Study. Structural equation modeling was conducted with Mplus 6.1. Results: Results showed significant direct effects of physical health impairment and social resources on positive aspects of subjective well-being among oldest-old adults. We also found significant indirect effects of cognitive functioning and education on positive affect among oldest-old adults. Social resources mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and social resources mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. In addition, physical health impairment mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and physical health impairment mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. Implications: Integrating 2 different models (i.e., successful aging and developmental adaptation) provided a comprehensive view of adaptation from a developmental perspective. PMID:25112594

  8. Fear of falling, but not gait impairment, predicts subjective memory complaints in cognitively intact older adults.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Ryota; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Susumu; Kawai, Hisashi; Yoshida, Hideyo; Hirano, Hirohiko; Ihara, Kazushige; Obuchi, Shuichi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the risk factors for developing subjective memory complaints (SMC) could help with early screening and treatment for cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was to explore the risk factors for developing SMC, by focusing on gait-related variables. A total of 406 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-85 years without impending cognitive impairment participated in baseline and 1-year follow-up evaluations. A comprehensive evaluation was carried out, and included gait speed and fear of falling (FoF) assessments, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to independently evaluate the risk factors at baseline and follow-up evaluations. At baseline, 45.1% of older adults had SMC. The presence of SMC at baseline was associated with being female, subjective hearing loss and FoF. Of 223 participants who did not report SMC at baseline, 48 had newly developed SMC at follow up (21.5%). The significant predictors for developing SMC were being female and FoF, but not gait speed, and were independent of depression symptoms. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment total score at baseline was a marginally significant predictor for developing SMC at follow up (P = 0.06), but a lower score in the language domain was a significant predictor in further analysis. FoF was a significant risk for future development of SMC, suggesting that FoF might reflect the risk of cognitive impairment at an earlier stage, or that FoF and SMC could share the same basis of anxiety for daily activities. The mechanisms and consequence of this longitudinal relationship require further study. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1125-1131. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Patterns of subjective quality of life among older adults in rural Vietnam and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Ng, Nawi; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to assess the subjective quality of life (SQOL) and its correlates among older adults in rural communities of Vietnam and Indonesia. The paper uses the data from the INDEPTH/WHO Study on global aging and adult health (SAGE). The study was carried out in the FilaBavi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in Vietnam and in Purworejo HDSS in Indonesia. All people aged 50 years and over who lived in these two HDSS areas were surveyed. Face-to-face household interviews were carried out by trained surveyors using the standardized summary version of the INDEPTH/WHO SAGE questionnaire. The SQOL was assessed by asking the respondents "How would you rate your overall quality of life?" The response set was a five-point scale where 1 = Very good, 2 = Good, 3 = Moderate, 4 = Bad, 5 = Very bad. In both countries, the SQOL was reported to be higher among (i) men; (ii) people with higher education; (iii) people who were in a marital partnership; (iv) people who lived with other family members; and (v) those with higher economic status, compared with that in those of other category(ies) of the same characteristic. In Vietnam, people who belonged to the second to fifth economic quintiles and had more than 6 years of education were sevenfold more likely to report very good/good quality of life compared with those who belonged to the first economic quintile (poorest) and had no formal education. The corresponding figure was 2.7 for Indonesia. The patterns of sociodemographic determinants of SQOL show that inequality in quality of life exists among older adults in the two study settings. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  11. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  12. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important

  13. Improved Glycemic Control in Intensively Treated Adult Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Using Insulin Guidance Software

    PubMed Central

    Bookout, Tevin R.; McFann, Kim K.; Kelly, William C.; Beatson, Christie; Ellis, Samuel L.; Gutin, Raymond S.; Gottlieb, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Management of type 1 diabetes could be significantly improved with the availability of computerized insulin algorithms for home use. Methods This was a 1-year open label randomized control trial involving 123 adult subjects with type 1 diabetes (hemoglobin A1c values 7.5–11%) assigned to either the insulin guidance software (ACCU-CHEK® [Roche, Indianapolis, IN] Advisor) for personal data assistant (experimental group) or the control group. The primary aim of the study was to see if subjects using insulin dosing advisor software will improve glucose control over 1 year. The principal end point was an improvement in A1c at 6 and 12 months by ≥0.4%. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the two groups. Mean A1c was 8.54 ± 0.11% in the control group and 8.42 ± 0.11% (P = 0.4265) in the experimental group. The mean A1c was significantly lower from 3 to 12 months in the experimental group (P < 0.02). A1c reduction of ≥0.6% was maintained at 12 months in the experimental group. Also, a significantly higher number of subjects achieved A1c <7.5% in the experimental group from 3 to 9 months. Within target range glycemia (70–150 mg/dL) was higher in the experimental group at 3–9 months without any change in insulin dose or weight. Above target range glycemia was lower in the experimental group throughout the study. Frequency of testing per day was higher in the experimental group. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was not different between groups; however, the experimental group experienced more severe hypoglycemic events. Conclusions This is the first report that shows improved glycemic control can be maintained over 12 months in patients with type 1 diabetes by using Advisor with no change in insulin dose and weight. PMID:18715213

  14. A Survey of Marital Success and Failure Among Sampled Educated Nigerians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebunmi, Akin

    In Nigeria, various forms of polygamy and monogamy are practiced; however, monogamy is more or less practiced by many Christians and a greater percentage of younger men. A survey of marital success and failure was conducted with samples of Nigerian Diploma students and selected educated community members. Subjects completed two instruments, the…

  15. Gender Issues in the Implementation of Social Studies Curriculum in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezieobi, Dan I.; Oyeoku, E. K.; Ezegbe, B. N.; Igbo, Janeth

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated gender issues in the implementation of social studies curriculum in Nigerian universities. The subjects for the study comprised of all the 200 final-year sandwich social studies students of University of Port-Harcourt in the 2009 contact session. Five research questions guided the study. Researchers developed questionnaire…

  16. Amyloid-β related memory decline is not associated with subjective or informant rated cognitive impairment in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Simone; Lim, Yen Ying; Buckley, Rachel; Pietrzak, Robert H; Snyder, Peter J; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Harrington, Karra; Lautenschlager, Nicola; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The detection of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) can rely on subjective and informant reports of cognitive impairment. However, relationships between subjective cognitive impairment, objectively measured cognitive function, and amyloid-β (Aβ) biomarkers remain unclear. To determine the extent to which impairment or decline in subjective and informant rated cognitive impairment was associated with memory in healthy older adults with high Aβ. Healthy older adults (n = 289) enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study were studied at baseline. Pittsburgh Compound B was used to determine Aβ status at baseline. At baseline and 18 months assessments, subjective memory impairment was assessed using the Memory Complaint Questionnaire and the Short Form of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Cogstate Brief Battery. At baseline, there were no differences between low and high Aβ groups in subjective or informant-rated cognitive impairment, depressive and anxiety symptoms, or cognitive function. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate decline in learning and working memory over the 18 months in the high Aβ group. However there was no change over time in subjective or informant-rated cognitive impairment, depressive and anxiety symptoms, or cognition in either Aβ group. Although healthy older adults with high Aβ levels show decline in learning and working memory over 18 months, subjective or informant ratings of cognitive impairment do not change over the same period suggesting subjective cognitive impairment may have limited utility for the very early identification of AD.

  17. Reduced Benefit of Memory Elaboration in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Decline.

    PubMed

    Pike, Kerryn E; Zeneli, Amina; Ong, Ben; Price, Sarah; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive interventions for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are best targeted at the preclinical stages, and subjective memory decline (SMD) without objective memory impairment on standard tests in older adults may represent a very early preclinical stage. Elaborated encoding effectively enhances memory performance for healthy older adults (HOAs), but has not been examined in people with SMD. To examine elaborated encoding in people with SMD, compared with HOAs. Participants were 32 HOAs and 22 people with SMD, defined using the Memory Complaint Questionnaire. Participants completed a verbal paired associate learning (PAL) task with delayed recall under elaborated and non-elaborated encoding conditions, as well as the California Verbal Learning Test-II. On the PAL learning trials, with age controlled, a significant interaction of group X encoding condition emerged, F(1, 51) =  6.47, MSE = 6.54, p = 0.014, ηp² = 0.11. Simple main effects revealed no differences between groups in the non-elaborated condition, but in the elaborated condition HOAs recalled more pairs than SMD, although both groups benefited from elaboration. At delayed recall, HOA recalled more pairs than SMD, F(1, 51) =  4.59, p = 0.037, ηp²= 0.08, and both groups benefited from elaboration, F(1, 52) =  19.25, p <  0.001, ηp² = 0.27. People with SMD benefit from elaborated encoding, although not to the same extent as HOAs. This objective difference in complex learning and memory suggests neural changes in SMD that may represent preclinical AD. Elaborated encoding is a promising technique to help maintain memory and decrease anxiety in this at-risk population.

  18. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma.

    PubMed

    Accordini, Simone; Calciano, Lucia; Bombieri, Cristina; Malerba, Giovanni; Belpinati, Francesca; Lo Presti, Anna Rita; Baldan, Alessandro; Ferrari, Marcello; Perbellini, Luigi; de Marco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) study (www.geird.org), 326 subjects (aged 20-64) with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes) was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS) and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR). SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4) was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04), whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r(2) = 0.94) in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09). Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1) or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A) only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever

  19. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-28

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population.

  20. Help-seeking response to subjective memory complaints in older adults: toward a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Begum, Aysha; Whitley, Rob; Banerjee, Sube; Matthews, David; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig

    2013-06-01

    Subjective memory complaint is a term used to refer older adults who report memory problems. Extensive literature exists on its etiology and impact on long-term cognitive decline, and some physicians consider it important in the early detection of dementia. Despite the salient features reported by both patients and clinicians, few people seek formal help for this complaint, and little research has investigated the underlying reasons for this. The current study explored beliefs, attitudes, and help-seeking behaviors. A qualitative study was carried out comprising of 18 face-to-face in-depth interviews. The primary aim was to compare and contrast experiences between people, who sought formal help (n = 9), recruited from a memory service and those who did not seek formal help (n = 9) recruited from a screened community population. The need for both to describe the experiences of an unexplored group and to develop a conceptual help-seeking model prompted the use of thematic framework analysis. Three themes were identified as facilitators and barriers to formal health service use: (a) concern, (b) causation, and (c) perceptions of general practitioner. We identified two further key areas central to shaping help-seeking responses: (a) informal help seeking and (b) alternative pathways to care. These findings suggest that there is a potential for modifying beliefs and attitudes towards help seeking and can inform the development of services and policy to facilitate help seeking and target and provide improved care or treatment when formal help is sought.

  1. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  2. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  3. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  4. Aging, Subjective Experience, and Cognitive Control: Dramatic False Remembering by Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Bishara, Anthony J.; Hessels, Sandra; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects than are young adults; however, that research has failed to equate differences in original learning. In 4 experiments, the authors show that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects produced by a misleading prime. Even when original learning…

  5. The Subject-Person of Adult Education in the Crisis of Modernity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Mathias

    1990-01-01

    The crisis of modernity increases the tension between individual and societal development. Brookfield's critical thinking model of adult education tries to reduce societal dimensions into personal growth. Jarvis' adult learning model reduces personal development to adaptation to societal demands. Adult education needs new models to reconcile the…

  6. Nigerian dentists' knowledge and attitudes towards mouthguard protection.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Arowojolu, M O; Okoje, V N

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Nigerian dentists towards mouthguard protection. A pre-tested 15-item, one-page questionnaire was distributed to 185 dentists practising in different parts of the country with government hospitals or private establishments, by 'hand-delivery' system. Filled and returned forms were 170 (response rate of 92%). The period of the survey was between April and August 2003. Dental graduates from the different dental schools in the country responded to this survey. About 49% of the respondents indicated having only classroom lectures on mouthguards during their undergraduate trainings, 11% said they had some laboratory sessions in addition while no form of education on mouthguards was received by 40%. About 82% had never recommended mouthguard protection for athletic patients, and the major reason was no formal training in the subject. Only 58.5% were familiar with the different types of mouthguards, 75.9% would not be able to supervise or fabricate mouthguards and 50.6% would prefer custom-made mouthguard for their athletic patients. About 84% felt the current training on mouthguards in Nigerian dental schools is inadequate. Over 98% agreed that mouthguard usage in contact sports should be encouraged with the involvement of the dentists. The knowledge and attitudes of the respondents towards mouthguard protection did not vary significantly across years of postqualification from dental schools as well as the professional status of the dentists (P > 0.05). Although Nigerian dentists support mouthguard protection in contact sports and want to be involved in the provision of mouthguards for athletes, their knowledge of the protective device is inadequate. There is need for attention to be given to this subject in the undergraduate curricula of our dental schools. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  7. Circadian and Wake-Dependent Influences on Subjective Sleepiness, Cognitive Throughput, and Reaction Time Performance in Older and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Edward J.; Wang, Wei; Ronda, Joseph M.; Wyatt, James K.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess circadian and homeostatic influences on subjective sleepiness and cognitive performance in older adults when sleep and waking are scheduled at different times of day; to assess changes in subjective sleepiness and cognitive performance across several weeks of an inpatient study; and to compare these findings with results from younger adults. Design: Three 24-h baseline days consisting of 16 h of wakefulness and an 8-h sleep opportunity followed by 3-beat cycles of a 20-h forced desynchrony (FD) condition; 18 20-h “days,” each consisting of 13.33 h of scheduled wakefulness and 6.67 h of scheduled sleep opportunity. Setting: Intensive Physiological Monitoring Unit of the Brigham and Women's Hospital General Clinical Research Center. Participants: 10 healthy older adults (age 64.00 ± 5.98 y, 5 females) and 10 healthy younger adults (age 24.50 ± 3.54 y, 5 females). Interventions: Wake episodes during FD scheduled to begin 4 h earlier each day allowing for data collection at a full range of circadian phases. Measurements and Results: Subjective sleepiness, cognitive throughput, and psychomotor vigilance assessed every 2 h throughout the study. Core body temperature (CBT) data collected throughout to assess circadian phase. Older subjects were less sleepy and performed significantly better on reaction time (RT) measures than younger subjects. Decrements among younger subjects increased in magnitude further into the experiment, while the performance of older subjects remained stable. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the waking performance and alertness of healthy older subjects are less impacted by the cumulative effects of repeated exposure to adverse circadian phase than that of young adults. This suggests that there are age-related changes in the circadian promotion of alertness, in the wake-dependent decline of alertness, and/or in how these 2 regulatory systems interact in healthy aging. Citation: Silva EJ; Wang W; Ronda JM

  8. Morphometry of the adult human earlobe: a study of 547 subjects and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Azaria, R; Adler, N; Silfen, R; Regev, D; Hauben, D J

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the factors that influence earlobe length and to establish a standard for adult earlobe length by sex and age. The study sample consisted of 547 adult subjects older than 20 years of age. A randomized, prospective design was used. Patients with malignancies, previous surgery or trauma to the earlobe, or congenital earlobe anomalies were excluded. The following variables were studied: sex; age; ethnic origin; skin complexion; height, weight, and body mass index; and piercing. Pearson's correlation, analysis of variance, t test, and multiple regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. There were 383 women (70 percent) and 164 men (30 percent) aged 20 to 80 years. The average length of the left earlobe was 1.97 cm (SD, 0.42 cm), and that of the right earlobe, 2.01 cm (SD, 0.42 cm) (p < 0.0001). A post hoc test revealed a statistically significant difference among the three age groups (20 to 40 years, 40 to 60 years, and >60 years) in both men and women. Pendulous earlobes were significantly longer and less symmetrical than nonpendulous ones by t test. In men, nonpierced left earlobes were longer than pierced lobes; in women, there was no significant difference between pierced and nonpierced ears. Pearson's correlation tests for weight, height, and body mass index showed that only weight had a significant effect on earlobe length, and only in women. Analysis of variance for ethnic origin and skin color revealed a longer left earlobe in Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews compared with Ethiopian, Asian, and American Jews and Arabs and a short earlobe in blacks compared with dark and fair-skinned people. On multiple regression analysis, sex and age were the only factors that contributed to earlobe length. A table of average earlobe length by age was formulated on the basis of the authors' findings. These data, together with the knowledge that earlobe length changes little in women over 40, that earlobes are not symmetrical

  9. Adult Daughters’ Influence on Mothers’ Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2010-01-01

    This study of mother–adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother–adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother–daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers’ ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms. PMID:19805795

  10. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function

  11. Penetration of Ceftaroline into the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pushkin, Richard; Jandourek, Alena; Knebel, William; Khariton, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to (i) evaluate ceftaroline concentrations in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and (ii) develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for plasma and ELF to be used in PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment simulations. Ceftaroline concentrations in ELF and plasma at steady state (day 4) were measured in healthy adult subjects for two dosages: 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) and 600 mg every 8 h (q8h). Both were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. The penetration of free ceftaroline into ELF, assuming 20% protein binding in plasma and no protein binding in ELF, was ≈23%. The population PK model utilized a two-compartment model for both ceftaroline fosamil and ceftaroline. Goodness-of-fit criteria revealed the model was consistent with observed data and no systematic bias remained. At 600 mg q12h and a MIC of 1 mg/liter, 98.1% of simulated patients would be expected to achieve a target free drug concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) in plasma of 42%, and in ELF 81.7% would be expected to achieve a target fT>MIC of 17%; at 600 mg q8h, 100% were predicted to achieve an fT>MIC in plasma of 42% and 94.7% to achieve an fT>MIC of 17% in ELF. The literature and data suggest the 600 mg q12h dose is adequate for MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. There is a need for clinical data in patients with MRSA pneumonia and data to correlate PK/PD relationships in ELF with clinical outcomes. PMID:27431215

  12. Penetration of Ceftaroline into the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Riccobene, Todd A; Pushkin, Richard; Jandourek, Alena; Knebel, William; Khariton, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to (i) evaluate ceftaroline concentrations in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and (ii) develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for plasma and ELF to be used in PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment simulations. Ceftaroline concentrations in ELF and plasma at steady state (day 4) were measured in healthy adult subjects for two dosages: 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) and 600 mg every 8 h (q8h). Both were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. The penetration of free ceftaroline into ELF, assuming 20% protein binding in plasma and no protein binding in ELF, was ≈23%. The population PK model utilized a two-compartment model for both ceftaroline fosamil and ceftaroline. Goodness-of-fit criteria revealed the model was consistent with observed data and no systematic bias remained. At 600 mg q12h and a MIC of 1 mg/liter, 98.1% of simulated patients would be expected to achieve a target free drug concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) in plasma of 42%, and in ELF 81.7% would be expected to achieve a target fT>MIC of 17%; at 600 mg q8h, 100% were predicted to achieve an fT>MIC in plasma of 42% and 94.7% to achieve an fT>MIC of 17% in ELF. The literature and data suggest the 600 mg q12h dose is adequate for MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. There is a need for clinical data in patients with MRSA pneumonia and data to correlate PK/PD relationships in ELF with clinical outcomes.

  13. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  14. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate.

    PubMed

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (- 2 to 2). Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

  15. Awareness of periodontal diseases amongst Nigerian diabetics.

    PubMed

    Ayanbadejo, P O; Savage, K O; Jeboda, S O

    2004-03-01

    This prospective study sample consisted of 261 Nigerians made up of 155 diabetics seen at the medical outpatient clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos and general hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria and 106 health controls randomly selected. The subjects were required to complete a questionnaire containing the biographic data and occupation, and assessment of their knowledge, attitude and practice towards periodontal health and utilisation of appropriate professional care. They were then examined and assessed using the CPITN code. Their ages ranged from 5 to 65 years. Close to three-quarters of the subjects (73.5% for diabetics and 74.5% for controls) were 45 years or older. Furthermore, 6% of the low skilled diabetics new about periodontal disease while only 27.2% of those in the medium and highly skilled group had some knowledge of periodontal disease. This relationship was found to be statistically significant (X2 = 12-22 ; df = 2, p < 0.05). Similarly, statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between diabetics and controls with regards to knowledge about the demonstrated between diabetic and controls with regards to knowledge about the cause/s of periodontal disease and awareness of gum bleeding. 73.6% of the controls had never been to the dentist before unlike 62.1% of diabetics. All subjects in either group who claimed not to bleed scored at least the minimum on the CPITN code. While 52.3% of diabetics and 22.5% of control had a CPITN score of 2,54% of those in the control group and 30% of diabetics recorded a score of 3 on the CPITN code. In conclusion, the level of awareness of periodontal disease is quite low amongst both groups, hence there is a need to promote periodontal health awareness in the general populace as well as clinics.

  16. The relationship between physical activity, meaning in life, and subjective vitality in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Ju, Haewon

    2017-11-01

    The present study examined the potential contribution of meaning in life to the relationship between physical activity and subjective vitality in older adults. Two-hundred and fifty community-dwelling elders completed the instruments assessing physical activity, meaning in life, and subjective vitality. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that physical activity was positively associated with both meaning in life and subjective vitality. Further, the relationship between physical activity and vitality was partially mediated by meaning in life. Although previous studies have consistently found a positive impact of physical activity on vitality, the current study suggested that it is more productive to focus not only on physical activity, but also on meaning in life, in order to vitalize elders. Further, a focus on meaning in life can be a productive way to continue to vitalize older adults who are unable to engage in regular physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Somatotypes of Nigerian power athletes.

    PubMed

    Igbokwe, N U

    1991-09-01

    This study comparatively assessed the somatotype characteristics of elite male Nigerian power athletes who comprised middleweight boxers (n = 23), weightlifters (n = 18) and wrestlers (n = 21), as well as a nonathletic group (n = 19). They were aged 24-35 years. Analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc method were used to determine significant differences in the mean somatotype ratings of the groups. Among the groups, the nonathletes (4.02) were most significantly endomorphic (p less than 0.05). The weightlifters (5.12) and wrestler (5.04) were more significantly mesomorphic (p less than 0.05) than the boxers. (3.18) and nonathletes (3.06). The wrestlers' and weightlifters' dominance in mesomorphy confirms earlier reports on the salience of mesomorphy in performing strength-related skills.

  18. Serum immunoglobulins in Nigerian neonates.

    PubMed

    Akinwolere, O A; Akinkugbe, F M; Oyewole, A I; Salimonu, L S

    1989-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins G, M and A levels were studied in 187 Nigerian neonates. Estimations were done by the radial immunodifusion method of Mancini. Immunoglobulin G shows a fall in value in the first few days of life to about 62% of the value in the last days of the neonatal period. There is however a gradual increase in the level of IgM to about double at the end of the neonatal period. IgA level remained relatively constantly low throughout this period. The effect of maternal education on the levels of immunoglobulins of their neonates was also investigated. This had a positive influence at the secondary educational level, affecting only the IgG and IgA.

  19. Sacrococcygeal Teratoma in Nigerian Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A. Olufemi; Lagundoye, S. B.; Bankole, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    Two-thirds of all teratomas seen in 31 Nigerian children at Ibadan were situated in the sacrococcygeal region. About one-quarter of all the sacrococcygeal teratomas were malignant as shown on radiological and pathological examinations. The malignant tumours had papillary carcinomatous pattern, probably derived from the choroid plexus. The clinicopathological features of one patient with malignant change is described to illustrate the biological behaviour of this tumour. Malignancy in all the sacrococcygeal tumours appears to be associated with growth of the tumour into the pelvic cavity and metastasis initially to inguinal lymph nodes and later to distant sites. Inferior venacavogram can be of great value in defining the extent of the intrapelvic mass and the displacement of the genito-urinary organs, particularly when surgery is contemplated. ImagesFig. PMID:5440177

  20. The 10-year course of adult aggression toward others in patients with borderline personality disorder and axis II comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Ivey, Alexandra M; Cohn, Danielle M; Conkey, Lindsey C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2017-06-01

    This study had two aims. The first was to assess and compare various types of aggressive behavior toward others reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects over time. The second was to determine the best baseline and time-varying predictors of aggressive behavior in these borderline patients. At baseline, a series of interviews and self-report measures were administered to 290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects. Measures assessing aggression toward others, axis I and II disorders as well as adult adversity were re-administered every two years over the course of ten years. It was found that borderline patients reported significantly higher rates of verbal, emotional, and physical aggression toward others than comparison subjects but the rates of these forms of aggression toward others declined significantly for those in both study groups. Multivariate analyses indicated that the strongest predictors of adult aggression towards others were severity of adult adversity and a substance use disorder. Taken together, these results suggest that borderline patients commonly report aggression toward others but that this aggression declines significantly over time. These results also suggest that this aggression toward others is most strongly associated with adult experiences of adversity and concurrent substance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing Error Awareness as a Mediator of the Relationship between Subjective Concerns and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Rachel F; Laming, Gemma; Chen, Li Peng Evelyn; Crole, Alice; Hester, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Subjective concerns of cognitive decline (SCD) often manifest in older adults who exhibit objectively normal cognitive functioning. This subjective-objective discrepancy is counter-intuitive when mounting evidence suggests that subjective concerns relate to future clinical progression to Alzheimer's disease, and so possess the potential to be a sensitive early behavioural marker of disease. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether individual variability in conscious awareness of errors in daily life might mediate this subjective-objective relationship. 67 cognitively-normal older adults underwent cognitive, SCD and mood tests, and an error awareness task. Poorer error awareness was not found to mediate a relationship between SCD and objective performance. Furthermore, non-clinical levels of depressive symptomatology were a primary driving factor of SCD and error awareness, and significantly mediated a relationship between the two. We were unable to show that poorer error awareness mediates SCD and cognitive performance in older adults. Our study does suggest, however, that underlying depressive symptoms influence both poorer error awareness and greater SCD severity. Error awareness is thus not recommended as a proxy for SCD, as reduced levels of error awareness do not seem to be reflected by greater SCD.

  2. Assessing Error Awareness as a Mediator of the Relationship between Subjective Concerns and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Rachel F.; Laming, Gemma; Chen, Li Peng Evelyn; Crole, Alice; Hester, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Subjective concerns of cognitive decline (SCD) often manifest in older adults who exhibit objectively normal cognitive functioning. This subjective-objective discrepancy is counter-intuitive when mounting evidence suggests that subjective concerns relate to future clinical progression to Alzheimer’s disease, and so possess the potential to be a sensitive early behavioural marker of disease. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether individual variability in conscious awareness of errors in daily life might mediate this subjective-objective relationship. Methods 67 cognitively-normal older adults underwent cognitive, SCD and mood tests, and an error awareness task. Results Poorer error awareness was not found to mediate a relationship between SCD and objective performance. Furthermore, non-clinical levels of depressive symptomatology were a primary driving factor of SCD and error awareness, and significantly mediated a relationship between the two. Discussion We were unable to show that poorer error awareness mediates SCD and cognitive performance in older adults. Our study does suggest, however, that underlying depressive symptoms influence both poorer error awareness and greater SCD severity. Error awareness is thus not recommended as a proxy for SCD, as reduced levels of error awareness do not seem to be reflected by greater SCD. PMID:27832173

  3. International note: temperament and character's relationship to subjective well-being in Salvadorian adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Nima, Ali A; Archer, Trevor

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between personality and Subjective Well-Being in a sample of 135 Salvadorian adolescents and young adults (age mean = 21.88 sd. = 4.70). Personality was assessed through self-reports using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Subjective Well-Being was also self-reported using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to determine relationships between personality and Subjective Well-Being. Regarding temperament dimensions, Harm Avoidance was positively associated to negative affect and negatively associated to positive affect, while Persistence was positively associated to positive affect. Regarding character dimensions, only Self-directedness was related to Subjective Well-Being: positively related to life satisfaction and positive affect. The results presented here mirror findings using the temperament and character model of personality among European and North American adolescents.

  4. Memory for Medication Side Effects in Younger and Older Adults: The Role of Subjective and Objective Importance

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael C.; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often experience memory impairments, but can sometimes use selective processing and schematic support to remember important information. The current experiments investigate to what degree younger and healthy older adults remember medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember. Participants studied a list of common side effects, and rated how negative these effects were if they were to experience them, and were then given a free recall test. In Experiment 1, the severity of the side effects ranged from mild (e.g., itching) to severe (e.g., stroke), and in Experiment 2, certain side effects were indicated as critical to remember (i.e., “contact your doctor if you experience this”). There were no age differences in terms of free recall of the side effects, and older adults remembered more severe side effects relative to mild effects. However, older adults were less likely to recognize critical side effects on a later recognition test, relative to younger adults. The findings suggest that older adults can selectively remember medication side effects, but have difficulty identifying familiar but potentially critical side effects, and this has implications for monitoring medication use in older age. PMID:25331278

  5. Enteric pathogens, immune status and therapeutic response in diarrhea in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from north India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Arun Kumar; Uppal, Beena; Chadha, Sanjim; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Ghosh, Roumi; Dewan, Richa

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal infection causing diarrheal disease is a dominant contributor to high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This intervention study aimed to assess the response of specific anti-microbial and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on enteropathogens identified in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from northern India. Seventy five ART naive (group 1) and seventy five ART adherent (group 2) HIV/AIDS adult subjects with diarrhea were enrolled. Stool samples from all subjects were examined for enteropathogens by wet mount, staining methods, culture and ELISA. Subjects with enteropathogens were started on specific therapy as per National AIDS Control Organisation, Government of India's guidelines. Follow-up stool samples were examined after 2-4 weeks of completion of therapy for persistence/clearing of enteropathogens. CD4+ T lymphocyte count was done for all subjects. At enrollment, group 1 had 26.13% bacterial, 57.66% parasitic & 16.22% fungal pathogens while group 2 had 11.9%, 69.05% & 19.05% pathogens, respectively. Parasitic diarrhea was more common than bacterial diarrhea. The coccidian parasites (Cryptosporidium spp. & Isospora belli) were the common parasites identified. Clearance of enteric pathogens was significant after specific anti-microbial therapy (p = 0.0001). Persistence of enteropathogens was seen primarily for coccidian parasites. Clearance of enteropathogens after specific therapy and the diagnostic yield of stool specimens were influenced by the CD4+ counts. Immune competence coupled with specific anti-microbial therapy displays the best response against enteric pathogens.

  6. Occurrence of impaired fasting glucose in GH-deficient adults receiving GH replacement compared with untreated subjects.

    PubMed

    Woodmansee, Whitney W; Hartman, Mark L; Lamberts, Steven W J; Zagar, Anthony J; Clemmons, David R

    2010-01-01

    The effects of GH replacement on glucose metabolism in GH-deficient (GHD) adults in clinical practice are not well defined. Therefore, we assessed GH treatment effects on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and haemoglobin A1c (A1c) concentrations in GHD adults in a clinical setting. Post-hoc analysis of the observational Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study conducted at 157 US centres (1997-2002). GH-deficient adults who were GH-naïve at study entry and had at least two FPG measurements. Effect of GH treatment on the frequency and time course of abnormal FPG (> or =5.6 mmol/l) development, FPG normalization, progression of increased FPG and abnormal follow-up A1c (>6%) values in GHD patients treated with GH (n = 403) or untreated (n = 169) at their physician's discretion. In subjects without pre-existing diabetes mellitus, development of an abnormal FPG tended to occur in a greater percentage of GH-treated than untreated subjects (35.3% versus 24.5, P = 0.06). Additionally, GH treatment was associated with a mild, transient increase in FPG and shorter time to development of an abnormal FPG in these subjects (P < 0.01). Most ( approximately 80%) abnormal FPG values were below 7 mmol/l and normalized in 69% of GH-treated subjects without diabetes. Treatment with GH had no effect on the rate of FPG normalization, progression of increased FPG or abnormal follow-up A1c values. Initiation of GH replacement in GHD adults was associated with a mild increase in FPG that often normalized spontaneously. Nevertheless, clinicians should monitor FPG in patients receiving GH treatment.

  7. Tobacco use in older adults in Ghana: sociodemographic characteristics, health risks and subjective wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Yawson, Alfred E; Baddoo, Akosua; Hagan-Seneadza, Nana Ayegua; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Hewlett, Sandra; Dako-Gyeke, Phyllis; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Biritwum, Richard

    2013-10-20

    Tobacco use over the life-course threatens to increase disease burden in older adulthood, including lower income countries like Ghana. This paper describes demographic, socioeconomic, health risks and life satisfaction indices related to tobacco use among older adults in Ghana. This work was based on the World Health Organization's multi-country Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), conducted in six countries including Ghana. Wave one of SAGE in Ghana was conducted in 2007-2008 as collaboration between WHO and the University of Ghana Medical School through the Department of Community Health. A nationally representative sample of 4305 older adults aged 50 years and above were interviewed. Associations between tobacco consumption and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health risk and life satisfaction were evaluated using chi-square and odds ratio (OR). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and other variables, were conducted to determine predictors of tobacco consumption in older persons. Overall prevalence of current daily smokers among older adults in Ghana was 7.6%. Tobacco use (i.e. ever used tobacco) was associated with older males, (AOR = 1.10, CI 1.05-1.15), older adults residing in rural locations (AOR = 1.37, CI 1.083-1.724), and older adults who used alcohol (AOR = 1.13, CI 0.230-2.418). Tobacco use was also associated (although not statistically significant per p-values) with increased self-reporting of angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Older adults who used tobacco and with increased health risks, tended to be without health insurance (AOR = 1.41, CI 1.111-1.787). Satisfaction with life and daily living was much lower for those who use tobacco. Regional differences existed in tobacco use; the three northern regions (Upper East, Northern and Upper West) had higher proportions of tobacco use among older adults in the country. Quitting tobacco use was higher

  8. Anxiety Sensitivity and Age: Roles in Understanding Subjective Social Status among Low Income Adult Latinos in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Manning, Kara; Lemaire, Chad; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Lia J; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa

    2017-07-05

    One social determinant of health construct that is reliably related to health disparities among the Latino population is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet, little research has explored factors that may undergird variability in subjective social status among this population or in general. Accordingly, the present investigation examined one possible etiological model wherein age moderates the relation between individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) and subjective social status among a Latino primary care sample. Participants included Spanish-speaking Latino adults (n = 394; 86.5% female; average age = 39.0 years). Results demonstrated an interaction between the anxiety sensitivity and age for subjective social status among the Latino sample. Inspection of the form of the significant interaction indicated that the association between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was evident among older, but not younger, persons. The current findings suggest that decreasing anxiety sensitivity, especially among older Latinos, may be one possible viable therapeutic approach to change subjective social status in order to help offset health disparities among this group.

