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Sample records for adult nutrition survey

  1. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Service NCHS Total and High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, ... 2012, 12.9% of adults had high total cholesterol, 17.4% had low HDL cholesterol, and 69. ...

  2. Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in adults: the French nutrition and health survey (ENNS, 2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Deschamps, Valérie; Roudier, Candice; Oleko, Amivi; Szego, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-01

    The French National Programme on Nutrition and Health (Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)), the aim of which is to reduce nutrition-related chronic diseases, necessitates monitoring of nutritional characteristics. Our objective was to describe dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in a national sample of adults, especially according to current French recommendations. The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey using a multistage sampling design (Etude nationale nutrition santé (ENNS)). Between February 2006 and March 2007, 3115 18-74-year-old adults were included (participation rate 59.7 %). Energy, macronutrient and food consumption were estimated through three randomly distributed 24 h recalls, and compared to PNNS recommendations; physical activity was described using International Physical Activity Questionnaire guidelines; anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed according to national and international references. When compared to current recommendations, intake of carbohydrates (>50 % energy intake without alcohol: 26.4 %), SFA ( < 35 % total lipids: 18.5 %) and total fibre (>25 g/d: 13.7 %) was frequently unsatisfactory. While overall consumption of 'meat, seafood and eggs' was satisfactory, that of fruits and vegetables ( > or = 400 g/d: 43.8 %) and seafood (two or more servings per week: 29.9 %) was frequently too low. The physical activity level was satisfactory at 63.2 %. Overweight was observed in 49.3 % of adults, while 30.9 % were hypertensive and 44.1 % had dyslipidaemia. Vitamin and iron-poor status was found to affect less than 10 % of the population. Based on the ENNS survey, overall nutrition remains a problem in France. Comparison of these data with those of other countries could contribute to a better understanding of variations in nutrition-related diseases.

  3. Serum Nutritional Biomarkers and Their Associations with Sleep among US Adults in Recent National Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Canas, Jose A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Shah, Mauli T.; McNeely, Jessica M.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear. Methods Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2005–2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20–85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A) Sleep duration; (B) Sleep disorder; (C) Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as “Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction” (Factor 1), “Sleepiness” (Factor 2) and “Sleep disturbance” (Factor 3). Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene), folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models. Results Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OH)D and sleepiness (as well as insomnia), and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5–6 h per night) compared to normal sleep duration (7–8 h per night). Conclusions A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships. PMID:25137304

  4. Bisphenol-A and Sleep Adequacy among Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, Hind A.; Beydoun, May A.; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Zonderman, Alan B.; Eid, Shaker M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate bisphenol-A (BPA) level and its relationship to sleep adequacy in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whereby data were collected using in-person interviews, physical examination and laboratory testing. BPA level was measured in urine samples and analyzed as loge-transformed variable and in quartiles (< 0.9 ng/mL; 0.9 to < 1.9 ng/mL; 1.9 to < 3.7 ng/mL; 3.7+ ng/mL). Sleep adequacy was operationalized with three questions: “How much sleep do you usually get at night on weekdays or workdays?”, “Have you ever told a doctor or other health professionals that you have trouble sleeping?” and “Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have a sleep disorder?” Sleep duration was further categorized as (< 6 h, ≥ 6 h); (< 7 h, 7–8 h, > 8 h); (< 5 h, 5–6 h, 7–8 h, ≥ 9 h). Linear, binary, and ordinal logistic regression models were constructed. Results: Loge-transformed BPA level was inversely related to sleep duration defined, in hours, as a continuous variable, a dichotomous variable (≥ 6, < 6), or an ordinal variable (≥ 9, 7–8, 5–6, < 5), after adjustment for confounders. Help-seeking behavior for sleep problems and diagnosis with sleep disorders were not significantly associated with loge-transformed BPA level in fully adjusted models. Conclusions: Loge-transformed BPA level may be associated with fewer hours of sleep among U.S. adults, with implications for prevention. Further research involving diverse populations are needed to confirm these study findings. Citation: Beydoun HA, Beydoun MA, Jeng HA, Zonderman AB, Eid SM. Bisphenol-A and sleep adequacy among adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. SLEEP 2016;39(2):467–476. PMID:26446109

  5. Nutrient intake in Japanese adults --from The National Nutrition Survey, 1995-99.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mieko; Tajima, Sanae; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2002-10-01

    The National Nutrition Survey is a unique survey that provides nationwide information on nutrient intake in Japan. Descriptive statistical data of nutrient intake, which has not been described in annual reports, are summarized in this report. A dataset from the National Nutrition Survey between 1995 and 1999 was used for analyses. The distribution of vitamin A intake had an extremely long right-hand tail and the difference between mean and median was very large. The results alert us to understand and use statistics properly when one summarizes the data. Means and medians of each nutrient intake except vitamin C were higher in men than in women, however, means and medians of nutrient density (per 1,000 kcal energy intake) for all nutrients were higher in women than in men. Fat intake was the highest in individuals in their 20 s and gradually declined in older age groups. Most of other forms of nutrient intake were the highest in individuals in their 50 s or 60 s and declined in older age groups. However, a declining trend with aging was not observed in the nutrient density of all nutrients except fat. These statistical data would support better interpretation of the survey data. Furthermore, some methodological limitations in the dietary assessment of the present survey, including the possibility of overestimating nutrient intake by not taking nutrient loss during the cooking process in households into account, were discussed. It is important to use and interpret the survey data under careful consideration on such methodological limitations.

  6. The growing gap in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Small, James; Nietert, Paul J; Sinopoli, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control are lower among uninsured than insured adults. Time trends in differences and underlying modifiable factors are important for informing strategies to improve health equity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2005 to 2010 data in adults aged 18 to 64 years were analyzed to explore this opportunity. The proportion of adults with hypertension who were uninsured increased from 12.3% in 1988 to 1994 to 17.4% in 2005 to 2010. In 1988 to 1994, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control to <140/<90 mm Hg (30.1% versus 26.5%; P=0.27) were similar in insured and uninsured adults. By 2005 to 2010, the absolute gap in hypertension control between uninsured and insured adults of 21.9% (52.5% versus 30.6%; P<0.001) was explained approximately equally by lower awareness (65.2% versus 80.7%), fewer aware adults treated (75.2% versus 88.5%), and fewer treated adults controlled (63.1% versus 73.5%; all P<0.001). Publicly insured and uninsured adults had similar income. Yet, hypertension control was similar across time periods in publicly and privately insured adults, despite lower income and education in the former. In multivariable analysis, hypertension control in 2005 to 2010 was associated with visit frequency (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% confidence interval, 2.4-4.8]), statin therapy (1.8 [1.4-2.3]), and healthcare insurance (1.6 [1.2-2.2]) but not poverty index (1.04 [0.96-1.12]). Public or private insurance linked to more frequent healthcare, greater awareness and effective treatment of hypertension, and appropriate statin use could reverse a long-term trend of growing inequity in hypertension control between insured and uninsured adults.

  7. Trends in energy intake among Korean adults, 1998-2015: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sungha; Kim, Hyun Ja

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Assessing changes in energy intake and dietary sources is important to understand trends in the prevalence of obesity. Thus, we examined trends in energy intake and its nutrient and food sources in Korean adults from 1998 through 2015. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study included 70,769 subjects aged ≥ 19 years who completed a nutrition survey. Subject data were obtained from the 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007-2009, 2010-2012, and 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary intake was assessed by a 1-day 24-hour recall method. RESULTS In men, the daily energy intake significantly increased from 2,196 kcal in 1998 to 2,489 kcal in 2013-2015 (P for trend < 0.0001). However, the daily energy intake among women did not change significantly over the same period (P for trend = 0.5772). The percentages of energy intake from animal foods (e.g., meat and milk) and beverages increased during the study period in both men and women. However, the percentage of energy intake from plant foods decreased due to a marked decrease in the intake of white rice. Changes in food sources of energy intake led to changes in the nutrient sources of energy intake; for example, the increase of energy intake from fat and decrease of energy intake from carbohydrate. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that since 1998, energy intake has increased among Korean adult men, but not among women. However, the composition of food and nutrient sources of energy intake has changed in both men and women. Energy intake and its nutrient and food sources should continue to be monitored regularly in the Korean adult population. PMID:28386388

  8. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  9. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits.

  10. Association between oral health behavior and periodontal disease among Korean adults: The Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to assess the association between oral health behavior and periodontal disease using nationally representative data.This study involved a cross-sectional analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis models using the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontal disease.Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of periodontitis for the toothbrushing after lunch group and the toothbrushing before bedtime group were 0.842 (0.758, 0.936) and 0.814 (0.728, 0.911), respectively, after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, drinking, exercise, education, income, white blood cell count, and metabolic syndrome. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of periodontitis for the floss group and the powered toothbrush group after adjustment were 0.678 (0.588, 0.781) and 0.771 (0.610, 0.974), respectively.The association between oral health behavior and periodontitis was proven by multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding factors among Korean adults. Brushing after lunch and before bedtime as well as the use of floss and a powered toothbrush may be considered independent risk indicators of periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  11. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain.

  12. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population

  13. Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Blakey, Charlie; Parnell, Winsome

    2014-12-28

    Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk. Insight into nut consumption patterns provides important information to help design strategies to encourage intake. The present study aimed to describe nut consumption in terms of the percentage of consumers, mean grams eaten among the population and nut consumers, and to identify the predictors of nut consumption. Data from the 24 h dietary recalls of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (n 4721) were used to measure nut consumption. On the recall day, the percentages of consumers of whole nuts, nut butters and nuts from hidden sources were 6.9% (n 240), 7.2% (n 346) and 19.2% (n 732), respectively (28.9% (n 1167) combined (total)). The mean grams consumed by the population were relatively low for whole nuts (2.8 g/d), nut butters (0.9 g/d), nuts from hidden sources (1.5 g/d) and total nuts (5.2 g/d). Among consumers, the mean daily grams of whole nuts, nut butters, nuts from hidden sources and total nuts eaten were 40.3, 12.9, 7.8 and 17.9 g/d, respectively. Those aged 15-18 years had the lowest whole nut consumption, but had the highest nut butter consumption. The consumption of total nuts was positively associated with education and socio-economic status, while whole nut consumption was inversely associated with BMI. In conclusion, the low percentage of nut consumers is of concern and new strategies to increase nut consumption are required. Future public health initiatives should be mindful of these patterns and predictors. In particular, different forms of nuts may appeal to different age and socio-economic groups.

  14. Intake and major sources of dietary flavonoid in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Jin; Park, Min Young; Chang, Namsoo; Kwon, Oran

    2015-01-01

    With an effort to investigate possible relationship between flavonoids and health, an accurate estimation of flavonoid intake is valuable. We estimated dietary flavonoid intake and identified the major food sources. Subjects were healthy adults aged >=19 y (n=11,474) who completed the 24-h dietary recall of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012). The US Department of Agriculture and newly estimated or published values for typical Korean foods were combined into a Korean-targeted flavonoid database. The mean intake of total flavonoid was 107±1.47 mg/d, with a higher intake in women than in men after energy-adjustment. Quercetin, cyanidin, genistein, daidzein, epigallocatechin 3-gallate, epicatechin, hesperetin, and luteolin were identified as major flavonoid compounds. Across the age range studied, flavonols and flavones showed a reversed U-shape curve; flavan-3-ol and flavanones showed a decreasing pattern; and anthocyanidins and isoflavones showed an increasing pattern. Forty-five food items were identified as contributing >2% of at least one flavonoid compound's intake. Kimchi was the major food source of total flavonoids, followed by green tea, persimmons, and soybeans. Single food items accounting for more than 50% of the intake of a specific flavonoid included persimmons (cyanidin), green tea (epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate), black tea (thearubigin), tangerines (hesperetin and naringenin), and onions (isorhamnetin). This study provides information on Korean flavonoid intake to enable international comparisons, along with insight into how the sources and intake of various flavonoids vary according to age and gender. This work should facilitate future investigations of the association between flavonoid intake and health.

  15. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rachel C.; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R.; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2015-01-01

    Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ). The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS) were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP) and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044). Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014), with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p < 0.001) and CRP (p = 0.045) were apparent. Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease. PMID:26371037

  16. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  17. Ethnic disparities in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in American adults: data from the Examination of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Ramphal, Lilly; Zhang, Jun; Suzuki, Sumhiro

    2014-04-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were stratified by weight, gender, and ethnicity for six survey years from 1999 to 2010 for variables that satisfy the criteria for metabolic syndrome (MS). Results showed that 34% of the US adult population had MS. No significant gender disparities in MS prevalence were found. Black men had a significantly lower prevalence of MS than Black women and White men from 1999 to 2008 (P < 0.05). Women had a 60% higher abdominal adiposity than men in the US population (P = 0.00048; pregnant females were excluded). Although there seem to be ethnic differences in the prevalence of MS, the expression of MS is not a sufficient risk to culminate in cardiovascular disease; rather, nutritional, genetic, and environmental factors are necessary to finalize its expression into overt disease.

  18. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  19. The association between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia in older, non-obese Korean adults: the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) 2009.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi Hae; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun Jung; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won-Young; Baek, Ki Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kang, Moo Il; Oh, Ki Won

    2013-01-01

    Recent data suggest that variations in calcium intake may influence body weight and composition; however, the relationship between daily calcium intake and muscle mass has not been well established. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia. We analyzed data for older adults (over 60 years) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted in 2009. A total of 1339 Non-Obese (BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m²), older adults (592 men and 707 women) were enrolled. Dietary variables were assessed using a nutrition survey that used a 24-hour recall method. Daily calcium intake based on the consumption of each food item was calculated. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight less than 2 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. We found that daily calcium intake was negatively correlated with total body fat percentage and positively correlated with appendicular skeletal mass (p<0.001). Participants with sarcopenia appear to have significantly lower daily calcium intakes than participants without sarcopenia (p<0.001). The unadjusted prevalence of sarcopenia according to daily calcium intake tertiles were 6.3%, 4.3%, and 2.7% in tertiles 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, total energy intake, and lifestyle factors, compared with those in the lowest tertile of daily calcium intake, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio for sarcopenia of 0.295 (95% confidence interval, 0.087-0.768; p for trend = 0.014). We found that daily calcium intake, corrected for total energy intake and serum 25(OH)D status, was significantly lower in subjects with sarcopenia than in those without. Our results suggest a strong inverse association between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia in non-obese, older Korean adults.

  20. Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In developing countries, overweight prevalence is increasing while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double nutrition burden. Both underweight and overweight are related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, reduced well-being and quality of life. This study aims to compare the prevalence of overweight and underweight among Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005. Methods The study was based on two nationally representative surveys, the National Nutrition Survey 2000 (14,452 subjects) and the National Adult Obesity Survey 2005 (17,213 subjects). Adults aged 25-64 years were sampled to be nationally representative. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of underweight and overweight with socio-economic indicators. Results The distribution of BMI across the population and population groups indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The nationwide prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was 6.6% and 0.4% respectively in 2005, almost twice the rates of 2000 (3.5% and 0.2%). Using the Asian BMI cut-off of 23 kg/m2 the overweight prevalence was 16.3% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2000. In contrast, the underweight prevalence (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) of 20.9% in 2005 was lower than the rate of 25.0% in 2000. Women were more likely to be both underweight and overweight as compared to men in both 2000 and 2005. Urban residents were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be underweight as compared to rural residents in both years. The shifts from underweight to overweight were clearer among the higher food expenditure levels. Conclusions The double nutrition burden was clearly present in Vietnam. The distribution of BMI across the population groups generally indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The prevalence of overweight was increased while the declined level of

  1. Status of Cardiovascular Health in US Adults: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2008

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Christina M.; Ning, Hongyan; Allen, Norrina B.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals define a new concept, “cardiovascular (CV) health”; however, current prevalence estimates of the status of CV health in U.S. adults according to age, sex and race/ethnicity have not been published. Methods and Results We included 14,515 adults (≥20 years) from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants were stratified by young (20-39 years), middle (40-64 years), and older ages (65+ years). CV health behaviors (diet, physical activity, body mass index, smoking) and CV health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking) were defined as poor, intermediate, or ideal. Less than 1% of adults exhibited ideal CV health for all 7 metrics. For CV health behaviors, non-smoking was most prevalent (range:60.2-90.4%) while ideal Healthy Diet Score was least prevalent (range:0.2-2.6%) across groups. Prevalence of ideal BMI (range:36.5-45.3%) and ideal physical activity levels (range:50.2-58.8%) were higher in young adults compared to middle or older ages. Ideal total cholesterol (range:23.7-36.2%), blood pressure (range:11.9-16.3%) and fasting blood glucose (range:31.2-42.9%) were lower in older adults compared with young and middle age adults.Prevalence of poor CV health factors was lowest in young age but higher at middle and older ages. Prevalence estimates by age and sex were consistent across race/ethnic groups. Conclusions These prevalence estimates of CV health represent a starting point from which effectiveness of efforts to promote CV health and prevent CV disease can be monitored and compared in U.S. adult populations. PMID:22095826

  2. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV).

    PubMed

    Lee, H-S; Lee, S-S; Hwang, I-Y; Park, Y-J; Yoon, S-H; Han, K; Son, J-W; Ko, S-H; Park, Y G; Yim, H W; Lee, W-C; Park, Y-M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Korean adults with diagnosed diabetes using nationally representative data. Among subjects aged ≥30 years who participated in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007 and 2008, a total of 745 subjects (336 men and 409 women) with a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were analyzed. The prevalence of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes was 55.5%. The rates of awareness, treatment and control were 88.0, 94.2, and 30.8%, respectively. Compared with the general population, the prevalence of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes was higher in all age groups in both genders. Factors independently associated with a high prevalence of hypertension included being male, increasing age, single, <9 years of education, the presence of chronic kidney disease risk, hypercholesterolemia (≥240 mg dl(-1)) and high body mass index (≥25 kg m(-2)). Regular medical screening was positively associated with hypertension control, whereas a high triglyceride level (≥150 mg dl(-1)) was inversely associated. A high prevalence and a low control rate of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control blood pressure in diabetic patients.

  3. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in older adults in Korea: analysis of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mona; Yeom, Hye-A; Jung, Dukyoo

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is consistently increasing among Korean adults and is reported to be particularly high among older adults in Korea. This paper reports the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and identifies the association between metabolic syndrome and physical activity in Korean older adults. Subjects of this study were 3653 older adults who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 2007-2009. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 46.84%. The prevalences of abdominal obesity, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure were 39.51, 45.53, 39.55, 48.24, and 69.14%, respectively, in the study population. Compared to subjects who reported low levels of physical activity, the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for those who were moderately active and highly active were 0.93 and 0.63, respectively. Nurses should develop metabolic syndrome management programs that are tailored to the needs of the targeted group and that include individually adapted physical activity programs to promote health.

  4. Fermented food intake is associated with a reduced likelihood of atopic dermatitis in an adult population (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9763 adults 19 years or older using the 2012-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified 4 dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal component analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood, and seaweed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (>92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD.

  5. Sexual Minority Health Disparities in Adult Men and Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Grin, Benjamin M.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We used nationally representative data to investigate health disparities associated with sexual minority status among adults in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from 11 114 adults who participated in the 2001 to 2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multiple logistic regressions, we examined the prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, cigarette smoking, and alcohol and illicit drug use in sexual minorities and heterosexual adults. Results. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual minority men had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 and self-reported gonorrhea and chlamydia. Sexual minority women had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for hepatitis C, smoking, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions. Numerous health disparities continue to face sexual minority men and women in the United States. Notably, health disparities persisted beyond the role of sociodemographic factors, including access to insurance and primary care, suggesting that further research is warranted to identify the determinants of health inequity for sexual minorities. PMID:26270288

  6. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and functional impairments in older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Mackenzie, Todd A; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project validated cutpoints for appendicular lean mass (ALM) to identify individuals with functional impairment. We hypothesized that the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity would be similar based on the different Foundation for the National Institutes of Health criteria, increase with age, and be associated with risk of impairment limitations. We identified 4984 subjects at least 60 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004. Sarcopenia was defined using ALM (men <19.75 kg, women <15.02 kg) and ALM adjusted for body mass index (BMI; men <0.789 kg/m2, women <0.512 kg/m2). Sarcopenic obesity is defined as subjects fulfilling the criteria for sarcopenia and obesity by body fat (men ≥25%, women ≥35%). Prevalence rates of both sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were evaluated with respect to sex, age category (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years) and race. We assessed the association of physical limitations, basic and instrumental activities of daily living and sarcopenia status. The mean age was 70.5 years in men and 71.6 years in women. Half (50.8%; n = 2531) were female, and mean BMI was 28 kg/m2 in both sexes. Appendicular lean mass was higher in men than in women (24.1 vs. 16.3; P < .001), but fat mass was lower (30.9 vs. 42.0; P < .001). In men, sarcopenia prevalence was 16.0% and 27.8% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. In women, prevalence was 40.5% and 19.3% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. Sarcopenia was associated with a 1.10 (0.86-1.41) and 0.93 (0.74-1.16), and 1.46 (1.10-1.94), and 2.13 (1.41-3.20) risk of physical limitations using the ALM and ALM/BMI definitions in men and women, respectively. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity varies greatly, and a uniform definition is needed to identify and characterize these high-risk populations.

  7. Antioxidant status and its association with elevated depressive symptoms among US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005–06

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Boueiz, Adel; Shroff, Monal R.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship of elevated depressive symptoms with antioxidant status. Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005–06 on US adults aged 20–85 years were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire with a score cutpoint of 10 to define “elevated depressive symptoms”. Serum antioxidant status was measured by serum levels of carotenoids, retinol (free and retinyl esters), vitamin C and vitamin E. The main analyses consisted of multiple logistic and zero-inflated poisson regression models, taking into account sampling design complexity. The final sample consisted of 1,798 US adults with complete data. Higher total carotenoid serum level was associated with lower likelihood of elevated depressive symptoms with a reduction in the odds by 37% overall with each SD increase in exposure, and by 34% among women (p<0.05). A dose-response relationship was observed when serum total carotenoids were expressed as quartiles [Q4 (1.62–10.1 μmol/L) vs. Q1(0.06–0.86 μmol/L): OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.23–0.76, P<0.001; p-value for trend=0.035], though no significant associations were found with other antioxidant levels. Among carotenoids, β-carotene (men and women combined) and lutein+zeaxanthins (women only, after control for dietary lutein+zeaxanthin intake and supplement use) had an independent inverse association with elevated depressive symptoms among US adults. None of the other serum antioxidants had a significant association with depressive symptoms, independently of total carotenoids and other covariates. In conclusion, total carotenoids (mainly β-carotene and lutein+zeaxanthins) in serum were associated with reduced levels of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling US adults. PMID:22935166

  8. Soda and Cell Aging: Associations Between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Adults From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Needham, Belinda L.; Rehkopf, David H.; Adler, Nancy E.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested whether leukocyte telomere length maintenance, which underlies healthy cellular aging, provides a link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Methods. We examined cross-sectional associations between the consumption of SSBs, diet soda, and fruit juice and telomere length in a nationally representative sample of healthy adults. The study population included 5309 US adults, aged 20 to 65 years, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, from the 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from DNA specimens. Diet was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Associations were examined using multivariate linear regression for the outcome of log-transformed telomere length. Results. After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, sugar-sweetened soda consumption was associated with shorter telomeres (b = –0.010; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.020, −0.001; P = .04). Consumption of 100% fruit juice was marginally associated with longer telomeres (b = 0.016; 95% CI = −0.000, 0.033; P = .05). No significant associations were observed between consumption of diet sodas or noncarbonated SSBs and telomere length. Conclusions. Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas might influence metabolic disease development through accelerated cell aging. PMID:25322305

  9. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate according to the Pulmonary Function of Korean Adults Aged 40 Years and Over: Analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seung-Hyun; Paik, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yang, Huiho; Park, Seung-Guk; Jeon, Young-Jee; Yoo, Sunmi

    2016-05-01

    Influenza vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality, particularly for those who have decreased lung functions. This study was to identify the factors that affect vaccination coverage according to the results of pulmonary function tests depending on the age. In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 3,224 adults over the age of 40 who participated in the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and underwent pulmonary function testing in 2012. To identify the factors that affect vaccination rate, logistic regression analysis was conducted after dividing the subjects into two groups based on the age of 65. Influenza vaccination coverage of the entire subjects was 45.2%, and 76.8% for those aged 65 and over. The group with abnormal pulmonary function had a higher vaccination rate than the normal group, but any pulmonary dysfunction or history of COPD did not affect the vaccination coverage in the multivariate analysis. The subjects who were 40-64 years-old had higher vaccination coverage when they were less educated or with restricted activity level, received health screenings, and had chronic diseases. Those aged 65 and over had significantly higher vaccination coverage only when they received regular health screenings. Any pulmonary dysfunction or having COPD showed no significant correlation with the vaccination coverage in the Korean adult population.

  10. Trends in Determinants of Hypercholesterolemia among Chinese Adults between 2002 and 2012: Results from the National Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peng-kun; Li, Hong; Man, Qing-qing; Jia, Shan-shan; Li, Li-xiang; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and affects a high proportion of the population. This study aimed to assess and compare the determinants of hypercholesterolemia among Chinese adults aged 18 years and above, from 2002 to 2012. The study used a stratified multistage cluster sampling method to select participants. Sociodemographic and lifestyle information was collected during face-to-face interviews. Dietary intake was calculated by 3-day, 24-h dietary records in combination with weighted edible oil and condiments. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as total cholesterol above 6.22 mmol/L (240 mg/dL) from fasting blood samples. The study included 47,701 (mean age 43.0 years) and 39,870 (mean age 51.0 years) participants in 2002 and 2010–2012 surveys respectively. The weighted prevalence of hypercholesterolemia increased from 1.6% (2.1% urban, 1.0% rural) in 2002 to 6.0% (6.4% urban, 5.1% rural) in 2012. The intake of plant-based food decreased but the intake of pork increased over the 10 years. A high intake of protein and pork, alcohol drinking and overweight/obesity were positively associated with hypercholesterolemia. Neither education nor fruit and vegetable intake were associated with hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, the burden of hypercholesterolemia increased substantially between 2002 and 2012 in China. Unhealthy lifestyle factors and change in traditional dietary pattern were positively associated with hypercholesterolemia. Further research on the role of diet in the development and prevention of hypercholesterolemia is needed. PMID:28294966

  11. Food and Nutrition Practices and Education Needs in Florida's Adult Family Care Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Gal, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    A statewide survey was carried out to determine food and nutrition practices and education needs of Florida's adult family care homes (AFCHs). The 30-item survey included questions on food and nutrition education, supplement use, and menu planning. Infrequent use of menus and nutrition supplements was reported. A strong need was indicated for…

  12. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers.

  13. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  14. Relationship between dietary magnesium, manganese, and copper and metabolic syndrome risk in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008).

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have reported correlations between mineral intake and metabolic syndrome (MS), but accurate relationships and consistency in the results are difficult to confirm. Accordingly, this study aims to assess the dietary intakes of magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) to determine their relationship with MS. Data from a total of 5,136 adults (2,084 men, 3,052 women) was collected from the 2007-2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), and the intakes of Mg, Mn, and Cu of the MS patients were compared with those of healthy adults. The relationship between the intakes of these minerals and the MS risks was analyzed. Diagnosis of MS was evaluated by the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) standards. Among all study subjects, 25.9 % (540 subjects) of the men and 24.5 % (748 subjects) of the women met diagnostic criteria for inclusion in the MS group. In the men, daily intakes of Mg and Cu in the MS group were significantly lower than those in control group, and in the women, daily intakes of energy, Mg, Mn, and Cu in the MS group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The women subjects with high blood pressure showed significantly lower intakes of Mg, Mn, and Cu than control subjects. In addition, in the women, the highest quartile of Mg and Cu was inversely associated with MS, but with adjustment were not maintained. However, in the postmenopausal women, MS was significant and inversely associated with the highest quartiles of Cu intake and the association remained significant after adjustments. Considering that MS incidence increases and dietary intake and nutrient density decrease with increasing age, and mineral intake is reduced accordingly, these results suggest that meal management with adequate mineral intake is advisable to control MS.

  15. Popcorn consumption and dietary and physiological parameters of US children and adults: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 dietary survey data.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Ann C; Fulgoni, Victor L; Reimers, Kristin J; Agarwal, Sanjiv

    2008-05-01

    Popcorn is a whole-grain food/snack that is included among foods recommended in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyramid to increase whole-grain consumption. The purpose of the present study was to use 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recall data to determine the average popcorn intake among Americans, and whether popcorn consumers exhibited different dietary intake patterns or physiological biomarkers of cardiovascular disease compared with popcorn non-consumers. Mean intake among consumers of popcorn was 38.8 g/day. Compared with non-consumers, popcorn consumers had approximately 250% higher (P<0.01) intake of whole grains (2.5 vs 0.70 servings/day) and approximately 22% higher (P<0.01) intake of fiber (18.1 vs 14.9 g/day). Small but significant differences (P<0.01) were also observed for intake of carbohydrate, magnesium (higher intake in popcorn consumers), protein, niacin, and folate (lower intake in popcorn consumers). In addition, popcorn consumers had a greater (P<0.01) intake of total grains and consumed fewer meat servings. Popcorn consumption was associated with increased intake of whole grains, dietary fiber, and certain other nutrients.

  16. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P < 0.01), but not in the proportion of daily calories (27% to 28%) from 2001 to 2011. The most frequent food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P < 0.001) and from 4% to 7% (P < 0.001), respectively, during the same period. Males aged 30-49 years (34%) and females aged 19-29 years (35%) consumed the highest proportion of daily calories from commercially-prepared meals in 2011. CONCLUSIONS Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health

  17. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Margaret D; Kit, Brian K; Lacher, David A; Yoon, Sung Sug

    2013-10-01

    High levels of total cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good cholesterol") are risk factors for coronary heart disease (1–5). To identify persons who may be at risk for developing coronary heart disease, adults are advised to have their cholesterol checked at least once every 5 years (i.e., to be screened for cholesterol) (6). A previous study reported declining trends in the percentage of adults with high total cholesterol during 1999–2010 (7). This report presents estimates of the percentages of adults aged 20 and over with high total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, and screened for cholesterol, based on data from 2011–2012, and compares them with corresponding estimates from 2009–2010. Analysis is based on measured cholesterol only and does not take into account whether lipid-lowering medications were taken.

  18. Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Teppala, Srinivas; Shankar, Anoop

    2012-01-01

    We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of diabetes among those with ≥3 sleep disturbances was 2.04 (1.46–2.87). In sex-specific analyses, this association was significant only in women (OR (95% CI) = 3.68 (2.01–6.72)) but not in men (1.10 (0.59–2.04)), P-interaction = 0.01. However, there were no ethnic differences in this association, P-interaction = 0.7. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, SDB was independently associated with diabetes only in women, but not in men. PMID:22518133

  19. Association between Sleep Duration and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Korean Adults: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cho-Rong; Shin, Jin-Young; Gim, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and IFG. Methods This cross-sectional study included 14,925 Korean adults (5,868 men and 9,057 women) ≥19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2012. Blood glucose levels were measured after at least eight hours of fasting. Study subjects were categorized into three groups based on self-reported sleep duration (<7, 7–8, or >8 h/d). IFG was diagnosed according to recommendations American Diabetes Association guidelines. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates. Results In men, short sleep duration (<7 hours) was associated with increased risk of IFG (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.96) compared to adequate sleep duration (7–8 hours), whereas long sleep duration (>8 hours) was not associated with risk of IFG (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.37 to 2.18). In women, sleep duration was not associated with risk of IFG. Conclusion The association between sleep duration and IFG differed by sex; sleep deprivation, was associated with increased risk of IFG, especially in men. PMID:26885323

  20. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  1. Optimal range of triglyceride values to estimate serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009.

    PubMed

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the validity of Friedewald's formula and to propose a range of triglyceride values over which the formula can be used without significant error. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,929 subjects (946 males and 983 females) aged 20 yr and older using data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. Estimated total number was considered to be 10,633,655 (5,846,384 males and 4,787,271 females). Calculated and directly-measured low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values were highly correlated (r = 0.96); however, significant differences were observed between the directly-measured and calculated LDL-C concentrations. Subjects in the underestimated group (10.5%) had higher dysmetabolic profiles than those in the overestimated group (11.4%). Although serum triglyceride level showed the greatest independent association with differences between the calculated and directly-measured LDL-C concentrations, no statistically significant differences were noted when triglyceride concentration was between 36 and 298 mg/dL (93.2%). In conclusion, Friedewald's formula accurately estimates directly-measured serum LDL-C concentration in Korean adults. However, the formula can be applied to subjects with serum triglyceride concentrations from 36 to 298 mg/dL without significant error.

  2. Reference values for the pulmonary function of Korean adults using the data of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009).

    PubMed

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Heon

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new spirometric reference equations for the Korean population using the raw data of the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV, 2007-2009). A total of 4,753 healthy lifelong nonsmokers without respiratory diseases and symptoms were selected as the reference population. Spirometric reference equations were derived through multiple regression analysis. The newly developed reference equations for spirometry parameters were as follows: FEV1 (L) = -0.00025410 × (Age [years])(2) + 0.00012644 × (Height [cm])(2) - 0.00262 × Weight (kg) + 0.61493 (Men); FEV1 (L) = -0.00017538 × Age(2) + 0.00009598 × Height(2) - 0.00231 × Weight + 0.46877 (Women); FVC (L) = -0.00000219 × Age(3) + 0.0000006995642 × Height(3) + 1.19135 (Men); FVC (L) = 0.0167 × Age - 0.00030284 × Age(2) + 0.0000005850287 × Height(3) + 0.77609 (Women); FEV1/FVC (%) = -0.00289 × Age(2) - 0.16158 × Height(3) + 114.13736 (Men); FEV1/FVC (%) = -0.21382 × Age - 0.00000143 × Height(3) + 97.62514 (Women). The newly developed spirometric reference equation in this study can be used as criteria for the interpretation of spirometry results and the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in Korean adults.

  3. Sexual orientation disparities in smoking vary by sex and household smoking among US adults: Findings from the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Reisner, Sari L.; Mereish, Ethan H.; Matthews, Alicia K.; Operario, Don

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether sexual orientation-related smoking disparities in males and females varied by household smoking behaviors in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods Data were drawn from the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which assessed 14,972 individuals ages 20 to 59 years for sexual orientation, current smoking status, and household smoking. Weighted multivariable logistic models were fit to examine whether differences in current smoking status among sexual minority adults compared to heterosexuals was moderated by household smoking and sex, adjusting for covariates. Results The main effects of identifying as a sexual minority, being male, and living with a household smoker were all associated with a significantly higher odds of being a current smoker. However, there also was a significant three-way interaction among these variables (AOR=3.75, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.54). Follow-up analyses by sex indicated that the interaction between sexual identity and household smoking was significant for both males (AOR=6.40, 95% CI: 1.27, 32.28) and females (AOR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.81) but was in the opposite direction. Among male, living with a smoker was associated more strongly with greater odds of smoking among gay and bisexual males, compared to heterosexual males. In contrast, among females, living with a smoker was more strongly associated with greater odds of smoking for heterosexuals compared to lesbians and bisexuals. Conclusions Future research is warranted to examine characteristics of households, including smoking behaviors and composition, to guide more effective and tailored smoking cessation interventions for males and females by sexual orientation. PMID:26598804

  4. Perceived and objective diet quality in US adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Miller, Paige E; Agyemang, Priscilla; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Reedy, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Little is understood about the relationship between objective diet quality and perceived diet quality (PDQ), a potential psychosocial barrier to appropriate dietary intake. We compared PDQ and diet quality measured by a nutrient-based DASH index score in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) rated diet quality on a 5-point Likert scale and PDQ scores were generated (low, medium, high). A single 24 h dietary recall was used to estimate DASH index scores (range 0–9 points) by assigning 0, 0·5 or 1 point (optimal) for nine target nutrients: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fibre, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Setting Nationally representative sample of the US population. Subjects Adults aged ≥19 years in 2005–2006 NHANES (n 4419). Results Participants with high PDQ (33%) had higher DASH index scores (mean 3·0 (sd 0·07)) than those with low PDQ (mean 2·5 (sd 0·06), P < 0·001), but average scores did not align with targets for intermediate or optimal DASH accordance. Adults with high PDQ reported higher total fat, saturated fat and Na intakes compared with optimal DASH nutrient goals. Differences between those with high υ. low PDQ were similar for Whites and Blacks, but there was no difference between PDQ groups for Mexican Americans. Conclusions Among Whites and Blacks, but not Mexican Americans, high PDQ may be associated with higher diet quality, but not necessarily a diet meeting DASH nutrient goals. This disconnect between PDQ and actual diet quality may serve as a target in obesity prevention. PMID:24636343

  5. Association between sleep duration, fat mass, lean mass and obesity in Korean adults: the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuwoong; Shin, Doosup; Jung, Go-Un; Lee, Donghoon; Park, Sang Min

    2017-02-21

    This study investigated the association between sleep duration, fat mass, lean mass and obesity. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 16 905 adults included into the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Sleep duration was assessed by self-reported survey and categorized into ≤ 5, 6, 7, 8 and ≥ 9 h per day. The group reporting 7 h of sleep per day (comprised of those sleeping 7-8 h per day) was used as the reference group. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Obesity was defined based on the criteria from the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity. Least-squares means of fat mass index (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI) adjusted for age, employment status, comorbidities and physical activity were used to assess the relation between sleep duration and body composition. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of obesity according to sleep duration after adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors. After adjustment, FMI increased with fewer hours of sleep (P for trend: < 0.001) and LMI decreased with more hours of sleep (P for trend: 0.011). Compared to the reference group, sleep-deprived individuals were 1.22 times more likely to have general obesity (aOR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.45) and 1.32 times more likely to have abdominal obesity (aOR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.10-1.58). Our findings suggest that sleep deprivation might be related to an increase of fat mass and obesity, while oversleeping could be linked to a reduction of lean mass.

  6. Analysis of Kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption trends among Korean adults: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Ae-Wha; Choi, Eun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to analyze daily kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption by general characteristics and vegetable and fruit consumption from 1998 to 2012 by the Korean population based on the data of the KNHANES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study is based on the 1998-2012 KNHNES. Analysis data on 54,700 subjects aged 19 years and older were obtained from health behavior interviews and the 24-hour dietary recall method. RESULTS Daily kimchi consumption and portion size of kimchi decreased significantly from 1998 to 2012 (adjusted P for trend < 0.0001). Meanwhile, daily consumption of both non-salted vegetable and fruit with and without kimchi did not significantly change between 1998 and 2012. Reduced consumption of kimchi, non-salted vegetable, and fruit was observed for both genders as well as daily meal episodes and cooking locations. Male and female subjects with insufficient non-salted vegetable and fruit intake were increased 1.4 times and 1.3 times, respectively, in 2012 than 1998. All subjects consumed at least 400 g/day of non-salted vegetable, fruit, and kimchi in each survey year, although they consumed insufficient amounts (< 400 g/day) of non-salted vegetable and fruit without kimchi. CONCLUSIONS Since Koreans generally consume high amounts of fermented vegetables, including kimchi, total vegetables and fruit. Consumption of these foods by the Korean adult population reached 400 g, which is the recommended intake of the WCRF/AICR. Based on this result, it is necessary to promote consumption of kimchi in the Korean population and research the development of low sodium kimchi in the future. PMID:27087903

  7. Urinary concentrations of dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity among adult participants in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin; Nguyen, An

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence from recent studies has suggested a possible link between exposure to environmental pesticides and obesity. In this study, we assessed the potential associations between exposure to dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity in adults. Study participants aged 20-85 years were selected from the 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and were categorized as obese and non-obese based on body mass index. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of dichlorophenols were determined to assess level of exposure to environmental pesticides. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using SAS 9.3 to assess the association between 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) levels in urine and obesity with adjustment for potential confounders. Significantly higher geometric means of urinary concentrations of both 2,5-DCP (p<0.0001) and 2,4-DCP (p=0.0170) were seen in obese adults, compared to that in non-obese adults. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed in the study participants across increasing levels of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend<0.0001). Urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP were significantly associated with obesity among the second (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.93), third (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.87), and fourth (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.17) inter-quartiles after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, total fat intake, and physical activity. A statistically significant association was not seen between urinary 2,4-DCP and obesity. Our findings suggest a potential relationship between exposure to the fumigant insecticide paradichlorobenzene, measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP, and obesity in adults. Because we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causality in our study, prospective studies measuring exposure during etiologically relevant periods are warranted.

  8. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults: 2010-2012 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency.This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean adults aged 19 and older. The data were taken from the 2012-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Men had, on average, significantly more remaining teeth than women did. Women brushed their teeth more often than men per day and were more likely to brush their teeth after meals. The participants with higher education levels or household income had significantly more remaining teeth; the number of daily tooth brushing was positively associated with the number of remaining teeth; urban residents had significantly more remaining teeth than rural residents; and elderly adults had fewer remaining teeth than younger adults had (all with P < 0.05). The participants were more likely to retain their incisors (especially their canines) for their entire lifetimes than do so for their molars. From the incisors to the second premolars, they had more mandibular teeth than maxillary teeth, but among molars, they had more maxillary teeth than mandibular teeth. Elementary graduates with low household income had fewer remaining teeth than did university graduates with high household income (P < 0.0001). Finally, participants with high socioeconomic status were more likely to lose their molar teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status.The participants who brushed their teeth fewer times per day, those with low household incomes and/or education levels, and those who lived in rural districts had significantly higher prevalence of tooth loss than did

  9. Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Caroline C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

  10. A Nutritional Questionnaire for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanelli, Marie T.; Abernethy, Marilyn M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a questionnaire assessing nutritional knowledge and eating behaviors of older adults. The questionnaire consists of six sections: demographic and personal information, food resources, food consumption patterns, dietary practices related to health, activity patterns, and nutritional knowledge. Study results demonstrating the…

  11. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults: The 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data.Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years' old) who participated in the 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥ 3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90  mg/dL), NFG 2 (90-99  mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100-110  mg/dL), IFG 2 (111-125  mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126  mg/dL).Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3-26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG 2 group

  12. Association of serum ferritin levels with smoking and lung function in the Korean adult population: analysis of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan Ho; Goag, Eun Kyung; Lee, Su Hwan; Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Song, Joo Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron-catalyzed oxidative stress contributes to lung injury after exposure to various toxins, including cigarette smoke. An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance is considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Ferritin is a key protein in iron homeostasis, and its capacity to oxidize and sequester the metal preventing iron prooxidant activity implicates its possible role in the alteration of antioxidant imbalance. We investigated the relationship among cigarette smoking, lung function, and serum ferritin concentration in a large cohort representative of the Korean adult population. Materials and methods Among 50,405 participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2014, 15,239 adult subjects older than 40 years with serum ferritin levels and spirometric data were selected for this study. Results The mean age was 56.5 years for men (43%) and 56.9 years for women (57%). The prevalence of airway obstruction was 13.4%, which was significantly higher in men than in women, and increased in former or current smokers. The median levels of serum ferritin were highest in the airway obstruction group, followed by the restrictive pattern group, and lowest in the normal lung function group. The median ferritin levels were increased by smoking status and amounts in each spirometric subgroup. In multivariable regression analysis, serum ferritin was positively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, whereas the smoking amount was negatively associated with the adjustment with age, sex, height, and weight. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were increased in former or current smokers and were increased with smoking amount in all subgroups of participants categorized according to spirometric results. The result was also evident in the subgroups divided by obstructive severity. While smoking amount was inversely related to lung function, higher

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of blepharoptosis in Korean adult population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, M H; Cho, J; Zhao, D; Woo, K I; Kim, Y-D; Kim, S; Yang, S W

    2017-03-24

    PurposeThis study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of involutional blepharoptosis in a nationwide representative sample in Korea.MethodsCross-sectional study 20 941 Korean men and women 40 years of age and older who participated in last 2 years (2008 and 2009) of the 4th wave of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and the first 2 years (2010 and 2011) of KNHANES V. Ocular examinations were performed by ophthalmologists trained in procedure and grading methods, and blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance <2 mm on either eye.ResultsThe prevalence of involutional blepharoptosis in the Korean adult was 13.5% (95% CI: 12.1%, 14.9%). It was increasing along with aging (5.4% among 40's and 32.8% in people over 70 years old). A statistically significant negative association between levator function and blepharoptosis was found. With right eye, while only 5.4% (95% CI: 4.5%, 6.2%) had blepharoptosis among people whose levator function was excellent (≥12 mm), 71.4% (95% CI: 60.0%, 85.9%) of people whose levator function was poor (≤4 mm) had blepharoptosis. Hypertension, diabetes, higher body mass index (BMI), and lower education had statistically significant association with blepharoptosis adjusting all other confounders.ConclusionsThe distribution and proportional changes of levator function and marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1) with aging implicate a contributory role of muscular degeneration. Strong association with hypertension, diabetes, BMI, and education level suggests that etiology of involutional blepharoptosis would be multifactorial and further investigation would be necessary to determine precise mechanism and contribution of factors.Eye advance online publication, 24 March 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.43.

