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Sample records for adult obesity risk

  1. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, L J; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2010-01-01

    Although the relationship between adult obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown, the relationship with childhood obesity remains unclear. Given the evidence of tracking of body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood, this systematic review investigated the independent relationship between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk. To investigate the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk, and whether the associations observed are independent of adult BMI. Electronic databases were searched from inception until July 2008 for studies investigating the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk. Two investigators independently reviewed studies for eligibility according to inclusion/exclusion criteria, extracted the data and assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Positive associations between childhood BMI and adult blood pressure or carotid intima-media thickness were generally attenuated once adjusted for adult BMI. Associations between childhood BMI and CVD morbidity/mortality had not been adjusted and do not provide evidence of an independent relationship. Negative associations between childhood BMI and blood pressure were observed in several adjusted data sets. Little evidence was found to suggest that childhood obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD risk. Instead, the data suggest that relationships observed are dependent on the tracking of BMI from childhood to adulthood. Importantly, evidence suggests that risk of raised blood pressure is highest in those who are at the lower end of the BMI scale in childhood and overweight in adulthood. The findings challenge the widely accepted view that the presence of childhood obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD and that this period should be a priority for public health intervention. Although interventions during childhood may be important in prevention of adult obesity, it is important to avoid the potential for negative consequences when the timing

  2. Early adiposity rebound and the risk of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, R C; Pepe, M S; Wright, J A; Seidel, K D; Dietz, W H

    1998-03-01

    At 5 to 6 years of age, body fatness normally declines to a minimum, a point called adiposity rebound (AR), before increasing again into adulthood. We determined whether a younger age at AR was associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and whether this risk was independent of fatness at AR and parent obesity. A retrospective cohort study using lifelong height and weight measurements recorded in outpatient medical records. Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound (GHC), a health maintenance organization based in Seattle, Washington. All 390 GHC members (and their parents) born at GHC between January 1, 1965, and January 1, 1971, who had at least one recorded adult height and weight measurement plus two visits with recorded height and weight measurements in each of three age intervals: 1.5 to 4, 4 to 8, and 8 to 16 years. We calculated the mean body mass index (BMI) of each subject during young adulthood (age 21 to 29 years) and the BMI of the parents when each subject was 1.5 years of age. Adult obesity was defined as a BMI >/=27.8 for males and >/=27. 3 for females. Curves were fit to each subject's BMI values between ages 1.5 and 16 years, and the age and BMI at AR were calculated from these curves. Subjects were divided into tertiles of age at AR (early, middle, and late), BMI at AR, and parent BMI (heavy, medium, and lean). The mean age at AR was 5.5 years, and 15% of the cohort was obese in young adulthood. Adult obesity rates were higher in those with early versus late AR (25% vs 5%), those who were heavy versus lean at AR (24% vs 4%), those with heavy versus lean mothers (25% vs 5%), and those with heavy versus lean fathers (21% vs 5%). After adjusting for parent BMI and BMI at AR, the odds ratio for adult obesity associated with early versus late AR was 6.0 (95% CI, 1.3-26.6). An early AR is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity independent of parent obesity and the BMI at AR. Future research should examine the biological and behavioral

  3. Incidence and potential risk factors of obesity among Tehranian adults.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Mirbolouk, Mohammadhassan; Mossadeghkhah, Ali; Barzin, Maryam; Serahati, Sara; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the incidence of obesity and its risk factors among Tehranian adults. In this population-based cohort, non-obese participants, aged ≥20years, were followed for development of obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30). Incidence density and cumulative incidence rates of obesity were calculated for each sex. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the association of potential obesity risk factors including: age, BMI, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference (WC), smoking, marital status, education, and physical activity. A total of 7257 participants (3536 men) were followed for a median of 8years. At baseline, mean age, BMI and WC were 41.3±14.6years, 25.1±2.9kg/m(2) (24.9±3kg/m(2) men and 25.2±3kg/m(2) women), and 84.8±9.8cm (87.06±9.2cm men and 82.6±9.9cm women) respectively. During the follow-up, 1345 participants (876 women) developed obesity contributing to cumulative incidences of 31.3% (CI: 29.9%-32.7%), 38.1% (CI: 36.2%-40.1%), and 23.4% (CI: 21.6%-25.3%) for the whole population, women, and men, respectively. Corresponding incidence density rates per 1000 person-year were 25.9 (CI: 24.5-27.3), 33.67 (CI: 31.5-36.0), and 18.0 (CI: 16.5-19.7), respectively. Highest incidence rates were observed during their 40s and 20s for women and men, respectively. Participants with metabolic syndrome, lower educational level, higher BMI and WC, were at higher risk of obesity development in both sexes. High incidence of obesity was observed among Tehranian adults with higher incidence of obesity in women. Different modifiable variables may act as risk factors for obesity development which should be targeted to control the epidemic of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and risk of obesity in adult women.

    PubMed

    Hatch, E E; Troisi, R; Palmer, J R; Wise, L A; Titus, L; Strohsnitter, W C; Ricker, W; Hyer, M; Hoover, R N

    2015-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a non-steroidal estrogen that was commonly prescribed during pregnancy from the late 1940s to 1971. A potent endocrine disruptor, prenatal DES exposure has been linked with reproductive tract malformations, adverse pregnancy outcomes, cancer, infertility and earlier menopause. DES was used for years as a growth promoter in animal production. Some animal studies suggest that prenatal DES exposure is associated with obesity and metabolic disturbances. Using data from the National Cancer Institute DES Follow-Up Study, we evaluated the association between DES and adult obesity, weight gain from age 20 to mid-life, central adiposity and height among 2871 prenatally exposed and 1352 unexposed women between 23 and 52 years of age (median 41.5) at baseline in 1994. DES exposure status was confirmed by prenatal medical record review. We used multivariable log-binomial models to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for obesity in 2006, and linear regression to calculate mean differences in body mass index, weight gain, waist circumference and height. The adjusted RR for DES and obesity was 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.22], and RRs were 1.23 (CI: 1.07, 1.42) and 1.05 (CI: 0.91, 1.20) for low and high estimated total DES dose, respectively, compared with no exposure. DES-exposed women gained slightly more weight than unexposed women [mean difference, 0.70 kg (CI: -0.27, 1.66)]. This study suggests that prenatal DES exposure may be associated with a small increase in adult obesity.

  5. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  6. Is obesity a risk factor for impaired cognition in young adults with low birth weight?

    PubMed

    Lundgren, M; Morgården, E; Gustafsson, J

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There is also an association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability. Since low birth weight is associated with adult metabolic disease, particularly in obese subjects, the question emerges whether obesity has an additional negative effect on cognitive function in subjects with low birth weight. The aim was to analyse whether overweight or obesity influence intellectual performance in young adults with particular focus on those with a low birth weight. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 620,834 males born between 1973 and 1988 and matched to results on intellectual performance and BMI at conscription. The risk for low intellectual performance was higher for those with high BMI compared to those with normal. The highest risk was found among subjects with low birth weight and overweight or obesity in young adulthood (odds ratios, 1.98 [1.73-2.22] and 2.59 [2.00-3.34], respectively). However, subjects with further high birth weight and a high BMI at conscription had no further increased risk. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of subnormal intellectual performance in young adult males. Subjects with low birth weight and adolescent overweight/obesity are at particular risk of subnormal performance. A high birth weight increases the risk for obesity, but a high adult BMI does not further increase the risk for subnormal performance. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Comparison of CAD risk factors in abdominal obesity versus general obesity with normal WC in adult males.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sultan Mehmood; Iftikhar, Raheel; Khan, Amjad; Altaf, Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    To compare the presence of coronary artery disease risk factors in patients with abdominal obesity versus generalised obesity and to determine the probability of developing the disease in both groups. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Okara, from January 2012 to April 2013. Using consecutive sampling, 785 outdoor healthy adult males were enrolled. Body mass index > 25kg/m2 and waist circumference > 90cm defined obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. Blood pressure > 140/90mmHg defined Hypertension. All the subjects underwent BSF, electrocardiogram, Lipid profile, personality and physical activity assessment. Risk estimation was done using Eric Brittain scoring system. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. In patients with abdominal obesity, 583 (99.2%) individuals had at least 1 risk factor for coronary artery disease, while in those with generalised obesity this prevalence was 96.5% (n = 191). In patients with abdominal obesity, 52.9% had more than 4% risk of developing the disease in the next 6 years compared to 36.9% individuals with generalised obesity. Both increasing body mass index and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of developing coronary artery disease, with significantly higher risk prevalence in the latter group. Moreover, those with abdominal obesity had a higher risk of developing CAD in next 6 years as compared to those with generalised obesity. Thus waist circumference offers additional prognostic information beyond body mass index.

  8. Cardiometabolic Risks and Severity of Obesity in Children and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Asheley C; Perrin, Eliana M; Moss, Leslie A; Skelton, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity among children and young adults has increased over the past decade. Although the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is relatively low among children and young adults who are overweight or obese, those with more severe forms of obesity may be at greater risk. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from overweight or obese children and young adults 3 to 19 years of age who were included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2012 to assess the prevalence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors according to the severity of obesity. Weight status was classified on the basis of measured height and weight. We used standard definitions of abnormal values for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and fasting glucose and report the prevalence of abnormal values in children and young adults according to weight status. Among 8579 children and young adults with a body-mass index at the 85th percentile or higher (according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts), 46.9% were overweight, 36.4% had class I obesity, 11.9% had class II obesity, and 4.8% had class III obesity. Mean values for some, but not all, cardiometabolic variables were higher with greater severity of obesity in both male and female participants, and the values were higher in male participants than in female participants; for HDL cholesterol, the mean values were lower with greater severity of obesity. Multivariable models that controlled for age, race or ethnic group, and sex showed that the greater the severity of obesity, the higher the risks of a low HDL cholesterol level, high systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and high triglyceride and glycated hemoglobin levels. Severe obesity in children and young adults was associated with an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors

  9. Metabolic Health Reduces Risk of Obesity-Related Cancer in Framingham Study Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lynn L.; Chadid, Susan; Singer, Martha R.; Kreger, Bernard E.; Denis, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether the risk for obesity-related cancers between metabolically unhealthy and healthy overweight/obese adults. Methods Data on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and random blood glucose in Framingham Heart Study adults (n=3763) ages 55-69 were used to estimate risks of obesity-related cancers (n=385) including post-menopausal breast, female reproductive, colon, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidney cancers, as well as esophageal adenocarcinomas. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate risk for obesity-related cancers associated with body fat and metabolic health (as defined by glucose levels) among subjects in three risk groups (vs. referent group with normal-weight/normal glucose): normal-weight/elevated glucose; overweight/normal glucose; and overweight/elevated glucose. Results Overweight adults (BMI≥25 or WHtR≥0.51 (men) and ≥0.57 (women)) with elevated glucose (≥125 mg/dL) had a statistically significant two-fold increased risk of developing obesity-related cancer while overweight adults with normal glucose had a 50% increased risk. Normal-weight adults with elevated glucose had no excess cancer risk. The effects of BMI and WHtR were independent of one another. Finally, overweight women with elevated blood glucose had a 2.6-fold increased risk (95% CI: 1.4-4.9) of female reproductive (cervical, endometrial, uterine cancers) and post-menopausal breast cancers while overweight women with normal glucose levels had only a 70% increased risk (95% CI: 1.1-2.5). Conclusion These results suggest that cancer risk may be lower among metabolically-healthy overweight/obese older adults than among overweight/obese adults with metabolic dysfunction. Impact Metabolic dysfunction and obesity act synergistically to increase cancer risk. PMID:25012997

  10. Metabolic health reduces risk of obesity-related cancer in framingham study adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lynn L; Chadid, Susan; Singer, Martha R; Kreger, Bernard E; Denis, Gerald V

    2014-10-01

    It is unknown whether the risk for obesity-related cancers differs between metabolically unhealthy and healthy overweight/obese adults. Data on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and random blood glucose in Framingham Heart Study adults (n = 3,763) ages 55 to 69 years were used to estimate risks of obesity-related cancers (n = 385), including postmenopausal breast, female reproductive, colon, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidney cancers, as well as esophageal adenocarcinomas. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate risk for obesity-related cancers associated with body fat and metabolic health (as defined by glucose levels) among subjects in three risk groups (vs. referent group with normal weight/normal glucose): normal weight/elevated glucose, overweight/normal glucose, and overweight/elevated glucose. Overweight adults [BMI ≥ 25 or WHtR ≥ 0.51 (men) and ≥0.57 (women)] with elevated glucose (≥125 mg/dL) had a statistically significant 2-fold increased risk of developing obesity-related cancer, whereas overweight adults with normal glucose had a 50% increased risk. Normal-weight adults with elevated glucose had no excess cancer risk. The effects of BMI and WHtR were independent of one another. Finally, overweight women with elevated blood glucose had a 2.6-fold increased risk [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-4.9] of female reproductive (cervical, endometrial, uterine cancers) and postmenopausal breast cancers, whereas overweight women with normal glucose levels had only a 70% increased risk (95% CI, 1.1-2.5). These results suggest that cancer risk may be lower among metabolically healthy overweight/obese older adults than among overweight/obese adults with metabolic dysfunction. Metabolic dysfunction and obesity act synergistically to increase cancer risk. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  12. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  13. Sarcopenic obesity and dynapenic obesity: 5-year associations with falls risk in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Sanders, Kerrie M; Aitken, Dawn; Hayes, Alan; Ebeling, Peter R; Jones, Graeme

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether obesity concurrent with sarcopenia (low muscle mass) or dynapenia (low muscle strength) is associated with increased falls risk in middle-aged and older adults. 5-year prospective cohort study including 674 community-dwelling volunteers (mean ± SD age 61.4 ± 7.0 years; 48% female). Sarcopenia and dynapenia were defined as lowest sex-specific tertiles for dual-energy X-ray (DXA)-assessed appendicular lean mass (adjusted for height and fat mass) or lower-limb strength, respectively. Obesity was defined as the highest tertiles of DXA-assessed total or trunk fat mass. Change in falls risk was calculated using the Physiological Profile Assessment (z-scores: 0-1 = mild increased risk; 1-2 = moderate increased risk; >2 = marked increased risk). Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed mild but significantly increased falls risk scores for dynapenic obesity (change in mean z-score compared to non-dynapenic, non-obese group: 0.33, 95% CI 0.06-0.59 [men] and 0.46, 95% CI 0.21-0.72 [women]) and dynapenia (0.25, 95% CI 0.05-0.46 [women only]). Dynapenic obesity, but not sarcopenic obesity, is predictive of increased falls risk score in middle-aged and older adults. In clinical settings, muscle function assessments may be useful for predicting falls risk in obese patients. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  14. [Sociodemographic characteristics as risk factors for obesity and overweight in Spanish adult population].

    PubMed

    Marqueta de Salas, María; Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Juárez Soto, José Juan

    2016-06-03

    To analyze the adult Spanish sociodemographic characteristics associated with a higher risk of excess weight and obesity. As a second aim, we analyze if there are gender differences regarding the development of overweight and obesity in different age groups. Transversal study of the National Health Survey of 2012. Body mass index was calculated and a number of sociodemographic variables were analyzed. An analysis of multinomial logistic regression was conducted. In 2012 the prevalence of obesity in Spain was 18.5% for obesity and 39.0% for being overweight. The greatest risk of being overweight or obese versus being of normal weight corresponded to men, married, between 65 and 74 years old, in social classes where unskilled work is performed, in the autonomous city of Ceuta, and the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Andalucía, and in municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. On the other hand, obesity risk is 2 times higher in men versus women between 25 and 64 years while overweight risk is higher in all age groups. The sociodemographic characteristics associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese in Spain have changed compared to those published previously. In the year 2012, obesity was more common in males, the maximum peak was between 65 and 74 years and the area with the highest prevalence of obesity was the autonomous city of Ceuta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder increases the risk of having abnormal eating behaviours in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Docet, M F; Larrañaga, A; Pérez Méndez, L F; García-Mayor, R V

    2012-06-01

    To determine the rate of abnormal eating behaviours in obese adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with obese adult patients without ADHD. This case-control study includes: obese adult patients defined by a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m², screening positive in the adult ADHD self-report scale-V1.1. (ASRS-V1.1), attending the Nutrition Section, as cases; and obese adult patients screening negative, as controls. Weight, height and BMI were determined in all the participants. The rate of abnormal eating behaviours was determined using an eating pattern questionnaire. Forty-five out of 51 (88.2%) cases vs 127 out of 179 (70.9%) controls had abnormal eating behaviours (p=0.01). Eating between-meal snacks was found in 39 (76.5%) cases vs 107 (59.8%) controls (p=0.03), going on binge eating episodes in 28 (54.9%) vs 42 (23.5%) (p=0.00), waking up at night to eat in 11 (21.6%) vs 16 (8.9%) (p=0.01), eating large amounts of food in 13 (25.5%) vs 38 (21.2%) (p=0.52), and eating in secret in 11 (21.6%) vs 16 (8.9%) (p=0.01), respectively. This is the first study that determines the rate of these abnormal eating behaviours in obese adult patients with ADHD in comparison with obese adult patients without ADHD. A high rate of abnormal eating behaviours was observed in obese patients with ADHD. Our results suggest that ADHD is a risk factor for the development of these abnormal eating behaviours, which may be contributing factors of obesity and the unsuccessful treatment of obese patients.

  16. Ethnic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Adults in California, the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi; Wang, Kesheng; Bailey, Beth A; Alamian, Arsham; Stevens, Marc A; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Little attention has been given to differences in obesity risk factors by racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, we examined differences in risk factors for obesity among Whites, Latinos, Asians, and African Americans among 42,935 adults (24.8% obese). Estimates were weighted to ensure an unbiased representation of the Californian population. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the differences in risk factors for obesity. Large ethnic disparities were found in obesity prevalence: Whites (22.0%), Latinos (33.6%), African Americans (36.1%), and Asians (9.8%). Differences in risk factors for obesity were also observed: Whites (gender, age, physical activity, smoking, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake), Latinos (age, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake), Asians (age, binge drinking, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake), and African Americans (gender, physical activity, smoking, binge drinking, and diabetes medicine intake). Females were more likely to be obese among African Americans (odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.94), but less likely among Whites (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.74-0.87). Race/ethnicity should be considered in developing obesity prevention strategies.

  17. Ethnic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Adults in California, the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kesheng; Bailey, Beth A.; Stevens, Marc A.; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Little attention has been given to differences in obesity risk factors by racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, we examined differences in risk factors for obesity among Whites, Latinos, Asians, and African Americans among 42,935 adults (24.8% obese). Estimates were weighted to ensure an unbiased representation of the Californian population. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the differences in risk factors for obesity. Large ethnic disparities were found in obesity prevalence: Whites (22.0%), Latinos (33.6%), African Americans (36.1%), and Asians (9.8%). Differences in risk factors for obesity were also observed: Whites (gender, age, physical activity, smoking, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake), Latinos (age, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake), Asians (age, binge drinking, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake), and African Americans (gender, physical activity, smoking, binge drinking, and diabetes medicine intake). Females were more likely to be obese among African Americans (odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05–1.94), but less likely among Whites (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.74–0.87). Race/ethnicity should be considered in developing obesity prevention strategies. PMID:28352473

  18. High dietary saturated fat intake accentuates obesity risk associated with the fat mass and obesity-associated gene in adults.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Catherine M; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; McManus, Ross; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Planells, Richard; Roche, Helen M

    2012-05-01

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) is the strongest genetic determinant of obesity identified to date. Dietary fat is a key environmental factor that may interact with genotype to affect risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study investigated associations among FTO rs9939609, obesity measures, and MetS phenotypes in adults and determined potential modulation by dietary fat intake at baseline and after a 7.5-y follow-up when MetS cases and controls were selected. FTO rs9939609 genotype, biochemical, dietary, and lifestyle measurements were determined in the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study (n = 1754). FTO rs9939609 A allele carriers had a higher risk of being overweight or obese [OR = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.57); P = 0.02] and of having a larger abdominal circumference [OR = 1.42 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.99); P = 0.04] compared with the TT homozygotes. These associations were independent of physical activity and energy intake and were maintained over the follow-up period, particularly in the MetS individuals. High dietary SFA intake (≥ 15.5% energy) and a low dietary PUFA:SFA intake ratio (<0.38) further accentuated the risk of having a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and being abdominally obese. Non-risk allele carriers appeared to be unresponsive to dietary SFA intake or to the dietary PUFA:SFA intake ratio with respect to obesity measures. In conclusion, FTO rs9939609 was associated with obesity measures, especially in those with the MetS, which was further exacerbated by high dietary SFA intake at baseline and 7.5 y later. These data indicate important novel modulation of genetic risk by dietary fat exposure in individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk.

  19. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village.

    PubMed

    Chew, Wai Fong; Masyita, Mamot; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Boo, Nem Yun; Zin, Thaw; Choo, Kong Bung; Yap, Sook Fan

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor associated with most chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, and its associated risk factors, among apparently healthy Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the Chinese residents in Seri Kembangan New Village, Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of participants. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting venous plasma was drawn for the measurement of fasting glucose level and lipid profile. Data on sociodemographic factors, dietary habits, physical activity, perceived stress level and sleep duration were collected using interviewer-administered, pretested and validated questionnaires. Among the 258 Chinese residents (mean age 41.4 ± 10.0 years) recruited, the prevalence of obesity was 40%. The obese participants had significantly higher mean blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels than the non-obese participants (p < 0.05). The obese participants also had a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than the non-obese participants. Logistic regression analysis showed that drinking soy milk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.447; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.253-0.787; p < 0.05) and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables (adjusted OR 0.440; 95% CI 0.215-0.900; p < 0.05) were associated with a reduced risk of obesity. The risk of obesity was higher in younger participants (adjusted OR 2.714; 95% CI 1.225-6.011; p < 0.05). The prevalence of obesity was high among the apparently healthy suburban Chinese. Our findings suggest that soy milk consumption and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables are associated with a lower risk of developing obesity in this population.

  20. Obesity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Virginia B

    2016-03-01

    The percentage of older obese adults is on the rise. Many clinicians underestimate the health consequences of obesity in the elderly, citing scarce evidence and concerns that weight loss might be detrimental to the health of older adults. Although overweight and obese elders are not at the same risk for morbidity and mortality as younger individuals, quality of life and function are adversely impacted. Weight loss plans in the elderly should include aerobic activities as well as balance and resistance activities to maintain optimal physical function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Cardiometabolic disease risk in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity: Stability of metabolic health status in adults.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fangjian; Garvey, W Timothy

    2016-02-01

    To assess the stability of metabolic status and body mass index (BMI) status and their relative contribution to risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events, and mortality. A total of 14,685 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and 4,990 from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study were included. People with healthy obesity (HO) are defined as those meeting all three indices of blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipids. People with unhealthy obesity crossed the risk threshold for all three criteria. In both healthy and unhealthy subgroups, risks for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and mortality were comparable among BMI status during a mean 18.7-year follow-up. When compared with HO, hazard ratios were increased for diabetes (5.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.12-7.48), CHD (5.60, 95% CI 3.14-9.98), stroke (4.84, 95% CI 2.13-10.97), and mortality (2.6, 95% CI 1.88-3.61) in people with unhealthy obesity. BMI only moderately increased the risks for diabetes among healthy subjects. In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study over 20 years, 17.5% of lean subjects and 67.3% of overweight subjects at baseline developed obesity during follow-up. Despite rising BMI, metabolic status remained relatively stable. Metabolic status is relatively stable despite rising BMI. HO had lower risks for diabetes, CHD, stroke, and mortality than unhealthy subjects but increased diabetes risks than healthy lean people. Cardiometabolic risk factors confer much higher risk than obesity per se. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Urinary bisphenol A concentration and the risk of central obesity in Chinese adults: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Mingli; Ding, Lin; Xuan, Liping; Wang, Tiange; Li, Mian; Zhao, Zhiyun; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Yu; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Weiqing; Bi, Yufang; Xu, Min; Ning, Guang

    2017-01-18

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with diabetes and related metabolic disorders, such as obesity, but studies of the association of urinary BPA concentrations with central obesity risk are limited. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between urinary BPA and incident central obesity in a Chinese population aged ≥40 years. The study followed 888 participants from Shanghai, China, who did not have central obesity at baseline (in 2009) for 4 years. Concentrations of BPA were measured in baseline morning spot urine samples. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women. During a mean follow-up of 4 years, 124 (14.0%) participants developed central obesity. Each 1-unit increase in log [BPA] was positively associated with a 2.30-fold risk of incident central obesity (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.78; P  < 0.001) after adjustment for confounders. Compared with the lowest tertile of urinary BPA concentration, Tertiles 2 and 3 were associated with a higher risk of incident central obesity (odds ratios 1.73 [95% CI 1.04-2.88] and 1.81 [95% CI 1.08-3.05], respectively). Stratified analysis showed significant associations of BPA with incident central obesity in women and individuals <60 years of age, with normal weight, non-smokers, non-drinkers, or non-hypertensives. The results indicate that higher urinary BPA concentrations may be associated with a greater risk of incident central obesity in Chinese adults. The study emphasizes the effects of BPA exposure on metabolic risk from a public health perspective. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. [Relationship between central obesity and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in adults of Jiangsu province].

    PubMed

    Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Lyu, Shurong; Pan, Xiaoqun; Qin, Yu; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Jinyi; Zhang, Yongqing; Wu, Ming; Tao, Ran

    2015-06-01

    To explore the relationship between central obesity and cardiovascular risk factors and their clustering in adults of Jiangsu province. Multi-stratified clustering sampling method was used to sample 8 400 residents aged 18 years and over from 14 diseases surveillance units in Jiangsu province from October to December 2010. Information was obtained with face-to-face interview, physical examination and laboratory testing. A total of 8 380 residents finished the study protocol and their data were analyzed. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥ 85 cm in males or ≥ 80 cm in females. Following complex weighting of the samples, level and proportion of cardiovascular risk factors in group with different waist circumference were analyzed. The prevalence of central obesity among adults in Jiangsu province was 46.2%, the proportion of males and females was 46.4% and 46.1%, respectively (P > 0.05). The prevalence of center obesity varied significantly in residents with different age, area, education and occupation (all P < 0.01). The level of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol was also significantly different in residents with different degree of waist circumference (all P < 0.01). The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors increased in proportion to increasing waist circumference (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors was 2.2 (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 2.0-2.4) and 4.7 (OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 3.9-5.7); 2.1 (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.7-2.5) and 3.8 (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 3.2-4.5); 2.3 (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.8-2.9) and 4.1 (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 3.2-5.3); 3.4 (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 2.9-3.9) and 8.0 (OR = 8.0, 95% CI: 6.2-10.2) fold higher in residents with mild and

  4. [Prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult obese population in Tianjin].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-hui; Wang, Jian-hua; Zhi, Xin-yue; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xin-min

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence and related risk factors in adult population with obesity in Tianjin. With stratified cluster randomized sampling, 2888 obese people with BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2), aged 18 years old and over were selected from three urban and three rural regions of Tianjin, in 2006. Information on risk factors was collected with questionnaire through face-to-face interview by trained workers and data on fasting blood glucose (FBG) was collected at the same time. 2hrPPG was tested among the people who's FBG ≥ 6.1 mmol/L at the hospital. Prevalence of T2DM was calculated and the distribution of T2DM in the described subgroups and the risk factors analyzed with SPSS software. The prevalence of T2DM in adult population with obesity was 11.74%, with females (13.90%) higher than males (8.75%). The prevalence rates of T2DM were statistically different among different groups, classified by age, education, occupation, district and BMI. Results from the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of T2DM were age (OR = 1.383, 95%CI: 1.254 - 1.525) and sex (OR = 1.591, 95%CI: 1.230 - 2.059) while the protective factor was fruit intake (OR = 0.867, 95%CI: 0.774 - 0.971). The prevalence of T2DM in adult with obesity was considered to be high. The distribution of T2DM in different subgroups and affecting factors of T2DM in obese adults were different from general population.

  5. Overweight and obesity as markers for the evaluation of disease risk in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Carrasco, O; Juarez-Cedillo, T; Ruiz-Arregui, L; Garcia Pena, C; Vargas-Alarcon, G; Sánchez-García, S

    2012-01-01

    To explore disease risk through the measurement of BMI scores and waist circumferences in older Mexican adults with favorable health statuses and to determine how this risk is associated with sociodemographic characteristics. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006, we created a cross-sectional design and selected 878 participants (60 years or older) who had favorable health statuses. The demographic data, health status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and an estimation of disease risk (arterial hypertension, diabetes type 2, and metabolic syndrome) were obtained through the survey. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity were 42.1%, 29.7%, and 80.9%, respectively. Disease risks, which were classified as least, increased, high, or very high, were 14.7%, 17.5%, 38.7%, and 29.1%, respectively. We observed that younger age has a higher risk for disease and that this decreases as age increases until it becomes minimal. After controlling for some risk factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and physical activity, we observed that being female, younger, and married are all factors significantly associated with a high and very high risk for disease. On the other hand, being indigenous, having a low education level, living in a rural setting are all protective factors with a minimum disease risk. The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity are high among older Mexican adults. We observed that as age increases, disease risk decreases, which also occurs with some lifestyle factors such as living in a rural setting, being indigenous, having a low education level, and being married.

  6. Abdominal obesity as a risk factor for disability in Brazilian older adults.

    PubMed

    Corona, Ligiana Pires; Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2017-04-01

    To assess the role of abdominal obesity in the incidence of disability in older adults living in São Paulo, Brazil, in a 5-year period. Longitudinal study, part of the SABE Study (Health, Wellbeing and Aging). We assessed the disability incidence in the period (reported difficulty in at least one activity of daily living (ADL) in 2010) in relation to abdominal obesity in 2006 (waist circumference ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women). We used Poisson regression to evaluate the association between obesity and disability incidence, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors including BMI. São Paulo, Brazil. Older adults (n 1109) who were independent in ADL in 2006. In 2010, 789 of these were located and re-interviewed. The crude disability incidence (at least one ADL) was 27·1/1000 person-years in the period. The incidence rate was two times higher in participants with abdominal obesity compared with those without (39·1/1000 and 19·4/1000 person-years, respectively; P<0·001). This pattern was observed in all BMI levels. In regression models, abdominal obesity remained associated with disability incidence (incidence rate ratio=1·90; P<0·03), even after controlling for BMI, gender, age, low grip strength, cognitive impairment, physical inactivity and chronic diseases. Abdominal obesity was strong risk factor for disability, showing a more significant effect than BMI, and thus should be an intervention target for older adults. Waist measure is simple, cost-effective and easily interpreted, and therefore can be used in several settings to identify individuals at higher risk of disability.

  7. Effect of Soymilk Consumption on Waist Circumference and Cardiovascular Risks among Overweight and Obese Female Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Nourieh, Zeinab; Attar, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Soy milk replacement in the diet might have beneficial effects on waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obese subjects. Therefore, we are going to determine the effects of soy milk replacements on the waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adults. Methods: In this crossover randomized clinical trail, 24 over weight and obese female adults were on a diet with soy milk or the diet with cow's milk for four weeks. In the diet with soy milk only one glass of soy milk (240 cc) was replaced instead of one glass of cow's milk (240 cc). Measurements were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Waist circumference reduced significantly following soy milk period (mean percent change in soy milk period for waist circumference: -3.79 ± 0.51 vs. -1.78 ± 0.55 %; P = 0.02 in the cow's milk period). Blood pressure, weight, liver enzymes and glycemic control indices did not changed significantly after soy milk period compared to the cow's milk period. Conclusion: Among over weight and obese patients, soy milk can play an important role in reducing waist circumference. However, soy milk replacement had no significant effects on weight, glycemic control indices, liver enzymes, fibrinogen and blood pressure in a short term trial. PMID:23189232

  8. Epidemiology of general obesity, abdominal obesity and related risk factors in urban adults from 33 communities of northeast china: the CHPSNE study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity increases the risk of many diseases. However, there has been little literature about the epidemiology of obesity classified by body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity) among urban Chinese adults. This study is to fill the gap by assessing the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among urban Chinese adults. Methods A representative sample of 25,196 urban adults aged 18 to 74 years in Northeast China was selected and measurements of height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were taken from 2009–2010. Definitions of overweight and obesity by the World Health Organization (WHO) were used. Results The overall prevalence rates of general obesity and overweight classified by BMI were 15.0% (15.7% for men and 14.3% for women, p<0.01) and 19.2% (20.8% for men and 17.7% for women, p<0.01), respectively, and the overall prevalence rate of abdominal obesity was 37.6% (31.1% for men and women 43.9% for women, p<0.01). Multivariable logistic regression showed that the elderly and those who had a history of parental obesity, alcohol drinking, or former cigarette smoking were at high risk of obesity classified by BMI or WC, whereas those with a higher level of education, higher family income, or a healthy and balanced diet were at low risk of obesity. Analysis stratified by gender showed that men with a higher level education level, a white-collar job, a cadre job, or higher family income were the high risk group, and women with a higher level of education or higher family income were the low risk group. Conclusions Obesity and overweight have become epidemic in urban populations in China; associations of risk factors with obesity differ between men and women. PMID:23146089

  9. Epidemiology of general obesity, abdominal obesity and related risk factors in urban adults from 33 communities of Northeast China: the CHPSNE study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Yang; Huang, Mei-Meng; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2012-11-12

    Obesity increases the risk of many diseases. However, there has been little literature about the epidemiology of obesity classified by body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity) among urban Chinese adults. This study is to fill the gap by assessing the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among urban Chinese adults. A representative sample of 25,196 urban adults aged 18 to 74 years in Northeast China was selected and measurements of height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were taken from 2009-2010. Definitions of overweight and obesity by the World Health Organization (WHO) were used. The overall prevalence rates of general obesity and overweight classified by BMI were 15.0% (15.7% for men and 14.3% for women, p<0.01) and 19.2% (20.8% for men and 17.7% for women, p<0.01), respectively, and the overall prevalence rate of abdominal obesity was 37.6% (31.1% for men and women 43.9% for women, p<0.01). Multivariable logistic regression showed that the elderly and those who had a history of parental obesity, alcohol drinking, or former cigarette smoking were at high risk of obesity classified by BMI or WC, whereas those with a higher level of education, higher family income, or a healthy and balanced diet were at low risk of obesity. Analysis stratified by gender showed that men with a higher level education level, a white-collar job, a cadre job, or higher family income were the high risk group, and women with a higher level of education or higher family income were the low risk group. Obesity and overweight have become epidemic in urban populations in China; associations of risk factors with obesity differ between men and women.

  10. The association between time in bed and obesity risk in young adults.

    PubMed

    Hart, Chantelle N; Larose, Jessica Gokee; Fava, Joseph L; James, Brittany L; Wing, Rena R

    2013-01-01

    Young adults (YA) are at high risk for insufficient sleep and obesity. However, little research has focused on the association between sleep and obesity in this population. The present study examined the association between reported time in bed (TIB) and body mass index (BMI) in YAs. Participants were 250 18-25 year-olds who completed an online survey assessing several factors associated with weight control. After controlling for significant covariates, TIB was significantly associated with BMI. Specifically, "less than 6 hours/night" TIB was associated with increased BMI compared to the referent category (7 to <8 hours/night) (p = .01). Findings demonstrate that young adults who report shorter TIB are more likely to be classified as having higher BMI.