  9. Outcome over seven years of healthy adults with and without subjective cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Reisberg, Barry; Shulman, Melanie B.; Torossian, Carol; Leng, Ling; Zhu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) in older persons without manifest symptomatology is a common condition with a largely unclear prognosis. We hypothesized that (1) examining outcome for a sufficient period by using conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia would clarify SCI prognosis, and (2) with the aforementioned procedures, the prognosis of SCI subjects would differ significantly from that of demographically matched healthy subjects, free of SCI, termed no cognitive impairment (NCI) subjects. Methods A consecutive series of healthy subjects, aged ≥40 years, presenting with NCI or SCI to a brain aging and dementia research center during a 14-year interval, were studied and followed up during an 18-year observation window. The study population (60 NCI, 200 SCI, 60% female) had a mean age of 67.2 ± 9.1 years, was well-educated (mean, 15.5 ± 2.7 years), and cognitively normal (Mini-Mental State Examination, 29.1 ± 1.2). Results A total of 213 subjects (81.9% of the study population) were followed up. Follow-up occurred during a mean period of 6.8 ± 3.4 years, and subjects had a mean of 2.9 ± 1.6 follow-up visits. Seven NCI (14.9%) and 90 SCI (54.2%) subjects declined (P < .0001). Of NCI decliners, five declined to MCI and two to probable Alzheimer’s disease. Of SCI decliners, 71 declined to MCI and 19 to dementia diagnoses. Controlling for baseline demographic variables and follow-up time, Weibull proportional hazards model revealed increased decline in SCI subjects (hazard ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.9–10.3), whereas the accelerated failure time model analysis with an underlying Weibull survival function showed that SCI subjects declined more rapidly, at 60% of the rate of NCI subjects (95% confidence interval, 0.45–0.80). Furthermore, mean time to decline was 3.5 years longer for NCI than for SCI subjects (P = .0003). Conclusions These results indicate that SCI in subjects with normal cognition is a harbinger

  10. Pupillometry in brain death: differences in pupillary diameter between paediatric and adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Gokhan; Newey, Christopher R; Ardelt, Agnieszka

    2015-11-01

    The determination of brain death in neonates, infants, children and adults relies on a clinical diagnosis based on the absence of neurological function with a known irreversible cause of brain injury. Evaluation of pupil size and non-reactivity is a requisite for determination of brain death. There are no studies in the literature that quantitatively assess pupil size in brain dead children and adults. Infants, children and adults diagnosed with brain death were included in the study. Pupils were measured with a quantitative pupillometer (Forsite; Neuroptics, Irvine, CA, USA). Median, minimum and maximum pupil sizes were documented and the results were adjudicated for age, vasopressor use and temperature. Median right and left pupil sizes were 5.01 ± 0.85 mm and 5.12 ± 0.87 mm, respectively, with a range between 3.69 and 7.34 mm. Paediatric pupils were larger than adult pupils (right pupil 5.53 vs 4.73 mm p: 0.018; left pupil 5.87 vs 4.77 mm P: 0.03), and there was no correlation of pupil size with temperature or increasing number of vasopressors. This is the first study in the literature objectively evaluating pupil sizes in infants, children and adults diagnosed with brain death. We observed variation between observed pupil size and that expected based on brain death determination guidelines.

  11. Analysis of reliability, accuracy, sensitivity and predictive value of a subjective method to classify facial pattern in adults

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Gilberto Vilanova; Rino, José; de Paiva, João Batista; Capelozza, Leopoldino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Craniofacial pattern diagnosis is vital in Orthodontics, as it influences decision-making regarding treatment options and prognosis. Capelozza Filho proposed a subjective method for facial classification comprising five patterns: I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of a subjective classification method of facial patterns applied to adults. Methods: A sample consisting of 52 adults was used for this study. Frontal and lateral view photographs were taken with subjects at rest position, including frontal smile. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were organized in a PowerPoint® presentation and submitted to 20 raters. Method performance was assessed by examining reproducibility with Kappa test and calculating accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values, for which 70% was set as critical value. The gold standard of the classification was personally set by the author of the method. Results: Reproducibility was considered moderate (Kappa = 0.501); while accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values yielded similar results, but below 70%. Conclusions: The subjective method of facial classification employed in the present study still needs to have its morphological criteria improved in order to be used to discriminate the five facial patterns. PMID:28125141

  12. Analysis of reliability, accuracy, sensitivity and predictive value of a subjective method to classify facial pattern in adults.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Gilberto Vilanova; Rino, José; Paiva, João Batista de; Capelozza, Leopoldino

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial pattern diagnosis is vital in Orthodontics, as it influences decision-making regarding treatment options and prognosis. Capelozza Filho proposed a subjective method for facial classification comprising five patterns: I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face. To investigate the accuracy of a subjective classification method of facial patterns applied to adults. A sample consisting of 52 adults was used for this study. Frontal and lateral view photographs were taken with subjects at rest position, including frontal smile. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were organized in a PowerPoint® presentation and submitted to 20 raters. Method performance was assessed by examining reproducibility with Kappa test and calculating accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values, for which 70% was set as critical value. The gold standard of the classification was personally set by the author of the method. Reproducibility was considered moderate (Kappa = 0.501); while accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values yielded similar results, but below 70%. The subjective method of facial classification employed in the present study still needs to have its morphological criteria improved in order to be used to discriminate the five facial patterns.

  13. A randomized phase I clinical study of cis-urocanic acid eye drops in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Jauhonen, Hanna-Mari; Kari, Eeva; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Poutanen, Jutta; Laihia, Jarmo; Kaarniranta, Kai; Leino, Lasse

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate safety, ocular tolerability and pharmacokinetics of 0.5% and 2.5% cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA) eye drops. In this phase I, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 37 healthy volunteers were randomized to three treatment arms: 0.5% cis-UCA (12 subjects), 2.5% cis-UCA (12 subjects) and placebo eye drops (13 subjects). In the first part, the subjects were dosed topically on a randomized eye with one drop three times at 7 ± 1 hr intervals during 1 day. In the second part, the subjects self-administered three daily drops at 7 ± 1 hr intervals on both eyes for 14 days. Physical examination of the eyes was performed seven times during the study. Tolerability of cis-UCA was assessed by ocular comfort rating questionnaire. Pharmacokinetic blood and urine samples were analysed under good laboratory practice (GLP). All subjects completed both parts of the study. There were no significant adverse events (AEs). The most common treatment-related ocular AE was eye irritation (62.2% of subjects). Cis-UCA concentrations in plasma remained below the limit of quantification (0.195 μg/ml) in all but two subjects. The fraction of the administered drug excreted into urine over the total collection period ranged from 3.2% to 61.6% of the last dose and from 1.1% to 20.5% of the daily dose. Topical ocular administration of cis-UCA solution is safe and apart from mild- and short-lasting eye irritation after administration well tolerated in healthy adult subjects. Topical ocular dosing leads to transient systemic exposure to cis-UCA that does not cause systemic AEs. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Liver Stiffness Values Are Lower in Pediatric Subjects than in Adults and Increase with Age: A Multifrequency MR Elastography Study.

    PubMed

    Etchell, Emily; Jugé, Lauriane; Hatt, Alice; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine if healthy hepatic mechanical properties differ between pediatric and adult subjects at magnetic resonance (MR) elastography. Materials and Methods Liver shear moduli in 24 healthy pediatric participants (13 children aged 5-14 years [seven boys, six girls] and 11 adolescents aged 15-18 years [six boys, five girls]) and 10 healthy adults (aged 22-36 years [five men, five women]) were obtained with 3-T MR elastography at 28, 56, and 84 Hz. Relationships between shear moduli and age were assessed with Spearman correlations. Differences between age groups were determined with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons tests. Results Liver stiffness values (means ± standard deviations) were significantly lower in children and adolescents than in adults at 56 Hz (children, 2.2 kPa ± 0.3; adolescents, 2.2 kPa ± 0.2; adults, 2.6 kPa ± 0.3; analysis of variance, P = .009) and 84 Hz (children, 5.6 kPa ± 0.8; adolescents, 6.5 kPa ± 1.2; adults, 7.8 kPa ± 1.2; analysis of variance, P = .0003) but not at 28 Hz (children, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; adolescents, 1.3 kPa ± 0.3; adults, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; analysis of variance, P = .40). At 56 and 84 Hz, liver stiffness increased with age (Spearman correlation, r = 0.38 [P = .03] and r = 0.54 [P = .001], respectively). Stiffness varied less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults (analysis of variance, P = .0009). No significant differences were found in shear moduli at 28, 56, or 84 Hz or frequency dependence between children and adolescents (P = .38, P = .99, P = .14, and P = .30, respectively, according to Tukey tests). Conclusion Liver stiffness values are lower and vary less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults. Stiffness increases with age during normal development and approaches adult values during adolescence. Comparing pediatric liver stiffness to adult baseline values to detect pediatric liver mechanical abnormalities may not allow detection of mild

  15. The Use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in Decision Making in the South-West Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, I. A.; Omirin, Fadekemi F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding…

  16. Accreditation Role of the National Universities Commission and the Quality of the Educational Inputs into Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibijola; Yinka, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation role of the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the quality of the educational inputs into Nigerian university system was investigated in this work, using a descriptive research of survey design. The population consisted of public Universities in South-West, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 300 subjects, consisting of 50…

  17. The Use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in Decision Making in the South-West Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, I. A.; Omirin, Fadekemi F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding…

  18. Macro-Language Policy and Planning and Lack of Proficiency in Language Learning and Use by Nigerian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbite, Wale

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the problem of non-proficiency in language learning and use among Nigerian students is investigated. Using empirical data and information from available literature on the subject as evidence, it was observed that the language deficiencies of the students could be attributed to the lack of fit between the formulation of the national…

  19. Utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective distress in adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Brundage, Shelley B; Brinton, James M; Hancock, Adrienne B

    2016-12-01

    Virtual reality environments (VREs) allow for immersion in speaking environments that mimic real-life interactions while maintaining researcher control. VREs have been used successfully to engender arousal in other disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective ratings of distress in persons who stutter (PWS). Subjective and objective measures of arousal were collected from 10PWS during four-minute speeches to a virtual audience and to a virtual empty room. Stuttering frequency and physiological measures (skin conductance level and heart rate) did not differ across speaking conditions, but subjective ratings of distress were significantly higher in the virtual audience condition compared to the virtual empty room. VREs have utility in elevating subjective ratings of distress in PWS. VREs have the potential to be useful tools for practicing treatment targets in a safe, controlled, and systematic manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors associated with subjective burden in siblings of adults with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J S; Kim, H W; Greenley, J R

    1997-04-01

    Experiences of subjective burden were analyzed in a sample of 164 siblings of persons with serious mental illness. Findings indicated that the well sibling's experience of burden was consistently related to the symptomatology of the ill sibling. In addition, those who viewed the ill sibling's behavior as outside his or control exhibited lower levels of subjective burden than did those who viewed the behavior as within the sibling's control. Implications for research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  1. Prevalence and predictors of subjective memory complaints in adult male carriers of the FMR1 premutation.

    PubMed

    Birch, Rachael Cherie; Hocking, Darren Robert; Trollor, Julian Norman

    2016-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and predictors of subjective memory complaints among a cohort of male FMR1 premutation (PM) carriers with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Twenty-two PM males (ages 26-80, 7 with FXTAS) and 24 matched controls with normal FMR1 alleles (ages 26-77) completed cross-sectional assessments of subjective memory complaints (memory complaints questionnaire, MAC-Q), objective memory function (Logical Memory subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale, third edition), and psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales; the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders). Although a greater proportion of PM males (36%) endorsed subjective memory complaints compared to controls (21%), formal statistical comparisons failed to reach significance. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that subjective memory complaints were not associated with objective memory performance, but rather were predicted by elevated psychiatric symptoms. The relationship between psychiatric symptoms and subjective complaints found in the PM group was not statistically different to that found in the control group. There were no significant relationships between FMR1 molecular measures (CGG repeat length, FMR1 mRNA level) and measures of subjective memory complaints, objective memory performance, or psychiatric symptoms. In keeping with findings from the general population, this study suggests that subjective ratings of memory performance in PM males are associated with underlying psychological factors rather than cross-sectional objective memory function. However, future longitudinal studies are required to determine whether subjective memory complaints may predict changes in objective memory function over time.

  2. Feeling Caught between Parents: Adult Children's Relations with Parents and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2006-01-01

    Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…

  3. Subject Bibliography of Supplementary Adult Literacy Materials Purchased through LSCA Title VI Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Library Commission, Jackson.

    This annotated bibliography of supplementary materials for adult literacy students in Mississippi arranges the annotations in the following categories: automobiles; biography; communication skills; consumer information; coping skills; English as a second language; fiction; health, nutrition, and safety; history and government; insurance; job…

  4. Anxious Provision and Discourses of Certainty: The Sutured Subject of Mentally Ill Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a five-year study which explored the engagement of a group of long-term mentally ill adults in community provision in which they learned basic, expressive literacy. The research mapped points in the learning, writing and auto/biographic engagement where set identities were being troubled, and frisson created in the challenge…

  5. Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future…

  6. Psychosocial Development and Subjective Well-Being in an Age Cross-Section of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch, Stephanie A.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the internal consistency and construct validity of an expanded version of the Inventory of Psychosocial Development (E-IPD), which included the generativity and ego integrity scales creatd by Boylin et al. Total E-IPD scores from 79 adults were found to have high internal consistency, but many individual stage scales did not. (Author)

  7. Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future…

  8. Analysis of Exposure-Dose Variation of Inhaled Particles in Adult Subjects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although internal dose is a key factor for determining the health risk of inhaled pollutant particles, available dose information is largely limited to young healthy adults under a few typical exposure conditions. Extrapolation of the limited dose information to different populat...

  9. Analysis of Exposure-Dose Variation of Inhaled Particles in Adult Subjects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although internal dose is a key factor for determining the health risk of inhaled pollutant particles, available dose information is largely limited to young healthy adults under a few typical exposure conditions. Extrapolation of the limited dose information to different populat...

  10. Feeling Caught between Parents: Adult Children's Relations with Parents and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2006-01-01

    Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…

  11. Increased RhoA/Rho-Kinase Activity and Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Adult Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leguina-Ruzzi, Alberto; Pereira, Jaime; Pereira-Flores, Karla; Valderas, Juan P; Mezzano, Diego; Velarde, Victoria; Sáez, Claudia G

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a chronic condition associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, is increasingly prevalent in young adults. Dyslipidemia, proinflammatory cytokines, endothelial dysfunction signs, and RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) activation are considered risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The occurrence of these factors in young patients with metabolic syndrome but without type 2 diabetes or hypertension has not been fully studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate young subjects with enlarged waist circumference and dyslipidemia but without type 2 diabetes or hypertension,for markers associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thirty-two male patients aged 31 ± 1.3 years diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guide for enlarged waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, and low HDL levels, but with blood pressure and fasting glucose within normal ranges, were evaluated for RhoA/ROCK activity in leukocytes, serum fatty acid methyl esters profile, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in addition to thrombin generation and biochemical analysis. Age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were equivalently evaluated. Patients showed higher RhoA/ROCK activity, elevated levels of interleukin-6, soluble CD40L, monocyte chemoattractant protein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P < 0.001) as well as parameters of endogenous thrombin generation potential (P < 0.05) compared with healthy subjects. Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, advanced oxidation protein product, and insulin levels and low nitric oxide biodisponibility (P < 0.001) were also found in patients as compared with controls. Palmitic acid was one of the saturated fatty acids found to be significantly elevated in patients compared with control subjects (P = 0.0087). Increased markers of cardiovascular risk are already present in young

  12. Sweet taste and chorda tympani transection alter capsaicin-induced lingual pain perception in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Schöbel, N; Kyereme, J; Minovi, A; Dazert, S; Bartoshuk, L; Hatt, H

    2012-10-10

    Sweetness signals the nutritional value of food and may moreover be accompanied by a sensory suppression that leads to higher pain tolerance. This effect is well documented in infant rats and humans. However, it is still debated whether sensory suppression is also present in adult humans. Thus, we investigated the effects of sweet taste on the perception of the painful trigeminal stimulus capsaicin in two groups of healthy adult human subjects. A solution of 100 μM capsaicin was applied to the tip of the subject's tongues in order to stimulate trigeminal Aδ- and C-fiber nociceptors. When swallowed, 1M sucrose reduced the capsaicin-induced burning sensation by 29% (p ≤ 0.05) whereas a solution of similar taste intensity containing 1 μM quinine did not. Similarly, sucrose application to the frontal hemitongue suppressed the perception of the burning sensation induced by contralaterally applied capsaicin by 25% (p ≤ 0.01). We furthermore investigated the effects of documented unilateral transection of the chorda tympani nerve on capsaicin perception. In accordance with the ipsi-to-contralateral effect of sucrose on capsaicin perception in healthy subjects, hemiageusic subjects were more sensitive for capsaicin on the tongue contralateral to the taste nerve lesion (+38%; p ≤ 0.01). Taken together, these results argue I) for the existence of food intake-induced sensory suppression, if not analgesia, in adult humans and II) a centrally mediated suppression of trigeminal sensation by taste inputs that III) becomes disinhibited upon peripheral taste nerve lesion.

  13. Subjective and neural responses to intravenous alcohol in young adults with light and heavy drinking patterns.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Jodi M; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Crouss, Tess; Hommer, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption during young adulthood is a risk factor for the development of serious alcohol use disorders. Research has shown that individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol may affect individuals' vulnerability to developing alcoholism. Studies comparing the subjective and objective response to alcohol between light and heavy drinkers (HDs), however, have yielded inconsistent results, and neural responses to alcohol in these groups have not been characterized. We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover alcohol challenge study comparing functional magnetic resonance imaging and subjective response to intravenously administered 6% v/v ethanol to a target blood alcohol concentration of 0.08% or placebo between HDs and social drinkers (SDs). During the imaging, we presented emotional cues in order to measure how emotion modulated the effects of alcohol on the brain's reward circuitry. We found that, at equivalent blood alcohol concentrations, HDs reported lower subjective alcohol effects than SDs. Alcohol significantly activated the nucleus accumbens in SDs, but not in HDs. Self-reported ratings of intoxication correlated with striatal activation, suggesting that activation may reflect subjective experience of intoxication. Fearful faces significantly activated the amygdala in the SDs only, and this activation was attenuated by alcohol. This study shows that HDs not only experience reduced subjective effects of alcohol, but also demonstrate a blunted response to alcohol in the brain's reward system. Our findings indicate that reduced subjective and neural response to alcohol in HDs may be suggestive of either the development of tolerance to alcohol, or of pre-existing decreased sensitivity to alcohol's effects.

  14. Gender, Internet use, and sexual behavior orientation among young Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, D O; Udegbe, I B; Sunmola, A M

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the influence of gender and Internet use on the sexual behavior orientation of young adults in Nigeria. Using an ex-post-facto design, data were collected from a total of 231 participants. Results of the hierarchical regression model provided support for the influence of gender and Internet use on sexual behavior orientation among young Nigerians. Further, results also revealed an interaction effect; as the use of the Internet increased, male participants reported a greater extent of risky sexual behavior orientation than their female counterparts. The findings were explained in the context of the theoretical foundations of the study, while practical implications for combating youths' risky sexual behavior orientation were highlighted.

  15. Linear and angular control of circular walking in healthy older adults and subjects with cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Goodworth, Adam D; Paquette, Caroline; Jones, Geoffrey Melvill; Block, Edward W; Fletcher, William A; Hu, Bin; Horak, Fay B

    2012-05-01

    Linear and angular control of trunk and leg motion during curvilinear navigation was investigated in subjects with cerebellar ataxia and age-matched control subjects. Subjects walked with eyes open around a 1.2-m circle. The relationship of linear to angular motion was quantified by determining the ratios of trunk linear velocity to trunk angular velocity and foot linear position to foot angular position. Errors in walking radius (the ratio of linear to angular motion) also were quantified continuously during the circular walk. Relative variability of linear and angular measures was compared using coefficients of variation (CoV). Patterns of variability were compared using power spectral analysis for the trunk and auto-covariance analysis for the feet. Errors in radius were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar damage as compared to controls. Cerebellar subjects had significantly larger CoV of feet and trunk in angular, but not linear, motion. Control subjects also showed larger CoV in angular compared to linear motion of the feet and trunk. Angular and linear components of stepping differed in that angular, but not linear, foot placement had a negative correlation from one stride to the next. Thus, walking in a circle was associated with more, and a different type of, variability in angular compared to linear motion. Results are consistent with increased difficulty of, and role of the cerebellum in, control of angular trunk and foot motion for curvilinear locomotion.

  16. Subjective Sexual Well-Being in Chilean Adults: Evaluation of a Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo

    2016-05-18

    Research on sexuality has traditionally focused on sexual satisfaction, with studies into subjective sexual well-being being a recent phenomenon. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior, happiness, health, and subjective sexual well-being. The data were collected from 862 people aged between 18 and 50 years in Santiago, Chile, and were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results showed that sexual behavioral indicators (sexual frequency, sexual caresses, and touching), happiness, and perception of health taken as a whole predicted 47.4% of subjective sexual well-being (SSWB). Analysis of the four items of subjective sexual well-being separately showed that the dimension of physical satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators with a prediction percentage of 33.5%, whereas emotional satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators and happiness, with a percentage of prediction of 43.3%. Satisfaction with sexual function was associated with perception of health and one sexual behavior indicator, with a prediction percentage of 29.2% of this variable. The importance of sex was associated with three sexual behavior variables that predicted 26.2% of this variable. The results confirm that subjective sexual well-being can be predicted and that its four dimensions present a different behavior compared to the study predictors.

  17. Beyond diagnosis: subjective theories of illness in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Michael; Koehler, Katharina; Koenigsmann, Michael; Kreutzmann, Nicole; Fischer, Thomas; Frommer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Every acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient asks: why me? But from the patients' perspective, there are no objective medical causes and no clear picture of AML. However, based on these missing medical answers, patients develop their own ideas about illness and treatment. These subjective theories of illness (STOI) are defined as the cognitive constructions ill people make regarding: (1) the nature of their disease; (2) its source; and (3) its treatment. STOI present a challenge for the physician-patient relationship. After the first interim staging, 12 patients with AML were interviewed. Case analyses were assigned to interindividual comparisons representing the predefined subject areas of STOI. Patients' vague subjective conceptions about the personalized etiology of AML resulted not only from health literacy deficits but also from their avoiding medical information to protect themselves from negative emotions. Through STOI, patients significantly co-determine the selection of (un-)conscious coping strategies with consequences for physician-patient communication.

  18. Distinctive modulation of inflammatory and metabolic parameters in relation to zinc nutritional status in adult overweight/obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Laura; Muti, Elisa; Malavolta, Marco; Cipriano, Catia; Giacconi, Robertina; Tesei, Silvia; Piacenza, Francesco; Pierpaoli, Sara; Gasparini, Nazzarena; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Boscaro, Marco; Polito, Angela; Mauro, Beatrice; Maiani, Francesca; Raguzzini, Anna; Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Emanuelli, Monica; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with low grade of inflammation and chronic inflammatory response characterized by abnormal production and activation of some pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Taking into account that obesity is the direct result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, the nutritional factors in the diet, with particular focus on zinc, may play a pivotal role in the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. Considering the potential interactions among zinc nutritional status, inflammation, overweight/obesity and insulin secretion, the aim of the present work was to clarify the influence of zinc dietary intake on some metabolic, inflammatory and zinc status parameters in adult overweight/obese subjects. We found a close interrelationship between nutritional zinc and obesity. In particular, subjects with a lower zinc dietary intake display a deeper inflammatory status, general impairment of the zinc status, an altered lipid profile and increased insulin production with respect to obese subjects with normal zinc dietary intake. Moreover, in the presence of low dietary zinc intake, the obese subjects are less capable to respond to oxidative stress and to inflammation leading to the development of obesity or to a worsening of already preexisting obesity status. In conclusion, a possible zinc supplementation in obese subjects with a deeper inflammatory status and more altered zinc profile may be suggested in order to limit or reduce the inflammation, taking also into account that zinc supplementation normalizes "inflammaging" as well as zinc profile leading to a correct intra- and extracellular zinc homeostasis.

  19. When does meaning making predict subjective well-being? Examining young and older adults in two cultures.

    PubMed

    Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Two studies in different cultures (Study 1: USA, N=174, Study 2: Trinidad, N=167) examined whether meaning making, (i.e., both searching for meaning, and directing behaviour) is positively related to subjective well-being (SWB) by age (younger, older adults). In both studies, participants self-reported engagement in meaning making, and SWB (e.g., affect, future time perspective, psychological well-being). In Study 1, young Americans (compared to older) more frequently used their past to direct behaviour but doing so was unrelated to SWB. In older Americans, both types of meaning making were positively associated with SWB. In Study 2, Trinidadian younger adults were again more likely than older adults to engage in meaning making. Unlike in the American sample, however, directing behaviour was positively related to SWB for both young and older adults. The studies demonstrate that whether meaning making shows benefits for SWB may depend on type of meaning, age and culture. Note that although meaning making was sometimes unrelated to SWB, no detrimental relations to meaning making were found. The discussion focuses on the role of moderators in understanding when meaning making should lead to benefits versus costs to SWB.

  20. Non-Pharmacologic Interventions for Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Preliminary Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Smart, Colette M; Karr, Justin E; Areshenkoff, Corson N; Rabin, Laura A; Hudon, Carol; Gates, Nicola; Ali, Jordan I; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Buckley, Rachel F; Chetelat, Gael; Hampel, Harald; Jessen, Frank; Marchant, Natalie L; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Tales, Andrea; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Wesselman, Linda

    2017-03-07

    In subjective cognitive decline (SCD), older adults present with concerns about self-perceived cognitive decline but are found to have clinically normal function. However, a significant proportion of those adults are subsequently found to develop mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's dementia or other neurocognitive disorder. In other cases, SCD may be associated with mood, personality, and physical health concerns. Regardless of etiology, adults with SCD may benefit from interventions that could enhance current function or slow incipient cognitive decline. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, is to examine the benefits of non-pharmacologic intervention (NPI) in persons with SCD. Inclusion criteria were studies of adults aged 55 + with SCD defined using published criteria, receiving NPI or any control condition, with cognitive, behavioural, or psychological outcomes in controlled trails. Published empirical studies were obtained through a standardized search of CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES, supplemented by a manual retrieval of relevant articles. Study quality and bias was determined using PEDro. Nine studies were included in the review and meta-analysis. A wide range of study quality was observed. Overall, a small effect size was found on cognitive outcomes, greater for cognitive versus other intervention types. The available evidence suggests that NPI may benefit current cognitive function in persons with SCD. Recommendations are provided to improve future trials of NPI in SCD.

  1. Word Stress in Cameroon and Nigerian Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, Augustin Simo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the strategies used by Cameroonians and Nigerians to cope with the notorious complexity of English word stress. Stress placement is similar among these two groups, but differs significantly from what obtains in traditional native English speech, received pronunciation (RP), for example. Some of the stress…

  2. Semantics of Occupational Lexis in Nigerian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Victoria A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes forms of semantic reinvestment of occupational lexis items in Nigerian English. Three categories and two subcategories of reinvestment are identified: shift, generalization, narrowing, reassignment, and analogy. These types of semantic reinvestment are considered within a sociocultural and linguistic setting of Nigeria as a developing…

  3. Matriculation Related Wastage in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Ojogwu, Chiaka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide substantial evidence on the rate of matriculation related wastage in Nigerian universities. Five federal universities were used for the study. The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) admission list and the university matriculation clearance documents of the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 admission years…

  4. Record Management in Nigerian Secondary School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakpodia, E. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examined the usefulness of record management in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Record keeping is one of the administrative principles in secondary school administration and it cannot be overemphasized in any organisation. The continuity of any school organisation depends on availability of useful records of past activities. In a complex…

  5. Word Stress in Cameroon and Nigerian Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, Augustin Simo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the strategies used by Cameroonians and Nigerians to cope with the notorious complexity of English word stress. Stress placement is similar among these two groups, but differs significantly from what obtains in traditional native English speech, received pronunciation (RP), for example. Some of the stress…

  6. Matriculation Related Wastage in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Ojogwu, Chiaka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide substantial evidence on the rate of matriculation related wastage in Nigerian universities. Five federal universities were used for the study. The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) admission list and the university matriculation clearance documents of the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 admission years…

  7. Executive Functions in Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Roeliena C.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D.

    2016-01-01

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (>50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as well as subjective complaints (self- and proxy…

  8. Executive Functions in Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Roeliena C.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D.

    2016-01-01

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (>50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as well as subjective complaints (self- and proxy…

  9. The Influence of Executive Functioning on Facial and Subjective Pain Responses in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is known to reduce reliability of subjective pain reports. Although facial expressions of pain are generally considered to be less affected by this decline, empirical support for this assumption is sparse. The present study therefore examined how cognitive functioning relates to facial expressions of pain and whether cognition acts as a moderator between nociceptive intensity and facial reactivity. Facial and subjective responses of 51 elderly participants to mechanical stimulation at three intensities levels (50 kPa, 200 kPa, and 400 kPa) were assessed. Moreover, participants completed a neuropsychological examination of executive functioning (planning, cognitive inhibition, and working memory), episodic memory, and psychomotor speed. The results showed that executive functioning has a unique relationship with facial reactivity at low pain intensity levels (200 kPa). Moreover, cognitive inhibition (but not other executive functions) moderated the effect of pressure intensity on facial pain expressions, suggesting that the relationship between pressure intensity and facial reactivity was less pronounced in participants with high levels of cognitive inhibition. A similar interaction effect was found for cognitive inhibition and subjective pain report. Consequently, caution is needed when interpreting facial (as well as subjective) pain responses in individuals with a high level of cognitive inhibition. PMID:27274618

  10. Subjective age and sleep in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Bayard, Sophie; Terracciano, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Chronological age is commonly used to explain change in sleep. The present study examines whether subjective age is associated with change in sleep difficulties across middle adulthood and old age. Participants were drawn from the second (2004-2005) and third (2013-2014) waves of the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS, N = 2350; Mean Age: 55.54 years), the 2008 and 2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 4066; Mean Age: 67.59 years) and the first (2011) and fourth (2014) waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Survey (NHATS, N = 3541; Mean Age: 76.46). In each sample, subjective age, sleep difficulties, depressive symptoms, anxiety and chronic conditions were assessed at baseline. Sleep difficulties was assessed again at follow-up. Sleep difficulties. An older subjective age at baseline was related to an increase in sleep difficulties over time in the three samples, and was mediated, in part, through more depressive symptoms, anxiety and chronic conditions. Feeling older was associated with an increased likelihood of major sleeping difficulties at follow-up in the three samples. Subjective age is a salient marker of individuals' at risk for poor sleep quality, beyond chronological age.

  11. An Examination of the Relationship between Passion and Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Francois L.; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Activity engagement has long been linked to improved subjective well-being (SWB) in old age. However, recent studies testing Vallerand et al.'s (2003) Dualistic Model of Passion suggest that the type of passionate activity that underlies activity engagement might influence the extent to which individuals benefit from an active lifestyle. In the…

  12. Nasal ventilation is more effective than combined oral-nasal ventilation during induction of general anesthesia in adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yafen; Kimball, William R; Kacmarek, Robert M; Zapol, Warren M; Jiang, Yandong

    2008-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that nasal mask ventilation may be more effective than combined oral-nasal mask ventilation during induction of general anesthesia. They tested this hypothesis by comparing the volume of carbon dioxide removed per breath with nasal versus combined oral-nasal mask ventilation in nonparalyzed, apneic, adult subjects during induction of general anesthesia. Fifteen adult subjects receiving general anesthesia were ventilated first with a combined oral-nasal mask and then with only a nasal mask. The patient's head was maintained in a neutral position, without head extension or lower jaw thrust. Respiratory parameters were recorded simultaneously from both the nasal and oral masks regardless of ventilation approach. The volume of carbon dioxide removed per breath during nasal mask ventilation (median, 5.0 ml; interquartile range, 3.4-8.8 ml) was significantly larger than that during combined oral-nasal mask ventilation (median, 0.0 ml; interquartile range, 0.0-0.4 ml; P = 0.001); even the peak inspiratory airway pressure during nasal ventilation (16.7 +/- 2.7 cm H2O) was lower than that during combined oral-nasal ventilation (24.5 +/- 4.7 cm H2O; P = 0.002). The expiratory tidal volume during nasal ventilation (259.8 +/- 134.2 ml) was also larger than that during combined oral-nasal ventilation (98.9 +/- 103.4 ml; P = 0.003). Nasal mask ventilation was more effective than combined oral-nasal mask ventilation in apneic, nonparalyzed, adult subjects during induction of general anesthesia. The authors suggest that nasal mask ventilation, rather than full facemask ventilation, be considered during induction of anesthesia.

  13. Effectiveness of breathing through nasal and oral routes in unconscious apneic adult human subjects: a prospective randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yandong; Bao, Fang Ping; Liang, Yafen; Kimball, William R; Liu, Yanhong; Zapol, Warren M; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2011-07-01

    The authors hypothesized that mouth ventilation by a resuscitator via the nasal route ensures a more patent airway and more effective ventilation than does ventilation via the oral route and therefore would be the optimal manner to ventilate adult patients in emergencies, such as during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. They tested the hypothesis by comparing the effectiveness of mouth-to-nose breathing (MNB) and mouth-to-mouth breathing (MMB) in anesthetized, apneic, adult subjects without muscle paralysis. Twenty subjects under general anesthesia randomly received MMB and MNB with their heads placed first in a neutral position and then an extended position. A single operator performed MNB and MMB at the target breathing rate of 10 breaths/min, inspiratory:expiratory ratio 1:2 and peak inspiratory airway pressure 24 cm H₂O. A plethysmograph was used to measure the amplitude change during MMB and MNB. The inspiratory and expiratory tidal volumes during MMB and MNB were calculated retrospectively using the calibration curve. All data are presented as medians (interquartile ranges). The rates of effective ventilation (expired volume > estimated anatomic dead space) during MNB and MMB were 91.1% (42.4-100%) and 43.1% (42.5-100%) (P < 0.001), and expired tidal volume with MMB 130.5 ml (44.0-372.8 ml) was significantly lower than with MNB 324.5 ml (140.8-509.0 ml), regardless of the head position (P < 0.001). Direct mouth ventilation delivered exclusively via the nose is significantly more effective than that delivered via the mouth in anesthetized, apneic adult subjects without muscle paralysis. Additional studies are needed to establish whether using this breathing technique during emergency situations will improve patient outcomes.

  14. Knowledge and perceptions of prostate cancer among Nigerian male immigrants.

    PubMed

    Akpuaka, Stella O; Clarke-Tasker, Veronica A; Nichols-English, Gloria J; Daniel, Marlon G; Akpuaka, Aloysius I

    2013-01-01

    Studies focusing on prostate cancer in the Nigerian population, especially Nigerian male immigrants residing in the United States, are limited. Nigerian immigrants are one of the fastest growing populations of Africans currently residing in the United States. According to a report from Migration Policy Institute in Washington DC, 1.4 million African immigrants live in the United States, of which 13.1% or 185,787 are Nigerian-born individuals (Terrazas, 2009). A great number of these African immigrants (159,928/11.3%) currently reside in the Washington metropolitan area. Similar to African American males in the United States, Nigerian men are at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In Nigeria, prostate cancer constitutes 11% of all male cancers making it the #1 ranking cancer among Nigerian men.

  15. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  16. Factors associated with objective (actigraphic) and subjective sleep quality in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Tworoger, Shelley S; Davis, Scott; Vitiello, Michael V; Lentz, Martha J; McTiernan, Anne

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe factors associated with actigraphic and subjective sleep quality in young women. Participants were 73 regularly menstruating women, 20-40 years old, who were not taking oral contraceptives, pregnant, or shift workers. Women contributed an average of 7 nights of actigraphy data during the luteal menstrual cycle phase, resulting in a total of 595 nights of data. One night of actigraphy data was unreliable for measuring total sleep time, sleep onset, and time in bed (intraclass correlation < or =.15) but was acceptable for measuring sleep efficiency and total wake time (intraclass correlation [ICC]=.52). Going to bed late, medication use, employment, increased daylight hours, longer menstrual cycle length, and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with poorer actigraphic sleep measures. Employment, age, and perceived stress were associated with subjective sleep quality. Multiple factors were associated with sleep quality in these young women who were sleeping at home. However, the associations differed for subjectively versus actigraphically assessed sleep quality. Actigraphy is feasible for measuring sleep, but multiple recording nights may be needed to obtain reliable estimates.