  14. Environmental Cadmium and Lead Exposures and Hearing Loss in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Hu, Howard; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Miller, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although cadmium and lead are known risk factors for hearing loss in animal models, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted on their associations with hearing ability in the general population. Objectives: We investigated the associations between blood cadmium and lead exposure and hearing loss in the U.S. general population while controlling for noise and other major risk factors contributing to hearing loss. Methods: We analyzed data from 3,698 U.S. adults 20–69 years of age who had been randomly assigned to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 Audiometry Examination Component. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA > 25 dB in either ear. Results: The weighted geometric means of blood cadmium and lead were 0.40 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39. 0.42] µg/L and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.60) µg/dL, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical risk factors and exposure to occupational and nonoccupational noise, the highest (vs. lowest) quintiles of cadmium and lead were associated with 13.8% (95% CI: 4.6%, 23.8%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 7.4%, 31.1%) increases in PTA, respectively (p-trends < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-level exposure to cadmium and lead found in the general U.S. population may be important risk factors for hearing loss. The findings support efforts to reduce environmental cadmium and lead exposures. PMID:22851306

  15. Tree Nut Consumption Is Associated with Better Nutrient Adequacy and Diet Quality in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient adequacy of tree nut consumers has not been examined. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 data were used to assess the association of tree nut consumption by adults 19+ years (n = 14,386) with nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Covariate adjusted usual intake was determined using two 24-h dietary recalls and the National Cancer Institute method. Percentages of the consumption groups below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) score. Usual intake data showed consumers of tree nuts had a lower percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population below the EAR for vitamins A (22 ± 5 vs. 49 ± 1), E (38 ± 4 vs. 94 ± 0.4) and C (17 ± 4 vs. 44 ± 1); folate (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 12 ± 0.6); calcium (26 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 1); iron (3 ± 0.6 vs. 9 ± 0.4); magnesium (8 ± 1 vs. 60 ± 1); and zinc (1.5 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). Tree nut consumers had a higher percentage (p < 0.0001) of the population above the AI for fiber (33 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 0.3) and potassium (12 ± 3 mg vs. 2 ± 0.2 mg). HEI-2005 total score was higher (p < 0.0001) in tree nut consumers (61 ± 0.7 vs. 52 ± 0.3) than non-consumers. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating. PMID:25599274

  16. Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye in Korean Adults: A Study Based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Yun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yeoup; Lee, Jeong-Gyu; Jeong, Dong-Wook; Kim, Yun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a common disease. Many patients continue to experience residual symptoms despite optimal treatment. Thus, new treatment options are required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and dry eye. Methods This study was performed using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which is a cross-sectional study of the Korean population that was conducted from 2010 to 2011. We included adults aged >19 years who underwent ophthalmologic interviews and examinations. We excluded subjects who had comorbid conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, chronic kidney disease, or depression) that are associated with dry eye. The subjects were divided into normal and dry eye groups. The dry eye group consisted of those who had clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome or symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and dry eye. Results In the univariate model, the 25(OH)D levels were lower in the dry eye group than in the normal group (P=0.01). A significant association was found between severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) and dry eye (P=0.04). However, after multivariate adjustment, the statistical significance of the association disappeared (P-values= 0.49, vitamin D insufficiency; P=0.33, vitamin D deficiency; P=0.18, severe vitamin D deficiency). Conclusion Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with dry eye in an unadjusted model, but the association was not statistically significant after adjustment. PMID:28360983

  17. The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and depressive symptoms in Korean adults: findings from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Yoonsu; Choi, Sumi; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the association between circulating vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the associations between depressive symptoms and various sociodemographic factors. Data on serum 25(OH)D levels, sociodemographic factors, and information on depressive symptoms were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1 2010. A total of 3,570 Koreans aged ≥20 years were included in the statistical analysis. Subjects with depressive symptoms had lower serum levels of 25(OH)D (41.6±16.2 nmol/L) than those without (44.3±16.2 nmol/L; P-value<0.05; effect size = 0.17). In a logistic regression analysis, the 25(OH)D sufficiency group (≥50 nmol/L) revealed fewer depressive symptoms (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.97; P-value = 0.032) after adjusting for multiple factors. In addition, females (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.55-5.11; P-value<0.001), problematic alcohol users (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.63-3.34; P-value<0.001), current smokers (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-1.99; P-value = 0.036), and subjects who experienced weight loss (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.30-2.44; P-value<0.001) were more likely to answer "yes" on question for depressive symptoms. In conclusion, low serum levels of 25(OH)D were associated with an increased risk for depression symptoms in Korean adults. In addition, several sociodemographic factors were related to the depressive symptoms. Our results provide insight into the relationships among vitamin D status, sociodemographic factors, and depression in the Korean population.

  18. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-28

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9% of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (SD 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7% of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8% SFA, 39% Ca, 34·5% vitamin B12 and 10·5% Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9% Na intake, 9·1% Ca, 12·6% retinol, 8·3% SFA, 3·7% protein, 3·4% vitamin B12 and 3·2% riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted.

  19. Association of serum ferritin with insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescent and adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Shim, Young Suk; Kang, Min Jae; Oh, Yeon Jeong; Baek, Joon Woo; Yang, Seung; Hwang, Il Tae

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the associations of serum ferritin with insulin resistance indices, body fat mass/percentage, and all the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS), as well as the risk for MetS according to serum ferritin levels in Korean adolescents and adults.A total of 15,963 Korean males and females aged 16 to 80 years were analyzed using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005 to 2011.The median serum ferritin concentration was 98.82 ng/mL for males and 38.60 ng/mL for females (P < 0.001). Increased risks of greater waist circumference and elevated glucose levels, elevated triglyceride levels, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were noted across the serum ferritin quartiles after adjustment for confounders in both genders (P ≤ 0.012 for trend). Insulin resistance indices and abdominal obesity (trunk fat mass/percent) increased across the ferritin concentration quartiles after adjustment for confounders in males and females (P ≤ 0.011 for trend), and the risk of MetS increased across the ferritin quartiles in males (P < 0.001 for trend) and females (P = 0.001 for trend). The highest serum ferritin quartile exhibited a 1.62-fold increased risk of MetS (95% CI, 1.28-2.12) in males and a 1.36-fold increased risk of MetS (95% CI, 1.09-1.69) in females compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounders.Our results suggest that ferritin is associated with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity.

  20. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 CHNS were recruited Separate sex-stratified random intercept-slope growth models of repeated BMI observations were estimated in the study. Setting The data were derived from rural communities in nine provinces in China. Participants There were 11 835 male and 12 561 female person-years assessed in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome of this study was weight status. It is defined as a BMI value, a continuous variable which is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m2). Results The study indicated that among men an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.01 kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.01 kg/m2 decrease in BMI, whereas among women, an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.005 kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fast-food restaurant and one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.02 and 0.004 kg/m2 decline in BMI, respectively. Conclusions The density of neighbourhood restaurants was found to be significantly related to BMI in rural China. The results indicated that providing healthy food choices and developing related public health policies are necessary to tackle obesity among rural Chinese adults. PMID:24755211

  1. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs. PMID:26938555

  2. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults.

    PubMed

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19-55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. "Taste" was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  3. Point prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic cough in the general adult population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Byung-Jae; Morice, Alyn H; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Cough is frequently self-limiting, but may persist longer in certain individuals. Most of previous studies on the epidemiology of chronic cough have only measured period prevalence, and thus have afforded limited information on the burden and natural course. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of chronic cough by using a point prevalence measure in a large-scale general population.We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 18,071 adults who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. Presence and duration of current cough was ascertained by structured questionnaires, and cough was classified into acute (<3 weeks), subacute (3-8 weeks), or chronic cough (≥8 weeks). Demographic and clinical parameters were examined in relation to chronic cough.The point prevalences of acute, subacute, and chronic cough were 2.5 ± 0.2%, 0.8 ± 0.1% and 2.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The proportion of current cough showed a steep decrease after 1 week of duration. However, 2 peaks in the prevalence of current cough were revealed; cough durations of less than 1 week and longer than 1 year were most common (31.1% and 27.7% of current cough, respectively). Subacute and chronic cough were more prevalent in the elderly (≥65 years); the positive associations with older age were independent of other confounders, including current smoking and comorbidities.This is the first report on the epidemiology of cough using a point prevalence measure in a nationally representative population sample. Our findings indicate a high burden of chronic cough among adults with current cough in the community. The dual-peak of cough duration suggested that the pathophysiology of acute and chronic cough may differ. The preponderance of elderly people in the prevalence of chronic cough warrants further investigation. In addition, more sophistication and validation of tools to define chronic cough will help our understanding of the epidemiology.

  4. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  5. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Olea López, Ana Lorena; Johnson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19–64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, p<0.05) and meal frequency (r = 0.10, p<0.05) but not snack or drink frequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all p<0.0001). Adjusted regressions showed each one-point increase in restrained eating was associated with lower-energy meals (-15 kcal 95% CI -5.9, -24.2) and drinks (-4 kcal 95%CI -0.1, -8), but not snacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks. PMID

  6. The Association of Resting Heart Rate with the Presence of Diabetes in Korean Adults: The 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous epidemiologic studies have shown that elevated resting heart rate (HR) is associated with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Although the relationship between elevated HR and CVD is well established, the association between resting HR and diabetes has been relatively understudied, particularly in non-Western populations. Objectives We confirmed the association between the presence of type 2 diabetes and resting HR in the Korean adult population using data from the 2010–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods Among 25,712 adults (≥ 19 years of age) who participated in the 2010–2013 KNHANES, a total of 22,512 subjects completed laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level was categorized into the following five groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥ 126 mg/dL). Results The unadjusted weighted resting HRs were 69.6, 69.4, 69.8, 70.1, and 72.0 beats per minute (bpm) in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P<0.001). We assessed the adjusted weighted resting HR according to the FPG level after adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, high risk alcohol drinking, daily energy intake, waist circumference, serum total cholesterol level, serum triglyceride (TG) level, serum white blood cell (WBC) count, serum hemoglobin (Hb), and the presence of hypertension. The adjusted weighted resting HR significantly increased across the FPG groups (P<0.001). The weighted prevalence rates of diabetes were 6.8% (6.2–7.5%), 7.6% (6.7–8.5%), 8.0% (7.0–9.1%), and 11.8% (10.8–12.7%) in subjects with HR ≤ 64, 65–69, 70–75, and ≥ 76 bpm, respectively (P<0.001), after adjusting for the confounding factors mentioned above. Using resting HR ≤ 64 bpm as the control, resting HR

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults with Hearing Impairment: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Ae Jin; Choi, Won-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background As the global population ages, disabling hearing impairment (HI) have been increased rapidly. The impact of HI on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is of great importance to aid the development of strategic plans and to guide therapeutic interventions. Purpose To evaluate HRQoL in Korean adults with different degrees of HI using EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS), the preference-based generic measures of HRQoL. Methods Using a representative dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from January 2010 to December 2012, EQ-5D questionnaire and EQ- VAS scores of subjects with HI were compared with those of subjects without HI. Logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for covariates, was used to evaluate the impact of HI on HRQoL scales. HI was defined according to the hearing thresholds of pure-tone averages at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 kHz of the better hearing ear as follows; mild HI (26 to < 40 dB) and moderate to severe HI (≥ 40 dB). Results Of the 16,449 Korean adults in KNHANES (age, 45.0 ± 0.2 years; male, 49.7%), 1757 (weighted prevalence, 7.6%) had mild HI and 890 (3.6%) had moderate to severe HI. Subjects with HI had impaired HRQoL as compared with subjects without HI (EQ-5D, 0.96 ± 0.00 vs. 0.88±0.00 vs. 0.86 ± 0.01 for control vs. mild HI vs. moderate to severe HI, p < 0.001; EQ-VAS, 75.10 ± 0.18 vs. 67.48 ± 0.63 vs. 66.24 ± 0.92 for control vs. mild HI vs. moderate to severe HI, p < 0.001). After adjusting for socio-demographic factors (age, gender, household income, education level, presence of spouse) and health-related behaviors (smoking status, alcohol intake, regular exercise), psychological stress, and the presence of comorbidities (diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, decreased eGFR, and tinnitus), EQ-VAS remained impaired in the moderate to severe HI group (61.72±1.69) as compared with the control group (65.68 ± 1.26, p = 0.004), but EQ-5D

  8. Menthol Cigarettes, Race/Ethnicity and Biomarkers of Tobacco Use in US Adults: The 1999- 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Miranda R; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Samet, Jonathan M; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background In the US, cigarette flavorings are banned, with the exception of menthol. The cooling effects of menthol could facilitate the absorption of tobacco toxicants. We examined levels of biomarkers of tobacco exposure among US smokers of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. Methods We studied 4,603 White, African-American, and Mexican-American current smokers ≥ 20 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2010 and had data on cigarette type and serum cotinine, blood cadmium, and blood lead concentrations. Urinary total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) (NNAL) was studied in 1,607 participants with available measures. Results A total of 3,210 (74.3%) participants smoked non-menthol cigarettes compared to 1,393 (25.7%) participants who smoked menthol cigarettes. The geometric mean concentrations comparing smokers of non-menthol to menthol cigarettes were 163.1 vs. 175.9 ng/mL for serum cotinine; 0.95 vs. 1.02 μg/L for blood cadmium; 1.87 vs. 1.75 μg/dL for blood lead; and 0.27 vs. 0.23 ng/mL for urine NNAL. After multivariable adjustment, the ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing smokers of menthol to non-menthol cigarettes were 1.03 (0.95, 1.11) for cotinine, 1.10 (1.04, 1.16) for cadmium, 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) for lead, and 0.81 (0.65, 1.01) for NNAL. Conclusions In a representative sample of US adult smokers, current menthol cigarette use was associated with increased concentration of blood cadmium, an established carcinogen and highly toxic metal, but not with other biomarkers. Impact These findings provide information regarding possible differences in exposure to toxic constituents among menthol cigarette smokers compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers. PMID:23250935

  9. Association of Arsenic with Kidney Function in Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Darcy; Chin-Chi, Kuo; Ana, Navas-Acien; Abraham, Alison G.; Virginia, Weaver; Jeffrey, Fadrowski

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to arsenic is a major public health concern. Emerging evidence suggests adverse health effects even at low levels of exposure. This study examined the association of arsenic exposure with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and compared methods of adjustment for urinary dilution in a representative sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,253 participants ages 12–30 years in the 2009–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with available urinary arsenic and eGFR measures. Multivariable linear regression was used to model the association of urinary total arsenic and dimethylarsinate (DMA) with eGFR. Results The median urinary total arsenic and DMA concentrations were 6.3 μg/L (IQR 3.3 – 12.7 μg/L) and 3.3 μg/L (IQR 1.7 – 5.7 μg/L), respectively. Median eGFR was 109 mL/min/1.73 m2. Adjusting arsenic for urine concentration with urinary creatinine, eGFR was 4.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0 to 7.1 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 4.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (95% CI 0.5 to 8.0 mL/min/1.73 m2) per log-unit increase in total arsenic and DMA, respectively. When using urine osmolality to adjust for urine concentration, a log-unit increase in total arsenic and DMA was associated with a 0.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −1.8 to 1.1 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 0.01 (95% CI −1.9 to 1.9 mL/min/1.73 m2) lower eGFR, respectively. Conclusions Discordant associations were observed between arsenic and eGFR levels depending on whether urinary creatinine or osmolality was used to adjust for urine concentration. Further study should be dedicated to validating the best approach to account for urinary dilution in research in toxicants, and this may have implications for all studies which examine urinary biomarkers. PMID:25909687

  10. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Wu, Erin W; Schaumberg, Debra A; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02-2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91-2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37-8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40-5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  11. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively). Participants with moderate (VA 20/80-20/160) and severe VI (VA ≤20/200) had higher scores of multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (aORs) for the lowest quintile than did the normal vision group which was particularly evident in the results from EQ-5D, whereas the results of the mild VI (VA 20/32-20/63) group did not identify significant differences from the normal vision group independent of classification according to the better or the worse seeing eye. Conversely, EQ-VAS revealed significantly higher score of multivariate-aORs for the lowest quintile in participants with mild VI either for the better or worse seeing eye. Conclusions The severity of VI was definitely associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches

  12. [Nutritional problems among adults in the Sahel].

    PubMed

    Sankalé, M; Barbotin-Larrieu, M

    1984-01-01

    A definite list of nutritional diseases can be ascribed to the adult people who live in the Sahel. It results from a food consumption rate which, though a decent energetic or caloric level, remains of little values because of some protein, trace element and vitamin deficiencies. Subclinical diseases that can only be detected through routine mass-examinations, are prevalent. But on the other hand, clinical diseases, the most typical and the most frequent of which is nutritional anemia, are of very frequent occurrence too. The usual disturbing factors of the precarious states of nutrition are pregnancy and lactation, the season of the gap and the associated infections.

  13. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  14. Adult height, nutrition, and population health.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.

  15. Association between Alcohol Intake and Hemoglobin A1c in the Korean Adults: The 2011-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Although alcohol consumption is commonly encountered in clinical practice, few studies have investigated the clinical significance of alcohol intake on the use of the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level. Objectives This study was performed to investigate the association between alcohol intake and HbA1c level in the general population. Methods Among the 24,594 participants who participated in the 2011–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 12,923 participants were analyzed in this study. We excluded diabetic patients currently taking antidiabetes medication. We compared the HbA1c level and proportions of patients with an HbA1c level of ≥5.7%, ≥6.1%, and ≥6.5% according to the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration range and the amount of alcohol intake. The average amounts of daily alcohol intake were categorized into three groups: 0 g/day, <30 g/day, ≥30 g/day. Results The mean HbA1c level was 5.65%, and the mean FPG concentration was 95.3 mg/dl. The percentages of patients with an HbA1c level of ≥5.7%, ≥6.1%, and ≥6.5% were 42.6%, 13.4%, and 4.5%, respectively. The average amount of alcohol intake was 12.3 g/day. The percentages of subjects with alcohol intake 0, <30, and ≥ 30 g/day were 16.5%, 69.7%, and 13.8%, respectively. There was a significant positive relationship between alcohol intake and FPG concentration (P < 0.001), the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001), and the prevalence of diabetes (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant relationship between the alcohol intake and HbA1c level. Overall, the adjusted HbA1c levels decreased across alcohol intake (5.70% ± 0.01%, 5.66% ± 0.01%, and 5.55% ± 0.01%) after adjustment for confounding factors such as age, sex, FPG concentration, college graduation, smoking history, presence of hypertension, waist circumference, serum total cholesterol concentration, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, serum triglyceride

  16. Internet Survey of Nutrition Claim Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camire, Mary E.; Dougherty, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Consumer interest in healthy foods has spurred approval of several health claims for foods and dietary supplements. Although undergraduate and graduate food science curricula address food laws and regulations, nutrition claims may not be fully addressed. We posted a survey on the Internet for 2 mo for food industry professionals and others…

  17. Relationship between blood cadmium, lead, and serum thyroid measures in US adults - the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Experimental studies have shown that both cadmium (Cd) and lead have potent endocrine disrupting activity. However, studies on whether these heavy metals disrupt thyroid system in humans, especially in general populations with low levels of exposure, are sparse. The study analyzed 6,231 participants aged 20 and older with measurements from 2007-2010 of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to investigate whether whole blood Cd and lead level are associated with serum thyroid hormones measures. Our study suggests that thyroid function may be disrupted by both Cd and lead exposures in the general population and the specific roles of Cd and lead exposure on thyroid axis may differ by sex. However, the mechanisms by which these heavy metals may disrupt thyroid system function in general population needs to be further investigated.

  18. Food security of older adults requesting Older Americans Act Nutrition Program in Georgia can be validly measured using a short form of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Sun; Johnson, Mary Ann; Brown, Arvine; Nord, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Food security is a newly recommended outcome measure for the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP); however, it is unknown how best to evaluate the need for this program and assess its impact on a large scale. Therefore, we measured food security in all new OAANP participants and waitlisted applicants in Georgia between July and early November, 2008 (n = 4731) with the self-administered mail survey method used in the ongoing Georgia Performance Outcomes Measures project. We used a modified 6-item U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) with a 30-d reference period and 2 reminder postcards. Approximately 33% of those identified completed the survey (n = 1594, mean age 74.6 ± 9.5 y, 68.6% female, 30.6% black). Most of the respondents (91%) completed all 6 food security questions, whereas 26 did not respond to any question. Infit and outfit statistics for each of the 6 questions were within an acceptable range. Psychometric properties observed in our food security data were generally similar to those in the nationally representative survey conducted by the Census Bureau and suggest that our food security statistics may be meaningfully compared with national food security statistics published by the USDA. Our findings suggest that food security can be reasonably measured by a short form of HFSSM in older adults requesting OAANP. Such methodology also can be used to estimate the extent of food insecurity and help guide program and policy decisions to meet the nutrition assistance needs of vulnerable older adults.

  19. Association between Smoking and Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010 and 2012)

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ah-Young; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Lee, Hae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease in Korean adults. Methods The data were collected from 8,336 participants, aged between 20 and 64 years, who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (2010 and 2012). Smoking status was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Periodontal disease was defined as a community periodontal index ≥3 points. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, sex, education, monthly income, diabetes, obesity, alcohol intake, and frequency of tooth brushing. Results The risk of periodontal disease was higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.83) than never smokers. Among current smokers, the risk of periodontal disease was increased in smokers of ≥10 cigarettes/d, ≥20 years duration, and >10 pack-years compared with never smokers (P<0.05). Among former smokers, the risk of periodontal disease after 10 years since cessation declined to 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with current smokers and was indistinguishable statistically from never smokers. Conclusion Periodontal disease is significantly associated with smoking status in Korean adults. PMID:27073611

  20. Fetal nutrition and adult disease.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, K M; Barker, D J

    2000-05-01

    Recent research suggests that several of the major diseases of later life, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, originate in impaired intrauterine growth and development. These diseases may be consequences of "programming," whereby a stimulus or insult at a critical, sensitive period of early life has permanent effects on structure, physiology, and metabolism. Evidence that coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes are programmed came from longitudinal studies of 25,000 UK men and women in which size at birth was related to the occurrence of the disease in middle age. People who were small or disproportionate (thin or short) at birth had high rates of coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol concentrations, and abnormal glucose-insulin metabolism. These relations were independent of the length of gestation, suggesting that cardiovascular disease is linked to fetal growth restriction rather than to premature birth. Replication of the UK findings has led to wide acceptance that low rates of fetal growth are associated with cardiovascular disease in later life. Impaired growth and development in utero seem to be widespread in the population, affecting many babies whose birth weights are within the normal range. Although the influences that impair fetal development and program adult cardiovascular disease remain to be defined, there are strong pointers to the importance of the fetal adaptations invoked when the maternoplacental nutrient supply fails to match the fetal nutrient demand.

  1. Clinical nutrition of adult horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S L

    1990-08-01

    Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old.

  2. Enteral Nutrition for Older Adults in Healthcare Communities.

    PubMed

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Dorner, Becky; Friedrich, Elizabeth K

    2014-08-01

    Older adults living in healthcare communities (HCCs) have multiple comorbidities and are at increased risk of malnutrition and unintended weight loss. Aging affects nearly every system as well as body composition and structure, causing physiological changes that can affect nutrition status. A significant percentage (56%) of residents who live in nursing facilities require extensive help to eat and have dental problems such as ill-fitting dentures, missing teeth, and swallowing problems, which can lead to inadequate caloric intake and unintended weight loss. Alzheimer disease or dementia is prevalent in both nursing facilities and in assisted living/residential care communities, where it affects 45% of older adults. In cognitively impaired residents, most tube feeding placements occur in the acute care setting and result in significant use of additional healthcare resources, along with high postinsertion mortality rates within 60 days of insertion. Nursing facilities receiving Medicare or Medicaid funding must abide by state and federal regulations and undergo rigorous surveys while balancing complex decisions related to initial placement of feeding tubes. Healthcare professionals must recognize the importance of establishing nutrition treatment goals that are resident centered and that respect the unique values and personal decisions of the older adult. Informed choice, resident-centered care decisions, and the review of living wills and/or advance directives are essential in the decision-making process. After enteral nutrition is started, healthcare practitioners must carefully review the physician's orders and administer and monitor the resident's tolerance, checking for potential complications.

  3. Nutrition Education among Low-Income Older Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial in Congregate Nutrition Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…

  4. Association of sleep duration with rheumatoid arthritis in Korean adults: analysis of seven years of aggregated data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Kwang Soo; Lee, Yunhwan; Shim, Sungkeun; Kim, Jinhee; Chon, Doukyoung; Lee, Sang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and self-reported sleep duration. Setting The present study analysed 7 years of aggregated cross-sectional data (2007–2013) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). Participants A total of 37 979 individuals were selected for the analyses. Interventions RA. Primary and secondary outcome measures Sleep duration. Results After adjusting for confounding factors, the odds of short-duration sleepers (≤6 hours/day) and long-duration sleepers (≥9 hours/day) for RA were 1.23-fold (95% CI 1.101 to 1.51) and 1.27-fold (95% CI 0.85 to 1.88) higher, respectively, than those for persons with sleep duration of 7–8 hours/day. A subgroup analysis according to the extent of pain in RA revealed that the strong relationship between RA and sleep disturbances was observed in those with high pain from RA (OR: 1.28 CI 1.04 to 1.58). Conclusions Individuals with RA may be at a higher risk for sleep disturbances compared with individuals without RA. Therefore, the provision of comprehensive care for patients with RA by healthcare professionals should include assessments of sleep duration and patients with RA should be encouraged to report sleep problems. PMID:27965246

  5. Understanding nutritional health in older adults. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Callen, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study of adults ages 65 and older admitted to an acute care setting was conducted to compare nutritional risk as measured by hospital dieticians with two Nutrition Screening Initiative tools, the DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist and the Level I Screen, and to elicit from patients their own perceptions of nutritional health. Ten community-living older adults were interviewed. Although all 10 were at nutritional risk as measured by both hospital assessment and nutritional risk screening tools, none of these patients believed themselves to be at risk. One conclusion of this pilot is that interventions and education need to be tailored to the perceptions of targeted individuals.

  6. National Adult Physical Fitness Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Newsletter, 1973

    1973-01-01

    This report of a personal interview research survey conducted for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 1972 presents the following findings: (a) 45 percent of all adult Americans do not engage in any form of exercise; (b) walking is the most popular form of exercise, followed by bicycle riding, swimming, calisthenics, bowling,…

  7. Vitamin D Intake and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Adults: Analysis of the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3) Using a Newly Established Vitamin D Database

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyoungok; Cho, Jinah; Ly, Sunyung

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is important for maintaining bone health and may prevent various diseases (i.e., cardiovascular disease and cancer). The aim of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes of Korean adults using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2009) data and a newly established vitamin D database. KNHANES (2009) participants (n = 4541; 2021 men; 2520 women) aged ≥20 years were included. Dietary vitamin D intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and the relationship between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D were evaluated. In men and women, vitamin D intakes were 4.00 ± 0.17 µg/day and 2.6 ± 0.1 µg/day respectively, and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 19.78 ± 0.33 ng/mL and 17.10 ± 0.26 ng/mL respectively. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of men aged <50 years and women aged >20 years were under 20 ng/mL. After adjusting for confounding factors, the positive relationship between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D was observed in total subjects (p < 0.05), excluding participants ≥50 years old. The main food sources for vitamin D among Korean adults were fish/shellfish (71.34%) and egg (14.89%). Korean adults should increase their serum 25(OH)D concentrations by increasing vitamin D intake. PMID:27690097

  8. Home-Delivered Meals and Nutrition Status Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Vaudin, Anna

    2014-08-01

    The trend among older adults in the United States is to "age in place" instead of opting for institutionalization. To maintain older adults with chronic conditions in their homes and to improve health after hospitalization, comprehensive social, health, and nutrition services are essential. Quality of dietary intake is crucial and yet often underestimated. Calorie needs decrease with age while nutrient needs remain the same, even increasing for some nutrients. This poses difficulties for individuals with functional disabilities who are unable to shop and cook due to physical or mental limitations or on a limited budget. The Older American Act home-delivered meal (HDM) program offers at least 1 healthy meal per day, 5 or more days per week, and targets individuals homebound due to illness, disability, or social isolation and those with greatest economic or social need. This review summarizes the available literature on the relationship between HDM and health outcomes. The HDM program is difficult to evaluate because of the multifactorial effect on health status. However, national surveys and smaller studies show that it is well targeted, efficient, and well liked; provides quality food to needy individuals; and helps individuals remain living independently. Studies show that HDMs improve dietary intake, with greater health benefits when more meals reach the neediest individuals. HDMs also decrease institutionalization of older adults and resulting healthcare expenditures. However, funding has not kept up with increased demand for this program. More studies with improved designs may provide more information supporting the program's impact on nutrition status and decreased health expenditures.

  9. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women.

  10. Prevalence of airflow obstruction among ever-employed US adults aged 18–79 years by longest held occupation group: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Halldin, Cara

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction among ever-employed US adults. Methods Data from the 2007 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for adults 18–79 years with valid spirometry and longest held occupation were analysed. The age-standardised prevalence of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction was estimated overall and by smoking status. Results Age-standardised prevalence of airflow obstruction was 13.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 15.0%) and was highest in participants aged 60–79 years (17.4%, 95% CI 15.2% to 19.6%), males (14.8%, 95% CI 12.0% to 17.6%), non-Hispanic whites (15.4%, 95% CI 13.8% to 16.7%) and ever smokers (19.1%, 95% CI 16.6% to 21.5%). Age-standardised prevalence of airflow obstruction was >20% for installation, maintenance and repair occupations (p=22.1%, 95% CI 16.5% to 27.8%), and for construction and extraction occupations (20.7%, 95% CI 13.5% to 27.9%). Conclusions Prevalence of airflow obstruction varied by demographic characteristics and occupational factors with a higher prevalence among ever smokers for most demographic characteristics and occupational factors. Study findings emphasise the importance of monitoring the lung function of workers in occupations with a high prevalence of airflow obstruction. PMID:27152013

  11. Giving nutrition support to critically ill adults.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jane

    Patients who become critically ill can have problems maintaining nutritional intake and it can be challenging for nurses to provide nutritional support. No one assessment method can identify each patient's risk of malnutrition, so nurses need to look at different aspects in their nutritional assessment and refer for specialist help from dietitians and nutrition support teams when needed. This article focuses on how severe physiological stress affects patients who are critically ill and impacts on their nutritional requirements. A nursing nutritional assessment is explored, as are nutritional support methods that may be used to manage these patients' nutritional needs.

  12. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  13. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women. In this

  14. Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

  15. Patterns of dairy food intake, body composition and markers of metabolic health in Ireland: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, E L; O'Sullivan, A; Nugent, A P; McNulty, B; Walton, J; Flynn, A; Gibney, E R

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies examining the association between dairy consumption and metabolic health have shown mixed results. This may be due, in part, to the use of different definitions of dairy, and to single types of dairy foods examined in isolation. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine associations between dairy food intake and metabolic health, identify patterns of dairy food consumption and determine whether dairy dietary patterns are associated with outcomes of metabolic health, in a cross-sectional survey. Design: A 4-day food diary was used to assess food and beverage consumption, including dairy (defined as milk, cheese, yogurt, cream and butter) in free-living, healthy Irish adults aged 18–90 years (n=1500). Fasting blood samples (n=897) were collected, and anthropometric measurements taken. Differences in metabolic health markers across patterns and tertiles of dairy consumption were tested via analysis of covariance. Patterns of dairy food consumption, of different fat contents, were identified using cluster analysis. Results: Higher (total) dairy was associated with lower body mass index, %body fat, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (P<0.001), and lower systolic (P=0.02) and diastolic (P<0.001) blood pressure. Similar trends were observed when milk and yogurt intakes were considered separately. Higher cheese consumption was associated with higher C-peptide (P<0.001). Dietary pattern analysis identified three patterns (clusters) of dairy consumption; 'Whole milk', 'Reduced fat milks and yogurt' and 'Butter and cream'. The 'Reduced fat milks and yogurt' cluster had the highest scores on a Healthy Eating Index, and lower-fat and saturated fat intakes, but greater triglyceride levels (P=0.028) and total cholesterol (P=0.015). conclusion: Overall, these results suggest that while milk and yogurt consumption is associated with a favourable body phenotype, the blood lipid profiles are less favourable when eaten as part of a low-fat high

  16. Almond consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between almond consumption, the most widely consumed tree nut in the US, and nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and weight/adiposity in adults. Data from adults (N=24,808), 19+ years, participating in the NHANES 2001-2010 were u...

  17. Evaluation of cardiovascular disease burden and therapeutic goal attainment in US adults with chronic kidney disease: an analysis of national health and nutritional examination survey data, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, national treatment guidelines recommend a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal <100 mg/dL and blood pressure (BP) target <130/80 mmHg. This analysis assessed the current status of cardiovascular (CV) risk factor treatment and control in US adults with CKD. Methods Weighted prevalence estimates of CV-related comorbidities, utilization of lipid- and BP-lowering agents, and LDL-C and BP goal attainment in US adults with CKD were assessed among 9,915 men and nonpregnant women aged ≥20 years identified from the fasting subsample of the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). Analyses were performed using SAS survey procedures that consider the complex, multistage, probability sampling design of NHANES. All estimates were standardized to the 2008 US adult population (≥20 years). Data were stratified by CKD stage based on presence of albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Stage 3 CKD was subdivided into 3a (eGFR 45–59 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 3b (eGFR 30–44 mL/min/1.73 m2); Stage 5 CKD and dialysis recipients were excluded. Results Of the 9,915 NHANES participants identified for analysis, 1,428 had CKD (Stage 1–4), corresponding to a prevalence estimate for US adults aged ≥20 years of 10.2%. Prevalence of CV-related comorbidities increased markedly with CKD stage, with a ~6–12-fold increase in cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and congestive heart failure between CKD Stage 1 and 4; prevalence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension increased by ~1.2–1.6-fold. Use of lipid-lowering agents increased with CKD stage, from 18.1% (Stage 1) to 44.8% (Stage 4). LDL-C goal attainment increased from 35.8% (Stage 1) to 52.8% (Stage 3b), but decreased in Stage 4 (50.7%). BP goal attainment decreased between Stage 1 and 4 (from 49

  18. Diet diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S.; Wan, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Background With rapid urbanization in the past decades, diet diversity continues to increase in China. The present cross-sectional study aims to explore the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China. Methods This study used data from 2011–2012 National Nutritional Survey in Yunnan Province, southwest China (N = 1105).Data of three consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were used to calculate dietary diversity scores (DDS) and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR). Body mass index and waist circumference were used to determine nutritional status. Surveylogistic procedure of SAS 9.2 software was used to examine the association between DDS and obesity by estimating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The mean DDS was 5.2 (SD 1.1) out of nine points. Being female, younger age, belonging to Han ethnicity, having higher educational level and household income were positively associated with DDS (all P<0.05). As DDS increased, consumption also increased in most food groups except grains and vegetables. People with medium and high DDS (DDS = 5 and DDS ≥6, respectively) ingested more energy than the recommended quantity(NAR = 1.1 and 1.2, respectively). However, the intakes of Calcium and Vitamin A were seriously inadequate even for people with high DDS (NAR≤0.5). With potential confounders adjusted, people with medium and high DDS were at higher risk of general and central obesity than people with DDS ≤4 (OR = 1.4–1.9, P<0.01). Conclusions Our data indicated that high DDS was associated with excessive energy intake and obesity among adults in southwest China. Although dietary diversity is widely recommended, public health messages should give less emphasis on dietary diversity. PMID:28231308

  19. Food Insecurity and Food Choices in Rural Older Adults with Diabetes Receiving Nutrition Education via Telemedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homenko, Daria R.; Morin, Philip C.; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Weinstock, Ruth S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate differences between rural older adults with diabetes reporting the presence or absence of food insecurity with respect to meal planning, preparation, shopping, obesity, and glycemic control after receiving nutrition counseling through telemedicine. Methods: Food insecurity data were obtained by telephone survey (n = 74).…

  20. Alcoholic beverage consumption by adults 21 years and over in the United States: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study described in the Technical Report was conducted to answer specific questions from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Ethanol Subcommittee. The study uses data from three different instruments pertaining to alcoholic beverage intakes of adults 21 years and older in the Nationa...

  1. Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to…

  2. Fresh pear consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight parameters in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No studies have examined the association of consuming fresh pears on nutrient intake or adequacy, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). The purpose of this study was to examine these association in adults (n=24,808) participating the NHANES 2001-2010. Covariate adjusted linear regres...

  3. Energy density of the diets of Japanese adults in relation to food and nutrient intake and general and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional analysis from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The associations of dietary energy density with dietary intake and obesity have been largely unexplored in non-Western populations. The present cross-sectional study examined the associations using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Dietary intake was assessed using a 1-d semi-weighed dietary record in 15 618 Japanese adults aged ≥20 years. Mean dietary energy density (calculated on the basis of foods only) was 5·98 (sd 1·20) kJ/g in men and 5·72 (sd 1·16) kJ/g in women. Dietary energy density was positively associated with intakes of bread, noodles (only men), meat, fats and oils, and sugar and confectionery but inversely with intakes of white rice (only men), potatoes, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and fish and shellfish. For nutrient intake, dietary energy density was positively associated with total fat and SFA but inversely associated with all other nutrients examined such as protein, carbohydrate, alcohol (only women), dietary fibre, and several vitamins and minerals, including Na. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary energy density was positively associated with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥80 cm) in women (adjusted prevalence ratio between the extreme tertiles 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·12; P for trend=0·003). Dietary energy density was also positively but non-significantly associated with general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) in women (P for trend=0·08). There were no such associations in men. In conclusion, lower energy density of the diets of Japanese adults was associated with favourable food and nutrient intake patterns, except for higher Na, and, in only women, a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity.

  4. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  5. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  6. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research.

  7. Out-of-hand nut consumption is associated with improved nutrient intake and health risk markers in US children and adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association of out-of-hand nut (OOHN) consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality, and the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Data from 24-hour recalls from individuals aged 2+ years (n = 24,385) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The population was divided into children aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, and adults 19+ years, and each group was dichotomized into OOHN consumers and nonconsumers. Out-of-hand nut consumers were defined as those individuals consuming ¼ oz of nuts or more per d. Means, standard errors, and covariate-adjusted analyses of variance were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Significance was set at P < .05. The percent of OOHN consumers increased with age: 2.1% ± 0.3%, 2.6% ± 0.3%, 6.5% ± 0.5%, and 9.6% ± 0.5% those aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, 19 to 50, and 51+ years, respectively. The 2 latter groups were combined into a single group of consumers aged 19+ years for subsequent analyses. Consumers of OOHN from all age groups had higher intakes of energy, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, copper, and magnesium and lower intakes of carbohydrates, cholesterol, and sodium than did nonconsumers. Diet quality was higher in OOHN consumers of all age groups. In children aged 2 to 11 years, consumers had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. In those aged 12 to 18 years, weight and percent overweight were lower in consumers. Adult consumers had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, red blood cell folate, and serum folate levels and lower insulin, glycohemoglobin, and C-reactive protein levels than did nonconsumers. Adult consumers also had a 19% decreased risk of hypertension and a 21% decreased risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data suggested that OOHN consumption was

  8. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL.

  9. Breakfast patterns and their likelihood of increased risk of overweight/obesity and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adults 19+ years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of specific types of breakfast consumed and the risk of overweight/obesity or risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Cluster analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 data identified 12 breakfast clusters—including no breakfast, in...

  10. Nutrition and Cognition in Aging Adults.

    PubMed

    Coley, Nicola; Vaurs, Charlotte; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2015-08-01

    Numerous longitudinal observational studies have suggested that nutrients, such as antioxidants, B vitamins, and ω-3 fatty acids, may prevent cognitive decline or dementia. There is very little evidence from well-sized randomized controlled trials that nutritional interventions can benefit cognition in later life. Nutritional interventions may be more effective in individuals with poorer nutritional status or as part of multidomain interventions simultaneously targeting multiple lifestyle factors. Further evidence, notably from randomized controlled trials, is required to prove or refute these hypotheses.

  11. Caloric Beverage Intake Among Adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141

  12. Nutritional management of older adults with cognitive decline and dementia.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sumito

    2014-04-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a main predictor of disability among elderly people, and with the continued expansion of the aging population and the increase in life expectancy, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia represented by Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder of older adults, have increased. Recent epidemiological and observational studies suggest a relationship exists between lifestyle factors, including nutrition and diet, and cognitive function in aging adults. It is also suggested that malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies are associated with cognitive decline in patients with dementia. There are a variety of nutritional factors, including nutritional status and dietary patterns, that might be associated with cognitive function, and specific micronutrients and dietary components have been suggested to have an association with cognitive function as well. Based on these findings and evidence, evaluation of nutritional state, as well as nutritional intervention, might be able to play a role in the management and prevention of dementia.

  13. Saskatchewan Older Adult Literacy Survey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    The Saskatchewan Older Adult Literacy Survey involved 16 literacy programs offered by the regional colleges, public libraries, and technical institutes throughout the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The 2-month survey acquired information for an overview of the current state of older adults and literacy in Saskatchewan through mailed…

  14. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course. PMID:26042189

  15. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; McDonald, Shelley R; Bales, Connie W

    2015-06-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course.

  16. [Survey of nutritional pathology in Mauritania].

    PubMed

    Ducorps, M; Cuisinier-Raynal, J C; Jean, P

    1985-01-01

    A display of the different nutritional problems in Mauritania, such as they could be studied under the working medical conditions in this country. This study shows the coexistence, into a low life level country, of nutritional deficiency diseases, and obesity induced diseases, especially frequent among the mature women. This reality emphasizes the complexity of the mechanisms responsible for the nutritional diseases, and advocates for a global action to improve the nutritional status of a population. This supposes to integrate all the known data, including social and cultural knowledges.

  17. Disability of Hearing Impairment Is Positively Associated With Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio in Korean Adults: The 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Dong-Hee; Chae, Hiun Suk; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Sohn, Tae Seo; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Kim, Hee Yeon; Lee, Jae-Im; Song, Jae Yen; Yeo, Chang Dong; Lee, Young Bok; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Hong, Mihee; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hearing thresholds in the nationwide, large-scaled Korean population. Methods. This study analyzed the data of 9,798 subjects of 19 years and older (4,387 males and 5,411 females). Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured from first-voided spot urine samples. The air-conduction hearing threshold was measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz and pure tone audiogram (PTA) average was calculated as the four-frequency average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Results. Urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in both genders, especially at 3 and 6 kHz in males and at 1, 3, 4, and 6 kHz in females. After adjusting, urine ACR also increased the risk of hearing loss in female, especially if urine ACR was 30 mg/g and more (odds ratio, 1.636–2.229. This study showed that the degree of hearing loss was significantly different according to categories of urine ACR in both genders. Hearing loss without disability was found less but that with bilateral hearing disability was found more as urine ACR increased. In generally, prevalence of hearing loss with disability was higher in males than females. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in Korean adults of both genders. This study suggests that clinicians should carefully monitor the hearing level for subjects with elevated urine ACR, even though high urine ACR within the normal range. PMID:27416740

  18. Negative Association between Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Urinary Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Thiocyanate Concentrations in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chien-Liang; Lee, Jie-Jen; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Yang, Po-Sheng; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are well-known inhibitors of the sodium-iodide symporter and may disrupt thyroid function. This exploratory study investigated the association among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the general U.S. population. Methods We analyzed data on 4265 adults (aged 20 years and older) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005 through 2006 to evaluate the relationship among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentration and PTH levels and the presence of hyperparathyroidism cross-sectionally. Results The geometric means and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) concentrations of urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were 3.38 (3.15–3.62), 40363 (37512–43431), and 1129 (1029–1239) ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables and sample weights, creatinine-corrected urinary perchlorate was negatively associated with serum PTH levels in women (P = 0.001), and creatinine-corrected urinary nitrate and thiocyanate were negatively associated with serum PTH levels in both sex groups (P = 0.001 and P<0.001 for men, P = 0.018 and P<0.001 for women, respectively). Similar results were obtained from sensitivity analyses performed for exposure variables unadjusted for creatinine with urinary creatinine added as a separate covariate. There was a negative relationship between hyperparathyroidism and urinary nitrate and thiocyanate [odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.77 (0.60–0.98) and 0.69 (0.61–0.79), respectively]. Conclusions A higher urinary concentration of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate is associated with lower serum PTH levels. Future studies are needed to determine the pathophysiological background of the observation. PMID:25514572

  19. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children.