  11. Normal-Weight Central Obesity and Mortality Risk in Older Adults With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh; Batsis, John A; Coutinho, Thais; Somers, Virend K; Hodge, David O; Carter, Rickey E; Sochor, Ondrej; Kragelund, Charlotte; Kanaya, Alka M; Zeller, Marianne; Park, Jong-Seon; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and central obesity and mortality in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We identified 7057 patients 65 years or older from 5 cohort studies assessing mortality risk using either waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) in patients with CAD from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2008. Normal weight, overweight, and obesity were defined using standard BMI cutoffs. High WHR was defined as 0.85 or more for women and 0.90 or more for men. High WC was defined as 88 cm or more for women and 102 cm or more for men. Separate models examined WC or WHR in combination with BMI (6 categories each) as the primary predictor (referent = normal BMI and normal WC or WHR). Cox proportional hazards models investigated the relationship between these obesity categories and mortality. Patients' mean age was 73.0±6.0 years (3741 [53%] women). The median censor time was 7.1 years. A normal BMI with central obesity (high WHR or high WC) demonstrated highest mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14-1.46; HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.50, respectively). High WHR was also predictive of mortality in the overall (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.93-2.38) as well as in the sex-specific cohort. In the overall cohort, high WC was not predictive of mortality (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12); however, it predicted higher risk in men (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.24). In older adults with CAD, normal-weight central obesity defined using either WHR or WC is associated with high mortality risk, highlighting a need to combine measures in adiposity-related risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Umer, Amna; Kelley, George A; Cottrell, Lesley E; Giacobbi, Peter; Innes, Kim E; Lilly, Christa L

    2017-08-29

    Overweight and obesity is a major public health concern that includes associations with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during childhood and adolescence as well as premature mortality in adults. Despite the high prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity as well as adult CVD, individual studies as well as previous systematic reviews examining the relationship between childhood obesity and adult CVD have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to address this gap. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) longitudinal and cohort studies (including case-cohort), (2) childhood exposure and adult outcomes collected on the same individual over time, (3) childhood obesity, as defined by the original study authors, (4) English-language articles, (5) studies published up to June, 2015, (6) one or more of the following CVD risk factors [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL), and triglycerides (TG)], (7) outcome(s) not self-reported, and (8) exposure measurements (child's adiposity) assessed by health professionals, trained investigators, or self-reported. Studies were retrieved by searching three electronic databases as well as citation tracking. Fisher's r to z score was calculated for each study for each outcome. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models while risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE instrument. In order to try and identify sources of heterogeneity, random-effects meta-regression was also performed. Of the 4840 citations reviewed, a total of 23 studies were included in the systematic review and 21 in the meta-analysis. The findings suggested that childhood obesity is significantly and positively associated with adult SBP (Zr

  13. [Incidence of obesity and its modifiable risk factors in Chinese adults aged 35-74 years: a prospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Li, Jianxin; Fan, Sen; Li, Ying; Chen, Jichun; Cao, Jie; Huang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Liancheng; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yu, Ling; Deng, Ying; Chen, Naying; Guo, Dongshuang; Ruan, Liansheng; Gu, Dongfeng

    2014-04-01

    To examine the incidence of obesity and its modifiable risk factors in Chinese adults aged 35-74 years. A total of 27 020 participants aged 35 to 74 years from two prospective cohort studies in China were followed up in the years of 2007 and 2008. Obesity and overweight were defined as body mass index ≥ 28.0, and 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2), respectively. Relative risks of obesity for risk factors were computed by using logistic regression. The annual incidence rates of obesity and overweight were 6.97 ‰ and 24.83 ‰ in Chinese adults aged 35-74 years, respectively. Women had a higher incidence of obesity than men (7.74 ‰ vs. 6.10 ‰). Participants in northern China had a higher incidence than those in southern (9.29 ‰ vs. 5.10 ‰) part of the country. Adults in rural had a higher incidence than those in urban (7.28 ‰ vs. 6.52 ‰). After adjusting for the baseline variables, such as gender, age, geographic region, degree of urbanization, the relative risk for obesity was 0.82 (95% CI:0.68-0.99) for participants with ≥ 12 years' education, compared with those <12 years. Participants with middle income, less physical activity at work/housework or being retirees, consuming more red meat and scented tea etc, had higher risk of incidence of obesity. Participants who consumed milk and moderate amount of fruits, would show a lower risk of obesity. The incidence of obesity was 6.97 ‰ in Chinese middle and older adults. Our results underscored that the promotion of healthy lifestyle which include issues as increasing physical activity, consuming moderate amount of fruits and milk but less red meat, drinking less scented tea etc, could play key roles in obesity prevention and control among the Chinese adults, especially among people with low education level or with middle income.

  14. Fat brains, greedy genes, and parent power: a biobehavioural risk model of child and adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Susan; Kim, Yale; Pryor, Katherine

    2012-06-01

    We live in a world replete with opportunities to overeat highly calorific, palatable foods - yet not everyone becomes obese. Why? We propose that individuals show differences in appetitive traits (e.g. food cue responsiveness, satiety sensitivity) that manifest early in life and predict their eating behaviours and weight trajectories. What determines these traits? Parental feeding restriction is associated with higher child adiposity, pressure to eat with lower adiposity, and both strategies with less healthy eating behaviours, while authoritative feeding styles coincide with more positive outcomes. But, on the whole, twin and family studies argue that nature has a greater influence than nurture on adiposity and eating behaviour, and behavioural investigations of genetic variants that are robustly associated with obesity (e.g. FTO) confirm that genes influence appetite. Meanwhile, a growing body of neuroimaging studies in adults, children and high risk populations suggests that structural and functional variation in brain networks associated with reward, emotion and control might also predict appetite and obesity, and show genetic influence. Together these different strands of evidence support a biobehavioural risk model of obesity development. Parental feeding recommendations should therefore acknowledge the powerful - but modifiable - contribution of genetic and neurological influences to children's eating behaviour.

  15. Watching sport on television, physical activity, and risk of obesity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Weiler, Richard; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-08

    Television (TV) viewing has been associated with obesity although the effects of specific TV content on health and other behaviours remains unknown. We examined the association between watching sport on TV, physical activity levels, and risk of obesity. We studied 6,733 (aged 64.9 ± 9.2 yrs) men and women from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Data were collected on self reported TV time and content, and physical activity. Nurses measured height and weight for the calculation of body mass index. On average, participants reported viewing TV for 5.3 ± 4.1 hours per day and 30.3% of the sample watched sport on TV at least twice a week. There was no association between watching sport and physical activity levels. Participants that watched sports every day were at higher risk of obesity [odds ratio = 1.39, 95% CI, 1.15, 1.68) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, total TV time, disability, and self-rated health. Watching elite athletes may have no role in the promotion of physical activity in older adults, which has implications for staging large sporting events with physical activity legacy promises.

  16. Prevalence of abdominal obesity and its association with cardio metabolic risk factors among older adults in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Orces, Carlos H; Montalvan, Martha; Tettamanti, Daniel

    2017-05-15

    To describe the prevalence of abdominal obesity and its association with cardio metabolic risk factors among older adults in Ecuador. The present study used data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging survey to examine the prevalence of abdominal obesity according to certain demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of the participants. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to evaluate the association of abdominal obesity with cardio metabolic risk factors. Of 2053 participants aged 60 years and older, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 65.9% (95% CI; 62.2%, 69.4%) in women and 16.3% (95% CI; 13.8%, 19.2%) in men. Notably, a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity was seen among residents in the urban areas of the country, those who reported their race as black or mulatto, individuals with sedentary lifestyle and obesity, and older adults with greater number of comorbidities. Moreover, after adjustment for potential confounders, women with abdominal obesity were 2.0, 2.8, and 1.6 times more likely to have diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and hypertriglyceridemia as compared with those without, respectively. Likewise, men with abdominal obesity had 51% and 22% higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than their non-obese counterparts, respectively. the prevalence of abdominal obesity is high among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, abdominal obesity is significantly associated with cardio metabolic risk factors. Therefore, further research is needed to evaluate sociodemographic and nutritional determinants of this emerging public health burden among older Ecuadorians. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dysfunctional adiposity and the risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Neeland, Ian J; Turer, Aslan T; Ayers, Colby R; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Vega, Gloria L; Farzaneh-Far, Ramin; Grundy, Scott M; Khera, Amit; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A

    2012-09-19

    The risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus is heterogeneous among obese individuals. Factors that discriminate prediabetes or diabetes risk within this population have not been well characterized. A dysfunctional adiposity phenotype, characterized by excess visceral fat and insulin resistance, may contribute to diabetes development in those with obesity. To investigate associations between adiposity phenotypes and risk for incident prediabetes and diabetes in a multiethnic, population-based cohort of obese adults. Among 732 obese participants (body mass index ≥30) aged 30 to 65 years without diabetes or cardiovascular disease enrolled between 2000 and 2002 in the Dallas Heart Study, we measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); circulating adipokines and biomarkers of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation; and subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiac structure and function by computed tomography and MRI. Incidence of diabetes through a median 7.0 years (interquartile range, 6.6-7.6) of follow-up. In a subgroup of 512 participants with normal fasting glucose values at baseline, incidence of the composite of prediabetes or diabetes was determined. Of the 732 participants (mean age, 43 years; 65% women; 71% nonwhite), 84 (11.5%) developed diabetes. In multivariable analysis, higher baseline visceral fat mass (odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD [1.4 kg], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.7), fructosamine level (OR per 1 SD [1.1 μmol/L], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7), fasting glucose level (OR per 1 SD [1.1 μmol/L], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6), family history of diabetes (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3), systolic blood pressure (OR per 10 mm Hg, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5), and weight gain over follow-up (OR per 1 kg, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10) were independently associated with diabetes, with no associations observed for body mass index, total body fat, or abdominal subcutaneous fat. Among the 512 participants with normal baseline glucose values, the

  18. Obesity and diabetes as accelerators of functional decline: can lifestyle interventions maintain functional status in high risk older adults?

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons have become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes.

  19. Obesity and Diabetes as Accelerators of Functional Decline; Can Lifestyle Interventions Maintain Functional Status in High Risk Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons has become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes. PMID:23832077

  20. Do obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attack when exposed to indoor mold? A study based on the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Jun; Balluz, Lina; Mokdad, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Some studies show an association between asthma and obesity, but it is unknown whether exposure to mold will increase the risk of asthma attacks among obese people. This study examined whether obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attacks than non-obese adults when exposed to indoor mold. We used data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to conduct a cross-sectional analysis among 9,668 respondents who reported exposure to indoor mold. With exposure to indoor mold, weighted prevalence of asthma attacks among obese respondents was 11.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0, 20.6], which was 2.3 times as high as among the exposed non-obese respondents (5.0%, 95% CI 2.8, 8.8). This ratio was almost the same as the ratio of 2.0:1 between the obese respondents (5.7%, 95% CI 4.6, 7.2) and the non-obese respondents (2.8%, 95% CI 2.3, 3.9) when neither group had exposure to mold. The odds ratio of asthma attack among obese people was 3.10 (95% CI 1.10, 8.67) for those with exposure to mold and 2.21 (95% CI 1.54, 3.17) for those without exposure to mold after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Our study suggests that obese adults who have been exposed to indoor mold may not necessarily have a higher risk of asthma attack than obese adults who have not been exposed, even though obesity and exposure to indoor mold are both major risk factors for asthma attack. Medical professionals should not only incorporate weight-control or weight-reduction measures as the components of asthma treatment plans, but also advise asthma patients to avoid exposure to indoor mold.

  1. Prevalence of obesity and risk of chronic kidney disease among young adults in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, M.; Ismail, M. I.; Gaballah, A.; Reyad, E.; ELdeeb, S.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing body mass index (BMI) has reached epidemic proportions globally and recently emerged as strong, independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted this study to verify the prevalence of obesity and the associated risk of developing CKD among 3000 Egyptian students. The World Health Organization classification of BMI categorized study population into 1–5 groups, 1146 subjects with normal BMI (20–25), 951 subjects with BMI 25–29.9, 540 subjects with BMI 30–34.9, 225 with BMI 35–39.9, and 138 with BMI above 40. The participants were subjected to clinical examination, anthropometric measurements, laboratory investigation, including urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MS) was 31.7%, 30.1%, and 16%, respectively. The prevalence of CKD among subjects with BMI >25 was 6.5%, almost all of them had BMI >35. ACR and eGFR rose progressively with increasing BMI. Elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and MS increased the risk of development of CKD. Moreover, MAP, waist to height ratio, and triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein ratios at levels of >95 mm Hg, >0.6, and >3 had sensitivity 91.7%, 88.4%, and 86.7%; and specificity 92.3%, 96.4%, and 96.5%, respectively to predict CKD. The prevalence of obesity among Egyptian young adults was high (30.1%) and was associated with increased the risk of CKD (6.5%). PMID:27942172

  2. Sarcopenic obesity and risk of new onset depressive symptoms in older adults: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Hamer, M; Batty, G D; Kivimaki, M

    2015-12-01

    We examined the role of sarcopenic obesity as a risk factor for new-onset depressive symptoms over 6-year follow-up in a large sample of older adults. The sample comprised 3862 community dwelling participants (1779 men, 2083 women; mean age 64.6±8.3 years) without depressive symptoms at baseline, recruited from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline and 4-year follow-up, handgrip strength (kg) of the dominant hand was assessed using a hand-held dynamometer, as a measure of sarcopenia. The outcome was new onset depressive symptoms at 6-year follow-up, defined as a score of ⩾4 on the 8-item Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Sarcopenic obesity was defined as obese individuals (body mass index ⩾30 kg m(-)(2)) in the lowest tertile of sex-specific grip strength (<35.3 kg men; <19.6 kg women). Using a multivariable logistic regression model, the risk of depressive symptoms was greatest in obese adults in the lowest tertile of handgrip strength (odds ratio (OR), 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10, 2.89) compared with non-obese individuals with high handgrip strength. Participants who were obese at baseline and had a decrease of more than 1 s.d. in grip strength over 4-year follow-up were at greatest risk of depressive symptoms (OR=1.97, 95% CI, 1.22, 3.17) compared with non-obese with stable grip strength. A reduction in grip strength was associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms in obese participants only, suggesting that sarcopenic obesity is a risk factor for depressive symptoms.

  3. Treating obesity in older adults: different risks, different goals, different strategies.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Guido R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2011-03-01

    Almost 70% of adults 60 years of age and older are overweight according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. While being overweight is linked to numerous comorbidities and functional impairment, few studies have addressed obesity in elders, and even fewer have addressed sarcopenic obesity. Elder obesity requires different strategies, partly because most approved weight-reduction agents and/or surgical interventions are contraindicated in older adults. Strategies and objectives for weight loss are discussed along with the consultant pharmacist's role.

  4. Sleep duration, sleep quality, and obesity risk among older adults from six middle-income countries: findings from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Gildner, Theresa E; Liebert, Melissa A; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Josh Snodgrass, J

    2014-01-01

    Changes in sleep patterns often occur in older adults. Previous studies have documented associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and obesity risk in older individuals, yet few studies have examined these trends in lower-income countries. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from six countries to examine these relationships. Two hypotheses related to obesity risk and sleep patterns were tested using data from the first wave of the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). This longitudinal study draws on samples of older adults (>50 years old) in six middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russian Federation, and South Africa). Self-report data were used to measure sleep duration, sleep quality, lifestyle and sociodemographic information, while anthropometric measurements were collected to assess body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between sleep patterns and obesity risk while controlling for lifestyle factors. Shorter sleep durations in both men and women were significantly associated with higher BMI and WC measures (P < 0.05). Low sleep quality did not significantly contribute to increased obesity risk. Surprisingly, high sleep quality was significantly associated with increased male BMI and WC in China and India (P < 0.01). This study documented an association between short sleep duration and increased obesity risk, which is important given the global increase of obesity-related diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Detailed assessments of childhood adversity enhance prediction of central obesity independent of gender, race, adult psychosocial risk and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cynthia R; Dearing, Eric; Usher, Nicole; Trifiletti, Sarah; Zaichenko, Lesya; Ollen, Elizabeth; Brinkoetter, Mary T; Crowell-Doom, Cindy; Joung, Kyoung; Park, Kyung Hee; Mantzoros, Christos S; Crowell, Judith A

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether a novel indicator of overall childhood adversity, incorporating number of adversities, severity, and chronicity, predicted central obesity beyond contributions of "modifiable" risk factors including psychosocial characteristics and health behaviors in a diverse sample of midlife adults. The study also examined whether the overall adversity score (number of adversities × severity × chronicity) better predicted obesity compared to cumulative adversity (number of adversities), a more traditional assessment of childhood adversity. 210 Black/African Americans and White/European Americans, mean age=45.8; ±3.3 years, were studied cross-sectionally. Regression analysis examined overall childhood adversity as a direct, non-modifiable risk factor for central obesity (waist-hip ratio) and body mass index (BMI), with and without adjustment for established adult psychosocial risk factors (education, employment, social functioning) and heath behavior risk factors (smoking, drinking, diet, exercise). Overall childhood adversity was an independent significant predictor of central obesity, and the relations between psychosocial and health risk factors and central obesity were not significant when overall adversity was in the model. Overall adversity was not a statistically significant predictor of BMI. Overall childhood adversity, incorporating severity and chronicity and cumulative scores, predicts central obesity beyond more contemporaneous risk factors often considered modifiable. This is consistent with early dysregulation of metabolic functioning. Findings can inform practitioners interested in the impact of childhood adversity and personalizing treatment approaches of obesity within high-risk populations. Prevention/intervention research is necessary to discover and address the underlying causes and impact of childhood adversity on metabolic functioning. © 2013.

  6. Dysfunctional Adiposity and the Risk of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Neeland, Ian J.; Turer, Aslan T.; Ayers, Mr. Colby R.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Vega, Gloria L.; Farzaneh-Far, Ramin; Grundy, Scott M.; Khera, Amit; McGuire, Darren K.; de Lemos, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Context The risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus is heterogeneous among obese individuals. Factors that discriminate prediabetes or diabetes risk within this population have not been well characterized. A dysfunctional adiposity phenotype, characterized by excess visceral fat and insulin resistance, may contribute to diabetes development in those with obesity. Objective To investigate associations between adiposity phenotypes and risk for incident prediabetes and diabetes in a multiethnic, population-based cohort of obese adults. Design, Setting, and Participants Among 732 obese participants (body mass index ≥30) aged 30 to 65 years without diabetes or cardiovascular disease enrolled between 2000 and 2002 in the Dallas Heart Study, we measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); circulating adipokines and biomarkers of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation; and subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiac structure and function by computed tomography and MRI. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of diabetes through a median 7.0 years (interquartile range, 6.6–7.6) of follow-up. In a subgroup of 512 participants with normal fasting glucose values at baseline, incidence of the composite of prediabetes or diabetes was determined. Results Of the 732 participants (mean age, 43 years; 65% women; 71% non-white), 84 (11.5%) developed diabetes. In multivariable analysis, higher baseline visceral fat mass (odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD [1.4 kg], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.7), fructosamine level (OR per 1 SD [1.1 μmol/L], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4–2.7), fasting glucose level (OR per 1 SD [1.1 μmol/L], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4–2.6), family history of diabetes (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3–4.3), systolic blood pressure (OR per 10 mm Hg, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1–1.5), and weight gain over follow-up (OR per 1 kg, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.10) were independently associated with diabetes, with no associations observed for body mass index, total body fat, or

  7. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  8. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-06-17

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants' energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76-228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability.

  9. The emergence of cardiometabolic disease risk in Chinese children and adults: consequences of changes in diet, physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Adair, L S; Gordon-Larsen, P; Du, S F; Zhang, B; Popkin, B M

    2014-01-01

    Strong secular declines in physical activity, increased fat and salt intake, and increased obesity, especially abdominal obesity, mark China's recent nutrition transition. The China Health and Nutrition 2009 Survey collected anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood samples from more than 9,000 individuals ≥ 7 years of age. We focus on elevated blood pressure and plasma markers of diabetes, inflammation and dyslipidemia. We used international definitions of cardiometabolic risk and estimated age- and sex-specific prevalence ratios for each outcome for high waist circumference or overweight. We used logistic regression to assess each risk factor's association with diet, physical activity, overweight and abdominal obesity. Cardiometabolic risk prevalence was high in all age groups Prevalence ratios for most risk factors were nearly doubled for overweight or high waist circumference groups. Prevalence ratios were higher in younger than older adults. Low physical activity consistently predicted higher cardiometabolic risk across most outcomes and age-sex groups. The co-occurrence of overweight and high waist circumference was highly predictive of dyslipidemia, elevated glycated haemoglobin and diabetes. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and their strong association with weight status and abdominal obesity in young adults portend increases in cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. Early interventions will be required to reverse trends.

  10. The effect of childhood abuse on the risk of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Wu, Bo; Yang, Helen; Song, Xiaoyi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between childhood abuse and adult obesity. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis, which included studies that reported odds ratio (OR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Summary estimates of association were obtained using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Cochran Q and I2 statistics. A total of 22 cohort studies (3 prospective, 19 retrospective) were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.16-1.31). All 4 subcategories of abuse were associated with adult obesity: physical abuse (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.10-1.42), psychological abuse (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33), sexual abuse (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.38), and neglect (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.12-1.32). Moreover, dose-response analysis showed that severe abuse (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.14-1.1.62) was significantly associated with adult obesity compared with light/moderate abuse (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.84-1.18). Although slight publication bias was observed (Egger test P = .05), effect sizes remained statistically significant in sensitivity analyses. This research demonstrated a remarkably consistent association between childhood abuse and adult obesity. Medical practitioners need to be aware of the important role of childhood abuse in the development of obesity.

  11. A longitudinal study of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes among American Indian young adults, 1994-2008.

    PubMed

    Marley, Tennille L; Metzger, Molly W

    2015-05-07

    American Indian young adults have higher rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes than the general US population. They are also more likely than the general population to have higher rates of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes, such as poverty, frequent changes of residence, and stress. The objective of this study was to investigate possible links between these 2 sets of problems. Data from the American Indian subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used to examine potential links between obesity and type 2 diabetes and structural risk factors such as neighborhood poverty, housing mobility, and stress. We used logistic regression to explore explanatory factors. American Indians in the subsample had higher rates of poor health, such as elevated hemoglobin A1c levels, self-reported high blood glucose, self-reported diabetes, and overweight or obesity. They also had higher rates of structural risk factors than non-Hispanic whites, such as residing in poorer and more transient neighborhoods and having greater levels of stress. Self-reported stress partially mediated the increased likelihood of high blood glucose or diabetes among American Indians, whereas neighborhood poverty partially mediated their increased likelihood of obesity. Neighborhood poverty and stress may partially explain the higher rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among American Indian young adults than among non-Hispanic white young adults. Future research should explore additional neighborhood factors such as access to grocery stores selling healthy foods, proximity and safety of playgrounds or other recreational space, and adequate housing.

  12. The FTO gene is associated with a paradoxically favorable cardiometabolic risk profile in frail, obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Wingkun, Neil; Aguirre, Lina E; Kulkarny, Vibhati; Napoli, Nicola; Colleluori, Georgia; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T

    2015-12-24

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with differences in BMI, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. However, previous studies have been predominantly conducted in younger individuals across a spectrum of body weights, whereas little information is available on the older population. We examined the association of FTO gene polymorphisms with cardiometabolic risks among adults who were both obese (BMI≥30 kg/m) and older (age≥65 years). A total of 165 frail, obese older adults were genotyped for FTO (rs9939609 and rs8050136) single nucleotide polymorphisms and studied for associations with body weight and body composition, components and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, and levels of adipocytokines (e.g. leptin) and vitamin D. Carriers of the A allele (CA/AA) of the FTO single nucleotide polymorphism rs8050136 had lower body weight, BMI, body fat, and trunk fat than those without the A allele (CC genotype; all P's<0.05). Moreover, genotype CA/AA was associated with lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and carriers of this genotype showed a trend toward a lower waist circumference, resulting in a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome than in CC genotype carriers. The insulin area under the curve during the oral glucose tolerance test was lower for genotype CA/AA. Despite the lower insulin levels, the glucose area under the curve was unchanged, resulting in a higher insulin sensitivity index. Leptin levels were also lower and adiponectin and 25-hydroxyvitamin levels tended to be higher for genotype CA/AA than for genotype CC. No differences were observed for rs9939609. Unlike the results from studies in younger individuals, the risk A allele may confer a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile in obese older adults, suggesting selective survival of obese adults into old age. If confirmed in a larger sample of

  13. Risk factors for obesity in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    PubMed

    Green, Daniel M; Cox, Cheryl L; Zhu, Liang; Krull, Kevin R; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Stovall, Marilyn; Nolan, Vikki G; Ness, Kirsten K; Donaldson, Sarah S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Meacham, Lillian R; Sklar, Charles A; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L

    2012-01-20

    Many Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) participants are at increased risk for obesity. The etiology of their obesity is likely multifactorial but not well understood. We evaluated the potential contribution of demographic, lifestyle, treatment, and intrapersonal factors and self-reported pharmaceutical use to obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) among 9,284 adult (> 18 years of age) CCSS participants. Independent predictors were identified using multivariable regression models. Interrelationships were determined using structural equation modeling (SEM). Independent risk factors for obesity included cancer diagnosed at 5 to 9 years of age (relative risk [RR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.24; P = .03), abnormal Short Form-36 physical function (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33; P < .001), hypothalamic/pituitary radiation doses of 20 to 30 Gy (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.30; P = .01), and paroxetine use (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.54; P = .01). Meeting US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for vigorous physical activity (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97; P = .01) and a medium amount of anxiety (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99; P = .04) reduced the risk of obesity. Results of SEM (N = 8,244; comparative fit index = 0.999; Tucker Lewis index = 0.999; root mean square error of approximation = 0.014; weighted root mean square residual = 0.749) described the hierarchical impact of the direct predictors, moderators, and mediators of obesity. Treatment, lifestyle, and intrapersonal factors, as well as the use of specific antidepressants, may contribute to obesity among survivors. A multifaceted intervention, including alternative drug and other therapies for depression and anxiety, may be required to reduce risk.

  14. Associations between liking for fat, sweet or salt and obesity risk in French adults: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lampuré, Aurélie; Castetbon, Katia; Deglaire, Amélie; Schlich, Pascal; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-07-04

    Individual sensory liking appears to be an important determinant of dietary intake and may consequently influence weight status. Cross-sectional studies have shown positive association between fat liking and weight status and equivocal results regarding salt and sweet liking. Moreover, the contribution of dietary intake to explain this relationship has not been studied yet. We investigated the prospective association between sensory liking for fat, sweet or salt and the onset of obesity over 5 years in adults, and the mediating effect of dietary intake. We prospectively examine the risk of obesity among 24,776 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Liking scores and dietary data were assessed at baseline using a validated web-based questionnaire and 24 h records, respectively. Self-reported anthropometric data were collected using web-based questionnaire, each year during 5 years. Associations between quartiles of liking for fat, sweet or salt and obesity risk, and the mediating effect of diet were assessed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models stratified by gender, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. In both genders, sensory liking for fat was associated with an increased risk of obesity (hazard ratios for quartile 4 compared to quartile 1, men: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 2.39 (95% CI 1.39,4.11) P-trend = 0.0005, women: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 2.02 (1.51,2.71) P-trend = <0.0001). Dietary intake explained 32% in men and 52% in women of the overall variation of liking for fat in obesity. Sensory liking for sweet was associated with a decreased risk of obesity (men: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 0.51 (0.31,0.83) P-trend = 0.01, women: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 0.72 (0.54,0.96) P-trend = 0.035). No significant association between salt liking and the risk of obesity was found. Unlike sweet and salt liking, higher liking for fat appears to be a major risk factor of obesity, largely explained by dietary intake. Our findings emphasize the

  15. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position – community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12–22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents’ lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth

  16. [Yogurt consumption and reduced risk of overweight and obesity in adults].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Keshabyants, E E; Mikhaylov, N A

    2016-01-01

    Fermented dairy products comprise a large food group in Russia and are an important source of dietary nutrients like protein, calcium, fat. Obesity is a rising public health issue in Russia. Observing the role of fermented dairy in the maintenance of healthy weights is important. Current study objective was to explore the association between obesity/overweight prevalence and yogurt consumption in Russian adults. Data from RLMS-HSE 1994-2012 was used. Primary materials are available on http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/rlms-hse, http://www. hse.ru/org/hse/rlms. Data collected included dietary intake by single 24h recalls and anthropometric measures for 72.400 adults (≥ 19 y.o.). Logistic regression models were used to explore the relationships between yogurt consumption and obesity prevalence (BMI > 30.0 compared with. 18.5-25.0), controlling for age and gender. Daily average intake (g/day) of yogurt significantly increased from 1994 to 2012. Yogurt consumption decreased over 40 y.o. in both gender. Women yogurt consumption is inversely correlated with the magnitude of the BMI: the consumption of yogurt in women with normal BMI values (> 18.5-25.0) was significantly higher than in women who are overweight and/or obese (BMI > 25.0; or > 30.0). The mean values of BMI in women who ate yogurt, were significantly lower than in women not consuming yogurt. In men, the relationship between consumption of yogurt and BMI is not revealed. Thus, among women, a significant inverse association was observed between yogurt consumption and obesity (OR 0.582, CI 95% 0.497, 0.680; p < 0.001). The observed association between yogurt intake and prevalence of obesity is dependent on gender: yogurt is associated with lower obesity prevalence only in women.

  17. Health risks of obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000348.htm Health risks of obesity To use the sharing features on ... also have an increased risk of these conditions. Risk Factors Having a risk factor does not mean ...

  18. Sedentary behaviours and obesity in adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, I; Helajärvi, H; Pahkala, K; Heinonen, O J; Hirvensalo, M; Pälve, K; Tammelin, T; Yang, X; Juonala, M; Mikkilä, V; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour may contribute to the development of obesity. We investigated the relations between different types of sedentary behaviour and adiposity markers in a well-characterised adult population after controlling for a wide range of potential confounders. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Multicenter Study. Participants Sedentary time (TV viewing, computer time, reading, music/radio listening and other relaxation) was assessed with a questionnaire for 1084 women and 909 men aged 30–45 years. Other study variables included occupational and leisure-time physical activity, sleep duration, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, adherence to the recommended diet, multiple individual food items, age and genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI). Primary outcome measures BMI in kg/m2 and waist circumference (WC in cm). Results Of the different sedentary behaviour types, TV viewing was most consistently related to higher BMI and WC, both in men and women. One additional daily TV hour was associated with a 1.81±0.44 cm larger WC in women and 2 cm±0.44 cm in men (both p<0.0001). The association with TV was diluted, but remained highly significant after adjustments with all measured covariates, including several potentially obesogenic food items associated with TV viewing. The intakes of food items such as sausage, beer and soft drinks were directly associated with TV viewing, while the intakes of oat and barley, fish, and fruits and berries were associated indirectly. After these adjustments, non-TV sedentary behaviour remained associated with adiposity indices only in women. Conclusions Out of the different types of sedentary behaviour, TV viewing was most consistently associated with adiposity markers in adults. Partial dilution of these associations after adjustments for covariates suggests that the obesogenic effects of TV viewing are partly mediated by

  19. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Prentice, P; Viner, R M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has complex multifactorial aetiology. It has been suggested by many, but not all, reports that earlier pubertal maturation may increase adult obesity risk. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis in both women and men, and hypothesised that any association between pubertal timing and adult obesity is likely to be confounded by childhood adiposity. In addition, we investigated whether pubertal timing is related to other cardiometabolic risk and long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and TRIP databases, with a hand search of references. Both authors independently reviewed and extracted pre-defined data from all selected papers. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.24. A total of 48 papers were identified. Out of 34 studies, 30 reported an inverse relationship between pubertal timing and adult body mass index (BMI), the main adiposity measure used. Meta-analysis of 10 cohorts showed association between early menarche (menarche <12 vs ≥12 years) and increased adult BMI, with a standardised mean difference of 0.34 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval: 0.33-0.34). Heterogeneity was large (I(2)=92%) but reduced significantly when grouped by outcome age. Late menarche (menarche ≥15 vs <15 years) was associated with decreased adult BMI, with a standardised mean difference of -0.26 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval: -0.36, -0.21) (seven cohorts). Only eight papers included data on childhood BMI; the majority reported that childhood BMI only partially attenuated association between early menarche and later obesity. Although not suitable for meta-analysis, data on cardiometabolic risk factors and puberty suggested negative association between earlier pubertal timing and cardiovascular mortality, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormal glycaemia. Earlier pubertal timing is predictive of higher adult BMI and greater risk of obesity

  20. Scoping review report: obesity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Decaria, J E; Sharp, C; Petrella, R J

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for early death, heart disease and stroke, disability and several other comorbidities. Although there is concern about the potential burden on health-care services with the aging demographic and the increasing trend of obesity prevalence in older adults, evidence on which to base management strategies is conflicting for various reasons. The analytic framework for this review is based on a scoping review methodology, and was conducted to examine what is known about the diagnosis, treatment and management of obesity in older adults. A total of 492 relevant research articles were identified using PubMed, Scirus, EBSCO, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar. The findings of this review indicate that the current WHO (World Health Organization)-recommended body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio obesity thresholds for the general adult population may not be appropriate for older adults. Alternatively, weight change or physical fitness may be more useful measures of mortality and health risk in obese older adults. Furthermore, although obesity in older adults is associated with several disorders that increase functional disability, epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity is protective against mortality in seniors. Consequently, the trend toward increasing prevalence of obesity in older adults will lead to an increase in unhealthy life years and health-care costs. The findings from this review also suggest that treatment strategies for obese older adults should focus on maintaining body weight and improving physical fitness and function rather than weight loss, and that a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise appears to be the most effective strategy. In conclusion, this review demonstrates the need for more research to clarify the definition of obesity in older adults, to establish criteria for evaluating when to treat older adults for obesity, and to develop effective

  1. Combined early and adult life risk factor associations for mid-life obesity in a prospective birth cohort: assessing potential public health impact

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; van Veldhoven, Karin; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective The combined effect of life-course influences on obesity development and thus their potential public health impact is unclear. We evaluated combined associations and predicted probabilities for early and adult life risk factors with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. Setting 1958 British birth cohort. Participants 4629 males and 4670 females with data on waist circumference. Outcome measures 45 year obesity measured via waist circumference, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. Results At 45 years, approximately a third of the population were centrally obese and a quarter were generally obese. Three factors (parental overweight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult inactivity) were consistently associated with central and general obesity. Predicted probabilities for waist obesity increased from those with none to all three risk factors (0.15–0.33 in men; 0.19–0.39 in women (ptrend<0.001)), with a similar trend for general obesity. Additional factors (adult smoking, low fibre and heavy alcohol consumption) were associated with WHR obesity, although varying by gender. Prevalence of risk factors was higher in manual than non-manual groups: for example, in men 38% versus 25%, respectively, had ≥2 risk factors for waist and general obesity. Conclusions Early-life and adult factors that are amenable to change are highly prevalent and accumulate in association with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. The increase in probabilities for mid-adult obesity associated with cumulative levels of risk factors suggests the potential for public health impact. PMID:27072572

  2. Combined early and adult life risk factor associations for mid-life obesity in a prospective birth cohort: assessing potential public health impact.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; van Veldhoven, Karin; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2016-04-12

    The combined effect of life-course influences on obesity development and thus their potential public health impact is unclear. We evaluated combined associations and predicted probabilities for early and adult life risk factors with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. 1958 British birth cohort. 4629 males and 4670 females with data on waist circumference. 45 year obesity measured via waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. At 45 years, approximately a third of the population were centrally obese and a quarter were generally obese. Three factors (parental overweight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult inactivity) were consistently associated with central and general obesity. Predicted probabilities for waist obesity increased from those with none to all three risk factors (0.15-0.33 in men; 0.19-0.39 in women (ptrend<0.001)), with a similar trend for general obesity. Additional factors (adult smoking, low fibre and heavy alcohol consumption) were associated with WHR obesity, although varying by gender. Prevalence of risk factors was higher in manual than non-manual groups: for example, in men 38% versus 25%, respectively, had ≥2 risk factors for waist and general obesity. Early-life and adult factors that are amenable to change are highly prevalent and accumulate in association with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. The increase in probabilities for mid-adult obesity associated with cumulative levels of risk factors suggests the potential for public health impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Contribution of the functional 5-HTTLPR variant of the SLC6A4 gene to obesity risk in male adults.

    PubMed

    Sookoian, Silvia; Gianotti, Tomas F; Gemma, Carolina; Burgueño, Adriana; Pirola, Carlos J

    2008-02-01

    A polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene SLC6A4 shows functionally important 44-bp insertion/deletion alleles: long (L) and short (S). We have previously found that the S allele is a genetic risk factor for obesity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the S/L variant of the SLC6A4 gene is associated with BMI as a continuous trait and also with obesity in a large sample of adult men of European ancestry included in a cross-sectional, population-based study. The study group was composed of individuals who were randomly recruited from a factory in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area and who underwent an annual health examination. We observed that among 1,329 unrelated subjects, aged 34.6 +/- 0.3 years, age-adjusted BMI values (expressed as mean +/- s.e.) for each genotype showed statistically significant differences across genotypic groups (LL: 25.4 +/- 0.2, LS: 26.0 +/- 0.1 and SS: 26.7 +/- 0.2, P < 0.0002). In addition, association tests showed that the 5-HTTLPR-genotype distribution was significantly different between 692 lean (BMI < or = 25 kg/m2) and 637 obese (BMI > or = 27 kg/m2) individuals. We found a 1.36 odds ratio (OR) (95% CI 1.01-1.85) for obesity in SS carriers in comparison with LL carriers, P = 0.026. In conclusion, our findings indicate that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism may be linked with BMI and also with obesity and/or overweight in adult male population, reinforcing the role of the serotonin transporter as a risk factor for the obesity phenotype and suggesting potential new avenues for its pharmacological treatment.