  17. A three-year prospective study of adult subjects with gingivitis. I: clinical periodontal parameters.

    PubMed

    Bogren, Anna; Teles, Ricardo; Torresyap, Gay; Haffajee, Anne D; Socransky, Sigmund S; Lindhe, Jan; Wennström, Jan L

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor prospectively clinical parameters in subjects without signs of destructive periodontal disease who were involved in a primary prevention programme, and to determine the changes that occurred between yearly examinations over a 3-year period. One hundred and twenty-six subjects aged at least 20 years with a maximum of two tooth sites with probing pocket depth (PPD)>4 mm and no proximal sites with clinical attachment loss participated in the study. Primary prevention was provided at baseline of the study and then every 6 months. Plaque, bleeding on probing (BoP) and PPD were scored at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 years. There were no significant changes in the plaque score over the 3 years. After year 1, the BoP score was significantly improved with 5.6%, while no further improvement in BoP was found at years 2 and 3. The mean PPD decreased from 2.3 to 2.1 mm over the 3 years (p<0.05). Although some individuals exhibiting minor signs of periodontal pathology may have benefited from the primary prevention, the overall clinical improvement was limited for such subjects in the present 3-year study.

  18. [Neuropsychological study of young adults with subjective memory complaints: involvement of the executive functions and other associated frontal symptoms].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M; Llanero-Luque, Marcos; Lozoya-Delgado, P; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel A; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J

    2010-12-01

    Subjective memory complaints are one of the reasons why young adults visit neurology services. Generally speaking, memory complaints are considered to increase with age and, in the elderly, they become associated to a number of factors (depression, other emotional problems, personality or self-perceived quality of life). Their appearance has also been related with disorders affecting meta-memory and the frontal lobes. Thus, certain attentional and executive deficits could account for the appearance of mistakes and lapses in day-to-day life that are perceived as memory disorders by the general population. A neuropsychological examination battery and the dysexecutive questionnaire (DEX-Sp) were administered to two groups of young adults, one with subjective memory complaints that were severe enough to require a visit to a neurology service (n = 50) and the other without such complaints (n = 67). RESULTS; Data showed how the individuals with subjective complaints had a lower mnemonic, attentional and executive performance than subjects who did not present any complaints. Both groups, however, are within what can be considered statistically normal values. There were also significant differences in the number of frontal symptoms self-informed by means of the questionnaire that was applied. The differences that were found in mnemonic performance can be explained by non-pathognomonic attentional and executive dysfunctions, given the absence of a neuropathological process to justify them. Furthermore, use of the DEX-Sp in collaboration with classic neuropsychological assessment is proposed. Some new hypotheses and recommendations for the management of these patients in daily clinical practice are also discussed.

  19. Association of body fat distribution with proinflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Puchau, Blanca; Zulet, María Angeles; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) measurements have proved useful in recent studies to discern peripheral biomarkers for common complex diseases and for understanding host responses to drugs and nutrition in personalized medicine. Despite the initial promising data from PBMC, there is little information, however, on inflammatory and immune gene regulation in the context of body fat distribution and metabolic features in healthy adults. We investigated the putative association of body fat distribution and related-metabolic features with mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in PBMC. This study enrolled 136 healthy subjects (85 females/51 males; age: 21.5 +/- 2.5 years). Anthropometrical, clinical, metabolic, and proinflammatory variables were assessed with validated tools. Interestingly, in normal-weight subjects with lower truncal fat (TF) values, mRNA levels of ICAM1, IL1R1, IL6, and TNF-alpha in PBMC were lower (p < 0.05), compared to normal-weight individuals with higher TF (>58.5/50.2% for men/women, respectively) and overweight/obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2)]. After regression analyses were performed, individuals with the highest tertiles of TF and waist circumference displayed higher mRNA gene expressions as well as circulating proinflammatory (C-reactive protein and IL6) and metabolic (blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and LDL-c:HDL-c ratio) variables values (p < 0.05), independent from gender. Our findings collectively suggest that the mRNA expression of certain proinflammatory markers in PBMC is associated with body fat distribution in healthy adult subjects, which in turn, was also related to metabolic features and plasma proinflammatory markers concentrations.

  20. Normative Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Values for Healthy Nigerian Newborns.

    PubMed

    Yarhere, Iroro E; Jaja, Tamunopriye; Oduwole, Abiola; Ibekwe, M Ugochi; Suwaid, Salma; Alkali, Yahaya; Adeniran, Kayode; Fetuga, Bolanle; Jarrett, Olumide O; Elusiyan, Jerome B; Adesiyun, Omotayo; Idris, Hafsat W; Blankenstein, Oliver; Akani, Nwadiuto A

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a common congenital endocrine disorder prevailing all over the world. No nationwide screening exists for any sub-Saharan country. We present normative cord and capillary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values for healthy Nigerian newborns. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 6 university hospitals in Nigeria between January 1 and December 31, 2013. Cord and heel blood placed on 4 concentric circles on a Whartman filter paper were analysed for TSH within 1 week of collection using AutoDelfia 1235 immunoassay (Perkin Elmer Wallace, Boston, Mass., USA) at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. The mean TSH levels of the newborns were determined, considering their sex, birthweight, socioeconomic status, and birth city. The association between the mean TSH level and other parameters was determined by analysis of variance. A total of 2,014 subjects were recruited during the study period. The mean TSH value for the subjects was 1.86 μIU/ml, and 98.1% of the newborns were within the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles (range: 0.09-7.90 μIU/ml) of the TSH levels. We collected 247 cord and 1,767 heel samples, respectively, and the range was slightly higher in samples from cord blood. The study highlights the normal reference values for capillary/cord TSH levels in term Nigerian newborns. TSH was higher in one region, attributable to earlier sampling, but was not influenced by gender, socioeconomic status, or birthweight. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Condylar growth after non-surgical advancement in adult subject: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    Background A defect of condylar morphology can be caused by several sources. Case report A case of altered condylar morphology in adult male with temporomandibular disorders was reported in 30-year-old male patient. Erosion and flattening of the left mandibular condyle were observed by panoramic x-ray. The patient was treated with splint therapy that determined mandibular advancement. Eight months after the therapy, reduction in joint pain and a greater opening of the mouth was observed, although crepitation sounds during mastication were still noticeable. Conclusion During the following months of gnatologic treatment, new bone growth in the left condyle was observed by radiograph, with further improvement of the symptoms. PMID:19619334

  2. Pituitary-gonadal function in adult male rats subjected to chronic water restriction.

    PubMed

    Armario, A; Campmany, L; Lopez-Calderon, A

    1987-01-01

    The effect of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis has been studied in adult male rats. Water restriction did not modify FSH, LH and testosterone levels. However, both LH and testosterone responses to acute noise stress were impaired by water restriction. It was unlikely that the inhibition of the pituitary-gonadal response to stress was due to an alteration of the circadian pattern of LH since no evidence for such a daily rhythm was found in either of the two experimental groups. The effects of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis appear to be at least partially a consequence of the resulting reduction in food intake, so that the pituitary-gonadal response to stress would be a more sensitive index of abnormalities induced by protein-calorie deficit than basal concentrations of LH, FSH, or T.

  3. Neonatal Administration of Memantine Enhances Social Cognition in Adult Rats Subjected to Early Maternal Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Mendoza, Eduardo; Nieves, Nayadoleni; Merchor, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder; however, all the available treatment options are used when the disease becomes clinically significant in adolescence or early adulthood. Using a developmental rat model of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal treatment with memantine, an NMDA receptor modulator, can improve schizophrenic-like symptoms in adulthood. Early maternal deprivation in rats produces deficits in social interaction behaviors in adulthood. In contrast, memantine administrated in neonatal rats subjected to early maternal deprivation significantly reduces deficits in social interaction behaviors in adulthood. These results raise the possibility that pharmacological treatment with memantine at the early developmental stage helps people with a risk to develop schizophrenic-like symptoms. PMID:28035183

  4. Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, R; Bertocci, G

    2010-04-01

    Wheelchairs are primarily designed for mobility and are not necessarily intended for use as motor vehicle seats. However, many wheelchairs serve as vehicle seats for individuals unable to transfer to a vehicle seat. Subjecting wheelchairs to sled testing, in part establishes the crashworthiness of wheelchairs used as motor vehicle seats. Computer simulations provide a supplemental approach for sled testing, to assess wheelchair response and loading under crash conditions. In this study a nonlinear, dynamic, computer model was developed and validated to simulate a wheelchair and occupant subjected to a frontal impact test (ANSI/RESNA WC19). This simulation model was developed utilizing data from two frontal impact 20 g/48 km/h sled tests, which consisted of identical, adult manual wheelchairs secured with 4-point tiedowns, occupied with a 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test device (ATD), restrained with a 3-point occupant restraint system. Additionally, the model was validated against sled data using visual comparisons of wheelchair and occupant kinematics, along with statistical assessments of outcome measures. All statistical evaluations were found to be within the acceptance criteria, indicating the model's high predictability of the sled tests. This model provides a useful tool for the development of crashworthy wheelchair design guidelines, as well as the development of transit-safe wheelchair technologies.

  5. Prospective memory on a novel clinical task in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Chi, Susan Y.; Wang, Cuiling; Fogel, Joshua; Kann, Sarah J.; Aronov, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relevance of prospective memory to everyday functioning and the ability to live independently, prospective memory tasks are rarely incorporated into clinical evaluations of older adults. We investigated the validity and clinical utility of a recently developed measure, the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test (RPA-ProMem), in a demographically diverse, non-demented, community-dwelling sample of 257 older adults (mean age = 80.78 years, 67.7% female) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 18), non-amestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI, n = 38), subjective cognitive decline (SCD, n = 83) despite intact performance on traditional episodic memory tests, and healthy controls (HC, n = 118). Those with aMCI and naMCI performed significantly worse than controls on the RPA-ProMem and its subtasks (time-based, event-based, short-term, long-term). Also, those with SCD scored significantly lower than controls on long-term, more naturalistic subtasks. Additional results supported the validity and inter-rater reliability of the RPA-ProMem and demonstrated a relation between test scores and informant reports of real-world functioning. The RPA-ProMem may help detect subtle cognitive changes manifested by individuals in the earliest stages of dementia, which may be difficult to capture with traditional episodic memory tests. Also, assessment of prospective memory can help guide the development of cognitive interventions for older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:24875614

  6. Prospective memory on a novel clinical task in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Laura A; Chi, Susan Y; Wang, Cuiling; Fogel, Joshua; Kann, Sarah J; Aronov, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relevance of prospective memory to everyday functioning and the ability to live independently, prospective memory tasks are rarely incorporated into clinical evaluations of older adults. We investigated the validity and clinical utility of a recently developed measure, the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test (RPA-ProMem), in a demographically diverse, non-demented, community-dwelling sample of 257 older adults (mean age = 80.78 years, 67.7% female) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 18), nonamestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI, n = 38), subjective cognitive decline (SCD, n = 83) despite intact performance on traditional episodic memory tests, and healthy controls (HC, n = 118). Those with aMCI and naMCI performed significantly worse than controls on the RPA-ProMem and its subtasks (time-based, event-based, short-term, long-term). Also, those with SCD scored significantly lower than controls on long-term, more naturalistic subtasks. Additional results supported the validity and inter-rater reliability of the RPA-ProMem and demonstrated a relation between test scores and informant reports of real-world functioning. The RPA-ProMem may help detect subtle cognitive changes manifested by individuals in the earliest stages of dementia, which may be difficult to capture with traditional episodic memory tests. Also, assessment of prospective memory can help guide the development of cognitive interventions for older adults at risk for dementia.

  7. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.

  8. Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people “directly” did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it. PMID:23967061

  9. Subjective Report of Side Effects of Prescribed and Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tess E; Martel, Michelle M; DeSantis, Alan D

    2017-03-21

    Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use. Results suggested that prescribed users more frequently reported side effects, compared to nonprescribed users. For prescribed users, females more frequently reported appetite, somatic, and anxiety-related side effects compared to males. For nonprescribed users, while females reported more somatic and anxiety-related side effects, males more frequently reported loss of sex drive and sweating as side effects. Conclusions/Importance: These findings suggest prescribed users of psychostimulants more frequently report side effects with prominent gender differences in line with gender roles.

  10. No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dolutegravir and daclatasvir in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lisa L; Song, Ivy H; Arya, Niki; Choukour, Mike; Zong, Jian; Huang, Shu-Pang; Eley, Timothy; Wynne, Brian; Buchanan, Ann M

    2016-07-22

    Daclatasvir (DCV) is an NS5A replication complex inhibitor recently approved for chronic hepatitis C virus treatment. To assess drug interactions between the HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) and DCV, subjects were randomized into 1 of 2 sequences in an open-label, 3-period, crossover study. Subjects received either DTG 50 mg once daily or DCV 60 mg once daily for 5 days in periods 1 and 2 and DTG 50 mg plus DCV 60 mg once daily for 5 days in period 3, with no washout between periods 2 and 3. Between periods 1 and 2, there was a washout period of at least 7 days. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (90 % confidence intervals) of DCV area under the concentration-time curve over a dosing interval (AUC0-τ), maximum observed concentration (Cmax), and concentration at the end of the dosing interval (Cτ) were 0.978 (0.831-1.15), 1.03 (0.843-1.25), and 1.06 (0.876-1.29), respectively, when DCV was administered with DTG compared with DCV alone. Compared with DTG alone, coadministration of DTG with DCV increased DTG AUC0-τ, Cmax, and Cτ by approximately 33, 29, and 45 %, respectively. DCV plasma exposure was not meaningfully affected by DTG. Coadministration of DTG with DCV resulted in slight increases in DTG AUC0-τ, Cmax, and Cτ. Accumulated safety and tolerability data in humans receiving DTG to date suggests this effect is not considered clinically significant. DTG and DCV can be coadministered without dose adjustment. Registered on March 6, 2014 with ClinicalTrials.gov; registration number: NCT02082808 and as Study ID: 201102 on the ViiV Clinical Study Registry.

  11. Amyloid-beta imaging in older adults presenting to a memory clinic with subjective cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Snitz, Beth E.; Lopez, Oscar L.; McDade, Eric; Becker, James T.; Cohen, Ann D.; Price, Julie C.; Mathis, Chester A.; Klunk, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in otherwise normal aging may be identified via symptom inventories in a research setting (‘questionnaire-discovered complaints’) or via patients seeking evaluation / services in a clinical setting (‘presenting complainers’). Most studies of SCD and amyloid-beta (Aβ) imaging to date have used the former approach, with inconsistent results. Objective To test whether ‘presenting SCD’ participants in an academic memory clinic setting show increased brain Aβ deposition on imaging. Methods Fourteen patients (mean age 68.1, SD 4.0 years) diagnosed with subjective cognitive complaints with normal neuropsychological testing were recruited into a Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET study. Detailed self-report inventories and additional cognitive tests were administered. Results were compared to a reference cohort of cognitively normal (CN) volunteers from an independent neuroimaging study (mean age 73.6, SD 5.8 years) Results 57% (8/14) of SCD participants were PiB-positive by a sensitive, regionally-based definition, compared to 31% (26/84) of the CN cohort. SCD participants had significantly higher PiB retention (SUVR) than CN in three of six regions of interest: frontal cortex (p=.02), lateral temporal cortex (p=.02) and parietal cortex (p=.04). Findings were suggestive that deficits on verbal associative binding may be specific to Aβ-positive vs. Aβ-negative SCD. Conclusion Older participants with SCD presenting to a memory clinic have higher brain Aβ deposition compared to normal aging study volunteers unselected on complaints. Further study of presenting SCD are warranted to determine the prognostic significance of Aβ deposition in this context. PMID:26402082

  12. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  13. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults.

    PubMed

    Setti, Annalisa; Loughman, James; Savva, George M; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health.

  14. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of KNS-760704 (dexpramipexole) in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Bozik, Michael E; Mather, James L; Kramer, William G; Gribkoff, Valentin K; Ingersoll, Evan W

    2011-08-01

    Dexpramipexole (KNS-760704; [6R]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-N6-propyl-2,6-benzothiazole-diamine) is a novel synthetic amino-benzothiazole in development for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Preclinical studies have shown that dexpramipexole is neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo, is highly orally bioavailable and water soluble, and rapidly achieves and maintains high central nervous system concentrations relative to plasma. Two phase 1 clinical studies were conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of single and multiple doses of dexpramipexole in 54 healthy male and female adults. The effect of food on the single-dose PK of dexpramipexole was also evaluated. Single doses (50 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg) and multiple doses (50 mg twice daily, 100 mg twice daily, or 150 mg twice daily) of dexpramipexole over 4.5 days were safe and well tolerated. Dexpramipexole was rapidly absorbed, with time to maximum plasma concentration ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 hours and half-life ranging from 6.4 to 8.1 hours under fasted conditions, and was mostly eliminated in urine as unchanged parent drug (84%-90% of dose). Food had no effect on the single-dose PK of dexpramipexole. These findings support the ongoing development of dexpramipexole for the treatment of ALS and further evaluation of the compound's therapeutic potential in other neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. [Subjective memory complaints in young adults: the influence of the emotional state].

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Porcar, Olga; Mirete-Fructuoso, Marcos; Molina-Rodríguez, Sergio; Soto-Amaya, Johnathan

    2014-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. Many young people today display memory complaints that are not linked to their real cognitive performance. A number of studies have sought to identify the factors involved in this problem, such as anxious-depressive symptoms, the variables of anxiety traditionally being measured as somatic or cognitive manifestations with an activation that is unspecific or not linked to any particular stimulus. AIMS. To perform an exploratory analysis to determine the role played by symptoms of depression and of various subtypes of specific and unspecific anxiety in memory complaints in young adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The sample used in this study was made of 193 university students, 71% of whom were females, with a mean age of 22.22 ± 3.67 years. The variable 'Memory complaints' was measured with the Memory Failures Questionnaire, and the Brief Symptom Check List was used to measure the variables 'Depression', 'Social anxiety', 'Obsessive-compulsive anxiety', 'Agoraphobic anxiety', 'Somatisation' and 'Insomnia'. RESULTS. The variables of specific anxiety show a greater correlation with memory complaints than unspecific anxiety. Multiple regression analysis explained 34.9% of the variance of memory complaints, although the only variable that made a significant contribution was 'Social anxiety', which alone explains 34.4%. CONCLUSIONS. A distinct influence between the different types of anxiety and memory complaints has been observed. The findings obtained are a novelty in this area of knowledge by pointing to a greater relevance of the variables of specific anxiety in comparison to unspecific anxiety in explaining memory complaints and the need to take a personalised approach.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Dolutegravir When Administered With Mineral Supplements in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Arya, Niki; Wynne, Brian; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    All commercially available integrase inhibitors are 2-metal binders and may be affected by co-administration with metal cations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium and iron supplements on dolutegravir pharmacokinetics and strategies (dose separation and food) to attenuate the effects if significant reductions in dolutegravir exposure were observed. This was an open-label, crossover study that randomized 24 healthy subjects into 1 of 2 cohorts to receive 4 treatments: (1) dolutegravir alone, fasting; (2) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting; (3) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate with a moderate-fat meal; (4) dolutegravir administered 2 hours before calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting. Plasma dolutegravir AUC(0–∞), Cmax, and C24 were reduced by 39%, 37%, and 39%, respectively, when co-administered with calcium carbonate while fasting and were reduced by 54%, 57%, and 56%, respectively, when co-administered with ferrous fumarate while fasting. Dolutegravir administration 2 hours before calcium or iron supplement administration (fasted), as well as administration with a meal, counteracted the effect. Dolutegravir and calcium or iron supplements can be co-administered if taken with a meal. Under fasted conditions, dolutegravir should be administered 2 hours before or 6 hours after calcium or iron supplements. PMID:25449994

  17. [The specific age-related palmometric features of an adult subject].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Yu V; Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A; Moiseenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    In connection with the variability and as a consequence of the poor diagnostic value of the external (planimetric) parameters of the palm traces, the new system of absolute and relative dimensional attributes based on the stable palmoglyphic reference points is considered. The purpose of the present study was the search for the new biological markers of biological age. The material for the study consisted of the palm prints obtained from 180 men and 120 women of the Caucasoid stock at the age from 16 to 80 years. The use of the descriptive statistics methods yielded the basic statistical characteristics of the traits being investigated and revealed the limits of their variability in the groups of men and women belonging to the age groups from 16 to 29 and from 30 to 80 years. The method of threshold values made it possible to identify 13 attributes the excess of which allows, with the probability of no less than 0.95, to perform diagnostics of the age group of an unknown subject.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir when administered with mineral supplements in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Arya, Niki; Wynne, Brian; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    All commercially available integrase inhibitors are 2-metal binders and may be affected by co-administration with metal cations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium and iron supplements on dolutegravir pharmacokinetics and strategies (dose separation and food) to attenuate the effects if significant reductions in dolutegravir exposure were observed. This was an open-label, crossover study that randomized 24 healthy subjects into 1 of 2 cohorts to receive 4 treatments: (1) dolutegravir alone, fasting; (2) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting; (3) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate with a moderate-fat meal; (4) dolutegravir administered 2 hours before calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting. Plasma dolutegravir AUC(0-∞), Cmax , and C24 were reduced by 39%, 37%, and 39%, respectively, when co-administered with calcium carbonate while fasting and were reduced by 54%, 57%, and 56%, respectively, when co-administered with ferrous fumarate while fasting. Dolutegravir administration 2 hours before calcium or iron supplement administration (fasted), as well as administration with a meal, counteracted the effect. Dolutegravir and calcium or iron supplements can be co-administered if taken with a meal. Under fasted conditions, dolutegravir should be administered 2 hours before or 6 hours after calcium or iron supplements. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Complement components in Nigerians with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Onyemelukwe, G C

    1989-10-01

    Serum complement components C1q, C3, C4, factor B, and C3d breakdown products were measured in asthmatic Nigerians and in age-matched and sex-matched controls. C3 mean level was higher than in controls while C1q and C4 mean levels were lower than in controls. High levels of C3d in asthmatic patients suggest the possible role of C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins in the etiopathogenesis of perennial asthma in Nigerian patients in a tropical environment with ubiquitous airborne allergens and infective agents. The significantly elevated levels of IgM and IgG may suggest recurrent respiratory challenge of perennial antigens in our environment.

  20. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of escalating high doses of ivermectin in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Cynthia A; Furtek, Christine I; Porras, Arturo G; Chen, Cong; Tipping, Robert; Clineschmidt, Coleen M; Sciberras, David G; Hsieh, John Y K; Lasseter, Kenneth C

    2002-10-01

    Safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the antiparasitic drug ivermectin, administered in higher and/or more frequent doses than currently approved for human use, were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study. Subjects (n = 68) were assigned to one of four panels (3:1, ivermectin/placebo): 30 or 60 mg (three times a week) or 90 or 120 mg (single dose). The 30 mg panel (range: 34 7-594 microg/kg) also received a single dose with food after a 1-week washout. Safety assessments addressed both known ivermectin CNS effects and general toxicity. The primary safety endpoint was mydriasis, accurately quantitated by pupillometry. Ivermectin was generally well tolerated, with no indication of associated CNS toxicity for doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose of 200 microg/kg. All dose regimens had a mydriatic effect similar to placebo. Adverse experiences were similar between ivermectin and placebo and did not increase with dose. Following single doses of 30 to 120 mg, AUC and Cmax were generally dose proportional, with t(max) approximately 4 hours and t1/2 approximately 18 hours. The geometric mean AUC of 30 mg ivermectin was 2.6 times higher when administered with food. Geometric mean AUC ratios (day 7/day 1) were 1.24 and 1.40 for the 30 and 60 mg doses, respectively, indicating that the accumulation of ivermectin given every fourth day is minimal. This study demonstrated that ivermectin is generally well tolerated at these higher doses and more frequent regimens.

  1. Evaluation of a Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Telmisartan and Chlorthalidone in Healthy Male Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Seong, Sook Jin; Lim, Mi-Sun; Lee, Joomi; Ohk, Boram; Gwon, Mi-Ri; Kim, Bo Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yang, Dong Heon; Lee, Hae Won; Kang, Woo Youl; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2016-08-01

    Combination therapy is recommended for the effective management of hypertension according to most treatment guidelines, including those of the US Joint National Committee. Therefore, pharmacokinetic drug interactions are an important issue in combination therapy for hypertension. In this study, the pharmacokinetic properties of telmisartan and chlorthalidone were evaluated to investigate their pharmacokinetic interactions in healthy subjects. Two separate, randomized, multiple-dose, two-period, one-sequence studies were conducted. In study A, 43 participants received 80 mg of telmisartan orally for 7 days, and were then administered oral chlorthalidone 25 mg for 14 days (days 8-21), coadministered with 80 mg of telmisartan from day 15. In study B, 14 participants received oral chlorthalidone (25 mg) for 13 days, followed by coadministration with 80 mg of telmisartan orally for 7 days. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90 % confidence intervals [CIs]) of the maximum plasma concentration (C max,ss) and area under the concentration-time curve for the dosing interval at steady state (AUCτ,ss) of telmisartan (with and without chlorthalidone) were 1.018 (0.861-1.203) and 1.099 (1.015-1.190), respectively. For chlorthalidone (with/without telmisartan), the GMRs (90 % CIs) for C max,ss and AUCτ,ss were 0.996 (0.922-1.075) and 0.992 (0.925-1.064), respectively. The GMRs and 90 % CIs for telmisartan and chlorthalidone were all within the 0.80-1.25 range. Thus, in this study, there was no significant pharmacokinetic interaction between telmisartan and chlorthalidone. CLINICALTRIAL. NCT01806363.

  2. Somatotypes of Nigerian athletes of several sports.

    PubMed

    Mathur, D N; Toriola, A L; Igbokwe, N U

    1985-12-01

    Somatotype ratings and percentage body fat of 131 elite Nigerian male athletes, average 24.2 years of age, and belonging to badminton (n = 18), basketball (n = 30), field hockey (n = 24), handball (n = 16), judo (n = 18), and soccer (n = 25) teams were determined. Basketball, handball and soccer players were taller and heavier, and had low percent fat values as compared with the other athletic groups. Judokas and hockey players were endomesomorphs. Other sports groups were predominantly ectomesomorphs.

  3. Screaming Trees: The Nigerian Deforestation Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    Nigeria to receive financial benefit from participating in efforts to reduce global warming. The “Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Screaming Trees: The Nigerian Deforestation Crisis (U) 5a...Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT Nigeria has the highest rate of deforestation in the world and the Government of Nigeria (GON) has failed to

  4. Waardenburg's syndrome: case reports in two Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Amoni, S S; Abdurrahman, M B

    1979-01-01

    We saw two cases of Waardenburg's syndrome in Nigerian children. A 9-year-old girl had congenital deaf-mutism, high-arched palate, complete heterochromia iridis with pigment mottling in the posterior pole of the eye with the hypochromic iris, dyspigmented frontal scalp hair, a history of vitiligo, but with no dystopia canthorum. An 11-year-old boy had a harelip with cleft palate, heterochromia iridis, blonde fundus on the eye with blue iris, and dystopia canthorum.

  5. Sex hormone levels and intraocular pressure in postmenopausal Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N

    2013-12-01

    A number of hormones are known to affect intra ocular pressure (IOP). Of these, the female sex hormones are the predominant ones to cause variations in IOP. During menopause, a changing hormone profile in the body causes important shifts in the levels of these hormones. Studies on the effect of menopause on visual function, cardiovascular and ocular hemodynamics showed that menopausal women had significantly higher IOP as compared to premenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of serum levels of sex hormones on IOP in postmenopausal Nigerian women. This study was an experimental, cross sectional study. Twenty postmenopausal women aged 50 to 55 years (mean age 52 +/- 2.32) and twenty premenopausal women aged 45 to 50 years (mean age 50 +/- 2.13) were selected by systematic random sampling. The women were free from systemic or ocular diseases. IOP was measured and serum levels of progesterone, estradiol and testosterone were determined by hormone assay for all subjects. Data was analyzed by correlation analysis. Mean IOP between the postmenopausal (16.00 +/- 5.81 mmHg) and premenopausal women (15.50 +/- 3.28 mmHg, p = 0.24) was not statistically significant. Although there was a positive correlation between IOP and estradiol level in the postmenopausal women (r = 0.567, p = 0.009), no significant correlation was found between IOP and serum levels of sex hormones among the premenopausal women. Our result suggests a relation between levels of estradiol and IOP in postmenopausal Nigerian women. However further studies may be required to determine a direct cause and effect relationship.

  6. Physical activity and sedentary behavior measured objectively and subjectively in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders.

    PubMed

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Holleman, Robert G; Richardson, Caroline R; Kriska, Andrea M

    2015-10-01

    Describe objective and subjective physical activity levels and time spent being sedentary in adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors were assessed among 46 overweight and obese community-dwelling adults (aged 18-70 years; BMI > 27 kg/m(2)) diagnosed with SZO/SA by DSM-IV-TR, with mild symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score < 90) who were interested in losing weight and participated in the Weight Assessment and Intervention in Schizophrenia Treatment (WAIST) study from 2004 to 2008. Objective physical activity levels, measured using actigraphs, in WAIST were compared to a nationally representative sample of users (n = 46) and nonusers (n = 46) of mental health service (MHS) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004) matched by sex, BMI, and age. On average, adults with SZO/SA wore actigraphs more than 15 h/d for 7 days averaging 151,000 counts/d. The majority of monitoring time (81%) was classified as sedentary (approximately 13 h/d). Moderate/vigorous and light physical activity accounted for only 2% (19 min/d) and 17% (157 min/d) of monitoring time/d, respectively. Primary source of activity was household activities (409 ± 438 min/wk). Fifty-three percent reported walking for transportation or leisure. Adults with SZO/SA were significantly less active (176 min/d) and more sedentary (756 min/d) than NHANES users of MHS (293 and 640 min/d, respectively) and nonusers of MHS (338 and 552 min/d, respectively) (P < .01). Overweight and obese adults with SZO/SA were extremely sedentary; engaged in unstructured, intermittent, low-intensity physical activity; and significantly less active than NHANES users and nonusers of MHS. This sedentary lifestyle is significantly lower than those of other inactive US populations, is costly for the individual and community, and highlights the need for physical activity promotion and interventions in this

  7. Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) and amplitude variation parameters in euphonic adult subjects. Normative study.

    PubMed

    Nicastri, M; Chiarella, G; Gallo, L V; Catalano, M; Cassandro, E

    2004-12-01

    The introduction, in the late 70s, of the first digital spectrograph (DSP Sonograph) by Kay Elemetrics has improved the possibilities of spectroacoustic voice analysis in the clinical field. Thanks to the marketing, in 1993, of the Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) advanced system, it is now possible to analyse 33 quantitative voice parameters which, in turn, allow evaluation of fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectral energy balance and the presence of any sonority gap and diplophony. Despite its potentials, the above-mentioned system is not widely used yet, partly on account of the lack of a standard procedure. Indeed, there are still only a few case reports in the literature taking into consideration prescriptive aspects related both to procedure and analysis. This study aims to provide the results of amplitude perturbation parameter analysis in euphonic adult patients. In our opinion, these are the most significant parameters in determining the severity of a phonation disorder. The study has been carried out on 35 patients (24 female, 11 male, mean age 31.6 years, range 19-59). The voice signal has been recorded using a 4300 B Kay Computer Speech Lab (CSL) supported by a personal computer including a SM48 Shure-Prolog microphone located at a distance of 15 cm and angled at 45 degrees. Input microphone saturation has been adjusted to 6/9 of the CH1 channel. The voice sample consisted in a held /a/ and the analysis has been carried out on the central 3 seconds of the recording. The analysis has been carried out using a 5105 MDVP software version 2.3 and the signal digitalised at a 50 kHz sample rate. In order for the sample to be as free from intensity or frequency changes as possible, each patient underwent a training session (including at least 3 phonation tests) before the recording. The study included only emissions between 55 and 65 dB and with spectrum stability. Environmental noise has constantly been monitored and maintained below 30 dB. Data

  8. An Analysis of Female Research Productivity in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the research output of female staff and the factors that affect their research productivity in the Nigerian university system. The study was carried out with a view to promoting strategies that will enhance productivity and increase the research output of female staff in Nigerian universities. The study adopted a survey…

  9. Nigerian University Libraries and the World Bank Loan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe, Ahmed Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of Nigerian federal universities and their libraries. Topics include library funding; the Nigerian economic crisis and the university library system; rationale for the World Bank Federal Universities Adjustment Loan Project that was used for library materials, staff development, and equipment; and problems with the…

  10. Academic Quality Assurance Variables in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, Eucharia O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I.; Timothy, Alexander E.; Essien, Margaret I.