  20. Association of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate with Hemoglobin Level in Korean Adults: The 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Youb; Oh, Se Won; Hong, Jae Won; Yi, Seong Yoon; Noh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about anemia in patients with early renal dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the association of hemoglobin level and anemia prevalence with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline using a nation-wide representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods In total, 17,373 participants (7,296 men; weighted n = 18,330,187; mean age, 44.2±0.3 years; 9,886 women, weighted n = 18,317,454; mean age, 46.9±0.3 years) were included. eGFR was divided into 5 groups: Group 1, ≥105; Group 2, 90–104; 75–89; Group 4, 60–74; and Group 5, <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Results The weighted anemia prevalence rates were 2.6% in men and 12.8% in women. In men, the weighted hemoglobin level increased with a decrease in eGFR; this value peaked at an eGFR of 60–89 mL/min/1.73m2 and decreased thereafter at an eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73m2 (15.19±0.03, 15.35±0.03, 15.53±0.03, 15.52±0.06, and 14.90±0.12 g/dL from Groups 1 to 5) after adjustment for age, college graduation, cancer history, current smoking, waist circumference, serum cholesterol level, serum triglyceride level, and diastolic blood pressure. In women, the weighted hemoglobin level increased with a decrease in eGFR; this value peaked with an eGFR of 75–89 mL/min/1.73m2 and decreased thereafter (12.90±0.03, 13.08±0.02, 13.20±0.04, 13.14±0.05, and 12.47±0.11 g/dL from Groups 1 to 5) after adjustment for menstruation, pregnancy, estrogen replacement, and the above-mentioned variables. In both sexes, the weighted prevalence of anemia with an eGFR of 60–104 mL/min/1.73m2 was significantly lower than that with an eGFR of ≥105 mL/min/1.73m2 (men, 3.2±0.4%, 1.9±0.3%, 1.8±0.3%, 2.0±0.9%, and 18.1±3.1%; women, 14.0±0.8%, 11.2±0.7%, 10.5±1.0%, 13.2±1.6%, and 32.3±3.2% from Groups 1 to 5). Conclusions We noted a compensatory increase in the hemoglobin level with a minor decline in kidney function (in the range of eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2) prior to a marked decrease in

  1. Nutritional profile of adult patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, L; Delibasic, M; Peta, V; Turkulov, V; De Lorenzo, A; Medić-Stojanoska, M

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated gluten dependent enteropathy induced by ingestion of gluten, characterized by intestinal malabsorption and subtotals or total atrophy of intestinal villi. The predominant consequence of CD in untreated patients, is malnutrition as a result of malabsorption. Moreover, several and increasing extra-intestinal clinical manifestations have been described in the CD patients. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves nutritional status, inducing an increase in fat and bone compartments, but does not completely normalize body composition and nutritional deficiencies. An early and accurate evaluation of nutritional status can be of the pivotal step in the clinical management of the adult CD patients. The aim of this review is to present the most important and recent data on nutritional and metabolic features in the CD adult patients, the related implications and the effects of the GFD on these conditions.

  2. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing.

  3. Nutrition label use is associated with lower longer-term diabetes risk in US adults.

    PubMed

    Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Shebl, Fatma M; Hawley, Nicola L; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-03-29

    Background: Regular nutrition label use may have important long-term health implications. To our knowledge, the role of nutrition label use in protecting against the development of chronic diseases was unexplored prospectively before this study.Objective: We tested the association between nutrition label use and risk of a future diabetes diagnosis in a multiethnic US cohort.Design: Data from the ongoing National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (NLSY79) were analyzed. From 2002 (baseline) to 5 follow-up time points (2004-2012), 7150 diabetes-free, multiethnic young adults were prospectively followed for a diagnosis of incident diabetes. Nutrition label use, diabetes diagnosis, time to diabetes diagnosis, and all covariates were self-reported.Results: Between January 2002 and September 2013, 430 participants (6.0%) were diagnosed with diabetes. A weighted, multivariable, extended Cox regression was conducted, which suggested that in nutrition label users, the HR of diabetes diagnosis risk decreased significantly with time (P-nutrition label use × time interaction < 0.05) compared with risk in nutrition label nonusers.Conclusions: There is an association between nutrition label use and diabetes risk in the longer term. However, additional longitudinal research with a robust dietary intake assessment is needed to test this hypothesis.

  4. Long-Term Low Intake of Dietary Calcium and Fracture Risk in Older Adults With Plant-Based Diet: A Longitudinal Study From the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Fang, Aiping; Li, Keji; Guo, Meihan; He, Jingjing; Li, He; Shen, Xin; Song, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate long-term associations between low dietary calcium intake and fracture risk in older adults with plant-based diet. Data of self-reported first fracture events of any type from 6210 Chinese men and women, aged 50 years or older and free from fracture at baseline, in a subcohort based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), were analyzed. Diet was repeatedly assessed by a combination of three consecutive 24-hour individual dietary recalls and a weighing and measuring of household food inventory in each round. The older men and women habitually ingested mean (SD) of 415 (147) mg/d and 373 (140) mg/d of calcium from plant-based diet, respectively. During a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 127 men (4.34%) and 232 women (7.06%) experienced first fracture events. The crude rates were 4.88, 2.55, and 6.83 per 1000 person-years at risk for men, and 6.72, 7.10, and 11.0 per 1000 person-years at risk for women in the lowest, third, and highest quintile of dietary calcium intake. In nonlinear regressions, an increased risk of fracture was associated with dietary calcium intake more than 778 mg/d (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-4.41) or lower than 275 mg/d (1.74, 95% CI 1.00-3.01) for men and more than 651 mg/d for women (1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.38). A nonsignificant trend of increase in fracture risk was found below 248 mg/d (1.00, 95% CI 0.67-1.50) in women using restricted cubic spline Cox regression. A relatively low fracture risk is observed in men with dietary calcium intakes of 275 to 780 mg/d and in women with intakes of 250 to 650 mg/d, and higher intakes may have no further benefit for fracture prevention. The patterns of dietary calcium with fracture risk are U-shaped in men and possibly in women. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Enteral nutrition by tube feeding in adults.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, K M; Shastri, Y M; Shirodkar, M

    2001-01-01

    Patients who cannot eat enough require alternatives to oral feeding. Tube feeding is one such method for patients with a functioning gut. The techniques for the placement of feeding tubes and diets for tube feeding have improved during the past 20 years. Comfortable thin-bore polyurethane tubes are replacing the thicker vinyl tubes. Long term access routes such as gastrostomy and jejunostomy are being done by endoscopic or radiological techniques. Pre-defined formula feeds have reduced the effort and labour involved in the preparation, storage and administration of blenderized tube feeds. However, the use of soft feeding tubes and commercial formulae will increase the cost of nutrition therapy in India. The ultimate cost-effectiveness of tube feeding will depend on whether it is used appropriately during an illness with adequate delivery of feeds, and whether attention is given to small details by a dedicated nutritional support team. A strong commitment to the scientific use of nutritional support is necessary for getting the best results from tube feeding in everyday practice.

  6. Enteral nutritional support of the critically ill older adult.

    PubMed

    Finoccchiaro, Darlene; Hook, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition continues to be a concern for the older adult in the intensive care setting despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of adequate nutrition and existing evidence-based protocols. The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients ranges between 22% and 43% with the highest probability of occurrence, 50% or more, in the intensive care unit patient. The deleterious effects of malnutrition for the critically ill older adult are described with suggested and accepted screening tools for existing or acquired malnutrition. A discussion of early oral and enteral feeding interventions and strategies for overcoming barriers is explored. Enteral feeding complications are delineated, and perceived barriers or risks are disputed. This paper concludes with suggestions for future research and a definitive role for advanced nursing nutrition champions.

  7. Nutrition assessment in the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jacqueline D; Borrud, Lori G; McDowell, Margaret A; Wang, Chia-Yih; Radimer, Kathy; Johnson, Clifford L

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the components of nutrition assessment in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. The study design was a cross-sectional survey with a nationally representative sample of the US population. The survey participants were interviewed and completed a physical examination. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 25,316 people were included in the eligible sample, 21,004 people (83%) were interviewed, and 19,759 people (78% of the eligible sample) were examined. Dietary assessment consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall interview and questions on supplement use, food security, food-program participation, and other behaviors. Nutrition assessment included anthropometric measurements and body-composition assessment. A number of nutrition biochemistries were measured in blood and urine specimens. In addition, an assessment of cardiovascular fitness and questions on physical activity were included. Data are used to estimate population reference distributions and to monitor trends over time. Data have been used to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake using the Dietary Reference Intakes, to assist in development of nutrition policies related to obesity, and to evaluate policies such as folic acid fortification. The NHANES contributes to the knowledge and understanding of nutrition and health status in the US population through public-use microdata files for use by researchers in academia, in the private sector, and in government agencies. Continuous data collection will allow the NHANES to provide more timely information for policy development and evaluation.

  8. Comparison of a web-based vs in-person nutrition education program for low-income adults.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Lauren M; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    As access to computers and the Internet by the low-income population is increasing and the "digital divide" is slowly diminishing, other methods of delivering nutrition information to this audience are evolving. This randomized, block equivalence trial sought to determine whether web-based nutrition education could result in equivalent nutrition-related behavior outcomes when compared with traditional in-person nutrition education in low-income adults. A convenience sample of low-income adults (n=123) was randomized to receive in-person education (n=66) or web-based education (n=57) in a community setting within 14 counties of Indiana from April through December 2010. The web-based group received three nutrition education lessons (eg, fruits and vegetables, Nutrition Facts label reading, and whole grains) designed to replicate lessons received by the in-person group. Lessons were developed using Kolb's Learning Styles and Experiential Learning Model. Self-reported nutrition-related behaviors were assessed using a previously validated survey for low-income adults. Most nutrition-related behavior outcomes (eg, fruit, vegetable, whole-grain intake, Nutrition Facts label use, breakfast, and meal-planning frequency) improved significantly (P<0.05) from pre to post within both groups, meaning that each intervention was effective. When these nutrition-related behavior improvements were compared between groups, the changes were statistically equivalent (P>0.05), except for one question about use of the Nutrition Facts label. Therefore, web-based nutrition education can lead to favorable and equivalent nutrition-related changes when compared with in-person delivery. Most (83%) web-based participants also reported willingness to use the website again. Future application of web-based interventions for low-income populations could broaden delivery reach, increase frequency and length of contacts, and possibly decrease costs.

  9. Use of the nutrition facts label in chronic disease management: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert E; Mainous, Arch G; Diaz, Vanessa A; Matheson, Eric M; Everett, Charles J

    2010-04-01

    Dietary modifications are common treatment strategies for patients with various chronic diseases, but it is unclear how often these individuals read food labels. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with chronic disease who are advised to change their eating habits read nutrition labels more than patients who have not been so advised, and whether that impacts their energy and nutrient intake. Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of the United States population, was performed. Adults (20 years of age or older) who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and who had type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and/or hyperlipidemia were included for analysis. There were 3,748 unweighted participants, which represents 170,958,166 in the US population. Proportions of patients with chronic disease who read nutrition labels were compared by chi(2) analysis, mean values of various components of their diet were compared by the two-sample independent t test, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined by logistic regression. Among patients with chronic disease, the odds of reading food labels when told by their doctor or another health professional to reduce calories or weight was 50% higher than in those without physician intervention (odds ratio=1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 2.00). Those who read food labels consumed less energy, saturated fat, carbohydrates, and sugar, and more fiber than those who did not. These findings point to the value of dietary counseling in chronic disease management.

  10. Nutrition Risk in Home-Bound Older Adults: Using Dietician-Trained and Supervised Nutrition Volunteers for Screening and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laforest, Sophie; Goldin, Benita; Nour, Kareen; Roy, Marie-Andree; Payette, Helene

    2007-01-01

    Nutrition screening and early intervention in home-bound older adults are key to preventing unfavourable health outcomes and functional decline. This pilot study's objectives were (a) to test the reliability of the Elderly Nutrition Screening Tool (ENS [C]) when administered by dietician-trained and supervised nutrition volunteers, and (b) to…

  11. Nutrition Screening and Assessment in Hospitalized Patients: A Survey of Current Practice in the United States.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vihas; Romano, Michelle; Corkins, Mark R; DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Earthman, Carrie; Malone, Ainsley; Miller, Sarah; Sabino, Kim; Wooley, Jennifer; Guenter, Peggi

    2014-08-01

    Background: The Joint Commission has mandated universal screening and assessment of hospitalized patients for malnutrition since 1995. Although various validated and nonvalidated tools are available, implementation of this mandate has not been well characterized. We report results of a survey of hospital-based professionals in the United States describing their perspective on the current range of nutrition screening and assessment practices as well as associated gaps in knowledge. Methods and Materials: Data from a 2012-2013 cross-sectional, web-based survey targeting members of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.), the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses, and the Society of Hospital Medicine were collected with non-hospital-based members excluded. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Survey data from 1777 unique email addresses are included in this report. A majority of respondents were dietitians, nearly half were A.S.P.E.N. members, and 69.4% reported caring for a mix of adult and pediatric patients. Most respondents answered affirmatively about nutrition screening being performed in alignment with The Joint Commission mandate, but only 50% were familiar with the 2012 Consensus Statement from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/A.S.P.E.N. on adult malnutrition. In most cases, nurses were primarily responsible for nutrition screening, while dietitians had primary responsibility for assessment. No one specific assessment tool or International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code was identified as being used a majority of the time in assessing or coding a patient for malnutrition. Conclusions: The survey findings affirmed compliance with accreditation standards in completing a nutrition screen within 24 hours of admission, and most hospitals appear to have a process to perform a nutrition assessment once a screen is completed. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in both use of tools and

  12. Nutrition education for pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition fellows: Survey of NASPGHAN fellowship training programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the study was to assess the methodology and content of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training and the variability among the different programs. A survey questionnaire was completed by 43 fellowship training directors of 62 active programs affiliated to the North A...

  13. Nutritional screening in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Megan B; Foley, Amanda L; Barnard, Robert; Isenring, Elisabeth A; Miller, Michelle D

    2010-01-01

    Nutrition screening is a process used to quickly identify those who may be at risk of malnutrition so that a full nutrition assessment and appropriate nutrition intervention can be provided. While many nutrition screening tools have been developed, few have been evaluated for use in older adults in the community setting. The aim of this paper is to determine the most appropriate nutrition screening tool/s, in terms of validity and reliability, for identifying malnutrition risk in older adults living in the community. Electronic databases MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched for nutrition screening tools to identify malnutrition or under-nutrition for adults greater than 65 years living in the community. Ten screening tools were found for use in community-dwelling older adults and subjected to validity and/or reliability testing: Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI), which includes the DETERMINE Checklist and Level I and II Screen, Australian Nutritional Screening Initiative (ANSI), Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition (SCREEN I and SCREEN II), Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ), Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ), and two unnamed tools. MNA-SF appears to be the most appropriate nutrition screening tool for use in community-dwelling older adults although MUST and SCREEN II also have evidence to support their use. Further research into the acceptability of screening tools focusing on the outcomes of nutrition screening and appropriate nutrition intervention are required.

  14. Lead and cognitive function in VDR genotypes in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Edward F; Butler, Mary Ann; Chang, Man-Huei; Liu, Tiebin; Yesupriya, Ajay; Dowling, Nicole; Lindegren, Mary Lou

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the blood lead concentration and cognitive function in children and adults with different VDR genotypes who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was investigated. The relationship between blood lead and serum homocysteine concentrations was also investigated. In children 12 to 16 years old, performance on the digit span and arithmetic tests as a function of the blood lead concentration varied by VDR rs2239185 and VDR rs731236 genotypes. Decreases in performance occurred in some genotypes, but not in others. In adults 20 to 59 years old, performance on the symbol-digit substitution test as a function of the blood lead concentration varied by VDR rs2239185-rs731236 haplotype. In the 12 to 16 year old children and adults 60 or more years old, the relationship between the serum homocysteine and blood lead concentrations varied by VDR genotype. The mean blood lead concentrations of the children and adults did not vary by VDR genotype.

  15. The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the epidemiology of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Charles F; Hirsch, Rosemarie

    2011-04-01

    Currently available U.S. population-based data for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), spondyloarthritis and inflammatory back pain (IBP) from the nationally representative U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) include both NHANES I (1971-1975) and NHANES II (1976-1980) surveys. The pelvic radiographs obtained in NHANES I provided U.S. prevalence estimates for radiographic sacroiliitis, an important component of the AS case definition. AS and spondyloarthritis prevalences cannot readily be calculated from NHANES I survey data; however, IBP prevalence (Rudwaleit et al Criteria 7b) can be estimated from NHANES II. The NHANES II estimate for IBP is 0.8% of the adult population ages 25 to 49 years. The prevalence of IBP in the subset of persons with a history of a back pain episode lasting 2 or more weeks was 6.7%. The 2009-2010 NHANES U.S. Inflammatory Back Pain/Spondyloarthritis survey is currently fielded.

  16. Nutrition environment measures survey-vending: development, dissemination, and reliability.

    PubMed

    Voss, Carol; Klein, Susan; Glanz, Karen; Clawson, Margaret

    2012-07-01

    Researchers determined a need to develop an instrument to assess the vending machine environment that was comparably reliable and valid to other Nutrition Environment Measures Survey tools and that would provide consistent and comparable data for businesses, schools, and communities. Tool development, reliability testing, and dissemination of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) involved a collaboration of students, professionals, and community leaders. Interrater reliability testing showed high levels of agreement among trained raters on the products and evaluations of products. NEMS-V can benefit public health partners implementing policy and environmental change initiatives as a part of their community wellness activities. The vending machine project will support a policy calling for state facilities to provide a minimum of 30% of foods and beverages in vending machines as healthy options, based on NEMS-V criteria, which will be used as a model for other businesses.

  17. Review article: nutrition and adult inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Goh, J; O'Morain, C A

    2003-02-01

    Major advances in the understanding of the aetio-pathogenesis and genetics of inflammatory bowel disease have been accompanied by an escalation in the sophistication of immunomodulatory inflammatory bowel disease therapeutics. However, the basic 'triple' therapy (5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, azathioprine) and nutrition have maintained their central role in the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease over recent decades. This review provides an overview of the supportive and therapeutic perspectives of nutrition in adult inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of supportive nutrition is to correct malnutrition in terms of calorie intake or specific macro- or micronutrients. Of particular clinical relevance is deficiency in calcium, vitamin D, folate, vitamin B12 and zinc. There is justifiably a growing sense of unease amongst clinicians and patients with regard to the long-term use of corticosteroids in inflammatory bowel disease. This, rather than arguments about efficacy, should be the catalyst for revisiting the use of enteral nutrition as primary treatment in Crohn's disease. Treatment failure is usually related to a failure to comply with enteral nutrition. Potential factors that militate against successful completion of enteral nutrition are feed palatability, inability to stay on a solid-free diet for weeks, social inconvenience and transient feed-related adverse reactions. Actions that can be taken to improve treatment outcome include the provision of good support from dietitians and clinicians for the duration of treatment and the subsequent 'weaning' period. There is evidence to support a gradual return to a normal diet through exclusion-re-introduction or other dietary regimen following the completion of enteral nutrition to increase remission rates. We also review the evidence for emerging therapies, such as glutamine, growth factors and short-chain fatty acids. The future may see the evolution of enteral nutrition into an

  18. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  19. [Alimentation dependent health disorders among adult population of Bashkortostan Republic and their relation with nutritional traits].

    PubMed

    Takaev, R M; Kondrova, N S; Baĭkina, I M; Larionova, T K

    2008-01-01

    The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.

  20. Document of standardization of enteral nutrition access in adults.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Lorena; Frías, Laura; Creus, Gloria; Parejo, Juana; Urzola, Carmen; Ashbaugh, Rosana; Pérez-Portabella, Cleofé; Cuerda, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    The group of standardization and protocols of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) published in 2011 a consensus document SENPE/SEGHNP/ANECIPN/SECP on enteral access for paediatric nutritional support. Along the lines of this document, we have developed another document on adult patients to homogenize the clinical practice and improve the quality of care in enteral access in this age group. The working group included health professionals (nurses, dietitians and doctor) with extensive experience in enteral nutrition and access. We tried to find scientific evidence through a literature review and we used the criteria of the Agency for Health-care Research and Quality (AHRQ) to classify the evidence (Grade of Recommendation A, B or C). Later the document was reviewed by external experts to the group and requested the endorsement of the Scientific and Educational Committee (CCE) and the group of home artificial nutrition (NADYA) of the SENPE. The full text will be published as a monograph number in this journal.

  1. Design and sample characteristics of the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tu, Su-Hao; Chen, Cheng; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Lin, Yi-Chin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008 was funded by the Department of Health to provide continued assessment of health and nutrition of the people in Taiwan. This household survey collected data from children aged less than 6 years and adults aged 19 years and above, and adopted a three-stage stratified, clustered sampling scheme similar to that used in the NAHSIT 1993-1996. Four samples were produced. One sample with five geographical strata was selected for inference to the whole of Taiwan, while the other three samples, including Hakka, Penghu and mountainous areas were produced for inference to each cultural stratum. A total of 6,189 household interviews and 3,670 health examinations were completed. Interview data included household information, socio-demographics, 24-hour dietary recall, food frequency and habits, dietary and nutritional knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, physical activity, medical history and bone health. Health exam data included anthropometry, blood pressure, physical fitness, bone density, as well as blood and urine collection. Response rate for the household interview was 65%. Of these household interviews, 59% participated in the health exam. Only in a few age subgroups were there significant differences in sex, age, education, or ethnicity distribution between respondents and non-respondents. For the health exam, certain significant differences between participants and non-participants were mostly observed in those aged 19-64 years. The results of this survey will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and the public to understand and improve the nutrition and health status of pre-school children and adults in Taiwan.

  2. Lower nutritional status and higher food insufficiency in frail older US adults.

    PubMed

    Smit, Ellen; Winters-Stone, Kerrie M; Loprinzi, Paul D; Tang, Alice M; Crespo, Carlos J

    2013-07-14

    Frailty is a state of decreased physical functioning and a significant complication of ageing. We examined frailty, energy and macronutrient intake, biomarkers of nutritional status and food insufficiency in US older adult (age ≥ 60 years) participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n 4731). Frailty was defined as meeting ≥ 2 and pre-frailty as meeting one of the following four-item criteria: (1) slow walking; (2) muscular weakness; (3) exhaustion and (4) low physical activity. Intake was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food insufficiency was self-reported as 'sometimes' or 'often' not having enough food to eat. Analyses were adjusted for sex, race, age, smoking, education, income, BMI, other co-morbid conditions and complex survey design. Prevalence of frailty was highest among people who were obese (20·8 %), followed by overweight (18·4 %), normal weight (16·1 %) and lowest among people who were underweight (13·8 %). Independent of BMI, daily energy intake was lowest in people who were frail, followed by pre-frail and highest in people who were not frail (6648 (se 130), 6966 (se 79) and 7280 (se 84) kJ, respectively, P< 0·01). Energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes were similar in people with and without frailty. Frail (adjusted OR (AOR) 4·7; 95 % CI 1·7, 12·7) and pre-frail (AOR 2·1; 95 % CI 0·8, 5·8) people were more likely to report being food insufficient than not frail people. Serum albumin, carotenoids and Se levels were lower in frail adults than not frail adults. Research is needed on targeted interventions to improve nutritional status and food insufficiency among frail older adults, while not necessarily increasing BMI.

  3. National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Song, Won O

    2014-01-01

    Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health.

  4. MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment as a nutritional screening tool for hospitalized older adults; rationales and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Calvo, I; Olivar, J; Martínez, E; Rico, A; Díaz, J; Gimena, M

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of malnutrition in the growing population of older adults makes malnutrition screening critical, especially in hospitalized elderly patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of the MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment in hospitalized older adults for rapid evaluation of nutritional risk. A prospective cohort study was made of 106 patients 65 years old or older admitted to an internal medicine ward of a tertiary-care teaching hospital to evaluate the use of the short form, or screening phase, of the MNA-SF. In the first 48 hours of admission, the full MNA questionnaire was administered and laboratory tests and a dermatologic evaluation were made. The MNA score showed that 77% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition or were frankly malnourished. Low blood levels of albumin, cholesterol and vitamins A and D showed a statistically significant association with malnutrition or risk of malnutrition. Separate evaluation of the MNA-SF showed that it was accurate, sensitive and had predictive value for the screening process. Routine use of the MNA-SF questionnaire by admission nurses to screen patients is recommended. Patients with MNA-SF scores of 11 or lower should be specifically assessed by the nutritional intervention team.

  5. Nutrition: safe practice in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jane

    The use of enteral feeding tubes, such as nasogastric and gastrostomy tubes, to support a patient's nutritional intake is generally considered to be safe and effective. However, recent alerts and recommendations from the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) regarding enteral feeding have led health professionals to review their practice and guidelines. This article explores safe practice in enteral tube feeding in the light of three NPSA alerts: Promoting safer measurement and administration of liquid medicines via oral and other enteral routes (2007), Early detection of complications after gastrostomy (2010) and Reducing the harm caused by misplaced nasogastric tubes in adults and children (2011).

  6. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: food and nutrition for older adults: promoting health and wellness.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Melissa; Munoz, Nancy

    2012-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all Americans aged 60 years and older receive appropriate nutrition care; have access to coordinated, comprehensive food and nutrition services; and receive the benefits of ongoing research to identify the most effective food and nutrition programs, interventions, and therapies. Health, physiologic, and functional changes associated with the aging process can influence nutrition needs and nutrient intake. The practice of nutrition for older adults is no longer limited to those who are frail, malnourished, and ill. The population of adults older than age 60 years includes many individuals who are living healthy, vital lives with a variety of nutrition-related circumstances and environments. Access and availability of wholesome, nutritious food is essential to ensure successful aging and well-being for the rapidly growing, heterogeneous, multiracial, and ethnic population of older adults. To ensure successful aging and minimize the effects of disease and disability, a wide range of flexible dietary recommendations, culturally sensitive food and nutrition services, physical activities, and supportive care tailored to older adults are necessary. National, state, and local strategies that promote access to coordinated food and nutrition services are essential to maintain independence, functional ability, disease management, and quality of life. Those working with older adults must be proactive in demonstrating the value of comprehensive food and nutrition services. To meet the needs of all older adults, registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, must widen their scope of practice to include prevention, treatment, and maintenance of health and quality of life into old age.

  7. Nutritional risk factors for tuberculosis among adults in the United States, 1971-1992.

    PubMed

    Cegielski, J Peter; Arab, Lenore; Cornoni-Huntley, Joan

    2012-09-01

    The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) may be related to nutritional status. To determine the impact of nutritional status on TB incidence, the authors analyzed data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS). NHANES I collected information on a probability sample of the US population in 1971-1975. Adults were followed up in 1982-1992. Incident TB cases were ascertained through interviews, medical records, and death certificates. TB incidences were compared across different levels of nutritional status after controlling for potential confounding using proportional hazards regression appropriate to the complex sample design. TB incidence among adults with normal body mass index was 24.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.0, 36.3). In contrast, among persons who were underweight, overweight, and obese, estimated TB incidence rates were 260.2 (95% CI: 98.6, 421.8), 8.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 15.6), and 5.1 (95% CI: 0.0, 10.5) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Adjusted hazard ratios were 12.43 (95% CI: 5.75, 26.95), 0.28 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.63), and 0.20 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.62), respectively, after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and medical characteristics. A low serum albumin level also increased the risk of TB, but low vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, and iron status did not. A population's nutritional profile is an important determinant of its TB incidence.

  8. National databases and rheumatology research II: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Krishnan, Eswar

    2004-11-01

    Three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were conducted in the United States between 1971 and 1994 to provide data on the nutritional and health status of the population and on specific target conditions. This article describes features of the surveys and provides examples of research on musculoskeletal disorders that used the survey data.

  9. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-09-07

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.

  10. The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Zhai, F Y; Du, S F; Popkin, B M

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore, in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies.

  11. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  12. Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: Results from the national nutrition health and examination survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and use of food labels in adolescents. Risk for overweight (BMI ≥ 85-94th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) was assessed in relation to nutrition awareness and label reading. Results Most adolescents (92.4%) were aware of the Food Guide Pyramid. Fewer (43.5%) were aware of the 5-A-Day Program, and even less (29.3%) were aware of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Less than 25% of adolescents decided which foods to purchase by reading material on the nutrition facts label. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in awareness of federal nutrition programs with Mexican-Americans having the lowest levels of awareness of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid in comparison with other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had higher and African-American adolescents had lower frequencies of reading fat information on the nutrition label in comparison to Mexican-American and other Hispanics. Awareness of other nutrition programs or of other information on the nutrition facts label was not associated with increased or decreased risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions Use of the nutrition facts panel information is low among US adolescents. Additionally, less than half of adolescents are aware of federal nutrition programs including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Future studies should evaluate avenues to make nutrition information more accessible to young Americans. PMID:22639924

  13. Nutrition knowledge and Mediterranean diet adherence in the southeast United States: Validation of a field-based survey instrument.

    PubMed

    Bottcher, Mary Rose; Marincic, Patricia Z; Nahay, Katie L; Baerlocher, Brittany E; Willis, Amy W; Park, Jieun; Gaillard, Philippe; Greene, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce chronic disease risk and is a recommended diet for prevention and management of diabetes. Adherence to the MD in the southeast United States where obesity and diabetes are highly prevalent is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) construct a survey instrument relevant to the general population integrating both MD related nutrition knowledge and adherence questions from previously validated instruments, and 2) assess MD related nutrition knowledge and adherence in a sample population in the southest United States. Adherance was assessed using the validated short MD Adherence Screener (MEDAS). A MD nutrition knowledge (MDNK) questionnaire was developed from previously validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaires and was validated using 127 university students enrolled in three courses with varying levels of nutrition education. Cronbach's α for internal validity of MDNK was acceptable for a short questionnaire (0.653). Test-retest reliability was established (r = 0.853). Field validation of the three-part survey instrument (MEDAS, MDNK and demographic questions) was subsequently performed in 230 adults shopping at supermarkets and farmers markets in eastern Alabama. Total MDNK and MEDAS scores were significantly higher in students with formal nutrition education and in patrons of farmers markets. Greater MD adherence, assessed by dividing MEDAS scores into thirds, was found with increasing formal nutrition education in university students (p = 0.002) and in farmers market participants (p < 0.001). There was a weak but significant association between MDNK and MEDAS scores within university students and participants in the field. Together, the MDNK-MEDAS survey instrument is an effective tool for assessing baseline knowledge and adherence and can be used to target nutritional interventions to improve MD adherence for prevention and management of diabetes and other chronic disease.

  14. Impact of dining out on nutritional intake and metabolic syndrome risk factors: data from the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Kim, Hak-Seon; No, Jae-Kyung

    2015-02-14

    The frequency of dining out has rapidly increased; however, the independent associations between dining out, metabolic syndrome risk factors and nutritional status have not been well characterised. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between dining out, nutritional intakes and metabolic syndrome risk factors among Korean adults, using data from the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Frequency of dining out was significantly associated with intake of nutrients such as energy, water, protein, fat, carbohydrate, Ca, Na, vitamin A and carotene. Especially, the result revealed that Korean adults had insufficient Ca intake compared with the Korean reference intake (700 mg). As the frequency of dining out increased, so did energy intake. In addition, individuals who dined out seven or more times per week experienced a 64% higher likelihood of blood pressure abnormalities, an 88% higher likelihood of waist circumference abnormalities, and a 32% higher likelihood of low HDL-cholesterol levels than those who dined out less than once per week. BMI was not associated with the frequency of dining out. Our findings suggest that strategies to modify dining-out behaviour could reduce metabolic syndrome risk factors via improved nutrition.

  15. 76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012. NHANES is changing its plan for making DNA available for genetic research and its proposal...

  16. U.S. HEALTH AND NUTRITION: SAS SURVEY PROCEDURES AND NHANES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is used to evaluate the health and nutrition of the United States. It is composed of cross-sectional, nationally representative health examination surveys of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population. A complex, stratified, mult...

  17. A randomized trial testing the efficacy of modifications to the nutrition facts table on comprehension and use of nutrition information by adolescents and young adults in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hobin, E.; Sacco, J.; Vanderlee, L.; White, C. M.; Zuo, F.; Sheeshka, J.; McVey, G.; Fodor O'Brien, M.; Hammond, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Given the proposed changes to nutrition labelling in Canada and the dearth of research examining comprehension and use of nutrition facts tables (NFts) by adolescents and young adults, our objective was to experimentally test the efficacy of modifications to NFts on young Canadians’ ability to interpret, compare and mathematically manipulate nutrition information in NFts on prepackaged food. Methods: An online survey was conducted among 2010 Canadians aged 16 to 24 years drawn from a consumer sample. Participants were randomized to view two NFts according to one of six experimental conditions, using a between-groups 2×3 factorial design: serving size (current NFt vs. standardized serving-sizes across similar products) × percent daily value (% DV) (current NFt vs. “low/med/high” descriptors vs. colour coding). The survey included seven performance tasks requiring participants to interpret, compare and mathematically manipulate nutrition information on NFts. Separate modified Poisson regression models were conducted for each of the three outcomes. Results: The ability to compare two similar products was significantly enhanced in NFt conditions that included standardized serving-sizes (p ≤ .001 for all). Adding descriptors or colour coding of % DV next to calories and nutrients on NFts significantly improved participants’ ability to correctly interpret % DV information (p ≤ .001 for all). Providing both standardized serving-sizes and descriptors of % DV had a modest effect on participants’ ability to mathematically manipulate nutrition information to calculate the nutrient content of multiple servings of a product (relative ratio = 1.19; 95% confidence limit: 1.04–1.37). Conclusion: Standardizing serving-sizes and adding interpretive % DV information on NFts improved young Canadians’ comprehension and use of nutrition information. Some caution should be exercised in generalizing these findings to all Canadian youth due to the

  18. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 in older adults with normal nutritional status by mini nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Araújo, D A; Noronha, M B; Cunha, N A; Abrunhosa, S F; Rocha, A N; Amaral, T F

    2016-07-01

    Undernutrition as well as low levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid are common problems among older adults. However, recommended routine nutritional status assessment tools may result in inadequate vitamin serum levels to go unnoticed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the inadequacy of serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid within Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) classification categories among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 97 older adults residing in care homes in Portugal. Undernutrition was identified through the MNA, and serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using chemiluminescence. Cognitive function, depressive symptoms and functional characteristics were also assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test Score, the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Barthel Index, respectively. The mean age of older adults was 82.2 (6.3) years; 3.1% were undernourished and 26.8% were at undernutrition risk. In the MNA normal nutritional status group, 11.8% presented vitamin B12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml), 32.4% had low serum levels (200-400 pg/ml) and 4.4% had folic acid deficiency (<3 ng/ml). A high proportion of older adults with low serum levels of vitamin B12 presenting normal nutritional status by MNA was identified. This finding emphasizes the need to evaluate serum vitamin B12 levels, independently of the MNA results.

  19. Improving nutritional support for adults in primary and secondary care.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Andrea

    There has been serious concern about the nutritional care provided in some secondary and primary care settings. As a result, best practice, benchmarking initiatives and nutritional guidance have been issued by government and non-government agencies. This article helps nurses to synthesise these initiatives and improve their knowledge of nutritional care.

  20. Nutrition education in Japanese medical schools: a follow-up survey.

    PubMed

    Orimo, Hideo; Ueno, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sone, Hirohito; Tanaka, Akira; Itakura, Hiroshige

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was used to determine the status of nutrition education in Japanese medical schools in 2009. A similar survey was conducted in 2004, at which time nutritional education was determined to be inadequate in Japanese medical schools. The current questionnaire was sent to the directors of Centers for Medical Education of 80 medical schools, who represented all medical schools in Japan. Sixty-seven medical schools (83.8%) responded, of which 25 schools (37.3%) offered dedicated nutrition courses and 36 schools (53.7%) did not offer dedicated nutrition courses but offered something related to nutrition in other courses; six schools (9.0%) did not offer any nutrition education. Overall, 61 schools (91.0%) offered at least some nutritional topics in their undergraduate education. Nevertheless, only 11 schools (16.4%) seem to dedicate more than 5 hours to substantial nutrition education as judged by their syllabi. Although the mean length of the course was 11 hours, substantial nutrition education accounted for only 4.2 hours. Of the 25 medical schools that offered dedicated nutrition courses, seven schools offered the nutrition course as a stand-alone course and 18 schools offered it as an integrated course. In conclusion, the status of nutrition education in Japan has improved slightly but is still inadequate.

  1. Dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle: associations with blood pressure in a sample of Australian adults (the Food BP study).

    PubMed

    Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.

  2. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151) with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11%) of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational) context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY have the potential to

  3. Association between rice consumption and selected indicators of dietary and nutritional status using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Luo, Hanqi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25.

  4. Predicting early nonelective hospital readmission in nutritionally compromised older adults.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, J M; Jensen, G L; Smiciklas-Wright, H; McCamish, M A

    1997-06-01

    This study determined predictors of early nonelective hospital readmission in 92 (49 women and 43 men) nutritionally compromised Medicare patients. Subjects ranged in age from 65 to 92 y and represented patients hospitalized previously for medical or surgical services. The study used a repeated-measures design of multiple variables representing demographics, anthropometric and clinical values, and functional status. Data were collected during hospitalization and during home visits at 1 and 3 mo postdischarge. There were 26 readmissions, making the 4-mo nonelective readmission rate 26%. Subjects who were readmitted nonelectively were compared with those not readmitted. Univariate analyses suggested strong relations between readmission outcome and serum albumin, total lymphocyte count, change in weight, and change in white blood cell count. Sociodemographic variables were less useful in predicting readmission than were measurements of patients' clinical status. Measurements of change in clinical variables were generally more predictive of readmission than was any one single measurement. Multivariate-logistic-regression analyses suggested a model consisting of change in weight and change in serum albumin from hospitalization to 1 mo after discharge as being highly predictive of early nonelective readmission. Individuals with any amount of weight loss and no improvement in albumin concentrations during the first month after hospitalization were at a much higher risk of readmission than were those who maintained or increased their postdischarge weight and had repleted their serum albumin concentrations. More study is warranted to clarify whether routine monitoring of changes in weight and serum albumin after hospitalization is appropriate in older adults.

  5. Use of song as an effective teaching strategy for nutrition education in older adults.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jacquelyn W; Jayaratne, K S U; Bird, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether singing an educational song would be effective in improving older adults' knowledge about nutrition. We used a randomized controlled design to determine whether singing an educational song would result in increased nutrition knowledge in a low-income population of older adults compared to a control group of similar adults who did not sing the song. Eighteen congregate nutrition sites were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. Analysis via independent samples t -test showed the knowledge gain mean scores for the treatment group were significantly ( P  < 0.05) greater than those of the control group. This study supports a unique new approach to increasing nutrition knowledge of older adults by using music.

  6. Focus-Group Evaluation of Nutrition Education Displays by Hispanic Adults Who Live in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Delores H.; Munoz, Alejandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the acceptability and effectiveness of visual displays of nutrition educational information for low-income Hispanic adults in the USA and to determine whether this population have different perceptions of the same nutrition education displays or express different needs than low-income Caucasian…

  7. Nutritional Status and Lipid Profile in HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Stambullian, M; Feliu, M S; Cassetti, L I; Slobodianik, N H

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, there have been many reports of HIV infection and abnormalities in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims at describing the nutritional status of HIV-infected adults and its relation to lipid profile through traditional [total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides (TG), non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (LDL)] and other parameters [Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), fibrinogen, and high sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)]. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and references were taken from WHO. TC, HDL, TG and glucose were determined and non-HDL cholesterol and LDL were calculated. ApoB and fibrinogen were determined by quantitative radial immunodiffusion on agar plates (Diffuplate,Biocientífica SA,Argentina) and hs-CRP by immunoturbidimetric test. Qualitative variables were compared with the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Quantitative variables were compared applying parametrics or nonparametric tests. Pearson test for correlations. Software SPSS 17.0. 97 patients were analyzed: 69.1% were men. 80% were on antiretroviral treatment. Average (SD) BMI was 24.3 (4.1) kg/m(2). 29.4% were overweight and 5.9% obese. Patients with a BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) presented significantly higher levels of TG, ApoB and glycemia than well-nourished people [246.1(169.0) vs. 142.9(78.4) mg/dL;p=0.029, 198.6(69.3) vs. 126.4(50.6) mg/dL;p=0.01 and 100 (3.2) vs. 90.2 (6.9) mg/dL;p=0.008 resp.] and a significantly decreased HDL [37.2(1.5) vs. 49.8(10.4) mg/dL;p<0.01]. No statistically significant correlation was found between ApoB and non-HDL (p=0,063). There was no evidence that there is a direct relation between Apo B and the other lipid parameters. The potential increase in CVD in this group of patients, would be related to the higher levels of TG, ApoB and overweight/obesity. Nutritional education is needed to promote a healthy weight to warn against the risk of

  8. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  9. Nutritional Recommendations for Adult Bariatric Surgery Patients: Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Sherf Dagan, Shiri; Goldenshluger, Ariela; Globus, Inbal; Schweiger, Chaya; Kessler, Yafit; Kowen Sandbank, Galit; Ben-Porat, Tair; Sinai, Tali

    2017-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its associated metabolic complications. To ensure long-term postoperative success, patients must be prepared to adopt comprehensive lifestyle changes. This review summarizes the current evidence and expert opinions with regard to nutritional care in the perioperative and long-term postoperative periods. A literature search was performed with the use of different lines of searches for narrative reviews. Nutritional recommendations are divided into 3 main sections: 1) presurgery nutritional evaluation and presurgery diet and supplementation; 2) postsurgery diet progression, eating-related behaviors, and nutritional therapy for common gastrointestinal symptoms; and 3) recommendations for lifelong supplementation and advice for nutritional follow-up. We recognize the need for uniform, evidence-based nutritional guidelines for bariatric patients and summarize recommendations with the aim of optimizing long-term success and preventing complications.

  10. Mechanisms by which nutritional disorders cause reduced bone mass in adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen K

    2003-03-01

    Nutritional disorders that cause bone loss in adults include disordered eating behaviors (female athlete triad and anorexia nervosa), gastrointestinal diseases (celiac sprue, inflammatory bowel disease, and other malabsorption syndromes), alcoholism, and hypervitaminosis A. These disorders exert their effects on bone through a number of mechanisms, including estrogen deficiency. Deficiencies of anabolic hormones may also be important, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a nutritionally regulated bone trophic factor. In addition, low weight itself is a risk factor for bone loss and decreased bone formation. Reduced calcium and vitamin D availability, with resultant secondary hyperparathyroidism, is another important mechanism of bone loss in nutritional disorders. This review discusses nutritional causes of reduced bone mass in adults and how nutritional disorders exert deleterious effects on the skeleton.

  11. Nutrition Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools. Statistical Analysis Report. Fast Response Survey System (FRSS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebuski, Carin; Farris, Elizabeth

    This report presents the findings from the "Nutrition Education in Public Schools, K-12" survey that was designed to provide data on the status of nutrition education in U.S. public schools. Questionnaires were sent to 1,000 school principals of a nationally representative sample of U.S. elementary, middle, and high schools. The survey…

  12. Adult Literacy in OECD Countries: Technical Report on the First International Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, T. Scott; Kirsch, Irwin S.; Jenkins, Lynn B.

    In December 1995, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and Statistics Canada jointly published the results of the first International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). For this survey, representative samples of adults aged 16 to 65 were interviewed and tested in their homes in Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands,…

  13. Screening of Nutritional Risk and Nutritional Support in General Surgery Patients: A Survey from Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhen-Yi; Yang, Jun; Tong, Da-Nian; Peng, Jia-Yuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Liu, Wei-Jie; Xia, Yang; Qin, Huan-long

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of nutritional risk in surgical departments and to evaluate the impact of nutritional support on clinical outcomes. The nutritional risk in different surgical diseases and the different way of nutritional support on clinical outcomes in patients at nutritional risk remain unclear. Hospitalized patients from general surgical departments were screened using the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 questionnaire on admission. Data were collected on nutritional risk, complications, and length of stay (LOS). Overall, 5034 patients were recruited; the overall prevalence of nutritional risk on admission were 19.2%. The highest prevalence was found among patients with gastric cancer. At-risk patients had more complications and longer LOS than nonrisk patients. Of the at-risk patients, the complication rate was significantly lower and LOS was significantly shorter in the nutritional-support group than in the no-support group (20.9 versus 30.0%, P < 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed reduced complication rates and LOS only in patients with gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) cancer. Significantly lower complication rates relative to nonsupported patients were found among patients who received enteral nutrition or who received support for 5 to 7 days, or daily support entailing 16 to 25 kcal/kg of nonprotein energy. Different surgical diseases have different levels of nutritional risk. The provision of nutritional support was associated with a lower complication rate and a shorter LOS for gastric, colorectal, and HPB cancer patients at nutritional risk. The improper use of nutritional support may not improve outcomes for at-risk patients. PMID:26011204

  14. Purchasing patterns of adults, adolescents and children in urban corner stores: Quantity, spending and nutritional characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lent, Michelle R.; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Mallya, Giridhar; McCoy, Tara A.; Sanders, Timothy A.; Lawman, Hannah G.; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Corner stores, also known as bodegas, are prevalent in low-income urban areas and primarily stock high-energy foods and beverages. Little is known about individual-level purchases in these locations. The purpose of the present study was to assess corner store purchases (items, nutritional characteristics and amount spent) made by children, adolescents and adults in a low-income urban environment. Design Evaluation staff used 9238 intercept surveys to directly examine food and beverage purchases. Setting Intercepts were collected at 192 corner stores in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Subjects Participants were adult, adolescent and child corner store shoppers. Results Among the 9238 intercept surveys, there were 20 244 items. On average, at each corner store visit, consumers purchased 2·2 (SD 2·1) items (1·3 (SD 2·0) foods and 0·9 (SD 0·9) beverages) that cost $US 2·74 (SD $US 3·52) and contained 2786·5 (SD 4454·2) kJ (666·0 (SD 1064·6) kcal). Whether the data were examined as a percentage of total items purchased or as a percentage of intercepts, the most common corner store purchases were beverages, chips, prepared food items, pastries and candy. Beverage purchases occurred during 65·9 % of intercepts and accounted for 39·2 % of all items. Regular soda was the most popular beverage purchase. Corner store purchases averaged 66·2 g of sugar, 921·1mg of sodium and 2·5 g of fibre per intercept. Compared with children and adolescents, adults spent the most money and purchased the most energy. Conclusions Urban corner store shoppers spent almost $US 3·00 for over 2700 kJ (650 kcal) per store visit. Obesity prevention efforts may benefit from including interventions aimed at changing corner store food environments in low-income, urban areas. PMID:25115817

  15. [Relevance of nutrition knowledge on clinical practice: medical opinion survey].