  4. Weight loss, exercise or both and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese older adults: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bouchonville, M; Armamento-Villareal, R; Shah, K; Napoli, N; Sinacore, D R; Qualls, C; Villareal, D T

    2014-03-01

    Obesity exacerbates the age-related decline in insulin sensitivity and is associated with risk for cardiometabolic syndrome in older adults; however, the appropriate treatment for obese older adults is controversial. To determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese older adults. One-hundred and seven obese (body mass index (BMI)≥30 kg m(-2)) older (≥65 years) adults with physical frailty were randomized to control group, diet group, exercise group and diet-exercise group for 1 year. Outcomes for this study included changes in insulin sensitivity index (ISI), glucose tolerance, central obesity, adipocytokines and cardiometabolic syndrome. Although similar increases in ISI occurred in the diet-exercise and diet groups at 6 months, the ISI improved more in the diet-exercise than in the diet group at 12 months (2.4 vs 1.2; between-group difference, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-2.1); no changes in ISI occurred in both exercise and control groups. The diet-exercise and diet groups had similar improvements in insulin area under the curve (AUC) (-2.9 and -2.9 × 10(3) mg min dl(-1)), glucose AUC (-1.4 and -2.2 × 10(3)mg min dl(-1)), visceral fat (-787 and -561 cm(3)), tumor necrosis factor (-17.0 and -12.8 pg ml(-1)), adiponectin (5.0 and 4.0 ng ml(-1)), waist circumference (-8.2 and -8.4 cm), triglyceride (-30.7 and -24.3 g dl(-1)) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (-15.9 and -13.1/-4.9 and -6.7 mm Hg), while no changes in these parameters occurred in both exercise and control groups. The cardiometabolic syndrome prevalence decreased by 40% in the diet-exercise and by 15% in the diet group. Body weight decreased similarly in the diet-exercise and diet groups (-8.6 and -9.7 kg) but not in the exercise and control groups. In frail, obese older adults, lifestyle interventions associated with weight loss improve insulin sensitivity and other cardiometabolic

  5. Weight Loss, Exercise, or Both and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese Older Adults: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bouchonville, Matthew; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Shah, Krupa; Napoli, Nicola; Sinacore, David R.; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity exacerbates the age-related decline in insulin sensitivity and is associated with risk for cardiometabolic syndrome in older adults; however, the appropriate treatment for obese older adults is controversial. Objective To determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese older adults. Design One-hundred-seven obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2) older (≥65 yrs) adults with physical frailty were randomized to control group, diet group, exercise group, and diet-exercise group for 1 year. Outcomes for this study included change in insulin sensitivity index (ISI), glucose tolerance, central obesity, adipocytokines, and cardiometabolic syndrome. Results Although similar increases in ISI occurred in the diet-exercise and diet groups at 6 months, the ISI improved more in the diet-exercise than in the diet group at 12 months (2.4 vs. 1.2; between-group difference, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.2-2.1); no changes in ISI occurred in both exercise and control groups. The diet-exercise and diet groups had similar improvements in insulin area under the curve (AUC) (−2.9 and −2.9 ×103mg.min/dl), glucose AUC (−1.4 and −2.2×103mg.min/dl), visceral fat (−787 and −561 cm3), tumor-necrosis factor (−17.0 and −12.8 pg/mL), adiponectin (5.0 and 4.0 ng/mL), waist circumference (−8.2 and −8.4 cm), triglyceride (−30.7 and −24.3 g/dL), and systolic/diastolic BP (−15.9 and −13.1/−4.9 and −6.7 mmHg), while no changes in these parameters occurred in both exercise and control groups. The cardiometabolic syndrome prevalence decreased by 40% in the diet-exercise and by 15% in the diet group. Body weight decreased similarly in the diet-exercise and diet groups (−8.6 and −9.7kg) but not in the exercise and control groups. Conclusions In frail, obese older adults, lifestyle interventions associated with weight loss improve insulin sensitivity and other cardiometabolic risk factors, but continued

  6. Development of a self-assessment score for metabolic syndrome risk in non-obese Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Kim, Youngyo; Park, Taeyoung

    2017-03-01

    There is a need for simple risk scores that identify individuals at high risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study was performed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for MetS risk in non-obese Korean adults. Data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2007-2009 were used to develop a MetS risk score. We included a total of 5,508 non-obese participants aged 19-64 years who were free of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, stroke, angina, or cancer. Multivariable logistic regression model coefficients were used to assign each variable category a score. The validity of the score was assessed in an independent population survey performed in 2010 and 2011, KNHANES V (n=3,892). Age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, dairy consumption, dietary habit of eating less salty and food insecurity were selected as categorical variables. The MetS risk score value varied from 0 to 13, and a cut-point MetS risk score of >=7 was selected based on the highest Youden index. The cut-point provided a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 61%, positive predictive value of 14%, and negative predictive value of 98%, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78. Consistent results were obtained in the validation data sets. This simple risk score may be used to identify individuals at high risk for MetS without laboratory tests among non-obese Korean adults. Further studies are needed to verify the usefulness and feasibility of this score in various settings.

  7. Dyslipidemia, obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Doupa, Dominique; Seck, Sidy Mohamed; Dia, Charles Abdou; Diallo, Fatou Agne; Kane, Modou Oumy; Kane, Adama; Gueye, Pape Madieye; Mbaye, Maimouna Ndour; Gueye, Lamine; Jobe, Modou

    2014-01-01

    According to the WHO, 50% of deaths worldwide (40.1% in developing countries) are due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Of these chronic NCDs, cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. The Framingham study has shown the importance of hypercholesterolemia as a primary risk factor. In Senegal, the epidemiology of dyslipidemia and obesity are still poorly understood due to the lack of comprehensive studies on their impact on the general population. This motivated this study to look into the key epidemiologic and socio-demographic determinants of these risk factors. It was a cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey which included 1037 individuals selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire following the WHO STEPwise approach. Socio-demographic, health and biomedical variables were collected. P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The average age was 48 years with a female predominance (M: F of 0.6). The literacy rate was 65.2% and 44.7% of participants were from rural areas. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hyperLDLemia, hypoHDLemia, hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia were 56%, 22.5%, 12.4%, 7.11% and 1.9% respectively. One in four was obese (BMI> 30kg/m2) and 34.8% had abdominal obesity. The main factors significantly associated with dyslipidemia were obesity, urban dwelling, physical inactivity and a family history of dyslipidemia. The prevalence of dyslipidemia, obesity and other risk factors in the population was high needing immediate care for those affected and implementation of prevention strategies.

  8. Dyslipidemia, obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Doupa, Dominique; Seck, Sidy Mohamed; Dia, Charles Abdou; Diallo, Fatou Agne; Kane, Modou Oumy; Kane, Adama; Gueye, Pape Madieye; Mbaye, Maimouna Ndour; Gueye, Lamine; Jobe, Modou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction According to the WHO, 50% of deaths worldwide (40.1% in developing countries) are due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Of these chronic NCDs, cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. The Framingham study has shown the importance of hypercholesterolemia as a primary risk factor. In Senegal, the epidemiology of dyslipidemia and obesity are still poorly understood due to the lack of comprehensive studies on their impact on the general population. This motivated this study to look into the key epidemiologic and socio-demographic determinants of these risk factors. Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey which included 1037 individuals selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire following the WHO STEPwise approach. Socio-demographic, health and biomedical variables were collected. P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The average age was 48 years with a female predominance (M: F of 0.6). The literacy rate was 65.2% and 44.7% of participants were from rural areas. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hyperLDLemia, hypoHDLemia, hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia were 56%, 22.5%, 12.4%, 7.11% and 1.9% respectively. One in four was obese (BMI> 30kg/m2) and 34.8% had abdominal obesity. The main factors significantly associated with dyslipidemia were obesity, urban dwelling, physical inactivity and a family history of dyslipidemia. Conclusion The prevalence of dyslipidemia, obesity and other risk factors in the population was high needing immediate care for those affected and implementation of prevention strategies. PMID:25815102

  9. Pain and obesity in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B; Nalamachu, Srinivas; Balestrieri, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and pain are common problems affecting the older adult and a possible relationship between the two is considered. Obesity and pain themselves are significant burdens on the individual, the healthcare system, and society as a whole and they can lead to emotional conditions such as stress, anxiety, and depression - which lead to further healthcare utilization and burden. Cross-sectional studies have revealed a high correlation between pain and obesity and a few longitudinal studies implicate obesity as a risk factor for the development of pain and the associated reduction in quality of life. Obesity leads to pain due to mechanical stress and metabolic disruptions, so mitigating obesity may help reduce the risk of developing pain and improve recovery from pain. More research is warranted to elucidate the mechanistic links between obesity and pain and to determine the optimal treatment strategies for reducing these comorbities. Reducing obesity could reduce pain medication burden.

  10. Active commuting is associated with a lower risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in Chilean adults.

    PubMed

    Steell, Lewis; Garrido-Méndez, Alex; Petermann, Fanny; Díaz-Martínez, Ximena; Martínez, María Adela; Leiva, Ana María; Salas-Bravo, Carlos; Alvarez, Cristian; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Rodríguez, Fernando; Poblete-Valderrama, Felipe; Floody, Pedro Delgado; Aguilar-Farias, Nicolás; Willis, Naomi D; Celis-Morales, Carlos A

    2017-07-28

    There is limited evidence on how active commuting is associated with health benefits in developing countries. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the associations between active commuting and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in the Chilean adult population. In total, 5157 participants from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-10 were included in this cross-sectional study. Active commuting was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ v2). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured and used to define obesity and central obesity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome were determined using WHO and updated ATPIII-NCEP criteria, respectively. The main finding of this study is that a 30 min increase in active commuting is associated with lower odds for BMI > 25.0 kg m-2 (0.93 [95% CI: 0.88-0.98, P = 0.010]). Similarly, the odds for central obesity was 0.87 [0.82-0.92, P < 0.0001]. Similar associations were found for T2D (0.81 [0.75-0.88], P < 0.0001) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.86 [0.80-0.92], P < 0.0001). Our findings show that active commuting is associated with lower adiposity and a healthier metabolic profile including lower risk for obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  11. A health assessment tool for multiple risk factors for obesity: results from a pilot study with UK adults.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Julie A; Swanson, Vivien

    2006-07-01

    Although many individual health behaviours have been implicated in the current rise in obesity levels, their confounding or cumulative effects have yet to be established. This study piloted a measure of multiple risk factors for obesity, designed to assess their relative importance at individual and population levels. A 100-item, user-friendly, self-report questionnaire, was completed by 80 adult volunteers (67% female, age range 19-73 years), and related to Body Mass Index (BMI). Dietary factors significantly related to BMI were higher amount of food consumption and more non-hunger related eating. BMI was strongly related to both negative attitudes/emotions towards and negative social influences on physical activity/exercise. Higher BMI was also related to less participation in physical activity/exercise, more sedentary leisure pursuits (e.g. TV watching) and lower general activity levels (e.g. more car usage). A regression analysis of all risk factors explained around 56% of the variance in BMI. The pilot measure was able to differentiate between weight groups on a number of risk factors. The strong associations found between BMI and attitudes, emotions and social influences on eating and activity behaviours may help explain why many diet and exercise regimes are unsuccessful. Results demonstrate that an easy-to-complete, self-report tool of multiple risk factors for obesity has potential as a health assessment tool for use by health professionals.

  12. A health assessment tool for multiple risk factors for obesity: psychometric testing and age differences in UK adults.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Julie A; Swanson, Vivien

    2008-01-01

    Although many individual health behaviours (e.g. diet/activity) have been implicated in the current rise in obesity levels, their confounding or cumulative effects have yet to be established. This study psychometrically tested a previously piloted comprehensive measure of obesity risk factors, designed to assess their relative importance at individual and population levels. A user-friendly, self-report questionnaire, completed by 359 adult volunteers (71% female, age range 18-81 years), was subjected to exploratory factor analysis and related to body mass index (BMI) and age. The final solution had 74 items and showed a clear factor structure, with 5 dietary and 5 activity factors, plus 8 unrelated factors covering dieting behaviour, alcohol consumption, sleep, and varied developmental influences. Younger respondents generally reported unhealthier behaviours. Once age was controlled for, less healthy eating, more emotional eating, higher amounts eaten, less physical activity, more use of mechanised transport, and more/less successful dieting behaviour were all strongly related to higher BMI, with lesser associations for more TV watching and less parental encouragement to be active. This easy-touse self-report measure of multiple risk factors showed good psychometric properties and has merit in determining the contribution of varied factors in the tendency to overweight and obesity. The finding that younger adults generally reported less healthy dietary and activity behaviour indicates a pressing need for early intervention.

  13. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups. For example, in 2011–2012 among adults, non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence of obesity (47.8%) followed by Hispanics (42.0%), non-Hispanic whites (33.4%), and non-Hispanic Asians ( ...

  14. Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Non-Obese and Clinically Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jamille Oliveira; Vásquez, Cecília M Passos; Santana, Gleiciane de Jesus; Silva, Natanael de Jesus; Braz, Juciene de Matos; Jesus, Amélia M Ribeiro de; Silva, Danielle Góes da; Cunha, Luana Celina Seraphim; Barbosa, Kiriaque Barra Ferreira

    2017-07-10

    The oxidative biomarkers play an important role in the genesis of cardiometabolic risk-related processes. To investigate the total antioxidant capacity of plasma and its association with cardiometabolic risk in non-obese and clinically healthy young adults. University students of the state of Sergipe, Brazil, aged between 18 and 25 years, were recruited for this study from May of 2013 and October of 2014. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters were measured and analyzed using protocols which were previously standardized and described in the literature. The measurement of plasma total antioxidant capacity was based on the ability that all the antioxidants present in the sample (plasma) have to inhibit the oxidation of the oxidizable substrate ABTS (2,2`- Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate]) to ABTS•+ by metmyoglobin. Approximately 25% of the sample presented more than one component of cardiometabolic risk. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent component. Compared to absence of components, the subjects with at least one component presented greater body weight and waist circumference, higher levels of diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose, greater total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, and lower levels of HDL-c (p < 0.05). Fasting glycemia was the only parameter which was associated with total antioxidant capacity (R2 = 0.10; β = 0.17; p = 0.001). The plasma total antioxidant capacity was not able to predict the cardiometabolic risk components due possibly to the establishment of compensatory mechanisms that become activated in physiological conditions. Os biomarcadores oxidativos exercem um importante papel na gênese dos processos relacionados ao risco cardiometabólico. Investigar a capacidade antioxidante total do plasma e sua associação com risco cardiometabólico em adultos jovens, não obesos e clinicamente saudáveis. Estudantes universitários do estado de Sergipe, Brasil, com idade entre 18 e 25 anos, foram recrutados entre maio

  15. The effects of socioeconomic status and short stature on overweight, obesity and the risk of metabolic complications in adults

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Alejandro Estrada; Rueda, Juan Diego Gomez; Aguirre, Cristina Carreño; López, Lorena Patricia Mancilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to observe the relationship between socioeconomic status, height and nutritional problems related to obesity, overweight and risk of metabolic complications in men and women of Medellin (Colombia). Methods: cross-sectional study with a sample of 5556 adults between 18 and 69 years of age. We assessed weight, height and waist circumference. Socioeconomic variables were evaluated by family income, socioeconomic stratum and academic level achieved. Results: we found that in men and women the height reached in adulthood is associated with socioeconomic conditions as measured by the socioeconomic strata and family income. In women, height, age, and socioeconomic strata are associated with obesity, overweight and risk of obesity, and risk of metabolic complications. Conclusion: These results are not only from individual unhealthy habits, such as eating patterns based on high density foods combined with low energy expenditure, but also from the cumulative effect of food deprivation throughout life. Therefore, policies intended to prevent them should take a preventive approach that begins before birth and continues during childhood and adulthood. PMID:24892612

  16. Timing of energy intake during the day is associated with the risk of obesity in adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, J B; Patterson, R E; Ang, A; Emond, J A; Shetty, N; Arab, L

    2014-04-01

    The timing of energy intake is a modifiable behaviour that may influence energy regulation and the risk of obesity. We examined the associations of energy intake in the morning, midday and evening with body mass index (BMI) (n = 239). Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from the University of California, Los Angeles Energetics Study. Energy intake was assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls and stratified by time-of-day: morning (00.00 h to 11.00 h), midday (11.00 h to 17.00 h) and evening (17.00 h to 00.00 h). Sensitivity analysis was conducted among 'true-reporters', whose self-reported energy intake was ±25% of total energy expenditure measured by doubly-labelled water (n = 99). Logistic regression models were performed adjusting for age, sex, race, education, total daily energy intake and physical activity. Energy intake in the morning was not associated with BMI. Participants who consumed ≥33% (versus <33%) of their daily energy intake at 12.00 h were (nonsignificantly) less likely to be overweight/obese [odds ratio (OR) = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.37-1.24] and this association was stronger and statistically significant among true-reporters (OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.12-0.95). Those who consumed ≥33% of daily energy intake in the evening were two-fold more likely overweight/obese (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.03-3.89), although this association was not significant among true-reporters (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 0.60-7.29). These data indicate that eating more of the day's total energy intake at midday is associated with a lower risk of being overweight/obese, whereas consuming more in the evening is associated with a higher risk. Randomised trials are needed to test whether shifting energy intake earlier in the day could have a regulatory effect with respect to reducing intake in the evening, thereby promoting weight loss and maintenance. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Incident Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Between Young Adulthood and Middle Age by Religious Involvement: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Feinstein, Matthew; Liu, Kiang; Ning, Hongyan; Fitchett, George; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Religious involvement has been associated with improved health outcomes but greater obesity in older adults. No longitudinal study of young adults has examined the prospective association of religious involvement with incident cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) and subclinical disease (subCVD). Methods We included 2433 participants of the CARDIA study, aged 20 to 32 in 1987 when religiosity was assessed, who were followed for 18 years. Multivariable-adjusted regression models were fitted to assess prospective associations of frequency of religious participation at baseline with incidence of RFs and prevalence of subCVD after 18 years’ follow up. Results High frequency of religious participation was associated with a significantly greater incidence of obesity in unadjusted models (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.14 – 1.73) and demographic-adjusted models (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09 – 1.65) but not after additional adjustment for baseline RFs (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.97 – 1.41). When religious participation was treated dichotomously, any religious participation, compared with none, was associated with significantly lower subCVD. Conclusions Frequent religious participants are more likely to become obese between young adulthood and middle age; this association is confounded by demographic and other factors. Nonetheless, young adults with frequent participation may represent an opportunity for obesity prevention. PMID:22155479

  18. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors among Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas J; Hills, Andrew P

    2014-04-10

    This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health check medical records from the Changshu and Beijing Fangshan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis was used to extract dietary pattern factors. Log binomial regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and chronic disease related risk factors. Four factors were found through factor analysis. A high level of internal consistency was obtained, with a high Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.83. Cluster analysis identified three dietary patterns: healthy diet, Western diet, and balanced diet. Findings in this sample of Chinese adults correspond to those reported in previous studies, indicating that a Western diet is significantly related to likelihood of having obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The identification of distinct dietary patterns among Chinese older adults and the nutritional status of people with chronic diseases suggest that the three dietary patterns have a reasonable level of discriminant validity. This study provides evidence that a FFQ is a valid and reliable tool to assess the dietary patterns of individuals with chronic diseases in small- to medium-size urban and rural settings in China. It also validates the significant association between dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic conditions. Clinical diagnosis of chronic disease further confirmed this relationship in Chinese older adults.

  19. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults.

  20. Effects of vibration training in reducing risk of slip-related falls among young adults with obesity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Munoz, Jose; Han, Long-Zhu; Yang, Fei

    2017-05-24

    This study examined the effects of controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing risk of slip-related falls in people with obesity. Twenty-three young adults with obesity were randomly assigned into either the vibration or placebo group. The vibration and placebo groups respectively received 6-week vibration and placebo training on a side-alternating vibration platform. Before and after the training, the isometric knee extensors strength capacity was measured for the two groups. Both groups were also exposed to a standardized slip induced by a treadmill during gait prior to and following the training. Dynamic stability and fall incidences responding to the slip were also assessed. The results indicated that vibration training significantly increased the muscle strength and improved dynamic stability control at recovery touchdown after the slip occurrence. The improved dynamic stability could be resulted from the enhanced trunk segment movement control, which may be attributable to the strength increment caused by the vibration training. The decline of the fall rates from the pre-training slip to the post-training one was greater among the vibration group than the placebo group (45% vs. 25%). Vibration-based training could be a promising alternative or additional modality to active exercise-based fall prevention programs for people with obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neighborhood risk factors for obesity.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ P

    2007-08-01

    The goal of this study was to explore neighborhood environmental factors associated with obesity in a sample of adults living in a major U.S. metropolitan area. This was a multi-level study combining data from the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with data from the U.S. Census. A total of 15,358 subjects living in 327 zip code tabulation areas were surveyed between 1998 and 2002. The outcome was obesity (BMI >30), and independent variables assessed included individual level variables (age, education, income, smoking status, sex, black race, and Hispanic ethnicity), and zip code level variables (percentage black, percentage Hispanic, percentage with more than a high school education, retail density, establishment density, employment density, population density, the presence of a supermarket, intersection density, median household income, and density of fast food outlets). After controlling for individual level factors, median household income [relative risk (RR) = 0.992; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.990, 0.994], population density (RR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.972, 0.990), employment density (RR = 1.004; 95% CI = 1.001, 1.009), establishment density (RR = 0.981 95% CI = 0.964, 0.999), and the presence of a supermarket (RR = 0.893; 95% CI = 0.815, 0.978) were associated with obesity risk. Fast food establishment density was poorly associated with obesity risk. Where one lives may affect obesity status. Given the influence of the presence of a supermarket on obesity risk, efforts to address food access might be a priority for reducing obesity.

  2. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  3. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among 1.3 Million Adults With Overweight or Obesity, but Not Diabetes, in 10 Geographically Diverse Regions of the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Horberg, Michael; Koebnick, Corinna; Young, Deborah Rohm; Waitzfelder, Beth; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Daley, Matthew F.; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Various phenotypes of overweight and obesity pose various health risks. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of 4 commonly measured cardiometabolic risk factors (CRFs) among adults with overweight or obesity, but not diabetes, at the time of the study. Methods We analyzed data for 1,294,174 adults (aged ≥20 y) who were members of one of 4 integrated health systems. Each cohort member had a body mass index in 2012 or 2013 that indicated overweight or obesity. We determined the presence of 4 CRFs within 1 year of the first BMI measurement: elevated blood pressure (systolic ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic >85 mm Hg or ICD-9-CM [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification] diagnosis code 401.0–405.9); elevated triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL or ICD-9-CM 272.1); low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<40 mg/dL for men or <50 mg/dL for women or ICD-9-CM 272.5); and prediabetes (fasting glucose 100–125 mg/dL or HbA1c 5.7%–6.4% or ICD-9-CM 790.2x). We tested the risk of having 1 or more CRFs after adjusting for obesity class and demographic characteristics with multivariable logistic regression. Results Among participants with overweight (52.5% of the sample), 18.6% had none of the 4 CRFs. Among the 47.5% of participants with obesity, 9.6% had none; among participants with morbid obesity, 5.8% had none. Age was strongly associated with CRFs in multivariable analysis. Conclusion Almost 10% of participants with obesity had no CRFs. Overweight or obesity increases cardiometabolic risk, but the number and type of CRFs varied substantially by age, even among participants with morbid obesity. PMID:28278130

  4. Children with congenital hypothyroidism are at risk of adult obesity due to early adiposity rebound.

    PubMed

    Wong, S C; Ng, S M; Didi, M

    2004-10-01

    There is some evidence that children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are heavier than their reference population. There are few data on adults with CH. The timing of adiposity rebound (AR) in childhood has been shown to have strong correlations with adult obesity. Our aims were to study the timing of AR and factors affecting AR in children with CH. The timing of AR was examined in a retrospective study of children with CH with growth data at least up to 5 years of age. The proportion of children with CH who reached AR by 37 months and by 49 months of age were compared with healthy children and children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) described in the literature. Correlation of timing of AR with body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) at 10 years, initial severity of hypothyroidism and age at normalization of TSH were examined. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent factors associated with BMI > or = 20 (overweight) at 10 years of age. The study included 53 children (34 females and 19 males). AR had occurred by 37 months in 37.7% children with CH, in 42.7% children treated for ALL (CH vs. ALL, P = 0.58) and in 4.5% healthy British children (CH vs. normal, P < 0.0001). We found that 54.7% children with CH had reached AR compared with 21.4% of normal children (CH vs. normal, P < 0.0001) by the age of 49 months. Timing of AR showed significant negative correlation with BMI SDS at 10 years (r = -0.487, P = 0.01). There were no significant relationships between timing of AR and initial thyroid function or age at normalization of TSH. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age at AR as an independent factor associated with BMI > or = 20 at 10 years of age (P = 0.04). Children with CH showed significantly earlier AR compared to normal British children. This showed significant negative correlation with BMI SDS at 10 years. AR in CH does not appear to be directly related to the initial severity of hypothyroidism or

  5. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% orange juice ...

  6. Physical activity attenuates the influence of FTO variants on obesity risk: a meta-analysis of 218,166 adults and 19,268 children.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Qi, Lu; Brage, Soren; Sharp, Stephen J; Sonestedt, Emily; Demerath, Ellen; Ahmad, Tariq; Mora, Samia; Kaakinen, Marika; Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Holzapfel, Christina; Autenrieth, Christine S; Hyppönen, Elina; Cauchi, Stéphane; He, Meian; Kutalik, Zoltan; Kumari, Meena; Stančáková, Alena; Meidtner, Karina; Balkau, Beverley; Tan, Jonathan T; Mangino, Massimo; Timpson, Nicholas J; Song, Yiqing; Zillikens, M Carola; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Garcia, Melissa E; Johansson, Stefan; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Wu, Ying; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Zimmermann, Esther; Rivera, Natalia V; Tanaka, Toshiko; Stringham, Heather M; Silbernagel, Günther; Kanoni, Stavroula; Feitosa, Mary F; Snitker, Soren; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Metter, Jeffery; Larrad, Maria Teresa Martinez; Atalay, Mustafa; Hakanen, Maarit; Amin, Najaf; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Grøntved, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Jansson, John-Olov; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kähönen, Mika; Lutsey, Pamela L; Nolan, John J; Palla, Luigi; Pedersen, Oluf; Pérusse, Louis; Renström, Frida; Scott, Robert A; Shungin, Dmitry; Sovio, Ulla; Tammelin, Tuija H; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Lakka, Timo A; Uusitupa, Matti; Rios, Manuel Serrano; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bouchard, Claude; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Fu, Mao; Walker, Mark; Borecki, Ingrid B; Dedoussis, George V; Fritsche, Andreas; Ohlsson, Claes; Boehnke, Michael; Bandinelli, Stefania; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Mohlke, Karen L; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Isomaa, Bo; Njølstad, Pål R; Florez, Jose C; Liu, Simin; Ness, Andy; Spector, Timothy D; Tai, E Shyong; Froguel, Philippe; Boeing, Heiner; Laakso, Markku; Marmot, Michael; Bergmann, Sven; Power, Chris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Chasman, Daniel; Ridker, Paul; Hansen, Torben; Monda, Keri L; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J; Hu, Frank B; Groop, Leif C; Orho-Melander, Marju; Ekelund, Ulf; Franks, Paul W; Loos, Ruth J F

    2011-11-01

    The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268). All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r(2)>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A-) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20-1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (p(interaction)  = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio  = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19-1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio  = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24-1.36). No such interaction was found in children and adolescents. The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity.

  7. Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Progression of Insulin Resistance in Youth at Risk for Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stern, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Rachel; Zocca, Jaclyn M.; Field, Sara E.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Hubbard, Van S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether having childhood depressive symptoms is a risk factor that prospectively predicts impairment in glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A non–treatment-seeking sample of 115 children (aged 5–13 years), oversampled for being at risk for adult obesity, was assessed at baseline and again ~6 years later. Children self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children’s Depression Inventory at baseline. Insulin resistance was assessed at baseline and follow-up with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). RESULTS Children’s depressive symptoms were a significant predictor of follow-up HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, and fasting glucose in models accounting for baseline HOMA-IR, insulin, or glucose values; sex; race; baseline age; baseline BMI; change in BMI at follow-up; family history of type 2 diabetes; and time in the study (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this study, depressive symptomatology at baseline predicted the progression of insulin resistance during child and adolescent development independent of changes in BMI. Research is needed to determine whether early intervention to decrease elevated depressive symptoms in youth ameliorates later development of insulin resistance and lessens the risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21911779

  8. Prevalence and Related Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among the Adult Population in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Coll, Josep L; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors of overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) by BMI and abdominal obesity (AO) by waist-to-height ratio, (WHtR) among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands (2009-2010). A random sample (n = 1,081) of young (18-35 years) and middle-aged adults (36-55 years) were interviewed and anthropometrically measured. OW (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and OB (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) were defined according to WHO criteria. AO was defined as WHtR ≥ 0.5. Socio-economic and lifestyle determinants were considered. The overall prevalence of OW/OB and AO was 29.4% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 26.9-32.3%), 11.2% (95% CI 9.5-13.2%) and 33.1% (95% CI 30.4-36.0%), respectively. Men showed higher prevalence of OW (35.9%, 95% CI 31.6-40.5%) and AO (37.9%, 95% CI 33.6-42.5%) than women (OW 24.9%, 95% CI 21.7-28.4%; AO 29.7%, 95%CI 26.2-33.4%). Overall prevalence of OB was 11.8% (95% CI 9.1-15.1%) in men and 10.8% (95% CI 8.6-13.5%) in women. Age and no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) were main risk factors associated with OW/OB and AO. Living with at least one child at home and to be married in men as well as to be unemployed, to be born in South America, and a low level of education in women were associated with AO. Men showed higher prevalence of OW and AO than women. In both sexes, age is the main risk factor associated with OW/OB and AO; in men also the absence of LTPA plays a significant role. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults

    PubMed Central

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective: Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods: The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results: The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions: Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar. PMID:25674127

  10. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar.

  11. Obesity, fat distribution, and risk of frailty in two population-based cohorts of older adults in Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Esquinas, Esther; José García-García, Francisco; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Carnicero, José Antonio; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Gonzalez-Colaço Harmand, Magali; López-García, Esther; Alonso-Bouzón, Cristina; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate for the first time the longitudinal relationship between abdominal obesity and the onset of frailty. Study based on results from two population-based cohorts, the Seniors-ENRICA, with 1801 individuals aged ≥60, and the Toledo Study for Healthy Ageing (TSHA), with 1289 participants ≥65 years. Incident frailty was assessed with the Fried criteria. During 3.5 years of follow-up, 125 individuals with incident frailty in Seniors-ENRICA and 162 in TSHA were identified. After adjustment for the main confounders, the pooled odds ratio (pooled OR) for general obesity and risk of frailty was 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-2.28). Abdominal obesity was also associated with frailty (pooled OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.09-2.25). Compared with individuals with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and no abdominal obesity, the risk of frailty was highest among individuals with concurrent general and abdominal obesity (pooled OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.23-3.86). General obesity was associated with increased risk of exhaustion (pooled OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), low physical activity (pooled OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.05), and weakness (pooled OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.12-2.05). For abdominal obesity, results were in the same direction, although they showed statistical significance only for weakness (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11-1.80). General and abdominal obesity are associated with incident frailty in the elderly. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. European Guidelines for Obesity Management in Adults.

    PubMed

    Yumuk, Volkan; Tsigos, Constantine; Fried, Martin; Schindler, Karin; Busetto, Luca; Micic, Dragan; Toplak, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by an increase of body fat stores. It is a gateway to ill health, and it has become one of the leading causes of disability and death, affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents worldwide. In clinical practice, the body fatness is estimated by BMI, and the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (marker for higher metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk) can be assessed by waist circumference. Complex interactions between biological, behavioural, social and environmental factors are involved in regulation of energy balance and fat stores. A comprehensive history, physical examination and laboratory assessment relevant to the patient's obesity should be obtained. Appropriate goals of weight management emphasise realistic weight loss to achieve a reduction in health risks and should include promotion of weight loss, maintenance and prevention of weight regain. Management of co-morbidities and improving quality of life of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. Balanced hypocaloric diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasise. Aerobic training is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass while a programme including resistance training is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged and overweight/obese individuals. Cognitive behavioural therapy directly addresses behaviours that require change for successful weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Pharmacotherapy can help patients to maintain compliance and ameliorate obesity-related health risks. Surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of long-term weight loss. A comprehensive obesity management can only be accomplished by a multidisciplinary obesity management team. We conclude that physicians have a responsibility to recognise obesity as a disease and help obese patients with appropriate prevention and treatment. Treatment should be based on

  13. [Sex differences in the relationship between vigorous vs. moderate intensity exercise and risk markers of overweight and obesity in healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; González-Ruíz, Katherine; García, Sophya; Agredo-Zúñiga, Ricardo Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Several studies have extensively documented the benefits of moderate intensity physical training for reducing the risk of cardiovascular death in the management of overweight and obesity. However, the benefits of vigorous intensity training are small. To examine sex differences in the relationship between vigorous vs. moderate intensity exercise and risk markers for overweight and obesity in healthy adults. A cross-sectional, descriptive study in 304 healthy subjects (n=218 men, n=86 women). The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to stratify exercise intensity into two categories, moderate and vigorous. Body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) were calculated, and waist circumference (WC) was measured as risk markers of overweight and obesity. No significant differences were found in risk markers of overweight and obesity in the male group depending on exercise intensityh. As compared to women training at moderate intensity, those making vigorous exercise had lower BMI (25.7±3.0 kg/m(2) vs.22.5±1.7 kg/m(2)), WC (79.2±6.8 cm vs. 76.0±3.1 cm), and BF (33.5±2.6% vs. 28.1±5.3%) levels (P<0.05 for all). Vigorous intensity training is associated with lower values of markers of overweight and obesity in women, but not in men. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Obesity, lifestyle risk-factors, and health service outcomes among healthy middle-aged adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Alter, David A; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Franklin, Barry; Austin, Peter C; Chong, Alice; Oh, Paul I; Tu, Jack V; Stukel, Therese A

    2012-08-04

    The extent to which uncomplicated obesity among an otherwise healthy middle-aged population is associated with higher longitudinal health-care expenditures remains unclear. To examine the incremental long-term health service expenditures and outcomes associated with uncomplicated obesity, 9398 participants of the 1994-1996 National Population Health Survey were linked to administrative data and followed longitudinally forward for 11.5 years to track health service utilization costs and death. Patients with pre-existing heart disease, those who were 65 years of age and older, and those with self-reported body mass indexes of <18.5 kg/m² at inception were excluded. Propensity-matching was used to compare obesity (+/- other baseline risk-factors and lifestyle behaviours) with normal-weight healthy controls. Cost-analyses were conducted from the perspective of Ontario's publicly-funded health care system. Obesity as an isolated risk-factor was not associated with significantly higher health-care costs as compared with normal weight matched controls (Canadian $8,294.67 vs. Canadian $7,323.59, P = 0.27). However, obesity in combination with other lifestyle factors was associated with significantly higher cumulative expenditures as compared with normal-weight healthy matched controls (CAD$14,186.81 for those with obesity + 3 additional risk-factors vs. CAD$7,029.87 for those with normal BMI and no other risk-factors, P < 0.001). The likelihood that obese individuals developed future diabetes and hypertension also rose markedly when other lifestyle factors, such as smoking, physical inactivity and/or psychosocial distress were present at baseline. The incremental health-care costs associated with obesity was modest in isolation, but increased significantly when combined with other lifestyle risk-factors. Such findings have relevance to the selection, prioritization, and cost-effective targeting of therapeutic lifestyle interventions.

  15. Serum uric acid is independently and linearly associated with risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Qin; He, Chun-Mei; Chen, Ning; Wang, Dongmei; Shi, Xiulin; Liu, Yongwen; Zeng, Xin; Yan, Bing; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xiaoying; Li, Xuejun; Li, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the independent association and potential pathways between serum uric acid (SUA) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 1365 community-living obese Chinese adults who received hepatic ultrasonography scanning were included. The prevalence rates of NAFLD were 71.5% for men and 53.8% for women. Compared with controls, NAFLD subjects showed significantly increased SUA levels (333.3 ± 84.9 v.s. 383.4 ± 93.7 μmol/L) and prevalence rate of hyperuricemia (HUA) (25.7% v.s. 47.3%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for insulin resistance (IR), components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and other potential confounders, elevated SUA is independently associated with increased risk of NAFLD, with the adjusted OR of 1.528–2.031 (p < 0.001). By using multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) modeling, the best FP transformation model shows that SUA was independently and linearly associated with risk of NAFLD. The one-pathway model by using structural equation modeling (SEM) about the relationships among SUA, IR, components of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD fits well (χ2 = 57.367, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.998; TLI = 0.992; and RMSEA = 0.048) and shows SUA might increase the risk of NAFLD directly besides of the indirect effects through increasing fasting insulin, blood pressure, triglyceride and decreasing HDL-C levels. Our results imply that elevated SUA may play an important role in NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:27924915

  16. High risk for obstructive sleep apnea in relation to hypertension among southeast Asian young adults: role of obesity as an effect modifier.

    PubMed

    Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Chen, Xiaoli; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to hypertension among middle-aged and older adults in Western countries. Few studies have focused on young adults, especially those in Southeast Asian countries undergoing epidemiologic transitions and experiencing elevated noncommunicable disease burden. We investigated associations of high risk for OSA with hypertension among Asian young adults. A total of 2,911 college students in Thailand participated in this study. The high risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measurements were taken by trained research staff. Elevated BP and hypertension were defined as BP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg and ≥ 140/90 mm Hg, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of elevated BP and hypertension. Stratified analyses were conducted to examine whether observed associations varied by weight status. High risk for OSA was significantly associated with elevated BP (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.68-3.39) and hypertension (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.57-4.15) after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. When body mass index was further controlled for, observed associations were greatly attenuated. The associations were only evident among overweight and obese students. The high risk for OSA among overweight and obese young adults is associated with elevated BP and hypertension. Enhanced efforts directed toward screening and diagnosing OSA and weight control among young adults could be one strategy for improving cardiovascular health.