    2016-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality assurance in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  11. Evaluating an Educational Program for Parents: A Nigerian Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoha, Dorothy; Saidu, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Despite the evidence pointing to its detrimental child outcomes, physical punishment remains one of the most commonly used techniques to discipline children in many Nigerian homes. Research has revealed that a majority of Nigerian parents are not aware of the negative consequences. They are also not aware of nonaversive ways to discipline…

  12. An Analysis of Female Research Productivity in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the research output of female staff and the factors that affect their research productivity in the Nigerian university system. The study was carried out with a view to promoting strategies that will enhance productivity and increase the research output of female staff in Nigerian universities. The study adopted a survey…

  13. Bilingualism in Education: The Nigerian Experience Re-examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, Chuka Eze

    1983-01-01

    Because most Nigerian children receive only limited schooling, it is important to use this time as effectively as possible. One way to improve Nigerian schools is by teaching children in their native language, so that they will not be hindered by the need to master two languages and cultures. (IS)

  14. An Appraisal of Globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifedili, Chika Josephine A.; Ojogwu, C. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies. Different Educational Policies that the Nigerian Government had previously embarked upon were assessed. The failures of various policies were looked into based on who originated the policies; drew up the policies; the budgetary allocation to education; other sources of funds…

  15. Moral Reasoning of Nigerian and Pakistani Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maqsud, M.

    1977-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the universality of Piaget's and Kohlberg's stages of development of moral judgment in Nigerian and Pakistani cultures. Results show that the moral reasoning of Nigerian and Pakistani Muslim adolescents are greatly affected by their cultural values. (Editor/RK)

  16. Evaluating an Educational Program for Parents: A Nigerian Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoha, Dorothy; Saidu, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Despite the evidence pointing to its detrimental child outcomes, physical punishment remains one of the most commonly used techniques to discipline children in many Nigerian homes. Research has revealed that a majority of Nigerian parents are not aware of the negative consequences. They are also not aware of nonaversive ways to discipline…

  17. Academic Quality Control in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, E. O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I.; Essien, M. I.; Timothy, A. Essien

    2014-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality control in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  18. Managing Language Testing in Nigerian Large Classes: Processes and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abioye, Taiwo

    2010-01-01

    The demand for literacy in a developing country like Nigeria has multiple results such as the expansion, by leaps and bounds, of the average Nigerian classroom. This paper highlights the reasons for large classes in Nigerian secondary schools, the educational and psychological dimensions of language testing in large classes, the challenges of such…

  19. Empowering Nigerian Pidgin: A Challenge for Status Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igboanusi, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Nigerian Pidgin (NP) is probably the language with the highest population of users in Nigeria, it does not enjoy official recognition and is excluded from the education system. It lacks prestige because it is seen by many Nigerians as a "bad" form of English and associated with a socially deprived set of people.…

  20. An Appraisal of Globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifedili, Chika Josephine A.; Ojogwu, C. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies. Different Educational Policies that the Nigerian Government had previously embarked upon were assessed. The failures of various policies were looked into based on who originated the policies; drew up the policies; the budgetary allocation to education; other sources of funds…

  1. Academic Quality Control in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, E. O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I.; Essien, M. I.; Timothy, A. Essien

    2014-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality control in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  2. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Tafenoquine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine or Artemether-Lumefantrine in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Green, Justin A; Mohamed, Khadeeja; Goyal, Navin; Bouhired, Samia; Hussaini, Azra; Jones, Siôn W; Koh, Gavin C K W; Kostov, Ivan; Taylor, Maxine; Wolstenholm, Allen; Duparc, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Tafenoquine is in development as a single-dose treatment for relapse prevention in individuals with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Tafenoquine must be coadministered with a blood schizonticide, either chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This open-label, randomized, parallel-group study evaluated potential drug interactions between tafenoquine and two ACTs: dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Healthy volunteers of either sex aged 18 to 65 years without glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were randomized into five cohorts (n = 24 per cohort) to receive tafenoquine on day 1 (300 mg) plus once-daily dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on days 1, 2, and 3 (120 mg/960 mg for 36 to <75 kg of body weight and 160 mg/1,280 mg for ≥75 to 100 kg of body weight), or plus artemether-lumefantrine (80 mg/480 mg) in two doses 8 h apart on day 1 and then twice daily on days 2 and 3, or each drug alone. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tafenoquine, piperaquine, lumefantrine, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin were determined by using noncompartmental methods. Point estimates and 90% confidence intervals were calculated for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) comparisons of tafenoquine plus ACT versus tafenoquine or ACT. All subjects receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine experienced QTc prolongation (a known risk with this drug), but tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant additional effect. Tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant effects on dihydroartemisinin, piperaquine, artemether, or lumefantrine pharmacokinetics. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine coadministration increased the tafenoquine Cmax by 38% (90% confidence interval, 25 to 52%), the AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) by 12% (1 to 26%), and the half-life (t1/2) by 29% (19 to 40%), with no effect on the AUC from time zero to the time of the last nonzero concentration (AUC0

  3. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Tafenoquine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine or Artemether-Lumefantrine in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Khadeeja; Goyal, Navin; Bouhired, Samia; Hussaini, Azra; Jones, Siôn W.; Koh, Gavin C. K. W.; Kostov, Ivan; Taylor, Maxine; Wolstenholm, Allen; Duparc, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Tafenoquine is in development as a single-dose treatment for relapse prevention in individuals with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Tafenoquine must be coadministered with a blood schizonticide, either chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This open-label, randomized, parallel-group study evaluated potential drug interactions between tafenoquine and two ACTs: dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Healthy volunteers of either sex aged 18 to 65 years without glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were randomized into five cohorts (n = 24 per cohort) to receive tafenoquine on day 1 (300 mg) plus once-daily dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on days 1, 2, and 3 (120 mg/960 mg for 36 to <75 kg of body weight and 160 mg/1,280 mg for ≥75 to 100 kg of body weight), or plus artemether-lumefantrine (80 mg/480 mg) in two doses 8 h apart on day 1 and then twice daily on days 2 and 3, or each drug alone. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tafenoquine, piperaquine, lumefantrine, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin were determined by using noncompartmental methods. Point estimates and 90% confidence intervals were calculated for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) comparisons of tafenoquine plus ACT versus tafenoquine or ACT. All subjects receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine experienced QTc prolongation (a known risk with this drug), but tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant additional effect. Tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant effects on dihydroartemisinin, piperaquine, artemether, or lumefantrine pharmacokinetics. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine coadministration increased the tafenoquine Cmax by 38% (90% confidence interval, 25 to 52%), the AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞) by 12% (1 to 26%), and the half-life (t1/2) by 29% (19 to 40%), with no effect on the AUC from time zero to the time of the last nonzero concentration (AUC0

  4. An assessment of interocclusal space in a dentate Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Dosumu, O O; Ikusika, O F

    2013-12-01

    To determine the average interocclusal space values in a dentate Nigerian population,and to examine the effect of gender, age and different molar relationships on the values obtained. Three hundred and fifty one subjects mainly of Yoruba extraction with ages ranging from 16 to 78 years were involved in the study. They included 165 males and 186 females. Inclusion criteria in the study included the presence of a stable posterior occlusion with all first molars present and the absence of moderate to deep wear facets suggestive of parafunction. Subject's occlusal dimensions were measured with a calliper at rest and in occlusion. Interocclusal distances were determined by subtracting the occlusal vertical dimension from the rest vertical dimension. The Angles molar relationship was then recorded for each subject. The average freeway space was 2.93 mm with a standard deviation of 1.38; with the females having marginally higher values. The mean values according to age groups were 15-25 years: 3.15 mm, 26-35 years: 2.68 mm, 36-45 years: 2.66 mm, 46-55 years: 3.2 2mm, 56-65 years: 2.74 mm and 66 years and over: 3.10mm.Class Imolar relationship predominated in the sample with 312 patients (88.9%).Nineteen patients (5.4%) had Class II and 20 patients (5.7%) had Class III.Mean freeway space values for Class I, Class II and Class III were: 2.84 mm, 3.88 mm and 3.37 mm respectively. The difference in values was statistically significant. The average interocclusal space amongst the population assessed was 2.93 mm; a value which is similar to that previously reported for Nigerians. Marginally higher values were observed in females while the 26-35 and 36-45 year old groups had lower values than the other age groups. Angle's Class II and III subjects had higher values when compared to class I subjects and was statistically significant. A multi-centre study is recommended to assess possible ethnic variations in these values.

  5. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  6. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zancong; Gillen, Michael; Miner, Jeffrey N; Bucci, Gail; Wilson, David M; Hall, Jesse W

    2017-01-01

    Verinurad (RDEA3170) is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males. This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10-12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE) reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs). A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5-0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose) and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose). The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported. Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated, absorption was rapid, and exposure was dose proportional. Verinurad increased urinary uric acid elimination and resulted in sustained reductions in serum urate. These data support further clinical evaluation of once-daily verinurad as a treatment for

  7. The effect of cognitive training on the subjective perception of well-being in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bureš, Vladimír; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Ponce, Daniela; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing number of studies indicating the major consequences of the subjective perception of well-being on mental health and healthcare use. However, most of the cognitive training research focuses more on the preservation of cognitive function than on the implications of the state of well-being. This secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of individualised television-based cognitive training on self-rated well-being using the WHO-5 index while considering gender and education as influencing factors. The effects of cognitive training were compared with leisure activities that the elderly could be engaged in to pass time. Methods Cognitively healthy participants aged 60 years or above screened using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design and underwent 24 training sessions. Data acquired from the WHO-5 questionnaire administered before and after intervention were statistically analysed using a mixed design model for repeated measures. The effect of individualised cognitive training was compared with leisure activities while the impact of gender and education was explored using estimated marginal means. Results A total of 81 participants aged 67.9 ± 5.59 [60–84] without cognitive impairments and absent of depression symptoms underwent the study. Participants with leisure time activities declared significantly higher scores compared to participants with cognitive training M = 73.48 ± 2.88, 95% CI [67.74–79.22] vs M = 64.13 ± 3.034, 95% CI [58.09–70.17] WHO-5 score. Gender and education were found to moderate the effect of cognitive training on well-being when compared to leisure activities. Females engaged in leisure activities in the control group reported higher by M = 9.77 ± 5.4, 95% CI [−0.99–20.54] WHO

  8. The effect of cognitive training on the subjective perception of well-being in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bureš, Vladimír; Čech, Pavel; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Ponce, Daniela; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing number of studies indicating the major consequences of the subjective perception of well-being on mental health and healthcare use. However, most of the cognitive training research focuses more on the preservation of cognitive function than on the implications of the state of well-being. This secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of individualised television-based cognitive training on self-rated well-being using the WHO-5 index while considering gender and education as influencing factors. The effects of cognitive training were compared with leisure activities that the elderly could be engaged in to pass time. Cognitively healthy participants aged 60 years or above screened using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design and underwent 24 training sessions. Data acquired from the WHO-5 questionnaire administered before and after intervention were statistically analysed using a mixed design model for repeated measures. The effect of individualised cognitive training was compared with leisure activities while the impact of gender and education was explored using estimated marginal means. A total of 81 participants aged 67.9 ± 5.59 [60-84] without cognitive impairments and absent of depression symptoms underwent the study. Participants with leisure time activities declared significantly higher scores compared to participants with cognitive training M = 73.48 ± 2.88, 95% CI [67.74-79.22] vs M = 64.13 ± 3.034, 95% CI [58.09-70.17] WHO-5 score. Gender and education were found to moderate the effect of cognitive training on well-being when compared to leisure activities. Females engaged in leisure activities in the control group reported higher by M = 9.77 ± 5.4, 95% CI [-0.99-20.54] WHO-5 scores than females with the

  9. Determinants of journal choice among Nigerian medics.

    PubMed

    Olusegun, Nwhator Solomon; Olayinka, Agbaje Maarufah; Modupe, Soroye; Ikenna, Isiekwe Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known maxim "publish or perish" among academicians, productivity remains low in Nigeria. There are barriers to academic writing which must be identified and addressed. Even after addressing those barriers, authors are faced with another dilemma-where to publish. It was the concern of the authors to evaluate perceived barriers to academic writing and the determinants of journal choice among Nigerian academics. They also attempted to evaluate the determinants of journal choice and perceived barriers to academic writing among Nigerian academicians. Respondents were academicians used in the context of this study to mean anyone involved in academic writing. Such persons must have written and published at least one paper in a peer-reviewed journal in the preceding year to be included in the survey. An online-based self-administered questionnaire. An online structured and self-administered questionnaire-based cross sectional survey of Nigerian medical academicians was conducted over a period of one year using a Google-powered questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed the determinants of journal choice, perceived barriers to publications, number of publications in the preceding year as a measure of academic productivity and the highest publication fee authors were willing to pay. Of the over 500 email request sent, a total of 200 academicians responded (response rate of 40%). The male and female distribution was 120 and 80 respectively. The highest number of respondents were lecturer 1 and senior lecturers (or junior faculty) (69.5%) however the senior faculty had the higher number of publications in the preceding year. Indexing (35.5%) was the most important determinant of journal choice whilst ease of submission (2.1%) was the least. Unfriendly environment (46%) was the most perceived barrier to publication. Though, majority (88.5%) of the respondents were willing to pay up $300 as publication fees, twice as many junior faculty members (28%) were willing

  10. Associations of personal and mobility resources with subjective well-being among older adults in Italy and Germany.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Cristina; Marcellini, Fiorella; Papa, Roberta; Giuli, Cinzia; Mollenkopf, Heidrun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns of associations of personal and mobility resources with positive well-being in two sample populations of older adults from Germany (n=1518) and Italy (n=600). A correlation study showed which variables correlated the closest with the well-being components, then four logistic regression analyses were performed, one for each well-being component such as the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) positive scale, mobility satisfaction, health satisfaction and life satisfaction. High positive scores of PANAS and satisfaction scales were found both for Germany and Italy. As expected and in accordance with previous studies, components utilized as a measure of subjective well-being correlated significantly with each other in both countries, confirming their validity as instruments of evaluation for several different life domains. A considerable result of this study was that the driving car is an important predictor of well-being in both countries. The findings underlined a variety of associations among the mobility resources and the subjective perception of well-being. Our work supports the importance of being aware of the main variables influencing the positive dimension of well-being for creating a better understanding the needs and goals of older people. Moreover, the present study shows that individual-environment interaction should be considered in evaluating personal well-being, especially in older people.

  11. Nitric oxide synthase genotype modulation of impulsivity and ventral striatal activity in adult ADHD patients and healthy comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Hoogman, Martine; Aarts, Esther; Zwiers, Marcel; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Naber, Marlies; Onnink, Marten; Cools, Roshan; Kan, Cornelis; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder. The NOS1 gene encoding nitric oxide synthase is a candidate gene for ADHD and has been previously linked with impulsivity. In the present study, the authors investigated the effect of a functional variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in NOS1 (NOS1 exon 1f-VNTR) on the processing of rewards, one of the cognitive deficits in ADHD. A sample of 136 participants, consisting of 87 adult ADHD patients and 49 healthy comparison subjects, completed a reward-related impulsivity task. A total of 104 participants also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a reward anticipation task. The effect of the NOS1 exon 1f-VNTR genotype on reward-related impulsivity and reward-related ventral striatal activity was examined. ADHD patients had higher impulsivity scores and lower ventral striatal activity than healthy comparison subjects. The association between the short allele and increased impulsivity was confirmed. However, independent of disease status, homozygous carriers of the short allele of NOS1, the ADHD risk genotype, demonstrated higher ventral striatal activity than carriers of the other NOS1 VNTR genotypes. The authors suggest that the NOS1 genotype influences impulsivity and its relation with ADHD is mediated through effects on this behavioral trait. Increased ventral striatal activity related to NOS1 may be compensatory for effects in other brain regions.

  12. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zancong; Gillen, Michael; Miner, Jeffrey N; Bucci, Gail; Wilson, David M; Hall, Jesse W

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Verinurad (RDEA3170) is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males. Subjects and methods This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE) reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs). Results A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%−53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose) and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose). The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported. Conclusion Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated, absorption was rapid, and exposure was dose proportional. Verinurad increased urinary uric acid elimination and resulted in sustained reductions in serum urate. These data support further

  13. Short-Term Effect of Autogenic Drainage on Ventilation Inhomogeneity in Adult Subjects With Stable Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Poncin, William; Reychler, Grégory; Leeuwerck, Noémie; Bauwens, Nathalie; Aubriot, Anne-Sophie; Nader, Candice; Liistro, Giuseppe; Gohy, Sophie

    2017-05-01

    Lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity derived from a multiple-breath washout test, is a promising tool for assessing airway function in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. However, it is unknown whether ventilation inhomogeneity could improve after successful elimination of excessive secretions within bronchiectasis. The objective of this work was to assess the short-term effects of lung secretion clearance using the autogenic drainage technique on standard lung function tests and LCI in subjects with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Nitrogen-based multiple-breath washout, spirometry, and body plethysmography tests were performed 30 min before autogenic drainage in adults with stable non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. The autogenic drainage session was followed by a 5-min break, after which the tests were repeated in the same order. Sputum expectorated during autogenic drainage was quantified as dry weight and correlated with change between post- and pre-measurements (Δ). Paired t test or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare pre- and post-autogenic drainage measurement outcomes. A P value of ≤.05 was considered as statistically significant. Twenty-four subjects were studied (18 females, median age [range]: 65 [21-81] y). Mean ± SD LCI significantly improved after autogenic drainage (10.88 ± 2.62 vs 10.53 ± 2.35, P = .042). However, only 20% of subjects with mucus hyperproduction during autogenic drainage had a ΔLCI that exceeded measurement variability. The percent of predicted slow vital capacity (SVC%) also slightly improved (88.7 ± 19.3% vs 90 ± 19.1%, P = .02). ΔLCI was inversely related to dry sputum weight (r = -.48, P = .02) and ΔSVC% (r = -.64, P = .001). ΔSVC% also correlated with dry sputum weight (r = 0.46, P = .02). In adults with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and mucus hypersecretion, autogenic drainage improved ventilation inhomogeneity. LCI change may be the result of the

  14. Subjective measures of binge drinking, suboptimal subjective health and alcohol-specific hospitalizations among working-aged adults: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Suominen, Sakari; Car, Josip; Mäkelä, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine how subjective measures of binge drinking predict suboptimal subjective health. In order to contribute to the understanding of potential causal mechanisms, we also aimed to determine the factors through which subjective health predicts alcohol-specific hospitalizations. A total of 16,111 alcohol-drinking men and women, aged 20-54 years, participated in the Health and Social Support baseline postal survey in 1998, and also responded to the repeated measurement 5 years later in 2003 (T2). Suboptimal subjective health was defined as self-reported overall health status being fair, rather poor or poor. Subjective measures of binge drinking were frequency of subjective intoxications/drunkenness, frequency of hangovers and frequency of alcohol-induced pass-outs. Frequency of intoxications, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs, all predicted suboptimal subjective health regardless of several potential confounders, including beverage-specific total intake. Those reporting suboptimal subjective health at baseline had a 5-fold odds ratio (5.08, 95% confidence interval: 3.43, 6.48) for alcohol-related hospitalizations, compared with those rating their health above fair, when gender and age were controlled. Binge drinking, together with concurrent symptoms of depression, explained over 50% of this relationship, and when additionally taking into account smoking, over two-thirds of this relation was explained. Mental health is an important mediating factor between binge drinking, suboptimal subjective health and alcohol-specific hospitalizations, and symptoms of depression should therefore be taken into account in prevention of alcohol-related adverse health outcomes.

  15. An Investigation into Nigerian Teachers' Knowledge of Primary Science Curriculum Content and Involvement in Practical Activities: Implications for the UBE Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunleye, Ayodele O.

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to find out the extent of Nigerian teachers' knowledge of primary science curriculum content and their involvement in the participation of their pupils in science activities. Furthermore, the study sought to find out teachers ranking of primary science objectives. The subjects were 60 primary school teachers randomly…

  16. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  17. Somatotypes of Nigerian athletes of several sports.

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, D N; Toriola, A L; Igbokwe, N U

    1985-01-01

    Somatotype ratings and percentage body fat of 131 elite Nigerian male athletes, average 24.2 years of age, and belonging to badminton (n = 18), basketball (n = 30), field hockey (n = 24), handball (n = 16), judo (n = 18), and soccer (n = 25) teams were determined. Basketball, handball and soccer players were taller and heavier, and had low percent fat values as compared with the other athletic groups. Judokas and hockey players were endomesomorphs. Other sports groups were predominantly ectomesomorphs. Images p219-a p219-b p219-c PMID:4092144

  18. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl.

    PubMed

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-04-04

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa.

  19. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2016-10-18

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  20. Effects of ketoconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics of safinamide and its plasma metabolites in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Krösser, Sonja; Marquet, Anne; Gallemann, Dieter; Wolna, Peter; Fauchoux, Nicolas; Hermann, Robert; Johne, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this mechanistic drug interaction study was to investigate the effects of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of safinamide. Ketoconazole was applied as a potent prototypic inhibitor of cytochrome CYP3A4, to determine the role of CYP3A4 in the metabolic clearance of safinamide. In an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence cross-over study, 14 healthy adult subjects (7 males/7 females) received two single doses of 100 mg safinamide: alone and on top of multiple doses of ketoconazole (200 mg b.i.d.) given over 6 days. Serial blood samples were collected over 240 h post dose to quantify safinamide parent drug and metabolite concentrations for pharmacokinetic evaluation. Safinamide exposure was essentially unchanged when administered with and without ketoconazole: C(max) and AUC(0-∞) point estimates (90% CIs) for the treatment comparison were 106.6 (101.0; 112.4) and 112.9 (109.8; 116.03), respectively. Similarly, ketoconazole did not influence the formation and clearance of safinamide metabolites to a clinically relevant extent. Overall, the study shows that CYP3A4 plays a minor role in the metabolism of safinamide in vivo. Therefore, safinamide can be administered together with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors without any requirement for dose adjustment.

  1. [Validation of a cognitive complaints questionnaire for young adults: the relation between subjective memory complaints, prefrontal symptoms and perceived stress].

    PubMed

    Lozoya-Delgado, Paz; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J

    2012-02-01

    Although subjective memory complaints are one of the most common causes behind visits to health services, there are hardly any validated instruments in Spanish for evaluating their magnitude. Since memory complaint questionnaires usually include items referring to attentional and executive aspects, it has been hypothesised that they may well be related with other processes that depend on the integrity of the prefrontal cortex. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of an instrument based on the Memory Failures in Everyday (MFE) questionnaire, thus providing a valuation over a broad sample of the Spanish population. A second aim of the study was to analyse the relations that exist between the appearance of the complaints, the symptoms of a prefrontal origin and perceived stress. The MFE-30 (a modified version of the MFE), the dysexecutive questionnaire and the perceived stress scale were administered to a sample of young adults from a non-clinical general population (n = 900). The analyses show that the MFE-30 is a single-factor questionnaire that evaluates a single construct called 'cognitive complaints'. Moreover, an intense pattern of correlations among these complaints, the symptoms of a prefrontal origin and perceived stress is observed. The resulting scores show that the MFE-30 is a useful instrument in clinical practice. Findings are in line with those from previous studies, thus suggesting that there is a close relation among the appearance of cognitive complaints, the presence of prefrontal symptoms and perceived stress.

  2. Subjective Cognitive Decline Modifies the Relationship Between Cerebral Blood Flow and Memory Function in Cognitively Normal Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hays, Chelsea C; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Campbell, Laura; Meloy, M J; Wierenga, Christina E

    2017-10-04

    Subjective cognitive decline (SCD), or self-reported cognitive decline despite normal neuropsychological test performance, is a risk factor for objective cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While brain mechanisms contributing to SCD are not well defined, studies show associations with vascular risk factors and altered cerebral blood flow (CBF), raising the hypothesis that those with SCD might be experiencing vascular dysregulation, or a disruption in the normal relationship between CBF and cognition. We examined whether the association between CBF and verbal memory performance differs between those with SCD (SCD+) and those without SCD (SCD-). Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate whether the voxel-wise relationship between arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI-measured CBF and verbal memory performance was modified by SCD among a group of 70 cognitively normal older adults (35 SCD+, 35 SCD-; mean age=72) matched on age, gender, and symptoms of depression. Results indicated that the SCD- group exhibited positive associations between verbal memory and CBF within the posterior cingulate cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus, whereas the SCD+ group displayed negative associations between verbal memory and CBF within the posterior cingulate cortex, middle temporal gyrus, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. Findings suggest that, while higher CBF is supportive of memory function in those without SCD, higher CBF may no longer support memory function in those presenting with SCD, perhaps reflecting neurovascular dysregulation. (JINS, 2017, 23, 1-11).

  3. A retrospective study of some socio-demograhic factors associated with pericoronitis in Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ayanbadejo, P O; Umesi-Koleoso, D C

    2007-01-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease of the operculum overlying an erupting or semi-impacted tooth particularly the lower third molars. It is a painful, sometimes debilitating and common periodontal emergency commonly found in young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic factors related to pericoronitis among Nigerians and compare these factors to other similar studies. The patients included in this retrospective study were those who with a diagnosis of pericoronitis from January 2000 to December 2006. Socio-demographic and clinical data such as sex, age, tooth/teeth affected by pericoronitis and date of presentation were retrieved from the records of the Oral Diagnosis Clinic. During the study period, 373 patients presented with pericoronitis, 222 (59.5%) were female and 151 (40.5%) were male. The peak age of occurrence of pericoronitis was 19-23 years, accounting for 170 (45%) of the patients. The occurrence of pericoronitis was highest in the month of February, 67 (18%), followed by January (14.5%). The lower left third molar 169 (453%) was more affected than the lower right third molar 138 (37.1%) or combination of either lower third molars 66 (17.7%). More females 136 (68.1%) than males 64 (32.3%) were affected particularly in the younger age groups 14-23 years. Pericoronitis occurs more often in adult female Nigerians while the lower left third molar is the commonest tooth associated with this condition. Further studies are required to elicit the predisposing factors in this group of Nigerians.

  4. Cellular Aging and Restorative Processes: Subjective Sleep Quality and Duration Moderate the Association between Age and Telomere Length in a Sample of Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cribbet, Matthew R.; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M.; Uchino, Bert N.; Williams, Paula G.; Smith, Timothy W.; Gunn, Heather E.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Design: Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Setting: Social Neuroscience Laboratory. Participants: One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. Conclusions: The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging. Citation: Cribbet MR; Carlisle M; Cawthon RM; Uchino BN; Williams PG; Smith TW; Gunn HE; Light KC. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and

  5. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  6. Serodiagnosis of Acute Typhoid Fever in Nigerian Pediatric Cases by Detection of Serum IgA and IgG Against Hemolysin E and Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Davies, D Huw; Jain, Aarti; Nakajima, Rie; Liang, Li; Jasinskis, Algis; Supnet, Medalyn; Felgner, Philip L; Teng, Andy; Pablo, Jozelyn; Molina, Douglas M; Obaro, Stephen K

    2016-08-03

    Inexpensive, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic tests are currently unavailable for typhoid fever. To identify candidate serodiagnostic markers, we have probed microarrays displaying the full Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) proteome of 4,352 different proteins + lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), with sera from Nigerian pediatric typhoid and other febrile cases, Nigerian healthy controls, and healthy U.S. adults. Nigerian antibody profiles were broad (∼500 seropositive antigens) and mainly low level, with a small number of stronger "hits," whereas the profile in U.S. adults was < 1/5 as broad, consistent with endemic exposure in Nigeria. Nigerian profiles were largely unaffected by clinical diagnosis, although the response against t1477 (hemolysin E) consistently emerged as stronger in typhoid cases. The response to LPS was also a strong discriminator of healthy controls and typhoid, although LPS did not discriminate between typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) disease. As a first step toward the development of a point-of-care diagnostic, t1477 and LPS were evaluated on immunostrips. Both provided good discrimination between healthy controls and typhoid/NTS disease. Such a test could provide a useful screen for salmonellosis (typhoid and NTS disease) in suspected pediatric cases that present with undefined febrile disease. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Comparative study of meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2004-04-01

    The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident.

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of 20 plants used in Nigerian antimalarial ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Abiodun, O O; Falade, M O; Ogbole, N O; Ashidi, J S; Happi, C T; Akinboye, D O

    2006-03-01

    Twenty plants identified and selected from Southwest and Middle belt Nigerian antimalarial ethnopharmacology were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity using the brine shrimp lethality assay. The methanol extracts of 20 plant samples from 11 plant families were subjected to the assay. Of the studied plants, Lippia multiflora and Morinda lucida bark were found to be cytotoxic, with LC(50) values of 1.1 and 2.6 microg/ml, respectively. The least toxic plant extract was Bridelia micrantha (LC(50) value >9.0 x 10(6) microg/ml). Most of the plants were found to be relatively non-toxic.

  9. Association of low birth weight with beta cell function in the adult first degree relatives of non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J T; Levy, J C; Page, R C; Shaw, J A; Hattersley, A T; Turner, R C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between birth weight and beta cell function in the first degree relatives of non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of 101 adults of known birth weight from 47 families which had at least one member with non-insulin dependent diabetes. SUBJECTS--101 white adults aged mean 43 (SD 7) years. SETTING--Oxfordshire, England. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Glucose tolerance was measured by continuous infusion glucose tolerance test. beta cell function and insulin sensitivity were calculated from the fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations with homeostasis model assessment. beta cell function was standardised to allow for the confounding effects of age and obesity. RESULTS--Twenty seven subjects had non-insulin dependent diabetes, 32 had impaired glucose tolerance, and 42 were normoglycaemic. Birth weight correlated with the beta cell function of the complete cohort (rs = 0.29, p = 0.005), the non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects (rs = 0.50, p = 0.023), and the non-diabetic subjects (rs = 0.29, p = 0.013). The non-insulin dependent diabetic (n = 27) and the non-diabetic (n = 74) subjects had similar mean (inter-quartile range) centile birth weight 50% (19%-91%), and 53% (30%-75%) respectively. Non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects had significantly lower beta function than the non-diabetic subjects: 69% (48%-83%) v 97% (86%-120%), p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS--The cause of the association between low birth weight and reduced beta cell function in adult life is uncertain. Impaired beta cell function in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects was not accounted for by low birth weight, and genetic or environmental factors are likely to be necessary for development of diabetes. PMID:8461648

  10. The Effect of the Location of Questions in Reading Material on Long-Term Retention of Specific Facts by Adult Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Norman

    This study investigated how the location of questions in factual reading matter (before, after, or interspersed throughout) affected retention by 60 adult subjects divided among six treatment groups. It was hypothesized that: (1) pre-positioned questions will prove superior to interspersing in terms of mean retention scores; (2) interspersed…

  11. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers.

    PubMed

    Azodo, C C; Umoh, A O

    2015-01-01

    Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in learning about the periodontal disease and the

  12. Stigmatization of mental illness among Nigerian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ronzoni, Pablo; Dogra, Nisha; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella, Tolulope; Atitola, Olayinka

    2010-09-01

    Despite the fact that about 10% of children experience mental health problems, they tend to hold negative views about mental illness. The objective of this study was to investigate the views of Nigerian schoolchildren towards individuals with mental illness or mental health problems. A cross-sectional design was used. Junior and senior secondary schoolchildren from rural and urban southwest Nigeria were asked: 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' The responses were tabulated, grouped and interpreted by qualitative thematic analysis. Of 164 students, 132 (80.5%) responded to the question. Six major themes emerged from the answers. The most popular descriptions were 'derogatory terms' (33%). This was followed by 'abnormal appearance and behaviour' (29.6%); 'don't know' answers (13.6%); 'physical illness and disability' (13.6%); 'negative emotional states' (6.8%); and 'language and communication difficulties' (3.4%). The results suggest that, similar to findings elsewhere, stigmatization of mental illness is highly prevalent among Nigerian children. This may be underpinned by lack of knowledge regarding mental health problems and/or fuelled by the media. Educational interventions and encouraging contact with mentally ill persons could play a role in reducing stigma among schoolchildren.

  13. Obstetric neuropraxia in the Nigerian African.

    PubMed

    Bademosi, O; Osuntokun, B O; Van de Werd, H J; Bademosi, A K; Ojo, O A

    1980-01-01

    The results of a prospective study of 34 Nigerian women with obstetric neuropraxia (puerperal paresis of the lower limbs) seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, are presented. The height of 29 (84%) was under 62 in (1.58 m). All were younger than 45, and 41% (14) were primiparous. Lumbosacral plexus injury with a foot-drop was the most frequent presenting feature (88%), bilateral involvement was observed in 13 patients (38%), femoral neuropathy was observed in nine (26%) and the ankle tendon jerks were absent in 35%. Spastic paraparesis was not uncommon (15%). Results of electromyographic examination and determinations of conduction velocities were consistent with proximal neuropraxia of the lumbasacral trunk in many of them (88%). The presentation of the fetus was cephalic in 97% of the women. The major predisposing factor was prolonged labor. Among the complications associated with the neuropraxia were hydroureters above the pelvic brim and vesico- and rectovaginal fistulae. Perinatal mortality was high particularly with labor of more than 18 hours. Recovery from the neuropraxia was complete for 76% of the patients. It is concluded that direct pressure on the lumbosacral plexus and nerve trunks by the presenting fetal part is the major factor in the pathogenesis of obstetric neuropraxia encountered in Nigerians.

  14. Relationship Between Clinical Variables and Health-Related Quality of Life in Young Adult Subjects With Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Forte, Gabriele C; Barni, Gabriela C; Perin, Christiano; Casarotto, Fernanda C; Fagondes, Simone C; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2015-10-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has received much attention in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between clinical, lung function, sleep quality, and polysomnographic variables with 2 HRQOL questionnaires, the shorter-version World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) and Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life (CFQOL) questionnaires, in adult subjects with CF. In a cross-sectional study, 51 subjects underwent clinical evaluation and overnight polysomnography and answered WHOQOL-BREF, CFQOL, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaires. In addition, pulmonary function tests, 6-min walk tests, and echocardiography were performed. For WHOQOL-BREF scores, the sleep quality index was associated with the physical domain; the percent-of-predicted 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and sleepiness scale were associated with the psychological domain; the percent-of-predicted FEV1 and sleep quality index were associated with the social relationship domain; and the sleep quality index was associated with the environment domain. For CFQOL scores, age at diagnosis, clinical score, and sleep quality index were associated with the physical functioning domain; the percent-of-predicted 6MWD and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure were associated with the role domain; sex and sleep quality index were associated with the vitality domain; the apnea-hypopnea index was associated with the emotional functioning domain; sex and body mass index (BMI) were associated with the body image domain; the percent-of-predicted 6MWD and sleep quality index were associated with the health perception domain; age, sex, BMI, and arousal index were associated with the weight domain; age, sex, percent-of-predicted FEV1, percent-of-predicted 6MWD, and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure were associated with the respiratory symptom domain; and the clinical score was associated with the digestive symptom domain. The

  15. Relative bioavailability of a paediatric granule formulation of the HIV integrase inhibitor dolutegravir in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Patel, Parul; Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Chen, Shuguang; Peppercorn, Amanda; Wajima, Toshihiro; Funaki, Takeshi; Fujita, Naomi; Hughes, John; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of a granule formulation of dolutegravir developed as an alternative to tablets for use in paediatric populations. A randomized, open-label study in healthy adults was carried out. Subjects received five treatments in a crossover design: a single dose of dolutegravir 50 mg as a tablet and dolutegravir 50 mg in 10 g of granule administered directly to mouth or mixed with purified water, water containing high cation concentrations or milk-based infant formula. Study treatments were separated by 7 days. Safety evaluations and serial pharmacokinetic sampling were done during each treatment period. A non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed; geometric least-squares mean ratios and 90% CIs were generated for treatment comparison. Palatability was assessed by questionnaire. Plasma dolutegravir exposures in all granule treatment arms exceeded those of tablet formulation. The mean area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) and maximum concentrations were 55-83% and 62-102% higher, respectively. Pharmacokinetics were similar when dolutegravir was mixed with purified or cation-containing water. Dolutegravir was well tolerated, with no withdrawals due to adverse events. Taste was rated acceptable for all treatments. The exposure of dolutegravir after administration of granule formulation alone, with different types of water and with milk formula, exceeded that of the tablet. The similarity of dolutegravir exposure seen with the granule formulation demonstrates that dolutegravir granule can be given without restriction on the type of liquid or can be administered directly to the mouth (for example, when potable water is not available).

  16. Perialveolar bacterial microbiota and bacteraemia after dental alveolitis in adult rats that had been subjected to neonatal malnutrition.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Flávia Regina Gonçalves; de Castro, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa; Rocha, Judith Advíncula; Sampaio, Bruno; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Alves; Evêncio, Liriane Baratella; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the bacteriological factors during the process of dental alveolitis, relating it to a higher incidence of bacteraemia in adult rats subjected to neonatal malnutrition. We used forty male Wistar rats, suckled by mothers fed a diet during lactation containing 17 % protein in the nourished group (N) or 8 % protein in the undernourished group (UN). After weaning, the animals were given the Labina standard diet. After 90 d, these animals underwent upper right incisor extraction and induction of alveolitis. The oral microbiota was obtained using a swab and blood culture through venous blood. These procedures were performed before the extraction, 5 min after extraction, on the 21st day after alveolitis for groups N-21 and UN-21 and on the 28th day after alveolitis for groups N-28 and UN-28. Data were expressed as means and standard deviations for parametric data, and as medians and interquartile intervals for non-parametric data. Statistical significance was considered by assuming a critical level of 5 %. Before and after extraction, lower bacterial growth was observed per colony-forming unit (CFU) in the perialveolar region of the upper right incisors of undernourished animals, while the opposite was true after alveolitis, when a larger number of CFU was observed in these animals. The percentage of positive blood cultures obtained after alveolitis was greater in the undernourished animals. The present study thus demonstrated the influence of neonatal malnutrition in the perialveolar microbiota and in the development of bacteraemia after dental alveolitis.

  17. Two subjective factors as moderators between critical incidents and the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders: adult attachment and perception of social support.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Palmans, Vicky

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the result of a research which investigated the influence of the subjective factors 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' in the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in a population of 544 subjects working for a security company and the Belgian Red Cross. The analysis of the results suggests that 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' moderate between a critical incident and the occurrence of a PTSD. In other words, these independent variables differentiate between individuals who are more, and who are less prone, to suffer from a PTSD after having experienced a critical incident. The results of this research shed light on subjective risk factors related to PTSD. The findings can also suggest guidelines for the treatment of individuals suffering from a PTSD.