    PubMed

    Alvares, Luísa; Moreira, Isabel; Oliveira, António

    2007-01-01

    Although previous studies show that physicians generally agree that nutrition knowledge is important for their daily clinical practice, several other studies report their poor knowledge of the subject. One of the strongest reasons given for this is the non-incorporation of Nutrition as a compulsory subject for the medical sciences degree. Dietary counselling and assessment of the patients' nutritional status don't seem to be systematic. The aim of this study is to asses how relevant physicians consider Nutrition to be in the successful running of a good practice. The study was undertaken at the general hospital of Vila Real/Peso da Régua (CHVR/PR) by distribution of a self- administered questionnaire to 153 of the physicians of the clinical body. Mean values were compared with the Student's t test and proportions with the Chi-square test. Of the 153 physicians, 108 replies were received (70,6%). Of these 108 replies, 53,3% consider nutrition knowledge important although 29,6% state their knowledge is poor. More than half say that Clinical Nutrition should be a compulsory subject of the Medical Sciences syllabus, and 99,1% deem it important to assess the patient's nutritional status. About 95% stated they provided written or verbal nutritional guidance, and most of the physicians had already sought the assistance of a nutritionist. This study shows that the clinical body of the CHVR/PR is aware of the importance nutrition knowledge has in their daily practice. It must be noted, though, that although almost one third of the physicians rate their nutrition knowledge poor, most of them provide nutritional guidance to their patients.

  16. Nutrition screening and counseling in adults with lung cancer: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Moreland, Susan S

    2010-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is an integral component of the cancer treatment process. Numerous factors should be considered when evaluating the nutritional status of patients with cancer. A systematic review of the literature revealed the importance of nutrition interventions in patients with cancer who were undergoing chemotherapy. Counseling in nutrition has been shown to improve quality of life, strengthen response to therapy, and increase survival. Lung cancer presents a significant risk as the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in the United States. In addition, nutritional deficiencies are experienced by most adults with lung cancer during the course of their disease and treatment. The deficiencies compound the cost of treatment and also increase morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Further study of nutritional interventions is needed to promote better outcomes and quality of life in patients with lung cancer.

  17. Adults' Participation in Informal Learning Activities: Key Findings from the Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Horng-Ji; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Li, Ai-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the informal learning experiences expressed by Taiwanese adults (aged from 16 to 97) and examined their involvement related to selected socio-demographic characteristics. Data of the 2008 Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan and Fujian Area were used to look at different variables of adults' demographic…

  18. Nutrition Education and Support Program for Community-Dwelling Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom

    2008-01-01

    To test the efficacy, acceptability, and appropriateness of a nutrition education and support program, 4 community-based group homes for adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities participated in a pilot intervention with extended baseline period and pre--post-test design. Adults (N = 32) with intellectual or developmental…

  19. Nutrition and the Older Adult. Module A-9. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on nutrition and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Five sections present…

  20. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard; Lee, Sundong

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  1. New reference data on bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged 50 years or older: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Shik; Bae, Su-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Lee, Jungun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ≥20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ≥50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ≥50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Boseok; Lee, So-Jin; Seo, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Jaemin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation in Korean. This study was based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A questionnaire was used to measure suicidal ideation and physical examination was performed to measure waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to estimate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation among adults and adolescents. Subjects with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have suicidal ideation in adult. There would be essential needs to evaluate suicidal ideation in adult with metabolic syndrome and to follow up suicidal ideation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome. PMID:25110507

  3. Language Assessment Tools for Mentally Retarded Adults: Survey and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Joyce M.; Flynn, Pauline T.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys completed by 50 speech/language pathologists at facilities serving mentally retarded adults revealed that a wide array of language assessment instruments were used. The need to examine many commercial tests (developed and standardized on children) for adults is stressed. (CL)

  4. Continuing Education of Deaf Adults. Report of a Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Jerome D.; And Others

    The identification of problems relating to deaf adults' access to nondegree-oriented programs of adult and continuing education (ACE), and suggestions for alternative solutions are the focus of this report of a national survey of 641 (response rate) deaf persons (those persons who cannot hear and understand speech spoken directly into their better…

  5. Enteral Nutrition for Adults in the Hospital Setting.

    PubMed

    Kozeniecki, Michelle; Fritzshall, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    In patients unable to tolerate oral intake, multiple options of nutrient delivery are available to the clinician. Administration of enteral nutrition (EN) has long been considered the standard of care for nutrition support among patients unable to meet energy and protein requirements orally. Healthcare practitioners must make careful decisions related to ordering, administering, and monitoring EN therapy. In the hospital setting, the registered dietitian is a key resource in enteral formula selection and method of administration, monitoring for and troubleshooting EN-related complications, and transitioning to oral feeding. The hospital setting also presents many unique challenges in providing optimal nutrition to the enterally fed patient.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Children: The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peige; Yu, Jinyue; Chang, Xinlei; Wang, Manli; An, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is generally defined as a cluster of metabolically related cardiovascular risk factors which are often associated with the condition of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and abdominal obesity. During the past decades, MetS has become a major public health issue worldwide in both adults and children. In this study, data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) was used to assess the prevalence of MetS based on both the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, and to evaluate its possible correlates. A total of 831 children aged 7–18 years were included in this study, and 28 children were classified as having MetS as defined by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition, which yielded an overall prevalence of 3.37%. Elevated blood pressure was the most frequent MetS component. The results of logistic regression models revealed that increased body mass index (BMI), hyperuricemia, and insulin resistance (IR) were all associated with the presence of MetS. To conclude, our study revealed the prevalence of MetS in Chinese children at the national level. Further large-scale studies are still needed to identify better MetS criteria in the general paediatric population in China. PMID:28106792

  7. Validity and Reliability of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bukenya, Richard; Ahmed, Abhiya; Andrade, Jeanette M.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Muyonga, John; Andrade, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to develop and validate a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) for Ugandan adults. The initial draft consisted of 133 items on five constructs associated with nutrition knowledge; expert recommendations (16 items), food groups (70 items), selecting food (10 items), nutrition and disease relationship (23 items), and food fortification in Uganda (14 items). The questionnaire validity was evaluated in three studies. For the content validity (study 1), a panel of five content matter nutrition experts reviewed the GNKQ draft before and after face validity. For the face validity (study 2), head teachers and health workers (n = 27) completed the questionnaire before attending one of three focus groups to review the clarity of the items. For the construct and test-rest reliability (study 3), head teachers (n = 40) from private and public primary schools and nutrition (n = 52) and engineering (n = 49) students from Makerere University took the questionnaire twice (two weeks apart). Experts agreed (content validity index, CVI > 0.9; reliability, Gwet’s AC1 > 0.85) that all constructs were relevant to evaluate nutrition knowledge. After the focus groups, 29 items were identified as unclear, requiring major (n = 5) and minor (n = 24) reviews. The final questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach α > 0.95), test-retest reliability (r = 0.89), and differentiated (p < 0.001) nutrition knowledge scores between nutrition (67 ± 5) and engineering (39 ± 11) students. Only the construct on nutrition recommendations was unreliable (Cronbach α = 0.51, test-retest r = 0.55), which requires further optimization. The final questionnaire included topics on food groups (41 items), selecting food (2 items), nutrition and disease relationship (14 items), and food fortification in Uganda (22 items) and had good content, construct, and test-retest reliability to evaluate nutrition knowledge among Ugandan adults. PMID:28230779

  8. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.

  9. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006), collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E) fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA) among all age-groups (45-60%) and of trans fatty acids (TrFA) in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk. PMID:21651771

  10. [Weight and height validation for diagnosis of adult nutritional status in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida da; Araújo, Cora Luíza; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Aluisio J D; Lima, Maurício Silva de

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height for predicting adult nutritional status. In a cross-sectional study of 3,934 adults (> 20 years) in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, a sub-sample of 140 individuals was drawn and weight and height were measured. From the comparison between "measured" and "reported" BMI, the average reported BMI error was estimated and the associated factors were identified. Regardless of nutritional status, women underestimated their "reported" BMI, while in men this information was accurate. Among women, age and income were associated with underestimated BMI in a multivariate analysis. Thus, women over 50 and with lower income underestimated BMI by more than 2 kg/m2. The use of "reported" BMI to predict adult nutritional status can underestimate prevalence of obesity and overestimate that of overweight in women. Correction minimizes this kind of bias, thereby making the data more accurate.

  11. Practitioners' opinions on Food and Nutrition Care Indicators in assisted living facilities for older adults.

    PubMed

    Chao, Shirley Y; Dwyer, Johanna T; Houser, Robert F; Tennstedt, Sharon; Jacques, Paul

    2008-09-01

    This study assessed the utility of the 57-indicator Food and Nutrition Care Indicators Checklist for assessing food and nutrition services in assisted-living facilities for older adults among registered dietitians (RDs). They were members of two American Dietetic Association practice groups focusing on aging and long-term care and were also employed in assisted-living facilities. The 1,281 respondents rated the importance of each checklist item and provided their views on the role of assisted-living facilities and their level of agreement with statements regarding the importance of residents' autonomy for making food choices and their ability to make wise dietary choices. Registered dietitians practicing in assisted-living facilities considered all of the domains on food and nutrition quality indicators on the Food and Nutrition Care Indicators Checklist to be highly important (92% of dining room environment items, 83% of foodservice operations, 92% of general nutrition, and 89% of therapeutic nutrition items). They preferred a service style that included both health and amenities, as did national health and aging experts. Registered dietitians should work with other professionals to further validate the checklist, promote its use, and establish optimal service models for food and nutrition services in assisted-living facilities for older adults.

  12. Surveying Landscapes in Adult ESOL Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Research in the field of adult ESOL internationally is both spasmodic and fragmentary. The papers in this special issue therefore constitute a major contribution to the field by providing new insights into ESOL research from the perspective of current pedagogical practices in the British context. In this paper, I provide a response to this…

  13. Symposium 6: Young people, artificial nutrition and transitional care. The nutritional challenges of the young adult with cystic fibrosis: transition.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alison M

    2009-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Intestinal malabsorption occurs in approximately 90% of patients. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity. For many young adults requirements will be 120-150% of the age-related estimated average requirement. To meet these energy needs patients are encouraged to eat a high-fat high-energy diet with appropriate pancreatic enzyme supplements. Many patients are unable to achieve an adequate intake as a result of a variety of factors including chronic poor appetite, infection-related anorexia, gastro-oesophageal reflux and abdominal pain. Oral energy supplements and enteral tube feeding are widely used. Nutritional support has been shown to improve nutritional status and stabilise or slow the rate of decline in lung function. With such emphasis on nutritional intake and nutritional status throughout life, poor adherence to therapies and issues relating to body image are emerging. The median survival of patients with CF is increasing. CF is now considered a life-limiting disease of adulthood rather than a terminal childhood illness. With increased longevity new challenges are emerging that include the transition of young adults with CF to adult services, CF-related diabetes, disordered eating, osteoporosis, liver disease and transplantation.

  14. The association between the incidence of urolithiasis and nutrition based on Japanese National Health and Nutrition Surveys.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Takahiro; Okada, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Hirose, Masahito; Ando, Ryosuke; Kubota, Yasue; Tozawa, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Gao, Bing; Suzuki, Sadao; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2013-06-01

    To clarify the association between regional variations in urolithiasis incidence and nutrition intake, we evaluated associated data from Japanese national surveys. The incidence of urolithiasis in 12 regions of Japan was calculated from 2005 patient data obtained from 430 hospitals (n = 92,797). Nutrition intake data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. We examined the association between urolithiasis incidence and average intake of various types of food or nutrients by region. Continuing surveys in Japan reveal fixed variations in urolithiasis incidence among geographic regions. The national average of patients with urolithiasis was estimated as 203.1 per 100,000 citizens. Regarding food, intake of fruit correlated negatively with the incidence of urolithiasis (r = -0.721, p = 0.008), while intake of eggs (r = 0.537, p = 0.072) and sugar (r = 0.475, p = 0.119) tended to positively correlate with incidence. Regarding nutrients, intake of potassium (r = -0.500, p = 0.098), vitamin K (r = -0.562, p = 0.057), and pantothenic acid (r = -0.560, p = 0.058) tended to negatively correlate with incidence. The incidence of urolithiasis is higher in geographic areas with populations having low fruit and high sugar intake.

  15. Prenatal Nutritional Deficiency and Risk of Adult Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan S.; Susser, Ezra S.

    2008-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that a neurodevelopmental disruption plays a role in the vulnerability to schizophrenia. The authors review evidence supporting in utero exposure to nutritional deficiency as a determinant of schizophrenia. We first describe studies demonstrating that early gestational exposure to the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944–1945 and to a severe famine in China are each associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring. The plausibility of several candidate micronutrients as potential risk factors for schizophrenia and the biological mechanisms that may underlie these associations are then reviewed. These nutrients include folate, essential fatty acids, retinoids, vitamin D, and iron. Following this discussion, we describe the methodology and results of an epidemiologic study based on a large birth cohort that has tested the association between prenatal homocysteine, an indicator of serum folate, and schizophrenia risk. The study capitalized on the use of archived prenatal serum specimens that make it possible to obtain direct, prospective biomarkers of prenatal insults, including levels of various nutrients during pregnancy. Finally, we discuss several strategies for subjecting the prenatal nutritional hypothesis of schizophrenia to further testing. These approaches include direct assessment of additional prenatal nutritional biomarkers in relation to schizophrenia in large birth cohorts, studies of epigenetic effects of prenatal starvation, association studies of genes relevant to folate and other micronutrient deficiencies, and animal models. Given the relatively high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy, this work has the potential to offer substantial benefits for the prevention of schizophrenia in the population. PMID:18682377

  16. Use of sodium information on the nutrition facts label in New York City adults with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Elfassy, Tali; Yi, Stella; Eisenhower, Donna; Lederer, Ashley; Curtis, Christine J

    2015-02-01

    The Nutrition Facts (NF) label was established to help individuals monitor their nutrient intake and select healthier foods. This tool is particularly useful for individuals for whom dietary improvements are recommended, such as those with hypertension. Study objectives were to examine the independent association between hypertension and frequency of use of the NF label for sodium information and determine whether frequent use in individuals with hypertension was associated with differences in mean sodium intake assessed through 24-hour urine samples. Data came from the New York City Community Health Survey Heart Follow-Up Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 in a representative sample of New York City adults (n=1,656). Participants were asked questions regarding frequency of checking the NF label and also had 24-hour urine samples collected to assess actual sodium intake. Results indicated that hypertension was associated with frequent use of the NF label for sodium information (adjusted odds ratio 1.71, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.73). In individuals with hypertension, sodium intake did not differ between frequent vs nonfrequent use of the NF label for sodium information (3,084 mg/day vs 3,059 mg/day; P=0.92). Although individuals with hypertension compared to those with no hypertension had 71% higher odds of frequently using the NF label for sodium information, suggesting they may be interested in decreasing sodium intake, sodium intake did not differ by frequency of NF label use among those with hypertension. Future research should explore strategies to ensure that when nutrition information is used, it is translated into meaningful results, especially in individuals with health concerns such as hypertension.

  17. [Nutritional implications on treatment and recovery of adult patients with chronic diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Dichi, I; Papini-Berto, S J; Dichi, J B; Di Lello, A; Victória, C R; Burini, R C

    1991-01-01

    The nutritional assessment by 24 hour-dietary recall, anthropometry and blood-components measurements was undertaken in 23 adult patients, 17 males and 6 females suffering of chronic diarrhea from pancreatitis (30%), inflammatory bowel disease (22%), short intestine syndrome (9%) and unknown diarrhea (35%). The nutritional assessment was done at the entry and repeated at the discharge of the hospitalization that averaged 35 days, during which the patients received specific medical treatment along with obstipating diets. The hospitalization resulted in overall improvement of the patients either clinically by reducing their defecation rate or nutritionally by increasing their protein-energy intake and the values of anthropometry and blood components (albumin, free-tryptophan and lymphocytes). When the patients where divided into two groups based on their fecal-fat output one could note the better nutritional response of the group showing steatorrhea than the non-steatorrhea group, with the serum albumin and the arm-muscle circumference being discriminatory between groups. However even in the better recovered patients the indicative values of a satisfactory nutritional status were not accomplished. Thus, these data suggest that besides the overall nutritional improvement seen in the studied chronic diarrhea patients the full-nutrition recovering would demand either or both a longer hospitalization and/or an early-aggressive nutritional support.

  18. The Kaiser Permanente Northern California Adult Member Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Nancy; Lin, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) Member Health Survey (MHS) is used to describe sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of the adult membership of this large, integrated health care delivery system to monitor trends over time, identify health disparities, and conduct research. Objective To provide an overview of the KPNC MHS and share findings that illustrate how survey statistics and data have been and can be used for research and programmatic purposes. Methods The MHS is a large-scale, institutional review board-approved survey of English-speaking KPNC adult members. The confidential survey has been conducted by mail triennially starting in 1993 with independent age-sex and geographically stratified random samples, with an option for online completion starting in 2005. The full survey sample and survey data are linkable at the individual level to Health Plan and geocoded data. Respondents are assigned weighting factors for their survey year and additional weighting factors for analysis of pooled survey data. Results Statistics from the 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011 surveys show trends in sociodemographic and health-related characteristics and access to the Internet and e-mail for the adult membership aged 25 to 79 years and for 6 age-sex subgroups. Pooled data from the 2008 and 2011 surveys show many significant differences in these characteristics across the 5 largest race/ethnic groups in KPNC (non-Hispanic whites, blacks, Latinos, Filipinos, and Chinese). Conclusion The KPNC MHS has yielded unique insights and provides an opportunity for researchers and public health organizations outside of KPNC to leverage our survey-generated statistics and collaborate on epidemiologic and health services research studies. PMID:27548806

  19. The associations between smoking and occupational categories: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Junhyoung

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of smoke-free policies for workplaces and their impacts have been far from satisfactory. We investigated smoking prevalence in various occupations using data (n = 9283) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected from 2008 to 2010. Young adults who were working in the occupation categories of "service and sales," "skilled agricultural, fishery, and forest workers," and "crafts and machine operation" for men and "service and sales" for women showed 1.8 to 7.1 and 3.7 times higher (P < .05) smoking prevalence compared with the reference (managers and professionals), respectively, and the highest prevalence among the 7 occupational categories that were studied. Drinking and stress level were positively associated with being current smokers. We provide quantitative evidence supporting clinicians and policy makers wishing to establish smoking-cessation programs in workplaces for young adults in South Korea, and evidence supporting the improvement of prevention by the concomitant reduction of risk factors.

  20. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF NUTRITIONAL SURVEYS IN UNITED STATES ARMY CAMPS

    PubMed Central

    Murlin, John R.; Miller, Caspar W.

    1919-01-01

    Before the war there had never been presented to food experts in this country an opportunity for the extended study of nutrition comparable to that afforded these investigators. Their report sets forth details of observations which support the “training ration,” which is appetizing and secures a proper distribution of the nutrients. Imagesp413-a PMID:18010111

  1. The Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnier, Isadore I.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines Public Health Service preliminary findings in a study designed to establish health and nutrition baseline data for future comparison and for government food policies. Data collected include caloric and nutrient intake from recollection, nutrient content of blood and urine, examination for incipient malnutrition, and bone and body…

  2. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  3. Nutritional recommendations of feedlot consulting nutritionists: The 2015 New Mexico State and Texas Tech University survey.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, K L; Hubbert, M E; Galyean, M L; Löest, C A

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 feedlot consulting nutritionist survey is a collaborative project between New Mexico State University and Texas Tech University that focuses on summarizing the professional practices of consulting feedlot nutritionists and updates a 2007 survey. Forty-nine consulting feedlot nutritionists were asked to participate, of which 24 completed the survey. The nutritionists surveyed service over 14,000,000 cattle annually and were representatives from individual consulting practices (54.2%), corporate cattle feeding companies (20.8%), corporate feed manufacturing companies (20.8%), or a combination of consulting practices (4.2%). The survey was completed using a web-based survey tool and contained 101 questions that were divided into sections regarding general information about the consulting practice; general cattle management; receiving cattle management, diet adaption; mixers, feed mills, and feeding management; grains and grain processing; grain by-product use; roughage use; information about supplements and microingredients; liquid feed use; nutrient formulation; feed additive use; and information used as a basis for nutritional recommendations. In most cases, the results of the current survey were similar to those reported for the 2007 survey, with a few notable exceptions such as shifts in cattle numbers and preferences for specific feedstuffs. The present study introduced a number of new questions not included in the 2007 survey that focused on management strategies used in the receiving period. Data from this survey provide insight into current nutritional and management practices of consulting nutritionists and, as in past surveys, should be useful for informing national committees that make nutritional recommendations for cattle, as well as nutrition and management strategies employed within university research settings.

  4. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    PubMed

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  5. Consensus statement of the academy of nutrition and dietetics/american society for parenteral and enteral nutrition: Characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic characteristics be used to identify and document adult malnutrition in routine clinical practice. An etiologically based diagno...

  6. Perioperative Parenteral Nutrition in Adults With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition with numerous nutrition implications, including an increased risk of malnutrition and various nutrient deficiencies. Surgical interventions are often necessary in the treatment of IBD, and patients with IBD presenting for surgery often have multiple issues, including acute inflammatory processes, malnutrition, anemia, and infections, which may increase the likelihood of poor surgical outcomes. Thus, determining adjunctive treatments that may decrease postoperative complications is paramount. Although enteral nutrition (EN) is considered the preferred nutrition support modality when the gastrointestinal tract is accessible and functional, parenteral nutrition (PN) may provide a suitable alternative when the use of EN is not feasible. The aim of this review is to evaluate the currently available literature on the impact of perioperative PN on postoperative complications, disease severity, and nutrition status in adults with IBD. Six studies within the past 10 years investigated this topic and are analyzed here. Results indicate general trends toward improvements in postoperative outcomes, disease severity, and nutrition status associated with perioperative PN use. Although results appear promising, additional, larger studies with an emphasis on PN composition will improve our understanding of the benefits of perioperative PN in adults with IBD.

  7. The association between depression and widowhood and nutritional status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Roschelle; Wong, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of depression and widowhood on the nutritional status of older adults. A cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older adults in the rural United States was conducted. Dietary intake was measured via questionnaires. Depression status was classified by asking participants if they have ever been diagnosed with the condition, or by review of medical records. The final sample consisted of 1065 participants with 141 (13.2%) depressed, 384 (36.1%) widowed, and 67 (6.3%) both depressed and widowed. Mean caloric intake for total study population was low; widows and widowers had the lowest energy consumption among all groups. Greater intake of several nutrients was observed in depressed and/or widowed subjects. Nutritional services, such as congregate and home delivered meal programs, were not identified as significant contributors to the nutritional intake in older adults who were depressed, widowed, or both. Health care professionals may contribute to meal-based nutrition programs by offering their assistance in aspects of nutritional education and counseling for the promotion of healthy aging.

  8. Use of cognitive interview techniques in the development of nutrition surveys and interactive nutrition messages for low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Elena T; Campbell, Marci K; Honess-Morreale, Lauren

    2002-05-01

    The effectiveness of dietary surveys and educational messages is dependent in part on how well the target audience's information processing needs and abilities are addressed. Use of pilot testing is helpful; however, problems with wording and language are often not revealed. Cognitive interview techniques offer 1 approach to assist dietitians in understanding how audiences process information. With this method, respondents are led through a survey or message and asked to paraphrase items; discuss thoughts, feelings, and ideas that come to mind; and suggest alternative wording. As part of a US Department of Agriculture-funded nutrition education project, 23 cognitive interviews were conducted among technical community college students in North Carolina. Interview findings informed the development of tailored computer messages and survey questions. Better understanding of respondents' cognitive processes significantly improved the language and approach used in this intervention. Interview data indicated 4 problem areas: vague or ineffective instructions, confusing questions and response options, variable interpretation of terms, and misinterpretation of dietary recommendations. Interviews also provided insight into the meaning of diet-related stages of change. These findings concur with previous research suggesting that cognitive interview techniques are a valuable tool in the formative evaluation and development of nutrition surveys and materials.

  9. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E

    2016-02-25

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%-12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  10. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:26927164

  11. Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material® 1849, Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference material (SRM) 1849 is intended primarily for validation of methods for determining proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, elements and nucleotides in infant and adult nutritional formulas and similar materials. This SRM can also be used for quality assurance when assigning values to ...

  12. Nutrition Students Improve Attitudes after a Guided Experiential Assignment with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-Yeon; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine; Schiffman, Rachel F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention (a guided experiential assignment) to improve nutrition students' attitudes toward working with older adults. Design: A quasi-experimental design with an additional qualitative component (mixed methods). Setting: A North Central land-grant university. Participants: 100 college students…

  13. A Taste of English: Nutrition Workbook for Adult ESL Students. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Farmworker Opportunity Program, Arlington, VA.

    This workbook introduces basic concepts of nutrition and health to beginning adult students of English as a Second Language (ESL). The text may also be adapted for use with new readers. It is intended as a supplement to existing instructional materials. An introductory section offers teachers suggestions for use of the text and notes on the design…

  14. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  15. HEALTH AND NUTRITION LESSON PLANS AND STUDENT WORKSHEETS, ADULT BASIC EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    THIS MANUAL PROVIDES ADULT BASIC EDUCATION TEACHERS WITH LESSON PLANS IN HEALTH AND NUTRITION. EACH LESSON CONTAINS BACKGROUND MATERIAL OFFERING SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON THE SUBJECT OF EACH LESSON, AIMS, LESSON DEVELOPMENT, AND TWO STUDENT WORKSHEETS. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE SUGGESTED TO ENCOURAGE THE GREATEST POSSIBLE STUDENT INVOLVEMENT. THE TEN…

  16. Practitioners’ Opinions on Food and Nutrition Care Indicators (FANCI) in Assisted Living Facilities for Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the utility of the 57 indicator FANCI checklist for assessing food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities (ALFs) for older adults among dietitians. They were members of two American Dietetic Association practice groups focusing on aging and long term care and were a...

  17. Nutrition Education Brings Behavior and Knowledge Change in Limited-Resource Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Jacquelyn W.; Jayaratne, K.S.U.; Bird, Carolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    A prospective, controlled, randomized, crossover design was used to examine a nutrition education curriculum's effects on knowledge and behavior of 463 limited-resource older adults in 13 counties. Counties were randomized to begin with the treatment or control curriculum and then the remaining curriculum. Participants completed a pre-test…

  18. The Child and Adult Care Food Program and the Nutrition of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S.; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national…

  19. Adult/Patient Nutrition Education Materials. January 1982-October 1989. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegrove, Natalie A.

    This publication contains abstracts of books, articles, and research studies on the subject of adult patient nutrition. The materials offer dietary guidelines for mature individuals with a variety of ailments. The citations in this bibliography were entered in the "Agricola" database between January, 1979 and October, 1989. (JD)

  20. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bravo, Roberto; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Restrepo, Paula; Kim, Do-Gyun; Fernandez, Carolina; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Perez, Jose; Gallegos, Maribel; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 μg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 μg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. PMID:21909292

  1. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition.

  2. New Methods for the Analysis of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Don

    2016-01-01

    The AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) defined fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) to include vitamins A, D, E, and K. The levels of FSVs have been closely scrutinized because of a number of factors, including nutrition value especially in foods used to provide sole-source nutrition and the potential for health risks associated with content both below and above recommended levels. Stricter scrutiny and emphasis on nutrient-level compliance with regulatory requirements placed an increased demand on analytical methods that were fit-for-purpose, provided accurate and precise results. Over time, compendial methods have been developed and published by organizations such as AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the European Committee for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the International Organization for Standardization, among others. In general, these methods have shown adequate precision for regulatory compliance based on example food matrixes for which they were designed. However, method evaluation for infant formulas and adult nutritional products was limited to very few matrixes within these categories. As such, method applicability gaps were noted and correlated with more complicated or diverse product matrixes. AOAC undertook the task of modernizing test methods for the determination of nutrients in infant formulas and in adult nutritional products formulated specifically for both healthy adults and those requiring specific nutritional intake. Composition of products in this category continued to evolve, which in turn presented increasing and new challenges to analytical methodology. A summary of a new generation of candidate compendial methods for determination of FSVs in these matrixes, identified by SPIFAN, is presented here.

  3. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  4. Schooling, Literacy and Individual Earnings. International Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osberg, Lars

    This paper uses direct measures of literacy skill levels provided by the International Adult Literacy Survey to estimate the return to literacy skills. Using a very simple human capital earnings equation and standard ordinary least squares regression, it tested estimates of the return to literacy skills for their robustness to alternative scalings…

  5. Nutritional Risk Needs Assessment of Community-Living Seniors: Prevalence of Nutrition Problems and Priorities for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heather H.; Hedley, Margaret R.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed community-dwelling older adults to examine the prevalence of nutritional risk, specific nutrition problems, and educational format preferences. Results revealed that nutrition problems and risk were prevalent among community-dwelling older adults. Common problems included significant weight change in 6 months and low intake of fruits,…

  6. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete’s Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20–32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12–19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete’s eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete’s eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets. PMID:27618088

  7. Calcium, vitamin D, and nutrition in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2003-05-01

    The nutritional needs for optimizing bone health easily can be met by a diet that is high in fruits and vegetables (five or more servings/day), adequate in protein but moderate in animal protein, and with adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes through the consumption of low fat dairy or calcium-fortified foods. Foods are a preferred source to maintaining calcium balance because there are other essential nutrients that are found in high-calcium foods. For those individuals in whom there is inadequate calcium intake from diet, supplemental calcium can be used. Supplemental or dietary calcium should be spread out throughout the day, with 500 mg or less being consumed at each meal to optimize absorption. In all individuals older than 70 years, vitamin D intakes of at least 600 IU per day (up to 1000 IU/day) are recommended, in addition to the calcium requirement of 1200 mg per day. Vitamin D from foods, supplements, and/or multivitamins can be used to meet the vitamin D requirement. In frail elderly individuals with malabsorption and alcoholics, there may be a need to supplement magnesium. Some elderly individuals with indications of poor nutritional status (low albumin levels) or after hip fracture might benefit from protein supplementation and a multivitamin to ensure adequacy of other nutrients.

  8. Malnutrition in older adults - urgent need for action: a plea for improving the nutritional situation of older adults.

    PubMed

    Volkert, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades, malnutrition has attracted increasing scientific attention and is by now regarded as a true geriatric syndrome characterized by multifactorial causality, identified by symptoms and accompanied by frailty, disability and poor outcome. This viewpoint summarizes our present knowledge and the usual current handling of malnutrition in older people and highlights the urgent need for action in this field. Age-related changes in the complex system of appetite regulation, resulting in the so-called anorexia of aging, predispose older adults to a decrease in food intake which may lead to malnutrition, if additional risk factors like health or social problems occur. Consequently, malnutrition is widespread in the older population, notably in those who are institutionalized. Despite the fact that effective interventions are available, prevention and treatment of malnutrition do not currently receive appropriate attention. As an important first step towards better awareness, screening for malnutrition should become a mandatory integral part of the comprehensive geriatric assessment. Furthermore, practical local guidelines should be implemented in all geriatric hospital wards and nursing homes in order to improve nutritional care in the daily routine. Important to note is that reasonable nutritional management is not possible without qualified staff in adequate numbers allowing appropriate individual nutritional care. Regarding future research, studies at the cellular, metabolic and clinical levels and the linking of information from different research approaches are required to better understand the transition from good nutritional health and independence of old people to malnutrition, functional impairment and poor health. In parallel to well-designed observational and intervention studies, standardized documentation of nutritional information in daily routine would enable the uniform collection of data for research as well as for political decisions

  9. Perinatal programming of adult hippocampal structure and function; emerging roles of stress, nutrition and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Paul J; Naninck, Eva F G; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Fitzsimons, Carlos; Joels, Marian; Korosi, Aniko

    2013-11-01

    Early-life stress lastingly affects adult cognition and increases vulnerability to psychopathology, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this Opinion article, we propose that early nutritional input together with stress hormones and sensory stimuli from the mother during the perinatal period act synergistically to program the adult brain, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. We hypothesize that stress during gestation or lactation affects the intake of macro- and micronutrients, including dietary methyl donors, and/or impairs the dam's metabolism, thereby altering nutrient composition and intake by the offspring. In turn, this may persistently modulate gene expression via epigenetic programming, thus altering hippocampal structure and cognition. Understanding how the combination of stress, nutrition, and epigenetics shapes the adult brain is essential for effective therapies.

  10. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  11. Blood lead, serum homocysteine, and neurobehavioral test performance in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Edward F; Butler, Mary Ann

    2009-03-01

    Regression analysis was used to estimate and test for relationships between blood lead, serum folate, red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B12, serum homocysteine, and neurobehavioral test performance in adults, 20-59 years old, participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The three neurobehavioral tests included in the survey were simple reaction time, symbol-digit substitution, and serial digit learning. Serum folate, red blood cell folate, and serum vitamin B12 decreased as the blood lead concentration increased. Serum homocysteine increased as the blood lead concentration increased. Serum homocysteine decreased as the serum folate and serum vitamin B12 concentrations increased. Neurobehavioral test performance was not related to the blood lead, serum folate, or serum vitamin B12 concentrations. In adults 20-39 years old, performance on the serial digit learning test improved as the serum homocysteine concentration increased. In adults 40-59 years old, neurobehavioral test performance was not related to the serum homocysteine concentration. Homocysteine may impair cognitive function by acting at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and improve cognitive function by acting at N-methyl-D-aspartate or gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors.

  12. Prevalence of Comorbidity among People with Hypertension: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2013

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Juhwan; Shin, Anna; Yeom, Hyungseon; Jang, Suk-Yong; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Changsoo; Suh, Il

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Joint National Committee guidelines attempt to vary treatment recommendations for patients based on considerations of their comorbidities. The aim of the present study is to estimate the age-standardized prevalence of common comorbidities among Korean hypertension patients. Subjects and Methods We analyzed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2013. Among the 58423 participants, 30092 adults, aged ≥30 yrs who completed a health examination and interview survey, were selected. The survey procedures were used to estimate weighted prevalence and odds ratios for 8 comorbidities, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and thyroid disease. Results Most chronic conditions were more prevalent in adults with hypertension than in those without hypertension. Common comorbidities were obesity (60.1%), dyslipidemia (57.6%), and impaired fasting glucose (45.1%). Hypertensive patients with two or more comorbid diseases were 42.2% and those with three or more diseases were 17.7%. The age- and sex-specific prevalence of three or more comorbid diseases among male hypertension patients was significantly higher than those patients in the 30-59 (p<0.05) age group. Conclusion Comorbidity is highly prevalent in Korean patients with hypertension. PMID:27721859

  13. Evaluation of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education: Application of Behavioral Theory and Survey Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyker, Brett A.; Jordan, Patricia; Quigley, Danielle L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) evaluation and development and validation of an evaluation tool used to measure TTM constructs is described. Methods: Surveys were collected from parents of children receiving food at Summer Food Service Program sites prior…

  14. Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…

  15. School Nutrition Directors are Receptive to Web-Based Training Opportunities: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate school nutrition directors' (SNDs) previous experience with web-based training (WBT), interest in utilizing WBT within 14 functional areas, and logistical issues (time, price, educational credits, etc.) of developing and delivering WBT learning modules. Methods: A survey was developed…

  16. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  17. Nutrition among older adults in Africa: the situation at the beginning of the millenium.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K E; Rose, D

    2001-09-01

    Most Africans enter old age after a lifetime of poverty and deprivation, poor access to health care and a diet that is usually inadequate in quantity and quality. However, nutrition interventions in African countries are directed primarily toward infants and young children, as well as pregnant and lactating women. This situational analysis focuses on two key areas to identify priorities for future research and policy development: the nutritional status of older Africans and determinants of undernutrition. Based on the scant evidence available, the prevalence of undernutrition is high in older African men (9.5-36.1%) and women (13.1-27%); however, in some urban areas there is evidence that older adults are experiencing the nutrition transition. Information on micronutrient status is sparse, yet it appears that anemia related to suboptimal folate status is a particular problem. Important determinants of poor nutritional status in the elderly in the African context include inadequate household food security, war and famine, and the indirect impact of HIV infection and AIDS. The rapidly increasing size of the older population, combined with their increased burden of care-giving responsibilities and severe socioeconomic hardship, indicates an urgent need for increased attention to this group, including applied research on nutrition problems and the development and evaluation of nutrition interventions.

  18. Update on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dietary data: Focus on collection, release, analytical considerations, and uses to inform public policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has be...

  19. An Overview of Ophthalmologic Survey Methodology in the 2008-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Chul; Choi, Won; Lee, Hyo Seok; Kim, Sang-Duck; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho; Park, Young Jeung; Baek, Seung-Hee; Song, Su Jeong; Shin, Jae Pil; Yang, Suk-Woo; Yu, Seung-Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Lim, Key Hwan; Oh, Kyung Won; Kang, Se Woong

    2015-12-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national program designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized population of South Korea. The KNHANES was initiated in 1998 and has been conducted annually since 2007. Starting in the latter half of 2008, ophthalmologic examinations were included in the survey in order to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of common eye diseases such as visual impairment, refractive errors, strabismus, blepharoptosis, cataract, pterygium, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, dry eye disease, and color vision deficiency. The measurements included in the ophthalmic questionnaire and examination methods were modified in the KNHANES IV, V, and VI. In this article, we provide detailed information about the methodology of the ophthalmic examinations in KNHANES in order to aid in further investigations related to major eye diseases in South Korea.

  20. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    May, Christina M; Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Zwaan, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of

  1. Nutritional survey of the US Navy SEAL trainees.

    PubMed

    DeBolt, J E; Singh, A; Day, B A; Deuster, P A

    1988-11-01

    The nutritional status of 267 male US Navy Sea, Air, and Land (SEAL) trainees was assessed to determine dietary patterns. Diet records, blood samples, 24-h urine collections, and physical characteristics were analyzed. Energy intake was 3886 +/- 73 kcal/d (SEM) with 15.7 +/- 0.2, 42.9 +/- 0.6, and 41.2 +/- 0.5% of the energy derived from protein, carbohydrate (CHO), and fat, respectively. Mean cholesterol intake (1008 +/- 35.7 mg/d [SEM]) exceeded the US Dietary Goal (less than or equal to 300 mg/d) and serum cholesterol concentration was 5.25 +/- 0.41 mmol/L (SEM). Over 38% of the trainees had cholesterol concentrations greater than 5.3 mmol/L, an indicator of high risk for cardiovascular disease. Mean sodium intake was 250 +/- 22 mmol/d. Over 86% of the trainees consumed greater than 144 mmol/d. Urinary Na excretion was high (146.7 +/- 6.7 mmol/d [SEM]) and correlated with Na intake (r = 0.365; p = 0.001). Potassium and selected vitamin intakes approximated the Military Recommended Dietary Allowances. Fat, cholesterol, and Na intakes were high relative to the dietary goals. Whether more dietary CHO would improve performance in endurance training remains to be determined.

  2. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Juan; Xiong, Xueqin; Yang, Ting; Hou, Nali; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Li, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH) vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = −0.222, p = 0.021). No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied. PMID:27187463

  3. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Juan; Xiong, Xueqin; Yang, Ting; Hou, Nali; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Li, Tingyu

    2016-05-14

    Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH) vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = -0.222, p = 0.021). No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied.

  4. Metabolic Syndrome among Marijuana Users in the United States: An Analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Vidot, Denise C.; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M.; Florez, Hermes J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on the health effects of marijuana use in light of its increased medical use and the current obesity epidemic is needed. Our objective was to explore the relationship between marijuana use and metabolic syndrome across stages of adulthood. Methods An analysis of 20-to-59-year olds (N=8,478) who completed the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Marijuana use was categorized as: never used, past use (used previously but not within last 30-days), and current use (≥ 1 day in last 30-days). Metabolic syndrome was defined as ≥ 3 of the following: elevated fasting glucose, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, elevated systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and increased waist circumference. An age-stratified analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between marijuana use and metabolic syndrome among emerging adults (20-30 years), adults (31-44 years), and middle-aged adults (45-59 years). Results Fourteen percent (13.8%) of current marijuana users and 17.5% of past marijuana users presented with metabolic syndrome compared to 19.5% of never users (p=0.0003 and p=0.03, respectively). Current marijuana users had lower odds of presenting with metabolic syndrome than never users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.47-1.00, p=0.05). Among emerging adults, current marijuana users were 54% less likely than never users to present with metabolic syndrome. Current (AOR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.25-0.97) and past (AOR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.40-0.91) middle-aged adult marijuana users were less likely to have metabolic syndrome than never users. Conclusions Current marijuana use is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome across emerging and middle-aged US adults. Future studies should examine the biological pathways of this relationship. PMID:26548604

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae Hee; Yu, Ji Hee; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Han, Kyungdo; Cha, Bong-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Korean patients with diabetes. Methods The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652), and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011) was used to define CKD (n=21,521). Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results Among subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes. Conclusion Korean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes. PMID:24851205

  6. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 and 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Bodurow, Catherine C

    2004-01-01

    Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6 microg/L at the 50th percentile and ranged from concentrations that were nondetectable (5th percentile) to 6.7 microg/L (95th percentile). Blood organic/methyl mercury reflects methyl mercury intake from fish and shellfish as determined from a methyl mercury exposure parameter based on 24-hr dietary recall, 30-day food frequency, and mean concentrations of mercury in the fish/shellfish species reported as consumed (multiple correlation coefficient > 0.5). Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were lowest among Mexican Americans and highest among participants who designated themselves in the Other racial/ethnic category, which includes Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were ~1.5 times higher among women 30-49 years of age than among women 16-29 years of age. Blood mercury (BHg) concentrations were seven times higher among women who reported eating nine or more fish and/or shellfish meals within the past 30 days than among women who reported no fish and/or shellfish consumption in the past 30 days. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations greater than or equal to 5.8 microg/L were lowest among Mexican Americans (2.0%) and highest among examinees in the Other racial/ethnic category (21.7%). Based on the distribution of BHg concentrations among the adult female participants in 1999-2000 NHANES and the number of U.S. births in 2000, > 300,000 newborns each year in the United States may have been exposed in utero to methyl mercury concentrations higher than those considered to be without increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects associated with methyl mercury exposure. PMID:15064162

  7. Water and Beverage Consumption: Analysis of the Australian 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhixian; Zheng, Miaobing; Zhang, Man; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Water consumption as a vital component of the human diet is under-researched in dietary surveys and nutrition studies. Aim: To assess total water and fluid intakes and examine demographic, anthropometric, and dietary factors associated with water consumption in the Australian population. Methods: Dietary intake data from the 2011 to 2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Usual water, fluid and food and nutrient intakes were estimated from two days of dietary recalls. Total water includes plain drinking water and moisture from all food and beverage sources; total fluids include plain drinking water and other beverages, but not food moisture. Results: The mean (SD) daily total water intakes for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years were 1.7 (0.6) L for males and 1.5 (0.4) L for females, and for adults aged 19 years and over were 2.6 (0.9) L for males and 2.3 (0.7) L for females. The majority of the population failed to meet the Adequate Intake (AI) values for total water intake (82%) and total fluids intake (78%) with the elderly at highest risk (90%–95%). The contributions of plain drinking water, other beverages and food moisture to total water intake were 44%, 27%, and 29%, respectively, among children and adolescents, and 37%, 37% and 25% among adults. The main sources of other beverages were full-fat plain milk and regular soft drinks for children and adolescents, and tea, coffee, and alcoholic drinks for adults. For adults, higher total water intake was associated with lower percent energy from fat, saturated fat, and free sugars, lower sodium and energy-dense nutrient poor food intakes but higher dietary fibre, fruit, vegetable, caffeine, and alcohol intakes. No associations were found between total water consumption and body mass index (BMI) for adults and BMI z-score for children and adolescents. Conclusion: Reported water consumption was below recommendations. Higher water intakes were suggestive of better diet

  8. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF THE LIPID COMPONENT IN THE STRUCTURE OF NUTRITION OF STUDENT YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Vilms, E A; Turchaninova, M S; Shupina, M I; Gogol, D M; Turchaninov, D V

    2015-01-01

    The actual nutrition of the Omsk University students aged 18-27 years, was studied with the use of the method of the analysis of the frequency of food consumption. There is done quantitative assessment of nutrient consumption related to the fat component of food. There is described the qualitative composition of lipids and its effect on indices of the nutritional status assessed with the use of somatometric, bioelectric impedance and laboratory methods. The nutrition of students is established to be irrational, unbalanced on the lipid component and creates conditions for the formation of diseases with alimentary dietary risk factors. Traditional indices of nutritional status (BMI, W/HR) at this are within the boundaries of normal values, but the composition of the body under the influence of an excess of animal fats with a deficiency of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids is altering that can be diagnosed with the aid of bioimpedance measuring method. There are established correlation relations between the parameters ofconsumption of dietary lipids and indices of the nutritional status in young adults.