  17. Therapeutic potential of green tea on risk factors for type 2 diabetes in obese adults - a review.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M A; Silva, D M; de Morais, A C; Mota, J F; Botelho, P B

    2016-12-01

    Green tea has been associated with positive effects in the treatment of obesity and other associated comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. These benefits are thought to be related to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of green tea and to the reduction in body fat percentage exhibited by its bioactive compounds. The predominant active compounds in green tea are flavonoid monomers known as catechins, in particular epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which is the most abundant and most effective catechin in metabolic care, particularly among obese patients. The objective of this review was to investigate the effects of green tea on body composition, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance, risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals and the mechanisms that underlie the modulatory actions of green tea compounds on these risk factors. Although green tea has therapeutic potential in the treatment of obese individuals, the findings of this review demonstrate the need for a greater number of studies to confirm the positive effects of green tea, especially regarding the modulation of obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Association of bariatric surgery with risk of acute care use for hypertension-related disease in obese adults: population-based self-controlled case series study.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yuichi J; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Iso, Hiroyasu; Brown, David F M; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2017-08-23

    Hypertension carries a large societal burden. Obesity is known as a risk factor for hypertension. However, little is known as to whether weight loss interventions reduce the risk of hypertension-related adverse events, such as acute care use (emergency department [ED] visit and/or unplanned hospitalization). We used bariatric surgery as an instrument for investigating the effect of large weight reduction on the risk of acute care use for hypertension-related disease in obese adults with hypertension. We performed a self-controlled case series study of obese patients with hypertension who underwent bariatric surgery using population-based ED and inpatient databases that recorded every bariatric surgery, ED visit, and hospitalization in three states (California, Florida, and Nebraska) from 2005 to 2011. The primary outcome was acute care use for hypertension-related disease. We used conditional logistic regression to compare each patient's risk of the outcome event during sequential 12-month periods, using pre-surgery months 13-24 as the reference period. We identified 980 obese patients with hypertension who underwent bariatric surgery. The median age was 48 years (interquartile range, 40-56 years), 74% were female, and 55% were non-Hispanic white. During the reference period, 17.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.4-20.2%) had a primary outcome event. The risk remained unchanged in the subsequent 12-month pre-surgery period (18.2% [95% CI, 15.7-20.6%]; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.02 [95% CI, 0.83-1.27]; P = 0.83). In the first 12-month period after bariatric surgery, the risk significantly decreased (10.5% [8.6-12.4%]; aOR 0.58 [95% CI, 0.45-0.74]; P < 0.0001). Similarly, the risk remained significantly reduced in the 13-24 months after bariatric surgery (12.9% [95% CI, 10.8-15.0%]; aOR 0.71 [95% CI, 0.57-0.90]; P = 0.005). By contrast, there was no significant reduction in the risk among obese patients who underwent non-bariatric surgery (i

  19. Childhood obesity affects adult metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yajun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Liang; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Yan, Yinkun; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Mi, Jie

    2015-09-01

    We seek to observe the association between childhood obesity by different measures and adult obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes. Thousand two hundred and nine subjects from "Beijing Blood Pressure Cohort Study" were followed 22.9 ± 0.5 years in average from childhood to adulthood. We defined childhood obesity using body mass index (BMI) or left subscapular skinfold (LSSF), and adult obesity as BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2). MetS was defined according to the joint statement of International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association with modified waist circumference (≥ 90/85 cm for men/women). Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or blood glucose 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or currently using blood glucose-lowering agents. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. The incidence of adult obesity was 13.4, 60.0, 48.3, and 65.1 % for children without obesity, having obesity by BMI only, by LSSF only, and by both, respectively. Compared to children without obesity, children obese by LSSF only or by both had higher risk of diabetes. After controlling for adult obesity, childhood obesity predicted independently long-term risks of diabetes (odds ratio 2.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.2-6.3) or abdominal obesity (2.7, 1.6-4.7) other than MetS as a whole (1.2, 0.6-2.4). Childhood obesity predicts long-term risk of adult diabetes, and the effect is independent of adult obesity. LSSF is better than BMI in predicting adult diabetes.

  20. Early markers of adult obesity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, T D; Farmer, A P; McCargar, L J

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this review was to evaluate factors in early childhood (≤5 years of age) that are the most significant predictors of the development of obesity in adulthood. Factors of interest included exposures/insults in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables such as socioeconomic status (SES) or birth place that could impact all three time periods. An extensive electronic and systematic search initially resulted in 8,880 citations, after duplicates were removed. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and following two screening processes, 135 studies were retained for detailed abstraction and analysis. A total of 42 variables were associated with obesity in adulthood; however, of these, only seven variables may be considered as potential early markers of obesity based on the reported associations. Possible early markers of obesity included maternal smoking and maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Probable early markers of obesity included maternal body mass index, childhood growth patterns (early rapid growth and early adiposity rebound), childhood obesity and father's employment (a proxy measure for SES in many studies). Health promotion programmes/agencies should consider these factors as reasonable targets to reduce the risk of adult obesity. PMID:22171945

  1. Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 218,166 Adults and 19,268 Children

    PubMed Central

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Qi, Lu; Brage, Soren; Sharp, Stephen J.; Sonestedt, Emily; Demerath, Ellen; Ahmad, Tariq; Mora, Samia; Kaakinen, Marika; Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Holzapfel, Christina; Autenrieth, Christine S.; Hyppönen, Elina; Cauchi, Stéphane; He, Meian; Kutalik, Zoltan; Kumari, Meena; Stančáková, Alena; Meidtner, Karina; Balkau, Beverley; Tan, Jonathan T.; Mangino, Massimo; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Song, Yiqing; Zillikens, M. Carola; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Johansson, Stefan; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Wu, Ying; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Zimmermann, Esther; Rivera, Natalia V.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Stringham, Heather M.; Silbernagel, Günther; Kanoni, Stavroula; Feitosa, Mary F.; Snitker, Soren; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Metter, Jeffery; Larrad, Maria Teresa Martinez; Atalay, Mustafa; Hakanen, Maarit; Amin, Najaf; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Grøntved, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Jansson, John-Olov; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kähönen, Mika; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Nolan, John J.; Palla, Luigi; Pedersen, Oluf; Pérusse, Louis; Renström, Frida; Scott, Robert A.; Shungin, Dmitry; Sovio, Ulla; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Lakka, Timo A.; Uusitupa, Matti; Rios, Manuel Serrano; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bouchard, Claude; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Fu, Mao; Walker, Mark; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Dedoussis, George V.; Fritsche, Andreas; Ohlsson, Claes; Boehnke, Michael; Bandinelli, Stefania; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Isomaa, Bo; Njølstad, Pål R.; Florez, Jose C.; Liu, Simin; Ness, Andy; Spector, Timothy D.; Tai, E. Shyong; Froguel, Philippe; Boeing, Heiner; Laakso, Markku; Marmot, Michael; Bergmann, Sven; Power, Chris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Chasman, Daniel; Ridker, Paul; Hansen, Torben; Monda, Keri L.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Hu, Frank B.; Groop, Leif C.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Ekelund, Ulf; Franks, Paul W.; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268). Methods and Findings All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r 2>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A−) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20–1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (p interaction  = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio  = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19–1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio  = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24–1.36). No such interaction was found in children and adolescents. Conclusions The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:22069379

  2. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    PubMed Central

    Sodjinou, Roger; Agueh, Victoire; Fayomi, Benjamin; Delisle, Hélène

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS) was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income). Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%), abdominal obesity (32%), hypertension (23%), and low HDL-cholesterol (13%). Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%). After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the rise of diet

  3. Obesity, lifestyle risk-factors, and health service outcomes among healthy middle-aged adults in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent to which uncomplicated obesity among an otherwise healthy middle-aged population is associated with higher longitudinal health-care expenditures remains unclear. Methods To examine the incremental long-term health service expenditures and outcomes associated with uncomplicated obesity, 9398 participants of the 1994–1996 National Population Health Survey were linked to administrative data and followed longitudinally forward for 11.5 years to track health service utilization costs and death. Patients with pre-existing heart disease, those who were 65 years of age and older, and those with self-reported body mass indexes of <18.5 kg/m2 at inception were excluded. Propensity-matching was used to compare obesity (+/− other baseline risk-factors and lifestyle behaviours) with normal-weight healthy controls. Cost-analyses were conducted from the perspective of Ontario’s publicly-funded health care system. Results Obesity as an isolated risk-factor was not associated with significantly higher health-care costs as compared with normal weight matched controls (Canadian $8,294.67 vs. Canadian $7,323.59, P = 0.27). However, obesity in combination with other lifestyle factors was associated with significantly higher cumulative expenditures as compared with normal-weight healthy matched controls (CAD$14,186.81 for those with obesity + 3 additional risk-factors vs. CAD$7,029.87 for those with normal BMI and no other risk-factors, P < 0.001). The likelihood that obese individuals developed future diabetes and hypertension also rose markedly when other lifestyle factors, such as smoking, physical inactivity and/or psychosocial distress were present at baseline. Conclusions The incremental health-care costs associated with obesity was modest in isolation, but increased significantly when combined with other lifestyle risk-factors. Such findings have relevance to the selection, prioritization, and cost-effective targeting of therapeutic

  4. Weighty concerns: the growing prevalence of obesity among older adults.

    PubMed

    Houston, Denise K; Nicklas, Barbara J; Zizza, Claire A

    2009-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity among older adults has increased during the past 20 years and will affect both medical and social services. Along with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and several cancers, obesity is associated with increased risk of physical and cognitive disability. However, relatively little attention has been given to the issue of weight management among community-dwelling older adults. Intentional weight loss in obese older adults has not been widely advocated by health care providers due to the uncertainty of whether the benefits outweigh the risks. Limited data in older adults show that intentional weight loss is effective in improving diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical function. This review describes the changes in body composition associated with aging, the consequences of obesity in older adults, and the effect of intentional weight loss on chronic disease risk factors and physical function. Recommendations for weight loss in obese older adults that minimize the likelihood of adverse effects on muscle mass, bone density, or other aspects of nutritional status are reviewed. Specific recommendations for macronutrient intake, in particular protein, and selected micronutrients, vitamin D and B-12, as well as dietary fiber, and fluid intake as part of a hypocaloric diet and recommendations for physical activity are described. As part of the health professionals team, dietetics practitioners need to be able to guide and manage weight loss treatment options on an individual basis by evaluating the potential benefits against the potential risks in obese older adults.

  5. Elevated circulating irisin is associated with lower risk of insulin resistance: association and path analyses of obese Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiulin; Lin, Mingzhu; Liu, Changqin; Xiao, Fangsen; Liu, Yongwen; Huang, Peiying; Zeng, Xin; Yan, Bing; Liu, Suhuan; Li, Xiaoying; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun; Li, Zhibin

    2016-07-29

    Evidence on the role of irisin in insulin resistance is limited and controversial, and pathways between them remain unknown. We aimed to examine the independent effects of circulating irisin and different adiposity measurements, as well as their potential interactions, on insulin resistance. We also aimed to explore possible pathways among circulating irisin, adiposity, glucose and insulin levels and insulin resistance. A cross-sectional study of 1,115 community- living obese Chinese adults, with data collection on clinical characteristics, glucose and lipid metabolic parameters and circulating irisin levels. Among the 1,115 subjects, 667 (59.8 %) were identified as insulin-resistance, and showed significantly decreased serum irisin than their controls (log-transformed irisin: 1.19 ± 2.34 v.s. 1.46 ± 2.05 ng/ml, p = 0.042). With adjustment for potential confounders, elevated circulating irisin was significantly associated with reduced risk of insulin resistance, with adjusted odds ratio per standard deviation increase of irisin of 0.871 (0.765-0.991, p = 0.036). As for different adiposity measurements, body fat percentage, but neither BMI nor waist, was significantly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance (OR: 1.152 (1.041-1.275), p = 0.006). No significant interaction effect between serum irisin and adiposity on insulin resistance was found. A one pathway model about the relationship between serum irisin and insulin resistance fits well (χ (2) = 44.09, p < 0.001; CFI-0.994; TLI =0.986; and RMSEA = 0.067), and shows that elevated circulating irisin might improve insulin resistance indirectly through lowering fasting insulin levels (standardized path coefficient = -0.046, p = 0.032). Elevated circulating irisin is associated with lower risk of insulin resistance indirectly through lowering fasting insulin.

  6. Obesity does not increase the risk of chronic low back pain when genetics are considered. A prospective study of Spanish adult twins.

    PubMed

    Dario, Amabile Borges; Loureiro Ferreira, Manuela; Refshauge, Kathryn; Luque-Suarez, Alejandro; Ordoñana, Juan Ramon; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique

    2017-02-01

    were found for activity-limiting LBP and care-seeking due to LBP. After the adjustment for genetics and early environmental factors shared by twins, the non-significant results remained unchanged. After 2 to 4 years, obesity-related measures did not increase the risk of developing chronic LBP or care-seeking for LBP with or without adjustment for familial factors such as genetics in Spanish adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Indicated prevention of adult obesity: reference data for weight normalization in overweight children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Pediatric obesity is a major risk factor for adult obesity. Indicated prevention--that is, helping overweight or obese youth attain non-overweight status--has been suggested to prevent adult obesity. This study aimed to support the notion of indicated prevention by demonstrating that rel...

  8. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Olivia Santos; de Camargo, Vinicius Tadeu Nunes; Gutierrez, Fernanda Almeida; Martins, Patricia Fátima de Oliveira; Passos, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Momesso, Cesar Miguel; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,), Overweight Group (OVG) and Obese Group (OBG). We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength), cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine) and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha). There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals.

  9. Benefits of Regular Exercise on Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Fernanda Almeida; Martins, Patricia Fátima de Oliveira; Passos, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Momesso, Cesar Miguel; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that increases the risk of several well-known co-morbidities. There is a complicated relationship between adipokines and low-grade inflammation in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity practices have beneficial health effects on obesity and related disorders such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of 6 and 12 months of moderate physical training on the levels of adipokines and CVD markers in normal weight, overweight and obese volunteers. The 143 participants were followed up at baseline and after six and twelfth months of moderate regular exercise, 2 times a week, for 12 months. The volunteers were distributed into 3 groups: Normal Weight Group (NWG,), Overweight Group (OVG) and Obese Group (OBG). We evaluated blood pressure, resting heart rate, anthropometric parameters, body composition, fitness capacity (VO2max and isometric back strength), cardiovascular markers (CRP, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, homocysteine) and adipokine levels (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha). There were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters and body composition in any of the groups following 6 and 12 months of exercise training. Leptin, IL-6 levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in OBG before the training. Regular exercise decreased HDL-c, leptin, adiponectin and resistin levels and diastolic blood pressure in OVG. In OBG, exercise diminished HDL-c, homocysteine, leptin, resistin, IL-6, adiponectin. Moderate exercise had no effect on the body composition; however, exercise did promote beneficial effects on the low-grade inflammatory state and CVD clinical markers in overweight and obese individuals. PMID:26474157

  10. The Impact of Obesity and Diabetes on the Risk of Disease and Death due to Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infections in Adults.

    PubMed

    Langley, Gayle; Hao, Yongping; Pondo, Tracy; Miller, Lisa; Petit, Susan; Thomas, Ann; Lindegren, Mary Louise; Farley, Monica M; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Como-Sabetti, Kathryn; Harrison, Lee H; Baumbach, Joan; Watt, James; Van Beneden, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We analyzed whether obesity and diabetes were associated with iGAS infections and worse outcomes among an adult US population. We determined the incidence of iGAS infections using 2010-2012 cases in adults aged ≥ 18 years from Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs), a population-based surveillance system, as the numerator. For the denominator, we used ABCs catchment area population estimates from the 2011 to 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. The relative risk (RR) of iGAS was determined by obesity and diabetes status after adjusting for age group, gender, race, and other underlying conditions through binomial logistic regression. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether obesity or diabetes was associated with increased odds of death due to iGAS compared to normal weight and nondiabetic patients, respectively. Between 2010 and 2012, 2927 iGAS cases were identified. Diabetes was associated with an increased risk of iGAS in all racial groups (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] ranged from 2.71 to 5.08). Grade 3 obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 40) was associated with an increased risk of iGAS for whites (aRR = 3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.00-4.01). Grades 1-2 (BMI = 30.0-<40.0) and grade 3 obesity were associated with an increased odds of death (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, [95% CI, 1.05, 2.29] and OR = 1.62 [95% CI, 1.01, 2.61], respectively) when compared to normal weight patients. These results may help target vaccines against GAS that are currently under development. Efforts to develop enhanced treatment regimens for iGAS may improve prognoses for obese patients. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Targeting Binge Eating for the Prevention of Excessive Weight Gain: Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents at High-Risk for Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Wilfley, Denise E.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Glasofer, Deborah R.; Salaita, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    The most prevalent disordered eating pattern described in overweight youth is loss of control (LOC) eating, during which individuals experience an inability to control the type or amount of food they consume. LOC eating is associated cross-sectionally with greater adiposity in children and adolescents, and appears to predispose youth to gain weight or body fat above that expected during normal growth, thus likely contributing to obesity in susceptible individuals. No prior studies have examined whether LOC eating can be decreased by interventions in children or adolescents without full-syndrome eating disorders, or whether programs reducing LOC eating prevent inappropriate weight gain attributable to LOC eating. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a form of therapy that was designed to treat depression and has been adapted for the treatment of eating disorders, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing binge eating episodes and inducing weight stabilization among adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model of excessive weight gain in adolescents at high-risk for adult obesity who engage in LOC eating and associated overeating patterns. A rationale is provided for interpersonal psychotherapy as an intervention to slow the trajectory of weight gain in at-risk youth, with the aim of preventing or ameliorating obesity in adulthood. PMID:17557971

  12. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Sub; Jang, Gook-Chan; Moon, Kyung-Rye

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Weight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE) to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health. Methods Twenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI). Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated. Results Weight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes. Conclusion These findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. PMID:24904847

  13. Chronic Low-Calorie Sweetener Use and Risk of Abdominal Obesity among Older Adults: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chia, Chee W; Shardell, Michelle; Tanaka, Toshiko; Liu, David D; Gravenstein, Kristofer S; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Egan, Josephine M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Low-calorie sweetener use for weight control has come under increasing scrutiny as obesity, especially abdominal obesity, remain entrenched despite substantial low-calorie sweetener use. We evaluated whether chronic low-calorie sweetener use is a risk factor for abdominal obesity. We used 8268 anthropometric measurements and 3096 food diary records with detailed information on low-calorie sweetener consumption in all food products, from 1454 participants (741 men, 713 women) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging collected from 1984 to 2012 with median follow-up of 10 years (range: 0-28 years). At baseline, 785 were low-calorie sweetener non-users (51.7% men) and 669 participants were low-calorie sweetener users (50.1% men). Time-varying low-calorie sweetener use was operationalized as the proportion of visits since baseline at which low-calorie sweetener use was reported. We used marginal structural models to determine the association between baseline and time-varying low-calorie sweetener use with longitudinal outcomes-body mass index, waist circumference, obesity and abdominal obesity-with outcome status assessed at the visit following low-calorie sweetener ascertainment to minimize the potential for reverse causality. All models were adjusted for year of visit, age, sex, age by sex interaction, race, current smoking status, dietary intake (caffeine, fructose, protein, carbohydrate, and fat), physical activity, diabetes status, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score as confounders. With median follow-up of 10 years, low-calorie sweetener users had 0.80 kg/m2 higher body mass index (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-1.44), 2.6 cm larger waist circumference (95% CI, 0.71-4.39), 36.7% higher prevalence (prevalence ratio = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.69) and 53% higher incidence (hazard ratio = 1.53; 95% CI 1.10-2.12) of abdominal obesity than low-calorie sweetener non-users. Low-calorie sweetener use is independently associated with heavier relative

  14. Body adiposity index as marker of obesity and cardiovascular risk in adults from Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    García, Ana Isabel; Niño-Silva, Laura Andrea; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-03-01

    To assess the value of body adiposity index (BAI) as a marker of obesity and predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A cross-sectional study in 527 volunteers from the education and automotive sector in Bogotá, Colombia. BAI was calculated using the Bergman et al. equation ([hip circumference in cm)/[height in m(2)](1,5)-18]). Anthropometric, clinical and laboratory data were collected, cholesterol/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C; triglycerides/HDL-C and lipid-metabolic index (LMI) ratios were calculated. Prevalence rates and means, according to tertiles (T), and multivariate analysis between the BAI and anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory markers were estimated. Obesity prevalence was 33.9% (BAI>27.5%). Subjects with lower BAI (T-1) had lower cholesterol, triglycerides/HDL-C, and cholesterol/HDL-C levels and better LMI; P<.001. The multivariate model showed in T-3 subjects an OR 3.33 (95% CI 2.16 to 5.13) for central obesity and an OR 3.39 (95% CI 2.34 to 4.90) for increased visceral fat. As regards lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, BAI was able to predict the risk OR 7.95 (95% CI 4.88 to 12.94), OR 1.60 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.41), OR 1.69 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.70) and OR 9.27 (95% CI 2.01 to 21.80), shows a significant association between cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and glucose respectively, P<0.001. A high prevalence of obesity by BAI was observed, and statistically positive associations with cardiovascular risk factors were shown. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain structure predicts risk for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Smucny, Jason; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    The neurobiology of obesity is poorly understood. Here we report findings of a study designed to examine the differences in brain regional gray matter volume in adults recruited as either Obese Prone or Obese Resistant based on self-identification, body mass index, and personal/family weight history. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 28 Obese Prone (14 male, 14 female) and 25 Obese Resistant (13 male, 12 female) healthy adults. Voxel-based morphometry was used to identify gray matter volume differences between groups. Gray matter volume was found to be lower in the insula, medial orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum in Obese Prone, as compared to Obese Resistant individuals. Adjusting for body fat mass did not impact these results. Insula gray matter volume was negatively correlated with leptin concentration and measures of hunger. These findings suggest that individuals at risk for weight gain have structural differences in brain regions known to be important in energy intake regulation, and that these differences, particularly in the insula, may be related to leptin. PMID:22963736

  16. Supplementation of a Standardized Extract from Phyllanthus emblica Improves Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Platelet Aggregation in Overweight/Class-1 Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Savita; Das, Amitava; Spieldenner, James; Rink, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01858376) was to determine the effect of oral supplementation of a standardized extract of Phyllanthus emblica (CAPROS®) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight adult human subjects from the US population. Overweight/Class-1 obese (body–mass index: 25–35) adult subjects received 500 mg of CAPROS supplement b.i.d for 12 weeks. The study design included two baseline visits followed by 12 weeks of supplementation and then 2 weeks of washout. At all visits, peripheral venous blood was collected in sodium citrate tubes. Lipid profile measurements demonstrated a significant decrease in calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein following 12 weeks of CAPROS supplementation when compared to averaged baseline visits. Circulatory high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were significantly decreased after 12 weeks of supplementation. In addition, both ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation was significantly downregulated following 12 weeks of supplementation. Overall, the study suggests that oral CAPROS supplementation may provide beneficial effects in overweight/Class-1 obese adults by lowering multiple global CVD risk factors. PMID:25756303

  17. Supplementation of a standardized extract from Phyllanthus emblica improves cardiovascular risk factors and platelet aggregation in overweight/class-1 obese adults.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Savita; Das, Amitava; Spieldenner, James; Rink, Cameron; Roy, Sashwati

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01858376) was to determine the effect of oral supplementation of a standardized extract of Phyllanthus emblica (CAPROS(®)) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight adult human subjects from the US population. Overweight/Class-1 obese (body-mass index: 25-35) adult subjects received 500 mg of CAPROS supplement b.i.d for 12 weeks. The study design included two baseline visits followed by 12 weeks of supplementation and then 2 weeks of washout. At all visits, peripheral venous blood was collected in sodium citrate tubes. Lipid profile measurements demonstrated a significant decrease in calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein following 12 weeks of CAPROS supplementation when compared to averaged baseline visits. Circulatory high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were significantly decreased after 12 weeks of supplementation. In addition, both ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation was significantly downregulated following 12 weeks of supplementation. Overall, the study suggests that oral CAPROS supplementation may provide beneficial effects in overweight/Class-1 obese adults by lowering multiple global CVD risk factors.

  18. Obesity, intentional weight loss and physical disability in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rejeski, W J; Marsh, A P; Chmelo, E; Rejeski, J J

    2010-09-01

    We examine obesity, intentional weight loss and physical disability in older adults. Based on prospective epidemiological studies, body mass index exhibits a curvilinear relationship with physical disability; there appears to be some protective effect associated with older adults being overweight. Whereas the greatest risk for physical disability occurs in older adults who are ≥class II obesity, the effects of obesity on physical disability appears to be moderated by both sex and race. Obesity at age 30 years constitutes a greater risk for disability later in life than when obesity develops at age 50 years or later; however, physical activity may buffer the adverse effects obesity has on late life physical disability. Data from a limited number of randomized clinical trials reinforce the important role that physical activity plays in weight loss programmes for older adults. Furthermore, short-term studies have found that resistance training may be particularly beneficial in these programmes as this mode of exercise attenuates the loss of fat-free mass during caloric restriction. Multi-year randomized clinical trials are needed to examine whether weight loss can alter the course of physical disablement in aging and to determine the long-term feasibility and effects of combining resistance exercise with weight loss in older adults. © 2009 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2009 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. Effectiveness of Weight Loss Interventions for Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Holly C.; West, Delia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. Data Source PubMed articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥30) older adults (mean age ≥60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Data Extraction Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data Synthesis Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Results Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p < .05) weight loss without significant risk to obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. Conclusion These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group. PMID:23286596

  20. Effectiveness of weight loss interventions for obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Felix, Holly C; West, Delia S

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. PubMed articles. Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥ 30) older adults (mean age ≥ 60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p < .05) weight loss without significant risk to obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group.

  1. Chronic Low-Calorie Sweetener Use and Risk of Abdominal Obesity among Older Adults: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Chee W.; Shardell, Michelle; Tanaka, Toshiko; Liu, David D.; Gravenstein, Kristofer S.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low-calorie sweetener use for weight control has come under increasing scrutiny as obesity, especially abdominal obesity, remain entrenched despite substantial low-calorie sweetener use. We evaluated whether chronic low-calorie sweetener use is a risk factor for abdominal obesity. Participants and Methods We used 8268 anthropometric measurements and 3096 food diary records with detailed information on low-calorie sweetener consumption in all food products, from 1454 participants (741 men, 713 women) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging collected from 1984 to 2012 with median follow-up of 10 years (range: 0–28 years). At baseline, 785 were low-calorie sweetener non-users (51.7% men) and 669 participants were low-calorie sweetener users (50.1% men). Time-varying low-calorie sweetener use was operationalized as the proportion of visits since baseline at which low-calorie sweetener use was reported. We used marginal structural models to determine the association between baseline and time-varying low-calorie sweetener use with longitudinal outcomes—body mass index, waist circumference, obesity and abdominal obesity—with outcome status assessed at the visit following low-calorie sweetener ascertainment to minimize the potential for reverse causality. All models were adjusted for year of visit, age, sex, age by sex interaction, race, current smoking status, dietary intake (caffeine, fructose, protein, carbohydrate, and fat), physical activity, diabetes status, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score as confounders. Results With median follow-up of 10 years, low-calorie sweetener users had 0.80 kg/m2 higher body mass index (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–1.44), 2.6 cm larger waist circumference (95% CI, 0.71–4.39), 36.7% higher prevalence (prevalence ratio = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10–1.69) and 53% higher incidence (hazard ratio = 1.53; 95% CI 1.10–2.12) of abdominal obesity than low-calorie sweetener non-users. Conclusions Low

  2. An observational study identifying obese subgroups among older adults at increased risk of mobility disability: do perceptions of the neighborhood environment matter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition among older adults, yet relatively little is known about how built environment variables may be associated with obesity in older age groups. This is particularly the case for more vulnerable older adults already showing functional limitation...

  3. Growth trajectories associated with adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Péneau, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    The influence of early life factors on later body weight and metabolic diseases has generated increasing interest in the recent years. Exposure to environmental factors during pregnancy and early life can exert long-lasting influence on health. Anthropometric indicators are of great value to investigate the early determinants of the development of obesity. Different indicators may be associated with different growth patterns and then may predict different risks. The adiposity rebound (AR) which corresponds to the second rise in BMI that occurs at around 6 years of age, predicts later body weight. An early rebound is a risk factor for later overweight. Many fat children stay fat but, by contrast, an early AR is not associated with overweight in early life. These observations point out the existence of various BMI patterns associated with adult obesity. Two main trajectories emerge: the trajectory of high BMI at all ages which reflects both high lean and fat body masses, and the trajectory of low or normal BMI followed by an early AR and a subsequent rise in BMI reflecting increased fat rather than lean body mass. The trajectory of always high BMI could correspond to the so-called 'metabolically healthy obese subjects' while the trajectory of low BMI followed by increasing fatness is associated with insulin resistance and coronary heart diseases. The very early rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that determinants of obesity have operated very early in life. The identification of growth trajectories is of great interest to investigate the factors promoting obesity and metabolic diseases and to improve prevention strategies which should start from early life. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Self-reported versus measured body height and weight in Polish adult men: the risk of underestimating obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Łopuszańska, Monika; Lipowicz, Anna; Kołodziej, Halina; Szklarska, Alicja; Bielicki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Background: In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between self-reported and measured height and weight in adult men, and to determine how the accuracy of self-reported data depended on age and education. The prevalence of obesity was also calculated based both on self-reported and measured data. Material and methods: Data were collected during two population studies carried out in Wroclaw in 2010. One study included 1,194 19-year-old males who reported for the health examination mandated by the National Conscription Board (younger group). The other group included 355 men between 35 and 80 years old who reported for a ten-year follow-up (older group). Data were analyzed separately for both age groups. Results: Both younger and older subjects overestimated their height by 1.4 cm and 1.0 cm (1.4 cm, 95   %CI: 1.26, 1.51, and 1.0 cm, 95   %CI: 0.85, 1.26, respectively). On average, younger subjects overestimated their weight by 0.7 kilograms (95   %CI: 0.55, 0.92), whereas older subjects underestimated their weight by 0.9 kilograms (95   %CI: –1.15, –0.48). The lower the level of education, the more the subjects overestimated their height. Conclusions: Adult men systematically overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. The magnitude of the inaccuracy depends on level of education. When self-reported data are used, the prevalence of obesity is generally underestimated. Using self-reported data to calculate BMI can lead to a substantial underestimation of the proportion of underweight and obese individuals in a population. Finally, using self-reported values for height in studies on social inequality may lead to false conclusions.

  5. Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Dina, Christian; Meyre, David; Gallina, Sophie; Durand, Emmanuelle; Körner, Antje; Jacobson, Peter; Carlsson, Lena M S; Kiess, Wieland; Vatin, Vincent; Lecoeur, Cecile; Delplanque, Jérome; Vaillant, Emmanuel; Pattou, François; Ruiz, Juan; Weill, Jacques; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Horber, Fritz; Potoczna, Natascha; Hercberg, Serge; Le Stunff, Catherine; Bougnères, Pierre; Kovacs, Peter; Marre, Michel; Balkau, Beverley; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chèvre, Jean-Claude; Froguel, Philippe

    2007-06-01

    We identified a set of SNPs in the first intron of the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene on chromosome 16q12.2 that is consistently strongly associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children of European ancestry with an experiment-wise P value of 1.67 x 10(-26) in 2,900 affected individuals and 5,100 controls. The at-risk haplotype yields a proportion of attributable risk of 22% for common obesity. We conclude that FTO contributes to human obesity and hence may be a target for subsequent functional analyses.

  6. Obesity and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, H; Nabaei, B

    2007-03-01

    To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Iranian schoolgirls and to identify risk factors which lead to obesity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 and a sample of 1800 female students between 7-12 years old was obtained using a multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran. Height and weight were measured and related socio-economic information was collected. The overall percent of overweight and obesity was 13.3% and 7.7% respectively. BMI (Body Mass Index) was directly and significantly(r=+0.28, P< 0.001) correlated with increasing age. Physical activity was significantly different between obese and non-obese children. (P=0.03) Also, economical factors such as the type of school (private&public) were different in these children. (P=0.03) The statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant and inverse correlation(r=-0.03, P=0.04) between maternal education and occurrence of overweight and obesity in children. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Iranian girls was high. Advanced age, lack of physical inactivity, low economical factors and maternal educational status could be risk factors for obesity in children.

  7. Lifestyle-related factors, obesity, and incident microalbuminuria: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alex; Van Horn, Linda; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; Muntner, Paul; Newsome, Britt; Shoham, David A; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Reis, Jared; Kramer, Holly

    2013-08-01

    Modifiable lifestyle-related factors are associated with risk of coronary heart disease and may also influence kidney disease risk. Community-based prospective cohort study. 2,354 African American and white participants aged 28-40 years without baseline microalbuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m² recruited from 4 US centers: Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; and Oakland, CA. Current smoking, physical activity, fast food habits, obesity, and diet quality, which was based on 8 fundamental components of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, including increased intake of fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and nuts and legumes and reduced intake of sodium, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red and processed meats. Spot urine albumin-creatinine ratios were obtained at baseline (1995-1996) and three 5-year follow-up examinations (5, 10, and 15 years' follow-up). Incident microalbuminuria was defined as the presence of age- and sex-adjusted albumin-creatinine ratio ≥25 mg/g at 2 or more of the successive follow-up examinations. During the 15-year follow-up, 77 (3.3%) individuals developed incident microalbuminuria. After multivariable adjustment, poor diet quality (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4) and obesity (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3) were associated significantly with microalbuminuria; current smoking (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.8) was associated with microalbuminuria, although the CI crossed 1.0. Neither low physical activity (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-1.8) nor fast food consumption (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.7-2.3) was associated with microalbuminuria. Compared with individuals with no unhealthy lifestyle-related factors (poor diet quality, current smoking, and obesity), adjusted odds of incident microalbuminuria were 131%, 273%, and 634% higher for the presence of 1 (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3), 2 (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.8-7.7), and 3 (OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.1-26.1) unhealthy lifestyle-related factors. Self

  8. The effect of obesity in adolescence on adult health status.

    PubMed

    Inge, Thomas H; King, Wendy C; Jenkins, Todd M; Courcoulas, Anita P; Mitsnefes, Mark; Flum, David R; Wolfe, Bruce M; Pomp, Alfons; Dakin, Greg F; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Zeller, Meg H; Horlick, Mary; Pender, John R; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Daniels, Stephen R

    2013-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that adolescent obesity would be associated with greater risks of adverse health in severely obese adults. Before weight loss surgery, adult participants in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 underwent detailed anthropometric and comorbidity assessment. Weight status at age 18 was retrospectively determined. Participants who were ≥80% certain of recalled height and weight at age 18 (1502 of 2308) were included. Log binomial regression was used to evaluate whether weight status at age 18 was independently associated with risk of comorbid conditions at time of surgery controlling for potential confounders. Median age and adult body mass index (BMI) were 47 years and 46, respectively. At age 18, 42% of subjects were healthy weight, 29% overweight, 16% class 1 obese, and 13% class ≥2 obese. Compared with healthy weight at age 18, class ≥2 obesity at age 18 independently increased the risk of lower-extremity venous edema with skin manifestations by 435% (P < .0001), severe walking limitation by 321% (P < .0001), abnormal kidney function by 302% (P < .0001), polycystic ovary syndrome by 74% (P = .03), asthma by 48% (P = .01), diabetes by 42% (P < .01), obstructive sleep apnea by 25% (P < .01), and hypertension (by varying degrees based on age and gender). Conversely, the associated risk of hyperlipidemia was reduced by 61% (P < .01). Severe obesity at age 18 was independently associated with increased risk of several comorbid conditions in adults undergoing bariatric surgery.