  18. Clinical trial of diclofenac sodium (Naclof) eye drops on Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Onakoya, A O; Majekodunmi, A A; Adefule-Ositelu, A O; Alimi, H L; Akinsola, F B; Aribaba, O T

    2004-12-01

    Twenty-eight eyes of 26 age-matched patients who had planned extracapsular cataract extraction with or without intraocular lens implantation were enrolled into a double blind randomised actively controlled study of 2 groups. Each group of 14 eyes was assigned to receive 0.1% diclofenac sodium (Naclof) eye drops or 1% prednisolone acetate eye suspension. The patients received either 0.1% Diclofenac sodium eye drops or 1.0% prednisolone acetate eye suspension four times a day as their post operative anti-inflammatory medication for a period of four weeks. No significant difference was noticed in the subjective assessment of pain and conjunctival injection in the 28 days follow-up period except day 1 in the diclofenac sodium group (0.05> p >0.01). Other measured objective variables of inflammation such as anterior chamber cells and flare showed no significant difference from the 3rd-28th postoperative days (0.05< p > 0.20). The result demonstrated that 0.1% diclofenac sodium eye drops was as effective as 1% prednisolone acetate eye suspension in the control of postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery, and could serve as a viable alternative to topical steroids in Nigerians who are steroid responders.

  19. Spirituality, gender and age factors in cybergossip among Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, David Adebayo

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the patterns of spirituality, gender, and age in cybergossip practices among Nigerian adolescents. The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Five hundred thirty adolescent students, randomly selected from four major cities in Nigeria, participated in the study. Their age range was 16 to 21. General Spirituality and Gossip Purpose scales were used to collect data from the participants. Data collected were subjected to t test statistics. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the cybergossiping practices of adolescents based on their levels of spirituality. This reveals that spirituality is not an inhibiting factor in cybergossiping practices among the adolescents. However, there is significant difference between male and female youths in their cybergossiping practices. The results showed that females are more likely than males to be involved in cybergossiping activities. There is also significant difference between early and late adolescents' cybergossiping activities. The implication is that gossip and cybergossip is a natural tendency that involves communicative expression with a pleasure-seeking purpose. It is a habit that excludes no one despite spiritual, gender, or age factors. Therefore, this behavior should be positively directed away from abusive computing and communication. This work is unique because of the need for parents, guardians, and psychologists to design measures to identify and manage various moderating variables in children's computing practices for optimal positive outcomes.

  20. The burden of Fallot’s tetralogy among Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Madise-Wobo, Akpoembele D.; Falase, Bode A.; Omokhodion, Samuel I.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are only very few reports on Fallot’s tetralogy in Africa especially from sub-Saharan Africa. At best tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is only mentioned as part of reports of surveys of other congenital heart diseases or as case reports in the region. There has been no report on cohorts of children with TOF in West Africa. This article describes the pattern and presentation of children diagnosed with TOF patients in a tertiary hospital in sub-Saharan Africa over a 9-year period. Methods Prospective and consecutive review of all subjects with diagnosis of TOF confirmed with echocardiography at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) between January 2007 and December 2015. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Descriptive statistics were presented as percentages or means and standard deviation. Means of normally distributed variables were compared using the Students’ t-test and proportions using Chi-square test. Skewed distributions were analyzed using appropriate non-parametric tests. Level of significance set at P<0.05. Results The prevalence of TOF among children presenting at LASUTH at the study period was 4.9 per 1,000 while its prevalence among those with congenital heart disease was 16.9%. There was a male predominance with a mean age of 50.9±45.9 (months) and median age of 36 months. Most children presented within 1–5 years of age. The most common indication for evaluation was cyanosis. One hundred and nineteen out of 165 (72.1%) children were clinically cyanosed on presentation. Conclusions TOF is prevalent among Nigerian children. Cyanosis was the commonest presenting feature and indication for evaluation. Most of the subjects presented late hence were diagnosed after 1 year of age. There is a need to increase awareness of TOF in Nigeria to encourage early diagnosis and hence better outcomes in these subjects. PMID:27747169

  1. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and telomere length in a sample of middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Cribbet, Matthew R; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M; Uchino, Bert N; Williams, Paula G; Smith, Timothy W; Gunn, Heather E; Light, Kathleen C

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Social Neuroscience Laboratory. One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. N/A. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging.

  2. Sexual problems among married Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ojomu, F; Thacher, T; Obadofin, M

    2007-01-01

    We interviewed and examined 293 married women, 15-49 years of age, seeking primary care at a teaching hospital in central Nigeria. One or more sexual problems were identified in 71% of women. The proportion of specific sexual problems was 39% for a desire problem, 40% for an arousal problem, 31% for a sex pain problem and 55% for an orgasmic problem. Poor marital communication, lack of foreplay, Islamic religion and advancing age were independently associated with a desire problem. Absence of foreplay was independently associated with an arousal problem. Lack of foreplay, lower abdominal pain, gynaecological conditions, working outside the home and younger age were independently associated with a sex pain problem. The absence of foreplay, poor marital communication and being a housewife were independently associated with an orgasmic problem. Sexual problems are common among married Nigerian women seeking outpatient care.

  3. Nigerian refineries strive for product balance

    SciTech Connect

    Obuasi, P.A.

    1985-06-17

    This article discusses the growth patterns of the Nigerian refining industry. Production and consumption are expected to follow the pattern of consumption of fuel products by the domestic market, Presently, however, production and consumption are not evenly balanced for most fuel products, and non-fuel products are domestically consumed but not produced. Some progress has been made in the effort to match production and consumption of fuel products. But the progress that would have been made to balance non-fuel products has been nullified by 50% of the Daduna refinery being idle. This is due to problems associated with importation of heavy crude oil into Nigeria and also a weak market for asphalt in Nigeria.

  4. Cytotoxic activity of selected Nigerian plants.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, A; van de Venter, M; Baatjies, L; Koekemoer, T

    2009-07-03

    Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has stimulated scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of new anticancer agents from natural sources. The current study investigates the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of sixteen Nigerian plants used locally for the treatment of cancer using the MTT assay on the HeLa cell line. Sapium ellipticum leaves showed activity comparable to the reference compound Cisplatin and greater cytotoxic activity than Combretum paniculatum, Celosia trigyna, Drymaria cordata, Cyathula achyranthoides and Cyathula prostata. Justica extensa, Pupalia lappacea, Hedranthera barteri leaves, Alternanthera sessilis, Ethulia conyzoides leaves, Combretum zenkeri root, Sapium ellipticum stembark and Lannea nigritana stembark showed very low activity while Combretum molle, Adenanthera parvoniana and Lannea acida showed no activity. The results justify the use of Sapium, Combretum, Celosia, Drymaria and Cyathula in traditional treatment of cancer.

  5. Sexual assault against female Nigerian students.

    PubMed

    Kullima, Abubakar Ali; Kawuwa, Mohammed Bello; Audu, Bala Mohammed; Mairiga, Abdulkarim G; Bukar, Mohammed

    2010-09-01

    Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio demography, sexual history and consequences of their exposure were obtained for analysis and interpretation. Thirty seven (13.8%) of the respondents were sexually assaulted as a student and 19 (7.1%) were assaulted by their lecturers and fellow students, Younger age at coitarche, history of forced coitarche, marriage, coitarche with relations and unknown persons, significantly influenced subsequent risks of sexual assault. Improve security, moral behaviours enforcing dress code and stiffer penalties were suggested ways to prevent sexual assault among the students. Sexual assault is still a common finding in our institutions; effort should be made by all stake holders to prevent this social embarrassment.

  6. Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics and level of care associated with lost to follow-up and mortality in adult patients on first-line ART in Nigerian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Odafe, Solomon; Idoko, Ochanya; Badru, Titilope; Aiyenigba, Bolatito; Suzuki, Chiho; Khamofu, Hadiza; Onyekwena, Obinna; Okechukwu, Emeka; Torpey, Kwasi; Chabikuli, Otto N

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Clinical outcome is an important determinant of programme success. This study aims to evaluate patients’ baseline characteristics as well as level of care associated with lost to follow-up (LTFU) and mortality of patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods Retrospective cohort study using routine service data of adult patients initiated on ART in 2007 in 10 selected hospitals in Nigeria. We captured data using an electronic medical record system and analyzed using Stata. Outcome measures were probability of being alive and retained in care at 12, 24 and 36 months on ART. Potential predictors associated with time to mortality and time to LTFU were assessed using competing risks regression models. Results After 12 months on therapy, 85% of patients were alive and on ART. Survival decreased to 81.2% and 76.1% at 24 and 36 months, respectively. Median CD4 count for patients at ART start, 12, 18 and 24 months were 152 (interquartile range, IQR: 75 to 242), 312 (IQR: 194 to 450), 344 (IQR: 227 to 501) and 372 (IQR: 246 to 517) cells/µl, respectively. Competing risk regression showed that patients’ baseline characteristics significantly associated with LTFU were male (adjusted sub-hazard ratio, sHR=1.24 [95% CI: 1.08 to 1.42]), ambulatory functional status (adjusted sHR=1.25 [95% CI: 1.01 to 1.54]), World Health Organization (WHO) clinical Stage II (adjusted sHR=1.31 [95% CI: 1.08 to 1.59]) and care in a secondary site (adjusted sHR=0.76 [95% CI: 0.66 to 0.87]). Those associated with mortality include CD4 count <50 cells/µl (adjusted sHR=2.84 [95% CI: 1.20 to 6.71]), WHO clinical Stage III (adjusted sHR=2.67 [95% CI: 1.26 to 5.65]) and Stage IV (adjusted sHR=5.04 [95% CI: 1.93 to 13.16]) and care in a secondary site (adjusted sHR=2.21 [95% CI: 1.30 to 3.77]). Conclusions Mortality was associated with advanced HIV disease and care in secondary facilities. Earlier initiation of therapy and strengthening systems in secondary level facilities may

  7. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and level of care associated with lost to follow-up and mortality in adult patients on first-line ART in Nigerian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Odafe, Solomon; Idoko, Ochanya; Badru, Titilope; Aiyenigba, Bolatito; Suzuki, Chiho; Khamofu, Hadiza; Onyekwena, Obinna; Okechukwu, Emeka; Torpey, Kwasi; Chabikuli, Otto N

    2012-09-18

    Clinical outcome is an important determinant of programme success. This study aims to evaluate patients' baseline characteristics as well as level of care associated with lost to follow-up (LTFU) and mortality of patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Retrospective cohort study using routine service data of adult patients initiated on ART in 2007 in 10 selected hospitals in Nigeria. We captured data using an electronic medical record system and analyzed using Stata. Outcome measures were probability of being alive and retained in care at 12, 24 and 36 months on ART. Potential predictors associated with time to mortality and time to LTFU were assessed using competing risks regression models. After 12 months on therapy, 85% of patients were alive and on ART. Survival decreased to 81.2% and 76.1% at 24 and 36 months, respectively. Median CD4 count for patients at ART start, 12, 18 and 24 months were 152 (interquartile range, IQR: 75 to 242), 312 (IQR: 194 to 450), 344 (IQR: 227 to 501) and 372 (IQR: 246 to 517) cells/µl, respectively. Competing risk regression showed that patients' baseline characteristics significantly associated with LTFU were male (adjusted sub-hazard ratio, sHR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.08 to 1.42]), ambulatory functional status (adjusted sHR = 1.25 [95% CI: 1.01 to 1.54]), World Health Organization (WHO) clinical Stage II (adjusted sHR = 1.31 [95% CI: 1.08 to 1.59]) and care in a secondary site (adjusted sHR = 0.76 [95% CI: 0.66 to 0.87]). Those associated with mortality include CD4 count < 50 cells/µl (adjusted sHR = 2.84 [95% CI: 1.20 to 6.71]), WHO clinical Stage III (adjusted sHR = 2.67 [95% CI: 1.26 to 5.65]) and Stage IV (adjusted sHR = 5.04 [95% CI: 1.93 to 13.16]) and care in a secondary site (adjusted sHR = 2.21 [95% CI: 1.30 to 3.77]). Mortality was associated with advanced HIV disease and care in secondary facilities. Earlier initiation of therapy and strengthening systems in secondary level facilities may improve retention and

  8. Age, cumulative trauma and stressful life events, and post-traumatic stress symptoms among older adults in prison: do subjective impressions matter?

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful life events and post-traumatic stress symptoms among older adults in prison. Data were gathered from 334 prisoners (aged 55+) housed in the New Jersey Department of Corrections, as of September 2010. An anonymous self-report, self-administered survey was mailed to the total population of 1,000 prisoners aged 55 years and older. Objective and subjective trauma was measured using the Life Stressors Checklist-Revised (LSC-R), and post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured using the Civilian Version of the Post-traumatic Stress Scale. Results of a path analysis revealed that past year subjective impressions of traumatic and stressful life events had a positive and significant relationship to current post-traumatic stress symptoms. Age was found to have a significant and inverse relationship to subjective traumatic and stressful life events. That is, younger participants reported higher levels of cumulative traumatic and stressful life events and past year subjective ratings of being bothered by these past events. These findings have significance for interdisciplinary/interprofessional practice and appropriate institutional and community care, including reentry planning of older adults in the criminal justice system.

  9. Characterizing the subjective experience of episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking in healthy younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    De Brigard, Felipe; Giovanello, Kelly S; Stewart, Gregory W; Lockrow, Amber W; O'Brien, Margaret M; Spreng, R Nathan

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates remarkable overlap in the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and episodic counterfactual thinking. However, the extent to which the phenomenological characteristics associated with these mental simulations change as a result of ageing remains largely unexplored. The current study employs adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview to compare the phenomenological characteristics associated with both positive and negative episodic past, future, and counterfactual simulations in younger and older adults. Additionally, it explores the influence of perceived likelihood in the experience of such simulations. The results indicate that, across all simulations, older adults generate more external details and report higher ratings of vividness, composition, and intensity than young adults. Conversely, younger adults generate more internal details across all conditions and rated positive and negative likely future events as more likely than did older adults. Additionally, both younger and older adults reported higher ratings for sensory, composition, and intensity factors during episodic memories relative to future and counterfactual thoughts. Finally, for both groups, ratings of spatial coherence and composition were higher for likely counterfactuals than for both unlikely counterfactuals and future simulations. Implications for the psychology of mental simulation and ageing are discussed.

  10. Quality of life of Nigerians living with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Akinyemi, Suliat Omolola; Olaitan, Peter B; Raji, Ajani Adeniyi; Popoola, Adetoun Adetayo; Awoyemi, Opeyemi Roseline; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward

    2014-01-01

    Few reports from Nigeria have examined the quality of life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) despite the fact that Nigeria has the second largest number of PLWHA in the world. This study evaluated the QOL of Nigerians living with HIV/AIDS using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for HIV-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument and assessed the impact of demographic, laboratory and disease-related variables on QOL. This cross-sectional study involved 491 consecutive PLWHA aged ≥ 18 years attending the dedicated clinic to PLWHA in South-west Nigeria. The lowest mean QOL scores were recorded in the environment and social domains. Participants aged ≥ 40 years had better QOL in the environment (p = 0.039) and spirituality (p = 0.033) domains and those in relationships had better QOL in the social relationship domain (p = 0.002). Subjects with no or primary education and those who rated their health status as good gave significantly higher ratings in all QOL domains. Participants with AIDS had significant lower QOL in the level of independence domain (p = 0.018) and those with CD4 count ≥ 350 cells /mm3 had better QOL scores in the physical, psychological and level of independence domains. Subjects without tuberculosis co-infection and those on antiretroviral therapy (ART) reported significantly better QOL in the physical, psychological, level of independence and spirituality domains. Marital relationship, absence of tuberculosis, CD4 count ≥ 350 cells /mm3 and use of ART positively impacted QOL of our patients.

  11. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  12. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  13. Productive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Cahalin, Lawrence P.; Gerst, Kerstin; Burr, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines relationships among three measures of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, happiness and depressive symptoms), and two global measures of productive activity (number of activities and time commitment). We argue that participation in multiple productive activities should increase subjective well-being because these…

  14. Validity and test re-test reliability of the neck disability index in the Nigerian clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Odole, A C; Adegoke, B O A; Akomas, N C

    2011-06-01

    The neck disability index (NDI) is a valid and widely used clinical instrument, which enjoys the recommendation of the World Health Organization for outcome assessment in neck pain. Its psychometric properties have not been investigated in the Nigerian clinical setting. This study investigated the content validity and test-retest reliability of the NDI in order to encourage its integration in the Nigerian clinical setting. Content validity of NDI was assessed through an expert panel review for content relevance/coverage and pretesting. Thirty two subjects with neck pain, recruited through a purposive sampling technique participated in the study. The NDI was administered twice within 48 hours interval. Data were summarized in percentages. Intra class correlation coefficient was used to analyze data for test-retest reliability with alpha set at 0.05. Participants were 1 males, 21 females with a majority within age group 38-57. Twenty four (75%) participants had mild to moderate disability, 7 (21.9%) had severe to complete disability and one individual had no disability. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.969, P=0.01) between the scores obtained from the first administration of the NDI and the second administration. The NDI is a valid and reliable outcome measure and it is recommended for integration into the assessment of neck pain in the Nigerian clinical setting.

  15. Comparison of the clock test and a questionnaire-based test for screening for cognitive impairment in Nigerians.

    PubMed

    VanderJagt, D J; Ganga, S; Obadofin, M O; Stanley, P; Zimmerman, M; Skipper, B J; Glew, R H

    2006-01-01

    Since it is projected that by 2020 seventy percent of the elderly will reside in developing countries, a reliable screening method for dementia and cognitive impairment in general in populations with diverse languages, culture, education and literacy will be needed. We sought to determine if the Clock Test, a screening test for dementia, was suitable for use in a Nigerian population. Cross-sectional survey of 54 men and 12 women from Northern Nigeria. Researchers administered two dementia screening tools: a questionnaire-based test adapted for use in a Nigerian population and the Clock Test. Overall, 53.0% of the subjects had an abnormal Clock Test whereas 10.6% of the subjects had an abnormal questionnaire score. Only 9.1% of the subjects had abnormal scores on both tests. Subjects with more schooling had a greater probability of having a positive clock concept (understanding that a circle represented a clock). Of those with more than 6 years of schooling, 91.0% had a positive clock concept. Subjects with a negative clock concept were more likely to have an abnormal Clock Test (93.3%) than a questionnaire (26.6%). The main finding of our study was the discrepancy between the results of the Clock Test and the questionnaire. Performance on the Clock Test appeared to have been heavily influenced by education level, indicating the test is not universally applicable across cultures. The questionnaire-based test appears to reduce the effects of illiteracy on assessing dementia in a Nigerian population. Larger studies should be done to control for how education affects the assessment of dementia.

  16. A Longitudinal Assessment of Perceived Discrimination and Maladaptive Expressions of Anger Among Older Adults: Does Subjective Social Power Buffer the Association?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonjung; Bierman, Alex

    2016-09-02

    We examine whether perceived discrimination in older adults is associated with external conflict (anger-out) and internally directed anger (anger-in), as well as how subjective social power-as indicated by a sense of personal control and subjective social status-modifies these associations while holistically controlling for time-stable confounds and the five major dimensions of personality. The 2006 and 2008 psychosocial subsamples of the Health and Retirement Study were combined to create baseline observations, and the 2010 and 2012 waves were combined to create follow-up observations. Responses were analyzed with random-effects models that adjust for repeated observations and fixed-effects models that additionally control for all time-stable confounds. Discrimination was significantly associated with anger-in and anger-out. Fixed-effects models and controls for personality reduced these associations by more than 60%, although they remained significant. Measures of subjective social power weaken associations with anger-out but not anger-in. The mental health consequences of perceived discrimination for older adults may be over-estimated if time-stable confounds and personality are not taken into account. Subjective social power can protect victims of discrimination from reactions that may escalate conflict, but not from internalized anger that is likely to be wearing and cause further health problems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prevalence of acne vulgaris in Chinese adolescents and adults: a community-based study of 17,345 subjects in six cities.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yiwei; Wang, Tinglin; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Xiaolan; Tian, Shan; Liu, Ying; Peng, Guanghui; Xue, Shuqi; Zhou, June; Wang, Renli; Meng, Xuemei; Pei, Guangde; Bai, Yunhua; Liu, Qing; Li, Hang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition in adolescents. The prevalence of acne is thought to vary between ethnic groups and countries. A large-scale community-based study was performed in six cities in China to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for acne in the Chinese population. A total of 17,345 inhabitants were included in this study. Of these, 1,399 were found to have acne. No acne was found in subjects under 10 years of age, and only 1.6% in the 10-year-old group had acne. Prevalence then increased rapidly with age, up to 46.8% in the 19-year-old group. After that, it declined gradually with age. Acne was rare in people over 50 years of age. In subjects in their late teens and 20s, acne was more prevalent in males, while in those over 30 years of age it was more prevalent in females. In subjects with acne, 68.4% had mild; 26.0% had moderate and 5.6% had severe acne. In adult acne, persistent acne was much more common (83.3%) than late-onset acne (16.7%). Smoking and drinking were found to be associated with adolescent acne, while no association was found between diet and acne. These results suggest that the prevalence of acne in the Chinese population is lower than that in Caucasian populations, and that adult acne is not uncommon in Chinese subjects.

  18. Body size preference among Yoruba in three Nigerian communities.

    PubMed

    Okoro, E O; Oyejola, B A; Etebu, E N; Sholagberu, H; Kolo, P M; Chijioke, A; Adebisi, S A

    2014-03-01

    Following our previous observation of an aversion to weight reduction in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes, we measured several parameters of body dimensions and preferences in otherwise healthy adults in three communities to study the phenomenon further. The study population of 524 participants (304 F) was 99.8% of Yoruba ethnic origin with a mean age of 43.9 ± 17.2 years. Females had a significantly (p > 0.001) higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference compared to the males; the values being 24.55 ± 5.5 vs. 21.75 ± 3.71 kg/m(2); 84.98 ± 12.67 vs. 80.92 ± 9.85 cm; 96.32 ± 12.94 vs. 89.36 ± 8.06 cm, respectively. There was a high level of satisfaction amongst respondents with their body size (Kendall's t = 0.52, p < 0.001) which they also predicted with a high degree of certainty even without the prior use of a weighing scale. The relationship between current body size (CBI) and BMI emerged as CBI = 1.22 + 0.32 BMI. In the 41% of respondents who expressed unhappiness with their current body size, there was a strong aversion for a smaller body size and the preference was often for a bigger body figure. Strikingly, many more women than men were less dissatisfied with their bigger body sizes. Stepwise regression indicated that CBI and gender were the two most important variables that best related to casual blood sugar (RBS) among the factors entered. The mathematical relationship between these variables that emerged was: [Formula: see text] where gender = 0 for male and 1 for female. The results suggest that larger body sizes were positively viewed in these communities consistent with our previous observations in type 2 diabetes.

  19. Association of malocclusion and functional occlusion with subjective symptoms of TMD in adults: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    PubMed

    Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Mack, Florian; John, Ulrich; Kocher, Thomas; Alte, Dietrich

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of exclusively representative population-based studies on adults has shown that only few and inconsistent associations could be detected between malocclusions and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD)--and none for functional occlusion factors (occlusal interferences, non-working side contacts, etc). The aim of this study was to analyze associations between morphologic occlusion as well as factors of functional occlusion and subjectively perceived symptoms of TMD--again on the basis of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), providing a sample of 4310 subjects (out of 7008 subjects yielding a response rate of 68.8%) aged 20 to 81 years, and other international representative studies from the systematic review. Besides occlusal factors also parafunctions and socioeconomic status (SES) were taken into account (including age and sex). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used--adjusted for SES. In this study, none of the occlusal factors were significantly associated with the indication of more frequent subjective TMD symptoms. However, the parafunction "frequent clenching" was connected with subjective TMD symptoms (odds ratio = 3.4). Compared with other population-based studies few and (across studies) inconsistent associations between malocclusions and subjective TMD symptoms could be ascertained. No significant associations of factors of functional occlusion with TMD symptoms were identifiable.

  20. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  1. Relationship between isometric endurance of back extensor muscles and selected anthropometric indices among some Nigerian undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Ummunah, J O; Ibikunle, P O; Ezeakunne, A C

    2014-01-01

    Muscular endurance of the back extensors is less frequently assessed than muscular strength, although the endurance capabilities of these muscles may be as important as the strength in the prevention and treatment of low-back pain. The study aimed to establish reference values, pattern of back extensor endurance and the relationship between isometric endurance of back extensor muscles and selected anthropometric indices, in apparently healthy young Nigerian adults. A total of 300 young adults (150 males and 150 females) aged 17-30 years, participated in this Cross sectional study. The modified Biering-Sorensen test of Static Muscular Endurance (BSME) was used to assess isometric endurance of back extensor muscles. A height meter, bathroom weighing scale and flexible tape were used to collect data for the anthropometric indices-Body Mass Index (BMI), Height (H), Weight (W), Waist Circumference (WC), Hip Circumference (HC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR). Data obtained was Summarised using descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages, percentile, range, mean and standard deviation, and while the Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to ascertain relationship. Alpha level was set at 0.05. Mean Endurance Time (ET) for all the participants was 97.56 ± 43.96 secs. ET was inversely related to anthropometric indices- BMI, Height, Weight, WC,HC, WHR, WHtR. Males had higher maximum ET than females (288 secs and 254 secs). Gender differences was found in the anthropometric indices- BMI, WHR, WC, Weight and Height. Majority of the participants had medium endurance performance with the back endurance pattern in the ratio 1:2:1. The mean isometric back extensor endurance of apparently healthy young Nigerian adults was found to be lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times.

  2. Pre-internship Nigerian medical graduates lack basic musculoskeletal competency.

    PubMed

    Nottidge, Timothy Eyo; Ekrikpo, Udeme; Ifesanya, Adeleke Olusegun; Nnabuko, Richard E; Dim, Edwin Maduakonam; Udoinyang, Clement Inyang

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the basic musculoskeletal competency of pre-internship graduates from Nigerian medical schools. We administered the Freedman and Bernstein basic musculoskeletal competency examination to 113 pre-internship graduates from seven Nigerian medical schools over a three year period from 2008 to 2010 at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. Five specialist residents took the examination to test criteria relevance. All graduates failed this test, obtaining scores ranging from 7% to 67%. The duration of the orthopaedic posting, and observation of operative fracture fixation, were not significant determinants of the score. The two final-year specialist residents each had a marginal pass in the examination. Basic musculoskeletal competency among pre-internship Nigerian medical-school graduates is inadequate.

  3. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools

    PubMed Central

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614

  4. Anti-trypanosomal activity of nigerian plants and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Ngozi Justina; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Adikwu, Michael Umale; Mbah, Chika John

    2015-04-28

    African trypanosomiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease causing serious risks to the lives of about 60 million people and 48 million cattle globally. Nigerian medicinal plants are known to contain a large variety of chemical structures and some of the plant extracts have been screened for antitrypanosomal activity, in the search for potential new drugs against the illness. We surveyed the literatures on plants and plant-derived products with antitrypanosomal activity from Nigerian flora published from 1990 to 2014. About 90 plants were identified, with 54 compounds as potential active agents and presented by plant families in alphabetical order. This review indicates that the Nigerian flora may be suitable as a starting point in searching for new and more efficient trypanocidal molecules.

  5. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools.

    PubMed

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Fosamprenavir plus Ritonavir in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Adult Subjects with Hepatic Impairment▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Elías, María J.; Morellon, María Larrousse; Ortega, Enrique; Hernández-Quero, José; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Clotet, Bonaventura; Felizarta, Franco; Gutiérrez, Felix; Pineda, Juan A.; Nichols, Garrett; Lou, Yu; Wire, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    The effect of hepatic impairment on fosamprenavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetics was investigated. Sixty human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects, including 13, 20, and 10 subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment, respectively, and a comparator group of 17 subjects with normal hepatic function, were enrolled. Subjects with normal hepatic function received fosamprenavir at 700 mg plus ritonavir at 100 mg twice daily, whereas subjects with hepatic impairment received adjusted doses in anticipation of increased exposures. For subjects with mild hepatic impairment, the studied regimen of fosamprenavir 700 mg twice daily plus ritonavir 100 mg once daily delivered 17% higher values for the maximum plasma amprenavir concentration at the steady state (Cmax), 22% higher values for the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve over the dosing interval at the steady state [AUC(0-τ)], similar values for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval (Cτ), and 114% higher unbound Cτ values. For subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, the studied dosage regimen of fosamprenavir at 300 mg twice daily plus ritonavir at 100 mg once daily delivered 27% lower plasma amprenavir Cmax values, 27% lower AUC(0-24) values, 57% lower Cτ values, and 21% higher unbound amprenavir Cτ values. For subjects with severe hepatic impairment, the studied dosage regimen of fosamprenavir at 300 mg twice daily plus ritonavir at 100 mg once daily delivered 19% lower plasma amprenavir Cmax values, 23% lower AUC(0-24) values, 38% lower Cτ values, and similar unbound amprenavir Cτ values. With a reduced ritonavir dosing frequency of 100 mg once daily, the plasma ritonavir AUC(0-24) values were 39% lower, similar, and 40% higher for subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment, respectively. The results of the study support the use of reduced fosamprenavir/ritonavir doses or dosing frequencies in the treatment of patients with hepatic

  7. Profile of dementia in a Nigerian community--types, pattern of impairment, and severity rating.

    PubMed Central

    Ogunniyi, A.; Gureje, O.; Baiyewu, O.; Unverzagt, F.; Hall, K. S.; Oluwole, S.; Osuntokun, B. O.; Hendrie, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    Out of 2494 subjects screened in a Nigerian community, 28 patients with dementia were identified. Alzheimer's disease was diagnosed in 18 patients (64.3%), 16 of whom had probable Alzheimer's disease. Eight patients (28.6%) had vascular dementia while one patient each had parkinsonism with dementia and depression with dementia. Patients with Alzheimer's disease were significantly older, predominantly females and illiterates. Cognitive deficit commonly took the form of memory and judgment impairment while financial mismanagement was the most frequent impaired activity of daily living. More than half of the cases had mild disease on severity rating and were comprised mainly of Alzheimer's disease subjects. These results confirm the higher frequency of Alzheimer's disease over the other types as reported in other communities. PMID:9195799

  8. The Nigerian Aging Males' Symptoms scale. Experience in elderly males.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Akanni; Bamiwuye, Olusina; Inathaniel, Thomas; Ijadunola, Kayode; Fatusi, Adesegun

    2008-06-01

    The Aging Males' Symptoms scale (AMS) is an internationally used scale to analyse health related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this paper is to provide evidence that the Nigerian AMS scale measures HRQoL with similar accuracy as in other language versions. We also intended to show the severity of complaints of aging in males in advanced old age. More generally, we aim to demonstrate that the Nigerian AMS scale is an applicable, validated, sensitive instrument to measure HRQoL in Nigeria. We performed a representative survey in Nigeria to get data of the AMS scale in a group of males in old age. The survey was a household-based population sample conducted in March 2006. The Nigerian data were compared with existing data from other European countries. Only community-based data were used for this comparison. The internal structure of the AMS (factorial analysis) was sufficiently similar with the comparison group of other countries in Europe to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.8-0.9) but lower among the sub-scales (0.4-0.8). This suggests that the domains are not fully independent. The reliability (consistency) was found to be good and almost identical with European countries. Mean scores of the Nigerian AMS did systematically differ from data of other European studies. There were much higher because of older age. The same applies for the population reference values obtained in Nigeria. It is the first time that population norm values are available for very old age. The Nigerian AMS scale is a standardized HRQoL scale that showed good psychometric characteristics (reliability, validity) similar to other international versions. We suggest that the results obtained with the Nigerian AMS scale should be used preliminarily as reference for 'norm values' for highest age, i.e. in absence of other data. Confirmation in future studies is needed.

  9. Subjective Ratings of Fatigue and Vigor in Adults With Hearing Loss Are Driven by Perceived Hearing Difficulties Not Degree of Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Kipp, Aaron M

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal reports and qualitative research suggests that fatigue is a common, but often overlooked, accompaniment of hearing loss which negatively affects quality of life. However, systematic research examining the relationship between hearing loss and fatigue is limited. In this study, the authors examined relationships between hearing loss and various domains of fatigue and vigor using standardized and validated measures. Relationships between subjective ratings of multidimensional fatigue and vigor and the social and emotional consequences of hearing loss were also explored. Subjective ratings of fatigue and vigor were assessed using the profile of mood states and the multidimensional fatigue symptom inventory-short form. To assess the social and emotional impact of hearing loss participants also completed, depending on their age, the hearing handicap inventory for the elderly or adults. Responses were obtained from 149 adults (mean age = 66.1 years, range 22 to 94 years), who had scheduled a hearing test and/or a hearing aid selection at the Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center Audiology clinic. These data were used to explore relationships between audiometric and demographic (i.e., age and gender) factors, fatigue, and hearing handicap scores. Compared with normative data, adults seeking help for their hearing difficulties in this study reported significantly less vigor and more fatigue. Reports of severe vigor/fatigue problems (ratings exceeding normative means by ±1.5 standard deviations) were also increased in the study sample compared with that of normative data. Regression analyses, with adjustments for age and gender, revealed that the subjective percepts of fatigue, regardless of domain, and vigor were not strongly associated with degree of hearing loss. However, similar analyses controlling for age, gender, and degree of hearing loss showed a strong association between measures of fatigue and vigor (multidimensional fatigue symptom inventory-short form

  10. Serotonin and dopamine transporters in relation to neuropsychological functioning, personality traits and mood in young adult healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Burke, S M; van de Giessen, E; de Win, M; Schilt, T; van Herk, M; van den Brink, W; Booij, J

    2011-02-01

    Serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems are implicated in the regulation of mood, cognition and personality traits and their dysfunction is thought to be implicated in diverse psychopathologies. However, in healthy subjects the relationship between the serotonin and dopamine systems and neuropsychological functioning and personality traits is not clearly established. In the present study we investigated whether neuropsychological functioning, personality traits and mood states of a group of healthy subjects are associated with in vivo measures of serotonin transporters (SERTs) and dopamine transporters (DATs). A total of 188 young healthy subjects underwent neuropsychological and subjective measurements of memory function, depression and impulsivity. Participants' SERT and DAT availability in predefined regions of interest were assessed using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the radiotracer [123I]β-CIT. Individual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans served as anatomic reference. We did not find any significant association between SERT or DAT availability and neuropsychological test performance or self-reported impulsivity and mood. There were no significant sex differences in SERT or DAT availability, but men performed significantly better on some tests of visuospatial functioning than women. Robust negative findings for striatal DAT availability seriously question earlier findings of positive associations between DAT availability and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. Our results also suggest that subcortical SERT availability is not associated with the neuropsychological functions and personality traits assessed. In summary, the present study suggests that neuropsychological and personality measurements in young healthy people are not associated with subcortical SERT or striatal DAT availabilities in the brain.