  9. Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Langley-Evans, S C

    2015-01-01

    Foetal development and infancy are life stages that are characterised by rapid growth, development and maturation of organs and systems. Variation in the quality or quantity of nutrients consumed by mothers during pregnancy, or infants during the first year of life, can exert permanent and powerful effects upon developing tissues. These effects are termed 'programming' and represent an important risk factor for noncommunicable diseases of adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease. This narrative review provides an overview of the evidence-base showing that indicators of nutritional deficit in pregnancy are associated with a greater risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality. There is also a limited evidence-base that suggests some relationship between breastfeeding and the timing and type of foods used in weaning, and disease in later life. Many of the associations reported between indicators of early growth and adult disease appear to interact with specific genotypes. This supports the idea that programming is one of several cumulative influences upon health and disease acting across the lifespan. Experimental studies have provided important clues to the mechanisms that link nutritional challenges in early life to disease in adulthood. It is suggested that nutritional programming is a product of the altered expression of genes that regulate the cell cycle, resulting in effective remodelling of tissue structure and functionality. The observation that traits programmed by nutritional exposures in foetal life can be transmitted to further generations adds weight the argument that heritable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming.

  10. Experts stress both wellness and amenity aspects of food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities for older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been no consensus on best practices in food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities (ALFs) for older adults. We documented experts’ views on optimal food and nutrition services emphases in ALFs, and factors affecting their views. One hundred thirty-five national experts speci...

  11. Foods and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Junior High, Secondary, and Adult Vocational Home Economics Programs. Bulletin 1595.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This comprehensive curriculum guide for junior high through adult levels presents foods and nutrition as they relate to quality living, career orientation, and occupational training. The first section is a conceptual outline of core material in foods and nutrition. Five instructional levels are I (grades 7-9), II (9-10), III (10-11), IV (11-12),…

  12. NUTRITIONAL THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORROSIVE INTOXICATION IN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Chibishev, Andon; Markoski, Velo; Smokovski, Ivica; Shikole, Emilija; Stevcevska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acute intoxications with corrosive substances can cause severe chemical injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract, most often located in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach and duodenum. If a patient survives the acute phase of intoxication, regenerative response may result in esophageal and/or gastric stenosis, and increased risk of esophageal and gastric cancer. Such intoxication may be fatal due to perforation or tracheal necrosis. Enteral nutrition is a nutritional method when nutritional substances are administered through specially designed tubing placed through the nose or percutaneously, directly into the GIT. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the methods of artificial nutrition in patients with acute corrosive intoxications and the importance of nutritional support in the treatment of these intoxications. Discussion: Nutrition in the treatment of acute corrosive intoxications is one of the most important therapeutic processes that largely contribute to faster recovery of the post-corrosive injuries of upper GIT, stabilization of biologic, immunologic and metabolic parameters, and reduction of length of stay in hospital Aim of the treatment of acute corrosive intoxications is to prevent perforation and progressive fibrosis, and esophageal and gastric stenosis. There are different and often conflicting positions, on the conservative treatment of acute corrosive intoxications in adults. Such treatment mainly consists of anti-secretory treatment, antibiotics and intensive hyper-alimentation, aiming to prevent late post-corrosive intoxications. Conclusion: It is considered that nutritional support plays a major role in maintenance of metabolic processes and prevention of severe metabolic complications that could additionally aggravate the condition and impair the treatment. PMID:27047272

  13. Lipids for intravenous nutrition in hospitalised adult patients: a multiple choice of options.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    Lipids used in parenteral nutrition provide energy, building blocks and essential fatty acids. Traditionally, these lipids have been based on n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils particularly soyabean oil. This may not be optimal because soyabean oil may present an excessive supply of linoleic acid. Alternatives to use of soyabean oil include its partial replacement by medium-chain TAG, olive oil or fish oil, either alone or in combination. Lipid emulsions containing these alternatives are well tolerated without adverse effects in a wide range of hospitalised adult patients. Lipid emulsions that include fish oil have been used in parenteral nutrition in adult patients' post-surgery (mainly gastrointestinal). This has been associated with alterations in patterns of inflammatory mediators and in immune function and, in some studies, a reduction in length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. These benefits are emphasised through recent meta-analyses. Perioperative administration of fish oil may be superior to post-operative administration. Parenteral fish oil has been used in critically ill adults. Here, the influence on inflammatory processes, immune function and clinical endpoints is not clear, since there are too few studies and those that are available report contradictory findings. However, some studies found reduced inflammation, improved gas exchange and shorter length of hospital stay in critically ill patients if they receive fish oil. More and better trials are needed in patient groups in which parenteral nutrition is used and where fish oil may offer benefits.

  14. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  15. Barriers to providing nutrition counseling cited by physicians: a survey of primary care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Rickett, Katherine

    2010-10-01

    In a 1995 pivotal study, Kushner described the attitudes, practice behaviors, and barriers to the delivery of nutrition counseling by primary care physicians. This article recognized nutrition and dietary counseling as key components in the delivery of preventive services by primary care physicians. Kushner called for a multifaceted approach to change physicians' counseling practices. The prevailing belief today is that little has changed. Healthy People 2010 and the U.S. Preventive Task Force identify the need for physicians to address nutrition with patients. The 2010 objective was to increase to 75% the proportion of office visits that included ordering or providing diet counseling for patients with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or hypertension. At the midcourse review, the proportion actually declined from 42% to 40%. Primary care physicians continue to believe that providing nutrition counseling is within their realm of responsibility. Yet the gap remains between the proportion of patients who physicians believe would benefit from nutrition counseling and those who receive it from their primary care physician or are referred to dietitians and other healthcare professionals. The barriers cited in recent years continue to be those listed by Kushner: lack of time and compensation and, to a lesser extent, lack of knowledge and resources. The 2010 Surgeon General's Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation and First Lady Obama's "Let's Move Campaign" spotlight the need for counseling adults and children on diet and physical activity.

  16. Demographic, dietary, and serum factors and parathyroid hormone in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Farwell, W. R.; Taylor, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Many determinants of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are unknown. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), numerous factors not classically associated with calcium–phosphorus homeostasis, such as uric acid and smoking, are independently associated with PTH in adults without chronic kidney disease. Associations between serum phosphorus and PTH may vary by race. Introduction Although PTH may be an important biomarker for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, many determinants of PTH are unknown. We investigated associations between demographic, dietary, and serum factors and PTH level. Methods We studied 4,026 white, 1,792 black, and 1,834 Mexican-American adult participants without chronic kidney disease from the 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 NHANES. Results The mean serum PTH level was 38.3 pg/ml for whites, 42.6 pg/ml for blacks, and 41.3 pg/ml for Mexican-Americans. After adjusting for diet, body mass index, serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, creatinine, and other factors, smokers compared to non-smokers had lower PTH, ranging from −4.2 pg/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) −7.3 to −1.1) in Mexican-Americans to −6.1 pg/ml (95% CI −8.7 to −3.5) in blacks. After multivariate adjustment, PTH was higher in females compared to males, ranging from 1.1 pg/ml (95% CI −1.2 to 3.4) in Mexican-Americans to 4.5 pg/ml (95% CI 1.9 to 7.0) in blacks, and in older (>60 years) compared to younger participants (<30 years), ranging from 3.7 pg/ml (95% CI 1.3 to 6.1) in Mexican-Americans to 8.0 pg/ml (95% CI 5.4 to 10.7) in blacks. Higher uric acid was associated with higher PTH. In whites only, lower serum phosphorus and lower serum retinol were associated with higher PTH. Conclusions Numerous factors not classically associated with calcium–phosphorus homeostasis are independently associated with PTH and should be considered in future studies of PTH and chronic disease. Additional research is needed to elucidate

  17. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  18. Differential Pathways to Adult Metabolic Dysfunction following Poor Nutrition at Two Critical Developmental Periods in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Poore, Kirsten R.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Murray, Robert J. S.; Warlow, Anna; Brewin, Andrew; Fulford, Laurence; Cleal, Jane K.; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Burdge, Graham C.; Hanson, Mark A.; Green, Lucy R.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest early nutrition has long-term effects on susceptibility to obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Small and large animal models confirm the influence of different windows of sensitivity, from fetal to early postnatal life, on offspring phenotype. We showed previously that undernutrition in sheep either during the first month of gestation or immediately after weaning induces differential, sex-specific changes in adult metabolic and cardiovascular systems. The current study aims to determine metabolic and molecular changes that underlie differences in lipid and glucose metabolism induced by undernutrition during specific developmental periods in male and female sheep. Ewes received 100% (C) or 50% nutritional requirements (U) from 1–31 days gestation, and 100% thereafter. From weaning (12 weeks) to 25 weeks, offspring were then fed either ad libitum (CC, UC) or were undernourished (CU, UU) to reduce body weight to 85% of their individual target. From 25 weeks, all offspring were fed ad libitum. A cohort of late gestation fetuses were studied after receiving either 40% nutritional requirements (1–31 days gestation) or 50% nutritional requirements (104–127 days gestation). Post-weaning undernutrition increased in vivo insulin sensitivity, insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 expression in muscle, and lowered hepatic methylation at the delta-like homolog 1/maternally expressed gene 3 imprinted cluster in adult females, but not males. Early gestational undernutrition induced lower hepatic expression of gluconeogenic factors in fetuses and reduced in vivo adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in adulthood. In males, undernutrition in early gestation increased adipose tissue lipid handling mechanisms (lipoprotein lipase, glucocorticoid receptor expression) and hepatic methylation within the imprinted control region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor in adulthood. Therefore, undernutrition during

  19. Health and nutrition survey of tsunami victims in Phang-Nga Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kwanbunjan, Karunee; Mas-ngammueng, Rungwit; Chusongsang, Phirapol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Chantaranipapong, Yaowamarn; Pooudong, Somchai; Butraporn, Piyarat

    2006-03-01

    The post-tsunami health and nutritional statuses of survivors were surveyed three months after the disaster struck. Non-participant observations and questionnaires were used to study the effects of the disaster on their lifestyles and health while residing in temporary shelters provided by the government and private donors. Anthropometrics were measured and dietary surveys conducted to elicit nutritional status. Our findings indicated good management of drinking water in the temporary shelters. Toilet construction and water supply were adequate, but wastewater and sewage systems were poorly managed. The study group still suffered from injuries after the disaster, and complained of back pain, stress, and sleep disorders. Most in the study group had unsatisfactory health behaviors, and obesity was an increasing problem among female participants.

  20. Nutrition education effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Meredith G; Rhee, Yeong; Honrath, Kerrie; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Terbizan, Donna

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on weight and decreased risk for chronic disease, Americans' intake of fruits and vegetables is well below the recommended daily servings. While previous studies have assessed fruit and vegetable consumption and the influence of educational interventions on fruit and vegetable intake, no studies to date have examined the effects of nutrition education combined with provision of fruits and vegetables on changes in fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fruit and vegetable consumption patterns, including intake of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, provide education about benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables, expose participants to different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and improve fruit and vegetable consumption. Fifty-four adults (19 men/35 women; 44.7 ± 12.1 y) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. The control group received no intervention, the education group attended weekly nutrition lessons focused on benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the fruit and vegetable group attended weekly nutrition lessons and received one serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables per day for 10 weeks. Intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires and three-day food records. Findings suggested that while the majority of participants failed to consume the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables per day, nutrition education was helpful in improving the consumption frequency of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables among overweight and obese adults.

  1. Nutritional Status in Adults with Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: KNOW-CKD Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Adverse changes in nutrition are prevalent and are strong indicators of adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) proposed a common nomenclature and diagnostic criteria to identify protein-energy wasting (PEW) in CKD patients. We examined the nutritional status in 1,834 adults with predialysis CKD enrolled in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) study. As there was a need for further understanding of nutritional status and associated factors in CKD, we evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of PEW in adults with predialysis CKD. The prevalence of PEW was about 9.0% according to ISRNM criteria and tended to increase with advanced stage in predialysis CKD. Those who concurrently had PEW, inflammation, and CVD were a small proportion (0.4%). In multivariate logistic regression model, PEW was independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–0.99), total CO2 (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87–0.99), physical activity (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26–0.69), comorbid diabetes (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.09–2.59), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.06). Our study suggests that PEW increases with advanced CKD stage. PEW is independently associated with renal function, low total CO2, low physical activity, comorbid diabetes, and increased hs-CRP in adults with predialysis CKD. PMID:28049236

  2. Methodology of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey - 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Morton, Jeremy; Hsia, Jason; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira; Talley, Brandon; Caixeta, Roberta D; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-06-01

    In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol.

  3. Urinary arsenic levels in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Garnier, Robert; Cirimele, Vincent; Persoons, Renaud; Fréry, Nadine

    2012-09-01

    The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74 years and children aged 3-17 years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3 days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (μg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (μg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34 μg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75 μg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9 μg/g of creatinine (10.68 μg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96 μg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42 μg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29 μg/g of creatinine (72.75 μg/L). Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS+MMA+DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels

  4. [Changes on patterns of sleep duration: findings from China Health and Nutrition Survey in population in 9 provinces].

    PubMed

    Jin, D H; Du, S F; Chen, B Y; Liu, J W; Fu, Z X; Wang, H J

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To understand the changes on patterns of sleep duration of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) cohort in 9 provinces from 2004 to 2011. Methods: Four rounds of CHNS data were used. Urban/rural, age and gender specific insufficient sleeping rates and excessive sleeping rates were analyzed. Results: In 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011, a total of 274, 281, 329 and 304 children aged 3-5 years; 874, 806, 768 and 742 children aged 6-12 years; 789, 529, 426 and 367 children aged 13-17 years; 9 568, 9 530, 9 942 and 9 609 adults aged ≥18 years were surveyed respectively. The lowest insufficient sleeping rate was 53.9% (200/371) in 3-17 years old children in rural area in 2006, the highest insufficient sleeping rate was 77.2% (44/57) in 3-5 years old children in urban area in 2004. The insufficient sleeping rate increased in rural 3-5 years old children from 2004 to 2011. For the adults aged ≥18 years, the insufficient sleeping rate ranged from 4.2% (82/1 954) in females aged 18-44 years in 2004 and 2009 to 20.8% (211/1 015) in urban residents aged > 60 years in 2011. The insufficient sleeping rate in age-groups 44-59 years and ≥60 years increased in both males and females and in both urban area and rural area from 2004 to 2011. The gender specific excessive sleeping rate in 3-17 years old children was very low in both urban area and rural area and no difference was found in different rounds of survey. The excessive sleeping rate in adults ranged from 18.4% (569/3 093) in urban population in 2011 to 32.5% (1 617/4 969) in females in 2004. The excessive sleeping rate of adult decreased from 2004 to 2011. Conclusion: We should pay attention to the fact that the insufficient sleeping rate in adolescents is high and in increase in rural 3-5 years old children and adults aged ≥45 years.

  5. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful.

  6. Hypertonic saline challenge in an adult epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Rabone, S J; Phoon, W O; Anderson, S D; Wan, K C; Seneviratne, M; Gutierrez, L; Brannan, J

    1996-06-01

    Bronchial provocation tests using pharmacological agents such as methacholine or histamine are used in epidemiological studies to identify asthma despite recognition of limitations in specificity, positive predictive value and availability of reagents. Hypertonic saline (4.5%) bronchial challenge (HSBC), although less sensitive than pharmacological challenges, is reportedly highly specific in diagnosing current asthma. Added advantages are that reagents are cheap, stable and recognized by participants. Thus, HSBC may offer benefits over pharmacological tests in epidemiological surveys. This paper reports on the second field survey using the test, a study of 99 adults from the timber industry in Western Australia. The test is described and critically appraised as a practical epidemiological tool for assessing asthma prevalence. At a cutoff point of 20% FEV, fall, HSBC was positive in 8% of subjects, appeared specific for asthma, was safe, well-accepted and easy to use in the field.

  7. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. Methods A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing “junk food” and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Results Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a

  8. The effects of larval nutrition on reproductive performance in a food-limited adult environment.

    PubMed

    Dmitriew, Caitlin; Rowe, Locke

    2011-03-30

    It is often assumed that larval food stress reduces lifetime fitness regardless of the conditions subsequently faced by adults. However, according to the environment-matching hypothesis, a plastic developmental response to poor nutrition results in an adult phenotype that is better adapted to restricted food conditions than one having developed in high food conditions. Such a strategy might evolve when current conditions are a reliable predictor of future conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of larval food conditions (low, improving and high food) on reproductive fitness in both low and high food adults environments. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found no evidence that food restriction in larval ladybird beetles produced adults that were better suited to continuing food stress. In fact, reproductive rate was invariably lower in females that were reared at low food, regardless of whether adults were well fed or food stressed. Juveniles that encountered improving conditions during the larval stage compensated for delayed growth by accelerating subsequent growth, and thus showed no evidence of a reduced reproductive rate. However, these same individuals lost more mass during the period of starvation in adults, which indicates that accelerated growth results in an increased risk of starvation during subsequent periods of food stress.

  9. Perceptions and Beliefs about the Role of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Brain Health in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Mathews, Anna E.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sahyoun, Nadine; Robare, Joseph F.; Liu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine older adults' perceptions of the link between physical activity (PA) and nutrition to the maintenance of cognitive health. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 396 ethnically diverse (White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic) community-dwelling older adults. FGs…

  10. The Child and Adult Care Food Program and the Nutrition of Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national study has compared nutrition-related outcomes of children in CACFP-participating centers to those of similar children in non-participating centers. We use a sample of four-year old children drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort to obtain estimates of associations between CACFP program participation and consumption of milk, fruits, vegetables, fast food, and sweets, and indicators of overweight, underweight status and food insecurity. We find that, among low-income children, CACFP participation moderately increases consumption of milk and vegetables, and may also reduce the prevalence of overweight and underweight. Effects on other outcomes are generally small and not statistically significant.

  11. Evidence-Based Policy-Making: The Usability of the Eurostat Adult Education Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on European education policy which is driven by benchmarks and indicators. While the European benchmark on adult lifelong learning participation--15% to be achieved by 2020--is measured by the Labour Force Survey, the Eurostat Adult Education Survey (AES) was designed to better understand the topic of adult lifelong learning…

  12. Larval nutritional stress affects vector immune traits in adult yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti).

    PubMed

    Telang, A; Qayum, A A; Parker, A; Sacchetta, B R; Byrnes, G R

    2012-09-01

    We report key physiological traits that link larval nutritional experience to adult immune status in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae). Many lines of defence make up the innate immune system of mosquitoes. Among defences, the epithelium-lined midgut is the first barrier, circulating haemocytes are cellular components of innate immunity and, when triggered, the Toll and Imd pathways signal production of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) as part of humoral defences. We quantified three lines of defence in Ae. aegypti in response to larval nutritional stress, and our data show that important female immune functions are modified by the larval rearing environment. Adult midgut basal lamina thickness was not affected by larval nutrient stress as has been observed in another Aedes sp. However, nutrient stresses experienced by larvae lead to a reduced number of haemocytes in females. Transcripts of Spaetzle (upstream regulator of Toll pathway that leads to induction of AMPs) and some immune-related genes were less abundant in stressed larvae but showed increased expression in females derived from stressed larvae. Results indicate a potential for compensation by the humoral branch for a reduced cellular branch of innate immunity in adults in response to larval nutrient stress.

  13. Mitigating Nutrition and Health Deficiencies in Older Adults: A Role for Food Innovation?

    PubMed

    Baugreet, Sephora; Hamill, Ruth M; Kerry, Joseph P; McCarthy, Sinéad N

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the factors contributing to diminished food intake, resulting in nutritional deficiencies and associated health conditions in older adults and proposes food innovation strategies to mitigate these. Research has provided convincing evidence of a link between healthy eating patterns and healthy aging. There is a need to target new food product development (NPD) with functional health benefits specifically designed to address the particular food-related needs of older consumers. When developing foods for older adults, consideration should be given to the increased requirements for specific macro- and micronutrients, especially protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B. Changes in chemosensory acuity, chewing difficulties, and reduced or poor swallowing ability should also be considered. To compensate for the diminished appetite and reduced intake, foods should be energy dense, nutritionally adequate, and, most importantly, palatable, when targeting this cohort. This paper describes the potential of new food product development to facilitate dietary modification and address health deficiencies in older adults.

  14. Environmental Considerations for Improving Nutritional Status in Older Adults with Dementia: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Joy W; Lawrence, Jeannine C

    2015-11-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, the American health care system will face the unique challenge of providing care for these individuals, including many who will be diagnosed with some form of dementia. As dementia progresses, patients require increasing amounts of care and nutrient intake usually declines. This tends to result in weight loss, malnutrition, and increased morbidity and mortality. Various interventions have been developed with the goal of improving meal intake and reducing unintentional weight loss in patients with dementia. Several studies have shown that meal intake improves with the provision of adequate assistance, either from staff members or from volunteer feeding assistants. Some studies have focused on the method of meal service and its influence on meal intake and nutrition status. Both buffet-style and family-style dining have shown promising results in terms of improving meal intake and quality of life among older adults in long-term-care settings. Other environment-related interventions include improving lighting and visual contrast, altering the dining room to more closely resemble a home-style setting, using the aroma of food to stimulate appetite, using routine seating arrangements, and using relaxing or familiar music in the dining room to provide a calmer environment. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the research on environment-based interventions to improve nutritional status among older adults with dementia, to describe potential for practical applications, and to identify gaps in the existing literature whereon further research is warranted.

  15. Who Is Food Insecure? Implications for Targeted Recruitment and Outreach, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Tammy; Xuan, Lei; Amory, Richard; Higashi, Robin T.; Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Pezzia, Carla; Swales, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food insecurity is negatively associated with health; however, health needs may differ among people participating in food assistance programs. Our objectives were to characterize differences in health among people receiving different types of food assistance and summarize strategies for targeted recruitment and outreach of various food insecure populations. Methods We examined health status, behaviors, and health care access associated with food insecurity and receipt of food assistance among US adults aged 20 years or older using data from participants (N = 16,934) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 through 2010. Results Food insecurity affected 19.3% of US adults (95% confidence interval, 17.9%–20.7%). People who were food insecure reported poorer health and less health care access than those who were food secure (P < .001 for all). Among those who were food insecure, 58.0% received no assistance, 20.3% received only Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, 9.7% received only food bank assistance, and 12.0% received both SNAP and food bank assistance. We observed an inverse relationship between receipt of food assistance and health and health behaviors among the food insecure. Receipt of both (SNAP and food bank assistance) was associated with the poorest health; receiving no assistance was associated with the best health. For example, functional limitations were twice as prevalent among people receiving both types of food assistance than among those receiving none. Conclusion Receipt of food assistance is an overlooked factor associated with health and has the potential to shape future chronic disease prevention efforts among the food insecure. PMID:27736055

  16. Survey results of the training, nutrition, and mental preparation of triathletes: practical implications of findings.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Shawn H; Houston, Melinda; Martin, Scott B

    2011-07-01

    Although triathlon is growing in popularity at a remarkable rate, it has not been extensively studied. The aims of this research were to identify preparation strategies used by triathletes and to categorize these strategies according to gender and consultation with triathlon coaches. Survey data collected from 401 triathletes (207 males, 194 females) revealed training, nutritional, and mental preparation habits. Most participants engaged in strength training, consumed food and/or fluids during and after training, set training and competition goals, and applied mental preparation strategies during training and the hour before racing. Water was the most commonly consumed fluid; positive self-talk was the most used mental strategy. Participants were more likely to consult with a triathlon coach than a nutrition or sport psychology professional. Athletes with more years of experience in triathlon and those competing in longer distances were more likely to consult a triathlon coach. Female triathletes were more likely than male triathletes to train with others, use mental preparation strategies, and report feeling anxious before competitions. More male triathletes reported using nutritional supplements during training than their female counterparts. These findings add to the limited research base on triathletes' training habits, and hopefully will help guide practitioners who work with this group. The results provide guidance for collaborative efforts among training, nutrition, and mental health professionals to best support triathletes.

  17. Nutrition transition and obesity among teenagers and young adults in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Wijayabandara, Maheshi; Hills, Andrew P; Misra, Anoop

    2016-08-08

    Introduction Obesity among teenagers/adolescents and young adults is associated with significant adverse short and longer-term effects on health. To date, no narrative reviews have evaluated nutrition transition and its contribution to the obesity epidemic among adolescents and young adults in the South Asian (SA) region. Methods Data were retrieved by a four-stage systematic search process. A search of the online PubMed/Medline, SciVerse Scopus and Web of Science databases was performed. The age groups were defined as follows; teenage:13-19 years, adolescence:10-18 years and young adult:19-24 years. Results Among teenagers/adolescents, the prevalence of overweight ranged from 11.0% (Sri Lanka) to 19.0% (India), while obesity ranged from 2.4% (Sri Lanka) to 11.0% (Pakistan). In young adults, prevalence of overweight ranged between 7.9% (Nepal) to 15.0% (Pakistan), while obesity showed a much wider variation (0.005%[Nepal] - 22.8%[India]). Nutritional risk factors associated with overweight/obesity among SAs of this age group included reduced fruit and vegetable consumption, a total vegetarian diet, consumption of fast food and soft drinks, and skipping breakfast. Other contributing factors identified were: adding extra salt to meals, eating meals outside of the home, frequently visiting restaurants and eating while watching television. Daily milk/yoghurt consumption and a family supper have shown a protective effect against overweight/obesity. Conclusions Overweight and obesity are common amongst teenagers/adolescents and young adults of the SA region. Several food types and habits were identified as being associated with overweight/obesity in this population. Identifying common protective and contributory factors is very important for the development of a shared regional preventive strategy.

  18. Adult parenteral nutrition in the North of England: a region-wide audit

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Jessica K; Thompson, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Parenteral nutrition (PN) is widely used to provide nutritional support to patients with inaccessible or inadequate length of gut or non-functioning gut. The objective was to compare practice in PN administration to results of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) report, ‘A Mixed Bag’, and to establish whether good practice was being followed within this part of the UK. Setting Using the Northern Nutrition Network (NNN), we examined the care of adult patients receiving PN in all 10 secondary care hospitals in our region. Participants All patients receiving PN were included with no exclusions. Data were collected on 192 patients (51% females, median age 65 years (range 18–96)). Outcome measures A data collection tool was designed based on the recommendations of the NCEPOD report. Results PN was used for a median of 7 days with a 30-day mortality rate of 8%. Metabolic complications occurred in 34%, of which only 13% were avoidable. The catheter sepsis rate was 1.5 per 1000 PN days. The audit suggests that nutrition team input improves patient assessment prior to starting PN and review once PN is established. Risk of refeeding syndrome was identified in 75%. Areas for improvement are documentation of treatment goal (39%), review of PN constitution (38%), ensuring patients are weighed regularly (56%) and documentation of line-tip position (52%). Conclusions This region-wide prospective audit suggests improved practice within the UK compared to the NCEPOD audit with lower mortality and line sepsis rates. However, documentation remains suboptimal. This work strengthens the case for introducing nutrition teams in hospitals without this service. These findings are likely to be reproduced across the UK and in other healthcare settings. We provide a template for similar audits of clinical practice. PMID:28073792

  19. Psychostimulants and psychiatrists: the Trent Adult Psychiatry Psychostimulant Survey.

    PubMed

    Bramble, D

    2000-03-01

    This study reports upon the results of a postal questionnaire survey of 107 adult psychiatrists which investigated their current use of psychostimulant pharmacotherapy and their attitudes towards the diagnostic status of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Of the 88 respondents, only a minority of 11 (12.5%) used psychostimulants in their usual practice, albeit very infrequently (one or two prescriptions per year on average). Methylphenidate hydrochloride ('Ritalin') was the prescribers' most popular agent and 'narcolepsy' was the most frequently cited clinical indication for psychostimulants. ADHD appeared to represent only a very small area of current clinical activity and a minority of clinicians expressed the view that it did not exist in adults. It is concluded that psychostimulant therapy is relatively undeveloped in British adult psychiatry and that the clinical speciality generally appears to be unprepared for the growing numbers of adolescents with ADHD who are currently managed by child psychiatrists and who may require ongoing psychiatric care, including psychostimulant therapy.

  20. Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

    2014-01-01

    The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being.

  1. Association between psoriasis and leisure-time physical activity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Do, Young Kyung; Lakhani, Naheed; Malhotra, Rahul; Halstater, Brian; Theng, Colin; Østbye, Truls

    2015-02-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity can reduce the cardiometabolic risk of patients with psoriasis, these patients may engage in less physical activity than those without psoriasis. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the extent of psoriatic skin lesions with the likelihood of participating in leisure-time moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and metabolic equivalent task (MET)-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a population-based survey among U.S. adults. A total of 6549 persons aged 20-59 years responded to the 2003-2006 NHANES dermatology questionnaires, which asked about participation in leisure-time MVPA and MET-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. Compared with individuals without psoriasis, those with psoriasis were less likely to have engaged in leisure MVPA in the past 30 days, although this association was not statistically significant. Amongst those who participated in leisure-time MVPA, MET-minutes of leisure-time MVPA were lower on average for patients currently having few to extensive cutaneous lesions (but not for those currently having little or no psoriatic patches), relative to individuals never diagnosed with psoriasis by approximately 30%. Clinicians should encourage patients with psoriasis, especially those with more severe disease, to be more physically active; they should help identify and address possible psychological and physical barriers to their patients' physical activity.

  2. Dietary changes needed to reach nutritional adequacy without increasing diet cost according to income: An analysis among French adults

    PubMed Central

    Maillot, Matthieu; Vieux, Florent; Delaere, Fabien; Lluch, Anne; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy across income levels at constant energy and diet cost. Materials and methods Individual diet modelling was used to design iso-caloric, nutritionally adequate optimised diets for each observed diet in a sample of adult normo-reporters aged ≥20 years (n = 1,719) from the Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2), 2006–2007. Diet cost was estimated from mean national food prices (2006–2007). A first set of free-cost models explored the impact of optimisation on the variation of diet cost. A second set of iso-cost models explored the dietary changes induced by the optimisation with cost set equal to the observed one. Analyses of dietary changes were conducted by income quintiles, adjusting for energy intake, sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables, and smoking status. Results The cost of observed diets increased with increasing income quintiles. In free-cost models, the optimisation increased diet cost on average (+0.22 ± 1.03 euros/d) and within each income quintile, with no significant difference between quintiles, but with systematic increases for observed costs lower than 3.85 euros/d. In iso-cost models, it was possible to design nutritionally adequate diets whatever the initial observed cost. On average, the optimisation at iso-cost increased fruits and vegetables (+171 g/day), starchy foods (+121 g/d), water and beverages (+91 g/d), and dairy products (+20 g/d), and decreased the other food groups (e.g. mixed dishes and salted snacks), leading to increased total diet weight (+300 g/d). Those changes were mostly similar across income quintiles, but lower-income individuals needed to introduce significantly more fruit and vegetables than higher-income ones. Conclusions In France, the dietary changes needed to reach nutritional adequacy without increasing cost are similar regardless of income, but may be more difficult to implement when the budget for food is lower than

  3. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not

  4. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008).

  5. Numbers of natural teeth, diet, and nutritional status in US adults.

    PubMed

    Nowjack-Raymer, R E; Sheiham, A

    2007-12-01

    Evidence that dental status affects diet is equivocal. The hypothesis of this study was that diet was affected by dental status. The objective was to assess the relationship between numbers of teeth and diet and nutritional status in US adult civilians without prostheses. We examined 6985 NHANES (1988-1994) participants. Data included socio-economics, demographics, dental status, and diet and nutritional status. Dietary data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recall. Serum levels of beta carotene, folate, and vitamin C were measured with isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography. The population was classified by numbers of teeth. Covariance and Satterthwaite F-adjusted statistical comparisons were made between tooth groupings and the fully dentate population. Multilinear regression models adjusted for covariates. People with fewer than 28 teeth had significantly lower intakes of carrots, tossed salads, and dietary fiber than did fully dentate people, and lower serum levels for beta carotene, folate, and vitamin C. Dental status significantly affects diet and nutrition.

  6. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vannice, Gretchen; Rasmussen, Heather

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) that dietary fat for the healthy adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy, with an increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and limited intake of saturated and trans fats. The Academy recommends a food-based approach through a diet that includes regular consumption of fatty fish, nuts and seeds, lean meats and poultry, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. These recommendations are made within the context of rapidly evolving science delineating the influence of dietary fat and specific fatty acids on human health. In addition to fat as a valuable and calorically dense macronutrient with a central role in supplying essential nutrition and supporting healthy body weight, evidence on individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups is emerging as a key factor in nutrition and health. Small variations in the structure of fatty acids within broader categories of fatty acids, such as polyunsaturated and saturated, appear to elicit different physiological functions. The Academy recognizes that scientific knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on human health is young and takes a prudent approach in recommending an increase in fatty acids that benefit health and a reduction in fatty acids shown to increase risk of disease. Registered dietitian nutritionists are uniquely positioned to translate fat and fatty acid research into practical and effective dietary recommendations.

  7. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables.

    PubMed

    Madden, A M; Smith, S

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of body composition is an important part of assessing nutritional status and provides prognostically useful data and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate body composition methodology in adults, focusing on anthropometric variables. The variables considered include height, weight, body mass index and alternative indices, trunk measurements (waist and hip circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter) and limb measurements (mid-upper arm and calf circumferences) and skinfold thickness. The importance of adhering to a defined measurement protocol, checking measurement error and the need to interpret measurements using appropriate population-specific cut-off values to identify health risks were highlighted. Selecting the optimum method for assessing body composition using anthropometry depends on the purpose (i.e. evaluating obesity or undernutrition) and requires practitioners to have a good understanding of both practical and theoretical limitations and to be able to interpret the results wisely.

  8. A Survey of Undergraduate Student Perceptions and Use of Nutrition Information Labels in a University Dining Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Olivia D.; Roberto, Christina A.; Kim, Jane H.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine undergraduate student perceptions and reported use of nutrition information labels in campus dining halls.Design: Paper surveys were administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates. Setting: This study was conducted at an urban United States university. Method: A survey about perceptions and use of nutrition…

  9. Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic nutritional deprivation in larval life affects adult fecal output.

    PubMed

    Urquhart-Cronish, Mackenzie; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2014-10-01

    Life history consequences of stress in early life are varied and known to have lasting impacts on the fitness of an organism. Gene-environment interactions play a large role in how phenotypic differences are mediated by stressful conditions during development. Here we use natural allelic 'rover/sitter' variants of the foraging (for) gene and chronic early life nutrient deprivation to investigate gene-environment interactions on excretion phenotypes. Excretion assay analysis and a fully factorial nutritional regimen encompassing the larval and adult life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster were used to assess the effects of larval and adult nutritional stress on adult excretion phenotypes. Natural allelic variants of for exhibited differences in the number of fecal spots when they were nutritionally deprived as larvae and well fed as adults. for mediates the excretion response to chronic early-life nutritional stress in mated female, virgin female, and male rovers and sitters. Transgenic manipulations of for in a sitter genetic background under larval but not adult food deprivation increases the number of fecal spots. Our study shows that food deprivation early in life affects adult excretion phenotypes and these excretion differences are mediated by for.

  10. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  11. A Narrative Review of Social Media and Game-Based Nutrition Interventions Targeted at Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nour, Monica; Yeung, Sin Hang; Partridge, Stephanie; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-02-23

    The increased popularity of social media and mobile gaming among young adults provides an opportunity for innovative nutrition programs. This review evaluated the efficacy of these strategies in interventions targeted at 18- to 35-year-olds. The protocol was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ten scientific databases, information technology conference proceedings, and gray literature were searched. Two reviewers conducted screening, data extraction, and quality assessments. Interventions were included if they used social media or electronic games. Comparisons were made pre- to post-intervention, or between intervention and control arms. Outcomes of interest included change in nutrition knowledge, attitudes, behavior, or weight and/or body composition. Eleven social media-based (randomized controlled trials [RCT] n=7) and six game-based [RCT n=1]) interventions were included. Overall quality of studies was low. Social media-based strategies included forum/blogs (n=5), Facebook (n=5), Twitter (n=1), YouTube (n=1), and chat rooms (n=1). Eight (RCT n=6) of 11 social media-based studies demonstrated improvements in outcomes. Findings suggested that social media may be more effective when combined with other strategies. Virtual reality games (n=3), web-based games (n=2), and a mobile application (n=1) were used in the gaming interventions. While a significant increase in knowledge was reported by three gaming studies (RCT=1), two used nonvalidated tools and longer-term measures of weight and behavioral outcomes were limited. The use of social media and gaming for nutrition promotion is in its infancy. Preliminary evidence suggests that these strategies have some utility for intervening with young adults. Further research using high-quality study designs is required, with measurement of outcomes over longer time periods. The systematic review protocol is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42015025427).

  12. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19-29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30-49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50-64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake.

  13. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19–29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30–49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50–64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake. PMID:27152301

  14. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is associated with myopia in the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin-woo; Choi, Jin A; La, Tae Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this article was to assess the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and daily sun exposure time with myopia in Korean adults. This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) of Korean adults in 2010–2012; multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of serum 25(OH)D levels and daily sun exposure time with myopia, defined as spherical equivalent ≤–0.5D, after adjustment for age, sex, household income, body mass index (BMI), exercise, intraocular pressure (IOP), and education level. Also, multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels with spherical equivalent after adjustment for daily sun exposure time in addition to the confounding factors above. Between the nonmyopic and myopic groups, spherical equivalent, age, IOP, BMI, waist circumference, education level, household income, and area of residence differed significantly (all P < 0.05). Compared with subjects with daily sun exposure time <2 hour, subjects with sun exposure time ≥2 to <5 hour, and those with sun exposure time ≥5 hour had significantly less myopia (P < 0.001). In addition, compared with subjects were categorized into quartiles of serum 25(OH)D, the higher quartiles had gradually lower prevalences of myopia after adjustment for confounding factors (P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression analyses, spherical equivalent was significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration after adjustment for confounding factors (P = 0.002). Low serum 25(OH)D levels and shorter daily sun exposure time may be independently associated with a high prevalence of myopia in Korean adults. These data suggest a direct role for vitamin D in the development of myopia. PMID:27861336

  15. Consensus statement: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition).

    PubMed

    White, Jane V; Guenter, Peggi; Jensen, Gordon; Malone, Ainsley; Schofield, Marsha

    2012-05-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic characteristics be used to identify and document adult malnutrition in routine clinical practice. An etiologically based diagnostic nomenclature that incorporates a current understanding of the role of the inflammatory response on malnutrition's incidence, progression, and resolution is proposed. Universal use of a single set of diagnostic characteristics will facilitate malnutrition's recognition, contribute to more valid estimates of its prevalence and incidence, guide interventions, and influence expected outcomes. This standardized approach will also help to more accurately predict the human and financial burdens and costs associated with malnutrition's prevention and treatment and further ensure the provision of high-quality, cost-effective nutrition care.

  16. Consensus statement of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition).

    PubMed

    White, Jane V; Guenter, Peggi; Jensen, Gordon; Malone, Ainsley; Schofield, Marsha

    2012-05-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic characteristics be used to identify and document adult malnutrition in routine clinical practice. An etiologically based diagnostic nomenclature that incorporates a current understanding of the role of the inflammatory response on malnutrition's incidence, progression, and resolution is proposed. Universal use of a single set of diagnostic characteristics will facilitate malnutrition's recognition, contribute to more valid estimates of its prevalence and incidence, guide interventions, and influence expected outcomes. This standardized approach will also help to more accurately predict the human and financial burdens and costs associated with malnutrition's prevention and treatment, and further ensure the provision of high quality, cost effective nutritional care.

  17. Nutritional Status Of Under-Five Children In Libya; A National Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Adel, El Taguri; Marie-Françoise, Rolland-Cachera; Mahmud Salaheddin, M; Najeeb, Elmrzougi; Ahmed, Abdel Monem; Ibrahim, Betilmal; Gerard, Lenoir

    2008-01-01

    Aim To describe the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Libya. Population and methods A secondary analysis of data of 5348 children taken from a national representative, two-stage, cluster-sample survey that was performed in 1995. Results: Prevalence rates of underweight, wasting, stunting, and overweight were determined using standard definitions in reference to newly established WHO growth charts. The study revealed that 4.3% of children were underweight, 3.7% wasted, 20.7% stunted, and 16.2% overweight. Seventy percent of children had normal weight. Undernutrition was more likely to be found in males, in rural areas, and in underprivileged groups. Overweight was more likely found in urban, privileged groups. Wasting was more common in arid regions; stunting was more common in mountainous regions of Al-Akhdar, Al-Gharbi, and in Sirt. Al-Akhdar had the highest prevalence of overweight. Conclusion The country had a low prevalence of underweight and wasting, moderate prevalence of stunting, and high prevalence of overweight. The country is in the early stages of transition with evidence of dual-burden in some regions. Similar surveys are needed to verify secular trends of these nutritional problems, particularly overweight. PMID:21499476

  18. Documenting the need for nutrition and health intervention for middle-aged and older adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta region.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Glenda S; McGee, Bernestine B; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Thornton, Alma; Simpson, Pippa M; Johnson, Crystal; Richardson, Valerie; Bogle, Margaret; James-Holly, Dawanna; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Multiple demographic, health, and environmental factors may influence the overall quality of diets among rural middle-aged and older adults. This project compared the diet quality of participants in Foods of Our Delta Survey (FOODS 2000) who were aged 55 years and older with national data. The data were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall methodology and a modified version of the United States Department of Agriculture Healthy Eating Index (HEI) that excluded the sodium component. The mean total Modified Healthy Eating Index (MHEI) study score was significantly lower than their counterparts from the national survey (61.0 +/- 0.68 vs. 65.6 +/- 3.65, P < 0.0001). Race and educational attainment were associated with higher MHEI scores. This study emphasized a critical need for implementing nutrition and health interventions in rural communities with special attention to subpopulations at risk.

  19. Dutch survey of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; van der Werf, T.

    2006-01-01

    Aims This Dutch survey focused on the clinical presentation, noninvasive and invasive diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities of adult patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas (CAFs). Methods Between 1996 and 2003, the initiative was taken to start a registry on congenital CAFs in adults. In total 71 patients from a diagnostic coronary angiographic population of 30,829 at 28 hospitals were collected from previously developed case report forms. Patient demographic data, clinical presentation, noninvasive and invasive techniques and treatment options were retrospectively collected and analysed. Results Out of 71 patients with angiographically proven CAFs, 51 (72%) had 63 congenital solitary fistulas and 20 (28%) had 31 congenital coronary-ventricular multiple microfistulas. Patients with pseudofistulas were excluded from the registry. Coronary angiograms were independently re-analysed for morphology and specific fistula details. The majority (72%) of the fistulas were unilateral, 24% were bilateral and only 4% were multilateral. The morphological characteristics of these 94 fistulas were as follows: the origin was multiple in 47% and single in 53%; the termination was multiple in 52% and single in 48%; and the pathway of the fistulous vessels was tortuous/multiple in 66%, tortuous/single in 28%, straight/multiple in 3% and straight/single in 3%. Percutaneous transluminal embolisation (PTE) was performed in two (3%) patients; surgical ligation was undertaken in 13 (18%) patients. The overwhelming majority of the patients (56; 79%) were treated with conservative medical management. The total mortality was 6% (4/71) at a mean follow-up period of approximately five years. Cardiac mortality accounted for 4% (3/71); in all three patients, death could possibly be attributed to the presence of the fistula. Conclusion Registry of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults in the Netherlands is feasible. In spite of restrictions imposed by the Dutch Privacy

  20. Nutritional care and support among adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Zelalem; Birhan, Yifru; Abebe, Hiwot

    2013-11-01

    Background Improving nutritional care and support for people living with HIV (PLHIV) is an integral part of comprehensive HIV treatment according to the National Nutritional Strategy of Ethiopia. However, there is no adequate published study that assesses the nutritional care and support services for adult people living with HIV/ AIDS (PLHIV) in this setting. Objective The objective of the study was to identify the existing nutritional care and support services and determine the challenges facing adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study was carried out using focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and participant observation. Four FDGs were held and five in-depth interviews were conducted. A two-week participant observation was also conducted by trained nurses. All interviews and FDGs were tape-recorded and transcribed; those conducted in Amharic were translated back to English. Finally thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. Results Most of the FDG participants were unsatisfied with their nutritional care and support services and expressed difficulty with disclosing their HIV status for fear of stigma and discrimination. The in-depth interviews and participant observation showed results similar to those of the FDG. Some key informants expressed a fear that such poor nutritional care and support may threaten the quality of life of people living with HIV and suggested that all stakeholders work on improving the services. Conclusion Current nutritional care and support services for people living with HIV are not well coordinated. They focus mainly on monthly supplementation of antiretroviral drugs and occasional handouts of food. The need to provide health education on antiretroviral drugs and nutrition, and to emphasise strategies aimed at improving the nutritional status of peoples living with HIV is critical. Furthermore, the study recommended strengthening the initiatives of some

  1. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Norway. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Svein

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Norway was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Norway's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  2. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  3. The role of gut microbes in satisfying the nutritional demands of adult and juvenile wild, black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Amato, Katherine R; Leigh, Steven R; Kent, Angela; Mackie, Roderick I; Yeoman, Carl J; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A; Garber, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    In all mammals, growth, development, pregnancy, and lactation increase nutritional demands. Although primate field studies tend to focus on shifts in activity and diet as mechanisms to compensate for these demands, differences in digestive efficiency also are likely to be important. Because the gut microbiota can impact host digestive efficiency, we examined differences in activity budget, diet, and the gut microbial community among adult male (N = 4), adult female (N = 4), and juvenile (N = 5) wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) across a ten-month period in Palenque National Park, Mexico to determine how adult females and juveniles compensate for increased nutritional demands. Results indicate that adult females and juveniles consumed more protein and energy than adult males. Adult males, adult females, and juveniles also possessed distinct gut microbial communities, unrelated to diet. Juveniles exhibited a gut microbiota characterized by bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes, such as Roseburia and Ruminococcus, and demonstrated high fecal volatile fatty acid content, suggesting increased microbial contributions to host energy balances. Adult females possessed a higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, also suggesting increased energy production, and their gut microbiota was characterized by Lactococcus, which has been associated with folate biosynthesis. On the basis of these patterns, it appears that the gut microbiota differentially contributes to howler monkey nutrition during reproduction and growth. Determining the nutritional and energetic importance of shifts in activity, diet, and the gut microbiota in other nonhuman primate taxa, as well as humans, will transform our understanding of these life history processes and the role of host-microbe relationships in primate evolution.