  9. The Effect of Obesity in Adolescence on Adult Health Status

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Mitsnefes, Mark; Flum, David R.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Pomp, Alfons; Dakin, Greg F.; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Zeller, Meg H.; Horlick, Mary; Pender, John R.; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that adolescent obesity would be associated with greater risks of adverse health in severely obese adults. METHODS: Before weight loss surgery, adult participants in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 underwent detailed anthropometric and comorbidity assessment. Weight status at age 18 was retrospectively determined. Participants who were ≥80% certain of recalled height and weight at age 18 (1502 of 2308) were included. Log binomial regression was used to evaluate whether weight status at age 18 was independently associated with risk of comorbid conditions at time of surgery controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: Median age and adult body mass index (BMI) were 47 years and 46, respectively. At age 18, 42% of subjects were healthy weight, 29% overweight, 16% class 1 obese, and 13% class ≥2 obese. Compared with healthy weight at age 18, class ≥2 obesity at age 18 independently increased the risk of lower-extremity venous edema with skin manifestations by 435% (P < .0001), severe walking limitation by 321% (P < .0001), abnormal kidney function by 302% (P < .0001), polycystic ovary syndrome by 74% (P = .03), asthma by 48% (P = .01), diabetes by 42% (P < .01), obstructive sleep apnea by 25% (P < .01), and hypertension (by varying degrees based on age and gender). Conversely, the associated risk of hyperlipidemia was reduced by 61% (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Severe obesity at age 18 was independently associated with increased risk of several comorbid conditions in adults undergoing bariatric surgery. PMID:24249816

  10. Exploring genetic markers of adult obesity risk in black adolescent South Africans—the Birth to Twenty Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, V; Crowther, N J; Ramsay, M; Smith, G D; Norris, S A; Lombard, Z

    2015-01-01

    To date more than 90 loci that show an association with body mass index (BMI) and other obesity-related traits, have been discovered through genome-wide association studies. These findings have been widely replicated, mostly in European and Asian populations, but systematic investigation in African cohorts is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of our study was to replicate the association of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously linked to BMI, in a South African black adolescent cohort. The SNPs were in or near GNPDA2 (rs10938397), MTCH2 (rs10838738), NEGR1 (rs2568958), SH2B1 (rs7498665), STK33 (rs10769908) and TMEM18 (rs6548238). The SNPs were genotyped in 990 adolescents from the Birth to Twenty study, using an Illumina VeraCode assay, and association with BMI statistically assesed by using PLINK. Three of the SNPs tested were associated with BMI in this African cohort, and showed a consistent (albeit smaller) directional effect to that observed in non-African cohorts. We identified significant association between BMI and rs10938397 (effect allele-G) near GNPDA2 (Padj=0.003), rs7498665 (effect allele-G) in SH2B1 (Padj=0.014) and rs6548238 (effect allele-C) near TMEM18 (Padj=0.030). This data suggests that common genetic variants potentially contributes to obesity risk in diverse population groups. PMID:26075635

  11. Exploring genetic markers of adult obesity risk in black adolescent South Africans-the Birth to Twenty Cohort.

    PubMed

    Pillay, V; Crowther, N J; Ramsay, M; Smith, G D; Norris, S A; Lombard, Z

    2015-06-15

    To date more than 90 loci that show an association with body mass index (BMI) and other obesity-related traits, have been discovered through genome-wide association studies. These findings have been widely replicated, mostly in European and Asian populations, but systematic investigation in African cohorts is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of our study was to replicate the association of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously linked to BMI, in a South African black adolescent cohort. The SNPs were in or near GNPDA2 (rs10938397), MTCH2 (rs10838738), NEGR1 (rs2568958), SH2B1 (rs7498665), STK33 (rs10769908) and TMEM18 (rs6548238). The SNPs were genotyped in 990 adolescents from the Birth to Twenty study, using an Illumina VeraCode assay, and association with BMI statistically assesed by using PLINK. Three of the SNPs tested were associated with BMI in this African cohort, and showed a consistent (albeit smaller) directional effect to that observed in non-African cohorts. We identified significant association between BMI and rs10938397 (effect allele-G) near GNPDA2 (Padj=0.003), rs7498665 (effect allele-G) in SH2B1 (Padj=0.014) and rs6548238 (effect allele-C) near TMEM18 (Padj=0.030). This data suggests that common genetic variants potentially contributes to obesity risk in diverse population groups.

  12. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    PubMed

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  13. Risk of child obesity from parental obesity: analysis of repeat national cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    McLoone, Philip; Morrison, David S

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the potential to reduce childhood obesity through targeted interventions of overweight households. Cross-sectional nationally representative samples of the Scottish population. Households in Scotland during 2008 and 2009. A total of 1651 households with parents and children aged 2-15 years. The WHO cut-off points for adult body mass index (BMI): overweight (25 to <30 kg/m2) and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Overweight and obesity in childhood respectively defined as a BMI 85th to <95th percentile and ≥95th percentile based on 1990 reference centiles. Thirty-two percent (600/1849) of children and 75% (966/1290) of adults were overweight or obese. Seventy-five percent (1606/2128) of all children lived with a parent who was overweight or obese. Among obese children, 58% (185/318) lived with an obese parent. The population attributable risk percentage of child obesity associated with parental obesity was 32.5%. Targeting obese households would require substantial falls in adult weight and need to reach 38% of all children; it might achieve a reduction in the prevalence of childhood obesity of 14% in these households (from 26% to 12%). Targeting parents with BMI ≥ 40 might reduce the overall prevalence of child obesity by 9%. Such an intervention would require large weight loss, consistent with approaches used for morbidly obese adults; it would involve 4% of all children and lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity in these households from 57% to 16%. Family-based interventions for obesity would be most efficiently targeted at obese children whose parents are morbidly obese.

  14. Pregnancy and Obesity: Know the Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy week by week Concerned about pregnancy and obesity? Understand the risks of obesity during pregnancy — plus steps to promote a healthy ... you can do to promote a healthy pregnancy. Obesity is defined as having an excessive amount of ...

  15. Laboratory assessment of cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been identified as one of the most important risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity among children shows an increasing tendency. Many of overweight or obese children will become obese adults with enhanced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is often accompanied by serious consequences such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, pro-inflammatory state and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hypertension, high LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, insulin resistance, inflammation and disturbances in adipocytokines secretion are associated with endothelial dysfunction which precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Obese children and adolescents with a clinically-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is currently recognized as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, are at more severe cardiovascular risk compared with normal-weight. Obesity-related insulin resistance is highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and is associated with the increased lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipokines contribute to obesity-atherosclerosis relationships yet among several recently discovered adipokines only few (adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor 21, apelin) have been partly studied in obese pediatric population. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities observed in children with overweight and obesity and the role of laboratory in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in order to differentiate between healthy obese and those at risk to most effectively prevent progression of cardiovascular disease in childhood.

  16. LEP, LDLR and APOA4 gene polymorphisms and their relationship with the risk of overweight, obesity and chronic diseases in adults of the State of Sucre, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arroyo, Greta; Paradisi, Irene; Vívenes-Lugo, Merlyn; Castro-Guerra, Dinorah; Rodríguez-Larralde, Álvaro

    2016-03-03

    Overweight, obesity and some chronic diseases have become more prevalent recently. It is well known that their causes may be genetic, epigenetic, environmental, or a mixture of these.  To analyze the relationship between nine single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes LEP (rs2167270), LDLR (rs885765, rs688, rs5925, rs55903358, rs5742911) and APOA4 (rs5095, rs675, rs5110) with obesity-related phenotypes and other comorbidities.  We recruited 144 adults (76 males and 68 females, with average ages of 29.93±8.29 and 32.49±11.15 years, respectively) in the State of Sucre, Venezuela. Clinical and anthropometric parameters were obtained. Genotype-risk associations were studied. We then compared the averages registered for anthropometric and biochemical variables previously adjusted for biological and environmental factors.  According to the body mass index, 38.9% of the individuals in the sample were overweight (25≤BMI≤29.9 kg/m2) and 20.1% were obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2). Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ statistically for groups with normal and high body mass index (overweight plus obesity). The association between LDLR rs5742911 ancestral genotype A/A and high risk condition related to HDL-cholesterol was the only one found to be significant (OR=2.944, 95% CI: 1.446-5.996; p=0.003). The difference in adjusted mean HDL-cholesterol for LDLR rs5742911 genotypes was statistically significant (p=0.005) (A/A: 41.50±14.81 mg/dL; A/G: 45.00±12.07 mg/dL; G/G: 47.17±9.43 mg/dL).  For most of the genetic variants studied, there was an association with the presence of overweight and obesity among ancestral genotype carriers, although this was not statistically significant. The rs5742911 polymorphism may be useful as an indicator of a risk of chronic diseases.

  17. [Association of childhood and adolescents obesity with adult diabetes].

    PubMed

    Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junting; Chen, Fangfang; Yan, Yinkun; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    -factor logistic regression analysis, we found that after controlling follow-up age, genders and lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consuming, dietary, and sleeping), in comparison with those non-obese from childhood to adulthood, those obese only in childhood or only in adulthood did not predict any risk of diabetes diagnosed by blood glucose in adults (OR(95%CI) were 1.90 (0.86-4.19), 1.71(0.50-5.79), respectively). Those obese both in childhood and in adulthood increased the risk of diabetes diagnosed by blood glucose in adults (OR(95%CI) was 4.50(2.22-9.14)). With multi-factor logistic regression analysis, we found that after controlling age, sex and lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consuming, dietary, and sleeping) in comparison with those non-obese from childhood to adulthood, those obese only in childhood or only in adulthood did not increase the risk of diabetes diagnosed by HbA1c in adults (OR(95%CI) were 1.42(0.71-2.86), 3.13(0.83-11.75), respectively). Those obese both in childhood and in adulthood increased the risk of diabetes diagnosed by HbA1c in adults (OR(95%CI) was 5.93(3.06- 11.49)). Obesity in children even sustained to adulthood was a risk factor for diabetes in adulthood. It is necessary to control obesity in children to prevent diabetes in adults.

  18. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  19. Obesity, Intentional Weight Loss, and Physical Disability in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Marsh, Anthony P.; Chmelo, Elizabeth; Rejeski, Jared J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We examine obesity, intentional weight loss, and physical disability in older adults. Based on prospective epidemiological studies, BMI exhibits a curvilinear relationship with physical disability; there appears to be some protective effect associated with older adults being overweight. Whereas the greatest risk for physical disability occurs in older adults who are ≥class II obesity, the effects of obesity on physical disability appears to be moderated by both sex and race. Obesity at age 30 constitutes a greater risk for disability later in life than when obesity develops at age 50 or later; however, physical activity may buffer the adverse effects obesity has on late life physical disability. Data from a limited number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reinforce the important role that physical activity plays in weight loss programs for older adults. Furthermore, short-term studies have found that resistance training may be particularly beneficial in these programs since this mode of exercise attenuates the loss of fat-free mass during caloric restriction. Multi-year RCTs are needed to examine whether weight loss can alter the course of physical disablement in aging and to determine the long-term feasibility and effects of combining resistance exercise with weight loss in older adults. PMID:19922431

  20. Meal timing during alternate day fasting: Impact on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Hoddy, Kristin K; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Trepanowski, John F; Barnosky, Adrienne; Bhutani, Surabhi; Varady, Krista A

    2014-12-01

    Alternate day fasting (ADF; 24-h feeding/24-h 25% energy intake at lunchtime), is effective for weight loss, but diet tolerability is questionable. Moving the fast day meal to dinnertime, or dividing it into smaller meals, may improve tolerability. Accordingly, this study compared the effects of ADF with three meal times on body weight and heart disease risk. Obese subjects (n = 74) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 8 weeks: 1) ADF-L: lunch, 2) ADF-D: dinner, or 3) ADF-SM: small meals. Body weight decreased similarly (P < 0.001) in all groups (ADF-L: 3.5 ± 0.4 kg, ADF-D 4.1 ± 0.5 kg, ADF-SM 4.0 ± 0.5 kg). Reductions (P < 0.001) in fat mass and visceral fat were also comparable. Plasma lipids remained unchanged, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size increased (P < 0.05) in all groups (1.3 ± 0.5 Å). Systolic blood pressure decreased (P < 0.05) by ADF-SM only. Fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR remained unchanged. Thus, allowing individuals to consume the fast day meal at dinner or small meals produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as consuming the meal at lunch. This flexibility in meal timing may increase tolerability and long-term adherence to ADF protocols. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  1. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days), obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity). Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p < 0.0001) after adjustment for covariates and were modestly attenuated but not fully explained by FMD. The relationships between insufficient sleep and both diabetes and high blood pressure were also modestly attenuated but not fully explained by obesity. Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health. PMID:23360346

  2. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Chapman, Daniel P; Strine, Tara W; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia

    2013-01-29

    Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days), obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity). The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14-29 days, 42.0% for 1-13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p < 0.0001) after adjustment for covariates and were modestly attenuated but not fully explained by FMD. The relationships between insufficient sleep and both diabetes and high blood pressure were also modestly attenuated but not fully explained by obesity. Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  3. Vascular Risks and Management of Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jolliffe, Courtney J; Janssen, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. Pediatric obesity is associated with the development of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. It is also associated with an increased risk of CV disease (CVD) in adulthood. Moreover, obesity and CVD risk factors in obese youth tend to track into adulthood, further increasing the risk of adult CVD. Consequently, the treatment and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity has become a public health priority. Proper nutrition and increased physical activity are the main focus of these efforts; however, few studies have shown positive results. Treatment options for obesity in youth also include pharmacotherapy and surgery. While pharmacotherapy appears promising, additional evidence is needed, especially with respect to the long-term impact, before it becomes a widespread treatment option in the pediatric population. PMID:17319462

  4. Effectiveness of a Medifast meal replacement program on weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults: a multicenter systematic retrospective chart review study.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Christopher D; Kiel, Jessica R; Mitola, Andrea H; Langford, Janice S; Davis, Kevin N; Arterburn, Linda M

    2015-08-06

    Recent medical guidelines emphasize the importance of actively treating overweight and obesity with diet and lifestyle intervention to achieve ≥ 5% weight loss in a 6-month period. Commercial programs offer one approach provided there is evidence of their efficacy and safety. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Medifast® 4 & 2 & 1 Plan™ on weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults. A systematic retrospective chart review of 310 overweight and obese clients following the Medifast 4 & 2 & 1 Plan at one of 21 Medifast Weight Control Centers® was conducted. Data were recorded electronically and key data points were independently verified. The primary endpoint was change from baseline body weight at 12 weeks. Within group paired t-tests were used to examine changes from baseline in a completers population. Differences between gender and age subgroups were examined using bivariate t-tests and mixed model regression analyses. For the primary endpoint at 12 weeks, body weight among completers (n = 185) was reduced by a mean of 10.9 ± 5.6 kg (-10.1%, p < 0.0001), and at 24 weeks (n = 81) mean weight was reduced by 16.0 ± 7.9 kg (-14.3%). At 12 and 24 weeks, 85% and 96% of those remaining on the plan, respectively, had lost ≥ 5% of their baseline body weight. Lean mass was preserved to within 5% of baseline throughout the 24 weeks, and fat mass represented ≥ 80% of the body weight lost from 12 weeks onward. Men, women, seniors (≥ 65 years), and non-seniors (<65 years) all had significant weight reductions with preservation of lean mass. Significant improvements in blood pressure, pulse and waist-to-hip ratio were observed. Mean weight regain among the subset who entered a formal maintenance phase was <2% during an average follow-up of 34 weeks. The meal plan was well tolerated, and program adherence was >85%. The 4 & 2 & 1 Plan used at Medifast Weight Control Centers was effective for

  5. Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Collins, Candice; Ratliff, Melanie; Xie, Bin; Wang, Youfa

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.

  6. Health Tip: Know Your Risk for Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 166114.html Health Tip: Know Your Risk for Obesity Here's what makes it more likely To use ... Diana Kohnle Wednesday, May 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity is linked to an increased risk for heart ...

  7. Obesity in the childhood: a link to adult hypertension.

    PubMed

    Virdis, A; Ghiadoni, L; Masi, S; Versari, D; Daghini, E; Giannarelli, C; Salvetti, A; Taddei, S

    2009-01-01

    The rapid increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide represents a serious health hazard. Obesity predisposes to increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, renal failure. Direct mechanisms link visceral adiposity and the atherosclerosis process through the action of adipose-derived proinflammatory cytokines. In particular, hypertension can be considered the most important cardiovascular risk factor linking obesity to the development of cardiovascular disease. Obesity among children and adolescents has also reaching epidemic proportions in the industrialized world. Childhood obesity strongly predisposes to cardiovascular adult mortality. Recent reports documented a tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood and obesity occurring in young age plays a crucial pathogenic role. Indeed, fighting overweight and obesity in the pediatric and adolescent age may prevent the occurrence of adults with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The main strategies for prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in childhood, which need to involve community, school and family, are the promotion of lifestyle interventions, including as a correct dietary approach, rich in fruit and vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and physical activity.

  8. Regular exercise is associated with a reduction in the risk of NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in individuals with NAFLD independent of obesity in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji Cheol; Suh, Sunghwan; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun Jung; Park, Cheol Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Sun Woo; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Won-Young

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association of regular physical exercise with the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver enzymes in relation to obesity and insulin resistance. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 72,359 healthy Korean adults without diabetes who participated in a comprehensive health check-up. Subjects who have been exercising regularly (more than 3 times per week, at least for 30 minutes each time and for consecutive 3 month) were categorized into exercise group. All subjects were categorized into deciles based on their body mass index (BMI) and we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for having NAFLD according to exercise regularity in each decile. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography findings. Individuals with NAFLD (n = 19,921) were analyzed separately to evaluate ORs for having elevated liver enzymes based on regularity of exercise. The risk for NAFLD was significantly reduced in exercise group with age- and sex-adjusted ORs of 0.53-0.72 for all BMI deciles except at BMI categories of <19.6 and 20.7-21.6 kg/m(2). While no difference was seen in BMI between subjects in exercise and non-exercise group across the BMI deciles, the values of body fat percentage and metabolic risk factors differed. Among NAFLD patients, subjects in exercise group had a lower risk for having elevated liver enzymes with multivariable adjusted OR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99, for AST) and 0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.81, for ALT) than did subjects in non-exercise group. Regular exercise was associated with a reduced risk for having NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD, and this relationship was also independent of obesity.

  9. Immigration, income, drinking and obesity in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ade, Julius N; Rohrer, Jim; Rea, Nancy K

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between immigration status, income, drinking and overweight and obesity in African American adults residing in the United States using an internet web based survey. Data on 303 adult African American immigrants and non-immigrants was collected using a self-administered web based survey. Respondents were recruited using a snowball sampling technique to obtain a convenience sample. Multiple logistic regression analysis were used to test the independent effects of the immigration status while controlling for confounding effects of demographic, social and behavioral variables. The results of the study showed no significant difference between obesity and immigration status in black adults residing in the US (adjusted odds ration = 1.1095, P = 0.7489). Significance at the P < 0.05 level was demonstrated for obesity and two independent variables: age (OR = 1.0332, P = 0.0298) and days per month consumed more than 5 alcoholic beverages (OR = 1.7735, P = 0.0001). Adult African American immigrants in this study sample were not at risk of being obese due to their immigration status. However, age and days in a month in which more than 5 alcoholic beverages are consumed were significant risk factors for obesity. Primary care providers should be alert for obesity and alcohol consumption in this population.

  10. Obesity and obesity-related behaviors among rural and urban adults in the USA.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Tushar; Liu, Jihong; Probst, Janice; Merchant, Anwar; Jhones, Sonya; Martin, Amy Block

    2015-01-01

    diet among rural residents and the persistent higher risk of obesity among rural adults after adjusting for obesity-related behaviors call for more research into 'obesogenic' environments in rural America. Effective programs are needed to help rural residents reduce high risks for obesity and unhealthy lifestyles.

  11. Obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision-making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables, obesity was significantly predicted by female gender, older age, more maladaptive gambling behaviors, and worse inhibitory control (stop-signal reaction times). Obesity is associated with several dissociable forms of impulsivity in young people, especially gambling and impulse dyscontrol. Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur in obese people in early adulthood, and may represent vulnerability markers rather than being due to chronic untoward metabolic effects on brain function.

  12. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults.

    PubMed

    Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Edwards, Joy; Raine, Kim D; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen

    2009-06-18

    Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older) conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI) was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 - 0.95) if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0) in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above). These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity.

  13. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Edwards, Joy; Raine, Kim D; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Methods Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older) conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI) was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. Results The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 – 0.95) if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0) in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above). These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. Conclusion The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity. PMID:19538709

  14. Obesity in adult lymphoma survivors.

    PubMed

    Lynce, Filipa; Pehlivanova, Marieta; Catlett, Joseph; Malkovska, Vera

    2012-04-01

    As a result of therapeutic advances, survivors of lymphoma are now living longer. However, their mortality is higher when compared to the general population, probably due to multiple factors. Survivors of childhood leukemia and lymphoma appear to have an increased prevalence of obesity. The objectives of this retrospective study were to analyze weight change after lymphoma treatment in an adult population and determine factors predictive of weight gain. Data were collected from 219 patients and analyzed sequentially at the initial visit and at 6, 12 and 18 months. There was a progressive increase in weight from the initial visit to 6 months (1.5% increase of initial body weight), 12 months (4.5%) and 18 months (6.4%). More than 9% of patients experienced weight gain greater than 20% during follow-up. There was a statistically significant association between the percentage of increase in weight and age, B symptoms and body mass index (BMI) at presentation. Younger patients, those with B symptoms or those with lower BMI manifested more weight gain (p = 0.0008, p = 0.0440 and p = 0.0009, respectively). Other assessed factors had no effect on weight gain including sex, race, lymphoma histology, disease outcome, radiation therapy, number of treatment regimens and use of steroids. Further studies are needed to explore long-term weight trends and their impact on the health of lymphoma survivors.

  15. Current pharmacotherapeutic concepts for the treatment of obesity in adults.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny; Kirch, Wilhelm; Schindler, Christoph

    2009-02-01

    Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the twenty-first century. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that in 2005 approximately 1.6 billion adults were overweight and at least 400 million adults were obese. The prevalence of obesity is still continuing to increase dramatically. Overweight and obese people carry a higher risk for a variety of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral occlusive artery disease. Weight loss is considered to be the initial step which helps to prevent or to control the clinical consequences of obesity. In a great number of patients who are not able to reduce weight by means of non-pharmacological measures, drug therapy can assist in reaching the weight management targets. Drug treatment should only be considered as part of a systematic weight management program including dietary and lifestyle changes. This review summarizes current pharmacotherapeutic concepts for the treatment of obesity in adults focusing on efficacy and safety of anti-obesity drugs.

  16. Urban Sprawl and Risk for Being Overweight or Obese

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. I examined the association between urban sprawl and the risk for being overweight or obese among US adults. Methods. A measure of urban sprawl in metropolitan areas was derived from the 2000 US Census; individual-level data were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. I used multilevel analysis to assess the association between urban sprawl and obesity. Results. After I controlled for gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, and education, for each 1-point rise in the urban sprawl index (0–100 scale), the risk for being overweight increased by 0.2% and the risk for being obese increased by 0.5%. Conclusions. The current obesity epidemic has many causes, but there is an association between urban sprawl and obesity. PMID:15333317

  17. Urban sprawl and risk for being overweight or obese.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ

    2004-09-01

    I examined the association between urban sprawl and the risk for being overweight or obese among US adults. A measure of urban sprawl in metropolitan areas was derived from the 2000 US Census; individual-level data were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. I used multilevel analysis to assess the association between urban sprawl and obesity. After I controlled for gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, and education, for each 1-point rise in the urban sprawl index (0-100 scale), the risk for being overweight increased by 0.2% and the risk for being obese increased by 0.5%. The current obesity epidemic has many causes, but there is an association between urban sprawl and obesity.

  18. The Link Between Inadequate Sleep and Obesity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Perla A

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.

  19. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sardinha, Luís B.; Santos, Diana A.; Silva, Analiza M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Raimundo, Armando M.; Moreira, Helena; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Baptista, Fátima; Mota, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the Portuguese adults and examined the relationship between above mentioned prevalences and educational level. Body mass, stature, and waist circumference were measured in a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 18–103 years (n = 9,447; 18–64 years: n = 6,908; ≥65 years: n = 2,539). Overweight and obesity corresponded to a body mass index ranging between 25–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was assessed as >102 cm for males and >88 cm for females. After adjusting for educational level, the combined prevalences of overweight and obesity were 66.6% in males and 57.9% in females (18–64 years). Respective values in older adults (≥65 years) were 70.4% for males and 74.7% for females. About 19.3% of adult males and 37.9% of adult females presented abdominal obesity. Correspondent values in older adults were 32.1%, for males, and 69.7%, for females. In adults, low educational level was related to an increased risk for overweight (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 2.08–3.09), obesity (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 2.20–3.45), and abdominal obesity (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 4.60–6.52). This reinforces the importance of adjusting public health strategies for educational level. PMID:23118905

  20. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  1. The utility of childhood and adolescent obesity assessment in relation to adult health.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Rubinfeld, Rachel E; Bhattacharya, Jay; Robinson, Thomas N; Wise, Paul H

    2013-02-01

    High childhood obesity prevalence has raised concerns about future adult health, generating calls for obesity screening of young children. To estimate how well childhood obesity predicts adult obesity and to forecast obesity-related health of future US adults. Longitudinal statistical analyses; microsimulations combining multiple data sets. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Population Study of Income Dynamics, and National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys. The authors estimated test characteristics and predictive values of childhood body mass index to identify 2-, 5-, 10-, and 15 year-olds who will become obese adults. The authors constructed models relating childhood body mass index to obesity-related diseases through middle age stratified by sex and race. Twelve percent of 18-year-olds were obese. While screening at age 5 would miss 50% of those who become obese adults, screening at age 15 would miss 9%. The predictive value of obesity screening below age 10 was low even when maternal obesity was included as a predictor. Obesity at age 5 was a substantially worse predictor of health in middle age than was obesity at age 15. For example, the relative risk of developing diabetes as adults for obese white male 15-year-olds was 4.5 versus otherwise similar nonobese 15-year-olds. For obese 5-year-olds, the relative risk was 1.6. Main results do not include Hispanics due to sample size. Past relationships between childhood and adult obesity and health may change in the future. Early childhood obesity assessment adds limited information to later childhood assessment. Targeted later childhood approaches or universal strategies to prevent unhealthy weight gain should be considered.

  2. Gender and Racial Differences in the Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Overweight and Obese Rural Adults, Kuching and Samarahan Division, Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hazmi, Helmy; Wan Muda, Wan Manan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to determine whether gender and ethnic differences had an effect on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese rural adults in Sarawak. Design and Setting. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities in Kuching and Samarahan division, Malaysia. Data was obtained using a set of questionnaire (sociodemographic data and physical activity), measurement of blood pressure, height, weight (body mass index, BMI), body fat percentage, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile from three ethnic groups—Iban, Malay, and Bidayuh. Analysis of data was done using SPSS version 23.0. Results. A total of 155 respondents participated in the study (81.6% response rate). The levels of physical activity, BMI status, body fat, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia were similar across the three ethnic groups and both females and males. Iban and Bidayuh had significant higher Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) when compared to the Malay (Bidayuh OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12, 0.78; Iban OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.12, 0.69). Conclusions. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors varied according to ethnic groups and gender. A better understanding of these differences would help in the design and implementation of intervention programme for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27957339

  3. Health status, physical disability, and obesity among adult Mississippians with chronic joint symptoms or doctor-diagnosed arthritis: findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2003.

    PubMed

    James, Nadine T; Miller, Carl W; Fos, Peter J; Zhang, Lei; Wall, Peggy; Welch, Cindy

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze 2003 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data to describe the health of Mississippians with arthritis or chronic joint pain. For this study, we made statistical estimates of the extent of arthritis burden among the respondents and delineated measurable differences in sociodemographic factors, health status, and the prevalence of associated risk factors. Our findings compare health-related quality of life, physical activity, and key demographic characteristics and obesity rates, controlling for differences among the subgroups by age, sex, educational attainment, income, and race/ethnicity. Respondents to Mississippi's 2003 BRFSS were assigned to 1 of 5 distinct and mutually exclusive subgroups: 1) those with intermittent joint symptoms (IJS), 2) those with chronic joint symptoms (CJS), 3) those with doctor-diagnosed arthritis without CJS (DDA-CJS), 4) those with doctor-diagnosed arthritis with chronic joint symptoms (DDA+CJS), and 5) those with no joint symptoms (NJS). To determine the prevalence of arthritis and the continuum of disease progression, we compared the health-related quality of life, physical activity, and obesity of the respondents. Respondents with DDA+CJS were older than those with NJS (mean age, 57.1 years vs 38.7 years); they were more likely to be female (60.5% vs 51.7%), to have a high school diploma or less education (59.3% vs 45.4%), to be in fair to poor health (odds ratio [OR], 10.0), to be physically inactive (OR, 2.7), and to be overweight or obese (OR, 2.5). Health status, physical disability, and weight control may be substantially improved through heightened levels of physical activity. However, in spite of the potential for marked improvement, adult Mississippians, especially those clients with DDA+CJS, remain reluctant to commit to exercise regimens. Findings from this study suggest a need to encourage Mississippians with DDA+CJS to engage in some regular physical

  4. Childhood obesity and adult morbidities1234

    PubMed Central

    Wien, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased in recent years, likely the result of complex interactions between genes, dietary intake, physical activity, and the environment. The expression of genes favoring the storage of excess calories as fat, which have been selected for over many millennia and are relatively static, has become maladaptive in a rapidly changing environment that minimizes opportunities for energy expenditure and maximizes opportunities for energy intake. The consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity include earlier puberty and menarche in girls, type 2 diabetes and increased incidence of the metabolic syndrome in youth and adults, and obesity in adulthood. These changes are associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with several cancers in adults, likely through insulin resistance and production of inflammatory cytokines. Although concerns have arisen regarding environmental exposures, there have been no formal expert recommendations. Currently, the most important factors underlying the obesity epidemic are the current opportunities for energy intake coupled with limited energy expenditure. PMID:20335542

  5. Modernization, migration and obesity among Samoan adults.

    PubMed

    Bindon, J R; Baker, P T

    1985-01-01

    Modernization and migration have biological as well as social effects on people. In this study, 2657 Samoan adults from Western Samoa, American Samoa and Hawaii were surveyed in an attempt to examine the relationships between modernization, migration and obesity. The Samoan men showed an increase in the frequency of obesity with increasing modernity of residence or occupation. While the women in American Samoa had the highest frequency of obesity of any subsample, Samoan women also demonstrated a pattern of higher adiposity in more modern jobs. Young women tended to show a negative relationship between obesity frequency and education, with college-educated women having the lowest average levels of adiposity. Time since migration to Hawaii was not found to exert a major effect on frequency of obesity.

  6. An observational study identifying obese subgroups among older adults at increased risk of mobility disability: do perceptions of the neighborhood environment matter?

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Salvo, Deborah; Banda, Jorge A; Ahn, David K; Gill, Thomas M; Miller, Michael; Newman, Anne B; Fielding, Roger A; Siordia, Carlos; Moore, Spencer; Folta, Sara; Spring, Bonnie; Manini, Todd; Pahor, Marco

    2015-12-18

    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition among older adults, yet relatively little is known about how built environment variables may be associated with obesity in older age groups. This is particularly the case for more vulnerable older adults already showing functional limitations associated with subsequent disability. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) trial dataset (n = 1600) was used to explore the associations between perceived built environment variables and baseline obesity levels. Age-stratified recursive partitioning methods were applied to identify distinct subgroups with varying obesity prevalence. Among participants aged 70-78 years, four distinct subgroups, defined by combinations of perceived environment and race-ethnicity variables, were identified. The subgroups with the lowest obesity prevalence (45.5-59.4%) consisted of participants who reported living in neighborhoods with higher residential density. Among participants aged 79-89 years, the subgroup (of three distinct subgroups identified) with the lowest obesity prevalence (19.4%) consisted of non-African American/Black participants who reported living in neighborhoods with friends or acquaintances similar in demographic characteristics to themselves. Overall support for the partitioned subgroupings was obtained using mixed model regression analysis. The results suggest that, in combination with race/ethnicity, features of the perceived neighborhood built and social environments differentiated distinct groups of vulnerable older adults from different age strata that differed in obesity prevalence. Pending further verification, the results may help to inform subsequent targeting of such subgroups for further investigation. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier =  NCT01072500.

  7. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.

  8. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Adult Survivors of Childhood Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Todd M.; Ehrhardt, Matthew J.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach. PMID:26951206

  9. Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, Physical Activity, and Caloric Intake in U.S. Adults: 1988-2010

    PubMed Central

    Ladabaum, Uri; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Myer, Parvathi A.; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and abdominal obesity are independently associated with morbidity and mortality. Physical activity attenuates these risks. We examined trends in obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in U.S. adults from 1988 to 2010. Methods Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Results Average body-mass index (BMI) increased by 0.37% (95% CI, 0.30-0.44%) per year in both women and men. Average waist circumference increased by 0.37% (95% CI, 0.30-0.43%) and 0.27% (95% CI, 0.22-0.32%) per year in women and men, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity increased substantially, as did the prevalence of abdominal obesity among overweight adults. Younger women experienced the greatest increases. The proportion of adults who reported no leisure-time physical activity increased from 19.1% (95% CI, 17.3-21.0%) to 51.7% (95% CI, 48.9-54.5%) in women, and from 11.4% (95% CI, 10.0-12.8%) to 43.5% (95% CI, 40.7-46.3%) in men. Average daily caloric intake did not change significantly. BMI and waist circumference trends were associated with physical activity level, but not caloric intake. The associated changes in adjusted BMIs were 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9-9.6%) higher among women and 1.7% (95% CI, 0.68-2.8%) higher among men with no leisure-time physical activity compared to those with an ideal level of leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Our analyses highlight important dimensions of the public health problem of obesity, including trends in younger women and in abdominal obesity, and lend support to the emphasis placed on physical activity by the Institute of Medicine. PMID:24631411

  10. Obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in US adults: 1988 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Ladabaum, Uri; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Myer, Parvathi A; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2014-08-01

    Obesity and abdominal obesity are associated independently with morbidity and mortality. Physical activity attenuates these risks. We examined trends in obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in US adults from 1988 to 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Average body mass index (BMI) increased by 0.37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.44) per year in both women and men. Average waist circumference increased by 0.37% (95% CI, 0.30-0.43) and 0.27% (95% CI, 0.22-0.32) per year in women and men, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity increased substantially, as did the prevalence of abdominal obesity among overweight adults. Younger women experienced the greatest increases. The proportion of adults who reported no leisure-time physical activity increased from 19.1% (95% CI, 17.3-21.0) to 51.7% (95% CI, 48.9-54.5) in women, and from 11.4% (95% CI, 10.0-12.8) to 43.5% (95% CI, 40.7-46.3) in men. Average daily caloric intake did not change significantly. BMI and waist circumference trends were associated with physical activity level but not caloric intake. The associated changes in adjusted BMIs were 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9-9.6) higher among women and 1.7% (95% CI, 0.68-2.8) higher among men with no leisure-time physical activity compared with those with an ideal level of leisure-time physical activity. Our analyses highlight important dimensions of the public health problem of obesity, including trends in younger women and in abdominal obesity, and lend support to the emphasis placed on physical activity by the Institute of Medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Van Cauter, Eve; Knutson, Kristen L

    2008-12-01

    Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism in children as well as in adults. In recent years, sleep curtailment has become a hallmark of modern society with both children and adults having shorter bedtimes than a few decades ago. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity. There is rapidly accumulating evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies to indicate that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present article reviews laboratory evidence indicating that sleep curtailment in young adults results in a constellation of metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, elevated sympathovagal balance, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin, and increased hunger and appetite. We also review cross-sectional epidemiological studies associating short sleep with increased body mass index and prospective epidemiological studies that have shown an increased risk of weight gain and obesity in children and young adults who are short sleepers. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity.

  12. Analysis of renal functions and proteinuria in young obese adults.

    PubMed

    You, D-Y; Wu, Z-Y; Wan, J-X; Cui, J; Zou, Z-H

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of obesity in young adults and to analyze the influencing factors on renal functions and proteinuria in this population. This study comprised civil servants between 20 and 39 years old, who received physical examinations at the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University. The subjects were categorized into four groups based on age (20-24, 25-29, 30-34 and 35-39 years) and the number of risk factors they had (hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia). The relationships between obesity and the prevalence of proteinuria, between obesity and risk factors and between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria were analyzed. Among the 2293 young civil servants, in men the prevalence of obesity was 33.3 % and proteinuria was 2.5 %. However in women the prevalence of obesity and proteinuria was 7.5 % and 1.7 %, respectively. The levels of blood pressure, serum uric acid (UA), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), fasting glucose (FBG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were lower and the level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in nonobese groups compared with obese groups. There were no significant differences in eGFR between the two groups. The eGFR in male subjects was associated with age, UA, body mass index (BMI), FBG, TC, TG, LDL and HDL, and in female subjects associated with UA, age, BMI, diastolic blood pressure, FBG and LDL. BMI in both males and females increased with the higher number of risk factors. Multiple regression analysis revealed that hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia were independently associated with obesity. eGFR decreased with a higher number of risk factors. Obesity, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia were independently associated with proteinuria. Obesity can pose an independent risk factor for proteinuria in young adults. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and

  13. Severe maternal stress exposure due to bereavement before, during and after pregnancy and risk of overweight and obesity in young adult men: a Danish National Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hohwü, Lena; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Obel, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group). Median body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02) and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06) was higher in the exposed group. Conscripts exposed 6 to 0 months before conception and during pregnancy had a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03; 1.27 and odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.25, respectively). Conscripts born to mothers who experienced death of the child's biological father before child birth had a two-fold risk of obesity (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI: 0.93; 4.31). There was no elevated risk in those who experienced maternal bereavement postnatally. Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in a group of young male conscripts, and this may possibly be reflected to severe stress exposure early in life. However, not all associations were clear, and further studies are warranted.