  11. Breast Cancer: The Perspective of Northern Nigerian Women

    PubMed Central

    Azubuike, Samuel O.; Celestina, U Onuoha

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rising incidence of breast cancer is complicated by late presentation, which marks breast cancer diagnosis in Nigeria with about 70% of cases presenting at advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study is to determine the general level of awareness of breast cancer, breast cancer risk factors, signs/symptoms as well as preventive measures nothern Nigerian women. It also aimed at determining their attitudes toward breast cancer cure, prevention and cause. Finally, it aims to determine their practices toward breast cancer and its associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional community survey was used to study 230 women aged 15–60 years in Chikun Local Government Area. The subjects were selected based on nonprobability sampling. Data collected using self-administered questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science students (version 16). Test of associations employed Chi-square statistical tool with the level of significance taken at 0.05. Results: About 75.2% knew about breast cancer with health facility (29.13%) being the greatest source of information. An average of 29.35% had knowledge of the risk factors tested. Mean knowledge of the signs and symptoms was 50.1% Average knowledge of breast cancer screening methods was 34.26% with breast self-examination (BSE) (46.1%) being the most recognized. In relation to perception, about 21.7% strongly agreed with the fact that breast cancer is treatable following early detection while 18.3% strongly agreed that screening is effective in detecting breast cancer. Concerning practice, an average of 10.2% practiced any of the screening methods, with BSE (17.4%) being the most practiced. Strongest reasons for nonpractice was ignorance (17.4%). An association was established between knowledge and practice of all the screening methods (P = 0.001 respectively). Conclusions: There is insufficient knowledge, as well as poor practices in relation to important factors associated with

  12. Breast Cancer: The Perspective of Northern Nigerian Women.

    PubMed

    Azubuike, Samuel O; Celestina, U Onuoha

    2015-01-01

    The rising incidence of breast cancer is complicated by late presentation, which marks breast cancer diagnosis in Nigeria with about 70% of cases presenting at advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study is to determine the general level of awareness of breast cancer, breast cancer risk factors, signs/symptoms as well as preventive measures nothern Nigerian women. It also aimed at determining their attitudes toward breast cancer cure, prevention and cause. Finally, it aims to determine their practices toward breast cancer and its associated factors. A cross-sectional community survey was used to study 230 women aged 15-60 years in Chikun Local Government Area. The subjects were selected based on nonprobability sampling. Data collected using self-administered questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science students (version 16). Test of associations employed Chi-square statistical tool with the level of significance taken at 0.05. About 75.2% knew about breast cancer with health facility (29.13%) being the greatest source of information. An average of 29.35% had knowledge of the risk factors tested. Mean knowledge of the signs and symptoms was 50.1% Average knowledge of breast cancer screening methods was 34.26% with breast self-examination (BSE) (46.1%) being the most recognized. In relation to perception, about 21.7% strongly agreed with the fact that breast cancer is treatable following early detection while 18.3% strongly agreed that screening is effective in detecting breast cancer. Concerning practice, an average of 10.2% practiced any of the screening methods, with BSE (17.4%) being the most practiced. Strongest reasons for nonpractice was ignorance (17.4%). An association was established between knowledge and practice of all the screening methods (P = 0.001 respectively). There is insufficient knowledge, as well as poor practices in relation to important factors associated with breast cancer prevalence.

  13. Adult age differences in subjective and objective measures of strategy use on a sequentially cued prediction task

    PubMed Central

    Seaman, Kendra L.; Howard, Darlene V.; Howard, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in strategy use are thought to underlie age-related performance deficits on many learning and decision-making tasks. Recently, age-related differences in learning to make predictions were reported on the Triplets Prediction Task (TPT; Seaman, Howard & Howard, 2013). Notably, deficits appeared early in training and continued with experience. To assess if age differences were due to early strategy use, neural networks were used to objectively assess the strategies implemented by participants during Session 1. Then the relationship between these strategies and performance was examined. Results revealed that older adults were more likely to implement a disadvantageous strategy early in learning, and this led to poorer task performance. Importantly the relationship between age and task performance was partially mediated by early strategy use, suggesting that early strategy selection played a role in the lower quality of predictions in older adults. PMID:24673615

  14. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

  16. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures.

  17. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kollins, Scott H.; Schoenfelder, Erin N.; English, Joseph S.; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O’Brien, Benjamin R.; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10 mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0 mg, 10 mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10 mg THC + 0 mg, 10 mg, and 40 mg MPH = 89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of “Feel Drug,” “Good Effects,” and “Take Drug Again.” THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures. PMID:25175495

  18. Some metallogenetic features of the Nigerian basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woakes, Michael; Rahaman, M. A.; Ajibade, A. C.

    The Nigerian basement consists of Eburnean granitic and metamorphic rocks into which are folded Upper Proterozoic supra-crustal low grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks forming N-S elongate belts. Pan-African granitoids mark the last major event and they have intrusive and/or tectonic relationships with the earlier units. Structural features are often complex. The Basement can be divided into the Eastern and Western Provinces, where the latter is marked by the occurrence of a variety of metallogenetic types and greater development of the supracrustal N-S belts, while the Eastern province is dominated by Pan-African granitoid rocks and a paucity of metallic mineral occurrences. The principle metallogenetic types that are (or have been) exploited are iron deposits, gold vein mineralization and SnTaNb-bearing pegmatites. Small occurrences are known of chromite, asbestos, CuNi sulphides, manganese and a variety of industrial minerals including talc, kyanite and magnesite. Metallogenetic types found in other Pan-African terrains that are markedly absent in Nigeria include basemetal deposits of plate accretion type (e.g. Saudi Arabia) and uranium (e.g. of Rossing type). It is suggested that Nigeria's relatively low metal production from basement deposits is attributable to a regional low metallogenetic inheritance which in turn has discouraged intensive prospecting but there is good potential especially for industrial mineral deposits.

  19. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Okoye, Rosemary Chinazam

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants. PMID:28512606

  1. Gross motor development of Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Iloeje, S O; Obiekwe, V U; Kaine, W N

    1991-01-01

    A prospective study of 320 Nigerian children was undertaken to determine their pattern of motor development by recording the age at attainment of 12 gross-motor milestones. The children were all born full term and were neurologically normal at birth. They were recruited in the first week of life and seen at regular intervals in a well-baby clinic, where their parents were questioned about the ages at attainment of milestones. Results show that most gross-motor milestones were attained at earlier ages by these children than by children studied to establish norms for the traditional tests of motor development that have long been in use. Our findings confirm several previous reports which emphasize the more rapid attainment of motor milestones such as 'sit without support', 'crawl', 'stand well alone' and 'walk well alone' by black as compared with white children. But, conversely, a number of transitional milestones such as 'roll over', 'pull self to stand' and 'stand holding on' were achieved later by children in this study than by their non-African counterparts. Girls in this study were slightly advanced, relative to boys, in their attainment of most milestones. The results of this study have been incorporated into a chart which can be used in well-baby clinics to detect children with motor delay.

  2. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years.

  3. Perceived trajectories of life satisfaction across past, present, and future: profiles and correlates of subjective change in young, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Röcke, Christina; Lachman, Margie E

    2008-12-01

    Despite longitudinal stability in subjective well-being across adulthood, many adults perceive self-related change. This study was aimed at identifying differential subjective change profiles in life satisfaction rated for the present, the past, and the future and to examine their associations with sociodemographic variables and changes in adaptive functioning. The authors addressed this aim using Midlife in the United States survey data from 2 measurement occasions (N=3,631; age at Time 1: 24-75). A cluster analysis was used to identify a continuous high subgroup and an incremental subgroup at both occasions. A 3rd subgroup was labeled present low at Time 1 and decremental at Time 2. Although the average pattern across individual variables suggested stability, up to 60% of individuals fit profiles depicting perceived change, and some individuals changed subgroup membership over time. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, subgroups differed in level and change in biopsychosocial measures of adaptive functioning, with sense of control and social relationship quality showing stronger associations than personality and physical health. Results indicate that a person-centered approach to assessing life satisfaction provides a rich and dynamic picture of individual differences in subjective well-being across the adult life span. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Perceived Trajectories of Life Satisfaction Across Past, Present, and Future: Profiles and Correlates of Subjective Change in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Röcke, Christina; Lachman, Margie E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite longitudinal stability in subjective well-being across adulthood, many adults perceive self-related change. This study was aimed at identifying differential subjective change profiles in life satisfaction rated for the present, the past, and the future and to examine their associations with sociodemographic variables and changes in adaptive functioning. We addressed this aim using Midlife in the United States survey data from two measurement occasions (N=3631, T1-age: 24-75). Using cluster analysis, a ‘Continuous High,’ and an ‘Incremental’ subgroup were identified at both occasions. A third subgroup was labeled ‘Present Low’ at T1 and ‘Decremental’ at T2. Although the average pattern across individual variables suggested stability, up to 60% of individuals fit profiles depicting perceived change, and some individuals changed subgroup membership over time. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, subgroups differed in level and change in biopsychosocial measures of adaptive functioning, with sense of control and social relationship quality showing stronger associations than personality and physical health. Results indicate that a person-centered approach to assessing life satisfaction provides a rich and dynamic picture of individual differences in subjective well-being across the adult lifespan. PMID:19140654

  5. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet…

  6. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet…

  7. Resources for Educators of Adults. Annotated Bibliography for the Education of Public Offenders: by Descriptive Subject Headings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Michael J.; And Others

    This bibliography is presented to assist educators who are engaged in research activities with inmate or ex-inmate populations. The first part contains entries under descriptive subject headings (alphabetically by author); the second part contains abstracts of the material listed in part 1 (alphabetically by title). The descriptive headings…

  8. Effects of red orange juice intake on endothelial function and inflammatory markers in adult subjects with increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Silvio; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Arcoleo, Gioacchina; Mattina, Alessandro; Canino, Baldassare; Montana, Maria; Verga, Salvatore; Rini, Giovanbattista

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative and inflammatory stresses are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with improved health and reduced cardiovascular risk. Red oranges have a high content of antioxidant and antiinflammatory substances, but there is a paucity of data concerning their effects on cardiovascular biomarkers in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effect of red orange juice intake on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and markers of inflammation in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. Nineteen nondiabetic subjects with increased cardiovascular risk (aged 27-56 y) were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover study and compared with 12 healthy, nonobese control subjects. In 2 periods of 7 d each with a 3-d interval, each participant alternatively received 500 mL red orange juice/d and 500 mL placebo/d in a random sequence. All measurements were performed in the morning after overnight fasting. Endothelial function, which was measured as flow-mediated dilation, significantly improved and was normalized (5.7% compared with 7.9%; P < 0.005) after 1 wk of red orange juice consumption. Similarly, concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, and TNF-α significantly decreased (P < 0.001). Red orange juice had no significant effect on nitric oxide plasma concentrations. A 7-d consumption of red orange juice ameliorates endothelial function and reduces inflammation in nondiabetic subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. This trial was registered at biomedcentral.com as ISRCTN39987296.

  9. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Internet-based survey of factors associated with subjective feeling of insomnia, depression, and low health-related quality of life among Japanese adults with sleep difficulty.

    PubMed

    Aritake, Sayaka; Asaoka, Shoichi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Shimura, Akiyoshi; Futenma, Kunihiro; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine what symptom components or conditions of insomnia are related to subjective feelings of insomnia, low health-related quality of life (HRQOL), or depression. Data from 7,027 Japanese adults obtained using an Internet-based questionnaire survey was analyzed to examine associations between demographic variables and each sleep difficulty symptom item on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) with the presence/absence of subjective insomnia and scores on the Short Form-8 (SF-8) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Prevalence of subjective insomnia was 12.2% (n = 860). Discriminant function analysis revealed that item scores for sleep quality, sleep latency, and sleep medication use on the PSQI and CES-D showed relatively high discriminant function coefficients for identifying positivity for the subjective feeling of insomnia. Among respondents with subjective insomnia, a low SF-8 physical component summary score was associated with higher age, depressive state, and PSQI items for sleep difficulty and daytime dysfunction, whereas a low SF-8 mental component summary score was associated with depressive state, PSQI sleep latency, sleeping medication use, and daytime dysfunction. Depressive state was significantly associated with sleep latency, sleeping medication use, and daytime dysfunction. Among insomnia symptom components, disturbed sleep quality and sleep onset insomnia may be specifically associated with subjective feelings of the disorder. The existence of a depressive state could be significantly associated with not only subjective insomnia but also mental and physical QOL. Our results also suggest that different components of sleep difficulty, as measured by the PSQI, might be associated with mental and physical QOL and depressive status.

  11. Thyrotropin levels are associated with chronic kidney disease among healthy subjects in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; de Oliveira Titan, Silvia Maria; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins

    2017-03-27

    Few studies have evaluated a possible relationship between thyrotropin levels and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albumin/creatinine ratio in euthyroid subjects. We aimed to analyze this association using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectionally, we included subjects with normal thyroid function and with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function. Linear and logistic regression models evaluated GFR estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-Epi) and albuminuria/creatinine ratio as dependent variables and thyrotropin quartiles in individuals with euthyroidism and SCH as independent variables, adjusted for demographical characteristics and diseases related to CKD. We included 13,193 subjects with a median age of 51 years [interquartile range, (IQR): 45-58], 6840 (51.8%) women, 12,416 (94.1%) euthyroid, and 777 (5.9%) with SCH. SCH subjects were characterized by higher age, triglycerides, frequency of white race, cardiovascular disease, CKD, and former smokers. In adjusted models, log-transformed TSH in euthyroid subjects was inversely and strongly associated with CKD (β = -2.181, 95% CI -2.714 to -1.648), P < 0.0001 for glomerular filtration rate and 4.528 (1.190-7.865) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio. Multivariate logistic models for euthyroid subjects showed an OR of 1.45 (95% CI 1.15-1.83) for GFR and of 1.95 (95% CI 1.08-3.54) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio in the fourth quartile of TSH using the first as the reference. Thyrotropin levels are independently associated with CKD in euthyroid subjects.

  12. Subjective alcohol responses in a cross-sectional, field-based study of adolescents and young adults: Effects of age, drinking level, and dependence/consequences.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Hayley; Celio, Mark A; Lisman, Stephen A; Miranda, Robert; Spear, Linda P

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally different than adults in ways that may partially explain why alcohol misuse typically develops during this period. Ample animal-science evidence and nascent ecological evidence points toward developmentally limited differences in sensitivity to alcohol's stimulatory and sedative effects. Field-based research methods were used to test for such age-related differences in a sample of adolescents through young adults. Potential moderating influences of estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), as well as typical consumption and level of dependence/consequences were explored. Subjective alcohol responses were collected from 1,364 participants, aged 17 to 32 years, recruited outside of venues where drinking takes place in a small metropolitan bar district. Self-reports of stimulatory response to alcohol were age-related, such that younger participants reported increased subjective stimulation at the time of data collection relative to older participants. Age-related differences in stimulatory responses were more pronounced at lower eBACs and among younger participants who typically drank more heavily. Stimulatory responses generally diminished among older than younger participants, although individuals with greater dependence/consequences consistently reported greater stimulation from drinking. Contrastingly, age, typical consumption, and dependence/consequences were not related to sedation in this sample. This research provides cross-sectional evidence to support age-, consumption-, and dependence/consequences-related differences in stimulatory alcohol responses among adolescents and young adults assessed within a bar-area context. While cross-sectional, the results of this field-based study provide support for the theory that addiction liability is developmentally linked and associated, in part, with age-related differences in subjective alcohol responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  13. The epidemiology of infections due to Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in a northern Nigerian community.

    PubMed

    Blakebrough, I S; Greenwood, B M; Whittle, H C; Bradley, A K; Gilles, H M

    1982-11-01

    The epidemiology of infection due to Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica was studied in a northern Nigerian community. A low meningococcal carriage rate was observed throughout the two-year survey. Initially, most meningococci isolated from nasopharyngeal carriers belonged to serogroup C or to serogroup Y. Following an outbreak of group A meningococcal disease, more group A meningococcal carriers were detected. Antibody studies indicated that infection with group A meningococci had been more widespread in the community than was suggested by regular carrier surveys. Carriage of meningococci was detected most frequently in children one to nine years of age. Children were identified as the first carriers in households more frequently than adults. The half-life of carriage was three months. The meningococcal carriage rate did not increase during the hot dry season when epidemics of meningococcal disease occur most frequently in Nigeria. Neisseria lactamica was isolated from the nasopharynx of children more frequently than were meningococci.

  14. Structural model for estimating the influence of cognitive reserve on cognitive performance in adults with subjective memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Lojo-Seoane, Cristina; Facal, David; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is often operationally defined as a complex structure of latent variables. Here, we present a structural model that analyzes the effect of CR on three cognitive domains: episodic memory, working memory, and general cognitive performance. We developed and analyzed a structural equation model (SEM) to study CR and cognitive performance in 326 participants over 50 years old with subjective memory complaints. The CR construct was found to consist of two factors: (a) educational level and (b) lifestyle. The model revealed that CR had significant direct effects on episodic memory, working memory, and general cognitive performance, and indirect effects on episodic memory via working memory. As a latent construct, CR is related to cognitive performance in participants over 50 years with subjective memory complaints, and it should therefore be considered in the evaluation and diagnosis of such people.

  15. Assessing Adult Learner's Numeracy as Related to Gender and Performance in Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Anyikwa, Blessing E.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated adult learner numeracy as related to gender and performance in arithmetic among 32 Nigerian adult learners from one government accredited adult literacy centre in Lagos State using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of descriptive survey design. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive statistics…

  16. The Nigerian national blindness and visual impairment survey: Rationale, objectives and detailed methodology

    PubMed Central

    Dineen, Brendan; Gilbert, Clare E; Rabiu, Mansur; Kyari, Fatima; Mahdi, Abdull M; Abubakar, Tafida; Ezelum, Christian C; Gabriel, Entekume; Elhassan , Elizabeth; Abiose, Adenike; Faal, Hannah; Jiya, Jonathan Y; Ozemela, Chinenyem P; Lee, Pak Sang; Gudlavalleti, Murthy VS

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite having the largest population in Africa, Nigeria has no accurate population based data to plan and evaluate eye care services. A national survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and determine the major causes of blindness and low vision. This paper presents the detailed methodology used during the survey. Methods A nationally representative sample of persons aged 40 years and above was selected. Children aged 10–15 years and individuals aged <10 or 16–39 years with visual impairment were also included if they lived in households with an eligible adult. All participants had their height, weight, and blood pressure measured followed by assessment of presenting visual acuity, refractokeratomery, A-scan ultrasonography, visual fields and best corrected visual acuity. Anterior and posterior segments of each eye were examined with a torch and direct ophthalmoscope. Participants with visual acuity of < = 6/12 in one or both eyes underwent detailed examination including applanation tonometry, dilated slit lamp biomicroscopy, lens grading and fundus photography. All those who had undergone cataract surgery were refracted and best corrected vision recorded. Causes of visual impairment by eye and for the individual were determined using a clinical algorithm recommended by the World Health Organization. In addition, 1 in 7 adults also underwent a complete work up as described for those with vision < = 6/12 for constructing a normative data base for Nigerians. Discussion The field work for the study was completed in 30 months over the period 2005–2007 and covered 305 clusters across the entire country. Concurrently persons 40+ years were examined to form a normative data base. Analysis of the data is currently underway. Conclusion The methodology used was robust and adequate to provide estimates on the prevalence and causes of blindness in Nigeria. The survey would also provide information on barriers to accessing services, quality of life of

  17. Trends and risk factors for obesity among HIV positive Nigerians on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ezechi, L O; Musa, Z A; Otobo, V O; Idigbe, I E; Ezechi, O C

    2016-06-01

    The increased access to antiretroviral therapy has changed the once deadly infection to a chronic medical condition, resulting in a dramatic change in causes of morbidity and mortality among HIV infected individuals. Obesity and its cardiovascular sequelae are increasingly reported in the literature. However, data on the burden, trends and risk factors for obesity are sparse in countries worst hit by the epidemic. To investigate the trend and risk factors for obesity among a cohort of HIV infected adults on antiretroviral therapy. We analysed prospectively collected data in an ongoing longitudinal observational study conducted at the HIV treatment centre, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria. Patients who started treatment between June 2004 and December 2009, and completed a five year follow up were included in the analysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the risk factors for obesity among the cohort. A total of 12 585 adults were enrolled in the treatment programme during the study period. Of which, 8819 (70.1%) met the inclusion criteria. At the start of treatment, 27.0% were either overweight (19.6%) or obese (7.4%) compared to 62.2% that were either overweight (35.7%) or obese (26.5%) at the end of 5 years. The observed differences were statistically significant (p<0.01). Female gender (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.81-2.67), low baseline BMI less than 20 (aOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2) and baseline CD4 count less than 350/μl (aOR: 2.51; 95% CI: 2.13 - 3.09) were associated with the development of obesity at multivariate analysis. Type of antiretroviral drug, age, marital status, viral load and haemoglobin level were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounding variables. Obesity is common among HIV infected Nigerians on antiretroviral therapy and is associated with.

  18. Association between alcohol consumption and periodontal disease among older Nigerians in plateau state: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Akpata, E Samuel; Adeniyi, Abiola A; Enwonwu, Cyril O; Adeleke, Oyeladun A; Otoh, Emmanuel C

    2016-09-01

    To report the periodontal status of older adults in Plateau State, Nigeria, and determine its Association with alcohol consumption. Periodontal disease is common among Nigerians, and the prevalence increases with age. The role that alcohol consumption plays in the occurrence of the disease among Africans is uncertain. Sample selection was performed using a multistage cluster sampling technique among older adults in Plateau State, Nigeria. Interviews, using structured questionnaires, were conducted for each of the participants. Clinical examinations were then carried out to determine the occurrence of periodontal disease, assessed by clinical attachment loss and probing depth. The prevalence of periodontal disease was 79%, being severe in 46% of the population. Almost half of the participants (46.7%) examined were still actively consuming alcohol, among which 48% reported a history of intoxication. There was no statistically significant relationship between periodontal disease and the frequency of alcohol consumption, or quantity consumed on each occasion. However, alcohol consumption was highly correlated with periodontal disease among those who reported intoxication from the drink (r = 0.095; p = 0.033). A history of intoxication with alcohol was the only significant predictor of periodontal disease, after adjusting for age and gender. Periodontal disease was highly prevalent among older Nigerians in this study. Apart from those who reported intoxication from alcohol, there was no statistically significant relationship between the prevalence of periodontal disease and the frequency of alcohol consumption or the quantity consumed on each occasion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Developmental aspects of automatic word processing: language lateralization of early ERP components in children, young adults and middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Reading words elicits a very early evoked potential termed "recognition potential" with a latency of about 150 ms and clearly located in left posterior regions. A review of the current literature indicates that N150 marks the automatic lexical classification of a word, is relatively independent of the task, and is followed by a later negative and more anterior component which is sensitive to the task. However, from the literature it is not clear whether the left lateralization of the neural networks involved in word recognition changes with age and experience, and how this lateralization is related with behavioral performance. To this aim, based on a previously validated paradigm [Spironelli, C., Angrilli, A., 2006. Language lateralization in Phonological, Semantic and Orthographic tasks: a slow evoked potential study. Behavioral Brain Research 175, 296-304; Spironelli, C., Angrilli, A., 2007. Influence of Phonological, Semantic and Orthographic tasks on the early linguistic components N150 and N350. International Journal of Psychophysiology 64, 190-198], we ran an experiment on three samples of subjects, 28 children (mean: 10 years), 22 young adults (23 years) and 20 middle-aged subjects (59 years). Subjects had to read the same sample of words in three blocked tasks, Orthographic, Phonological and Semantic, while EEG was recorded from 38 scalp locations. Analysis performed on N150 and four regions of interest/quadrants revealed typical significant left posterior negativity in young and aged subjects, but reversed lateralization and greater right negativity in children compared with the two adult groups. Analysis of the later N350 revealed a significant three-way group x laterality x task interaction, showing greater left negativity on the Phonological task only in the two adult groups, and a bilateral component in children. Results indicate that the functional lateralization of linguistic neural networks involved in automatic word recognition and in phonological

  20. Stimulant Use as Correlate of Abusive Behavior among Nigerian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbochuku, E. O.; Akerele, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulant use and abusive behaviour have been associated with the phenomenon of "out of control" tendency with the potential for self-destruction. This study presents a report on frequency of use by Nigerian undergraduates of five stimulants: amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, cola-nut and tobacco. The population of the study was made up of…

  1. Contemporary Issues in Collection Development Programmes of Nigerian University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe, Ahmed Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on problems affecting the collection development of university libraries in Nigeria. Identifies the global economic recession of the 1980s as the significant variable for the success and failure of these programs. Examines the impact of financial problems on collection growth and development in Nigerian university libraries. Suggests…

  2. Web 2.0 and Nigerian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunmisi, Sowemimo Ronke; Odunewu, Abiodun Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    Web 2.0 applications to library services are aimed at enhancing the provision of relevant and cost-effective information resources for quality education and research. Despite the richness of these web applications and their enormous impact on library and information services as recorded in the developed world, Nigerian academic libraries are yet…

  3. Nigerian University and Manpower Development in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyebe, Adam Adem

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines Nigerian university system in relation to manpower development in a rapidly changing world of work. This is for purposes of identifying areas that need urgent attention in order to reposition the system to produce high quality manpower. The study reveals that the expansion in the university system is characterized by a mixed…

  4. Intimate partner violence and correlates in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma; Onwujekwe, Dan I; Adu, Rosemary A; Amadi, Eva; Herbertson, Ebiere

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnant Nigerian living with HIV. Cross sectional study. HIV positive pregnant women. A large HIV comprehensive treatment centre. A cross sectional study of 652 HIV positive pregnant Nigerians seen at Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria over a 24 months period. Prevalence of intimate partner violence after HIV diagnosis. Among the women interviewed, 423 (65.8%) reported abuse. In 74.0% of abused women, the abuse started after HIV diagnosis. Though having a HIV negative spouse and disclosure of HIV status were associated with abuse, only having a HIV negative partner retained its association with IPV (OR 3.1; CI 2.4-5.3) after controlling for confounding variables. Sixty-two (9.6%) women have not disclosed their HIV status because of fear of rejection. Verbal abuse (51.7%), threat of violence in 97 (22.9%) and sexual deprivation in 91 (21.5%) were the common forms of abuse reported. IPV is common among HIV positive pregnant Nigerians; with a threefold increased risk in women in HIV serodiscordant relationship.

  5. E-Training Adoption in the Nigerian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainab, Bello; Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Pangil, Faizuniah Bt; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that aid e-training adoption in the Nigerian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on a review of past literature from databases, reports, newspapers, magazines, etc. The literature recognised the role of perceived cost, computer self-efficacy, availability of…

  6. Challenges of Globalization and Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkang, Iniobong Ekong

    2013-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the state of quality assurance mechanisms in Nigerian universities with a view to proffering measures that would enhance the quality of education obtained in the institutions. The population consisted of professors from federal universities in the south-south region of Nigeria, numbering 624. The stratified…

  7. Employability of Nigerian Graduates, the Role of Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun-Oyebanji, Olayemi Jumoke

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the worrisome issue of employability of Nigerian university graduates in recent times, which have become a great concern to all and sundry. Certain indices such as, lack of complementary life skills, low moral standards, low employment generating capacity of the Nigerina economy, and the certification mentality, are discussed.…

  8. Dialogue and Discourse in a Nigerian English Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akindele, Femi

    Although many studies have been undertaken by literary critics and stylisticians on African English literary texts generally and Nigerian English prose fiction specifically, there has been little or no analysis of dialogue and discourse in such texts. An examination of the phenomenon of speech as manifested in conversational pieces in Nigerian…

  9. Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education and Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omoregie, Norah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines quality assurance in Nigerian University education and credentialing. The research contends that university education in Nigeria which hitherto enjoyed tremendous global respectability and acceptability is fast loosing its high esteem in the face of labour market and members of community because the currently certified Nigerian…

  10. Space and House Form: Teaching Cultural Significance to Nigerian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aradeon, David

    1981-01-01

    It is necessary to understand how the people of Nigeria have created spaces appropriate in their lifestyles before designing architecture for the specifics of the diverse cultures in the country. Only by understanding why Nigerians live as they do can relevant spaces be developed for them. (MLW)

  11. The Need for Social Studies in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Social studies in Nigerian schools would improve student's appreciation of their culture and instill a sense of national citizenship as well as broaden their interests and promote international understanding. Attempts are being made to replace the inadequate instruction of history and geography with a social studies component. (JH)

  12. Brief communication: Emergence chronology of permanent teeth in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Esan, Temitope A; Oyedele, Titus A

    2014-03-01

    This study measured the mean age, duration, and sequence of the emergence of permanent dentition in Nigerian children and compared the findings with other population groups. The cross-sectional study involved 1,078 Nigerian children, aged 4-16 years old, from selected primary and secondary schools in the Ife Central local government area in Ile-Ife, Osun State. In general, compared to boys, girls had an earlier mean age of emergence of all the permanent teeth. Children from high socioeconomic class had an earlier mean age of emergence for the maxillary incisors (6.43 and 7.58 years) and mandibular incisors (5.28 and 6.44 years) compared to children from middle and low socioeconomic classes, although socioeconomic effects were more mixed for premolars and molars. Compared to their counterparts in the USA, Australia, Belgium, and Iran, Nigerian children showed an earlier mean age of emergence of all the permanent teeth studied except for Pakistani boys, who had an earlier mean age of emergence of the maxillary premolars and second molar. Poorer economic status has been associated with delayed dental development; however, when compared to other populations, the Nigerian children in this study have earlier mean emergence ages than children from wealthier countries such as the USA and Australia.

  13. Employability of Nigerian Graduates, the Role of Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun-Oyebanji, Olayemi Jumoke

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the worrisome issue of employability of Nigerian university graduates in recent times, which have become a great concern to all and sundry. Certain indices such as, lack of complementary life skills, low moral standards, low employment generating capacity of the Nigerina economy, and the certification mentality, are discussed.…

  14. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  15. Academic Utilization of Government Publications in Three Nigerian University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwor, Roseline Ngozi; Mole, Austin J. C.; Ihekwoaba, Emmanuel Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the current state of academic utilization of government publications in Nigerian university libraries. Using a descriptive survey, the study focused on three academic libraries in Southeastern Nigeria serving a population of 11,996 undergraduate and postgraduate student library users, 592 of whom answered a…

  16. Public-Private Partnership and Infrastructural Development in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduwaiye, R. O.; Sofoluwe, A. O.; Bello, T. O.; Durosaro, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) services are related to infrastructural development in Nigerian Universities. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The population for the study encompassed all the 20 universities in South-west Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select 12…

  17. Demonstrating Functional Interactive Language Teaching in the Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Rachael O.; Oni-Buraimoh, Olawunmi O.

    2014-01-01

    Applied linguistics affords Linguists the opportunity of solving language related problems using various methods. In this paper, we x-ray the Nigerian University classroom situation in the teaching of the English language viz-a-viz the use of functional interactive method. Following Littlewood (1981) and Krashen (1982), we posit that the teaching…

  18. Responsiveness of Nigerian Students to Pictorial Depth Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. S.; Seddon, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Three groups of Nigerian high school and college students were tested for response to four pictorial depth cues. Students had more difficulty with cues concerning the relative size of objects and the foreshortening of straight lines than with cues involving overlap of lines and distortion of the angles between lines. (Author/JEG)

  19. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  20. Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education and Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omoregie, Norah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines quality assurance in Nigerian University education and credentialing. The research contends that university education in Nigeria which hitherto enjoyed tremendous global respectability and acceptability is fast loosing its high esteem in the face of labour market and members of community because the currently certified Nigerian…

  1. Academic Utilization of Government Publications in Three Nigerian University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwor, Roseline Ngozi; Mole, Austin J. C.; Ihekwoaba, Emmanuel Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the current state of academic utilization of government publications in Nigerian university libraries. Using a descriptive survey, the study focused on three academic libraries in Southeastern Nigeria serving a population of 11,996 undergraduate and postgraduate student library users, 592 of whom answered a…

  2. Interactive Digital Technologies' Use in Southwest Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2013-01-01

    The interactive digital technologies in education is an effective means used to widen educational opportunities. However, many faculty members do not use or adopt digital technologies as instructional tools. The purpose of this study was to predict faculty members' use of digital technologies in Nigerian Universities. 492 university lecturers from…

  3. Public-Private Partnership and Infrastructural Development in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduwaiye, R. O.; Sofoluwe, A. O.; Bello, T. O.; Durosaro, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) services are related to infrastructural development in Nigerian Universities. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The population for the study encompassed all the 20 universities in South-west Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select 12…

  4. Gender Analysis of Student Enrollment in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Kola; Akpotu, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    The paper analysed the trend and pattern of gender enrollment in Nigerian Universities between 1989 and 1997. It critically examined the gender disparity in university enrollment generally, as well as among some selected disciplines and the country's Geo-political zones. The analysis revealed that gap existed between female and male in the…

  5. Modes of Funding Nigerian Universities and the Implications on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the modes of funding Nigerian universities with a view to assessing their adequacy and effectiveness. The implications of the mechanisms of funding on university performance were investigated. The history of university funding in Nigeria was explored in order to determine the causes of shift in financing the system since 1948…

  6. Nigerian Medical Students' Opinions about the Undergraduate Curriculum in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Bawo; Omoaregba, Joyce; Okogbenin, Esther; Buhari, Olubunmi; Obindo, Taiwo; Okonoda, Mayowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The number of psychiatrists in Nigeria is inadequate to meet the treatment needs for neuropsychiatric disorders. Developing mental health competency in the future Nigerian physician workforce is one approach to filling the treatment gap. The authors aimed to assess medical students' attitudes to this training and its relevance to their…

  7. Challenges, Benefits, and Recommendations for Continued Nigerian Peacekeeping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Joint Military Operations Department Naval War College 686 Cushing Road...infection rate amongst returning Nigerian peacekeepers regarding sexually transmitted diseases , especially the HIV/AIDS virus. A study done in 2005 by...increased occurrences of sexually transmitted diseases . These 5 factors that are common to militaries worldwide. Danger/risk taking is part of

  8. Alternative Model of Funding for Academic Research in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olayiwola, Shina

    2010-01-01

    Funding of academic research in Nigerian universities by Government (5 per cent recurrent grants) is a policy dictated by the National Universities Commission (NUC) as the central body for allocating research funds. This research fund, little as it is, is irregular and inadequate and to make it worse is difficult to access. These aforementioned…

  9. Class, Gender, and Life Chances: A Nigerian University Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biraimah, Karen L.

    1987-01-01

    Among 500 students surveyed at the University of Ife (Nigeria), female students represented an elite segment of Nigerian society but held equal or lower educational and career expectations than did the more socially and economically diverse male student sample. Male students' lower-SES background did not appear to limit university access,…

  10. Nigerian Medical Students' Opinions about the Undergraduate Curriculum in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Bawo; Omoaregba, Joyce; Okogbenin, Esther; Buhari, Olubunmi; Obindo, Taiwo; Okonoda, Mayowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The number of psychiatrists in Nigeria is inadequate to meet the treatment needs for neuropsychiatric disorders. Developing mental health competency in the future Nigerian physician workforce is one approach to filling the treatment gap. The authors aimed to assess medical students' attitudes to this training and its relevance to their…

  11. Stimulant Use as Correlate of Abusive Behavior among Nigerian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbochuku, E. O.; Akerele, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulant use and abusive behaviour have been associated with the phenomenon of "out of control" tendency with the potential for self-destruction. This study presents a report on frequency of use by Nigerian undergraduates of five stimulants: amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, cola-nut and tobacco. The population of the study was made up of…

  12. Statistical Evaluation of the Impact of ICT on Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Iwasokun Gabriel; Kayode, Alese Boniface; Aderonke, Thompson; Bethy, Favour; Ola, Aranuwa Felix

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes twenty-four performance indices that were freely considered by the authors as relevant for the conceptualization and evaluation of the impact of ICT on the Nigerian Universities. The indices are contained in the questionnaire that was administered on forty five out of sixty three public universities that span the six…

  13. Gender Analysis of Student Enrollment in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Kola; Akpotu, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    The paper analysed the trend and pattern of gender enrollment in Nigerian Universities between 1989 and 1997. It critically examined the gender disparity in university enrollment generally, as well as among some selected disciplines and the country's Geo-political zones. The analysis revealed that gap existed between female and male in the…

  14. E-Training Adoption in the Nigerian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainab, Bello; Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Pangil, Faizuniah Bt; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that aid e-training adoption in the Nigerian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on a review of past literature from databases, reports, newspapers, magazines, etc. The literature recognised the role of perceived cost, computer self-efficacy, availability of…

  15. Modes of Funding Nigerian Universities and the Implications on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the modes of funding Nigerian universities with a view to assessing their adequacy and effectiveness. The implications of the mechanisms of funding on university performance were investigated. The history of university funding in Nigeria was explored in order to determine the causes of shift in financing the system since 1948…

  16. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  17. Subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderate the association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth among older adults.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval

    2016-09-01

    Little research has addressed the association between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the second half of life. This study examined whether subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderate this association. 339 community-dwelling older adults (age range 50-90; M = 65.44, SD = 9.77) were sampled through random dialing to Jewish residents in the south of Israel. Participants completed a phone-questionnaire on PTS symptoms, level of PTG, subjective age, and perceived distance-to-death. Higher levels of PTS symptoms were both linearly and curvilinearly related to higher PTG. Additionally, subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderated this association in a linear way, so that the association was strongest in participants who reported younger subjective age and further distance-to-death. The findings emphasize the moderating effect of two time perspectives, one that focuses on time since birth and another that concerns the time that remains before death. These two perspectives affect the association between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth within older individuals.