  4. Association between Parity and Blood Pressure in Korean Women: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Miae; Choi, Jiho; Kim, Beomseok; Kang, Jayeon; Kim, Yongchae; Cho, Sewook

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy considerably alters cardiovascular dynamics, and thereby affects the transition of blood pressure after delivery in women. We aimed to analyze the association between parity and blood pressure in Korean adult women. Methods We included 8,890 women who participated in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2012. We divided the population according to the menopause status and analyzed the association between parity and blood pressure by using multiple regression analysis, and on hypertension, by using logistic regression analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with parity in premenopausal women (β=-0.091 [P<0.001] and β=-0.069 [P<0.001], respectively). In the analysis that excluded women receiving antihypertensive medication, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of postmenopausal women were significantly associated with parity (β=-0.059 [P=0.022] and β=-0.054 [P=0.044], respectively). Parity was found to prevent hypertension after adjustment for confounders in postmenopausal women (odds ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.310-0.985). Conclusion We found that parity prevented hypertension in Korean women. PMID:26634103

  5. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age.

  6. The Association of Metabolic Syndrome with Diabetic Retinopathy: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tai Kyong; Won, Jae Yon; Shin, Jeong Ah; Park, Yong-Moon; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Park, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Aims To explore gender differences and associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Korean adults aged 40 years and older with diabetes. Methods We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2012). In total, 2,576 type 2 diabetic participants, aged 40 and older, were evaluated. Seven standard retinal fundus photographs were obtained after pupil dilation in both eyes. DR was graded using the modified Airlie House classification system. Vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) included proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement, proposed in 2009, by the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between MetS and its individual components with DR and VTDR. Results After controlling for confounders, MetS was not associated with DR in men or women. Moreover, the risk for DR or VTDR did not increase with increasing MetS components. However, high waist circumference was significantly inversely associated with VTDR (adjusted odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.93) only in men. Conclusions MetS was not associated with DR or VTDR in a Korean diabetic population. However, among MetS components, it seems that abdominal obesity was inversely associated with VTDR in Korean diabetic men. PMID:27275953

  7. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods

    PubMed Central

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences. PMID:28231135

  8. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-25

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  9. High Urinary Tungsten Concentration Is Associated with Stroke in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Galloway, Tamara S.; Abo-Zaid, Ghada; Melzer, David; Depledge, Michael H.; Osborne, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an exponential increase in tungsten demand, potentially increasing human exposure to the metal. Currently, the toxicology of tungsten is poorly understood, but mounting evidence suggests that both the elemental metal and its alloys have cytotoxic effects. Here, we investigate the association between tungsten and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or stroke using six waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We investigated associations using crude and adjusted logistic regression models in a cohort of 8614 adults (18–74 years) with 193 reported stroke diagnoses and 428 reported diagnoses of CVD. We also stratified our data to characterize associations in a subset of younger individuals (18–50 years). Results Elevated tungsten concentrations were strongly associated with an increase in the prevalence of stroke, independent of typical risk factors (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.17, 2.34). The association between tungsten and stroke in the young age category was still evident (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.33, 3.53). Conclusion This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of the human health effects of tungsten to date. Individuals with higher urinary tungsten concentrations have double the odds of reported stroke. We hypothesize that the pathological pathway resulting from tungsten exposure may involve oxidative stress. PMID:24244278

  10. Omega-3-enriched lipid emulsion for liver salvage in parenteral nutrition-induced cholestasis in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Jurewitsch, Brian; Gardiner, Geoffrey; Naccarato, Mark; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed N

    2011-05-01

    The intrahepatic cholestasis attributed to parenteral nutrition (PN) in the adult patient is relatively rare and usually occurs in patients receiving long-term PN. This article reports the first case of an adult patient with cholestatic PN-associated liver disease without sepsis who received almost all her nutrition requirements through PN. Administration of an ω-3-enriched lipid emulsion added to the PN regimen reversed cholestasis and demonstrated histologic improvement on serial liver biopsy. The patient had failed to respond to other modalities of treatment for this condition and was deeply jaundiced. Liver biochemistry profiles returned to baseline, and follow-up liver biopsy showed that cholestasis had resolved and that the only residual changes were mild portal inflammation with no histochemical or ultrastructural progression. The PN regimen for the patient was restored to provide total estimated energy requirements and remains the principle source of the patient's nutrition to date.

  11. With One Voice: America's Adults and Teens Sound Off about Teen Pregnancy. A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    These charts describe adults' and adolescents' views on teen sex and pregnancy. Data come from national surveys of adults and adolescents that examined attitudes toward teen sex and pregnancy, factors influencing teens' sexual decisions, parents' roles, and adults' and teens' advice for policymakers. There is near unanimous agreement among both…

  12. Thiamine nutritional status and depressive symptoms are inversely associated among older Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng; Ding, Hanqing; Chen, Honglei; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Ke, Zunji

    2013-01-01

    Thiamine has been hypothesized to play an important role in mental health; however, few studies have investigated the association between thiamine nutritional status and depression in the general population. Concentrations of free thiamine and its phosphate esters [thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine diphosphate (TDP)] in erythrocytes were measured by HPLC among 1587 Chinese men and women aged 50-70 y. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score of ≥16. The median erythrocyte concentration (nmol/L) was 3.73 for free thiamine, 3.74 for TMP, and 169 for TDP. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 11.3%. Lower concentrations of all 3 erythrocyte thiamine biomarkers were monotonically associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms: the multivariable adjusted ORs comparing the lowest with the highest quartiles were 2.97 (95% CI = 1.87, 4.72; P-trend < 0.001) for free thiamine, 3.46 (95% CI = 1.99, 6.02; P-trend < 0.001) for TMP, and 1.98 (95% CI = 1.22, 3.21; P-trend = 0.002) for TDP. In conclusion, poorer thiamine nutritional status and higher odds of depressive symptoms were associated among older Chinese adults. This finding should be further investigated in prospective or interventional studies.

  13. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics.

  14. Carbohydrate nutrition differs by diabetes status and is associated with dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican adults without diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45-75 y enrolled in the Boston Puer...

  15. Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2013-08-01

    Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ≥19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p < 0.001). A greater proportion used supplements containing calcium (52% vs. 37%, p < 0.001) and vitamin D (58% vs. 46%, p < 0.001), but calcium intakes from the combination of milk products, alternatives, and supplements were lower (739 ± 30 mg·day(-1) vs. 893 ± 13 mg·day(-1), p < 0.0001). Variation in self-reported lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised.

  16. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji In; Baek, Hyunjeong; Jung, Hae Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a leading public health problem related to poor quality of life and premature death. As a resource for evidence-informed health policy-making, we evaluated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease using the data of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥ 20 years (n = 15,319) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011-2013. Chronic kidney disease was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g or an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The total prevalence estimate of chronic kidney disease for adults aged ≥ 20 years in Korea was 8.2%. By disease stage, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was as follows: stage 1, 3.0%; stage 2, 2.7%; stage 3a, 1.9%; stage 3b, 0.4%; and stages 4-5, 0.2%. When grouped into three risk categories according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines, the proportions for the moderately increased risk, high risk, and very high risk categories were 6.5%, 1.2%, and 0.5%, respectively. Factors including older age, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, body mass indexes of ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and < 18.5 kg/m(2), and rural residential area were independently associated with chronic kidney disease. Based on this comprehensive analysis, evidence-based screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the Korean population should be developed to optimize prevention and early intervention of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors.

  17. Tooth Loss and Metabolic Syndrome in South Korea: The 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Wan; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Han, Kyung-Do; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Song, In-Seok; Kim, Yang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the relationship between tooth loss and metabolic syndrome (MS) in South Korean adults. Subjects and Methods: A total of 3589 adults (1511 men and 2078 women aged over 40 years) from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included and divided into 3 groups according to the number of remaining teeth (0–19, 20–27, and 28). We recorded the number of remaining teeth and measured MS components such as waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration. We also calculated the number of subjects who met the inclusion criteria of MS in each group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the prevalence of MS components according to the number of remaining teeth after adjusting for covariates. Women without MS had significantly more teeth than those with MS (24.5 ± 0.2 vs 21.0 ± 0.3). In men, the prevalence of high blood pressure and high fasting blood glucose levels were significantly different among the 3 groups (P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively); however, the prevalence of MS and all MS components were significantly different in women (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Men with 0 to 19 remaining teeth were most likely to have high blood pressure and high fasting blood glucose, while women with 0 to 19 remaining teeth had the highest prevalence of MS and each MS component. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that women with fewer remaining teeth had a higher prevalence of MS and MS components after adjusting for covariates. Having only a few remaining teeth was associated with MS in women in South Korea. PMID:27100416

  18. Factors associated with nutritional status among adult women in urban India, 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    This study attempts to understand the factors associated with chronic energy deficiency (CED) and overweight/obesity together with change in CED and overweight/obesity among urban Indian women during 1998-2006. Both National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 1998-1999 and NFHS 2005-2006 data sets were used. The standard cutoff points for both CED (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2)) were considered. The Phi and Cramer's V tests and predicted probabilities were used to fulfill the study objective. Results indicate an almost 3% reduction in CED and a 6% increase in overweight/obesity during 1998-2006. The probability of CED has reduced among nonliterate women and women belonging to the poorest wealth quintile; on the other hand, the likelihood of being overweight/obese has increased among women with high school education and above and women belonging to the richest wealth quintile. Interventions to promote physical activities and nutritional awareness programs, which are effective in addressing nutritional problems, have been proposed.

  19. Role of domiciliary and family carers in individualised nutrition support for older adults living in the community.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Skye; Agarwal, Ekta; Young, Adrienne; Isenring, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is common amongst people aged 65 years and older, has a multifactorial aetiology, and numerous negative outcomes. Domiciliary carers (non-clinical paid carers) and family carers (including family, friends and neighbours) are required to support the increasing demand for in-home assistance with activities of daily living due to the ageing population. This review provides insight into the role of both domiciliary and family carers in providing individualised nutrition support for older, community-dwelling adults with malnutrition. Four electronic databases were searched for intervention studies from database inception to December 2016. Both domiciliary and family carers are well placed to monitor the dietary intake and nutritional status of older adults; to assist with many food-related tasks such as the sourcing and preparation of meals, and assisting with feeding when necessary; and to act as a conduit between the care recipient and formal nutrition professionals such as dietitians. There is moderate evidence to support the role of domiciliary carers in implementing nutrition screening and referral pathways, and emerging evidence suggests they may have a role in malnutrition interventions when supported by health professionals. Moderate evidence also supports the engagement of family carers as part of the nutrition care team for older adults with malnutrition. Interventions such as group education, skill-development workshops and telehealth demonstrate promise and have significantly improved outcomes in older adults with dementia. Further interventional and translational research is required to demonstrate the efficacy of engaging with domiciliary and family carers of older adults in the general community.

  20. Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Eglseer, Doris; Eminovic, Sandra; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-07-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review" found on pages 33-41, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until June 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the geriatric syndrome of sarcopenia. 2. Identify the outcome of the

  1. A survey on cancer-related nutritional information in Iranian popular magazines

    PubMed Central

    Hovsepyan, Ourfa; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Askari, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the wide influence of public media, they become important communication channels for changing health beliefs and behaviors. One of the areas that have gained increased attention in public media is nutritional information. Cancer is one among the diseases related to nutrition. The goal of this study is to do a content analysis of the popular magazines in Iran for nutritional information related to cancer in year 2012–2013. Materials and Methods: This is an applied survey performed using content analysis method. The data gathering tool is a checklist designed by the researcher. The statistical population consisted of all of the messages printed in 173 volumes of eight most popular magazines which were selected based on their characteristics by searching the Iranian publication database using certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. The sample size calculated using non-probability – purposive sampling was 295 messages from 96 magazine volumes. Results: Findings showed that prevention trends had the highest (86.8%) and treatment had the lowest (4.7%) frequency in the messages. Pomegranate was the most commonly mentioned preventive food, while mayonnaises were the most commonly mentioned carcinogen and tangerine was the most commonly mentioned food used for cancer treatment. Among the different types of cancer, more than half of the messages (51.2%) mentioned “cancer” as a general term. After that, breast cancer (13.2%) and prostate cancer (10.51%) were the most commonly motioned cancers and messages regarding pancreatic cancer and hormone-related cancers were the least frequent (0.3%). Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the main goal of these messages was to increase the information provided to the readers, although some doubts regarding the scientific credibility of the claims made in these messages still remain. PMID:27462644

  2. Temporal Trends in Phthalate Exposures: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Because of potential adverse effects on human health, butylbenzyl phthalate [BBzP; metabolite, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)], di-n-butyl phthalate [DnBP; metabolite, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)], and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are being replaced by substitutes including other phthalates; however, little is known about consequent trends in population-level exposures. Objective: We examined temporal trends in urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in the general U.S. population and whether trends vary by sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: We combined data on 11 phthalate metabolites for 11,071 participants from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2010). Percent changes and least square geometric means (LSGMs) were calculated from multivariate regression models. Results: LSGM concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, MnBP, MBzP, and ΣDEHP metabolites decreased between 2001–2002 and 2009–2010 [percent change (95% CI): –42% (–49, –34); –17% (–23, –9); –32% (–39, –23) and –37% (–46, –26), respectively]. In contrast, LSGM concentrations of monoisobutyl phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) increased over the study period [percent change (95% CI): 206% (178, 236); 25% (8, 45); 149% (102, 207); and 15% (1, 30), respectively]. Trends varied by subpopulations for certain phthalates. For example, LSGM concentrations of ΣDEHP metabolites, MCPP, and MCNP were higher in children than adults, but the gap between groups narrowed over time (pinteraction < 0.01). Conclusions: Exposure of the U.S. population to phthalates has changed in the last decade. Data gaps make it difficult to explain trends, but legislative activity and advocacy campaigns by nongovernmental organizations may play a role in changing trends. Citation: Zota AZ, Calafat AM

  3. A database of human exposomes and phenomes from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chirag J.; Pho, Nam; McDuffie, Michael; Easton-Marks, Jeremy; Kothari, Cartik; Kohane, Isaac S.; Avillach, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a population survey implemented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to monitor the health of the United States whose data is publicly available in hundreds of files. This Data Descriptor describes a single unified and universally accessible data file, merging across 255 separate files and stitching data across 4 surveys, encompassing 41,474 individuals and 1,191 variables. The variables consist of phenotype and environmental exposure information on each individual, specifically (1) demographic information, physical exam results (e.g., height, body mass index), laboratory results (e.g., cholesterol, glucose, and environmental exposures), and (4) questionnaire items. Second, the data descriptor describes a dictionary to enable analysts find variables by category and human-readable description. The datasets are available on DataDryad and a hands-on analytics tutorial is available on GitHub. Through a new big data platform, BD2K Patient Centered Information Commons (http://pic-sure.org), we provide a new way to browse the dataset via a web browser (https://nhanes.hms.harvard.edu) and provide application programming interface for programmatic access. PMID:27779619

  4. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    PubMed

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age.

  5. Feeding patterns of Mexican infants recorded in the 1988 National Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Long-Dunlap, K; Rivera-Dommarco, J; Rivera-Pasquel, M; Hernández-Avila, M; Lezana, M A

    1995-01-01

    Infant feeding patterns in Mexico were analyzed using data from the 1988 National Nutrition Survey. The prevalence of breast-feeding among infants declined from 86% at birth to approximately 40% after three months of age. The hazard rate of terminating breast-feeding increased by 38% at the national level and by 87% in the northern region with each increment in household living conditions, decreased 50% in rural municipalities in the south and decreased by 20% in all regions for each month that the introduction of other milks was delayed. The rate of other milk introduction increased by between 16% and 20% at the national level and within the central and southern regions with each household living condition increment but decreased by between 20 to 30% within indigenous or rural. Finally, the probability of solid food introduction increased by between 8 and 15% with each household living condition increment.

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J; Bainbridge, Kathleen E; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed "alterations"), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97-3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments.

  7. Efficacy of an Exercise and Nutritional Supplement Program on Physical Performance and Nutritional Status in Older Adults With Mobility Limitations Residing at Senior Living Facilities.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Michael P; Nelson, Miriam E; Sacheck, Jennifer M; Reid, Kieran F; Kirn, Dylan; Fielding, Roger A; Chui, Kenneth K H; Folta, Sara C

    2017-01-17

    This cluster-randomized trial was designed to determine the efficacy of a 6-month exercise-nutritional supplement program (ENP) on physical function and nutritional status for older adults and the feasibility of implementing this program in a senior living setting. Twenty senior living facilities were randomized to either a three day per week group-based ENP led by a trained facility staff member or a health education program (SAP). Participants (N=121) completed a short physical performance battery, 400 meter walk, handgrip strength test, and mini-nutrition assessment. 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], Insulin-like growth-factor 1 (IGF-1) and activity level were also measured. The ENP did not significantly improve physical function or nutritional status compared with the SAP. Compared with baseline, participants in the ENP engaged in 39 minutes less physical activity per week at 6-months. Several facility characteristics hindered implementation of the ENP. This study highlights the complexity of implementing an evidence-based program in a field setting.

  8. A Survey of the Nutritional Status of School Children : Relation Between Nutrient Intake and Socio-Economic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Judith; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Survey focused on school children 8-11 and 13-15 years in Kent (England) between September 1968 and March 1970. Sex, age, and weight were found independently associated with highly significant differences in nutritional intake. Social class, number of siblings, and mother's work status were not generally associated with significant differences in…

  9. Nutritional Status and Tuberculosis Risk in Adult and Pediatric Household Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Xeno; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Galea, Jerome T.; Chiang, Silvia S.; Contreras, Carmen; Calderon, Roger; Yataco, Rosa; Velásquez, Gustavo E.; Tintaya, Karen; Jimenez, Judith; Lecca, Leonid; Murray, Megan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies show obesity decreases risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. There is limited evidence on whether high body mass index also protects against TB infection; how very high body mass indices influence TB risk; or whether nutritional status predicts this risk in children. We assessed the impact of body mass index on incident TB infection and disease among adults and children. Methods and Findings We conducted a prospective cohort study among household contacts of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru. We determined body mass index at baseline and followed participants for one year for TB infection and disease. We used Cox proportional regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios for incident TB infection and disease. We enrolled 14,044 household contacts, and among 6853 negative for TB infection and disease at baseline, 1787 (26.1%) became infected. A total of 406 contacts developed secondary TB disease during follow-up. Body mass index did not predict risk of TB infection but overweight household contacts had significantly decreased risk of TB disease (HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.37–0.64; p <0.001) compared to those with normal weight. Among adults, body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 continued to predict a lower risk of TB disease (HR 0.30; 95% CI 0.12–0.74; p 0.009). We found no association between high body mass index and TB infection or disease among children under 12 years of age. Conclusions High body mass index protects adults against TB disease even at levels ≥ 35 kg/m2. This protective effect does not extend to TB infection and is not seen in children. PMID:27835678

  10. Nutritional Status and Nosocomial Infections among Adult Elective Surgery Patients in a Mexican Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-García, Judith; Gamiño-Iriarte, Astrid; Rodea-Montero, Edel Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy exists as to whether obesity constitutes a risk-factor or a protective-factor for the development of nosocomial Infection (NI). According to the obesity-paradox, there is evidence that moderate obesity is a protective-factor. In Mexico few studies have focused on the nutritional status (NS) distribution in the hospital setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the distribution of NS and the prevalence of nosocomial infection NI among adult elective surgery (ES) patients and to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics and length of stays (LOS) between obese and non-obese patients and between patients with and without NI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample (n = 82) adult ES patients (21–59 years old) who were recruited from a tertiary-care hospital. The prevalences of each NS category and NI were estimated, the assessments were compared between groups (Mann-Whitney, Chi-squared or the Fisher's-exact-test), and the association between preoperative risk-factors and NI was evaluated using odds ratios. Results The distribution of subjects by NS category was: underweight (3.66%), normal-weight (28.05%), overweight (35.36%), and obese (32.93%). The prevalence of NI was 14.63%. The LOS was longer (p<0.001) for the patients who developed NI. The percentages of NI were: 33.3% in underweight, 18.52% in obese, 17.39% in normal-weight, and 6.90% in overweight patients. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult ES patients is high. The highest prevalence of NI occurred in the underweight and obese patients. The presence of NI considerably increased the LOS, resulting in higher medical care costs. PMID:25803860

  11. 8-year trends in physical activity, nutrition, TV viewing time, smoking, alcohol and BMI: A comparison of younger and older Queensland adults

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mitch J.; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L.; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviours significantly contribute to high levels of chronic disease in older adults. The aims of the study were to compare the prevalence and the prevalence trends of health behaviours (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, fast food consumption, TV viewing, smoking and alcohol consumption), BMI and a summary health behaviour indicator score in older (65+ years) versus younger adults (18–65 years). The self-report outcomes were assessed through the Queensland Social Survey annually between 2007–2014 (n = 12,552). Regression analyses were conducted to compare the proportion of older versus younger adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight in all years combined and examine trends in the proportion of younger and older adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight over time. Older adults were more likely to meet recommended intakes of fruit and vegetable (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.23–1.67), not consume fast food (OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 2.25–2.86) and be non-smokers (OR = 3.02, 95%CI = 2.53–3.60) in comparison to younger adults. Conversely, older adults were less likely to meet the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78–0.95) and watch less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.58–0.74). Overall, older adults were more likely to report engaging in 3, or at least 4 out of 5 healthy behaviours. The proportion of both older and younger adults meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95–0.98 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.91–0.97 respectively), watching less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.99 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.90–0.99 respectively) and who were a healthy weight (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92–0.99 and OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.98 respectively) decreased over time. The proportion of older adults meeting the fruit and vegetable recommendations (OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.84–0.96) and not consuming fast food (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for iron deficiency anemia in the korean population: results of the fifth KoreaNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Ju Hyun; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Jin Won; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among participants of the fifth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010. Of 8,958 participants, 6,758 individuals ≥10 yr had sufficient data for the analysis of anemia and iron status. ID was defined as a transferrin saturation <10% or serum ferritin <15 µg/L. The prevalence of ID and IDA was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-2.6%) and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.0%), respectively, in males, and 22.4% (95% CI, 20.7%-24.2%) and 8.0% (95% CI, 6.8%-9.2%), respectively, in females. In reproductive age females, the prevalence of ID and IDA was 31.4% (95% CI, 28.9%-33.8%) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.4%), respectively. Compared to the prevalence of IDA in adult males 18-49 yr, the relative risks of IDA in adults ≥65 yr, lactating females, premenopausal females, and pregnant females were 8.1, 35.7, 42.8, and 95.5, respectively. Low income, underweight, iron- or vitamin C-poor diets were also associated with IDA. For populations with defined risk factors in terms of age, gender, physiological state and socioeconomic and nutritional status, national health policy to reduce IDA is needed.

  13. Health literacy of Dutch adults: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Relatively little knowledge is available to date about health literacy among the general population in Europe. It is important to gain insights into health literacy competences among the general population, as this might contribute to more effective health promotion and help clarify socio-economic disparities in health. This paper is part of the European Health Literacy Survey (HLS-EU). It aims to add to the body of theoretical knowledge about health literacy by measuring perceived difficulties with health information in various domains of health, looking at a number of competences. The definition and measure of health literacy is still topic of debate and hardly any instruments are available that are applicable for the general population. The objectives were to obtain an initial measure of health literacy in a sample of the general population in the Netherlands and to relate this measure to education, income, perceived social status, age, and sex. Methods The HLS-EU questionnaire was administered face-to-face in a sample of 925 Dutch adults, during July 2011. Perceived difficulties with the health literacy competences for accessing, understanding, appraising and applying information were measured within the domains of healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to explore the associations between health literacy competences and education, income, perceived social status, age, and sex. Results Perceived difficulties with health information and their association with demographic and socio-economic variables vary according to the competence and health domain addressed. Having a low level of education or a low perceived social status or being male were consistently found to be significantly related to relatively low health literacy scores, mainly for accessing and understanding health information. Conclusions Perceived difficulties with health information vary between competences and domains of

  14. Nutritional status of adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural central India and its association with mortality.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Anurag; Chatterjee, Madhuri; Jain, Yogesh; Chatterjee, Biswaroop; Kataria, Anju; Bhargava, Madhavi; Kataria, Raman; D'Souza, Ravi; Jain, Rachna; Benedetti, Andrea; Pai, Madhukar; Menzies, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Under-nutrition is a known risk factor for TB and can adversely affect treatment outcomes. However, data from India are sparse, despite the high burden of TB as well as malnutrition in India. We assessed the nutritional status at the time of diagnosis and completion of therapy, and its association with deaths during TB treatment, in a consecutive cohort of 1695 adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural India during 2004 - 2009.Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the association of nutritional status with deaths during treatment. At the time of diagnosis, median BMI and body weights were 16.0 kg/m(2)and 42.1 kg in men, and 15.0 kg/m(2)and 34.1 kg in women, indicating that 80% of women and 67% of men had moderate to severe under-nutrition (BMI<17.0 kg/m(2)). Fifty two percent of the patients (57% of men and 48% of women) had stunting indicating chronic under-nutrition. Half of women and one third of men remained moderately to severely underweight at the end of treatment. 60 deaths occurred in 1179 patients (5%) in whom treatment was initiated. Severe under-nutrition at diagnosis was associated with a 2 fold higher risk of death. Overall, a majority of patients had evidence of chronic severe under-nutrition at diagnosis, which persisted even after successful treatment in a significant proportion of them. These findings suggest the need for nutritional support during treatment of pulmonary TB in this rural population.

  15. Health and Nutrition Literacy and Adherence to Treatment in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypertension, North Carolina, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Maria; Rak, Eniko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to treatment and dietary restrictions is important for health outcomes of patients with chronic/end-stage kidney disease and hypertension. The relationship of adherence with nutritional and health literacy in children, adolescents, and young adults is not well understood. The current study examined the relationship of health literacy, nutrition knowledge, nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance, and medication adherence in a sample of children and young people with chronic/end-stage kidney disease and hypertension. Methods We enrolled 74 patients (aged 7–29 y) with a diagnosis of chronic/end-stage kidney disease and hypertension from the University of North Carolina Kidney Center. Participants completed instruments of nutrition literacy (Disease-Specific Nutrition Knowledge Test), health literacy (Newest Vital Sign), nutrition behavior (Nutrition Knowledge–Behavior Concordance Scale), and medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale). Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to test the associations. Results In univariate comparisons, nutrition knowledge was significantly higher in people with adequate health literacy. Medication adherence was related to nutrition knowledge and nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance. Multivariate regression models demonstrated that knowledge of disease-specific nutrition restrictions did not significantly predict nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance scores. In logistic regression, knowledge of nutrition restrictions did not significantly predict medication adherence. Lastly, health literacy and nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance were significant predictors of medication adherence. Conclusion Nutrition knowledge and health literacy skills are positively associated. Nutrition knowledge, health literacy, and nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance are positively related to medication adherence. Future research should focus on additional factors that may predict

  16. Iatrogenic chylothorax due to pleural cavity extravasation of total parenteral nutrition in two adults receiving nutrition through a peripherally inserted central catheter.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Thomas J; Jamous, Fady G; Kooistra, Alma; Zawada, Edward T

    2010-02-01

    Extravasation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) delivered via central lines is a known potential complication, but significant extravasations of infusate into the pleural space when using peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have not been reported in adults. We report 2 cases ofpleural cavity extravasation ofTPN delivered via a PICC. Measurement of the glucose level of the effusate is a quick way to determine the presence of TPN and should be considered in any patient receiving TPN via any type of central line with a rapidly developing effusion.

  17. Exploring the Icebergs of Adult Learning: Findings of the First Canadian Survey of Informal Learning Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 1,562 Canadian adults found that most are spending more time in learning, especially informal learning through employment, community service, and household work. Findings should be used to shape education policy and practice. (SK)

  18. Patterns of Nutrition and Dietary Supplements Use in Young Egyptian Athletes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Safaa; El Koofy, Nehal; Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of basic and sport nutrition as well as perspectives of young Egyptian athletes. Structured interview survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about basic and sport nutrition was administered to adolescent athletes recruited from 4 sport clubs and 2 fitness centers in Greater Cairo governorate. A total of 358 participants aged 13–18 years completed questionnaires. Basic nutrition knowledge was reasonable in almost all domains except fast food. Fixed breakfast (78.5%), home meals (lunch, 70.7%), and healthy snacks (55.8%) were the most positive features of the basic dietary pattern. More than 70% perceived themselves as knowledgeable about sport nutrition. The prevalence rate of sport supplement intake was (48.9%, n = 175), predominantly sport drinks (66.9%) and creatine (54.3%). Coaches were the primary source of sport nutrition information. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 77/175) reported supplement consumption during competition seasons only. Better physical appearance and enhancement of athletic performance were the major motivations for supplement intake. These findings indicate the necessity of a comprehensive nutrition education program targeting not only athletes and parents, but also coaching staff, health trainers and all sport team officials. PMID:27529492

  19. Access to healthcare and financial risk protection for older adults in Mexico: secondary data analysis of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Reich, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While the benefits of Seguro Popular health insurance in Mexico relative to no insurance have been widely documented, little has been reported on its effects relative to the pre-existing Social Security health insurance. We analyse the effects of Social Security and Seguro Popular health insurances in Mexico on access to healthcare of older adults, and on financial risk protection to their households, compared with older adults without health insurance. Setting Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2012 Mexican Survey of Health and Nutrition (ENSANUT). Participants The study population comprised 18 847 older adults and 13 180 households that have an elderly member. Outcome measures The dependent variables were access to healthcare given the reported need, the financial burden imposed by health expenditures measured through catastrophic health-related expenditures, and using savings for health-related expenditures. Separate propensity score matching analyses were conducted for each comparison. The analysis for access was performed at the individual level, and the analysis for financial burden at the household level. In each case, matching on a wide set of relevant characteristics was achieved. Results Seguro Popular showed a protective effect against lack of access to healthcare for older adults compared with those with no insurance. The average treatment effect on the treated (ATET) was ascertained through using the nearest-neighbour matching (−8.1%, t-stat −2.305) analysis. However, Seguro Popular did not show a protective effect against catastrophic expenditures in a household where an older adult lived. Social Security showed increased access to healthcare (ATET −11.3%, t-stat −3.138), and protective effect against catastrophic expenditures for households with an elderly member (ATET −1.9%, t-stat −2.178). Conclusions Seguro Popular increased access to healthcare for Mexican older adults. Social Security showed a significant

  20. Tongue Strength is Associated with Grip Strength and Nutritional Status in Older Adult Inpatients of a Rehabilitation Hospital.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kotomi; Nakayama, Enri; Tohara, Haruka; Maeda, Tomomi; Sugimoto, Motonobu; Takehisa, Takahiro; Takehisa, Yozo; Ueda, Koichiro

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether tongue strength observed in older adult inpatients of a rehabilitation hospital is associated with muscle function, nutritional status, and dysphagia. A total of 174 older adult inpatients aged 65 years and older in rehabilitation (64 men, 110 women; median age, 84 years; interquartile range, 80-89 years) who were suspected of having reduced tongue strength due to sarcopenia were included in this study. Isometric tongue strength was measured using a device fitted with a disposable oral balloon probe. We evaluated age, muscle function as assessed by the Barthel index and grip strength, nutritional status as measured by the Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form (MNA-SF), body mass index, serum albumin, controlling nutritional status, and calf circumference and arm muscle area to assess muscle mass. In addition, the functional oral intake scale (FOIS) was used as an index of dysphagia. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that isometric tongue strength was independently associated with grip strength (coefficient = 0.33, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.54, p = 0.002), MNA-SF (coefficient = 0.74, 95 % CI 0.12-1.35, p = 0.019), and FOIS (coefficient = 0.02, 95 % CI 0.00-0.15, p = 0.047). To maintain and improve tongue strength in association with sarcopenic dysphagia, exercise therapy and nutritional therapy interventions, as well as direct interventions to address tongue strength, may be effective in dysphagia rehabilitation in older adult inpatients.

  1. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Concentrations Are Independent Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Adult Patients at Nutritional Risk.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Silvia; Cereda, Emanuele; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Catherine; Cameletti, Barbara; Albertini, Riccardo; Magno, Daniela; Caraccia, Marilisa; Turri, Annalisa; Caccialanza, Riccardo

    2016-12-23

    Background: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were identified as predictors of mortality in patients with oncologic, hepatic and renal diseases, and in elderly and critically ill medical patients. The association between vitamin B12 concentrations and in-hospital mortality in adult patients at nutritional risk has not been assessed. Methods: In this five-year prospective study, we investigated whether high vitamin B12 concentrations (>1000 pg/mL) are associated with in-hospital mortality in 1373 not-bed-ridden adult patients at nutritional risk (Nutrition Risk Index <97.5), admitted to medical and surgical departments. Results: Three hundred and ninety-six (28.8%) patients presented vitamin B12 > 1000 pg/mL. Two hundred and four patients died in the hospital (14.9%). The adjusted odds ratio of in-hospital mortality in patients with high vitamin B12 was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.56-3.08; p < 0.001); it was independent of age, gender, body mass index, six-month previous unintentional weight loss, admission ward, presence of malignancy, renal function, C-reactive protein and prealbumin. Patients with high vitamin B12 also had a longer length of stay (LOS) than those with normal concentrations (median 25 days, (IQR 15-41) versus 23 days (IQR 14-36); p = 0.014), and elevated vitamin B12 was an independent predictor of LOS (p = 0.027). Conclusions: An independent association between elevated vitamin B12 concentrations, mortality and LOS was found in our sample of hospitalized adult patients at nutritional risk. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown and any cause-effect relation cannot be inferred, clinicians should be aware of the potential negative impact of high vitamin B12 concentrations in hospitalized patients at nutritional risk and avoid inappropriate vitamin supplementation.

  2. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Concentrations Are Independent Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Adult Patients at Nutritional Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cappello, Silvia; Cereda, Emanuele; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Catherine; Cameletti, Barbara; Albertini, Riccardo; Magno, Daniela; Caraccia, Marilisa; Turri, Annalisa; Caccialanza, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were identified as predictors of mortality in patients with oncologic, hepatic and renal diseases, and in elderly and critically ill medical patients. The association between vitamin B12 concentrations and in-hospital mortality in adult patients at nutritional risk has not been assessed. Methods: In this five-year prospective study, we investigated whether high vitamin B12 concentrations (>1000 pg/mL) are associated with in-hospital mortality in 1373 not-bed-ridden adult patients at nutritional risk (Nutrition Risk Index <97.5), admitted to medical and surgical departments. Results: Three hundred and ninety-six (28.8%) patients presented vitamin B12 > 1000 pg/mL. Two hundred and four patients died in the hospital (14.9%). The adjusted odds ratio of in-hospital mortality in patients with high vitamin B12 was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.56–3.08; p < 0.001); it was independent of age, gender, body mass index, six-month previous unintentional weight loss, admission ward, presence of malignancy, renal function, C-reactive protein and prealbumin. Patients with high vitamin B12 also had a longer length of stay (LOS) than those with normal concentrations (median 25 days, (IQR 15–41) versus 23 days (IQR 14–36); p = 0.014), and elevated vitamin B12 was an independent predictor of LOS (p = 0.027). Conclusions: An independent association between elevated vitamin B12 concentrations, mortality and LOS was found in our sample of hospitalized adult patients at nutritional risk. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown and any cause-effect relation cannot be inferred, clinicians should be aware of the potential negative impact of high vitamin B12 concentrations in hospitalized patients at nutritional risk and avoid inappropriate vitamin supplementation. PMID:28025528

  3. Characterization of Post-Hospital Infections in Adults Requiring Home Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Vivian M.; Griffith, Daniel P.; Blumberg, Henry M.; Dave, Nisha J.; Battey, Cynthia H.; McNally, Therese A.; Easley, Kirk A.; Galloway, John R.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on the incidence and risk factors for infection among patients requiring home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Methods Retrospective study of 101 consecutive adults (63 female, 38 male) discharged on HPN from Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA. New bloodstream infections (BSI) requiring re-hospitalization and other infections were evaluated. Results Most infections (75%) developed during the initial 6 months after hospital discharge; rates of BSI were particularly high during the first four months. A total of 56 patients (55.4%) developed a total of 102 BSIs (11.5 BSI/1000 catheter-days). Most BSIs were attributed to Gram positive organisms (46%) including coagulase-negative staphylococcus, staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus species, and others, followed by Candida species (20%) and Gram negative organisms (13%). Twenty-one percent of BSIs were polymicrobial. The BSI incidence rate ratio (IRR) was significantly increased for patients with mean pre-hospital discharge blood glucose (BG) concentrations in the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile; IRR 2.4; P = 0.017). Patients with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) versus non-PICC central venous catheters had significantly higher rates of BSI (p = 0.018). Thirty-nine (38.6%) patients developed 81 non-BSI infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. Post-discharge PN dextrose, lipid, and total calorie doses were unrelated to BSI but variably related to the rate of non-BSI. Conclusions Adult HPN patients exhibit a very high incidence of post-hospital infections. Higher mean BG levels during pre-discharge hospitalization and use of PICCs at discharge are associated with an increased risk of BSI in the post-discharge home setting. PMID:22858199

  4. Targeting Education: The Connecticut Adult Basic Skills Survey. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Terri

    A study of the skill priorities of Connecticut's adult education stakeholders asked 838 business and industry providers, 4,846 learners, 774 instructional service providers, and 753 state agencies and public service providers to rate how critical 55 competencies are to an adult's ability to function in society and the workplace. The competency…

  5. International Adult Skills Surveys: Andragogical Issues in Linguistic Minority Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurette, Donald

    2014-01-01

    The author has been working in the literacy field with francophone adults in a minority setting and in a variety of capacities for twenty years, and considers himself a reflective and critical practitioner. He strives to understand the world of adult education and skills development based on his practical experiences and observations from the…

  6. Non-Nutritive Polyol Sweeteners Differ in Insecticidal Activity When Ingested by Adult Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Sean; Baudier, Kaitlin; Marenda, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work showed the non-nutritive polyol sweetener Erythritol was toxic when ingested by Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1930). This study assessed whether insect toxicity is a general property of polyols. Among tested compounds, toxicity was highest for erythritol. Adult fruit flies (D. melanogaster) fed erythritol had reduced longevity relative to controls. Other polyols did not reduce longevity; the only exception was a weaker but significant reduction of female (but not male) longevity when flies were fed D-mannitol. We conclude at least some non-nutritive polyols are not toxic to adult D. melanogaster when ingested for 17 days. The longer time course (relative to erythritol) and female specificity of D-mannitol mortality suggests different mechanisms for D-mannitol and erythritol toxicity to D. melanogaster. PMID:27271968

  7. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults.

  8. Be Well: results of a nutrition, exercise, and weight management intervention among at-risk older adults.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Alexis Coulourides; Gonzalez, Jorge; Hart, Bonita; Halloran, Skip; Thomason, Brenda; Levine, Morgan; Enguidanos, Susan

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this article is to test the effectiveness of a multifaceted exercise and nutritional education intervention for chronically ill, community-dwelling older adults. A pre/post cohort design was implemented with measures of physical activity, fitness, depression, and anthropometry collected via 4-month in-person interview and telephone follow-up. The study was conducted at two community-based senior centers in the Los Angeles area and participants (n=62) were older adults aged 60 or older, with multiple chronic conditions, with one or more emergency department visits or hospital admissions in the previous 6 months, and at nutritionally moderate to high risk. The intervention was a fitness program providing nutritional counseling, low-impact exercise, and weight management. Results revealed significant improvements for hours of weekly exercise (Z = -4.3, p < .001), daily walking distance (Z = -5.7, p < .001), performance on fitness tests, depression (Z = 3.9, p < .001), and body measurements were observed. Findings speak to the healthy benefits of exercise and good nutrition as possible alternatives or adjuncts to pharmacotherapy for weight loss and depression.

  9. Survey of the Nutrition Knowledge Of Practicing Male and Female Physical Educator/Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James L.; And Others

    An assessment was made of the extent of nutrition knowledge of physical education teachers and coaches. The investigation addressed three primary questions: (1) Do practicing physical educator/coaches possess nutritional knowledge comparable to that of college students enrolled in a university basic nutrition class?; (2) Do male and female…

  10. Larval and adult nutrition effects on blood/nectar choice of Culex nigripalpus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hancock, R G; Foster, W A

    1997-04-01

    The impact of nutritional variables on the development of host-seeking and biting behaviours after emergence by female Culex nigripalpus mosquitoes were studied using air-flow olfactometer and close-range biting assays, respectively. Unfed females failed to develop resting stage ovarian follicles. When offered a bird host in the absence of competing stimuli, sugar-fed mosquitoes were significantly more responsive in both host-seeking and biting than unfed controls. In a choice olfactometer assay using nectar odours (honey scented with artificial apple-blossom oil) versus host odours (a bird), unfed females preferred honey over bird odours except when honey odour was weak. After sucrose feeding, females switched from honey to bird preference. This change in behaviour was accompanied by significant accumulation of lipid and by follicular growth to the resting stage. Elevation of host responsiveness after sugar feeding was reversible; starvation ultimately resulted in females preferring honey over bird odours. When the larval diet was restricted by crowding, the wing-length and total lipid of resultant adult females were reduced. Although differences were subtle, unfed bird-responding females tended to have longer wings and more lipid than their honey-responding counterparts.

  11. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo In; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Shin, Jang Yel; Chung, Choon Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in adult populations. Methods A total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010). Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The odds ratios (ORs) for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001). Conclusion The relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:28029016

  12. Physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity plays an important role in preventing further progression of metabolic syndrome conditions to cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. This study investigated physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients. The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) data were analyzed (n=19,831). A revised definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was used for screening metabolic syndrome patients. Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire, physical activity adherence was defined as participating in 150+ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, 75+ minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. Socioeconomic status was measured by level of education and house-hold income. Among metabolic syndrome patients, physical activity adherence rate of first (lowest), second, third, and fourth quartile house-hold income group were 28.31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.14-30.28%), 34.68% (95% CI, 32.71-36.70), 37.44% (95% CI, 35.66-39.25), and 43.79% (95% CI, 41.85-45.75). Physical activity adherence rate of groups with elementary or lower, middle-school, high-school, and college or higher education degree were 25.17% (95% CI, 22.95-27.54), 38.2% (95% CI, 35.13-41.00), 39.60% (95% CI, 38.24-41.77), and 36.89% (95% CI, 35.77-38.03), respectively. This study found that physical activity adherence rate was lower in socioeconomically disadvantaged metabolic syndrome patients, which may aggravate health inequity status of Korean society.

  13. The Association Between Shift Work and Health Behavior: Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Myung-Ji; Shin, Jin-Young; Choi, Bo-Young; Keum, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ae

    2017-01-01

    Background Shift workers are increasing worldwide, and various negative health effects of shift work have been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between shift work and health behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 11,680 Korean adults (6,061 men and 5,619 women) aged ≥20 years old who participated in the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2012. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between shift work and health behavior after adjusting for covariates. Results In men, shift work was associated with an increased risk of inadequate sleep (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.40) compared to day work. In women, shift work was associated with an increased risk of smoking (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.22) and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.47) compared to day work. In an age-stratified subgroup analysis, female shift workers aged ≥50 years old demonstrated an increased risk of smoking (OR, 5.55; 95% CI, 3.60 to 8.55), alcohol consumption (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.53 to 3.23), and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.05) compared to female day workers. Conclusion Shift work is associated with worse health behavior, and this is most evident in women aged ≥50 years. Targeted strategies to reduce the negative health effects of shift work should be implemented, with consideration of shift workers' demographic characteristics. PMID:28360984

  14. Alcohol-drinking patterns and metabolic syndrome risk: the 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Won; Park, Byoung-Jin; Kang, Hee-Taik; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol consumption has been known to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Although some studies have revealed that mild to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of MS, most of these studies have focused the effect of alcohol consumption amount on MS. We examined the association between alcohol-drinking patterns and MS by using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire to study 1,768 alcohol drinkers (847 men, 921 women) aged 20-75 years from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007. When compared with the subjects in the reference group (AUDIT score ≤ 7), the odds ratios (ORs, 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for MS of subjects in the highest group (AUDIT score ≥ 16) were 3.92 (2.40-6.22) in men and 2.27 (0.87-5.89) in women after adjusting for confounding variables. Among the items of the AUDIT score, several alcohol-drinking patterns, including "drinking frequency," "usual drinking quantity," "frequency of high-risk drinking," "frequency of inability to stop drinking," "frequency of feeling guilty after drinking," and "frequency of inability to remember after drinking" were strongly associated with the prevalence of MS in men. In women, there were significant relationships between MS and "usual drinking quantity," "frequency of feeling guilty after drinking," and "frequency of inability to stop drinking." In summary, AUDIT score was strongly associated with MS in Korean adults, particularly in men. Accordingly, in addition to the amount of daily alcohol consumption, alcohol-drinking patterns should be addressed in the prevention and treatment of MS.