  14. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Richard A; Szabo, Amanda N; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A; Ptomey, Lauren T; Honas, Jeffery J; Herrmann, Stephen D; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  15. Could Obesity Undermine Memory Training in Older Adults?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163198.html Could Obesity Undermine Memory Training in Older Adults? Study adds ... training is less beneficial for older adults with obesity, but we really don't know why," said ...

  16. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Sweazea, Karen L; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. -2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (-1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P < 0.01) similarly after HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT.

  17. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Brandon J.; Tucker, Wesley J.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Ryder, Justin R.; Sweazea, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m2] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70–75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. −2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (−1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P < 0.01) similarly after HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT. PMID:27255523

  18. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Must, A; Strauss, R S

    1999-03-01

    This report reviews the risks and consequences associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. Although no consensus definition of childhood obesity exists, the various measures encountered in the literature are moderately well correlated. The paper is organized in three parts. The first section reviews childhood obesity sequelae that occur during childhood. These short-term risks, for orthopedic, neurological, pulmonary, gasteroenterological, and endocrine conditions, although largely limited to severely overweight children, are becoming more common as the prevalence of severe overweight rises. The social burden of pediatric obesity, especially during middle childhood and adolescence, may have lasting effects on self-esteem, body image and economic mobility. The second section examines the intermediate consequences, such as the development of cardiovascular risk factors and persistence of obesity into adulthood. These mid-range effects of early obesity presage later adult disease and premature mortality. In the final section, the small body of research on the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with childhood obesity is reviewed. These studies suggest that risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is elevated among those who were overweight during childhood. The high prevalence and dramatic secular trend toward increasing childhood obesity suggest that without aggressive approaches to prevention and treatment, the attendant health and social consequences will be both substantial and long-lasting.

  19. Obesity as a risk factor for developing functional limitation among older adults: A conditional inference tree analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To examine the risk factors of developing functional decline and make probabilistic predictions by using a tree-based method that allows higher order polynomials and interactions of the risk factors. Methods: The conditional inference tree analysis, a data mining approach, was used to con...

  20. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  1. Infant feeding and later obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger; Monasterolo, Ricardo Closa; Subías, Joaquín Escribano; Scaglioni, Silvia; Giovannini, Marcello; Beyer, Jeannette; Demmelmair, Hans; Anton, Brigitte; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Dobrzanska, Anna; Sengier, Anne; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Cachera, Marie-Françoise Rolland; Grote, Viet

    2009-01-01

    Some 30 years ago, Günter Dörner proposed that exposure to hormones, metabolites and neurotransmitters during limited, sensitive periods of early development exert programming effects on disease risk in human adults. Early programming of long term health has since received broad scientific support and attention. For example, evidence increases for programming effects of infant feeding choices on later obesity risk. Meta-analyses of observational studies indicate that breast feeding reduces the odds ratio for obesity at school age by about 20%, relative to formula feeding, even after adjustment for biological and sociodemographic confounding variables. We hypothesized that breast feeding protects against later obesity by reducing the likelihood of high weight gain in infancy, and that this protection is caused at least partly by the lower protein supply with breast milk relative to standard infant formulae (the "Early Protein Hypothesis"). These hypotheses are tested in the European Childhood Obesity Project, a randomized double blind intervention trial in more than 1,000 infants in five European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain). Formula fed infants were randomized to receive during the first year of life infant formulae and follow-on-formulae with higher or lower protein contents. Follow-up at 2 years of age shows that lower protein supply with formula normalizes early growth relative to a breast fed reference group and to the WHO growth reference. These results demonstrate that modification of infant feeding practice has an important potential for long-term health promotion and should prompt a review of the recommendations and policies for infant formula composition.

  2. Long work hours and obesity in Korean adult workers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as <40, 40-48 (reference), 49-60, and >60 hours per week. In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.

  3. Disability associated with obesity, dynapenia and dynapenic-obesity in Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Ding, Xiang; Luo, Li; Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Birong

    2014-02-01

    Whether the combination of obesity and low muscle strength (dynapenic-obesity) would cause greater impairment of the activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) than obesity alone and low muscle strength alone (dynapenia) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal the possible independent and additive effects of dynapenia and obesity on ADL/IADL disability in an older Chinese population. A cross-sectional study, including 616 community-dwelling older adults, was conducted in China from 2010 to 2012. Based on the World Health Organization Asian Criteria of Obesity and handgrip strength tertiles, 4 independent groups were identified as follows: nondynapenia/nonobesity, dynapenia alone, obesity alone, and dynapenic-obesity. The Katz Index of Independence in ADL was used to assess ADL disability, whereas 6 IADL items of the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) multidimensional functional assessment questionnaire were used to assess IADL disability. The prevalence of ADL and IADL disability was 21.1% and 28.9% in the dynapenic-obesity group, 15.5% and 22.6% in the dynapenia alone group, 13.1% and 19.6% in the obesity alone group, and 11.9% and 12.9% in the nondynapenia/nonobesity group, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, in comparison with the dynapenic-obesity group, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for ADL disability were 0.36 (0.13-0.73) in the nondynapenia/nonobesity group, 0.51 (0.20-0.78) in the dynapenia-alone group, and 0.40 (0.11-0.61) in the obesity-alone group. The corresponding data for IADL disability were 0.55 (0.20-0.93), 0.82 (0.39-0.98), and 0.61 (0.30-0.91), respectively. Dynapenia, obesity, and dynapenic-obesity were associated with an increased risk of ADL/IADL disability. Dynapenic-obesity was associated with a greater risk of ADL/IADL disability in comparison with dynapenia or obesity alone. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc

  4. Optimal cut-off of obesity indices to predict cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome among adults in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianxing; Tao, Yuchun; Tao, Yuhui; Yang, Sen; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Jin, Lina

    2016-10-13

    CVD risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) and MetS are closely related to obesity. The selection of an optimal cut-off for various obesity indices is particularly important to predict CVD risk factors and MetS. Sixteen thousand seven hundred sixty-six participants aged 18-79 were recruited in Jilin Province in 2012. Five obesity indices, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR and BAI were investigated. ROC analyses were used to evaluate the predictive ability and determine the optimal cut-off values of the obesity indices for CVD risk factors and MetS. BMI had the highest adjusted ORs, and the adjusted ORs for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and MetS were 1.19 (95 % CI, 1.17 to 1.20), 1.20 (95 % CI, 1.19 to 1.22), 1.12 (95 % CI, 1.10 to 1.13), and 1.40 (95 % CI, 1.38 to 1.41), respectively. However, BMI did not always have the largest adjusted AUROC. In general, the young age group (18 ~ 44) had higher ORs and AUROCs for CVD risk factors and MetS than those of the other age groups. In addition, the optimal cut-off values for WC and WHR in males were relatively higher than those in females, whereas the BAI in males was comparatively lower than that in females. The appropriate obesity index, with the corresponding optimal cut-off values, should be selected in different research studies and populations. Generally, the obesity indices and their optimal cut-off values are: BMI (24 kg/m(2)), WC (male: 85 cm; female: 80 cm), WHR (male: 0.88; female: 0.85), WHtR (0.50), and BAI (male: 25 cm; female: 30 cm). Moreover, WC is superior to other obesity indices in predicting CVD risk factors and MetS in males, whereas, WHtR is superior to other obesity indices in predicting CVD risk factors and MetS in females.

  5. Management of obesity in adult Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Behl, S; Misra, A

    The prevalence of obesity in India is increasing and ranges from 8% to 38% in rural and 13% to 50% in urban areas. Obesity is a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease and many cancers. In Asian Indians excess abdominal and hepatic fat is associated with increased risk for T2DM and cardiovascular disease. There is higher risk for development of obesity related non-communicable diseases at lower body mass index levels, compared to white Caucasians. Despite being a commonly encountered medical problem, obesity poses challenges in treatment. Many Indian physicians find themselves to be lacking time and expertise to prepare an appropriate obesity management plan and patients experience continuous weight gain over time despite being under regular medical supervision. In this article, we outline approaches to obesity management in 'real life mode' and in context to Asian Indian patients. Copyright © 2017 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors: intervention recommendations to decrease adolescent obesity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, Kristine S.; Yucha, Carolyn B.; Schaffer, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.

  7. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors: intervention recommendations to decrease adolescent obesity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, Kristine S.; Yucha, Carolyn B.; Schaffer, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.

  8. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  9. The cost of lifestyle health risks: obesity.

    PubMed

    Long, D Adam; Reed, Roger; Lehman, Gregg

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to provide employers interested in lifestyle health initiatives a resource for estimating their members' obesity-related costs stratified by demographics and business sector. Claims-level medical costs attributable to obesity are estimated. Data come from 61 U.S. employers' health plan members' claims experienced between January 2000 and December 2004. Diagnosed, nondrug medical expenses attributable to obesity account for 21.3% of lifestyle and 2.8% of all medical costs for those aged 19 to 64 years. Obesity costs for children under 19 years are negligible. Up to age 64 years, females' obesity costs markedly exceed males'. At particular risk for high obesity costs are women, those aged 55 to 64 years, and healthcare sector members. Obesity is a costly lifestyle health risk and self-insured employers should take action with or without policy aid such as the HeLP Act S2558.

  10. Lifestyle habits and obesity progression in overweight and obese American young adults: Lessons for promoting cardiometabolic health.

    PubMed

    Cha, EunSeok; Akazawa, Margeaux K; Kim, Kevin H; Dawkins, Colleen R; Lerner, Hannah M; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2015-12-01

    Obesity among young adults is a growing problem in the United States and is related to unhealthy lifestyle habits, such as high caloric intake and inadequate exercise. Accurate assessment of lifestyle habits across obesity stages is important for informing age-specific intervention strategies to prevent and reduce obesity progression. Using a modified version of the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (mEOSS), a new scale for defining obesity risk and predicting obesity morbidity and mortality, this cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of overweight/obese conditions in 105 young adults and compared their lifestyle habits across the mEOSS stages. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and one-way analyses of variance were performed. Eighty percent of participants (n = 83) fell into the mEOSS-2 group and had obesity-related chronic disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension, and/or dyslipidemia. There were significant differences in dietary quality and patterns across the mEOSS stages. Findings highlighted the significance of prevention and early treatment for overweight and obese young adults to prevent and cease obesity progression.

  11. Obesity and familial obesity and risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is associated with a risk of at least 20 different cancers. We aimed at defining cancer risks in prospectively recruited patients with a novel subgroup, those with a family history of obesity. We defined a cohort of 30 020 patients who had been hospitalized since 1964. Cancer risks in these patients were followed through 2006. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for cancer using those not hospitalized for obesity as a reference population. We could also identify persons who had been hospitalized for type 2 diabetes. A total of 1721 patients were diagnosed with cancer after hospitalization for obesity, showing an increased risk for 12 cancers and a decrease for breast cancer. The largest increases were found for nervous system hemangioma (13.64, 95% confidence interval 2.57-40.37) and other male genital (3.94, 1.24-9.26), bone (3.41, 1.23-7.47), small intestinal (2.93, 1.60-4.93), kidney (2.46, 1.97-3.02), and endometrial (2.32, 2.01-2.66) cancers. Among endocrine cancers, adrenal tumors showed the highest risk, of 3.74 (1.86-6.72). The overall risk was 1.19 (1.13-1.25). Family history of obesity was associated with formerly unrecognized increased risks of gallbladder and colon cancers and ocular melanoma. Cancer risks in this relatively young obese population differed quantitatively from those found after type 2 diabetes. The novel findings included rare and relatively benign tumors, probably found in endocrinological and other medical examinations for obesity and related conditions. Similarly, male genital cancer may be related to sexual behavior, and bone cancers, found in old individuals, could be related to propensity for fractures.

  12. Obese, Mexican-American children have elevated non-traditional metabolic risk factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a health disparity for obesity amongst Mexican-Americans compared to other race/ethnic groups. In particular Mexican-American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and non-traditional risk factors in a subset of Mexica...

  13. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit), liquid (grapefruit juice) and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9) were randomly assigned to (127 g) grapefruit (GF), grapefruit juice (GFJ) or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams) of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm). However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2%) and GFJ (+8.2%) preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%). Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF and GFJ preload

  14. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  15. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from North Africa.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Boulos, Dina N K; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Jaouadi, Imen; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe. Existing data on North African residents and on North African immigrants in Europe were analysed by a systematic search on PUBMED. There is a wide variation among countries in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, with immigrants showing higher values. The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents. Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1.3-47.8% of North African residents and 3.6-49.4% of North African immigrants in adult age are overweight or obese. Physical inactivity is higher than 20% in males and 40% in females in North African residents. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam (males: 57.1%; females: 74.2%), with increasing rates in second-generation females. The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents. Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic.

  16. The Association of Adolescent Obesity with Risk of Severe Obesity in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    The, Natalie S.; Suchindran, Chirayath; North, Kari E.; Popkin, Barry M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-01-01

    Context Although the prevalence of obesity has increased in recent years, individuals who are obese early in life have not been followed over time to determine whether they develop severe obesity in adulthood, thus limiting effective interventions to reduce severe obesity incidence and its potentially life-threatening associated conditions. Objective A US nationally representative cohort was followed from adolescence through adulthood to determine incidence of severe obesity in adulthood and which groups are at highest risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Subjects included 8,834 individuals enrolled in wave II (1996: 12–21 y) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and followed into adulthood [wave III (2001–2002: 18–27 y), and wave IV (2007–2009: 24–33 y)]. Data come from measured height and weight obtained via anthropometry and surveys administered in study participants' homes using standardized procedures. Main Outcome Measures New cases of adult-onset severe obesity were calculated by sex, race/ethnicity, and adolescent weight status. Sex-stratified, discrete time hazard models estimated the net effect of adolescent obesity (<20 y, body mass index [BMI]≥95th percentile of the sex-specific BMI-for age growth chart or BMI≥30.0) on risk of severe obesity incidence in adulthood (≥20 y, BMI≥40.0), adjusting for race/ethnicity and age and weighted for national representation. Results In 1996, 1.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.7%–1.4%; n=79) of adolescents were severely obese and 70.5% (95% CI, 57.2%–83.9%; n=60) remained severely obese in adulthood. By 2009, 7.9% (95% CI, 7.4%–8.5%; n=703) of non-severely obese adolescents became severely obese in adulthood, with highest rates for non-Hispanic black females. Obese adolescents were significantly (Hazard Ratio, 16.0; 95% CI, 12.4, 20.5) more likely to develop severe obesity in young adulthood than normal weight or overweight adolescents. Conclusions Obesity in adolescence

  17. Association of adolescent obesity with risk of severe obesity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    The, Natalie S; Suchindran, Chirayath; North, Kari E; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-11-10

    Although the prevalence of obesity has increased in recent years, individuals who are obese early in life have not been studied over time to determine whether they develop severe obesity in adulthood, thus limiting effective interventions to reduce severe obesity incidence and its potentially life-threatening associated conditions. To determine incidence and risk of severe obesity in adulthood by adolescent weight status. A cohort of 8834 individuals aged 12 to 21 years enrolled in 1996 in wave II of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, followed up into adulthood (ages 18-27 years during wave III [2001-2002] and ages 24-33 years during wave IV [2007-2009]). Height and weight were obtained via anthropometry and surveys administered in study participants' homes using standardized procedures. New cases of adult-onset severe obesity were calculated by sex, race/ethnicity, and adolescent weight status. Sex-stratified, discrete time hazard models estimated the net effect of adolescent obesity (aged <20 years; body mass index [BMI] ≥95th percentile of the sex-specific BMI-for-age growth chart or BMI ≥30.0) on risk of severe obesity incidence in adulthood (aged ≥20 years; BMI ≥40.0), adjusting for race/ethnicity and age and weighted for national representation. In 1996, 79 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7%-1.4%) adolescents were severely obese; 60 (70.5%; 95% CI, 57.2%-83.9%) remained severely obese in adulthood. By 2009, 703 (7.9%; 95% CI, 7.4%-8.5%) non-severely obese adolescents had become severely obese in adulthood, with the highest rates for non-Hispanic black women. Obese adolescents were significantly more likely to develop severe obesity in young adulthood than normal-weight or overweight adolescents (hazard ratio, 16.0; 95% CI, 12.4-20.5). In this cohort, obesity in adolescence was significantly associated with increased risk of incident severe obesity in adulthood, with variations by sex and race/ethnicity.

  18. Obesity and breast cancer: risk, outcomes, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Yung, Rachel L; Ligibel, Jennifer A

    2016-10-01

    The proportion of adults who are obese has increased dramatically in the United States over the last 30 years. Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of developing a number of malignancies, including postmenopausal breast cancer. Evidence also suggests that obesity at the time of breast cancer diagnosis is linked to an increased risk of breast cancer-specific and overall mortality in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer. Obesity is linked to an increased risk of secondary malignancies in women with early breast cancer, and studies suggest that weight gain after diagnosis increases overall mortality. Despite the data linking obesity to poor outcomes in women with early breast cancer, there are currently no data from randomized trials testing the impact of weight loss on breast cancer outcomes. A number of recent randomized controlled trials have shown that weight loss interventions are feasible in obese survivors of breast cancer, yielding loss of 5% to 6% of body weight, and several ongoing randomized phase 3 clinical trials are evaluating the effect of weight loss interventions on breast cancer outcomes. These studies will help define the role of weight loss in the management of obese women with early breast cancer.

  19. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, M; Llewellyn, A; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N

    2016-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. BMI was the only measure of obesity reported in any study, with 200,777 participants followed up. Obese children and adolescents were around five times more likely to be obese in adulthood than those who were not obese. Around 55% of obese children go on to be obese in adolescence, around 80% of obese adolescents will still be obese in adulthood and around 70% will be obese over age 30. Therefore, action to reduce and prevent obesity in these adolescents is needed. However, 70% of obese adults were not obese in childhood or adolescence, so targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children needs to be considered carefully as this may not substantially reduce the overall burden of adult obesity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Association between rs9930506 polymorphism of the fat mass & obesity-associated (FTO) gene & onset of obesity in Polish adults.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, Malgorzata; Zakrzewska, Anna; Ruczko, Lech; Jabłonowska-Lietz, Beata; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2016-03-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is known to be associated with obesity. However, no data are available on the relation between FTO rs9930506 polymorphism and obesity in Polish population. The aim of this study was to evaluate an association between rs9930506 variants of the FTO gene and obesity in Polish adults. The study group consisted of 442 adults, aged 33.9 ±12.7 yr, with mean BMI 27.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2. The following variables were determined for each subject: fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Real-time PCR was used to detect the A/G alleles of the rs9939506 polymorphism in the FTO gene. An association between the rs9930506 polymorphism and obesity was determined using codominant, dominant, and recessive models. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the risk of obesity associated with this polymorphism. It was observed that the presence of FTO rs9939506 G allele was associated with increased risk for obesity and this association was found significant in both recessive (OR = 1.72, P = 0.014) and co-dominant (OR = 1.36, P = 0.031) models of inheritance. The FTO rs9939506 GG homozygotes had a significantly higher BMI than those with other genotypes. This study shows that FTO rs9939506 GG genotype is related to higher BMI and is associated with obesity in Polish adults.

  1. Personality and Obesity across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Personality traits contribute to health outcomes, in part through their association with major controllable risk factors, such as obesity. Body weight, in turn, reflects our behaviors and lifestyle and contributes to the way we perceive ourselves and others. In this study, we use data from a large (N=1,988) longitudinal study that spanned more than 50 years to examine how personality traits are associated with multiple measures of adiposity and with fluctuations in body mass index (BMI). Using 14,531 anthropometric assessments, we modeled the trajectory of BMI across adulthood and tested whether personality predicted its rate of change. Measured concurrently, participants higher on Neuroticism or Extraversion or lower on Conscientiousness had higher BMI; these associations replicated across body fat, waist, and hip circumference. The strongest association was found for the impulsivity facet: Participants who scored in the top 10% of impulsivity weighed, on average, 11Kg more than those in the bottom 10%. Longitudinally, high Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness, and the facets of these traits related to difficulty with impulse control, were associated with weight fluctuations, measured as the variability in weight over time. Finally, low Agreeableness and impulsivity-related traits predicted a greater increase in BMI across the adult lifespan. BMI was mostly unrelated to change in personality traits. Personality traits are defined by cognitive, emotional, and behavioral patterns that likely contribute to unhealthy weight and difficulties with weight management. Such associations may elucidate the role of personality traits in disease progression and may help to design more effective interventions. PMID:21744974

  2. Predictors of metabolic risk in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Anita; Maffeis, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Most of the complications of juvenile obesity are due to metabolic disturbances induced by an excessive accumulation of fat which leads to chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Finding effective ways of identifying obese paediatric patients who are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic complications has been recognised to be a promising strategy to improve prevention of complications of early obesity. Moreover, correctly identifying obese children who are already affected by metabolic co-morbidities should be a clinical priority. According to the state of the art summarised in this review, traditional metabolic variables included in the definitions of metabolic syndrome (MS), pre-diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis and, in obese girls, the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome are the best available longitudinal predictors of CVD and T2DM among obese children and adolescents. In clinical practice, traditional metabolic variables included in the definitions of MS should be assessed in all obese children and adolescents; fasting metabolic variables have been proposed to identify obese patients likely to be affected by impaired glucose tolerance or T2DM, and ultrasound has proved to be a valid surrogate for biopsy in the diagnosis of NAFLD. Further large longitudinal and cross-sectional studies are needed to improve our chances of identifying obese youth at the highest metabolic risk.

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  4. Fast-food consumption and obesity among Michigan adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Beth; Rafferty, Ann P; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Fussman, Christopher; Imes, Gwendoline

    2011-07-01

    Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adults, using univariate and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression, and compared these data with data on Michigan obesity prevalence. Approximately 80% of Michigan adults went to fast-food restaurants at least once per month and 28% went regularly (≥2 times/wk). Regular fast-food consumption was higher among younger adults (mostly men) but was not significantly associated with household income, education, race, or urbanicity (in a multivariate framework). The prevalence of obesity increased consistently with frequenting fast-food restaurants, from 24% of those going less than once a week to 33% of those going 3 or more times per week. The predominant reason for choosing fast food was convenience. Although hypothetically 68% of adults who go to fast-food restaurants would choose healthier fast-food items when available, only 16% said they ever use nutritional information when ordering. The prevalence of fast-food consumption is high in Michigan across education, income, and racial groups and is strongly associated with obesity. Making nutritional information at fast-food restaurants more readily available and easier to use may help consumers to order more healthful or lower-calorie items.

  5. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... final recommendation statement applies to adults who are overweight or obese and who have at least one ... harms of behavioral counseling to prevent CVD in overweight or obese adults at increased risk for CVD: ...

  6. Overweight and Obesity Over the Adult Life Course and Incident Mobility Limitation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jingzhong; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lee, Jung Sun; Nevitt, Michael C.; Rubin, Susan M.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity in middle and old age predicts mobility limitation; however, the cumulative effect of overweight and/or obesity over the adult life course is unknown. The association between overweight and/or obesity in young, middle, and late adulthood and its cumulative effect on incident mobility limitation was examined among community-dwelling US adults aged 70–79 years at baseline (1997–1998) in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (n = 2,845). Body mass index was calculated by using recalled weight at ages 25 and 50 years and measured weight at ages 70–79 years. Mobility limitation (difficulty walking 1/4 mile (0.4 km) or climbing 10 steps) was assessed semiannually over 7 years of follow-up and was reported by 43.0% of men and 53.7% of women. Men and women who were overweight or obese at all 3 time points had an increased risk of mobility limitation (hazard ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.06 and hazard ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.15, 3.78, respectively) compared with those who were normal weight throughout. Furthermore, there was a significant graded response (P < 0.0001) on risk of mobility limitation for the cumulative effect of obesity in men and overweight and/or obesity in women. Onset of overweight and obesity in earlier life contributes to an increased risk of mobility limitation in old age. PMID:19270048

  7. High knowledge about obesity and its health risks, with the exception of cancer, among Mexican individuals.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Ruth; Ponce de León Rosales, Sergio; García, Rusia; García-García, Eduardo; Méndez, Juan Pablo

    2012-06-01

    Mexico has the second biggest prevalence in the world of obese adults (30%). We conducted a survey to determine knowledge concerning obesity co-morbidities. Three groups were surveyed with a questionnaire divided into three sections: demographic characteristics; knowledge and awareness in relation to obesity being a disease; causes of obesity and the health risks it represents; weight auto-perception and the subject's personal experiences regarding weight. In all groups we found high knowledge regarding that obesity is a disease and the causes of its development, as well as that it greatly increases the risk of presenting type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and knee osteoarthritis. However, in all groups, there was a gap in knowledge regarding the risk obesity poses for the development of breast and colon cancer. Aggressive health promotion campaigns concerning obesity, which have been implemented recently in Mexico, must emphasize cancer as a potential outcome for obese patients.

  8. Body weight and obesity in adults and self-reported abuse in childhood.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D F; Thompson, T J; Anda, R F; Dietz, W H; Felitti, V

    2002-08-01

    Little is known about childhood factors and adult obesity. A previous study found a strong association between childhood neglect and obesity in young adults. To estimate associations between self-reported abuse in childhood (sexual, verbal, fear of physical abuse and physical) adult body weight, and risk of obesity. Retrospective cohort study with surveys during 1995-1997. A total of 13,177 members of California health maintenance organization aged 19-92 y. Body weight measured during clinical examination, followed by mailed survey to recall experiences during first 18 y of life. Estimates adjusted for adult demographic factors and health practices, and characteristics of the childhood household. Some 66% of participants reported one or more type of abuse. Physical abuse and verbal abuse were most strongly associated with body weight and obesity. Compared with no physical abuse (55%), being 'often hit and injured' (2.5%) had a 4.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 2.4-5.6 kg) higher weight and a 1.4 (1.2-1.6) relative risk (RR) of body mass index (BMI) > or = 30. Compared with no verbal abuse (53%), being 'often verbally abused' (9.5%) had an RR of 1.9 (1.3-2.7) for BMI > or = 40. The abuse associations were not mutually independent, however, because the abuse types strongly co-occurred. Obesity risk increased with number and severity of each type of abuse. The population attributable fraction for 'any mention' of abuse (67%) was 8% (3.4-12.3%) for BMI > or = 30 and 17.3% (-1.0-32.4%) for BMI > or = 40. Abuse in childhood is associated with adult obesity. If causal, preventing child abuse may modestly decrease adult obesity. Treatment of obese adults abused as children may benefit from identification of mechanisms that lead to maintenance of adult obesity.

  9. Obesity and rhinitis in a nationwide study of children and adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Celedón, Juan C

    2016-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with higher risk of asthma and asthma severity both in children and adults. However, studies evaluating the relation between obesity and rhinitis have yielded conflicting results. We performed a cross-sectional study of obesity indicators and rhinitis using data from 8165 participants in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Allergic rhinitis was defined as physician-diagnosed hay fever or allergy, the presence of symptoms in the past 12 months, and at least 1 positive allergen-specific IgE level. Nonallergic rhinitis was defined as a physician's diagnosis and symptoms but no positive allergen-specific IgE levels. Multivariate regression was used to assess the relationship between obesity and rhinitis in children and adults. In adults, overweight or obesity was associated with increased odds of nonallergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06-1.93; P = .02). Similarly, central obesity was associated with increased odds of nonallergic rhinitis in adults (adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.20-2.16; P < .01). In an analysis stratified by sex, the observed associations were attenuated and became nonstatistically significant in female adults but remained significant in male adults. Overweight, obesity, or central obesity were not associated with allergic rhinitis in adults. In children, central obesity was associated with reduced odds of allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.64; P < .01). After stratification by sex, this association was similar in female and male children. In adults, obesity is associated with increased odds of nonallergic rhinitis, particularly in male subjects. In children, central obesity is associated with reduced odds of allergic rhinitis, regardless of sex. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nut intake and 5-year changes in body weight and obesity risk in adults: results from the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    PubMed

    Freisling, Heinz; Noh, Hwayoung; Slimani, Nadia; Chajès, Véronique; May, Anne M; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Cross, Amanda J; Skeie, Guri; Jenab, Mazda; Mancini, Francesca R; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Hansen, Camilla P; Overvad, Kim; Duell, Eric J; Redondo-Sánchez, Daniel; Amiano, Pilar; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Ward, Heather; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Winkvist, Anna; Braaten, Tonje; Romieu, Isabelle; Sabaté, Joan

    2017-07-21

    There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years. This study includes 373,293 men and women, 25-70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 10 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Habitual intake of nuts including peanuts, together defined as nut intake, was estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The association between nut intake and body weight change was estimated using multilevel mixed linear regression models with center/country as random effect and nut intake and relevant confounders as fixed effects. The relative risk (RR) of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI). On average, study participants gained 2.1 kg (SD 5.0 kg) over 5 years. Compared to non-consumers, subjects in the highest quartile of nut intake had less weight gain over 5 years (-0.07 kg; 95% CI -0.12 to -0.02) (P trend = 0.025) and had 5% lower risk of becoming overweight (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98) or obese (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.99) (both P trend <0.008). Higher intake of nuts is associated with reduced weight gain and a lower risk of becoming overweight or obese.

  11. Breakfast patterns and their likelihood of increased risk of overweight/obesity and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adults 19+ years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about the relationship of specific types of breakfast consumed and the risk of overweight/obesity or risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Cluster analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 data identified 12 breakfast clusters—including no breakfast, in...

  12. Altered Decision-Making under Risk in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Navas, Juan F; Vilar-López, Raquel; Perales, José C; Steward, Trevor; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of energy dense foods are well known, yet people increasingly make unhealthy food choices leading to obesity (i.e., risky decisions). The aims of this study were: [1] to compare performance in decision-making tasks under risk and under ambiguity between individuals with obesity, overweight and normal weight; [2] to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and decision-making, and the degree to which these associations are modulated by reward sensitivity. Seventy-nine adults were recruited and classified in three groups according to their BMI: obesity, overweight and normal-weight. Groups were similar in terms of age, education and socio-economic status, and were screened for comorbid medical and mental health conditions. Decision-making under risk was measured via the Wheel of Fortune Task (WoFT) and decision-making under ambiguity via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Reward sensitivity was indicated by the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Individuals with obesity made riskier choices in the WoFT, specifically in choices with an expected value close to zero and in the propensity to risk index. No differences were found in IGT performance or SPSRQ scores. BMI was associated with risk-taking (WoFT performance), independently of reward sensitivity. Obesity is linked to a propensity to make risky decisions in experimental conditions analogous to everyday food choices.

  13. Altered Decision-Making under Risk in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Juan F.; Vilar-López, Raquel; Perales, José C.; Steward, Trevor; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background The negative consequences of energy dense foods are well known, yet people increasingly make unhealthy food choices leading to obesity (i.e., risky decisions). The aims of this study were: [1] to compare performance in decision-making tasks under risk and under ambiguity between individuals with obesity, overweight and normal weight; [2] to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and decision-making, and the degree to which these associations are modulated by reward sensitivity. Methods Seventy-nine adults were recruited and classified in three groups according to their BMI: obesity, overweight and normal-weight. Groups were similar in terms of age, education and socio-economic status, and were screened for comorbid medical and mental health conditions. Decision-making under risk was measured via the Wheel of Fortune Task (WoFT) and decision-making under ambiguity via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Reward sensitivity was indicated by the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Results Individuals with obesity made riskier choices in the WoFT, specifically in choices with an expected value close to zero and in the propensity to risk index. No differences were found in IGT performance or SPSRQ scores. BMI was associated with risk-taking (WoFT performance), independently of reward sensitivity. Conclusions Obesity is linked to a propensity to make risky decisions in experimental conditions analogous to everyday food choices. PMID:27257888

  14. High salt intake: independent risk factor for obesity?

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-10-01

    High salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure and accordingly leads to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that high salt intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increasing evidence also suggests a direct link. Our study aimed to determine whether there was a direct association between salt intake and obesity independent of energy intake. We analyzed the data from the rolling cross-sectional study-the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. We included 458 children (52% boys; age, 10±4 years) and 785 adults (47% men; age, 49±17 years) who had complete 24-hour urine collections. Energy intake was calculated from 4-day diary and misreporting was assessed by Goldberg method. The results showed that salt intake as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium was higher in overweight and obese individuals. A 1-g/d increase in salt intake was associated with an increase in the risk of obesity by 28% (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.45; P=0.0002) in children and 26% (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.37; P<0.0001) in adults, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, household income, physical activity, energy intake, and diet misreporting, and in adults with additional adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Higher salt intake was also significantly related to higher body fat mass in both children (P=0.001) and adults (P=0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, and energy intake. These results suggest that salt intake is a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The Relationship of Sleep Duration with Obesity and Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chien, Meng-Yueh; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in elderly adults; however, little is known about the relationship of sleep duration and sarcopenia. We examined the relationship of sleep duration with obesity and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. A total of 488 community-dwelling adults (224 men and 264 women) aged ≥65 years were included in the analysis. Self-reported sleep duration and anthropometric data were collected. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated using the predicted equation from a bioelectrical impedance analysis measurement. Obesity and sarcopenia were defined according to the body mass index and the skeletal muscle mass index, respectively. The association between sleep duration and sarcopenia exhibited a U shape in older adults. Compared to adults with 6-8 h of sleep, adults with <6 h of sleep had a nearly 3-fold increased likelihood of sarcopenia (odds ratio, OR: 2.76, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.28-5.96), while adults with ≥8 h of sleep had a nearly 2-fold increased risk of sarcopenia (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.01-3.54). Older adults with a sleep duration <6 h were more prone to obesity (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.08-4.30). After gender stratification, the association between obesity and short sleep duration was more robust in women. There were significant associations of sleep duration with either obesity or sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. Gender differences in these associations were also observed.

  16. Maternal obesity and risk of postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Marie

    2011-09-01

    To estimate whether maternal obesity was associated with an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage more than 1,000 mL and whether there was an association between maternal obesity and causes of postpartum hemorrhage and mode of delivery. A population-based cohort study including 1,114,071 women with singleton pregnancies who gave birth in Sweden from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2008, who were divided into six body mass index (BMI) classes. Obese women (class I-III) were compared with normal-weight women concerning the risk for postpartum hemorrhage after suitable adjustments. The use of heparin-like drugs over the BMI strata was analyzed in a subgroup. There was an increased prevalence of postpartum hemorrhage over the study period associated primarily with changes in maternal characteristics. The risk of atonic uterine hemorrhage increased rapidly with increasing BMI. There was a twofold increased risk in obesity class III (1.8%). No association was found between postpartum hemorrhage with retained placenta and maternal obesity. There was an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage for women with a BMI of 40 or higher (5.2%) after normal delivery (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.45]) compared with normal-weight women (4.4%) and even more pronounced (13.6%) after instrumental delivery (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.34) compared with normal-weight women (8.8%). Maternal obesity was a risk factor for the use of heparin-like drugs (OR 2.86, 95% CI 2.22-3.68). The increased risk for atonic postpartum hemorrhage in the obese group has important clinical implications, such as considering administration of prophylactic postpartum uterotonic drugs to this group. II.

  17. The utility of childhood and adolescent obesity assessment in relation to adult health

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Rubinfeld, Rachel E.; Bhattacharya, Jay; Robinson, Thomas N.; Wise, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    The high prevalence of childhood obesity has raised concerns regarding long-term patterns of adult health and has generated calls for obesity screening of young children. This study examined patterns of obesity and the predictive utility of obesity screening for children of different ages in terms of adult health outcomes. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the Population Study of Income Dynamics, and National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of childhood BMI to identify 2, 5, 10, or 15 year-olds who will become obese adults. We constructed models assessing the relationship of childhood BMI to obesity-related diseases through middle age stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. 12% of 18 year-olds were obese. While 50% of these adolescents would not have been identified by screening at age 5, 9% would have been missed at age 15. Approximately 70% of obese children at age 5 became non-obese at age 18. The predictive utility of obesity screening below the age of 10 was low, even when maternal obesity was also included. The elevated risk of diabetes, obesity, and hypertension in middle age predicted by obesity at age 15 was significantly higher than at age 5 (e.g., the RR of diabetes for obese white male 15 year-olds was 4.5; for 5 year-olds, it was 1.6). Early childhood obesity assessment adds limited predictive utility to strategies that also include later childhood assessment. Targeted approaches in later childhood or universal strategies to prevent unhealthy weight gain should be considered. PMID:22647830

  18. Comparison of general obesity and measures of body fat distribution in older adults in relation to cancer risk: meta-analysis of individual participant data of seven prospective cohorts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Freisling, Heinz; Arnold, Melina; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; O'Doherty, Mark George; Ordóñez-Mena, José Manuel; Bamia, Christina; Kampman, Ellen; Leitzmann, Michael; Romieu, Isabelle; Kee, Frank; Tsilidis, Konstantinos; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Benetou, Vassiliki; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Huerta, José María; Brenner, Hermann; Wilsgaard, Tom; Jenab, Mazda

    2017-05-23

    We evaluated the associations of anthropometric indicators of general obesity (body mass index, BMI), an established risk factor of various cancer, and body fat distribution (waist circumference, WC; hip circumference, HC; and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR), which may better reflect metabolic complications of obesity, with total obesity-related and site-specific (colorectal and postmenopausal breast) cancer incidence. This is a meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies participating in the CHANCES consortium including 18 668 men and 24 751 women with a mean age of 62 and 63 years, respectively. Harmonised individual participant data from all seven cohorts were analysed separately and alternatively for each anthropometric indicator using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. After a median follow-up period of 12 years, 1656 first-incident obesity-related cancers (defined as postmenopausal female breast, colorectum, lower oesophagus, cardia stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, endometrium, ovary, and kidney) had occurred in men and women. In the meta-analysis of all studies, associations between indicators of adiposity, per s.d. increment, and risk for all obesity-related cancers combined yielded the following summary hazard ratios: 1.11 (95% CI 1.02-1.21) for BMI, 1.13 (95% CI 1.04-1.23) for WC, 1.09 (95% CI 0.98-1.21) for HC, and 1.15 (95% CI 1.00-1.32) for WHR. Increases in risk for colorectal cancer were 16%, 21%, 15%, and 20%, respectively per s.d. of BMI, WC, HC, and WHR. Effect modification by hormone therapy (HT) use was observed for postmenopausal breast cancer (Pinteraction<0.001), where never HT users showed an ∼20% increased risk per s.d. of BMI, WC, and HC compared to ever users. BMI, WC, HC, and WHR show comparable positive associations with obesity-related cancers combined and with colorectal cancer in older adults. For postmenopausal breast cancer we report evidence for effect modification by HT use.