  18. Geriatric Prescription in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Osemeke, Nwani Paul; Hart, Onwukwe Chikezie; Cosmas, Nwosu Maduaburochukwu; Ohumagho, Isah Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the medications prescribed for elderly inpatients on specific days during hospital admission with a view to detecting areas of irrational prescription. Methods: It was a prospective study of all patients aged 65 years and above admitted to the medical wards of a Nigerian tertiary hospital over a 12-month period. The World Health Organization/International Network of Rational Use of Drugs (WHO/INRUD) drug use indicators were used to assess drug prescriptions on various days of admission. Results: A total of 1513 patient encounters involving 345 patients aged between 65 and 92 years were assessed on hospital days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28. The average number of medicines per encounter ranged from 6.1 ± 2.5 on hospital day 1 to 7.8 ± 2.4 on hospital day 28. This difference was statistically significant (F = 14.42; P < 0.05). The percentage of encounters with an antibiotic prescribed ranged from 50.4% on hospital day 1 to 62.9% on hospital day 28 while the percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed decreased from 72.8% on hospital day 1 to 50.0% on day 28. Conclusions: This study suggests some degree of irrational prescribing as evident by the high average number of medicine per encounter and the high percentages of encounters with an antibiotic or injection prescribed. However, there is a need to develop standard values for the WHO/INRUD indicators based on the recently published national treatment guidelines for common elderly diseases which will serve as yardsticks to assess elderly inpatients prescriptions using WHO/INRUD core indicators in future studies. PMID:28104970

  19. Febrile illness experience among Nigerian nomads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the febrile illness experience of Nigerian nomadic Fulani is necessary for developing an appropriate strategy for extending malaria intervention services to them. An exploratory study of their malaria illness experience was carried out in Northern Nigeria preparatory to promoting malaria intervention among them. Methods Ethnographic tools including interviews, group discussions, informal conversations and living-in-camp observations were used for collecting information on local knowledge, perceived cause, severity and health seeking behaviour of nomadic Fulani in their dry season camps at the Gongola-Benue valley in Northeastern Nigeria. Results Nomadic Fulani regarded pabboje (a type of "fever" that is distinct from other fevers because it "comes today, goes tomorrow, returns the next") as their commonest health problem. Pabboje is associated with early rains, ripening corn and brightly coloured flora. Pabboje is inherent in all nomadic Fulani for which treatment is therefore unnecessary despite its interference with performance of duty such as herding. Traditional medicines are used to reduce the severity, and rituals carried out to make it permanently inactive or to divert its recurrence. Although modern antimalaria may make the severity of subsequent pabboje episodes worse, nomads seek treatment in private health facilities against fevers that are persistent using antimalarial medicines. The consent of the household head was essential for a sick child to be treated outside the camp. The most important issues in health service utilization among nomads are the belief that fever is a Fulani illness that needs no cure until a particular period, preference for private medicine vendors and the avoidance of health facilities. Conclusions Understanding nomadic Fulani beliefs about pabboje is useful for planning an acceptable community participatory fever management among them. PMID:22292982

  20. Perceptions of Nigerian medical specialists on research

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir A.; Lawal, Abdul; Omolase, Charles O.; Ologunsua, Yinka; Samaila, Elsie

    2011-01-01

    The current research aimed at collating the views of medical specialists on disease priorities, class and outcomes of health research in Nigeria, and draw appropriate policy implications. Structured questionnaires were distributed to consent 90 randomly selected medical specialists practising in six Nigerian tertiary health institutions. Participants' background information, relative disease priority, research types and class, type and class of publication media, frequency of publications, challenges faced in publishing research, impact of their research on health practice or policy, and inventions made were probed. Fifty-one out of the 90 questionnaires distributed were returned giving a response rate of 63.3%. Sixty-four point six percent indicated that the highest priority should be given to non communicable diseases while still recognizing that considerations should be giving to the others. They were largely “always” involved in simple low budget retrospective studies or cross-sectional and medical education studies (67.8%) and over a third (37.5%) had never been involved in clinical trials. They largely preferred to “always” publish in PubMed indexed journals that are foreign-based (65.0%). They also indicated that their research works very rarely resulted in inventions (4%) and change (4%) in clinical practice or health policy. Our study respondents indicated that they were largely involved in simple low budget research works that rarely had significant impacts and outcomes. We recommend that adequate resources and research infrastructures particularly funding be made available to medical specialists in Nigeria. Both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Nigeria should emphasize research training in their curricula.

  1. Ocular changes in pregnant Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N; Ighoroje, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy results in a lot of hormonal changes in the body and the eyes are no exception. These ocular changes could be physiologic, pathologic or a modification of a pre-existing condition. The aim of this study was to determine physiologic ocular changes that are associated with pregnancy in healthy Nigerian women. A total of 100 women were followed longitudinally through out the course of their pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. The women were recruited at 8 weeks of pregnancy at the anti-natal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The women were aged between 20 and 35 years. Tests carried out included visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, retinoscopy, and tonometry. The tests were carried out in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. There was a fall in intraocular pressure across the trimesters and this was very significant (P<0.0001). Postpartum, the intraocular pressure began to rise. The difference between the third trimester and post-partum values was also statistically significant (P< 0.0001). The difference in visual acuity through out the pregnancy was not significant (P= 0.8477). Although, there was a fall in refractive error across the different trimesters, it was not statistically significant (P=0.3). There was also no difference in the third trimester and the 6 weeks postpartum values of both visual acuity and refractive error. Ocular changes associated with pregnancy are transient and most tend to resolve postpartum, with values returning to near pre-pregnant state.

  2. Effects of Ibudilast on the Subjective, Reinforcing, and Analgesic Effects of Oxycodone in Recently Detoxified Adults with Opioid Dependence.

    PubMed

    Metz, Verena E; Jones, Jermaine D; Manubay, Jeanne; Sullivan, Maria A; Mogali, Shanthi; Segoshi, Andrew; Madera, Gabriela; Johnson, Kirk W; Comer, Sandra D

    2017-08-01

    Ibudilast, a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is used clinically in Asia for the treatment of asthma and poststroke dizziness. Recent preclinical studies have suggested that it also inhibits glial cell activation in rodents, and may alter opioid-mediated effects, including analgesia and withdrawal symptoms. The effects of ibudilast on the abuse potential of opioids in humans are largely unknown. The present study was designed to examine the influence of ibudilast on subjective (including drug craving), reinforcing, and analgesic effects of oxycodone in human volunteers diagnosed with opioid dependence (equivalent to moderate-severe opioid use disorder). Non-treatment-seeking opioid-dependent male volunteers (n=11) underwent an in-patient detoxification with morphine, followed by maintenance on placebo (0 mg b.i.d.) and active ibudilast (50 mg b.i.d.). Under each maintenance dose, six experimental sample and choice sessions were completed involving oral oxycodone administration (0, 15, and 30 mg/70 kg, p.o.). Subjective effects of oxycodone and drug craving were measured with visual analog scales (VAS) and a Drug Effects Questionnaire. The cold pressor test was used to produce pain, and a modified progressive-ratio choice procedure was used to measure the reinforcing effects of oxycodone. Under the active ibudilast condition compared with the placebo condition, ratings of drug liking following 15 mg of oxycodone were decreased significantly. The mean drug breakpoint value was also significantly lower in the active vs the placebo ibudilast condition under the 15 mg oxycodone condition, but not significantly lower under the 30 mg oxycodone condition. Heroin craving was significantly reduced under active ibudilast vs placebo, and similar effects were observed for tobacco and cocaine craving. Furthermore, mean subjective ratings of pain were lower in the active ibudilast condition. Our data suggest that ibudilast may be useful for treating opioid

  3. Low insulin-like growth factor-1 levels are associated with anaemia in adult non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Succurro, Elena; Arturi, Franco; Caruso, Vittoria; Rudi, Stefania; Sciacqua, Angela; Andreozzi, Francesco; Hribal, Marta L; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2011-02-01

    Anaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among factors responsible for anaemia, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a plausible candidate. We evaluated the association of IGF-1 with haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and anaemia in a cohort of 1,039 Caucasians subjects. Subjects with anaemia exhibited lower IGF-1 (p=0.006), and higher hsCRP levels (p=0.003). To estimate the independent contribution of variables to Hb concentration, a multivariable regression analysis was modeled including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, IGF-1, fibrinogen, hsCRP, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). The variables significantly associated with Hb concentration were gender (p<0.0001), IGF-1 (p<0.0001), waist circumference (p=0.02), hsCRP (p<0.04), MCH (p<0.0001), MCV (p<0.0001), serum iron (p=0.001), IGF-1 (p=0.003), hsCRP (p=0.008), and waist circumference (p=0.01), accounting for 54.0% of its variation. Hb concentration was significant lower in subjects in the lowest IGF-1 quartile as compared with those in the third (p=0.02) and fourth (p=0.001). In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, fibrinogen, hsCRP, MCH, MCV, serum iron, eGFR, and treatment with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, subjects in the first quartile of IGF-1 had a 2.49-fold higher risk of having anaemia as compared with those in the fourth (odds ratio 2.70, 95% confidence interval 1.02-7.16). Our data suggest that low IGF-1 may be an important contributor to mild anaemia.

  4. The Relieving Effects of BrainPower Advanced, a Dietary Supplement, in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingfen; Shi, Rong; Chen, Su; Dai, Lihua; Shen, Tian; Feng, Yi; Gu, Pingping; Shariff, Mina; Nguyen, Tuong; Ye, Yeats; Rao, Jianyu; Xing, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47–88), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML) and attention/concentration deficits (SAD) were evaluated before and after 12-week supplementation of BrainPower Advanced capsules (n = 47) or placebo (n = 51), using a 5-point memory questionnaire (1 = no/slight, 5 = severe). Objective memory function was evaluated using 3 subtests of visual/audio memory, abstraction, and memory recall that gave a combined total score. The BrainPower Advanced group had more cases of severe SML (severity ⩾ 3) (44/47) and severe SAD (43/47) than the placebo group (39/51 and 37/51, < 0.05, < 0.05, resp.) before the treatment. BrainPower Advanced intervention, however, improved a greater proportion of the severe SML (29.5%)(13/44) (P < 0.01) and SAD (34.9%)(15/43)(P < 0.01) than placebo (5.1% (2/39) and 13.5% (5/37), resp.). Thus, 3-month BrainPower Advanced supplementation appears to be beneficial to older adults with SMCs. PMID:27190539

  5. Relationship specialization amongst sources and receivers of social support and its correlations with loneliness and subjective well-being: a cross sectional study of Nepalese older adults.

    PubMed

    Chalise, Hom Nath; Saito, Tami; Takahashi, Miyako; Kai, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Social support, subjective well-being (SWB), and loneliness are issues of central importance in research concerned with the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people in the 21st century. However, very little is known about the situation in low-income countries such as in Nepal. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships significant in social support (received (SSR) and provided (SSP)) and analyze their connections with loneliness and SWB. The subjects, not suffering from dementia, were 60 years and above living in Kathmandu city. The data was analyzed using logistic regression with some confounding variables controlled. The results indicate that loneliness is high and SWB is low amongst Nepalese older adults. SSR from children living together and SSP to spouse, children living together and friends and neighbors reduce loneliness. SSP to children living apart increases SWB-life satisfaction. SSR from children living together and SSP to children (living together and apart) increases SWB-life stability. However, SSP to relatives reduces SWB-life satisfaction and SSR from relatives reduces SWB-life stability in Nepalese older adult men.

  6. The Relieving Effects of BrainPower Advanced, a Dietary Supplement, in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingfen; Shi, Rong; Chen, Su; Dai, Lihua; Shen, Tian; Feng, Yi; Gu, Pingping; Shariff, Mina; Nguyen, Tuong; Ye, Yeats; Rao, Jianyu; Xing, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47-88), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML) and attention/concentration deficits (SAD) were evaluated before and after 12-week supplementation of BrainPower Advanced capsules (n = 47) or placebo (n = 51), using a 5-point memory questionnaire (1 = no/slight, 5 = severe). Objective memory function was evaluated using 3 subtests of visual/audio memory, abstraction, and memory recall that gave a combined total score. The BrainPower Advanced group had more cases of severe SML (severity ⩾ 3) (44/47) and severe SAD (43/47) than the placebo group (39/51 and 37/51, < 0.05, < 0.05, resp.) before the treatment. BrainPower Advanced intervention, however, improved a greater proportion of the severe SML (29.5%)(13/44) (P < 0.01) and SAD (34.9%)(15/43)(P < 0.01) than placebo (5.1% (2/39) and 13.5% (5/37), resp.). Thus, 3-month BrainPower Advanced supplementation appears to be beneficial to older adults with SMCs.

  7. Alzheimer disease pathology in subjects without dementia in 2 studies of aging: the Nun Study and the Adult Changes in Thought Study.

    PubMed

    SantaCruz, Karen S; Sonnen, Joshua A; Pezhouh, Maryam Kherad; Desrosiers, Mark F; Nelson, Peter T; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with antemortem preservation of cognition who show autopsy evidence of at least moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology suggest the possibility of brain reserve, that is, functional resistance to structural brain damage. This reserve would, however, only be relevant if the pathologic markers correlate well with dementia. Using data from the Nun Study (n = 498) and the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study (n = 323), we show that Braak staging correlates strongly with dementia status. Moreover, participants with severe(Braak stage V-VI) AD pathology who remained not demented represent only 12% (Nun Study) and 8% (ACT study) of nondemented subjects. Comparison of these subjects to those who were demented revealed that the former group was often significantly memory-impaired despite not being classified as demented. Most of these nondemented participants showed only stage V neurofibrillary pathology and frontal tangle counts that were slightly lower than a comparable (Braak stage V) dementia group. In summary, these data indicate that, in individuals with AD-type pathology who do not meet criteria for dementia, neocortical neurofibrillary tangles are somewhat reduced and incipient cognitive decline is present. Our data provide a foundation for helping to define additional factors that may impair, or be protective of, cognition in older adults.

  8. Influence of Coping, Social Support, and Depression on Subjective Health Status Among HIV-Positive Adults With Different Sexual Identities

    PubMed Central

    Mosack, Katie E.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Remien, Robert H.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Morin, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations between psychosocial variables (coping self-efficacy, social support, and cognitive depression) and subjective health status among a large national sample (N = 3,670) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with different sexual identities. After controlling for ethnicity, heterosexual men reported fewer symptoms than did either bisexual or gay men and heterosexual women reported fewer symptoms than did bisexual women. Heterosexual and bisexual women reported greater symptom intrusiveness than did heterosexual or gay men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression independently explained symptom reports and symptom intrusiveness for heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression explained symptom intrusiveness among heterosexual women. Cognitive depression significantly contributed to the number of symptom reports for heterosexual and bisexual women and to symptom intrusiveness for lesbian and bisexual women. Individuals likely experience HIV differently on the basis of sociocultural realities associated with sexual identity. Further, symptom intrusiveness may be a more sensitive measure of subjective health status for these groups. PMID:19064372

  9. Predicting older adults who return to the hospital or die within 30 days of emergency department care using the ISAR tool: subjective versus objective risk factors.

    PubMed

    Suffoletto, Brian; Miller, Thomas; Shah, Rahul; Callaway, Clifton; Yealy, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the ability of the Identification of Seniors At Risk (ISAR) tool to differentiate between older adult patients having a poor outcome within 30 days of emergency department (ED) care and those who do not. We compare prognostic accuracy of subjective versus objective risk factors. 202 community-dwelling patients age 65 years and older presenting to two EDs were prospectively enrolled. Participants completed the six-question ISAR and objective testing (cognition, ambulation, vision). We reviewed electronic medical records for current medications, hospitalisations in the past six months, ED disposition, length of hospital stay, subsequent ED visits or inpatient admissions or death at 30 days. Participants were given a point for each risk factor present; subjective and objective risk factors were scored separately. We tested ability of individual risk factors and scores to predict a composite outcome of subsequent ED visit, postdischarge hospitalisation or death by day 30 after the index ED visit. We computed receiver operating curve area under the curves (AUC) to determine tool discrimination. 23% of participants had a poor 30-day outcome. The optimum subjective ISAR cut-off score for screening was ≥2, which was present in 84% of participants, had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 19%. Using the subjective ISAR tool, the AUC was 0.66. The optimum objective ISAR-related risk cut-off score for screening was ≥3, which was present in 82% of participants, had a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 40%. Using the objective ISAR-related tool, the AUC was 0.69. The self-reported ISAR tool did not discriminate well between older adults with or without 30-day hospital revisit or death. An optimum score of ≥2 would identify many older adults at no apparent increased risk of poor outcomes at 30 days. Using objective ISAR-related risk factors did not improve overall discrimination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  10. Pattern of skin surface lipids in some south-western Nigerians with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ikaraoha, C I; Ikaraocha, C I; Taylor, G O L; Anetor, J I; Onuegbu, J A

    2004-01-01

    Unanswered questions still exist regarding pathophysiology of acne vulgaris generally and particularly in this environment. Skin surface lipid (SSL) samples were collected by the heptane sponge technique from faces of 20 Nigerians with facial acne vulgaris and 25 controls. The subjects were classified into mild and moderately severe acne groups. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were determined and expressed in percentage (%) while Undetermined Skin Surface Lipids (USSL) (free fatty acids + squalene + wax ester + diglycerides) were computed. Triglycerides and total cholesterol levels were significantly higher in subjects with acne vulgaris compared with controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.029 respectively). There was a progressively significant increase in triglycerides from control, though mild to moderately severe acne vulgaris subjects (P < 0.01) in all cases. In contrast there was a significant progressive decrease in USSL among the three groups (P < 0.001) in all cases. No significant difference was evident for all the values on comparison of female subjects with male subjects. There were however, significant increases in triglycerides and significant decreases in USSL levels for both male and female subjects with acne vulgaris compared with their respective controls (P < 0.02, P < 0.01, P < 0.03 and P < 0.014). Alterations in composition of SSL may in part be the pathophysiological basis of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Severity of the disorder appears to parallel triglyceride level but there was no association with sex. Triglycerides and total cholesterol levels are lower in SSL in this environment compared with hotter climates.

  11. Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour.

    PubMed

    Adelakun, O E; Oyelade, O J; Ade-Omowaye, B I O; Adeyemi, I A; Van de Venter, M

    2009-06-01

    Studies on the chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour were carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160 degreeC for 10-60 mins. The roasted seeds were subjected to proximate, yield and antioxidative activity determination. Pre-treatment by roasting was found to increase the yield, but was found to be time dependent. The range means obtained for protein, fat, ash, fiber and sugar contents were 42.14-38.10, 31.04-17.22, 4.06-3.42, 3.45-3.60 and 8.82-8.65, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased by roasting, while in vitro digestibility showed that most antioxidative activities were available in the intestinal phase of gastrointestinal tracts.

  12. Effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, I

    2004-12-01

    The effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism was tested using 45 consenting individuals in apparent good health and between the ages of 25 and 35 years. The subjects were moderate social drinkers matched in terms of body weight and build. The results obtained showed that on average, honey significantly (p < 0.05) increased the blood ethanol clearance rate by 68% and decreased the intoxication period by 43%, but insignificantly (p > 0.05) reduced the degree of intoxication by 9%. Honey could be a promising anti-intoxicating agent, but its long-term biochemical evaluation, possibly as a complement in the management of alcohol intoxication, deserves further study.

  13. Surface electromyographic studies of swallowing in normal subjects: a review of 440 adults. Report 3. Qualitative data.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Eviatar, Ephraim; Segal, Samuel

    2004-12-01

    Surface electromyographic studies were performed on 440 normal adults to describe and evaluate different types of normal swallows clinically useful for ENT department. Study design Prospective observational study of healthy volunteers. EMG recordings were made using stick-on surface electrodes. Rectified and filtered EMG signals were evaluated. Parameters evaluated include the graphic configuration of activity of the orbicularis oris, masseter, submental group, and infrahyoid muscles, the last 2 covered by platysma, during single swallowing and continuous drinking. Four tests were examined: voluntary saliva swallows, voluntary separate swallows as normal, voluntary separate swallows of excessive amount of water (20 mL), drinking of 100 mL of water. Graphic recording of activity of the above-mentioned muscles during swallowing and drinking were evaluated for groups of adults of different ages. There are several types of normal swallows as seen at the surface EMG records. There was no difference between EMG recordings of male and female swallows. Only group of elderly patients (age 70+) shows age-induced differences in recorded swallows. There are two main types of normal swallow: single-share and double-share swallows. The oral phase of swallowing, being under conscious control, is very variable and should not be taken into consideration during evaluation of records. Final oral, pharyngeal, and initial esophageal stages of swallowing can be defined and evaluated at the rectified and filtered surface EMG record. The normal muscle activity during swallows and drinking has several graphic patterns which can be identified and described similar to EKG records when surface EMG is rectified and filtered. The method of EMG recording is quick and simple, and can be used for screening and evaluation purposes in outpatient and inpatient ENT departments. These parameters represent activities required for normal deglutition, and can be used to identify abnormalities in ENT

  14. The prevalence and profile of non-affective psychosis in the Nigerian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    GUREJE, OYE; OLOWOSEGUN, OLUYOMI; ADEBAYO, KAZEEM; STEIN, DAN J.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of non-affective psychosis among adult Nigerians. It was part of the Nigerian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing and was conducted in 8 out of the 22 states in Nigeria, representing about 22% of the national population. Face-to-face interviews with adults aged 18 years and over were administered using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3 (CIDI.3). Clinical reappraisal was conducted by clinicians on a subsample of respondents. The CIDI.3 was found to have acceptable agreement with clinician-administered assessments, with kappa values ranging between 0.52 to 0.72, respectively, for narrowly-defined and broad categories of non-affective psychosis. The lifetime prevalence of non-affective psychosis was 2.1%, with visual hallucinations being the most commonly reported symptom and delusions of reference the least. Non-affective psy-chosis was significantly more common among urban dwellers. Persons with non-affective psychosis were at elevated risk to report both lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV disorders as well as to experience impairment in basic and instrumental role functioning. Only a minority had received any treatment. PMID:20148161

  15. A comparison of quality-of-life in schizophrenia and affective disorder patients in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Bamiso Makanjuola, A; Ademola Adeponle, B; Ayodele Obembe, O

    2007-03-01

    This study determined the degree of satisfaction with various aspects of life in patients with affective disorders and schizophrenia in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. We compared quality-of-life (QOL) at onset-of-illness (first episode) with QOL at time of study and identified sociodemographic and clinical variables that may predict QOL. All consenting patients with ICD-10 compatible diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 100) and affective disorders (n = 35) receiving treatment in the study center during the study period were interviewed. The WHOQOL-Bref was used to assess respondents' subjective QOL, and a data-collection sheet assessed objective domains of QOL. Respondents with schizophrenia and affective disorders had a good outcome in terms of objective QOL scores. In both groups, however, the subjective ratings were poor as the illness progresses. We conclude that in Nigerian hospital cases, patients with schizophrenia andaffective disorders have a good outcome in terms of objective QOL scores, which are not in consonance with their subjective ratings. Marital status and employment status are predictive of QOL.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of 20-mg/kg/day trimethoprim and 100-mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R C; Laizure, S C; Williams, C L; Stein, D S

    1991-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were studied in 12 healthy adult subjects receiving trimethoprim at 20 mg/kg of body weight per day and sulfamethoxazole at 100 mg/kg/day, which is the conventional dose for treating Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Daily doses were evenly divided and orally administered every 6 h for 3 days. Trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole concentrations in serum and urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Five subjects withdrew from the study because of intolerable gastrointestinal and central nervous system toxicities. In the seven subjects that completed the study, the mean maximum serum drug concentrations after the last dose were 13.6 +/- 2.0, 372 +/- 64, and 50.1 +/- 10.9 micrograms/ml for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, respectively. The mean half-lives were 13.6 +/- 3.5, 14.0 +/- 2.3, and 18.6 +/- 4.3 h, respectively. Changes in absolute neutrophil count were significantly correlated with the minimum concentrations of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in serum and trimethoprim area under the concentration-time curve (for all three parameters, r2 = 0.6 and P less than 0.05). Our findings add to the evidence that serum drug concentrations in adults following the conventional dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for PCP are excessive and contribute to certain adverse reactions. Further studies are indicated in patients to optimize the dosing regimen of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of PCP.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of 20-mg/kg/day trimethoprim and 100-mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R C; Laizure, S C; Williams, C L; Stein, D S

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were studied in 12 healthy adult subjects receiving trimethoprim at 20 mg/kg of body weight per day and sulfamethoxazole at 100 mg/kg/day, which is the conventional dose for treating Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Daily doses were evenly divided and orally administered every 6 h for 3 days. Trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole concentrations in serum and urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Five subjects withdrew from the study because of intolerable gastrointestinal and central nervous system toxicities. In the seven subjects that completed the study, the mean maximum serum drug concentrations after the last dose were 13.6 +/- 2.0, 372 +/- 64, and 50.1 +/- 10.9 micrograms/ml for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, respectively. The mean half-lives were 13.6 +/- 3.5, 14.0 +/- 2.3, and 18.6 +/- 4.3 h, respectively. Changes in absolute neutrophil count were significantly correlated with the minimum concentrations of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in serum and trimethoprim area under the concentration-time curve (for all three parameters, r2 = 0.6 and P less than 0.05). Our findings add to the evidence that serum drug concentrations in adults following the conventional dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for PCP are excessive and contribute to certain adverse reactions. Further studies are indicated in patients to optimize the dosing regimen of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of PCP. PMID:1952863

  18. Effects of moderate-intensity exercise on polysomnographic and subjective sleep quality in older adults with mild to moderate sleep complaints.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Pruitt, Leslie A; Woo, Sandra; Castro, Cynthia M; Ahn, David K; Vitiello, Michael V; Woodward, Steven H; Bliwise, Donald L

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to determine the 12-month effects of exercise increases on objective and subjective sleep quality in initially inactive older persons with mild to moderate sleep complaints. A nonclinical sample of underactive adults 55 years old or older (n=66) with mild to moderate chronic sleep complaints were randomly assigned to a 12-month program of primarily moderate-intensity endurance exercise (n=36) or a health education control program (n=30). The main outcome measure was polysomnographic sleep recordings, with additional measures of subjective sleep quality, physical activity, and physical fitness. Directional hypotheses were tested. Using intent-to-treat methods, at 12 months exercisers, relative to controls, spent significantly less time in polysomnographically measured Stage 1 sleep (between-arm difference=2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-4.0; p=003), spent more time in Stage 2 sleep (between-arm difference=3.2, 95% CI, 0.6-5.7; p=.04), and had fewer awakenings during the first third of the sleep period (between-arm difference=1.0, 95% CI, 0.39-1.55; p=.03). Exercisers also reported greater 12-month improvements relative to controls in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) sleep disturbance subscale score (p=.009), sleep diary-based minutes to fall asleep (p=.01), and feeling more rested in the morning (p=.02). Compared with general health education, a 12-month moderate-intensity exercise program that met current physical activity recommendations for older adults improved some objective and subjective dimensions of sleep to a modest degree. The results suggest additional areas for investigation in this understudied area.

  19. Use of a post-sleep questionnaire-interactive voice response system (PSQ-IVRS) to evaluate the subjective sleep effects of ramelteon in adults with chronic insomnia.

    PubMed

    Wang-Weigand, Sherry; Watissée, Marie; Roth, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Ramelteon is an MT(1)/MT(2) melatonin receptor agonist approved in the US and Japan for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia. This study evaluated the effects of ramelteon 8mg on patient reported sleep parameters in adults with chronic insomnia in an at-home setting using a post-sleep questionnaire-interactive voice response system (PSQ-IVRS). Adults aged 18-64 years with chronic insomnia were randomized to receive ramelteon 8 mg or placebo nightly for 3weeks. Sleep parameters were assessed via PSQ-IVRS within 60 min of awakening each morning. Adverse effects were collected throughout the study. A total of 552 subjects (mean age 43.2 years) received treatment (274 ramelteon, 278 placebo). There was a reduction in mean sleep latency at weeks 1, 2, and 3 compared with placebo but none reached statistical significance (-4.1 min, p=0.088 week 1; -2.8 min, p=0.258 week 2; -4.9 min, p=0.060 week 3). There were no significant differences between placebo and ramelteon in other PSQ-IVRS sleep parameters. Only headache (18 [6.5%] placebo, 18 [6.6%] ramelteon) and somnolence (5 [1.8%], 12 [4.4%] ramelteon) occurred in>3% of subjects. Use of ramelteon 8 mg in an at-home setting did not demonstrate statistically significant improvements in subjective sleep latency compared with placebo, when measured by PSQ-IVRS. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Amyloid-β Imaging in Older Adults Presenting to a Memory Clinic with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Snitz, Beth E; Lopez, Oscar L; McDade, Eric; Becker, James T; Cohen, Ann D; Price, Julie C; Mathis, Chester A; Klunk, William E

    2015-09-24

    Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in otherwise normal aging may be identified via symptom inventories in a research setting ('questionnaire-discovered complaints') or via patients seeking evaluation/services in a clinical setting ('presenting complainers'). Most studies of SCD and amyloid-β (Aβ) imaging to date have used the former approach, with inconsistent results. To test whether 'presenting SCD' participants in an academic memory clinic setting show increased brain Aβ deposition on imaging. Fourteen patients (mean age 68.1, SD 4.0 years) diagnosed with subjective cognitive complaints with normal neuropsychological testing were recruited into a Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET study. Detailed self-report inventories and additional cognitive tests were administered. Results were compared to a reference cohort of cognitively normal volunteers (NC) from an independent neuroimaging study (mean age 73.6, SD 5.8 years). 57% (8/14) of SCD participants were PiB-positive by a sensitive, regionally-based definition, compared to 31% (26/84) of the NC cohort. SCD participants had significantly higher PiB retention (SUVR) than NC in three of six regions of interest: frontal cortex (p = 0.02), lateral temporal cortex (p = 0.02), and parietal cortex (p = 0.04). SCD participants showed measurable deviations on questionnaires reflecting high negative affect (i.e., depressive symptoms and neuroticism). Findings were suggestive that deficits on verbal associative binding may be specific to Aβ-positive versus Aβ-negative SCD. Older participants with SCD presenting to a memory clinic in this pilot study sample have higher brain Aβ deposition compared to normal aging study volunteers unselected on complaints. Further study of presenting SCD are warranted to determine the prognostic significance of Aβ deposition in this context.

  1. The discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep in older adults receiving CBT for comorbid insomnia.

    PubMed

    Lund, Hannah G; Rybarczyk, Bruce D; Perrin, Paul B; Leszczyszyn, David; Stepanski, Edward

    2013-10-01

    To examine the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) on the underreporting of sleep relative to objective measurement, a common occurrence among individuals with insomnia. Pre-treatment and post-treatment self-report measures of sleep were compared with those obtained from home-based polysomnography (PSG) in 60 adults (mean age = 69.17; 42 women) with comorbid insomnia. The self-report data were published previously in a randomized controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of CBT-I compared with a placebo treatment. Self-report measures significantly underestimated sleep at pre-treatment and CBT-I led to a correction in this discrepancy. There were no significant changes in PSG after CBT-I. Path analysis showed that an increase in an objective proxy measure of sleep quality (i.e., decreased stage N1 sleep) after CBT-I was significantly related to improvements in self-report of sleep, with full mediation by reductions in discrepancy. This is the first CBT-I outcome study to analyze discrepancy changes and demonstrate that these changes account for a significant portion of self-report outcome. In addition, improved sleep quality as measured by a decrease in percentage of stage N1 sleep following treatment may be one mechanism that explains why sleep estimation is more accurate following CBT-I. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Computer-assisted adult medical diagnosis: subject review and evaluation of a new microcomputer-based system.

    PubMed

    Waxman, H S; Worley, W E

    1990-05-01

    Three decades after the conceptual foundation was laid for computer-aided diagnosis, some of its potential has been realized. Systems based on probabilistic reasoning have been developed and applied within limited domains (e.g., acute abdominal pain) and for the general diagnosis of systemic disorders. Less progress has been made in the development and application of diagnostic systems based on "artificial intelligence", reflecting theoretical limits to this application of computers to medicine and the enormity of the task. The presently available probabilistic systems have recently been joined by a new microcomputer-based system, MEDITEL Computer-Assisted Diagnosis, Adult System. The performance of this system was evaluated with both clinical-pathologic conference cases and consecutive admissions with undiagnosed illnesses. The correct diagnosis appeared on the list generated by the system in 80 to 90% of the cases. Experience with this and other systems illustrates current issues in the evaluation of computer systems for aid in diagnosis and of computer-based medical "expert" systems in general. These issues include physician acceptance of these systems and the ethical, legal, and regulatory aspects of computer system application. We conclude that, in appropriately selected cases, the accuracy and efficiency of physician diagnosis can be enhanced with computer assistance, and the risk of overlooking the correct diagnosis can be reduced.

  3. Relative bioavailability and safety of aripiprazole lauroxil, a novel once-monthly, long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, following deltoid and gluteal administration in adult subjects with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Turncliff, Ryan; Hard, Marjie; Du, Yangchun; Risinger, Robert; Ehrich, Elliot W

    2014-11-01

    Aripiprazole lauroxil is a linker lipid ester of aripiprazole for extended-release intramuscular (IM) injection. This multicenter, randomized, open-label study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), relative bioavailability, and tolerability of a single IM deltoid or gluteal injection of aripiprazole lauroxil in adult subjects with chronic stable schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Forty-six subjects were randomized 1:1 to aripiprazole lauroxil 441 mg IM in the deltoid or gluteal muscle. Samples were collected through 89 days post-dose to measure levels of aripiprazole lauroxil, N-hydroxymethyl aripiprazole, aripiprazole, and dehydro-aripiprazole. Forty-three (93.5%) subjects completed all study assessments; most were CYP2D6 extensive or immediate metabolizers (96%); two (4%) were poor metabolizers. The PK of aripiprazole following aripiprazole lauroxil was characterized by a steady rise in plasma concentrations (Tmax 44-50 days), a broad peak, and prolonged exposure attributable to the dissolution of aripiprazole lauroxil and formation rate-limited elimination of aripiprazole (t1/2=15.4-19.2 days). Deltoid vs. gluteal administration resulted in slightly higher Cmax aripiprazole concentrations [1.31 (1.02, 1.67); GMR 90% CI]; total exposure (AUCinf) was similar between sites of administration [0.84 (0.57, 1.24)]. N-hydroxymethyl-aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole exposures were 10% and 33-36%, respectively, of aripiprazole exposure following aripiprazole lauroxil. The most common adverse events were injection site pain in 20 subjects (43.5%) and headache in 6 subjects (13.0%) of mild intensity occurring at a similar rate with deltoid and gluteal administration. Exposure ranges with deltoid and gluteal administration overlapped, suggesting that these sites may be used interchangeably. Despite a higher incidence of adverse events, deltoid muscle provides a more accessible injection site and could facilitate patient acceptance.