  15. Exploring the Icebergs of Adult Learning: Findings of the First Canadian Survey of Informal Learning Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, D. W.

    The extent and distribution of self-reported learning activities in the current Canadian adult population was estimated on the basis of data collected during a 1998 telephone survey of a sample of 1,562 Canadian adults. Random digital dialing was used to give all provinces, households, and individuals within households an equal chance of…

  16. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  17. Literacy for Life: Further Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term. It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various…

  18. Co-operation between the Media and Adult Education Bodies. Surveys and Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassirer, Henry R.; And Others

    This collection contains four surveys and studies examining cooperation between the media and adult education bodies throughout the world. In a paper entitled "The Media and Adult Education: Indian Experience," J. S. Yadava examines two case studies of sound and six case studies of television broadcasting in India that involve…

  19. A Survey of Community Employment Placements: Where Are Youth and Adults with Disabilities Working?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert L.; Ellerd, David A.; Jensen, Kari; Taylor, Matthew J.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 109 high school transition programs and 55 adult supported employment programs found that of 7,553 job placements for youth and adults with disabilities, the most frequent category was in food and beverage preparation services. Emerging markets for job placements included tourism and casino jobs. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  20. Employment in Adults with Down Syndrome in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumin, Libby; Schoenbrodt, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no current data about employment/unemployment of adults with Down syndrome in the United States. The data that exists includes adults with Down syndrome as part of the larger group of people with disabilities or people with intellectual disability. Method: This study used a survey to investigate paid and volunteer employment,…

  1. Literacy for the Twenty-First Century: Research, Policy, Practices, and the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.

    This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…

  2. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  3. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is Rather a Reliable and Valid Instrument to Assess Nutritional Status in Iranian Healthy Adults and Elderly with a Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Ladan; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Abbasi Fard, Salman; Sadeghi, Motahhareh; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Lökk, Johan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to assess nutritional status of Iranian population and to compare its psychometric properties between patients suffering from a chronic disease, healthy elderly and younger adults. As a group of elderly with a chronic disease, 143 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and as the control group, 467 healthy persons were enrolled. The Persian-translated version of MNA was filled-up through interviews together with anthropometric measurements. Cronbach's α coefficient of entire MNA was 0.66 and 0.70 in healthy individuals and PD patients, respectively. The total MNA score could significantly discriminate the ones with BMI ≥ 24kg/m(2) in both groups. In general, MNA was a valid and reliable tool for nutritional assessment. We acknowledge study limitations including lack of serum measurements and a selection bias towards mild-to-moderate PD. MNA is a more reliable tool in older healthy individuals and rather younger elderly with PD.

  4. Comparison of methods for assessing nutritional status in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Niyongabo, T; Melchior, J C; Henzel, D; Bouchaud, O; Larouzé, B

    1999-10-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and is associated with a poor prognosis. To compare different measures of nutritional status in HIV-infected patients, we prospectively studied 88 outpatients seen at a Paris AIDS outpatient clinic for routine follow-up examinations. Nutritional status was assessed according to body weight loss (BWL, 4 classes), anthropometry, bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), and subjective global assessment of nutritional status (SGA). Malnutrition was diagnosed in 22.4% of subjects using SGA, and 37.1% by BWL. SGA rapidly detected a worsening of nutritional status, while BWL detected malnutrition at an earlier stage. A good correlation was found between SGA class and body composition assessed by anthropometry and BIA. Deteriorating nutritional status diagnosed by SGA correlated with the CDC HIV disease class. SGA, a simple nutritional assessment, can serve as a basis for prescribing artificial nutrition, while BWL detects malnutrition at an earlier stage.

  5. Determination of vitamin A (retinol) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography: First Action 2011.15.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Jonathan W; Silvera, Karlene R; McSherry, Elliot; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    During the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," held on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel (ERP) reviewed the method for the "Determination of Vitamins A (Retinol) and E (alpha-Tocopherol) in Foods by Liquid Chromatography: Collaborative Study," published by Jonathan W. DeVries and Karlene R. Silvera in J. AOAC Int. in 2002. After evaluation of the original validation data, an ERP agreed in June 2011 that the method meets standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) for vitamin A, as articulated by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals. The ERP granted the method First Action status, applicable to determining vitamin A in ready-to-eat infant and adult nutritional formula. In an effort to achieve Final Action status, it was recommended that additional information be generated for different types of infant and adult nutritional formula matrixes at varied concentration levels as indicated in the vitamin A (retinol) SMPR. Existing AOAC LC methods are suited for specific vitamin A analytical applications. The original method differs from existing methods in that it can be used to assay samples in all nine sectors of the food matrix. One sector of the food matrix was powdered infant formula and gave support for the First Action approval for vitamin A in infant and adult nutritional formula. In this method, standards and test samples are saponified in basic ethanol-water solution, neutralized, and diluted, converting fats to fatty acids and retinol esters to retinol. Retinol is quantitated by an LC method, using UV detection at 313 or 328 nm for retinol. Vitamin concentration is calculated by comparison of the peak heights or peak areas of retinol in test samples with those of standards.

  6. Trends in Elevated Triglyceride in Adults: United States, 2001-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... 59, and 30.9% for 60 and over). Did the percentage of adults with elevated triglyceride change ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2012. Did the trend in the percentage of adults with ...

  7. Rationale, design and respondent characteristics of the 2013–2014 New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NYC HANES 2013–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Lorna E.; Greene, Carolyn; Freeman, Amy; Snell, Elisabeth; Rodriguez-Lopez, Jesica S.; Frankel, Martin; Punsalang, Amado; Chernov, Claudia; Lurie, Elizabeth; Friedman, Mark; Koppaka, Ram; Perlman, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Capacity to monitor non-communicable diseases (NCDs) at state or local levels is limited. Emerging approaches include using biomeasures and electronic health record (EHR) data. In 2004, New York City (NYC) performed a population-based health study on adult residents using biomeasures (NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Study, or NYC HANES), modeled after NHANES. A second NYC HANES was launched in 2013 to examine change over time, evaluate municipal policies, and validate a proposed EHR-based surveillance system. We describe the rationale and methods of NYC HANES 2013–2014. Methods NYC HANES was a population-based, cross-sectional survey of NYC adults using three-stage cluster sampling. Between August 2013 and June 2014, selected participants completed a health interview and physical exam (blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference). Fasting biomeasures included diabetes, lipid profiles, kidney function, environmental biomarkers, and select infectious diseases. Results Of the 3065 households approached, 2742 were eligible and 1827 were successfully screened (67%). A total of 1524 of eligible participants completed the survey (54%), for an overall response rate of 36%. Conclusion Completing a second NYC HANES a decade after the first study affords an opportunity to understand changes in prevalence, awareness and control of NCDs and evaluate municipal efforts to manage them. PMID:26844121

  8. Association of Blood Pressure with Exposure to Lead and Cadmium: Analysis of Data from the 2008-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Ahn, Jaeouk; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Chan Boo; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of blood pressure with blood levels of cadmium, lead, and their combination in a representative sample of adults from South Korea (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2013). This cross-sectional study enrolled subjects who were at least 19 years-old, completed a health examination survey, and had blood measurements of lead and cadmium. We estimated the adjusted mean differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure associated with doubling of blood lead and cadmium by regression of blood pressure against log2-transformed blood metals and their tertiles after covariate adjustment. Adjusted odds ratios for hypertension and prehypertension were calculated for log2-transformed blood levels of lead and cadmium and their tertiles. In the general population of Korea, blood lead level was associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension. Blood cadmium levels had a stronger association with elevated blood pressure and risk of hypertension than blood lead levels, and these associations remained significant after statistical adjustment for blood lead. The combination of blood lead and cadmium was more strongly associated with elevated blood pressure than exposure to each individual metal. In females, there was a stronger relationship between blood pressure and blood levels of these metals by analyzing interaction model. After adjustment for confounding factors, there were significant associations of blood pressure with the level of blood lead, cadmium, and their combination in adults from South Korea.

  9. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  10. Exploring Career Options and Possibilities Later in Life: Adult (Age 50-75) Career Development Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Angela Carmella

    2009-01-01

    A survey instrument was developed entitled the "Adult (age 50-75) Career Development Survey" (ACDS) to provide an empirical foundation for understanding the current needs of individuals age 50-75 and learning about their attitudes toward, willingness to, and experience in using career counseling and technology in making decisions on…

  11. Technical Report and Data File User's Manual for the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Norris, Norma; Rock, Donald; Jungeblut, Ann; O'Reilly, Patricia; Berlin, Martha; Mohadjer, Leyla; Waksberg, Joseph; Goksel, Huseyin; Burke, John; Rieger, Susan; Green, James; Klein, Merle; Campbell, Anne; Jenkins, Lynn; Kolstad, Andrew; Mosenthal, Peter; Baldi, Stephane

    Chapter 1 of this report and user's manual describes design and implementation of the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). Chapter 2 reviews stages of sampling for national and state survey components; presents weighted and unweighted response rates for the household component; and describes non-incentive and prison sample designs. Chapter…

  12. A Survey of Disease Conditions in Adult and Feeder Sheep in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Moteane, M.; Middleton, D. M.; Polley, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was carried out to identify disease conditions occurring in adult and feeder sheep in Saskatchewan. Necropsies were performed on 50 adult sheep submitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine during the period July 1976 to June 1977 and data were assembled from necropsy records of sheep submitted between January 1975 to December 1976. The diseases encountered were briefly described. Conditions of the respiratory and digestive systems were the most significant as causes of mortality. Burdens of helminth endoparasites were generally low. In the flocks included in the necropsy survey, annual mortality among adult and feeder sheep was estimated to be three percent. PMID:761154

  13. Obesity and the extent of liver damage among adult New Zealanders: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J. C.; Gray, A. R.; Schultz, M.; Mann, J. I.; Parnell, W. R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as excessive fat accumulation in hepatocytes when no other pathologic causes are present, is an increasingly common obesity‐related disorder. We sought to describe the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes, a marker of liver damage, among New Zealand adults, and high‐risk subgroups including those with an elevated body mass index and those with pre‐diabetes or diabetes, to gain a better understanding of the burden of liver disease. Methods A total of 4,721 New Zealanders aged 15+ years participated in a nationally representative nutrition survey. Liver enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were measured in serum. Results were available for 3,035 participants, of whom 10.8% were Māori and 4.5% Pacific. Results Overall, the prevalence of elevated ALT and elevated GGT was 13.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.2 – 15.0) and 13.7% (95% CI: 12.0 – 15.4), respectively. Odds ratios for an elevated ALT or GGT markedly increased with increasing body mass index. Men with obesity had the highest elevated ALT prevalence (28.5%; 95% CI: 21.7–35.4), and women with diabetes had the highest elevated GGT prevalence (36.5%; 95% CI: 26.0–47.0). Adding alcohol consumption categories to each of the adjusted models did not meaningfully change any results, although for women, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with an elevated GGT (overall p = 0.03). Conclusions Obesity‐related liver disease is likely to increasingly burden the New Zealand health sector and contribute to health disparities unless effective obesity treatment and prevention measures are given high priority. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity Science & Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, World Obesity and The Obesity Society. PMID:27774250

  14. Adult Dental Health Survey 2009: implications of findings for clinical practice and oral health policy.

    PubMed

    Watt, R G; Steele, J G; Treasure, E T; White, D A; Pitts, N B; Murray, J J

    2013-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series reporting on the results of the 2009 Adult Dental Health Survey. Since 1968 national adult surveys have been repeated every decade with broadly similar methods providing a unique overview of trends in oral health over a 40-year period. This paper aims to explore the implications for dentists and oral health policy of the key results from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009. Although repeat, cross-sectional, epidemiological surveys provide very valuable data on trends in disease patterns, they do not provide answers to test causal relationships and therefore cannot identify the causes for the significant improvements in oral health over the last 40 years. Evidence would indicate, however, that broad societal shifts in population norms and behaviours, combined with changes in clinical diagnostic criteria, treatment planning and clinical procedures are the main reasons for the changes that have taken place. Key implications of the survey results include the need to monitor, support and maintain the good state of oral health of the increasing proportion of younger adults with relatively simple treatment needs. A smaller number of young and middle aged adults but a significant proportion of older adults will have far more complex treatment needs requiring advanced restorative and periodontal care. Future oral health policy will need to address oral health inequalities, encourage skill mix and promote and facilitate the dental profession to deliver appropriate and high quality care relevant to the needs of their local population.

  15. Midwest growers' mail survey of contributors to migrant health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kilanowski, Jill F

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to solicit information from farm owners (growers), as representatives of their farm businesses, regarding descriptive information on migrant camp housing that may contribute to the health and nutritional status of employed workers and their families. This cross-sectional descriptive mail survey was sent to 802 growers in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania via the US Postal Service. The growers were identified by an Internet search for licensed agricultural work camps in Midwest departments of agriculture. Response rate was 34%. Overall, growers reported a median of one migrant camp with 23 residents, employing workers seasonally for either 10 weeks or 6 months, with seven accompanying children on site. Individual kitchen appliances varied across the states, potentially influencing the preparation of healthy meals. Three themes were identified from the results. First, over one third of owners lacked or had limited knowledge about the health services available to migrant families. Second, migrant workers may have limited access to a variety of fresh produce for household meal preparation. Third, migrant children were unable to easily access public play areas, and families lacked recreational spaces in agricultural work camps. Play areas in migrant camps were mostly identified as open fields with little play equipment on site. Knowledge learned can influence future agricultural camp practices and the design of future research studies, and provide direction for grower education topics presented at agricultural conferences and by extension services.

  16. Ferritin Levels in Colombian Children: Findings from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey (ENSIN)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martínez-Torres, Javier; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Low ferritin is associated with many adverse health outcomes and is highly prevalent worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the key findings related to plasma ferritin levels to identify the prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in a representative sample of children in Colombia, based on the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6650 Colombian children between the ages of 5 and 12. Plasma ferritin levels were determined by chemiluminescence. Sociodemographic data was assessed by computer-assisted personal interview technology. All analyses were conducted considering the complex nature of the sample. Of the children assessed, 3.5% had low ferritin, defined as levels <12 µg/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed increased risks for low ferritin levels among black or Afro-Colombian ethnic group and for those living in the northern, western and southern regions of the country. In conclusion, a significant prevalence of anemia caused by low ferritin levels was found and various sociodemographic factors were associated with this finding in Colombia. Continued surveillance and implementation of interventions to improve dietary patterns among the identified high-risk groups should be considered. Implementing these recommendations can help reduce manifestations of iron deficiency (e.g., delays in infant and child development) and thus improve public health. PMID:27058547

  17. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Age at First Sexual Activity, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Petrosky, Emiko Y.; Liu, Gui; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E.

    2017-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collects information on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination history as well as sexual activity. We evaluated data from NHANES to assess report of HPV vaccination with ≥1 dose and 3 doses among females and males aged 11 to 26 years during 2007–2014. We also examined age at first vaccine dose and age at first sexual activity among females aged 14 to 26 years. Vaccination significantly increased in females aged 13 to 26 years, but not among 11- to 12-year-old girls, and remained low for both females and males. In NHANES 2011–2014, among females with known age at first vaccine dose, 43.1% reported having had sex before or in the same year they received their first HPV vaccine, and this varied by race/ethnicity. Clinicians should provide strong recommendations consistent with guidelines, including routine vaccination of girls and boys at age 11 or 12 years. PMID:27609513

  18. Nutritional status of indigenous children: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of undernutrition, which is closely associated with socioeconomic and sanitation conditions, is often higher among indigenous than non-indigenous children in many countries. In Brazil, in spite of overall reductions in the prevalence of undernutrition in recent decades, the nutritional situation of indigenous children remains worrying. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first study to evaluate a nationwide representative sample of indigenous peoples. This paper presents findings from this study on the nutritional status of indigenous children < 5 years of age in Brazil. Methods A multi-stage sampling was employed to obtain a representative sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in four Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and Southeast/South). Initially, a stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages located in these regions. Households in sampled villages were selected by census or systematic sampling depending on the village population. The survey evaluated the health and nutritional status of children < 5 years, in addition to interviewing mothers or caretakers. Results Height and weight measurements were taken of 6,050 and 6,075 children, respectively. Prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 25.7%, 5.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. Even after controlling for confounding, the prevalence rates of underweight and stunting were higher among children in the North region, in low socioeconomic status households, in households with poorer sanitary conditions, with anemic mothers, with low birthweight, and who were hospitalized during the prior 6 months. A protective effect of breastfeeding for underweight was observed for children under 12 months. Conclusions The elevated rate of stunting observed in indigenous children approximates that of non-indigenous Brazilians four

  19. The relationship between hand osteoarthritis and serum leptin concentration in participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Leptin has been suspected to contribute to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). However, this hypothesis has not been tested in large-scale hand OA cohorts. Our study aimed to determine whether there is a cross-sectional relationship between serum leptin levels and hand OA in a population-based sample of US adults. Method We used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a national cross-sectional population-based survey, to study the relationship between hand OA and serum leptin concentration. We applied previously established classification criteria for hand OA. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Potential confounders included sex, body mass index, the presence of polyarticular OA, diabetes, and total cholesterol. We estimated unadjusted mean leptin concentration by hand OA status and by all confounders. We further developed a linear regression model to assess mean leptin levels, adjusted for appropriate confounders. Results Of 2,477 subjects in the NHANES III sample that had a hand examination and did not have rheumatoid arthritis, 1,056 (42.6%) had a leptin measurement and were included in the analysis. Subjects with and without leptin measurement had similar demographic characteristics. We did not find any significant differences in mean serum leptin levels in subjects with symptomatic hand OA (7.38 ng/ml in males (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.31, 9.46) and 21.55 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 17.08, 26.02)), asymptomatic hand OA (6.69 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 5.19, 8.18) and 17.09 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 15.00, 19.18)), and no hand OA (8.22 ng/ml in males (95% CI = 7.47, 8.97) and 20.77 ng/ml in females (95% CI = 18.01, 23.53)) in the unadjusted analysis. In a multivariable linear regression model that included variables of hand OA status, age, race/ethnicity, and obesity status, we found no statistically significant association between serum leptin and hand OA status. Conclusions In this cross

  20. Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Selected Indicators. Findings for 9th-12th Grade Students from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikow, Victoria A.

    A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…

  1. Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

  2. Long-Term Nutrition: A Clinician's Guide to Successful Long-Term Enteral Access in Adults.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Matthew L; Mir, Fazia A; Boumitri, Christine; Palmer, Lena B; Evans, David C; Kiraly, Laszlo N; Nguyen, Douglas L

    2016-09-22

    Long-term nutrition support requires long-term enteral access. To ensure the success of long-term enteral access, many factors need to be taken into consideration. This article represents a guide to placing and maintaining access in patients requiring long-term nutrition and addresses many of the common questions regarding long-term enteral access, such as indications, types of access, feeding after access placed, and recognition and treatment of potential complications. This guide will help the clinician establish and maintain access to maximize nutrition in patients requiring long-term nutrition.

  3. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.

  4. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma

  5. GEMS: Drama--A Tool for Nutrition Education with Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara W.

    1983-01-01

    Drama holds promise as a medium through which the psychosocial conditions of nutrition can be conveyed. Describes use of drama in a group situation as one technique that could enrich the effectiveness of a peer-educator approach to nutrition education for the elderly. (JN)

  6. Nutrition and Adults with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: Systematic Literature Review Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 4.5 million Americans have an intellectual or developmental disability. Concern is increasing about these individuals' nutrition-related behavior and its implications for their health. This article reports on a systematic search of the current literature listed in the "PsycINFO" and "PubMed" databases related to nutritional status of…

  7. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

  8. Recently hospital-discharged older adults are vulnerable and may be underserved by the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program.

    PubMed

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Anyanwu, Ucheoma O; Sharkey, Joseph R; Netterville, Linda

    2010-04-01

    The home-delivered meal (HDM) program of the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) has traditionally served frail homebound older adults; however, due to gaps in the continuum of care, enrollment in this program following hospital discharge remains a challenge. Trained interviewers at 6 HDM sites in 6 U.S. states assigned 566 hospital-discharged individuals, ages 60-96 years, into either early (48 hour) or delayed (2 weeks) enrollment groups and assessed their health and nutrition status. Regardless of elapsed time at enrollment, more than 80% reported at least one limitation in activities and instrumental activities of daily living. About 20% had impaired cognition and more than 40% had depressive symptoms. Also, 40% reported fair or poor appetite. Despite intense recruitment from hospitals, only 30% of participants were referred from hospitals. The recently hospital-discharged older adult population may include a higher prevalence of individuals with poor functional status and at nutritional risk than participants in the OAANP HDM program and yet may be underserved by this program.

  9. Technical Report of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) has been planned as an ongoing program of assessment. The first cycle of the assessment has involved two "rounds." The first round, which is covered by this report, took place over the period of January 2008-October 2013. The main features of the first cycle of…

  10. Creative Retirement: Survey of Older Adults' Educational Interests and Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The University of Manitoba's Continuing Education Division (CED) and Creative Retirement Manitoba (CRM) formed a partnership to promote applied research on lifelong learning and older adults, to develop new and to complement existing educational activities, and to explore new program models and instructional methods to meet the educational needs…

  11. Design of the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS): a four-country multistage cluster design study.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Anne; Deurenberg, Paul; Calame, Wim; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; van Beusekom, Christien; Hautvast, Jo; Sandjaja; Bee Koon, Poh; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nguyen, Bao Khanh; Parikh, Panam; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is a well-known factor in the growth, health and development of children. It is also acknowledged that worldwide many people have dietary imbalances resulting in over- or undernutrition. In 2009, the multinational food company FrieslandCampina initiated the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a combination of surveys carried out in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, to get a better insight into these imbalances. The present study describes the general study design and methodology, as well as some problems and pitfalls encountered. In each of these countries, participants in the age range of 0·5-12 years were recruited according to a multistage cluster randomised or stratified random sampling methodology. Field teams took care of recruitment and data collection. For the health status of children, growth and body composition, physical activity, bone density, and development and cognition were measured. For nutrition, food intake and food habits were assessed by questionnaires, whereas in subpopulations blood and urine samples were collected to measure the biochemical status parameters of Fe, vitamins A and D, and DHA. In Thailand, the researchers additionally studied the lipid profile in blood, whereas in Indonesia iodine excretion in urine was analysed. Biochemical data were analysed in certified laboratories. Study protocols and methodology were aligned where practically possible. In December 2011, data collection was finalised. In total, 16,744 children participated in the present study. Information that will be very relevant for formulating nutritional health policies, as well as for designing innovative food and nutrition research and development programmes, has become available.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Bainbridge, Kathleen E.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed “alterations”), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63–2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97–3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. PMID:26487703

  13. Assessment of nutrition education among pediatric gastroenterologists: A survey of NASPGHAN members

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric gastroenterology is the only pediatric subspecialty with nutrition as part of its official curriculum and objective; however, pediatric gastroenterology fellows believe that their baseline knowledge in nutrition is suboptimal. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceived ef...

  14. Nutritional vulnerability of older persons living in urban areas of Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Cheserek, Maureen J; Waudo, Judith N; Tuitoek, Prisca J; Msuya, John M; Kikafunda, Joyce K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the prevalence of malnutrition and (2) investigate factors affecting nutritional status of older persons living in urban areas of Lake Victoria Basin. The prevalence of underweight was 16.5%, with men (24.1%) being significantly more likely to be underweight (P < 0.05) than women (12.3%). Overall, 61.2% had normal body mass indices, 13.2% were overweight, and 9.1% were obese. Energy intake was low (1596.3-1630.5 Kcal), with only 22% and 38% of men and women, respectively, meeting their daily requirements. Protein intake was adequate in more than half of men and women. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc intakes were moderate, while calcium intake was low (P < 0.05). Inadequate food access, poor health, living arrangements, and poor eating patterns were the main nutritional risk factors. There is a need to plan nutrition programs that can improve living conditions, health, and nutritional status of older adults in these urban areas of the Lake Victoria Basin.

  15. Adult Siblings of Individuals with Down Syndrome versus with Autism: Findings from a Large-Scale US Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, R. M.; Urbano, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: As adults with Down syndrome live increasingly longer lives, their adult siblings will most likely assume caregiving responsibilities. Yet little is known about either the sibling relationship or the general functioning of these adult siblings. Using a national, web-based survey, this study compared adult siblings of individuals with…

  16. Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    McGill, Carla R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-02-09

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n=14,973) and adults (n=24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population.

  17. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Carla R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-01-01

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414

  18. Surveying Older Adults' Opinions on Housing: Recommendations for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Shubair, Mamdouh M.; Michalos, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    There is paucity of research investigating opinions and attitudes of seniors 55 years of age and older in relation to housing accommodation and services sensitive to the needs of the senior population. We describe the results of a cross-sectional survey soliciting opinions and attitudes of seniors with respect to a variety of housing issues…

  19. Thyroid Hormones and Electrocardiographic Parameters: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Cheng, Alan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Altered thyroid status exerts a major effect on the heart. Individuals with hypo- or hyperthyroidism showed various changes in electrocardiograms. However, little is known about how variations in thyroid hormone levels within the normal range affect electrical activities of the heart in the general population. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,990 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum total T4 was measured by immunoassay and TSH was measured by chemiluminescent assay. We categorized T4 and TSH into 7 groups with cut-offs at the 5th, 20th, 40th, 60th, 80th, and 95th percentiles of the weighted population distribution. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found a positive linear association between serum total T4 level and heart rate in men, and a U-shape association between T4 and PR interval in men and women. TSH level was positively associated with QRS interval in men, while a U-shape association between TSH and QRS was observed in women. No clear graded association between thyroid hormones and corrected QT or JT was found, except that men in the highest category of T4 levels appeared to have longer corrected QT and JT, and men in the lowest category of T4 appeared to have shorter corrected QT and JT. Conclusions Variation in thyroid hormone levels in the general population, even within the normal range, was associated with various ECG changes. PMID:23593140

  20. Evaluation of older Chinese people's macronutrient intake status: results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie E; Shi, Zumin; Hall, John J

    2015-01-14

    Little is known about the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people. The present study evaluated the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people (aged ≥ 60 years), investigated whether they had intake levels that met the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and explored the associations between macronutrient intakes and age groups, sex, education levels, work status, BMI groups, urbanicity levels and four socio-economic regions of China (Northeast, East Coast, Central and Western). Dietary intake data of 2746 older Chinese with complete dietary intake data in the Longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009 wave) carried out across four diverse regions were analysed. Dietary intake data were obtained by interviews using 24 h recalls over three consecutive days. The MUFA:SFA ratios were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table. Less than one-third of the older Chinese people included in the present study had intake levels meeting the adequate intake for carbohydrate-energy and fat-energy; less than one-fifth had intake levels meeting the recommended nutrient intake for protein-energy; and more than half of the older people had fat-energy intakes higher than the DRI. There were strong associations between the proportions of energy from the three macronutrients and education levels, urbanicity levels and the four socio-economic regions of China, with older people living in the East Coast region having different patterns of macronutrient-energy intakes when compared with those living in the other three regions. Macronutrient intakes across different urbanicity levels in the four regions revealed considerable geographical variations in dietary patterns, which will affect the risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Clinical interventions and public health policies should recognise these regional differences in dietary patterns.

  1. Relationship Between Sarcopenia and Albuminuria: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Jung Min; Won, Jong Chul; Kim, Mi Kyung; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that albuminuria, obesity, and sarcopenia may share pathophysiological processes related to cardiovascular disease risk. Their direct relationships, however, have not been examined. This study investigated the association between albuminuria and sarcopenia in a representative fraction of the Korean population.Of the 10,589 people who participated in the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2158 participants aged over 19 years had been tested for albumin-to-creatinine ratio and for body composition data using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Albuminuria was defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI) (SMI (%) = total appendicular skeletal muscle mass [kg]/weight [kg] × 100) of less than 1 standard deviation (SD) (grade 1) or 2 SD (grade 2) below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group.The prevalence of albuminuria was higher in those with grade 2 sarcopenia than in those with a normal SMI or grade 1 sarcopenia (33.3% versus 8.4% and 8.9%; P < 0.001). Conversely, grade 2 sarcopenia was also more prevalent in participants with albuminuria than in those with the upper tertile of normoalbuminuria. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis showed the odds ratio for albuminuria risk in the grade 2 sarcopenia group was 2.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-5.88), compared with normal SMI after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including the presence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Moreover, individuals with albuminuria had an odds ratio of 3.39 (95% [confidence interval], 1.38-8.37) for grade 2 sarcopenia compared with those in the lowest tertile of normoalbuminuria.This is the first study to demonstrate that individuals with sarcopenia exhibited increased risk of albuminuria and vice versa.

  2. Nitrogen Dioxide and Allergic Sensitization in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Charles H.; Yeatts, Karin B.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Vizuete, William; Salo, Päivi M.; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; Chu, Haitao; Zeldin, Darryl C.; London, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for asthma and allergic diseases. The relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization is unclear. Objective To investigate the relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization in a nationally representative sample of the US population. Methods We linked annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM25), and summer concentrations of ozone (O3), to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) data for participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition to the monitor-based air pollution estimates, we used the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to increase the representation of rural participants in our sample. Logistic regression with population-based sampling weights was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratios per 10 ppb increase in O3 and NO2, per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10, and per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusting for race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban/rural status. Results Using CMAQ data, increased levels of NO2 were associated with positive IgE to any (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27), inhalant (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02, 1.33), and outdoor (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.31) allergens. Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with positivity to indoor allergen-specific IgE (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13, 1.36). Effect estimates were similar using monitored data. Conclusions Increased ambient NO2 was consistently associated with increased prevalence of allergic sensitization. PMID:24045117

  3. Adult Language Learning: A Survey of Welsh for Adults in the Context of Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin; Andrews, Hunydd; Gruffydd, Ifor; Lewis, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of adult language learning when a minority language is threatened. Language acquisition planning attempts to reproduce the language across generations. The research context is Wales with its strong history of adults learning Welsh. The history of the Welsh language shows a decline in the last century, but…

  4. Evaluation of a brief survey instrument for assessing subtle differences in cognitive function among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Ashwin A.; Schumm, L Philip; Kern, David W.; McClintock, Martha K.; Waite, Linda J.; Shega, Joseph W.; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan J.; Dale, William

    2016-01-01

    Most measures of cognitive function used in large-scale surveys of older adults have limited ability to detect subtle differences across cognitive domains, and standard clinical instruments are impractical to administer in general surveys. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) can address this need, but has limitations in a survey context. Therefore, we developed a survey-adaptation of the MoCA, called the MoCA-SA, and describe its psychometric properties in a large national survey. Using a pretest sample of older adults (n=120), we reduced MoCA administration time by 26%, developed a model to accurately estimate full MoCA scores from the MoCA-SA, and tested the model in an independent clinical sample (n=93). The validated 18-item MoCA-SA was then administered to community-dwelling adults aged 62–91 as part of the National Social life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) Wave 2 sample (n=3,196). In NSHAP Wave 2, the MoCA-SA had good internal reliability (Cronbach α=0.76). Using item-response models, survey-adapted items captured a broad range of cognitive abilities and functioned similarly across gender, education, and ethnic groups. Results demonstrate that the MoCA-SA can be administered reliably in a survey setting while preserving sensitivity to a broad range of cognitive abilities and similar performance across demographic subgroups. PMID:25390883

  5. Use of food labels, awareness of nutritional programmes and participation in the special supplemental program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2013-07-01

    Use of nutritional labels in choosing food is associated with healthier eating habits including lower fat intake. Current public health efforts are focusing on the revamping of nutritional labels to make them easier to read and use for the consumer. The study aims to assess the frequency of use of nutritional labels and awareness of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional programmes by low-income women including those participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as surveyed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Many low-income women do not regularly use the nutrition facts panel information on the food label and less than half had heard of the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (38.9%). In multivariate logistic regression, we found that WIC participation was associated with reduced use of the nutrition facts panel in choosing food products [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.91], the health claims information (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.28) and the information on carbohydrates when deciding to buy a product (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.97) in comparison with WIC eligible non-participants. Any intervention to improve use of nutritional labels and knowledge of the USDA's nutritional programmes needs to target low-income women, including WIC participants. Future studies should evaluate possible reasons for the low use of nutrition labels among WIC participants in comparison with eligible non-participants.

  6. Serum Copper Status in School-Age Children and Pregnant Women in China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Zhang, Yu; Li, Min; Li, Weidong; Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-10-01

    Serum copper is an insensitive but reliable biomarker reflecting the change of copper nutritional status in both depleted and replete populations. The current study aimed to establish the reference values of serum copper in school-age children and pregnant women in China and to explore the adequate range of serum copper for both these two categories of people. A multistage, stratified, random sampling combined with probability proportionate to regional size sampling method was employed. A total of 4019 subjects (2736 school-age children and 1283 pregnant women) were selected from China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010-2012 (CNHS 2010-2012). The concentration of serum copper was determined by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). The adequate range of serum copper was determined by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives. The median concentration of serum copper was 1140.9 μg/L with a range of 746.7-1677.6 μg/L for school-age children and 1933.4 μg/L with a range of 947.4-3391.4 μg/L for pregnant women. The adequate range of serum copper was 905.7-1440.7 μg/L for school-age children and 1308.8-2537.8 μg/L for pregnant women. These parameters represent an essential prerequisite for the assessment of copper nutritional status, as well as nutrition interventions.

  7. Total dietary fiber intakes in the US population are related to whole grain consumption: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Reicks, Marla; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Albertson, Ann M; Joshi, Nandan

    2014-03-01

    Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-<3 oz eq; high, ≥3 oz eq) and total dietary fiber intake among Americans 2 years and older. One-day food intake data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010 (n = 9042) showed that only 2.9% and 7.7% of children/adolescents (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years) consumed at least 3 WG oz eq/d, respectively. For children/adolescents and adults, individuals in the high WG intake group were 59 and 76 times more likely to fall in the third fiber tertile, respectively, compared with those with no-WG intake. Total dietary fiber intake from food sources varied by WG intake group for children/adolescents and adults with more total dietary fiber consumed from ready-to-eat (RTE) and hot cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations.

  8. Impact of orange juice consumption on bone health of the U.S. population in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Gil; Yang, Meng; Wang, Ying; Vance, Terrence; Lloyd, Beate; Chung, Sang-Jin; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2014-10-01

    Orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and vitamin D has turned OJ into a readily available source of these nutrients for children and adults. However, the impact of OJ consumption on Ca and vitamin D adequacy and bone health has not been documented. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the contribution of 100% OJ consumption to dietary and serum Ca and vitamin D status, and bone health parameters in the U.S. population aged 4 years and older (n=13,971) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Food consumption data were coded to produce micronutrient intake values using the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0. Serum concentrations of bone-related micronutrients and biomarkers, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured. Analysis of data was conducted using SAS software 9.2 and SUDAAN. OJ consumers showed higher intakes of bone-related micronutrients, compared with nonconsumers (P<.05). In addition, OJ consumers had higher serum Ca levels in adults (P<.01) and had a lower odds ratio for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 <20 ng/mL in children (P<.05). OJ consumption was positively associated with femur BMD in children (P<.05) and with femur BMC in both children and adults (P<.05). In conclusion, OJ may be recommended as an effective dietary means of improving the status of Ca and vitamin D, acid-base balance, and of promoting bone health in children and adults.

  9. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  10. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  11. Gender Difference in the Epidemiological Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Olfactory Dysfunction: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Se-Hwan; Kang, Jun-Myung; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Han, Kyung-do; Joo, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of morbidity and/or mortality for various chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of MetS and its components with olfactory dysfunction in a representative Korean population. We analyzed the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010). A total of 11,609 adults who underwent otolaryngological examination were evaluated. The olfactory function was classified as normosmia or hyposmia by a self-report questionnaire according to the sense problems of smell during the past 3 months. MetS was diagnosed if a participant had at least three of the following: (1) WC ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women; (2) fasting blood sugar ≥ 100 mg/dL or medication use for elevated glucose; (3) fasting triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL or cholesterol-lowering medication use; (4) HDL-cholesterol <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women or cholesterol-lowering medication use; and (5) SBP ≥ 130 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg or antihypertensive drug use for patients with a history of hypertension. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in the study population was 6.3%. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction was significantly higher in older people with MetS than in those without MetS in both sexes (male, 42.0 ± 3.4% vs. 34.7 ± 0.9%, p = 0.0354; female, 46.2 ± 2.8% vs. 37.8 ± 0.8%, p = 0.0026). However, elevated waist circumference, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, severe stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly associated with olfactory dysfunction only in women. After controlling for confounders, olfactory dysfunction was significantly associated with MetS (odds ratio, 1.352; 95% confidence interval, 1.005–1.820) only in women. MetS are associated with olfactory dysfunction only in Korean women. PMID:26859830

  12. Exposure to DDT and diabetic nephropathy among Mexican Americans in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M; Dismuke, Clara E

    2017-03-01

    Concentrations of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its metabolite DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), in the blood of Mexican Americans, were evaluated to determine their relationships with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 (unweighted N = 1,411, population estimate = 13,760,609). The sample included teens, 12-19 years old, which accounted for 19.8% of the data. The time of the study overlapped the banning of DDT in Mexico in the year 2000, and those participants born in Mexico were exposed to DDT before they immigrated to the US. We sought to better understand the relationship of DDT with diabetes in a race/ethnicity group prone to develop diabetes and exposed to DDT. In this study, nephropathy was defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, and total diabetes was defined as diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes (glycohemoglobin, A1c ≥ 6.5%). The proportion with the isomer p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g (above the maximum limit of detection) was 13.3% for Mexican Americans born in the US, and 36.9% for those born in Mexico. Levels of p,p'-DDT >0.086 ng/g were associated with total diabetes with nephropathy (odds ratio = 4.42, 95% CI 2.23-8.76), and with total diabetes without nephropathy (odds ratio = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19-3.44). The third quartile of p,p'-DDE (2.99-7.67 ng/g) and the fourth quartile of p,p'-DDE (≥7.68 ng/g) were associated with diabetic nephropathy and had odds ratios of 5.32 (95% CI 1.05-26.87) and 14.95 (95% CI 2.96-75.48) compared to less than the median, respectively, whereas p,p'-DDE was not associated with total diabetes without nephropathy. The findings of this study differ from those of a prior investigation of the general adult US population in that there were more associations found with the Mexican Americans sample.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Otitis Media: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mina; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Moo Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The performance of nationwide studies of chronic otitis media (COM) in adults has been insufficient in Korea. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of COM in Korea. Methods This study was conducted using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 23,621). After excluding the subjects under 20 year old and suffered from cancers, 16,063 patients were evaluated for COM. Participants underwent a medical interview, physical examination, endoscopic examination, and blood and urine test. COM was diagnosed by trained residents in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology using an ear, nose, and throat questionnaire and otoendoscopy findings. Data on the presence and absence of COM were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results Of the 16,063 participants aged above 20 year old, the weighted prevalence of COM was 3.8%. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors showed high odds ratios (ORs) for COM: pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.01), chronic rhinosinusitis (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.98), mild hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34-2.85), moderate hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.21-7.22), tinnitus (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34-2.49), increased hearing thresholds in pure tone audiometry in the right ear (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and left ear (adjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04). The following factors showed low odds ratios for COM: hepatitis B (adjusted OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.94) and rhinitis (adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88). In addition, high levels of vitamin D, lead, and cadmium, EQ-5D index; and low red blood cell counts were associated with development of COM (Student’s t-test, P < 0.01). Conclusions Our population-based study showed that COM is not rare in Korea, and its development may be associated with various host and

  14. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry reference data for GE Lunar systems.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A; Levine, Michael A; Steinberg, Dee; Wacker, Wynn; Barden, Howard S; Ergun, David; Wu, Xin P

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004) includes adult and pediatric comparisons for total body bone and body composition results. Because dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements from different manufacturers are not standardized, NHANES reference values currently are applicable only to a single make and model of Hologic DXA system. The purpose of this study was to derive body composition reference curves for GE Healthcare Lunar DXA systems. Published values from the NHANES 1999-2004 survey were acquired from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Using previously reported cross-calibration equations between Hologic and GE-Lunar, we converted the total body and regional bone and soft-tissue measurements from NHANES 1999-2004 to GE-Lunar values. The LMS (LmsChartMaker Pro Version 3.5) curve fitting method was used to generate GE-Lunar reference curves. Separate curves were generated for each sex and ethnicity. The reference curves were also divided into pediatric (≤20 years old) and adult (>20 years old) groups. Adult reference curves were derived as a function of age. Additional relationships of pediatric DXA values were derived as a function of height, lean mass, and bone area. Robustness was tested between Hologic and GE-Lunar Z-score values. The NHANES 1999-2004 survey included a sample of 20,672 participants' (9630 female) DXA scans. A total of 8056 participants were younger than 20 yr and were included in the pediatric reference data set. Participants enrolled in the study who weighed more than 136 kg (over scanner table limit) were excluded. The average Z-scores comparing the new GE-Lunar reference curves are close to zero, and the standard deviation of the Z-scores are close to one for all variables. As expected, all measurements on the GE-Lunar reference curves for participants younger than 20 yr increase monotonically with age. In the adult population, most of the curves are constant at younger

  15. Estimated long-term fish and shellfish intake--national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nga L; Barraj, Leila M; Bi, Xiaoyu; Schuda, Laurie C; Moya, Jacqueline

    2013-03-01

    Usual intake estimates describe long-term average intake of food and nutrients and food contaminants. The frequencies of fish and shellfish intake over a 30-day period from National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006) were combined with 24-h dietary recall data from NHANES 2003-2004 using a Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the usual intake of fish and shellfish in this study. Usual intakes were estimated for the US population including children 1 to <11 years, males/females 11 to <16 years, 16 to <21 years, and adults 21+ years. Estimated mean fish intake (consumers only) was highest among children 1 to <2 years and 2 to <3 years, at 0.37 g/kg-day for both age groups, and lowest for females 11 to <16 years, at 0.13 g/kg-day. In all age groups, daily intake estimates were highest for breaded fish, salmon, and mackerel. Among children and teenage consumers, tuna, salmon, and breaded fish were the most frequently consumed fish; shrimp, scallops, and crabs were the most frequently consumed shellfish. The intake estimates from this study better reflect long-term average intake rates and are preferred to assess long-term intake of nutrients and possible exposure to environmental contaminants from fish and shellfish sources than 2-day average estimates.

  16. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B.; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis.

  17. Dietary Changes over 25 Years in Tianjin Residents: Findings from the 1986–1988, 2000–2004, and 2008–2011 Nutrition Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Wu, Yuntang; Zhang, Xumei; Zhang, Meilin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    In China, the rates of chronic diseases characteristic of countries in nutritional transition have been increasing. However, few studies have examined diet changes in recent decades. We analyzed dietary changes in Tianjin, China. The data in this descriptive, population-based study in ≥18-year-old adults were collected from three surveys from 1986 to 2011. Food consumption and nutrient intake were compared among the three surveys separately for urban and rural areas. Differences in food consumption between urban and rural areas in different periods were also shown. The consumption of cereals, vegetables, and oils decreased, and that of fruits and beans increased in both urban and rural areas. Moreover, the total consumption of animal foods, especially milk, increased (0.01% in 1986–1988; 1.72% in 2008–2011) in rural areas. Although milk consumption also increased in urban areas, consumption of other animal foods decreased (19.33% in 1986–1988; 13.74% in 2008–2011). Meanwhile, cereals consumption rebounded from 22.63% in 2000–2004 to 29.75% in 2008–2011. Moreover, the lack of dairy products and some nutrients, e.g., retinol, calcium, and dietary fiber (<80% of recommended nutrient intake), in the diet persisted in both urban and rural areas. In conclusion, differences in diet between urban and rural areas decreased over time. PMID:26805880

  18. Dietary Changes over 25 Years in Tianjin Residents: Findings from the 1986-1988, 2000-2004, and 2008-2011 Nutrition Surveys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Wu, Yuntang; Zhang, Xumei; Zhang, Meilin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-22

    In China, the rates of chronic diseases characteristic of countries in nutritional transition have been increasing. However, few studies have examined diet changes in recent decades. We analyzed dietary changes in Tianjin, China. The data in this descriptive, population-based study in ≥18-year-old adults were collected from three surveys from 1986 to 2011. Food consumption and nutrient intake were compared among the three surveys separately for urban and rural areas. Differences in food consumption between urban and rural areas in different periods were also shown. The consumption of cereals, vegetables, and oils decreased, and that of fruits and beans increased in both urban and rural areas. Moreover, the total consumption of animal foods, especially milk, increased (0.01% in 1986-1988; 1.72% in 2008-2011) in rural areas. Although milk consumption also increased in urban areas, consumption of other animal foods decreased (19.33% in 1986-1988; 13.74% in 2008-2011). Meanwhile, cereals consumption rebounded from 22.63% in 2000-2004 to 29.75% in 2008-2011. Moreover, the lack of dairy products and some nutrients, e.g., retinol, calcium, and dietary fiber (<80% of recommended nutrient intake), in the diet persisted in both urban and rural areas. In conclusion, differences in diet between urban and rural areas decreased over time.