  19. Association between obesity phenotypes and incident hypertension among Chinese adults: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z K; Huang, Y; Yu, H J; Yuan, S; Tang, B W; Li, Q X; Li, X T; Yang, X H; He, Q Q

    2017-08-01

    To explore the association between obesity phenotype and the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults. A prospective cohort study. Two waves of data were collected in 2009 and 2011 by the China Health Nutrition Survey. According to International Diabetes Federation and Chinese obesity criteria, participants were divided into four groups: metabolically healthy non-overweight/obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy overweight/obesity (MHO), metabolically abnormal non-overweight/obesity (MANO), and metabolically abnormal overweight/obesity (MAO). Logistic regression model was performed to estimate the risk of hypertension with obesity phenotype. Among a total of 4604 adults aged 18-65 years at baseline, 467 developed hypertension during the 2-year follow-up period. After adjusting for several potential confounders, significantly increased risks for hypertension were found for participants in MHO (odd ratio [OR]: 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-2.27), MANO (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.02-2.86), and MAO (OR: 3.35, 95% CI: 2.54-4.42) group compared with the MHNO group. Metabolically abnormal individuals, regardless of their body weight status, showed significantly higher risks for hypertension compared with healthy non-overweight/obese group. Furthermore, MHO individuals had significantly increased risk of incident hypertension. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Other Risks/Possible Benefits of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Weeth, Lisa P

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is not a cosmetic or social issue; it is an animal health issue. The metabolic effects of obesity on insulin resistance and development of hyperlipidemia and the mechanical stress excess weight places on the musculoskeletal system are well established in the literature. Additional health risks from obesity, such as fatty accumulation in the liver, intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, and changes to renal architecture, are less well understood, but have been demonstrated to occur clinically in obese animals and may lead to deleterious long-term health effects. Keeping dogs and cats lean lowers their risk for development of certain diseases and leads to a longer and better quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obesity dynamics and cardiovascular risk factor stability in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ram; Shaw, Melissa; Savoye, Mary; Caprio, Sonia

    2009-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies showed worsening of cardiovascular risk factors with increasing severity of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity dynamics on cardiovascular risk factors and on the stability of the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese youth. A longitudinal assessment of components of the MS using two definitions was performed in 186 obese adolescents (106 females/80 males, age 13.1 +/- 2.5 yr). Components of the MS were assessed at baseline and after 19 +/- 7 months. We stratified the cohort into three categories based on the 25th and 75th percentile of body mass index (BMI) z-score change: category 1 reduced BMI z-score by 0.09 or more, category 2 had a BMI z-score change of between -0.09 and 0.12, and category 3 increased BMI z-score by >0.12. Subjects who reduced their BMI z-score significantly decreased their fasting and 2-h glucose levels and triglyceride levels and increased their high density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison to subjects who increased their BMI z-score. BMI z-score changes negatively correlated with changes in insulin sensitivity (r = -0.36, p < 0.001). Among those with no MS at baseline (n = 119), 10 (8%), most of whom significantly increased their BMI z-score, developed MS. Of 67 who had MS at baseline, 33 (50%), most of whom decreased their BMI z-score, lost the diagnosis. Obesity dynamics, tightly linked to changes in insulin sensitivity, have an impact on each individual component of the MS and on the stability of the diagnosis of MS in obese youth.

  2. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30. Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.

  3. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. Aims To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Method Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30. Results Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Conclusions Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women. PMID:23661765

  4. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C; Hines, Paul D H; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.

  5. Infant feeding practices, childhood growth and obesity in adult life.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2009-07-01

    Child health is widely affected by nutritional status, and there is growing interest surrounding the possibility that child nutritional status and infant feeding practices may be linked to obesity in adulthood, increasing risks of metabolic complications. Prospective studies enable appropriate investigation and evaluation of the determinants of childhood development. The present paper therefore aimed to provide a review of the main evidence to date from longitudinal studies concerning the associations of infant feeding practices, patterns of childhood growth and nutritional status exhibited in adult life.

  6. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lihua; Huang, Xiao; You, Chunjiao; Li, Juxiang; Hong, Kui; Li, Ping; Wu, Yanqing; Wu, Qinhua; Wang, Zengwu; Gao, Runlin; Bao, Huihui; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China. A cross-sectional survey of 15,364 participants aged 15 years and older was conducted from November 2013 to August 2014 in Jiangxi Province, China, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. The physical measurements included body height, weight, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BFP) and visceral adipose index (VAI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. The prevalence of overweight was 25.8% (25.9% in males and 25.7% in females), while that of obesity was 7.9% (8.4% in males and 7.6% in females). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.2% (8.6% in males and 11.3% in females). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 37.1% in urban residents and 30.2% in rural residents, and this difference was significant (P < 0.001). Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of abdominal obesity than rural residents (11.6% vs 8.7%, P < 0.001). Among the participants with an underweight/normal body mass index (BMI), 1.3% still had abdominal obesity, 16.1% had a high BFP and 1.0% had a high VAI. Moreover, among obese participants, 9.7% had a low /normal WC, 0.8% had a normal BFP and 15.9% had a normal VAI. Meanwhile, the partial correlation analysis indicated that the correlation coefficients between VAI and BMI, VAI and WC, and BMI and WC were 0.700, 0.666, and 0.721, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that being female and having a high BFP and a high VAI were significantly associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. In addition, living in an urban area and older age correlated with overweight/obesity. This study revealed that obesity and abdominal obesity, which differed by gender and age, are epidemic in southern China. Moreover, there

  7. Postprandial vascular reactivity in obese and normal weight young adults.

    PubMed

    Ayer, Julian G; Harmer, Jason A; Steinbeck, Katherine; Celermajer, David S

    2010-05-01

    As humans spend a significant amount of time in the postprandial state, we examined whether vascular reactivity (a key indicator of cardiovascular health) was different after a high-fat meal in 11 obese (median BMI 46.4, age 32.1 +/- 6.3 years, 7 men) and 11 normal weight (median BMI 22.6) age- and sex-matched controls. At baseline and 1 and 3 h postmeal, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), reactive hyperemia peripheral artery tonometry (RH-PAT) index, radial augmentation index adjusted for HR (AIx75), brachial pulse wave velocity (PWV(b)), glucose, insulin, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and, by venous plethysmography, resting and hyperemic forearm blood flows (FBFs) were measured at baseline and 3 h. At baseline, obese subjects had higher systolic BP, HR, resting FBF, insulin and equivalent FMD, RH-PAT, hyperemic FBF, AIx75, PWV(b), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol. In obese and lean subjects, FMD at baseline and 3 h was not significantly different (6.2 +/- 1.7 to 5.8 +/- 4.3% for obese and 4.7 +/- 4.1 to 4.3 +/- 3.9% for normal weight, P = 0.975 for group x time). The meal did not produce significant changes in RH-PAT, hyperemic FBF, and PWV(b) in either group (P > 0.1 for the effect of time and for group x time interactions). In conclusion, the vascular responses to a high-fat meal are similar in obese and normal weight young adults. An exaggerated alteration in postprandial vascular reactivity is thus unlikely to contribute importantly to the increased cardiovascular risk of obesity.

  8. Biochemical effect of a ketogenic diet on the brains of obese adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hoda E; El-Swefy, Sahar E; Rashed, Leila A; Abd El-Latif, Sally K

    2010-07-01

    Excess weight, particularly abdominal obesity, can cause or exacerbate cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Obesity is also a proven risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Various studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) in weight reduction and in modifying the disease activity of neurodegenerative disorders, including AD. Therefore, in this study we examined the metabolic and neurodegenerative changes associated with obesity and the possible neuroprotective effects of a KD in obese adult rats. Compared with obese rats fed a control diet, obese rats fed a KD showed significant weight loss, improvement in lipid profiles and insulin resistance, and upregulation of adiponectin mRNA expression in adipose tissue. In addition, the KD triggered significant downregulation of brain amyloid protein precursor, apolipoprotein E and caspase-3 mRNA expression, and improvement of brain oxidative stress responses. These findings suggest that a KD has anti-obesity and neuroprotective effects.

  9. Contribution of Common Genetic Variants to Obesity and Obesity-Related Traits in Mexican Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976

  10. Contribution of common genetic variants to obesity and obesity-related traits in mexican children and adults.

    PubMed

    León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children.

  11. Effects of a weight management program delivered by social media on weight and metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jane, Monica; Hagger, Martin; Foster, Jonathan; Ho, Suleen; Kane, Robert; Pal, Sebely

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of using social media to augment the delivery of, and provide support for, a weight management program delivered to overweight and obese individuals during a twenty four week intervention. Participants randomly divided into either one of two intervention groups or a control group. The two intervention groups were instructed to follow identical weight-management program. One group received the program within a Facebook group, along with a support network with the group, and the other intervention group received the same program in a booklet. The control group was given standard care. Participants' weight and other metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured at baseline and at weeks 6, 12, 18 and 24. The Facebook Group reported a 4.8% reduction in initial weight, significant compared to the CG only (p = 0.01), as well as numerically greater improvements in body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, lean mass, and energy intake compared to the Pamphlet Group and the Control Group. These results demonstrate the potential of social media to assist overweight and obese individuals with respect to dietary and physical activity modifications for weight management, and justify further research into the inclusion of social media in clinical weight management programs. It is anticipated that social media will provide an invaluable resource for health professionals, as a low maintenance vehicle for communicating with patients, as well as a source of social support and information sharing for individuals undergoing lifestyle modifications.

  12. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Obesity among US Adults in 12 States

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Njai, Rashid; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    A redesigned food insecurity question that measured food stress was included in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in the Social Context optional module. The objective of our study was to examine the association between food stress and obesity using this question as a surrogate for food insecurity. Our analytic sample included 66,553 adults from 12 states. Food insecurity was determined by response (always/usually/sometimes) to the question,“Howoften in the past 12 months would you say you were worried or stressed about having enough money to buy nutritious meals?” T tests were used to compare prevalence differences between groups, and logistic regression was used to examine the association between food insecurity and obesity. Among the 12 states, the prevalence of obesity was 27.1% overall, 25.2% among food secure adults, and 35.1% among food insecure adults. Food insecure adults had 32% increased odds of being obese compared to food secure adults. Compared with food secure adults, food insecure adults had significantly higher prevalence of obesity in the following population subgroups: adults ages ≥30 years, women, non- Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, adults with some college education or a college degree, a household income of <$25,000 or $50,000 to $74,999, and adults with none or two children in their households. One in three food insecure adults were obese. Food insecurity was associated with obesity in the overall population and most population subgroups. These findings are consistent with previous research and highlight the importance of increasing access to affordable healthy foods for all adults. PMID:22939441

  13. Food insecurity is associated with obesity among US adults in 12 states.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Njai, Rashid; Blanck, Heidi M

    2012-09-01

    A redesigned food insecurity question that measured food stress was included in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in the Social Context optional module. The objective of our study was to examine the association between food stress and obesity using this question as a surrogate for food insecurity. Our analytic sample included 66,553 adults from 12 states. Food insecurity was determined by response (always/usually/sometimes) to the question, "How often in the past 12 months would you say you were worried or stressed about having enough money to buy nutritious meals?" T tests were used to compare prevalence differences between groups, and logistic regression was used to examine the association between food insecurity and obesity. Among the 12 states, the prevalence of obesity was 27.1% overall, 25.2% among food secure adults, and 35.1% among food insecure adults. Food insecure adults had 32% increased odds of being obese compared to food secure adults. Compared with food secure adults, food insecure adults had significantly higher prevalence of obesity in the following population subgroups: adults ages ≥30 years, women, non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, adults with some college education or a college degree, a household income of <$25,000 or $50,000 to $74,999, and adults with none or two children in their households. One in three food insecure adults were obese. Food insecurity was associated with obesity in the overall population and most population subgroups. These findings are consistent with previous research and highlight the importance of increasing access to affordable healthy foods for all adults.

  14. Diet and Exercise for Obese Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS OA is a common chronic disease and there is a need for treatments that can be provided for the course of the disease with minimal adverse side effects. Exercise is a safe intervention in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with few contraindications or adverse events. Indeed, there are few treatments that, from a public health perspective, can be delivered to a large proportion of those with OA with little associated adverse risk as exercise. Exercise therapy is recommended by all clinical guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and this recommendation is supported by Level 1 evidence. Obesity is the most modifiable risk factor for knee OA. The mechanisms by which obesity affects osteoarthritis are of great concern to osteoarthritis researchers and clinicians who manage this disease. This paper reviews the physiologic and mechanical consequences of obesity and exercise on older adults with knee OA; the effects of long-term weight-loss and exercise interventions, and the utility and feasibility of translating these results to clinical practice. PMID:20699166

  15. Obesity Trends Among US Adults With Doctor-Diagnosed Arthritis 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Boring, Michael; Qin, Jin; Pan, Liping; Hootman, Jennifer M

    2017-03-01

    Arthritis and obesity are common co-occurring conditions that can increase disability and the risk of adverse outcomes (e.g., total knee replacement). We estimated recent obesity trends among adults with arthritis from 2009 to 2014, overall and by various sociodemographic and health characteristics using data from National Health Interview Survey, an ongoing, nationally representative, in-person household self-reported survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian US. A secondary aim was to examine the distribution of body mass index categories among adults with and without arthritis. Obesity prevalence did not change significantly over time among middle-aged and younger adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis either overall (P = 0.925 for both groups) or by demographic and health characteristics. Among older adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis, the unadjusted obesity prevalence was 29.4% in 2009 and 34.3% in 2014; after adjusting for all demographic and health characteristics, there was a significant relative increase in obesity prevalence (15% [95% confidence interval 6-25]) and over time (P = 0.001). The age-standardized prevalence of obesity and the obesity subclasses I, II, and III among adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis (compared with adults without doctor-diagnosed arthritis) was 40.3% versus 26.3%, 20.1% versus 16.4%, 10.4% versus 6.2%, and 9.8% versus 3.6%, respectively (P < 0.001 for all 4 comparisons). Obesity increased significantly over time among older adults with arthritis and remains high when compared with adults without arthritis. A greater dissemination of interventions focused on physical activity and diet are needed in order to reduce adverse outcomes associated with obesity and arthritis. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  17. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Healthy obesity and risk of accelerated functional decline and disability.

    PubMed

    Bell, J A; Sabia, S; Singh-Manoux, A; Hamer, M; Kivimäki, M

    2017-06-01

    Some obese adults have a normal metabolic profile and are considered 'healthy', but whether they experience faster ageing than healthy normal-weight adults is unknown. We compared decline in physical function, worsening of bodily pain and likelihood of future mobility limitation and disability between these groups. This was a population-based observational study using repeated measures over 2 decades (Whitehall II cohort data). Normal-weight (body mass index (BMI) 18.5-24.9 kg m(-)(2)), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg m(-)(2)) and obese (⩾30.0 kg m(-2)) adults were considered metabolically healthy if they had 0 or 1 of 5 risk factors (hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triacylglycerol, high blood glucose and insulin resistance) in 1991/1994. Decline in physical function and worsening of bodily pain based on change in Short Form Health Survey items using eight repeated measures over 18.8 years (1991/1994-2012/2013) were compared between metabolic-BMI groups using linear mixed models. Odds of mobility limitation based on objective walking speed (slowest tertile) and of disability based on limitations in ⩾1 of 6 basic activities of daily living, each using three repeated measures over 8.3 years (2002/2004-2012/2013), were compared using logistic mixed models. In multivariable-adjusted mixed models on up to 6635 adults (initial mean age 50 years; 70% male), healthy normal-weight adults experienced a decline in physical function of -3.68 (95% CI=-4.19, -3.16) score units per decade; healthy obese adults showed an additional -3.48 (-4.88, -2.08) units decline. Healthy normal-weight adults experienced a -0.49 (-1.11, 0.12) score unit worsening of bodily pain per decade; healthy obese adults had an additional -2.23 (-3.78, -0.69) units worsening. Healthy obesity versus healthy normal-weight conferred 3.39 (2.29, 5.02) times higher odds of mobility limitation and 3.75 (1.94, 7.24) times higher odds of disability. Our results suggest that

  19. Central obesity and hypertension in Chinese adults: a 12-year longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jingjing; Seo, Dong-Chul

    2014-05-01

    In Chinese adults, the trend of central obesity and its longitudinal association with hypertension, independent of general obesity, was examined. A 12-year longitudinal analysis was conducted using data retrieved from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. This study examined 6096 individuals (normotensive in 1997) who were followed up with in 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009. Prevalence of hypertension in 2009 was predicted by baseline central obesity and waist circumference changes during a 12-year follow-up period along with confounding covariates using multiple logistic regressions. Between 1997 and 2009, the prevalence of central obesity increased from 17.3% to 39.4% and was highest among individuals ≥60 years of age in 1997. By 2009, 26.8% of the participants developed hypertension. The odds ratio of developing hypertension during the 12-year study period for Chinese adults with central obesity at baseline was 1.79 (95% confidence interval=1.36-2.35) compared to those without central obesity, controlling for general obesity, demographics, smoking/drinking behavior, and fat intake. Among Chinese adults, central obesity increases the risk for developing hypertension later in life, even after controlling for general obesity, smoking, drinking, and high fat intake among other factors. Waist circumference should be targeted in the efforts of hypertension prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI <25). Obese participants were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals.

  1. Understanding How Overweight and Obese Emerging Adults Make Lifestyle Choices.

    PubMed

    Cha, EunSeok; Crowe, James M; Braxter, Betty J; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski

    To better understand health-related decision making among overweight and obese emerging adults. A cross-sectional design was used in the parent study involving overweight and obese emerging adults, ages 18-29 years. The goal of the parent study was to screen participants' diabetes risk and identify characteristics of emerging adults with prediabetes (N=107). A sub-sample of respondents (n=34) from the parent study were invited to participate in focus group interviews depending on whether they had prediabetes (three groups) or they did not have prediabetes (four groups). Each focus group interview lasted 90-120 minutes following a semi-structured interview guide. Conventional content analysis was used in the data analysis. Because of the similarities between participants with and without prediabetes, the findings were synthesized and reported in the aggregate. Moreover, during the analysis, the authors decided that rational choice theory provided a useful organizing structure for presenting the data. Emerging adults' behavioral decisions were rational reactions to their personal competence, perception of health, environment, and availability of resources to handle problems. Calculation of trade-offs and estimations of resource availability were often used when making decisions. Emerging adults choose unhealthy behaviors due to inaccurate information and insufficient competence to practice healthy lifestyles rather than because of laziness or being irrational. Behavioral interventions for emerging adults need to help them develop skills to enhance health literacy and problem solving, thereby enhancing their awareness of available resources and decreasing the perceived cost of making healthy choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overweight and class I obesity are associated with lower 10-year risk of mortality in Brazilian older adults: the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Beleigoli, Alline M; Boersma, Eric; Diniz, Maria de Fátima H; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Ribeiro, Antonio L

    2012-01-01

    Prospective studies mostly with European and North-American populations have shown inconsistent results regarding the association of overweight/obesity and mortality in older adults. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between overweight/ obesity and mortality in an elderly Brazilian population. Participants were 1,450 (90.2% from total) individuals aged 60 years and over from the community-based Bambuí (Brazil) Cohort Study of Ageing. From 1997 to 2007, 521 participants died and 89 were lost, leading to 12,905 person-years of observation. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed at baseline and at the 3rd and 5th years of follow-up. Multiple imputation was performed to deal with missing values. Hazard ratios (HR) of mortality for BMI or WC alone (continuous and categorical), and BMI and WC together (continuous) were estimated by extended Cox regression models, which were fitted for clinical, socioeconomic and behavioral confounders. Adjusted absolute rates of death at 10-year follow-up were estimated for the participants with complete data at baseline. Continuous BMI (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.80-0.90) was inversely related to mortality, even after exclusion of smokers (HR 0.85; 0.80-0.90), and participants who had weight variation and died within the first 5 years of follow-up (HR 0.83; CI 95% 0.73-0.94). Overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m(2)) was inversely (HR 0.76; 95%CI 0.61-0.93) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2); HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.64-1.14) not significantly associated with mortality. Subjects with BMI between 25-35 kg/m(2) (23.8-25.9%) had the lowest absolute rates of death at 10-years follow-up. The association between WC and death was not significant, except after adjusting WC for BMI levels, when the relationship turned into marginally positive (HR 1.01; CI 95% 1.00-1.02). The usual BMI and WC cut-off points should not be used to guide public health and clinical weight control interventions in elderly in Brazil.

  3. Obstructive sleep apnoea in obese adolescents and cardiometabolic risk markers.

    PubMed

    Watson, S E; Li, Z; Tu, W; Jalou, H; Brubaker, J L; Gupta, S; Huber, J N; Carroll, A; Hannon, T S

    2014-12-01

    In paediatric patients, obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adiposity, especially visceral adiposity. In adults, obstructive sleep apnoea is also associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are limited and conflicting paediatric studies examining the association between obstructive sleep apnoea and biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in youth. Obstructive sleep apnoea is linked with greater cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adolescents. Fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance may be especially linked with obstructive sleep apnoea among obese male Hispanic adolescents. The relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiometabolic abnormalities in obese adolescents should be considered when evaluating patients found to have obstructive sleep apnoea. Paediatric studies examining the association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and insulin sensitivity/cardiometabolic risk are limited and conflicting. This study aims to determine if cardiometabolic risk markers are increased among obese youth with obstructive sleep apnoea as compared with their equally obese peers without OSA. We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 patients (age 14.2 ± 1.4 years) who underwent polysomnography for suspected OSA. Fasting lipids, glucose, insulin and haemoglobin A1 c (HbA1 c) were performed as part of routine clinical evaluation. Patients were categorized into two groups by degree of OSA as measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI): none or mild OSA (AHI < 5) and moderate or severe OSA (AHI ≥ 5). Despite the similar degrees of obesity, patients with moderate or severe OSA had higher fasting insulin (P = 0.037) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR [P = 0.0497]) as compared with those with mild or no OSA. After controlling for body mass index, there was a positive association between the AHI and log

  4. Prevalence and change of central obesity among US Asian adults: NHANES 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuefeng; Chen, Yang; Boucher, Nicole L; Rothberg, Amy E

    2017-08-25

    Central obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. The prevalence of central obesity has not been reported fully among Asian adults in the United States (US). Cross-sectional data of 1288 Asian adults aged 20 years or over was selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with a stratified multi-stage sampling design. The prevalence of central obesity was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Chi-square tests were conducted to test the significance of the prevalence differences across characteristic groups. The overall prevalence of central obesity among US Asian adults was 58.1% in 2011-2014. The prevalence of central obesity was higher in older adults (73.5%) than in young adults (45.4%) (p < 0.0001). Women had 13.4% higher prevalence than men (64.4% vs 51.0%, p < 0.0001). The prevalence increased over time (2011-2012 vs 2013-2014) in young adults (39.2% vs 51.5%), men (45.4% vs 56.6%), adults with college education or above (54.2% vs 61.7%) and non-poor adults (55.4% vs 62.4%). Compared with men, women had higher prevalence in each subgroup of age, education, poverty, and length of time (except for the subgroup of "born in the US") (all p < 0.05) and in the subgroup of "married or living with partner" for marital status (p < 0.0001). Central obesity is prevalent in Asian adults, particularly in older adults and women. More efforts are needed to prevent and treat obesity in Asian adults as Asians are incurring the greatest increase in type 2 diabetes in parallel with the rising rate of central adiposity.

  5. "The solution needs to be complex." Obese adults' attitudes about the effectiveness of individual and population based interventions for obesity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies of public perceptions of obesity interventions have been quantitative and based on general population surveys. This study aims to explore the opinions and attitudes of obese individuals towards population and individual interventions for obesity in Australia. Methods Qualitative methods using in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews with a community sample of obese adults (Body Mass Index ≥30). Theoretical, purposive and strategic recruitment techniques were used to ensure a broad sample of obese individuals with different types of experiences with their obesity. Participants were asked about their attitudes towards three population based interventions (regulation, media campaigns, and public health initiatives) and three individual interventions (tailored fitness programs, commercial dieting, and gastric banding surgery), and the effectiveness of these interventions. Results One hundred and forty two individuals (19-75 years) were interviewed. Participants strongly supported non-commercial interventions that were focused on encouraging individuals to make healthy lifestyle changes (regulation, physical activity programs, and public health initiatives). There was less support for interventions perceived to be invasive or high risk (gastric band surgery), stigmatising (media campaigns), or commercially motivated and promoting weight loss techniques (commercial diets and gastric banding surgery). Conclusion Obese adults support non-commercial, non-stigmatising interventions which are designed to improve lifestyles, rather than promote weight loss. PMID:20633250

  6. Total adult cardiovascular risk in Central America.

    PubMed

    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Wong-McClure, R; Meiners, M; Ramirez-Zea, M; Segovia, J

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate prevalence of cardiovascular risk among adults 40 years and older using population-based samples from six Central American countries. Risk factors were derived from a multi-national cross-sectional survey implemented in 2003-2006, which included a sample of 4 202 participants aged 40 years and older. Charts produced by the World Health Organization and the International Society of Hypertension for the Region of the Americas sub-region B were used to predict risk on the basis of factors including age, sex, blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, smoking status, and diabetes status. Overall, 85.9% of the population was classified as having < 10% risk for cardiovascular events during the following ten years. The likelihood of being in this risk group decreased with age in both males and females. Four percent of respondents were identified as having > 20% risk. More than 75% of those with a 30-40% risk had previously been identified by health services, and an additional 23% were identified during the study, suggesting they could be diagnosed by opportunistic screening for diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Results of bivariate analysis showed that respondents who were male, older, obese and/or less educated had higher risk for cardiovascular events, but a multivariate analysis including education indicated highest risks for older, obese, and less educated females. Measuring cardiovascular disease risk identifies most cases of (or at risk for) diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia among adults 40 years and older. This strategy can facilitate implementation of control programs and decrease disabilities and premature mortality.

  7. Obesity in the intensive care unit: risks and complications.

    PubMed

    Selim, Bernardo J; Ramar, Kannan; Surani, Salim

    2016-08-01

    The steady growing prevalence of critically ill obese patients is posing diagnostic and management challenges across medical and surgical intensive care units. The impact of obesity in the critically ill patients may vary by type of critical illness, obesity severity (obesity distribution) and obesity-associated co-morbidities. Based on pathophysiological changes associated with obesity, predominately in pulmonary reserve and cardiac function, critically ill obese patients may be at higher risk for acute cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal complications in comparison to non-obese patients. Obesity also represents a dilemma in the management of other critical care areas such as invasive mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilation liberation, hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacokinetics dose adjustments. However, despite higher morbidity associated with obesity in the intensive care unit (ICU), a paradoxical lower ICU mortality ("obesity paradox") is demonstrated in comparison to non-obese ICU patients. This review article will focus on the unique pathophysiology, challenges in management, and outcomes associated with obesity in the ICU.

  8. The relationship between physical activity, obesity, and lung cancer risk by smoking status in a large prospective cohort of US adults.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alpa V; Carter, Brian D; Stevens, Victoria L; Gaudet, Mia M; Campbell, Peter T; Gapstur, Susan M

    2017-09-22

    Physical activity has been associated with lower lung cancer risk in numerous studies with estimates ranging from 20 to 50% lower risk in the most versus the least active study participants. Underweight and obesity have also been associated with lower lung cancer risk, with a nonlinear, inverted U-shaped relationship. However, associations of physical activity and obesity with lung cancer are likely significantly confounded by smoking since individuals who smoke are generally less active and leaner than non-smokers, but few studies have examined these associations stratified by smoking status. Using data from 162,679 men and women who were cancer-free at enrollment (1992-1993) in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, we examined associations of baseline recreational physical activity (MET-hours per week; none, 0.1 to <8.75 (reference), 8.75-17.4, 17.5+ MET-hours/week), baseline body mass index (BMI, weight (kg)/height (m(2)); <18.5, 18.5-22.0 (reference), 22.1-24.9, 25.0-29.9, 30.0+ kg/m(2)), and waist circumference (measured in 1997; sex-specific quartiles) in relation to lung cancer risk stratified by smoking status and years since quitting among former smokers (never, current, former <10 years, former, 10-19 years, former 20+ years). Cox proportional hazards modeling computed hazard rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) while adjusting for potential confounders. During 2,384,546 person years of follow-up time, 4,669 men and women were diagnosed with lung cancer (453 among never smokers; 1,452 among current smokers; 1,194 among former smokers <10 years since quitting; 725 among former 10-19 years; and 845 among former 20+ years). Physical activity was not associated with lung cancer risk within any of the smoking strata except in former smokers less than 10 years since quitting (RR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.67-0.90 for 17.5+ MET-hours/week). Similarly, BMI was inversely associated with lung cancer in former

  9. Genetic predisposition to obesity and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Juan; Hong, Jie; Qi, Lu; Cui, Bin; Gu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Lijuan; Miao, Lin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2014-10-10

    Obesity has been associated with increased common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We assessed the association between genetic predisposition to obesity and CCA IMT. The study included 428 young Chinese adults with CCA IMT measured using a high-resolution B-mode tomographic ultrasound system. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) by summing the risk alleles of 6 obesity-associated genetic variants confirmed in our previous analyses. The GRS was significantly associated with greater CCA IMT (p<0.001) after adjustment for age and gender. Per 2 alleles of the GRS was related to 0.023 mm increment in IMT. The association was attenuated by one half with additional adjustment for obesity status, but remained significant (p=0.009). In addition, we found that blood pressure significantly modified the association between the GRS and CCA IMT (p for interaction=0.001). The associations between the GRS and CCA IMT were stronger in participants with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥120 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg (per 2 allele increment of the GRS relating to 0.028 mm greater CCA IMT, p for trend<0.001) than those with SBP<120 mmHg and DBP<80 mmHg (per 2 allele increment of the GRS relating to 0.001 smaller CCA IMT, p for trend=0.930). Our data provides suggestive evidence supporting the potential causal relation between obesity and development of subclinical atherosclerosis. Elevated blood pressure might amplify the adverse effect of obesity on cardiovascular risk.

  10. Impact and attribute of each obesity-related cardiovascular risk factor in combination with abdominal obesity on total health expenditures in adult Japanese National Health insurance beneficiaries: The Ibaraki Prefectural health study.

    PubMed

    Sairenchi, Toshimi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Irie, Fujiko; Nagao, Masanori; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Haruyama, Yasuo; Kobashi, Gen; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ota, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the attribution of each cardiovascular risk factor in combination with abdominal obesity (AO) on Japanese health expenditures. The health insurance claims of 43,469 National Health Insurance beneficiaries aged 40-75 years in Ibaraki, Japan, from the second cohort of the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study were followed-up from 2009 through 2013. Multivariable health expenditure ratios (HERs) of diabetes mellitus (DM), high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertension with and without AO were calculated with reference to no risk factors using a Tweedie regression model. Without AO, HERs were 1.58 for DM, 1.06 for high LDL-C, 1.27 for low HDL-C, and 1.31 for hypertension (all P < 0.05). With AO, HERs were 1.15 for AO, 1.42 for DM, 1.03 for high LDL-C, 1.11 for low HDL-C, and 1.26 for hypertension (all P < 0.05, except high LDL-C). Without AO, population attributable fractions (PAFs) were 2.8% for DM, 0.8% for high LDL-C, 0.7% for low HDL-C, and 6.5% for hypertension. With AO, PAFs were 1.0% for AO, 2.3% for DM, 0.4% for low HDL-C, and 5.0% for hypertension. Of the obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension, independent of AO, appears to impose the greatest burden on Japanese health expenditures. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Obesity in older adults: synthesis of findings and recommendations for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Flood, Meredith; Newman, Ann M

    2007-12-01

    Obesity is a serious condition that often complicates chronic health conditions in older adults, making health promotion a challenge. Growing numbers of older adults means the number of older adults who are obese also will increase. Various authors have provided important information related to obesity and related complications in older adults; however, practical guidelines specific to nursing are lacking. This article summarizes and relates the findings on older adult obesity and provides suggestions for nursing interventions aimed at reducing obesity in older adults.

  12. Effect of a Web-Based Behavior Change Program on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults at High Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sinead; Woodside, Jayne V; Ware, Lisa J; Hunter, Steven J; McGrath, Alanna; Cardwell, Christopher R; Appleton, Katherine M; Young, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    Background Web-based programs are a potential medium for supporting weight loss because of their accessibility and wide reach. Research is warranted to determine the shorter- and longer-term effects of these programs in relation to weight loss and other health outcomes. Objective The aim was to evaluate the effects of a Web-based component of a weight loss service (Imperative Health) in an overweight/obese population at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a randomized controlled design and a true control group. Methods A total of 65 overweight/obese adults at high risk of CVD were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 (n=32) was provided with the Web-based program, which supported positive dietary and physical activity changes and assisted in managing weight. Group 2 continued with their usual self-care (n=33). Assessments were conducted face-to-face. The primary outcome was between-group change in weight at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included between-group change in anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid measurements, physical activity, and energy intake at 3, 6, and 12 months. Interviews were conducted to explore participants’ views of the Web-based program. Results Retention rates for the intervention and control groups at 3 months were 78% (25/32) vs 97% (32/33), at 6 months were 66% (21/32) vs 94% (31/33), and at 12 months were 53% (17/32) vs 88% (29/33). Intention-to-treat analysis, using baseline observation carried forward imputation method, revealed that the intervention group lost more weight relative to the control group at 3 months (mean –3.41, 95% CI –4.70 to –2.13 kg vs mean –0.52, 95% CI –1.55 to 0.52 kg, P<.001), at 6 months (mean –3.47, 95% CI –4.95 to –1.98 kg vs mean –0.81, 95% CI –2.23 to 0.61 kg, P=.02), but not at 12 months (mean –2.38, 95% CI –3.48 to –0.97 kg vs mean –1.80, 95% CI –3.15 to –0.44 kg, P=.77). More intervention group participants lost ≥5% of their baseline body

  13. Overweight, Obesity, and Lung Function in Children and Adults-A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Han, Yueh-Ying; Mullen, James; Celedón, Juan C

    2017-09-26

    There is conflicting evidence on the effect of obesity on lung function in adults and children with and without asthma. We aimed to evaluate the relation between overweight or obesity and lung function, and whether such relationship varies by age, sex, or asthma status. We searched PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE for all studies (in English) reporting on obesity status (by body mass index) and lung function, from 2005 to 2017. Main outcomes were forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, forced expiratory flow between 25th and 75th percentile of the forced vital capacity (FEF25-75), total lung capacity (TLC), residual volume (RV), and functional residual capacity (FRC). Random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled risk estimates; each study was weighed by the inverse effect size variance. For each outcome, we compared overweight or obese ("obese") subjects with those of normal weight. All measures of lung function were decreased among obese subjects. Obese adults showed a pattern (lower FEV1, FVC, TLC, and RV) different from obese children (more pronounced FEV1/FVC deficit with unchanged FEV1 or FVC). There were also seemingly different patterns by asthma status, in that subjects without asthma had more marked decreases in FEV1, TLC, RV, and FRC than subjects with asthma. Subjects who were obese (as compared with overweight) had even further decreased FEV1, FVC, TLC, RV, and FRC. Obesity is detrimental to lung function, but specific patterns differ between children and adults. Physicians should be aware of adverse effects of obesity on lung function, and weight control should be considered in the management of airway disease among the obese. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Excess vitamin intake: An unrecognized risk factor for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, food fortification and infant formula supplementation with high levels of vitamins have led to a sharp increase in vitamin intake among infants, children and adults. This is followed by a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity and related diseases, with significant disparities among countries and different groups within a country. It has long been known that B vitamins at doses below their toxicity threshold strongly promote body fat gain. Studies have demonstrated that formulas, which have very high levels of vitamins, significantly promote infant weight gain, especially fat mass gain, a known risk factor for children developing obesity. Furthermore, ecological studies have shown that increased B vitamin consumption is strongly correlated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. We therefore hypothesize that excess vitamins may play a causal role in the increased prevalence of obesity. This review will discuss: (1) the causes of increased vitamin intake; (2) the non-monotonic effect of excess vitamin intake on weight and fat gain; and (3) the role of vitamin fortification in obesity disparities among countries and different groups within a country. PMID:24567797

  15. Effects of exercise on mobility in obese and nonobese older adults.

    PubMed

    Manini, Todd M; Newman, Anne B; Fielding, Roger; Blair, Steven N; Perri, Michael G; Anton, Stephen D; Goodpaster, Bret C; Katula, Jeff A; Rejeski, Walter J; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Pahor, Marco; King, Abby C

    2010-06-01

    Coupled with an aging society, the rising obesity prevalence is likely to increase the future burden of physical disability. We set out to determine whether obesity modified the effects of a physical activity (PA) intervention designed to prevent mobility disability in older adults. Older adults at risk for disability (N = 424, age range: 70-88 years) were randomized to a 12 month PA intervention involving moderate intensity aerobic, strength, balance, and flexibility exercise (150 min per week) or a successful aging (SA) intervention involving weekly educational workshops. Individuals were stratified by obesity using a BMI >or=30 (n = 179). Mobility function was assessed as usual walking speed over 400 m and scores on a short physical performance battery (SPPB), which includes short distance walking, balance tests, and chair rises. Over 12 months of supervised training, the attendance and total amount of walking time was similar between obese and nonobese subjects and no weight change was observed. Nonobese participants in the PA group had significant increases in 400-m walking speed (+1.5%), whereas their counterparts in the SA group declined (-4.3%). In contrast, obese individuals declined regardless of their assigned intervention group (PA: -3.1%; SA: -4.9%). SPPB scores, however, increased following PA in both obese (PA: +13.5%; SA: +2.5%) and nonobese older adults (PA: +18.6%; SA: +6.1%). A moderate intensity PA intervention improves physical function in older adults, but the positive benefits are attenuated with obesity.