  4. Response inhibition and reward anticipation in medication-naïve adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a within-subject case-control neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Susana; Hoekzema, Elseline; Ramos-Quiroga, J Antoni; Richarte, Vanesa; Canals, Clara; Bosch, Rosa; Rovira, Mariana; Soliva, Juan Carlos; Bulbena, Antonio; Tobeña, Adolf; Casas, Miguel; Vilarroya, Oscar

    2012-10-01

    Previous research suggests that ADHD patients are characterized by both reduced activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during response inhibition tasks (such as the Go-NoGo task), and reduced activity in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation tasks (such as the Monetary-Incentive-Delay [MID] task). However, no prior research has applied either of these paradigms in medication-naïve adults with ADHD, nor have these been implemented in an intrasubject manner. The sample consisted of 19 medication-naïve adults with ADHD and 19 control subjects. Main group analyses were based on individually defined regions of interest: the IFG and the VStr for the Go-NoGo and the MID task respectively. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between the two measures, as well as between these measures and the clinical symptoms of ADHD. We observed reduced bilateral VStr activity in adults with ADHD during reward anticipation. No differences were detected in IFG activation on the Go-NoGo paradigm. Correlation analyses suggest that the two tasks are independent at a neural level, but are related behaviorally in terms of the variability of the performance reaction time. Activity in the bilateral VStr but not in the IFG was associated negatively with symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity. Results underline the implication of the reward system in ADHD adult pathophysiology and suggest that frontal abnormalities during response inhibition performance may not be such a pivotal aspect of the phenotype in adulthood. In addition, our findings point toward response variability as a core feature of the disorder. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Serum total anti-oxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, I; Ighodayenowho, O K; Nwoke, E

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoke has been reported to contain free radicals. The interaction of these free radicals with the body defense system and associated health risk among Nigerian smokers have remained scarcely investigated despite the high numbers of smokers in our society. This study thus, investigates the serum total antioxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers in apparent good health and who have been smoking between 1.4 sticks of cigarette/day for about 1-3 years. Twenty(20) consenting smokers between 19 and 45 years consisting of fifteen (15) males and 5 females were recruited after examination to certify their apparent good health. Twenty (20) non-smokers, who were matched in age and sex were included as control subjects. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was observed to be higher in male non-smokers (1.92 +/- 0.2 2mM) when compared with their female counterparts (1.88 +/- 0.16 mM). Among smokers, the males subjects showed a decreased TAC (Male: 1.45 +/- 0.23 mM and female; 1.65 +/- 0.16 mM) with a strong statistical difference between the TAC of smokers and non-smokers (t = 2.095, n = 20 and P < 0.05). Data suggest lower oxidant defense and hence, increased susceptibility to free radical associated diseases especially among the male smokers. Conserted efforts need to be made by governmental agents to enforce legislation that could reduce the rate of smoking. Campaigns should also be initiated to educate the lay public on the dangers of cigarette smoking.

  6. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA.

  7. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study on acceptability, safety and efficacy of oral administration of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.) in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to assess acceptability and side-effects of consumption of sacha inchi oil, rich in α-linolenic acid and sunflower oil, rich in linoleic acid, in adult human subjects. Thirty subjects received 10 or 15ml daily of sacha inchi or sunflower oil for 4months. Acceptability was assessed with daily self-report and with a Likert test at the end of the study. Safety was assessed with self- recording of side-effects and with hepatic and renal markers. Primary efficacy variables were the change in lipid profile. Subjects reported low acceptability of sacha inchi oil at week-1 (37.5%). However, since week-6, acceptability was significantly increased to 81.25-93.75%. No differences were observed in acceptability with respect to sex or oil volume (P>0.05). Most frequent adverse effects during first weeks of consuming sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil were nauseas. The side-effects were reduced with time. Biochemical markers of hepatic and kidney function were maintained unchanged. Serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels and arterial blood pressure were lowered with both oils (P<0.05). Higher HDL-cholesterol was observed with sacha inchi oil at month-4. In conclusion, sacha inchi oil consumed has good acceptability after week-1 of consumption and it is safety.

  8. Quantitative and subjective behavioural aspects in the assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

    PubMed

    Söderström, Staffan; Pettersson, Richard; Nilsson, Kent W

    2014-01-01

    Self-rating scales and cognitive tests are instruments used in the assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have examined the differential validity of these kinds of instruments in psychiatric samples. To examine the discriminative validity of two self-report scales (ADHD Self-Report Scale [ASRS v.1.1], Current Symptom Scale [CSS]) and a continuous performance test with measures of motor activity (QBTest Plus). The interrelation between the instruments, and their abilities to differentiate between patients with an ADHD diagnosis and non-ADHD patients referred for psychiatric assessment were examined in a naturalistic sample of 61 adult patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the dichotomized versions of the test variables in all tests ranged from 0.61 to 0.71. The ASRS and CSS exhibited sensitivity of 90.2% and 85.4%, and specificity of 35.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Variables from the QBTest Plus showed the opposite result for the variables QBImpulsivity and QBInattention, with sensitivity of 58.5% and 36.3% and specificity of 80.0% and 100.0%. Sensitivity and specificity of QBActivity were 68.3% and 65.0%, respectively. A stepwise discriminant function analysis showed that two variables from the QBTest Plus--QBInattention and QBActivity--accounted for 22.8% of the between-group variability, with the strongest predictor being QBInattention. The function yielded an overall correct classification of 72.1%. The classification correctly identified 87.8% of patients diagnosed with ADHD and 40.0% of non-ADHD patients. The discriminant validity of self-rating scales and the more objective measure of ADHD symptoms are poor and should be integrated generally with other sources of data.

  9. Complications of female circumcision in Nigerian Igbos.

    PubMed

    Egwuatu, V E; Agugua, N E

    1981-11-01

    An analysis is made of 43 children and 15 adult female patients who presented with post-circumcision complications at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, between January 1973 and December 1980; 57 patients had been circumcised within 21 days of birth and one patient in the seventh month of her first pregnancy. Age of presentation varied with the severity of the symptoms: 21 children and 11 adults presented with varying degrees of labial occlusion, while 9 children and 4 adults had implantation dermoids. Urinary retention was the problem in 12 children and one adult.

  10. Methodological Aspects of Subjective Life Expectancy: Effects of Culture-Specific Reporting Heterogeneity Among Older Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been suggested as a predictor of mortality and mortality-related behaviors. Although critical for culturally diverse societies, these findings do not consider cross-cultural methodological comparability. Culture-specific reporting heterogeneity is a well-known phenomenon introducing biases, and research on this issue with SLE is not established. Method. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined reporting heterogeneity in SLE focusing on item nonresponse, focal points, and reports over time for five ethnic-cultural groups: non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, non-Hispanic other races, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. Results. On item nonresponse, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics said, “I don’t know,” to SLE significantly more than any other groups. Nearly half of the respondents chose 0, 50, or 100, making them focal points. However, the focal points differed: 50 for Whites, 100 for Blacks, and 0 for Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. The relationship of SLE measured at two time points was higher for Whites than minorities. Moreover, those who said “I don’t know” to SLE showed higher subsequent mortality than those who gave an answer. SLE was not a significant mortality predictor for Hispanics. Discussion. Overall, SLE is not free from culture-specific reporting heterogeneity. This warrants further research about its culture-relevant measurement mechanisms. PMID:26297708

  11. Safety and pharmacokinetics of the antiorthopoxvirus compound ST-246 following repeat oral dosing in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robert; Chinsangaram, Jarasvech; Bolken, Tove' C; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar R; Tien, Deborah; Jones, Kevin F; Frimm, Annie; Corrado, Michael L; Pickens, Margaret; Landis, Patrick; Clarke, Jean; Marbury, Thomas C; Hruby, Dennis E

    2010-06-01

    ST-246, a novel compound that inhibits egress of orthopoxvirus from infected cells, is being evaluated as a treatment for pathogenic orthopoxvirus infections in humans. This phase I, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, escalating multiple-dose study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ST-246 administered as a single daily oral dose of 250, 400, or 800 mg for 21 days to nonfasting healthy human volunteers. ST-246 appeared to be well tolerated, with no serious adverse events (AEs). Headache, for which one subject in the 800-mg group discontinued the study, was the most commonly reported AE in all treatment groups. The multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of ST-246 was well characterized. The day 21 mean elimination half-lives were calculated at 18.8, 19.8, and 20.7 h for each of the 250-, 400-, and 800-mg/day dose groups, respectively. Steady state was reached by day 6 (within 3 to 5 half-lives), saturable absorption was observed at the 800-mg dose level, and the fraction of parent drug excreted in the urine was very low. Based on these results, administration of 400 mg/day ST-246 can be expected to provide plasma concentrations above the efficacious concentration demonstrated in nonhuman primate models in earlier studies.

  12. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Ketorolac Tromethamine After Continuous Subcutaneous Infusion and Repeat Intramuscular Bolus Injections in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Michael; Mamelok, Richard; Hurliman, Michele; Dupuis, Mariève; Xie, Yuli; Grenier, Julie; Sheldon, Curtis; Gartner, Michael; Noymer, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Ketorolac tromethamine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that exhibits analgesic activity with no sedative or anxiolytic properties. Twelve healthy male subjects were enrolled in a study to receive either of 2 treatments over 2 periods in an open-label, randomized, 2-way crossover design: (A) 120 mg of ketorolac tromethamine administered as a continuous subcutaneous infusion over a 24-hour period; or (B) an identical total daily dose administered as 4 intramuscular bolus injections of 30 mg each given every 6 hours (current labeled treatment regimen). The pharmacokinetic and safety profiles were evaluated for both treatments. Both modes of administration have similar values for area under the curve (AUC) and half-life (t1/2 ), suggesting that continuous subcutaneous infusion and repeated intramuscular bolus injections have similar bioavailability. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) was 40% lower when ketorolac was administered as a continuous subcutaneous infusion compared with repeat intramuscular bolus injections. The concentration at steady-state (Css ) for continuous subcutaneous infusion was between the Cmax and Ctrough values obtained following the 4 intramuscular injections. Both treatment arms were well tolerated. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Effect of Vortioxetine on Cardiac Repolarization in Healthy Adult Male Subjects: Results of a Thorough QT/QTc Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Nomikos, George G; Karim, Aziz; Munsaka, Melvin; Serenko, Michael; Liosatos, Maggie; Harris, Stuart

    2013-10-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo- and positive-controlled, parallel-group study evaluated the effect of vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), an investigational multimodal antidepressant, on QT interval in accordance with current guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH-E14). A total of 340 healthy men were randomized to receive 1 of 4 treatments for 14 days: (1) vortioxetine 10 mg once daily (QD), (2) vortioxetine 40 mg QD, (3) placebo QD, or (4) placebo QD on Days 1 through 13 followed by a single dose of moxifloxacin 400 mg (positive control). The primary endpoint was the largest time-matched, baseline-adjusted least-squares (LS) mean difference for the individual-corrected QT interval (QTcNi [linear]) between vortioxetine and placebo. Alternative QT correction formulas (i.e., Fredericia [QTcF], Bazett [QTcB], Framingham [QTcFm], and QTcNi [nonlinear]) were used as secondary endpoints. The upper bound of the 2-sided 90% confidence interval around the LS mean difference from placebo for baseline-adjusted QTcNi (linear), QTcF, QTcB, QTcFm, and QTcNi (nonlinear) did not exceed 10 ms at any time point after multiple doses of vortioxetine 10 mg (therapeutic) or 40 mg (supratherapeutic). Overall, the study results indicate that vortioxetine is unlikely to affect cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects. © 2013, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  14. Gastric digestion of α-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

    2014-08-28

    In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of α-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of α-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of α-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between α-LA and OA.

  15. Methodological Aspects of Subjective Life Expectancy: Effects of Culture-Specific Reporting Heterogeneity Among Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghee; Smith, Jacqui

    2016-05-01

    Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been suggested as a predictor of mortality and mortality-related behaviors. Although critical for culturally diverse societies, these findings do not consider cross-cultural methodological comparability. Culture-specific reporting heterogeneity is a well-known phenomenon introducing biases, and research on this issue with SLE is not established. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined reporting heterogeneity in SLE focusing on item nonresponse, focal points, and reports over time for five ethnic-cultural groups: non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, non-Hispanic other races, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. On item nonresponse, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics said, "I don't know," to SLE significantly more than any other groups. Nearly half of the respondents chose 0, 50, or 100, making them focal points. However, the focal points differed: 50 for Whites, 100 for Blacks, and 0 for Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. The relationship of SLE measured at two time points was higher for Whites than minorities. Moreover, those who said "I don't know" to SLE showed higher subsequent mortality than those who gave an answer. SLE was not a significant mortality predictor for Hispanics. Overall, SLE is not free from culture-specific reporting heterogeneity. This warrants further research about its culture-relevant measurement mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction in adults: comparison of the double-pass system, retinoscopy, subjective refraction and a table-mounted autorefractor.

    PubMed

    Vilaseca, Meritxell; Arjona, Montserrat; Pujol, Jaume; Peris, Elvira; Martínez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of spherical equivalent (SE) estimates of a double-pass system and to compare it with retinoscopy, subjective refraction and a table-mounted autorefractor. Non-cycloplegic refraction was performed on 125 eyes of 65 healthy adults (age 23.5±3.0 years) from October 2010 to January 2011 using retinoscopy, subjective refraction, autorefraction (Auto kerato-refractometer TOPCON KR-8100, Japan) and a double-pass system (Optical Quality Analysis System, OQAS, Visiometrics S.L., Spain). Nine consecutive measurements with the double-pass system were performed on a subgroup of 22 eyes to assess repeatability. To evaluate the trueness of the OQAS instrument, the SE laboratory bias between the double-pass system and the other techniques was calculated. The SE mean coefficient of repeatability obtained was 0.22D. Significant correlations could be established between the OQAS and the SE obtained with retinoscopy (r=0.956, P<0.001), subjective refraction (r=0.955, P<0.001) and autorefraction (r=0.957, P<0.001). The differences in SE between the double-pass system and the other techniques were significant (P<0.001), but lacked clinical relevance except for retinoscopy; Retinoscopy gave more hyperopic values than the double-pass system -0.51±0.50D as well as the subjective refraction -0.23±0.50D; More myopic values were achieved by means of autorefraction 0.24±0.49D. The double-pass system provides accurate and reliable estimates of the SE that can be used for clinical studies. This technique can determine the correct focus position to assess the ocular optical quality. However, it has a relatively small measuring range in comparison with autorefractors (-8.00 to +5.00D), and requires prior information on the refractive state of the patient.

  17. Effect of Varenicline Combined with High-Dose Alcohol on Craving, Subjective Intoxication, Perceptual Motor Response, and Executive Cognitive Function in Adults with Alcohol Use Disorders: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Verplaetse, Terril L.; Pittman, Brian P.; Shi, Julia M.; Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Coppola, Sabrina; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Varenicline has been found to decrease alcohol-motivated behaviors. Recent warnings regarding aversive events associated with varenicline used in conjunction with alcohol warrant further investigation into the safety of the drug when combined with alcohol. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to examine the effect of combining varenicline with a high, fixed-dose of alcohol on subjective reactivity and cognitive function in adults with alcohol use disorders. Methods This double-blind, placebo-controlled preliminary investigation examined the effects of varenicline (0, 1, 2 mg/day) on subjective reactivity, cognition, perceptual motor function, and physiologic reactivity to a fixed-dose of alcohol (vs. non-alcohol control beverage) using an established laboratory paradigm in smokers and non-smokers meeting criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUDs; n=44). All participants had completed a parent varenicline study evaluating alcohol self-administration. Each subject completed two fixed-dose laboratory sessions assessing reactivity to a high-dose alcohol (0.08 g/dL) or a non-alcoholic control beverage, order counter-balanced. Results Varenicline attenuated alcohol-related increases in subjective intoxication and alcohol-related decreases in executive cognitive function. At baseline, varenicline reduced alcohol craving and diastolic blood pressure, and increased associative learning, working memory, and perceptual motor function. Varenicline produced non-specific effects on diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Overall, there were few differences in effects between 1 mg/day and 2 mg/day varenicline versus placebo. Conclusions These preliminary results continue to support the safety and use of varenicline in combination with alcohol in individuals meeting criteria for AUDs. PMID:27246567

  18. Non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction in adults: comparison of the double-pass system, retinoscopy, subjective refraction and a table-mounted autorefractor

    PubMed Central

    Vilaseca, Meritxell; Arjona, Montserrat; Pujol, Jaume; Peris, Elvira; Martínez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the accuracy of spherical equivalent (SE) estimates of a double-pass system and to compare it with retinoscopy, subjective refraction and a table-mounted autorefractor. METHODS Non-cycloplegic refraction was performed on 125 eyes of 65 healthy adults (age 23.5±3.0 years) from October 2010 to January 2011 using retinoscopy, subjective refraction, autorefraction (Auto kerato-refractometer TOPCON KR-8100, Japan) and a double-pass system (Optical Quality Analysis System, OQAS, Visiometrics S.L., Spain). Nine consecutive measurements with the double-pass system were performed on a subgroup of 22 eyes to assess repeatability. To evaluate the trueness of the OQAS instrument, the SE laboratory bias between the double-pass system and the other techniques was calculated. RESULTS The SE mean coefficient of repeatability obtained was 0.22D. Significant correlations could be established between the OQAS and the SE obtained with retinoscopy (r=0.956, P<0.001), subjective refraction (r=0.955, P<0.001) and autorefraction (r=0.957, P<0.001). The differences in SE between the double-pass system and the other techniques were significant (P<0.001), but lacked clinical relevance except for retinoscopy; Retinoscopy gave more hyperopic values than the double-pass system -0.51±0.50D as well as the subjective refraction -0.23±0.50D; More myopic values were achieved by means of autorefraction 0.24±0.49D. CONCLUSION The double-pass system provides accurate and reliable estimates of the SE that can be used for clinical studies. This technique can determine the correct focus position to assess the ocular optical quality. However, it has a relatively small measuring range in comparison with autorefractors (-8.00 to +5.00D), and requires prior information on the refractive state of the patient. PMID:24195036

  19. Ascending single-dose study of the safety profile, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of bosutinib coadministered with ketoconazole to healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Richat; Leister, Cathie; El Gaaloul, Myriam; Chalon, Stephan; Sonnichsen, Daryl

    2012-09-01

    Bosutinib (SKI-606) is an orally bioavailable, competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively targets both Src and Abl tyrosine kinases. Bosutinib is metabolized primarily through the cytochrome P450 3A4 pathway. Inhibition of bosutinib metabolism by coadministration with the potent cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole could potentially increase plasma concentrations of bosutinib, allowing for the study of bosutinib tolerability at supratherapeutic concentrations in a healthy subject population. This study assessed the safety profile, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of different dose combinations of bosutinib coadministered with ketoconazole in healthy adults, and determined whether supratherapeutic concentrations of bosutinib can be achieved with ketoconazole. This was a randomized, Phase I, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential-group study conducted in healthy adults. Single oral doses of bosutinib 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 mg or placebo were administered with ketoconazole and food on day 1; daily single oral doses of ketoconazole 400 mg were administered on days -1 and 1 through 4. Forty-eight subjects were enrolled. Their mean (SD) age was 32.0 (10.7) years (range, 18-50 years). The majority of the subjects (n = 44 [92%]) were white, 2 (4%) were black or African American, and 2 (4%) were of other races. Bosutinib was associated with acceptable tolerability at doses from 100 to 600 mg, with adverse events either mild (n = 30 [63%]) or moderate (n = 12 [25%]) in severity; no subject discontinued treatment due to adverse events, and no serious events were reported. Mean (SD) values for bosutinib 100 to 600 mg ranged from 58.4 (13.3) to 426 (100) ng/mL for C(max) and 2980 (802) to 23,000 (4020) ng·h/mL for AUC(0-∞); mean AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-last) ranged from 876 (234) to 7080 (1640) ng· h/mL and from 2740 (854) to 22,200 (3630) ng · h/mL, respectively. C(max) and AUC were linear and dose proportional. Mean C(max) at 600 mg was 2

  20. Responsiveness and Minimal Important Changes of the Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire in Subjects With Mild Adolescent and Moderate Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis Undergoing Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Foti, Calogero; Ferrante, Simona

    2017-06-01

    Single-center, prospective study. Evaluating the responsiveness and minimal important changes (MICs) for the Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and adult idiopathic scoliosis (AS). Despite the SRS-22 properties have been investigated in various different languages, there is still a lack of information concerning responsiveness and MIC, limiting the use of SRS-22 for clinical and research purposes. At the beginning and end of multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs, 149 subjects with mild AIS (Cobb angle <25°) and 140 subjects with moderate AS (Cobb angle <35°) completed the SRS-22. Upon completing the programs, subjects also performed the global perceived effect (GPE) scales test, which was divided to produce a dichotomous outcome (improved vs. stable). Responsiveness was calculated for all SRS-22 domains but satisfaction with management by distribution (effect size; standardized response mean) and anchor-based methods (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curves; correlations between change scores of the SRS-22 and GPE). ROC curves were also used to compute the MICs. The effect size ranged from 1.23 to 1.50 in AIS and from 1.02 to 1.37 in AS. The standardized response mean ranged from 0.95 to 1.27 in AIS and from 0.66 to 0.90 in AS. The ROC analyses revealed the following MIC values (area under the curve; sensitivity; specificity): function, 0.70 (0.739;66;70) for AIS and 0.60 (0.842;84;76) for AS; pain, 0.70 (0.731;71;70) for AIS and 0.40 (0.817;81;70) for AS; mental health, 0.50 (0.708;83;58) for AIS and 0.55 (0.750;69;78) for AS; self-perceived image, 0.40 (0.609;79;42) for AIS and 0.60 (0.751;61;82) for AS. Correlations between change scores of the SRS-22 domains and GPE were low to moderate, ranging from -0.347 to -0.667. The SRS-22 was sensitive in detecting clinical changes in subjects with adolescent and adult scoliosis. We recommend taking the MICs provided into account when

  1. Orange pomace fibre increases a composite scoring of subjective ratings of hunger and fullness in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Dong, Honglin; Sargent, Laura J; Chatzidiakou, Yianna; Saunders, Caroline; Harkness, Laura; Bordenave, Nicolas; Rowland, Ian; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    Dietary fibre has been shown to increase subjective satiating ratings. However data from human trials has produced mixed results, possibly due to different types of fibre which have diverse physicochemical properties and gastrointestinal transit behaviour. The aim of study 1 was to investigate whether orange juice (OJ) with 5.5 g of added orange pomace fibre (OPF) was as satiating as whole orange (WO, chopped and blended to a puree/liquid) compared with OJ. Study 2 was to evaluate the dose-dependent satiating effect of OPF delivered in an orange-flavoured beverage. Both studies were randomized, controlled, double blind, cross over in design with 4 intervention arms in study 1 including OJ, OPF, WO, and water, and 3 arms in study 2: orange-flavoured beverage with low (2.5 g) and high (5.5 g) dose of OPF (LD-OPF and HD-OPF), and orange-flavoured beverage without fibre (Control). Volunteers were asked to response to 8 questions relating to hunger, fullness, desire to eat, thirst and discomfort by visual analogue scale (VAS) for each question. Differences were detected in least squares mean estimates of composite satiety scores and each individual question with statistical modelling to adjust for differences in baseline scores. Addition of 5.5 g OPF either to OJ or to orange-flavoured beverage significantly increased the composite satiety scores compared with OJ (P < 0.0001) or Control (P < 0.0001), and the effect was comparative to WO. LD-OPF showed some satiating effect (less desire to eat) compared with Control (P = 0.038), though less effective than HD-OPF (P = 0.043). In conclusion, the addition of OPF to OJ was as effective at increasing satiety as WO consumption compared with OJ; and there was a trend of dose-dependent effect of OPF on satiety compared with the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children.

  3. Adult and child use of love, like, don't like and hate during family mealtimes. Subjective category assessments as food preference talk.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Food preference is now a ubiquitous concept in eating research, and closely associated with actual consumption, particularly in relation to children's food preferences. Research in this area is beginning to reveal the effects of parent-child interaction on eating practices though relatively little attention has been paid to the discursive and lexical processes involved. Food preferences are typically associated with the terms 'likes' and 'dislikes' in food preference research. By contrast, adults and children typically use the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate' to construct and manage food preferences in everyday meal conversations. A corpus of 270 video- and audio-recorded English and Scottish family mealtimes, involving children aged 1-17 years, was searched and analysed for any and all occurrences of subjective category assessments (SCAs; e.g., 'I like X'), featuring the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate'. Discursive psychology was used to analyse the transcripts and recordings, and illustrated the disparity between adult and child use of SCAs and food preference talk. Within the data set, parents typically made claims about what their children like, and in doing so claimed epistemic primacy over their children's food preferences. Children, by contrast, typically made claims about their own 'don't likes' and likes, and these were frequently countered by their parents or treated as inappropriate claims. Implications for how parents and researchers might reorient to the food preferences lexicon are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Spanish version of the California Verbal Learning Test in a sample of middle-aged and older adults with subjective memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Facal, David; Campos-Magdaleno, María; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the ability to retain new information is of special interest in the second half of life because of age-related changes, especially in those individuals at risk of cognitive impairment. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) is one of the most common auditory-verbal learning tests used to test episodic memory. The objective of this paper is to study the stability of the factorial structure of the Spanish version of CVLT in a sample of adults aged 50-87 years with subjective memory complaints (SMCs). Performance at baseline and follow-up assessment (about 18 months later) was analyzed in 301 participants. Models including one, two, three, and four factors were tested, by comparing the results of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models of relations between the factors at baseline and follow-up. The two-factor models (accurate and inaccurate memory) yielded the best fit. The model establishing a relationship between these two factors at baseline and follow-up provided a good fit. CVLT performance in a sample of middle-aged and old adults with SMCs was separated into two factors differentiating accurate recollection and errors. A structural equation modeling (SEM) model relating data from both assessments replicated these findings.

  5. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Eynat; Selanikyo, Efrat; Bar-Haim Erez, Asnat; Katz, Noomi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the “Roim Rachok Program” (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD. PMID:26404341

  6. Nigerian juvenile offenders: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ogunlesi, A O

    1991-01-01

    A case-controlled study was carried out on all the 51 juvenile delinquents found in a point prevalence survey of a Nigerian Borstal Remand Centre. Mean age of the delinquents was 17-27 years. They were mostly from the low social class (70.6%) and the commonest reason for admission was for being beyond parental control (68.6%). Identified risk factors found for juvenile delinquency were death of biological mother, parental marital failure, growing up with relatives rather than parents, drug abuse and ordinal position in the family. Possible cultural explanations for some of these observations were proffered. The need to improve on the living conditions of these juveniles and their assessment procedure were highlighted. Finally, it is imperative that the obsolete Nigerian Children and Young Person's Law be updated.

  7. Psychiatric referrals during peace and wartimes: a Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Okulate, Gbenga T

    2005-07-01

    Using a questionnaire administered by us, we sought to investigate the differences between patients referred to the psychiatric department of a Nigerian military general hospital during peacetime and those referred during the civil war in Liberia in which Nigerian soldiers were involved as peacekeepers. Referrals to psychiatry in peacetime were quite few but increased considerably during the period of combat in direct relation to the increase in the number of surgical wounded in action cases. Organic mental disorders and anxiety disorders were more frequently referred in peacetime than in war, whereas substance abuse disorders were more frequent during the combat period. Non-psychotic psychiatric conditions were less referred in the wartime group, partly because of nonrecognition at the mission areas and also because of recovery in front-line areas or consideration of their evacuation as a nonpriority. Mental health workers engaged at the mission areas require more training in the identification of such cases.

  8. Operation Nigerian Angel: Fighting Aids To Fight Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-29

    systems , hollowing out military forces and leaving in its wake millions of orphans. It further worsens and is exacerbated by severe drought, malnutrition...Ethiopia, India , Nigeria and Russia – will experience the greatest numbers of infected people by 2010, with the virus damaging the countries’ economic...remark that Africans have “lost the 20th Century.”11 HIV/AIDS is devastating the Nigerian healthcare system as it overloads medical resources

  9. Interest in neurology during medical clerkship in three Nigerian medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study sought to ascertain perception of Nigerian medical students of neurology in comparison with 7 other major medical specialties. To also determine whether neurology was the specialty students consider most difficult and the reasons for this and to appraise their opinion on how neurosciences and neurology were taught in their different universities. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from randomly selected clinical students from 3 medical colleges in Nigeria (University of Ibadan, Ibadan; University of Ilorin, Ilorin; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo). Results Of 320 questionnaires sent out, 302 were returned given 94% response rate. Students felt they knew neurology least of all the 8 medical specialties, and were not confident of making neurological diagnoses. About 82% of the students indicated they learnt neurology best from bedside teaching, followed by use of medical textbooks. Close to 15% found online resources very useful for learning neurology and 6% indicated that group discussion was quite useful in the acquisition of knowledge on neurology. Histology and biochemistry were the preclinical subjects participants opined were least useful in learning neurology. The most frequent reasons students felt neurology was difficult were problems with understanding neuroanatomy (49%), insufficient exposure to neurological cases (41%), too many complex diagnoses (32%) and inadequate neurology teachers (32%). Conclusions Nigerian medical students perceived neurology as the most difficult medical specialty and are not interested in specializing in it. Neurology education could be improved upon by provision of more bedside tutorials and increased availability of online resources to enhance learning. There is need to emphasize increased frequency of small group discussions amongst students so that they will be used to teamwork after graduation. PMID:20487554

  10. Housing satisfaction among chronically homeless adults: identification of its major domains, changes over time, and relation to subjective well-being and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Mares, Alvin S; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2012-06-01

    There is limited consensus on the critical domains of housing satisfaction among chronically homeless adults and little information on changes in housing satisfaction over time or whether housing satisfaction at initial entry into housing is correlated with subsequent subjective well-being or other outcomes. The current study tracked housing satisfaction over a 2-year period in a multi-site supported housing initiative and examined the predictive value of clients' housing satisfaction when they were first housed on various subjective and functional outcomes. A total of 756 participants from 11 sites were enrolled in the study. Six domains of housing satisfaction were identified: good environment, control and consumer choice, physical quality, geographic proximity to desirable resources, positive case manager contact, and frequency of landlord interaction. Over 2 years, there were slight declines in housing satisfaction on physical quality of housing and satisfaction with case manager contact, and an increase in satisfaction with landlord interaction. Consistent with some previous research, housing satisfaction was not predictive of housing tenure, clinical outcomes, or duration of program participation. While becoming housed is a significant gain for chronically homeless people, their satisfaction with housing did not predict functional outcomes.

  11. Sleep pattern and practice among adolescents school children in Nigerian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Maduabuchi, Josephat Chinawa; Obu, Herbert Anayo; Chukwu, Barthlomew Friday; Aronu, Ann Ebele; Manyike, Pius Chukwuka; Chinawa, Awoere Tamunosiki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some adolescents may have sleep disorder at some point during adolescence. Determining the pattern and practice of sleep among adolescents could be useful to establish a lasting sleep hygiene program among adolescents. The objectives of this study are to describe sleep pattern and practice among adolescent in Nigerian secondary schools. Methods Sleep habits were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools from February to April 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria. Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used. Results A total of 443 subjects, comprising 263 (59.4%) females and 180 (40.6%) males completed the questionnaire. The mean duration of night sleep of the subjects during weekday was 7.84 (1.9) hours and 8.65 (2.07) hours during the weekend. 22.8% (101/443) had abnormal sleep onset latency (< 5 minutes and > 30 minutes). The gender of the subjects did not influence the sleep onset latency (χ2 = 32.89, p= 0.57). Twenty six (5.9%)of the subjects reported difficulty falling asleep. Conclusion Adolescents have varying degrees of sleeping practice and hygiene. PMID:25883740

  12. Technologies and Second Language: Nigerian Students' Adaptive Strategies to Cope with Language Barrier in Northern Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elega, Adeola Abdulateef; Özad, Bahire Efe

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate how Nigerian students in Northern Cyprus cope with language barrier and increase interactions with people of the host community beyond the classroom via utilizing technological adaptive strategies. In order to complete this study, a descriptive design based on a survey conducted among 238 Nigerian students studying…

  13. Academics' Attitudes toward the Utilization of Institutional Repositories in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukwoma, Scholastica C.; Dike, V. W.

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the attitudes of academics concerning the utilization of institutional repositories (IRs) in Nigerian universities. The study took the form of a descriptive survey, gathering data from the five Nigerian universities with IRs. The result showed that the universities developed IRs to create a forum for their…

  14. Prepositional Intraference in ESL and Its Teaching: The Educated Nigerian English Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic habit of "prepositional intraference" in Educated Nigerian English (ENE) with a view to establishing why and how Nigerians produce prepositional intraference variations and how the variations distinguish ENE morphosyntax from native English morphosyntax, particularly Standard British English (SBE).…

  15. Attitudes of Student Teachers Towards Teaching in Mother Tongue in Nigerian Primary Schools: Implications for Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejieh, Michael U. C.

    2004-01-01

    Following the results of the Ife Six-Year Primary Project designed to use an indigenous Nigerian language as a medium of instruction in primary schools, some suggestions have been made to introduce it in all Nigerian primary schools. This study investigates the attitudes of student teachers towards mother-tongue instruction. Data for the study…

  16. Effective and Efficient ESL and Nigerian Mother-Tongue Literacy Acquisition: Can Literature Be a Catalyst?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onukaogu, Chukwuemeka Eze

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of literature in the acquisition of literacy in English as a Second Language and Nigerian mother tongues. Provides a critique of the Nigerian literacy instruction model, and discusses how to help students acquire effective and efficient literacy. (Author/VWL)

  17. Enlightenment and Attitudes of the Nigerian Elite on the Roles of Languages in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbite, Wale

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the effect of enlightenment on attitudes of the Nigerian elite to the roles assigned to English and indigenous languages in Nigeria. From the results of a preliminary investigation into the attitudes of undergraduate students in a Nigerian University, it was presumed that enlightenment of citizens on the importance of…

  18. Analysis of Factors Enhancing Pitfall in Research and Teaching of the Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tafida; Umar, Kasim; Paul, Chima

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses factors enhancing pitfall in research and teaching in the Nigerian university system. Using data generated from secondary sources, it was found that so many factors are responsible for the constant decay in teaching and research in the Nigerian universities. The paper however found from literature that the high rate of pitfalls…

  19. Global Digital Revolution and Africa: Transforming Nigerian Universities to World Class Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isah, Emmanuel Aileonokhuoya; Ayeni, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the global digital revolution and the transformation of Nigerian universities. The study overviewed university developments world wide in line with what obtains in Nigeria. The study highlighted the several challenges that face Nigerian universities inclusive of poor funding, poor personnel and the poor exposure to global…

  20. Academics' Attitudes toward the Utilization of Institutional Repositories in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukwoma, Scholastica C.; Dike, V. W.

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the attitudes of academics concerning the utilization of institutional repositories (IRs) in Nigerian universities. The study took the form of a descriptive survey, gathering data from the five Nigerian universities with IRs. The result showed that the universities developed IRs to create a forum for their…