  19. [Importance of halitosis. A survey of adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Bigler, Thomas; Filippi, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, halitosis has become an increasingly important issue for dentists and their patients. For this study, a questionnaire was distributed in four different vocational/vocational-technical schools in Zurich to find out more about the personal oral hygiene and general knowledge of halitosis of 888 young women and 921 young men between the ages of 15 and 25. The factors of gender, education, professional customer contact, age and size of the residential community were taken into account. Findings were presented on the basis of a visual analogue scale. The survey results showed women to have a more intensive oral hygiene regimen and more frequent check-ups than their male counterparts (p < 0.001). Bad breath was also seen to be a more important issue to women who took more measures against it (p < 0.001). Education and customer contact both had an influence on the perceived importance of halitosis, as well as on the knowledge of possible measures against it (p < 0.001). However, the age of those surveyed and the size of their respective communities did not seem to have an impact (p > 0.05). The analysis showed that halitosis is an important issue for young people, and that a large part of the young population sees tongue cleaning as a part of oral hygiene and intraoral change as a cause of halitosis.

  20. Effect of early childhood undernutrition and child labour on growth and adult nutritional status of rural Indian boys around Hyderabad.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, K; Prasanna Krishna, T; Narasinga Rao, B S

    1986-03-01

    A longitudinal study of rural Hyderabad children has been in progress from 1965. About 700 boys who are under follow-up are now in late adolescence and young adult stage. Of them, 410 had completed linear growth by the 1983-84 annual round. Severe growth retardation was observed among one-sixth at their 5th year of life. The severely undernourished group grew up as the shortest and lightest young adults. One-fifth of the boys under study worked for wages in their childhood. Their work experience ranged from 4 to 8 years at 14 years of age (child labourers or working children). Growth and development of working children was compared with students, who were matched for nutritional status at age 5. Working children lost considerable ground and suffered significant growth deficits.

  1. Outcome of a Targeted Nutritional Intervention Among Older Adults With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease: The Nutrition Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Reid, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    A 6-month dietary intervention program was designed for community-dwelling older adults with Alzheimer's disease. Sixty-seven persons aged 70 years and above were recruited with their caregivers from six hospital memory and geriatric outpatient clinics, and allocated to intervention (n = 34 dyads) or control group (n = 33 dyads). Usual diet was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire and current diet by two nonconsecutive diet recalls or records corroborated by caregivers, at recruitment (T1) and exit from the study (T2). Intervention participants received targeted dietary recommendations; control participants received Canada's Food Guide leaflets. The program was assessed using paired and independent t tests and nonparametric statistics. Fat intakes increased at T2 within intervention participants (54 ± 16 vs. 67 ± 23 g, p = .013), and there was a tendency for higher energy, protein, and calcium intakes at T2 within this group. Proportions with adequate protein intakes almost doubled from T1 to T2 in intervention group women (p = .028) but decreased in female controls (p = .030). Longer follow-up is necessary to determine persistence of benefits.

  2. Nutritional Guidelines for School Lunch Programs: A Survey of Islamic Schools and Recommendations for Creating a Culture of Healthful Eating

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sumiya; Saeed, Ziena; Diwan, Hanifa Hameed; Hussain, Iqra; Amer, Sarah; Haq, Mohamed M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the status of lunch programs in Islamic schools in the United States and develop recommendations for improving them. Study Design: The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) conducted a survey of lunch programs by mailing questionnaires to 100 Islamic schools in the United States. Muslims in Dietetics and Nutrition (MIDAN) developed lunch menus using American and ethnic foods conforming to nationally recommended guidelines. Results: Forty-eight Islamic schools responded to the survey, revealing that 20 schools follow guidelines and only six have dietitians advising on menu planning. Based on this survey, IMANA, with the assistance of MIDAN, has developed a summary of guidelines that schools can follow. These guidelines include sample menus of American and ethnic foods, recommendations for creating a n environment for healthful eating, and sources for funding school lunch programs. Conclusions: IMANA and MIDAN, recognizing the scientific significance and religious relevance of a nutritious diet, have developed these recommendations. This information is provided to aid Islamic schools in implementing guidelines for nutritionally balanced school lunch menus and in creating a culture that fosters a healthful lifestyle. PMID:23610485

  3. Antipredator vigilance of juvenile and adult thirteen-lined ground squirrels and the role of nutritional need.

    PubMed

    Arenz; Leger

    2000-03-01

    Juvenile thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, are less vigilant (i.e. they spend less time visually scanning the environment) than adults. To determine whether nutritional need was a potential cause of this difference, we supplemented two groups of free-ranging juveniles during the predispersal stage, while juveniles were still near and around the natal burrows. The high-energy food group (HEF: 11 squirrels) received peanut butter and oats while the low-energy food group (LEF: seven squirrels) received lettuce. Adults (14 squirrels) were also supplemented, but due to their greater home range sizes, it was not feasible to classify them as either HEF or LEF. To evaluate the effect of supplementation on antipredator vigilance, the behavioural act of visually scanning for predators, we videotaped individuals while they were foraging above ground during 5-min observation periods. Each squirrel was observed and weighed during three time periods over 23 days. From the videotape, we extracted measures of time spent vigilant, locomoting and foraging. All three categories of squirrels gained mass over the study period, but the HEF juveniles rapidly exceeded that of the LEF juveniles. Early in the study, LEF and HEF juveniles did not significantly differ in either body mass or time budgets, and, initially, both juvenile groups were similar to adults in the amount of time devoted to vigilance. Later in the study, the behaviour of HEF juveniles closely resembled that of adults (increased time devoted to vigilance and decreased time devoted to foraging), while LEF juveniles decreased vigilance and increased their foraging time. This study indicates that for thirteen-lined ground squirrels the lower vigilance of juveniles is due, at least in part, to the greater nutritional needs of young animals with consequent increases in foraging, which is largely incompatible with vigilance. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  4. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression.

  5. Distinctive modulation of inflammatory and metabolic parameters in relation to zinc nutritional status in adult overweight/obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Laura; Muti, Elisa; Malavolta, Marco; Cipriano, Catia; Giacconi, Robertina; Tesei, Silvia; Piacenza, Francesco; Pierpaoli, Sara; Gasparini, Nazzarena; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Boscaro, Marco; Polito, Angela; Mauro, Beatrice; Maiani, Francesca; Raguzzini, Anna; Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Emanuelli, Monica; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with low grade of inflammation and chronic inflammatory response characterized by abnormal production and activation of some pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Taking into account that obesity is the direct result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, the nutritional factors in the diet, with particular focus on zinc, may play a pivotal role in the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. Considering the potential interactions among zinc nutritional status, inflammation, overweight/obesity and insulin secretion, the aim of the present work was to clarify the influence of zinc dietary intake on some metabolic, inflammatory and zinc status parameters in adult overweight/obese subjects. We found a close interrelationship between nutritional zinc and obesity. In particular, subjects with a lower zinc dietary intake display a deeper inflammatory status, general impairment of the zinc status, an altered lipid profile and increased insulin production with respect to obese subjects with normal zinc dietary intake. Moreover, in the presence of low dietary zinc intake, the obese subjects are less capable to respond to oxidative stress and to inflammation leading to the development of obesity or to a worsening of already preexisting obesity status. In conclusion, a possible zinc supplementation in obese subjects with a deeper inflammatory status and more altered zinc profile may be suggested in order to limit or reduce the inflammation, taking also into account that zinc supplementation normalizes "inflammaging" as well as zinc profile leading to a correct intra- and extracellular zinc homeostasis.

  6. Electronic Data Collection and Management System for Global Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pujari, Sameer J; Palipudi, Krishna M; Morton, Jeremy; Levinsohn, Jay; Litavecz, Steve; Green, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Portable handheld computers and electronic data management systems have been used for national surveys in many high-income countries, however their use in developing countries has been challenging due to varying geographical, economic, climatic, political and cultural environments. In order to monitor and measure global adult tobacco use, the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative household survey of adults, 15 years of age or older, using a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and data collection and management procedures. The Survey has been conducted in 14 low- and middle-income countries, using an electronic data collection and management system. This paper describes implementation of the electronic data collection system and associated findings. Methods: The Survey was based on a comprehensive data management protocol, to enable standardized, globally comparable high quality data collection and management. It included adaptation to specific country needs, selection of appropriate handheld hardware devices, use of open source software, and building country capacity and provide technical support. Results: In its first phase, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey was successfully conducted between 2008 and 2010, using an electronic data collection and management system for interviews in 302,800 households in 14 countries. More than 2,644 handheld computers were fielded and over 2,634 fieldworkers, supervisors and monitors were trained to use them. Questionnaires were developed and programmed in 38 languages and scripts. The global hardware failure rate was < 1% and data loss was almost 0%. Conclusion: Electronic data collection and management systems can be used effectively for conducting nationally representative surveys, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, irrespective of geographical, climatic, political and cultural

  7. [Nutritional status of adults with cystic fibrosis - current methods of assessment].

    PubMed

    Szabla, Anna; Skorupa, Wojciech; Milewska, Magdalena; Weker, Halina

    2015-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most frequent monogenic disease in the Caucasian population, inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. This is a multiple organ disease and its main manifestations include pulmonary and gastrointestinal dysfunction. The exocrine pancreatic deficiency results in impaired digestion and absorption what may lead to malnutrition and vitamins and minerals deficiencies. The life expectancy of cystic fibrosis patients has been increasing over the past years, so there is a need to verify usefulness of existing or create new methods of nutritional status assessment. The aim of this paper was presentation current data on the methods of assessment and monitoring of nutritional status. Particular attention has been paid to appropriate nutritional support in prevention and treatment of malnutrition patients with cystic fibrosis. On the basis of recent literature we can conclude that the advanced nutritional status assessment is recommended in patient with CF by using anthropometrical methods, body composition analysis and biochemical data. Good nutritional status is connected with pulmonary functions, quality and life length.

  8. A qualitative study of nutritional behaviors in adults with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Plow, Matthew; Finlayson, Marcia

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have explored how people living with multiple sclerosis (MS) cope with impairments and disability to participate in nutritional behaviors, such as meal preparation and grocery shopping. Thus, we conducted a qualitative study among eight individuals with MS who experienced mobility impairments. The eight individuals participated in semistructured, face-to-face interviews that focused on obtaining narratives about day-to-day dietary habits, preparing food, grocery shopping, and going to restaurants. Interviews were analyzed using an inductive category and theme development approach. Overall themes were (a) "it's a lot of work," (b) "it's not just up to me," (c) sifting through nutritional information, and (d) "why I eat what I eat." Participants frequently reported fatigue and mobility impairments as barriers to engagement in nutritional behaviors and often described family members as the "gatekeepers" for food selection and preparation (i.e., providing tangible support). Future research should explore the effectiveness of nutritional interventions that target family dynamics and create a supportive social environment to promote healthy eating habits and nutritional autonomy.

  9. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  10. The Use of Psychotropic Medication with Adults with Learning Disabilities: Survey Findings and Implications for Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Melanie; Gledhill, Paul; Jones, Phillip; Burton, Mark; Soni, Saroj

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a survey into prescribing of psychotropic medication with adults with learning disabilities in a British city. A self-completion questionnaire was sent to staff in dispersed housing and community learning disability teams to gather information about the number of people prescribed psychoactive medication, the…

  11. Learning a Living: First Results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL) is a large-scale co-operative effort undertaken by governments, national statistics agencies, research institutions and multi-lateral agencies. The development and management of the study were co-ordinated by Statistics Canada and the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in collaboration with the…

  12. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  13. Determining a Difference in Self-Directed Learning Readiness Using the Survey of Adult Learning Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezell, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the self-directed learning of educators and explore the differences between and among the variables of age, level of education, position, school district ratings, levels of poverty and affluence, and gender. The Survey of Adult Learning Traits (SALT) authored by Hogg was used as the instrument to measure…

  14. Feelings towards Older vs. Younger Adults: Results from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…

  15. "Activities of Older Adults" Survey: Tapping into Student Views of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an exercise used in a life span developmental psychology course to tap into undergraduates' perceptions of activities of the elderly. Students were asked to generate items to be included in a hypothetical Activities of Older Adults survey (to be administered to people 65 years and older). Responses from 1,340 students over a…

  16. Report Card: Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge in America. The Fifth Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…

  17. Literacy in the Labor Force. Results from the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew

    This document, which is based on data gathered during the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS), examines the literacy skills of the U.S. civilian labor force, including the employed and unemployed. The following topics are among those discussed: (1) human resources and the U.S. economy; (2) literacy proficiencies of the nation's labor force;…

  18. Effect of nutrition survey 'cleaning criteria' on estimates of malnutrition prevalence and disease burden: secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Sonya; Seal, Andrew; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Kerac, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Tackling childhood malnutrition is a global health priority. A key indicator is the estimated prevalence of malnutrition, measured by nutrition surveys. Most aspects of survey design are standardised, but data 'cleaning criteria' are not. These aim to exclude extreme values which may represent measurement or data-entry errors. The effect of different cleaning criteria on malnutrition prevalence estimates was unknown. We applied five commonly used data cleaning criteria (WHO 2006; EPI-Info; WHO 1995 fixed; WHO 1995 flexible; SMART) to 21 national Demographic and Health Survey datasets. These included a total of 163,228 children, aged 6-59 months. We focused on wasting (low weight-for-height), a key indicator for treatment programmes. Choice of cleaning criteria had a marked effect: SMART were least inclusive, resulting in the lowest reported malnutrition prevalence, while WHO 2006 were most inclusive, resulting in the highest. Across the 21 countries, the proportion of records excluded was 3 to 5 times greater when using SMART compared to WHO 2006 criteria, resulting in differences in the estimated prevalence of total wasting of between 0.5 and 3.8%, and differences in severe wasting of 0.4-3.9%. The magnitude of difference was associated with the standard deviation of the survey sample, a statistic that can reflect both population heterogeneity and data quality. Using these results to estimate case-loads for treatment programmes resulted in large differences for all countries. Wasting prevalence and caseload estimations are strongly influenced by choice of cleaning criterion. Because key policy and programming decisions depend on these statistics, variations in analytical practice could lead to inconsistent and potentially inappropriate implementation of malnutrition treatment programmes. We therefore call for mandatory reporting of cleaning criteria use so that results can be compared and interpreted appropriately. International consensus is urgently needed

  19. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Interventions for the Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Champagne, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that successful treatment of overweight and obesity in adults requires adoption and maintenance of lifestyle behaviors contributing to both dietary intake and physical activity. These behaviors are influenced by many factors; therefore, interventions incorporating more than one level of the socioecological model and addressing several key factors in each level may be more successful than interventions targeting any one level and factor alone. Registered dietitian nutritionists, as part of a multidisciplinary team, need to be current and skilled in weight management to effectively assist and lead efforts that can reduce the obesity epidemic. Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Evidence on intrapersonal influences, such as dietary approaches, lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and surgery, is provided. Factors related to treatment, such as intensity of treatment and technology, are reviewed. Community-level interventions that strengthen existing community assets and capacity and public policy to create environments that support healthy energy balance behaviors are also discussed.

  20. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil: rationale, methodology, and overview of results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although case studies indicate that indigenous peoples in Brazil often suffer from higher morbidity and mortality rates than the national population, they were not included systematically in any previous national health survey. Reported here for the first time, the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil was conducted in 2008–2009 to obtain baseline information based on a nationwide representative sample. This paper presents the study’s rationale, design and methods, and selected results. Methods The survey sought to characterize nutritional status and other health measures in indigenous children less than 5 years of age and indigenous women from 14 to 49 years of age on the basis of a survey employing a representative probabilistic sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in Brazil, according to four major regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and South/Southeast). Interviews, clinical measurements, and secondary data collection in the field addressed the major topics: nutritional status, prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in women, child hospitalization, prevalence of tuberculosis and malaria in women, access to health services and programs, and characteristics of the domestic economy and diet. Results The study obtained data for 113 villages (91.9% of the planned sample), 5,305 households (93.5%), 6,692 women (101.3%), and 6,128 children (93.1%). Multiple household variables followed a pattern of greater economic autonomy and lower socioeconomic status in the North as compared to other regions. For non-pregnant women, elevated prevalence rates were encountered for overweight (30.3%), obesity (15.8%), anemia (32.7%), and hypertension (13.2%). Among children, elevated prevalence rates were observed for height-for-age deficit (25.7%), anemia (51.2%), hospitalizations during the prior 12 months (19.3%), and diarrhea during the prior week (23.6%). Conclusions The clinical

  1. Nutritional issues for older adults: addressing degenerative ageing with long-term studies.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-05-01

    The ageing process is influenced by a variety of factors, including extrinsic, malleable lifestyle variables. The present paper deals with the epidemiological evidence for the role of dietary patterns and key nutritional concerns in relation to survival and ageing-related disorders that present themselves in later life. Healthful dietary patterns appear to be most relevant in old age. Specific nutritional concerns are related to vitamin D, vitamin B12 and protein malnutrition. An important challenge to further expand the knowledge base is currently addressed by the NuAge project, acknowledging the complexity of the ageing process and integrating different dimensions of research into human healthy ageing. In the meantime, reversing poor adherence to existing guidelines for a healthy diet remains a first challenge in public health nutritional practices.

  2. Long-term impact of liver transplantation on respiratory function and nutritional status in children and adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dowman, J K; Watson, D; Loganathan, S; Gunson, B K; Hodson, J; Mirza, D F; Clarke, J; Lloyd, C; Honeybourne, D; Whitehouse, J L; Nash, E F; Kelly, D; van Mourik, I; Newsome, P N

    2012-04-01

    Early liver transplant (LT) has been advocated for patients with cystic fibrosis liver disease (CFLD) and evidence of deterioration in nutritional state and respiratory function to prevent further decline. However, the impact of single LT on long-term respiratory function and nutritional status has not been adequately addressed. We performed a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of 40 (21 adult/19 pediatric) patients with CFLD transplanted between 1987 and 2009 with median follow-up of 47.8 months (range 4-180). One and five-year actuarial survival rates were 85%/64% for adult and 90%/85% for pediatric LT cohorts, respectively. Lung function remained stable until 4 years (FEV(1) % predicted; pretransplant 48.4% vs. 45.9%, 4 years posttransplant) but declined by 5 years (42.4%). Up to 4 years posttransplant mean annual decline in FEV(1) % was lower (0.74%; p = 0.04) compared with the predicted 3% annual decline in CF patients with comorbidity including diabetes. Number of courses of intravenous antibiotics was reduced following LT, from 3.9/year pretransplant to 1.1/year, 5 years posttransplant. Body mass index was preserved posttransplant; 18.0 kg/m(2) (range 15-24.3) pretransplant versus 19.6 kg/m(2) (range 16.4-22.7) 5 years posttransplant. In conclusion, LT is an effective treatment for selected patients with cirrhosis due to CFLD, stabilizing aspects of long-term lung function and preserving nutritional status.

  3. Nutrition survey in an elderly population following admission to a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Azad, N; Murphy, J; Amos, S S; Toppan, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in elderly patients in institutions has become an issue of clinical concern, but it remains largely unrecognized in acute care hospitals. The demonstrated benefits of intervention emphasize the need for routine nutritional assessment. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in elderly patients admitted to a tertiary care centre and to test the sensitivity and specificity of 3 nutrition screening tools. METHODS: Between July and November 1996 patients 65 years and older were consecutively recruited from the general medicine, orthopedics, general surgery and neurosciences services of The Ottawa Hospital--General Campus within 72 hours of admission. They were interviewed using 3 nutritional screening tools: one developed by Chandra and colleagues (Chandra), the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). A detailed nutrition assessment was then undertaken, which included anthropometric assessment, laboratory tests, determination of risk factors and assessment of dietary intake. A dietitian blinded to the screening results classified each patient as being well nourished, at risk for malnutrition or malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition was assessed, and screening results were compared with the results of the detailed nutrition assessment for sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: In total, 160 patients (86 women) were recruited. Detailed nutrition assessments were completed for 152 patients, of which 62 (40.8%) were found to be well nourished, 67 (44.1%) at moderate risk for malnutrition and 23 (15.1%) malnourished. Matched comparisons showed that, of the 23 malnourished patients, 1 was found to be at high risk for malnutrition using the Chandra screening tool, 9 using the NSI and 4 using the MNA, giving sensitivities of 32%, 54% and 57%, and specificities of 85%, 61% and 69%, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Given the high rate of malnutrition or risk of malnutrition

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Activity and Sitting Time in Cancer Survivors: 2009-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hoon; Lee, Hyo

    2016-12-01

    Objectives: A physically active lifestyle is important for cancer survivors. Therefore, this study was conducted to 1) provide population-based estimates of the prevalence of physical activity and sitting time, and 2) their correlates in Korean cancer survivors. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed a cancer survivor subsample (N=1,482) from 2008-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), data selected with a complex sampling design. Overall and subgroup-specific prevalences of physical activity and sitting time were estimated. Correlates of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity ( MVPA) and sitting time were tested using age-groupspecific hierarchical multiple regression models. Results: Overall adherence rate to physical activity guidelines was 34.9% (95% CI=31.5-38.4). Age-group-specific adherence rates were 41.1% (95% CI=36.3-45.9) in adults (30-64 years old), and 25.3% (95% CI=21.0-25.3) in older adults (65 years or older). Adults spent 213.33 minutes (95% CI=172.4-254.3) per week on MVPA and 55.3 minutes (95% CI=36.4-64.6) on sitting time per day. In adults, sitting time was significantly associated with employed status (B=28.0, p=0.046), smoking (B=-47.4, p=0.020), and number of comorbidity conditions (B=-13, p=.037). MVPA was significantly associated with marital status (B=134.9, p<0.001), employment status (B=98.12, p=.046), and years since cancer diagnosis (B=104.7, p=0.015). Older adults spent 162.2 minutes (95% CI=119.5-204.8) per week on MVPA and 63.0 minutes (95% CI=45.0-89.5) on sitting time per day. Their significant correlates were sex (B= -45.2, p=0.014), smoking (B=-70.14, p<0.001), and years since cancer diagnosis (B=37.0, p=0.024). Age (B=5.8, p=0.042) and marital status (B=83.8, p=0.033) were also significantly associated with MVPA in older adults. Conclusion: A majority of Korean cancer survivors do not sufficiently participate in physical activity. In general, older, unhealthier, non-working, and

  5. Nutritional assessment of community-dwelling older adults in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Saruna; Baral, Binaya Kumar; Callahan, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Background Demographic transition in Nepal, like in many developing countries, has resulted in a burgeoning elderly population whose health status is not currently monitored. One pillar of health is adequate nutrition. Yet, little is known about the nutritional health status of the elderly in Nepal. The financial, material, and personnel limitations in Nepal’s health delivery services necessitate health screening instruments that require minimal clinical staff and resources. To our knowledge, no such nutritional assessment tool has been validated in Nepal. Therefore, our aims are two-fold: To assess the nutritional status of the elderly population in one typical Nepali village, Okharpauwa, in Nuwakot District, Nepal; and concurrently, to validate the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. Methods A cross-sectional field study was conducted with a sample of 242 elderly people in Okharpauwa, Nepal to obtain prevalence of malnutrition. Differences in demographic and lifestyle factors between these who were malnourished, those at risk of malnourishment, and those who had adequate nutritional status were analyzed. The MNA tool was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis; sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Results 111 males and 131 females, with a mean age of 69.8±7.4 years, participated in this study. The mean BMI of the participants was 21.4±3.9 kg/m2; the mean MNA score was 19.3±4.2. BMI was significantly correlated with the total MNA score (r = 0.58; p<0.001). The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MNA were 81%, 86% and 67% respectively. Of the 242 elderly sampled, 24% were malnourished and 65% were at risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition was more prevalent among females (29%) than males (18%), and most prevalent among the marginalized Dalit ethnic group (40%). Elderly persons who were married and literate had better nutritional health than their counterparts. Conclusions The MNA

  6. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet.

  7. Application of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guideline to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1998 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Shin; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Kyong Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline for the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends statin therapy for individuals at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The aim of this study was to investigate serial trends in the percentages of Korean adults considered eligible for statin therapy according to the new ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I (1998, n=7,698), II (2001, n=5,654), III (2005, n=5,269), IV (2007 to 2009, n=15,727), and V (2010 to 2012, n=16,304), which used a stratified, multistage, probability sampling design, were used as representative of the entire Korean population. Results The percentage of adults eligible for statin therapy according to the ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline increased with time: 17.0%, 19.0%, 20.8%, 20.2%, and 22.0% in KNHANES I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively (P=0.022). The prevalence of ASCVD was 1.4% in KNHANES I and increased to 3.3% in KNHANES V. The percentage of diabetic patients aged 40 to 75 years with a low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of 70 to 189 mg/dL increased from 4.8% in KNHANES I to 6.1% in KNHANES V. People with an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5% and aged 40 to 75 years accounted for the largest percentage among the four statin benefit groups: 9.1% in KNHANES I and 11.0% in KNHANES V. Conclusion Application of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline has found that the percentage of Korean adults in the statin benefit groups has increased over the past 15 years. PMID:28029013

  8. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States: Analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-08-01

    Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States (US), and is rising in most other countries. This is a repeated cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were separately performed for adults (n = 37,639) and children/adolescents (n = 28,282) to assess the associations between the length of time in the US, and the prevalences of obesity and diabetes. In foreign-born adults, the prevalences of both obesity and diabetes increased with the length of time in the US, and ≥20 years in the US was associated with significantly higher rates of obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.40, P = 0.01) and diabetes (aOR 4.22, 95% CI 1.04-17.08, P = 0.04) compared with <1 year in the US. In children/adolescents, obesity prevalence was significantly higher in those born in the US than those who had been in the US for <1 year (aOR 3.15, 95% CI 1.51-6.56, P = 0.002). When analyzed by year, obesity prevalence was significantly higher in US-born than in foreign-born adults from 1999 to 2012. On the other hand, the gap in obesity prevalence between US-born and foreign-born children/adolescents decreased from 1999 to 2011 due to a rapid increase in obesity prevalence among the foreign-born population, until there was no significant difference in 2011 to 2012. This study revealed that the risks of obesity and diabetes have increased in foreign-born US residents with time living in the US. However, the obesity gap between US-born and foreign-born populations is closing.

  9. A Survey of Clinical Features of Allergic Rhinitis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Frati, Franco; Dell’Albani, Ilaria; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Bonini, Sergio; Rossi, Oliviero; Senna, Gianenrico; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) has high prevalence and substantial socio-economic burden. Material/Methods The study included 35 Italian Centers recruiting an overall number of 3383 adult patients with rhinitis (48% males, 52% females, mean age 29.1, range 18–45 years). For each patient, the attending physician had to fill in a standardized questionnaire, covering, in particular, some issues such as the ARIA classification of allergic rhinitis (AR), the results of skin prick test (SPT), the kind of treatment, the response to treatment, and the satisfaction with treatment. Results Out of the 3383 patients with rhinitis, 2788 (82.4%) had AR: 311 (11.5%) had a mild intermittent, 229 (8.8%) a mild persistent, 636 (23.5%) a moderate-severe intermittent, and 1518 (56.1%) a moderate-severe persistent form. The most frequently used drugs were oral antihistamines (77.1%) and topical corticosteroids (60.8%). The response to treatment was judged as excellent in 12.2%, good in 41.3%, fair in 31.2%, poor in 14.5%, and very bad in 0.8% of subjects. The rate of treatment dissatisfaction was significantly higher in patients with moderate-to-severe AR than in patients with mild AR (p<0.0001). Indication to allergen immunotherapy (AIT) was significantly more frequent (p<0.01) in patients with severe AR than with mild AR. Conclusions These findings confirm the appropriateness of ARIA guidelines in classifying the AR patients and the association of severe symptoms with unsuccessful drug treatment. The optimal targeting of patients to be treated with AIT needs to be reassessed. PMID:25366169

  10. Successful treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in an adult by use of a fish oil-based lipid source.

    PubMed

    Venecourt-Jackson, Esra; Hill, Simon J; Walmsley, Russell S

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease occurs in 15% to 40% of adults on long-term parenteral nutrition, with steatosis being more common than cholestasis in the adult population. This problem has been well reported in the pediatric population, but we describe the case of a man who became profoundly jaundiced after being on parenteral nutrition for 3 y and responded rapidly to a change in lipid source from soybean and olive oil-based emulsion (ClinOleic) to a fish oil-based lipid emulsion (Omegaven).

  11. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  12. Preferred Educational Delivery Strategies among Limited Income Older Adults Enrolled in Community Nutrition Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Stephany; Powell, Laura; Hermann, Janice; Phelps, Joshua; Brown, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here explored educational delivery preference of limited income older Oklahomans. Sixty participants 60 years or older enrolled in Community Nutrition Education Programs observed three educational delivery strategies and participated in a group discussion. Two researchers independently coded focus group transcripts and frequency…

  13. The Development of a Model for Adult Education in Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Villano, Maurice W.

    Two nutrition education modules were developed on cardiovascular disease and fat-controlled diet consisting of a self-instruction leader's guide and teaching package to conduct learning sessions for the participants. The sessions consisted of an audio-visual presentation, situations related to the module topic, group discussion, role-playing,…

  14. Influence of simplified nutrition labeling and taxation on laboratory energy intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Johnson, Karena M; Archer, Kelli; Lacarte, Allison; Yi, Christina; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of these studies was to test the hypotheses that simplified nutrition labeling and taxation alter food selection and intake. In Experiment 1, participants consumed lunch in the laboratory three times with no labels, standard nutrition labels, or traffic light diet labels at each visit. In Experiment 2, participants were given $6.00 with which to purchase lunch in the laboratory twice with standard pricing on one visit and a 25% tax on "red" foods on another visit. Participants received a brief education session on the labeling systems being used. Total energy intake and energy intake and number of foods purchased from each traffic light category were measured. Nutrition labeling decreased energy intake in lean females, but had no effect in men or in obese females. Traffic light labels increased consumption of "green" foods and decreased consumption of "red" foods. Taxation decreased the purchasing of "red" foods in obese, but not non-obese participants. There were no interactions between taxation and simplified nutrition labeling. Although generalization to real-world purchasing and consumption is limited by the laboratory study design, our findings suggests that taking multiple, simultaneous approaches to reduce energy intake may have the greatest impact on food purchases and/or nutrient consumption.

  15. Cost analysis of adult parenteral nutrition systems: three-compartment bag versus customized.

    PubMed

    Berlana, David; Sabin, Pilar; Gimeno-Ballester, Vicente; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa; Zapata-Rojas, Amalia; Marquez, Esther; Martínez-Cutillas, Julio; Schoenenberger-Arnaiz, Joan Anton

    2013-11-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or non-functioning intestine. Two all-in-one systems currently being used are customized formulations and three-compartment bags. Objective To provide a systematic cost comparison of the two all-in-one PN systems: individualized (made from nutrient solutions) versus commercialized (made from three-compartment bag), both prepared in hospital pharmacies. Setting This study was conducted in three public Spanish hospitals. Method We conducted a cost-minimization study to analyze prospectively the total cost of PN bags, accounting for all of the processes involved in preparing and delivering PN bags (cost of manpower, nutrition solutions, medical supplies and quality controls) in three different healthcare settings. To compare therapeutic alternatives of equivalent nutritional value, the study was performed for the most frequently employed formulation and similar to commercial preparations. A univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of different rates of use of three-compartment PN bag. Results 157 routine acts of PN bag preparation (65 customized and 92 three-compartment) were observed and timed over 9 days. Total costs of the 157 PN bags were included in the study. Mean costs of customized bags were higher than three-compartment bags, 51.16±5.63€ versus 39.69±3.00€ respectively (p.

  16. The Benefits and Characteristics of Adult Learning in Kansas. A Survey of Participants in Non-Credit Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaklief, Charles R.; Oaklief, Margery M.

    A survey was conducted to determine the characteristics of adult non-credit students in Kansas, and the perceived benefits of their learning experiences. A total of 1,179 participants in Kansas non-credit adult learning experiences were identified from four distinct organizational groups representing Kansas adult basic education centers, business…

  17. A cross-country comparison of secondhand smoke exposure among adults: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    King, Brian A; Mirza, Sara A; Babb, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among non-smoking adults and children. The objective of this study was to determine the nature, extent and demographic correlates of SHS exposure among adults in low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of tobacco use. Methods Data were obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household survey of individuals 15 years of age or older. Interviews were conducted during 2008–2010 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure in homes, workplaces, government buildings, restaurants, public transportation and healthcare facilities. Results Exposure to SHS in the home ranged from 17.3% (Mexico) to 73.1% (Vietnam). Among those who work in an indoor area outside the home, SHS exposure in the workplace ranged from 16.5% (Uruguay) to 63.3% (China). Exposure to SHS ranged from 6.9% (Uruguay) to 72.7% (Egypt) in government buildings, 4.4% (Uruguay) to 88.5% (China) in restaurants, 5.4% (Uruguay) to 79.6% (Egypt) on public transportation, and 3.8% (Uruguay) to 49.2% (Egypt) in healthcare facilities. Conclusions A large proportion of adults living in low-and middle-income countries are exposed to SHS in their homes, workplaces, and other public places. Countries can enact and enforce legislation requiring 100% smoke-free public places and workplaces, and can also conduct educational initiatives to reduce SHS exposure in homes. PMID:23019273

  18. Urinary Concentrations of Metabolites of Pyrethroid Insecticides in the General U.S. Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Olsson, Anders O.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Udunka, Simeon; Baker, Samuel E.; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Magsumbol, Melina S.; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid insecticides are the most commonly used residential insecticides in the United States. Objectives Our objective was to assess human exposure via biomonitoring to pyrethroid insecticides in a representative sample of the general U.S. population ≥ 6 years of age. Methods By using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry, we measured five urinary metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides in 5,046 samples collected as a part of the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Univariate, multivariate, and Pearson correlation analyses were performed using SUDAAN and SAS software, incorporating the appropriate sample weights into the analyses. Multivariate analyses included age, sex, race/ethnicity, creatinine, fasting status, and urine collection time as covariates. Results We detected 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), a metabolite common to many pyrethroid insecticides, in more than 70% of the samples. The least-squares geometric mean (LSGM) concentration (corrected for covariates) of 3PBA and the frequency of detection increased from 1999–2000 (0.292 ng/mL) to 2001–2002 (0.318 ng/mL) but not significantly. Non-Hispanic blacks had significantly higher LSGM 3PBA concentrations than did non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans in the 2001–2002 survey period and in the combined 4-year survey periods but not in the 1999–2000 survey period. Children had significantly higher LSGM concentrations of 3PBA than did adolescents in both NHANES periods and than adults in NHANES 1999–2000. Cis- and trans-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were highly correlated with each other and with 3PBA, suggesting that urinary 3PBA was derived primarily from exposure to permethrin, cypermethrin, or their degradates. Conclusions Pyrethroid insecticide exposure in the U.S. population is widespread, and the presence of its metabolites in the

  19. Burden of allergic rhinitis: allergies in America, Latin America, and Asia-Pacific adult surveys.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eli O; Blaiss, Michael S; Naclerio, Robert M; Stoloff, Stuart W; Derebery, M Jennifer; Nelson, Harold S; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR; also nasal allergies or "hay fever") is a chronic upper airway inflammatory disease that affects ∼60 million adults and children in the United States. The duration and severity of AR symptoms contribute to a substantial burden on patients' quality of life (QoL), sleep, work productivity, and activity. This study was designed to examine symptoms, QoL, productivity, comorbidities, disease management, and pharmacologic treatment of AR in United States and ex-U.S. sufferers. Allergies in America was a comprehensive telephone-based survey of 2500 adults with AR. These data are compared and contrasted with findings from the Pediatric Allergies in America, Allergies in Latin America, and Allergies in Asia-Pacific telephone surveys. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed AR was 14% in U.S. adults, 7% in Latin America adults, and 9% in Asia-Pacific adults. Nasal congestion is the most common and bothersome symptom for adults. Approximately two-thirds of adults rely on medication to relieve intolerable AR symptoms. Incomplete relief, slow onset, <24-hour relief, and reduced efficacy with sustained use were commonly reported with AR medications, including intranasal corticosteroids. One in seven U.S. adults reported achieving little to no relief with AR medications. Bothersome adverse effects of AR medications included drowsiness, a drying feeling, medication dripping down the throat, and bad taste. Perception of inadequate efficacy was the leading cause of medication discontinuation or change and contributed to treatment dissatisfaction. These findings support the assertion that AR burden has been substantially underestimated and identify several important challenges to successful management of AR.

  20. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  1. A review of food allergy and nutritional considerations in the food-allergic adult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, the prevalence of adults with food allergies is approximately 2 percent to 3 percent. Theoretically, any food can cause an allergic reaction; however, some foods are clearly more allergenic than others are. In adults, peanuts, tree nuts, finned fish, crustaceans, fruit, and veg...

  2. Still life with less: North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea show continued poor nutrition and physique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min; Joung, Hyojee

    2010-04-01

    North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake.

  3. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  4. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-23

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  5. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mchiza, Zandile J.; Steyn, Nelia P.; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-01-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  6. Choline in infant formula and adult nutritionals by ion chromatography and suppressed conductivity: First Action 2012.20.

    PubMed

    Oates, Kassandra; Chen, Lillian; De Borba, Brian; Mohindra, Deepali; Rohrer, Jeffrey; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Single-laboratory validation (SLV) data from a method for the determination of choline in infant formula and adult nutritionals by ion chromatography (IC) and suppressed conductivity were generated and presented to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Expert Review Panel (ERP) at the AOAC Annual Meeting held in Las Vegas, NV, during September 30 to October 3, 2012. The ERP reviewed the data and concluded that the data met the standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) established and approved the method as AOAC Official First Action. At the ERP's request, a second, full SLV was performed on 17 SPIFAN matrixes that included fortified and placebo products. Prior to IC analysis, microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was used to digest and release bound choline from powder and ready-to-feed (RTF) infant formula and adult nutritional samples. Following hydrolysis, separation of choline from common cations was achieved on a Thermo Scientific Dionex IonPac CS19 column followed by suppressed conductivity detection. Total choline was measured and reported as the choline ion in mg/100 g reconstituted material or RTF as-is. The system was calibrated over the analytical range specified in the SMPR (2-250 mg/100 g). Recoveries of spiked samples at 50 and 100% of the fortified choline amounts ranged from 93.1 to 100.7% with RSDs < or = 6.7% for product containing < 2 mg/100 g and < or = 4.1% for product containing 2-100 mg/100 g. Accuracy for the National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849a was determined over a 6-day interval and found to be 10.2 +/- 0.2 mg/100 g calculated as the reconstituted powder with an RSD of 1.8%. The LOD was determined to be 0.009, and the LOQ 0.012 mg/100 g, well below the SMPR requirements of 0.7 and 2 mg/100 g, respectively. Repeatability RSDs over the range of the assay (2-200 mg/100 g) ranged from 1.0 to 5.93%

  7. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use.

  8. The association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in older adults, and its social cognitive mediators.

    PubMed

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F; Luten, Karla A; Jansen, Carel J M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate health literacy is a common problem among older adults and is associated with poor health outcomes. Insight into the association between health literacy and health behaviors may support interventions to mitigate the effects of inadequate health literacy. The authors assessed the association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in community-dwelling older adults. The authors also assessed whether the associations between health literacy and health behaviors are mediated by social cognitive factors. Data from a study among community-dwelling older adults (55 years and older) in a relatively deprived area in The Netherlands were used (baseline n=643, response: 43%). The authors obtained data on health literacy, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and potential social cognitive mediators (attitude, self-efficacy, and risk perception). After adjustment for confounders, inadequate health literacy was marginally significantly associated with poor compliance with guidelines for physical activity (OR=1.52, p=.053) but not with poor compliance with guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.20, p=.46). Self-efficacy explained 32% of the association between health literacy and compliance with physical activity guidelines. Further research may focus on self-efficacy as a target for interventions to mitigate the negative effects of inadequate health literacy.

  9. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  10. Nutritional status and obesity in children and young adults with disabilities in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, Chile.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Juan C; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Barbosa, Clara I; Díaz, Mauricio; Urzua, Miyochi; Andrade, Asterio H

    2008-12-01

    Childhood obesity is reaching epidemic proportions throughout the world; however, little is known on the nutritional status of children with disabilities. To address this issue, medical records of 748 children aged 18 years or younger receiving physical therapy during 2004-2005 at a privately sponsored free rehabilitation clinic in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, Chile were abstracted. Data included demographic, clinical, and anthropometric information recorded at the first visit. As a comparison, height and weight were also collected in 215 children attending local schools. Nutritional status was calculated as body mass index (above 6 years of age) or evaluated by growth curves (6 years of age or below) as undernourished, normal, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for obesity in these children. Overall, a significant difference in nutritional status between disabled and non-disabled children was found (P<0.001). Children with disabilities had a higher prevalence of both below and above normal weight than non-disabled children. Risk factors for obesity included increasing age and living with a grandparent independent of other socioeconomic factors. Compared with normal children, risk of obesity was doubled for those with developmental delays [odds ratio (OR): 1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-3.34] and neurological disorders (OR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.26-5.29), whereas individuals with cerebral palsy were less than half as likely to be obese than non-disabled children (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.20-1.03). We conclude that overnutrition continues to be a problem for both disabled and non-disabled children in Patagonia. Programs to increase physical activity and improve nutrition are needed in this isolated part of the world.

  11. Does Depressive Affect Mediate the Relationship between Self-Care Capacity and Nutritional Status Among Rural Older Adults? : A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung Eun; Bishop, Alex J; Kim, Minjung; Hermann, Janice; Kim, Giyeon; Lawrence, Jeannine

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of self-care capacity and depressive affect on nutritional status and whether depressive affect mediated the relationship of self-care capacity on nutritional status. A convenience sample of 171 rural community-dwelling older adults, 65 years and above, participated. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to test a mediation model. The hypothesized SEM model was supported with adequate fit (χ(2) (1) = 1.87, p = 0.17; CFI = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.03). SEM analysis revealed a significant positive direct effect of self-care capacity on nutritional status (γ = 0.14, p = 0.042). Significant negative direct effects were observed for self-care capacity on depressive affect (γ = -0.15, p = 0.027) and for depressive affect on nutritional status (β = -0.27, p < 0.01). Depressive affect was also observed to partially mediate the relationship of self-care capacity on nutrition status (γ = 0.04, p = 0.046). Findings highlight the importance of emotional well-being on rural older adults' nutritional status, particularly those with decreased ability to engage in self-care practices.

  12. Developmental programming of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease in rodents by maternal nutrition imbalance.

    PubMed

    Remacle, Claude; Bieswal, Florence; Bol, Vanesa; Reusens, Brigitte

    2011-12-01

    Studies on fetal undernutrition have generated the hypothesis that fetal programming corresponds to an attempt of the fetus to adapt to adverse conditions encountered in utero. These adaptations would be beneficial if these conditions prevail later in life, but they become detrimental in the case of normal or plentiful nutrition and favor the appearance of the metabolic syndrome. In this article, the discussion is limited to the developmental programming of obesity and cardiovascular disorders caused by an early mismatched nutrition, particularly intrauterine growth retardation followed by postnatal catch-up growth. Selected data in humans are reviewed before evoking some mechanisms revealed or suggested by experiments in rodents. A variety of physiologic mechanisms are implicated in obesity programming, 2 of which are detailed. In some, but not all observations, hyperphagia resulting namely from perturbed development of the hypothalamic circuitry devoted to appetite regulation may contribute to obesity. Another contribution may be the developmental changes in the population of fat cell precursors in adipose tissue. Even if the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease is well established, alteration of blood pressure regulation may appear independently of obesity. A loss of diurnal variation in heart rate and blood pressure in adulthood has resulted from maternal undernutrition followed by postnatal overnutrition. Further research should clarify the effect of mismatched early nutrition on the development of brain centers regulating energy intake, energy expenditure, and circadian rhythms.

  13. Nutritional issues in older adults with wounds in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lilian; Thomas, Jolene; Miller, Michelle; Puckridge, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    Background The ability for patients to access and consume sufficient quantities of nutrients to meet recommendations for wound management is vital if decline in nutritional status during hospital admission is to be prevented. This study aims to investigate menu quality, consumption patterns, and changes in nutritional status for inpatients with wounds. Methods Wound healing recommendations were compared against the nutrient content of the inpatient menu. Individual intakes were compared to estimated requirements: energy using the Schofield equation; protein using wound healing recommendations; vitamin A, C, and zinc using the recommended daily intake (RDI). Results The inpatient menu did not provide sufficient energy or zinc to meet the estimated average requirement while the ordering practices of participants allowed all RDI to be achieved except for zinc. Actual intake fell below recommendations: 62%, 41%, 55%, and 79% of patients not meeting energy, minimum protein requirements, vitamin A or zinc RDI respectively. A nonsignificant trend for weight loss, particularly fat mass, was observed over time. Conclusion Inpatients with wounds are at r