  16. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview.

    PubMed

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.

  17. The Association between Sarcopenic Obesity and Depressive Symptoms in Older Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chang; Tanaka, Tomoki; Kuroda, Aki; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Akishita, Masahiro; Iijima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women) randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific quintile of the percentage body fat. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item score ≥ 6. Multiple logistic regression was employed to examine the association of depressive symptoms with four groups defined by the presence/absence of sarcopenia and obesity. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 10.1% and the proportions of sarcopenia/obesity, sarcopenia/non-obesity, non-sarcopenia/obesity, non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were 3.7%, 13.6%, 16.9% and 65.8%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia/obesity was positively associated with depressive symptoms compared with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity, whereas either sarcopenia or obesity alone was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association was particularly pronounced in those aged 65 to 74 years in age-stratified analysis. We conclude that our findings suggest a synergistic impact exerted by sarcopenic obesity on the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly in those aged 65 to 74 years. PMID:27627756

  18. The Association between Sarcopenic Obesity and Depressive Symptoms in Older Japanese Adults.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shinya; Chang, Chang; Tanaka, Tomoki; Kuroda, Aki; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Akishita, Masahiro; Iijima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women) randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific quintile of the percentage body fat. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item score ≥ 6. Multiple logistic regression was employed to examine the association of depressive symptoms with four groups defined by the presence/absence of sarcopenia and obesity. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 10.1% and the proportions of sarcopenia/obesity, sarcopenia/non-obesity, non-sarcopenia/obesity, non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were 3.7%, 13.6%, 16.9% and 65.8%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia/obesity was positively associated with depressive symptoms compared with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity, whereas either sarcopenia or obesity alone was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association was particularly pronounced in those aged 65 to 74 years in age-stratified analysis. We conclude that our findings suggest a synergistic impact exerted by sarcopenic obesity on the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly in those aged 65 to 74 years.

  19. [Risk factors of children overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Younes, Kawthar; Gabsi, Zvinemira; Bouslah, Amel; Maalel, Issam; Maatouk El May, Wahiba; Dahmen, Hayet; Bel Abed, Najet; Bchir, Nedra; Gabsi, Abdallah; Tekaya, Mohamed Salah; Jebara, Hassen

    2012-05-01

    The increase of the prevalence of children obesity in some countries as Tunisia, necessitate to welling known risk factors for obesity, to prevent and early management. To determine the prevalence of overweight and of obesity in a group of 4-6 year-old school children in Monastir and to investigate the association with possible risk factors. A descriptive transversal study including 121 children aged 4-6 years old (637 males, 698 females), was conducted in 10 Kindergartens in Monastir, in 2011. Personal data such as age, sex, birth weight, breastfeeding history and parental data including parental weights and heights, parental education level and occupation were collected by questionnaires completed by parents. Height and weight were measured with a weighing-scale and body mass index (BMI; kg/m²) was calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined based according to the curves of the french reference of Rolland Cachera. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.1% and 11.6% respectively. Parental factors associated with overweight were: parental obesity: 44% vs 17% (p=0.005) (OR = 3.65: 1.27-10.57), artificial feeding: 68% vs 33% (p=0.0016) (OR= 4.25: 1.51-12.27), and the early diversification of food before the age of 6 months: 88% vs 65% (p=0.029) (OR= 3.84: 0.98 - 17.66). Exclusive breast feeding duration ≥ 6mois is probably protector factor against obesity: 0% vs 21% (p=0. 01) (OR=0: 0.00 < OR < 0.78). We found no significant difference between overweight and non-overweight schoolchildren in frequency of high degree educated mother and father, birth weight, breakfast intake, eating habits and exercise. However overweight children intake high-caloric food, low in fiber, with troubles of nutritional comportment, and a sedentary lifestyle. Risk factors for obesity, well known in most industrialized countries, necessitate to be more understood in Tunisia, to place a preventive strategy included supervision of children weight, nutritional

  20. Parenting style and obesity risk in children.

    PubMed

    Kakinami, Lisa; Barnett, Tracie A; Séguin, Louise; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    Parents play a critical role in their children's lifestyle habits. The objective was to assess the effect of parenting style on the risk of childhood obesity, and to determine whether poverty was a moderator of the association. Participants were from the 1994-2008 cross-sectional samples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), a nationally representative survey of Canadian youth. Factor and cluster analyses identified four parenting styles consistent with Baumrind's parenting style prototypes. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the risk of obesity based on parenting style after adjusting for covariates. Analyses were stratified by age (preschool: 2-5years of age, n=19,026; school-age: 6-11years of age, n=18,551) and the moderating effect of poverty (household incomeobese, respectively. In preschool children, poverty moderated this association: authoritarian and negligent parenting was associated with 44% (CI: 1.3-1.7) and 26% (CI: 1.1-1.4) increased likelihood of obesity, respectively, but only among the children not living in poverty. In school-age children, poverty was not a moderator. Parenting style is associated with childhood obesity, but may be moderated by poverty. Successful strategies to combat childhood obesity should reflect the independent and interactive associations of sociodemographic and social-familial influences on health especially in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obesity and type 2 diabetes: which patients are at risk?

    PubMed

    Garber, A J

    2012-05-01

    An estimated 72.5 million American adults are obese, and the growing US obesity epidemic is responsible for substantial increase in morbidity and mortality, as well as increased health care costs. Obesity results from a combination of personal and societal factors, but is often viewed as a character flaw rather than a medical condition. This leads to stigma and discrimination towards obese individuals and decreases the likelihood of effective intervention. Conditions related to obesity are increasingly common, such as metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), all of which indicate high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This paper reviews the progression from obesity to diabetes, identifying physiological changes that occur along this path as well as opportunities for patient identification and disease prevention. Patients with prediabetes (defined as having IFG, IGT or both) and/or metabolic syndrome require interventions designed to preserve insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, both of which start to deteriorate prior to T2DM diagnosis. Lifestyle modification, including both healthy eating choices and increased physical activity, is essential for weight management and diabetes prevention. Although sustained weight loss is often considered by patients and physicians as being impossible to achieve, effective interventions do exist. Specifically, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and programs modelled along its parameters have shown repeated successes, even with long-term maintenance. Recent setbacks in the development of medications for weight loss further stress the importance of lifestyle management. By viewing obesity as a metabolic disorder rather than a personal weakness, we can work with patients to address this increasingly prevalent condition and improve long-term health outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Exploratory investigation of obesity risk and prevention in Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Liou, Doreen; Bauer, Kathleen D

    2007-01-01

    To examine the beliefs and attitudes related to obesity risk and its prevention in Chinese Americans via in-depth, qualitative interviews using the guiding tenets of Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, and social ecological models. A qualitative study using tenets of the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and social ecological models. The New York City metropolitan area. Forty young Chinese American adults (24 females; 16 males) were interviewed. Obesity risk and prevention. Common themes were identified, coded, and compared using NVivo computer software. Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles were seen as major weight gain contributors. Obesity was seen predominantly as a non-Asian phenomenon, although 60% of the participants felt susceptible to obesity. Physical and social environmental factors were the overriding themes generated as to the causes of weight gain among young adult Chinese Americans. Physical factors included the powerful effect of media-generated advertisements and a plethora of inexpensive fast and convenience foods emphasizing large portion sizes of low nutrient density. The social environment encourages the consumption of large quantities of these foods. Traditional Chinese cuisine was seen as providing more healthful alternatives, but increasing acculturation to American lifestyle results in less traditional food consumption. Some traditional Chinese beliefs regarding the desirability of a slightly heavy physique can encourage overeating. Nutrition educators need to be public policy advocates for environments providing tasty, low cost, healthful foods. Young adult Chinese Americans seek knowledge and skills for making convenient healthful food selections in the midst of a culture that advocates and provides an abundance of unhealthy choices.

  3. Screening for and Management of Obesity in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for and Management of Obesity in Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for and Management of ...

  4. Implications of childhood obesity for adult health: findings from thousand families cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wright, C M; Parker, L; Lamont, D; Craft, A W

    2001-12-01

    To determine whether being overweight in childhood increases adult obesity and risk of disease. Prospective cohort study. City of Newcastle upon Tyne. 932 members of thousand families 1947 birth cohort, of whom 412 attended for clinical examination age 50. Blood pressure; carotid artery intima-media thickness; fibrinogen concentration; total, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations; triglyceride concentration; fasting insulin and 2 hour glucose concentrations; body mass index; and percentage body fat. Body mass index at age 9 years was significantly correlated with body mass index age 50 (r=0.24, P<0.001) but not with percentage body fat age 50 (r=0.10, P=0.07). After adult body mass index had been adjusted for, body mass index at age 9 showed a significant inverse association with measures of lipid and glucose metabolism in both sexes and with blood pressure in women. However, after adjustment for adult percentage fat instead of body mass index, only the inverse associations with triglycerides (regression coefficient= -0.21, P<0.01) and total cholesterol (-0.17, P<0.05) in women remained significant. Little tracking from childhood overweight to adulthood obesity was found when using a measure of fatness that was independent of build. Only children who were obese at 13 showed an increased risk of obesity as adults. No excess adult health risk from childhood or teenage overweight was found. Being thin in childhood offered no protection against adult fatness, and the thinnest children tended to have the highest adult risk at every level of adult obesity.

  5. Effect of Different Obesity Phenotypes on Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Tehranian Adults.

    PubMed

    Mottaghi, Azadeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this community-based study is to ascertain the effect of different obesity phenotypes on the incidence of chronic kidney disease in Iranian adults. A prospective cohort study, the Tehran Lipid Glucose Study (TLGS). Adults aged ≥ 20 years with a mean age of 40.38 years (54.8% female) who were free from chronic kidney disease (CKD) at baseline (phase 1) and were followed up at 3 time stages (phases 2, 3, and 4) for a mean duration of 9.4 years to assess the risk for CKD. Obesity phenotypes. Incidence of chronic kidney disease. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from the simplified equation developed using data from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study. CKD events occurred in 1162 participants. The prevalence of the 2 known obesity phenotypes (metabolically obese normal weight [MONW] and metabolically healthy but obese [MHO]) in the overall population was 3.5% and 8.8%, respectively. According to Kaplan-Meier curves, rates of freedom from CKD in the MHO and MONW obesity phenotypes were 75.3% and 60.6%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Age- and sex-adjusted (model 1) hazard ratios for participants with MHO or MONW obesity phenotype were 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-1.43) and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.09-1.88), respectively. After further adjustment for confounder variables (model 2), multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for CKD for participants with MHO or MONW obesity phenotypes were 1.23 (95% CI, 0.93-1.62) and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08-1.90), respectively. Adults with the MONW obesity phenotype compared to those with MHO obesity phenotype have a higher risk for incidence of CKD. The results indicate that having a normal weight is not the only factor to protect against incidence of CKD.

  6. Obesity at adolescence and gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Song, Minkyo; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Yang, Jae Jeong; Sung, Hyuna; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Hwi-Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Sang Gyun; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kang, Daehee

    2015-02-01

    During the last few decades, prevalence of obesity has risen rapidly worldwide, markedly in children and adolescents. Epidemiologic studies have associated obesity to several cancer types, yet little is known for the effect of early life exposure to obesity on cancer risk in later life, especially in gastric cancer. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) of adolescence and the risk of gastric cancer. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Korea with 1,492 incident gastric cancer cases and 1,492 controls matched by age and sex. The BMI at age 18 was calculated by using weight and height from questionnaire. The association with the risk of gastric cancer was evaluated using odds ratios by logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounding factors. Compared with BMI 21.75 kg/m(2), higher BMI at age 18 was associated with higher risk of gastric cancer showing a nonlinear, threshold effect. Statistically significant odds ratio was observed in men with BMI higher than 25.3 kg/m(2) (OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.01-1.27) and in women with BMI 25.3 kg/m(2) and above (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.01-1.55). Similar to some other cancer types, overweight or obese in adolescence was found to be associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer. The results imply for stratified approach of tactics in prevention of gastric cancer in different population.

  7. Childhood Adversity and Mental Health Correlates of Obesity in a Population at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica; Pohlig, Ryan T.

    2017-01-01

    The staggering prevalence of obesity and obesity-related health conditions takes exorbitant tolls on health care resources. This cross-sectional study with private evaluations of 636 adult inmates in a southern state prison was conducted with regressions comparing obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) to nonobese individuals to define obesity risk factors. Obese individuals more likely were female, were victims of childhood sexual abuse, suffered greater severity of childhood sexual abuse, attempted suicide, reported drug dependency, were non-Caucasian, and were older than non-obese. Psychopathy predicted lower BMI. Though obesity might be expected in victims of childhood physical abuse, traumatic brain injury, or other mental health conditions due to mobility or decision-making deficits, neither were significant. Adjusting for related variables, childhood sexual abuse remained significant. Females attempted suicide more frequently and suffered greater childhood sexual abuse. PMID:27742859

  8. Metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the risk of cancer development.

    PubMed

    Bitzur, Rafael; Brenner, Ronen; Maor, Elad; Antebi, Maayan; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Segev, Shlomo; Sidi, Yechezkel; Kivity, Shaye

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome and its components are severe global health issues that are increasing in frequency as the prevalence of obesity increases. Various studies have established a correlation between metabolic syndrome and diseases including, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and cardiovascular disease. In recent years, correlations have also been detected between obesity and metabolic syndrome and the prevalence of certain types of cancer. The current study examines whether obesity and metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cancer among the adult population in Israel. A cohort study analysis was performed of 24,987 initially healthy men and women who underwent yearly medical assessments at the Institute for Medical Screening in the Sheba Medical Center. Data from the Institute for Medical Screening database was correlated with that from the Israel Cancer Center in the Ministry of Health updated to December 2013. The correlation between metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the overall risk of cancer as well as the risks of specific types of cancer were examined. Of 20,444 subjects for whom complete data were available, 1535 were diagnosed with cancer during the mean follow-up time of 104.3months. In a multi-variant analysis, no significant correlation was found between metabolic syndrome or obesity and the incidence of cancer. When the data were stratified by gender and cancer type, however, a significant association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer in women was observed (P=0.03, HR=1.67, 95% CI=1.05-2.67). Metabolic syndrome correlates with higher than expected breast cancer incidence in women. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants and risk of diabetes and obesity on healthy adults: Results from a cross-sectional study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Camacho, María; González-Antuña, Ana; Boada, Luis D

    2017-12-31

    Environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been reported to be relevant in the population of the Canary Islands (Spain), especially that of organochlorine pesticides. On the other hand, the population of this archipelago presents a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and it has been recently reported that environmental chemical contamination could play a role in the development of this disease. We performed a cross-sectional study in a representative sample from this archipelago to evaluate whether serum levels of selected POPs could be considered as risk factors for diabetes in this population. Serum levels of 30 POPs were determined in 429 adults (9.3% with T2D). We found that serum levels of p,p'-DDE (DDE), PCB-153 and PCB-118 were significantly higher among subjects having diabetes than in non-diabetic subjects (p=0.001, p=0.046, and p<0.0001, respectively). We observed a positive correlation between serum p,p'-DDE and glucose levels. Serum p,p'-DDE was identified as a risk factor for diabetes in univariate analysis in the whole series, and it remained as an independent risk factor for diabetes in subjects with serum glucose <126mg/dL (multivariate analysis, Exp(B)=1.283, CI 95% (1.023-1.611), p=0.031). Those normoglycemic subjects that are most exposed to p,p'-DDE (95th percentile: serum p,p'-DDE>5μg/L) seem to be those people at higher risk. Our results showed that p,p'-DDE levels were significantly higher among subjects having diabetes. These findings should be considered by public health Authorities to implement measures devoted to minimize human exposure to pollutants that could be harmful to the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of exercise on mobility limitation in obese and non-obese older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Coupled with an aging society, the rising obesity prevalence is likely to increase the future rates of physical disability. We set out to determine whether the effects of a physical activity intervention aimed to improve mobility function in older adults is modified by obesity. Method...

  11. Adolescent Obesity Risk Knowledge (AORK): Let the Discussion Begin.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Elaine M; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine adolescent level of knowledge concerning obesity risk. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using a staged process. Data collected with (a) Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (ORK-10), (b) focus groups, (c) scientific advisory group input, and (d) the Adolescent Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (AORK). The AORK is tailored from the ORK-10 (α = .53) to capture adolescents' knowledge of obesity complications and/or risks (α = .68). The AORK integrates questions for assisting practitioners to initiate discussions about obesity and lifestyle choices with adolescents and their families. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects on Physical Health of a Multicomponent Programme for Overweight and Obesity for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín; Campillo-Martínez, José M.; Ato-García, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are major health risk factors in people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent programme (physical activity, diet and motivation) for overweight and obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities. Material and Methods: A quasi-experimental design…

  13. Effects on Physical Health of a Multicomponent Programme for Overweight and Obesity for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín; Campillo-Martínez, José M.; Ato-García, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are major health risk factors in people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent programme (physical activity, diet and motivation) for overweight and obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities. Material and Methods: A quasi-experimental design…

  14. A prospective study of physical fitness, obesity, and the subsequent risk of mental disorders among healthy young adults in army training.

    PubMed

    Gubata, Marlene E; Urban, Nadia; Cowan, David N; Niebuhr, David W

    2013-07-01

    Mental health disorders contribute substantially to medical and occupational morbidity. The role of fitness and physical activity in the prevention of mental health disorders is not well established, but epidemiologic data suggest that physical activity can protect against anxiety and depression. The analyses presented in this report, from a prospective cohort study, evaluate the association between fitness (as measured by a 5-minute step test), and being overweight (defined as exceeding weight and body fat allowances) at military entrance, with subsequent onset of mental disorder diagnosis in the first year of service. The association between risk factors and mental disorder diagnosis was analyzed using multivariate Poisson regression with the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) as the measure of association. Among weight-qualified participants, factors associated with increased incidence of mental disorder included failing the physical fitness test (aIRR: 1.36, p<0.0001), female sex (aIRR: 2.17, p<0.0001), and smoking (aIRR: 1.49, p<0.0001). Among fit participants, being overweight was not significantly associated with mental disorder (aIRR: 1.11, p=0.1540). This test has potential military utility as an adjunct part of the medical examination process. Additional research is needed among civilians to determine if similar associations exist. If so, intervention studies should be conducted to determine if improving physical fitness reduces subsequent psychiatric disorder risk, particularly among young adults entering into stressful situations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Overweight and Obesity A healthy weight is important for a long, vigorous life. Yet overweight and obesity (extreme overweight) have reached epidemic levels in the ...

  16. Underweight, Obesity and Exercise among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Accommodation in Northern England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, E.

    2005-01-01

    Significant deviation from normal weight (obesity and underweight) and lack of physical exercise have been identified as three of the most significant global behavioural risks to health. Body mass index (BMI) and levels of physical activity were measured in a sample of 1542 adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) receiving supported…

  17. Underweight, Obesity and Exercise among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Accommodation in Northern England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, E.

    2005-01-01

    Significant deviation from normal weight (obesity and underweight) and lack of physical exercise have been identified as three of the most significant global behavioural risks to health. Body mass index (BMI) and levels of physical activity were measured in a sample of 1542 adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) receiving supported…

  18. Association between obesity and suicide in woman, but not in man: a population-based study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Branco, Jerônimo Costa; Motta, Janaína; Wiener, Carolina; Oses, Jean Pierre; Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Spessato, Barbara; Dias, Luciano; da Silva, Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between obesity and suicide risk is still unclear with controversial research results. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between obesity and suicide risk for men and women in a population-based study of young adults. This is a cross-sectional population-based study that identified young adults between 18 and 35 years of age. Suicide risk was investigated through the structured clinical interview Mini. Weight and height were assessed, and participants were classified as normal-weight body mass index (BMI < 30) or obese (BMI > 30). The prevalence of obesity was of 19.9% of the total sample (n = 1953). Obesity was more prevalent among women and participants between 27 and 35 years of age. Suicide risk was present in 13.0% of the sample and more prevalent among women. In our study we found an association between obesity and suicide risk for women, but not for men. Obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of suicide risk in women. Given the strength of the relationship between BMI and suicide, identifying the mechanisms associated with obesity, especially for women, can lead to new insights into the prevention of suicide risk.

  19. Nutrient patterns and their relationship with general and central obesity in US adults.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2017-03-10

    Despite growing evidence on the associations between nutrient patterns and obesity, very few studies have examined the association between patterns of nutrient intake and obesity. To identify major nutrient patterns in U.S. adults and investigate their association with general and central obesity. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants from 2005 to 2012 were included. General obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, and central obesity as a waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88 cm for women. Intakes of 60 nutrients were calculated. Factor analysis was applied to derive the major nutrient patterns. Statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights. Overall 24,182 eligible individuals including 8155 with general obesity and 11730 with central obesity were included. Three nutrient patterns explaining 50.8% of the variance in dietary nutrients consumption, were identified. The odds of all types of obesity increased across quarters of the first nutrient patterns (mostly representative of saturated/mono-unsaturated fatty acids), such that the fourth quarter was associated with odds ratio of 1.31 (95%CI: 1.13-1.51) for general obesity and 1.47 (95%CI: 1.30-1.66) for central obesity, relative to the first quarter. The second nutrient patterns (mostly representative of micro nutrients and vitamins) was associated with lower odds of general [0.32 (95%CI: 0.61-0.77]) or central obesity [0.31 (95%CI: 0.62-0.78). Nutrient patterns may have deleterious or protective effects on the risk of general and central obesity, with implication for food-based strategies to prevent and control obesity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Can infant feeding choices modulate later obesity risk?

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger; Closa, Ricardo; Monasterolo, Ricardo Closa; Escribano, Joaquín; Subías, Joaquín Escribano; Scaglioni, Silvia; Giovannini, Marcello; Beyer, Jeannette; Demmelmair, Hans; Anton, Brigitte; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Dobrzanska, Anna; Sengier, Anne; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Rolland Cachera, Marie-Francoise; Grote, Veit

    2009-05-01

    Since the concept of lasting programming effects on disease risk in human adults by the action of hormones, metabolites, and neurotransmitters during sensitive periods of early development was proposed >3 decades ago, ample supporting evidence has evolved from epidemiologic and experimental studies and clinical trials. For example, numerous studies have reported programming effects of infant feeding choices on later obesity. Three meta-analyses of observational studies found that obesity risk at school age was reduced by 15-25% with early breastfeeding compared with formula feeding. We proposed that breastfeeding protects against later obesity by reducing the occurrence of high weight gain in infancy and that one causative factor is the lower protein content of human milk compared with most infant formula (the early protein hypothesis). We are testing this hypothesis in the European Childhood Obesity Project, a double-blind, randomized clinical trial that includes >1000 infants in 5 countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain). We randomly assigned healthy infants who were born at term to receive for the first year infant formula and follow-on formula with higher or lower protein contents, respectively. The follow-up data obtained at age 2 y indicate that feeding formula with reduced protein content normalizes early growth relative to a breastfed reference group and the new World Health Organization growth standard, which may furnish a significant long-term protection against later obesity. We conclude that infant feeding practice has a high potential for long-term health effects, and the results obtained should stimulate the review of recommendations and policies for infant formula composition.

  1. Sex differences in the association of obesity and colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanseul; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological research has convincingly shown that obesity increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, with generally stronger associations observed in men than in women. Evidence from the past several years has demonstrated a divergent pattern between men and women regarding the weight changes throughout life or timing of obesity for CRC risk. For men, weight gain later in life appears to be an important risk factor for CRC that mostly accounts for their generally strong association between adult body mass index and CRC risk. For women, however, early life obesity seems to be more important than adult weight gain in determining CRC risk. A knowledge of these sex patterns may have implications on better understanding colorectal carcinogenesis and may further improve prevention efforts for CRC.

  2. Nutrition transition and obesity among teenagers and young adults in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Wijayabandara, Maheshi; Hills, Andrew P; Misra, Anoop

    2016-08-08

    Introduction Obesity among teenagers/adolescents and young adults is associated with significant adverse short and longer-term effects on health. To date, no narrative reviews have evaluated nutrition transition and its contribution to the obesity epidemic among adolescents and young adults in the South Asian (SA) region. Methods Data were retrieved by a four-stage systematic search process. A search of the online PubMed/Medline, SciVerse Scopus and Web of Science databases was performed. The age groups were defined as follows; teenage:13-19 years, adolescence:10-18 years and young adult:19-24 years. Results Among teenagers/adolescents, the prevalence of overweight ranged from 11.0% (Sri Lanka) to 19.0% (India), while obesity ranged from 2.4% (Sri Lanka) to 11.0% (Pakistan). In young adults, prevalence of overweight ranged between 7.9% (Nepal) to 15.0% (Pakistan), while obesity showed a much wider variation (0.005%[Nepal] - 22.8%[India]). Nutritional risk factors associated with overweight/obesity among SAs of this age group included reduced fruit and vegetable consumption, a total vegetarian diet, consumption of fast food and soft drinks, and skipping breakfast. Other contributing factors identified were: adding extra salt to meals, eating meals outside of the home, frequently visiting restaurants and eating while watching television. Daily milk/yoghurt consumption and a family supper have shown a protective effect against overweight/obesity. Conclusions Overweight and obesity are common amongst teenagers/adolescents and young adults of the SA region. Several food types and habits were identified as being associated with overweight/obesity in this population. Identifying common protective and contributory factors is very important for the development of a shared regional preventive strategy.

  3. Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Gaul, David; Mat, Arimin; O'Shea, Donal; Issartel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether obesity alters the sensory motor integration process and movement outcome during a visual rhythmic coordination task. Methods. 88 participants (44 obese and 44 matched control) sat on a chair equipped with a wrist pendulum oscillating in the sagittal plane. The task was to swing the pendulum in synchrony with a moving visual stimulus displayed on a screen. Results. Obese participants demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher values for continuous relative phase (CRP) indicating poorer level of coordination, increased movement variability (p < 0.05), and a larger amplitude (p < 0.05) than their healthy weight counterparts. Conclusion. These results highlight the existence of visual sensory integration deficiencies for obese participants. The obese group have greater difficulty in synchronizing their movement with a visual stimulus. Considering that visual motor coordination is an essential component of many activities of daily living, any impairment could significantly affect quality of life.

  4. Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, Donal

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether obesity alters the sensory motor integration process and movement outcome during a visual rhythmic coordination task. Methods. 88 participants (44 obese and 44 matched control) sat on a chair equipped with a wrist pendulum oscillating in the sagittal plane. The task was to swing the pendulum in synchrony with a moving visual stimulus displayed on a screen. Results. Obese participants demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher values for continuous relative phase (CRP) indicating poorer level of coordination, increased movement variability (p < 0.05), and a larger amplitude (p < 0.05) than their healthy weight counterparts. Conclusion. These results highlight the existence of visual sensory integration deficiencies for obese participants. The obese group have greater difficulty in synchronizing their movement with a visual stimulus. Considering that visual motor coordination is an essential component of many activities of daily living, any impairment could significantly affect quality of life. PMID:27994885

  5. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (P<0.05) with obesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.

  6. Age-period-cohort analyses of obesity prevalence in US adults.

    PubMed

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2016-12-01

    Age-period-cohort analysis is a stream of methodologies that decompose the temporal trends for disease risk into three time scales-age, calendar year (period) and year of birth (cohort). This study conducted age-period-cohort analyses of obesity prevalence in US adults. Retrospective data analysis. We constructed regression models based on anthropometric data from the 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to correct for the self-reported height/weight in the 1984-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We estimated fixed-effects age-period-cohort models based on the BRFSS data for the overall adult sample (n = 6,093,293) and by sex and race/ethnicity, adjusting for individual characteristics and the BRFSS survey design. An inverted U-shaped age effect on obesity and a positive period effect characterized by over-time increase in obesity risk independent of age and cohort influences were identified in the overall sample and subgroups by sex and race/ethnicity. From 1984 to 2014, the adjusted obesity prevalence increased by 21.1 percentage points among US adults, and 20.9, 21.6, 21.0, 26.4 and 20.1 percentage points in men, women, non-Hispanic whites, African Americans and Hispanics, respectively. In contrast, no consistent evidence was found in support of the cohort effect-the adjusted obesity risk was comparable across birth cohorts after accounting for the age and period effects. Shifts in the age distribution and nationwide secular changes may have fuelled the obesity epidemic in the USA over the past decades. Reversing the obesity epidemic may require understanding of the nationwide changes over time that affect weight gain across all population subgroups and promoting universal changes to diet, physical activity and the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Richardson, Tara B; Bredle, Donald L; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (P<0.05) transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05) and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05) times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively. Conclusion Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25120373

  8. Associations of Sarcopenic Obesity and Dynapenic Obesity with Bone Mineral Density and Incident Fractures Over 5-10 Years in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Chandrasekara, Sahan D; Laslett, Laura L; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ebeling, Peter R; Jones, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether low muscle mass (sarcopenia) or strength (dynapenia), in the presence of obesity, are associated with increased risk for osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture over 5-10 years in community-dwelling older adults. N = 1089 volunteers (mean ± SD age 62 ± 7 years; 51 % female) participated at baseline and 761 attended follow-up clinics (mean 5.1 ± 0.5 years later). Total body, total hip and spine BMD, and appendicular lean and total fat mass were assessed by DXA. Sarcopenic obesity and dynapenic obesity were defined as the lowest sex-specific tertiles for appendicular lean mass or lower-limb strength, respectively, and the highest sex-specific tertile for total fat mass. Fractures were self-reported on three occasions over 10.7 ± 0.7 years in 563 participants. Obese alone participants had significantly higher BMD at all sites compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese. Sarcopenic obese and dynapenic obese men had lower spine and total body BMD, respectively, and sarcopenic obese women had lower total hip BMD, compared with obese alone (all P < 0.05). Sarcopenic obese men had higher non-vertebral fracture rates compared to non-sarcopenic non-obese (incidence rate ratio: 3.0; 95 % CI 1.7-5.5), and obese alone (3.6; 1.7-7.4). Sarcopenic obese women had higher fracture rates compared with obese alone (2.8; 1.4-5.6), but this was non-significant after adjustment for total hip BMD. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese older adults may have increased risk of osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture relative to obese alone counterparts. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese individuals potentially represent a subset of the obese older adult population who require closer monitoring of bone health during ageing.

  9. Normal Weight Obesity: A Hidden Health Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Obesity Can you be considered obese if you have a normal body weight? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... considered obese — a condition known as normal weight obesity. Normal weight obesity means you may have the ...

  10. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-05-12

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  11. To Treat or Not to Treat? Health Risks of Obesity and Obesity Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersmarck, Karen

    1992-01-01

    Presents summary of a panel discussion at the Conference of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity (1992) on the health risks of treating obesity. The panel focused on selectivity in accepting patients, obesity and mortality, genetic individuality, weight loss mode and outcome, weight loss and longevity, and weight maintenance.…

  12. To Treat or Not to Treat? Health Risks of Obesity and Obesity Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersmarck, Karen

    1992-01-01

    Presents summary of a panel discussion at the Conference of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity (1992) on the health risks of treating obesity. The panel focused on selectivity in accepting patients, obesity and mortality, genetic individuality, weight loss mode and outcome, weight loss and longevity, and weight maintenance.…

  13. Maternal obesity in females born small: Pregnancy complications and offspring disease risk.

    PubMed

    Mahizir, Dayana; Briffa, Jessica F; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wadley, Glenn D; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health crisis, with 1.6 billion adults worldwide being classified as overweight or obese in 2014. Therefore, it is not surprising that the number of women who are overweight or obese at the time of conception is increasing. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that perturbations during critical stages of development can result in adverse fetal changes that leads to an increased risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Of particular concern, children born to obese mothers are at a greater risk of developing cardiometabolic disease. One subset of the population who are predisposed to developing obesity are children born small for gestational age, which occurs in 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Epidemiological studies report that these growth-restricted children have an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Importantly during pregnancy, growth-restricted females have a higher risk of developing cardiometabolic disease, indicating that they may have an exacerbated phenotype if they are also overweight or obese. Thus, the development of early pregnancy interventions targeted to obese mothers may prevent their children from developing cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 100% orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Rampersaud, Gail C; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2012-12-12

    Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a nationally representative sample of adults. Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI) of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%), UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p < 0.05) percentage (% ± SE) of the population meeting the EAR for vitamin A (39.7 ± 2.5 vs 54.0 ± 1.2), vitamin C (0.0 ± 0.0 vs 59.0 ± 1.4), folate (5.8 ± 0.7 vs 15.1 ± 0.9), and magnesium (51.6 ± 1.6 vs 63.7 ± 1.2). Consumers were also more likely to be above the AI for potassium (4.1 ± 0.8 vs 1.8 ± 0.2). HEI-2005 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in consumers (55.0 ± 0.4 vs 49.7 ± 0.3). Consumers also had higher intakes of total fruit, fruit juice, whole fruit, and whole grain. Consumers had a lower (p < 0.05) mean body mass index (27.6 ± 0.2 vs 28.5 ± 0.1), total cholesterol levels (197.6 ± 1.2 vs 200.8 ± 0.75 mg/dL), and low density lipoprotein

  15. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI) of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%), UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p < 0.05) percentage (% ± SE) of the population meeting the EAR for vitamin A (39.7 ± 2.5 vs 54.0 ± 1.2), vitamin C (0.0 ± 0.0 vs 59.0 ± 1.4), folate (5.8 ± 0.7 vs 15.1 ± 0.9), and magnesium (51.6 ± 1.6 vs 63.7 ± 1.2). Consumers were also more likely to be above the AI for potassium (4.1 ± 0.8 vs 1.8 ± 0.2). HEI-2005 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in consumers (55.0 ± 0.4 vs 49.7 ± 0.3). Consumers also had higher intakes of total fruit, fruit juice, whole fruit, and whole grain. Consumers had a lower (p < 0.05) mean body mass index (27.6 ± 0.2 vs 28.5 ± 0.1), total cholesterol levels (197.6 ± 1.2 vs 200.8 ± 0.75 mg

  16. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Because of its high prevalence and the associated medical and psychosocial risks, research into the causes of childhood obesity has experienced a tremendous upswing. Formal genetic data based on twin, adoption, and family studies lead to the conclusion that at least 50% of the interindividual variance of the body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is due to genetic factors. As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. More polygenes will be detected in the near future, thus for the first time allowing in-depth analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. They also will enable developmental studies to assess the effect of such alleles throughout childhood and adulthood. The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. Important factors are socioeconomic status and television consumption. The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  17. Mitochondrial Haplogroup T Is Associated with Obesity in Austrian Juveniles and Adults.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Sabine; Mangge, Harald; Langhof, Helmut; Halle, Martin; Siegrist, Monika; Aigner, Elmar; Paulmichl, Katharina; Paulweber, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Weghuber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Recent publications have reported contradictory data regarding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation and its association with body mass index. The aim of the present study was to compare the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups as well as control region (CR) polymorphisms of obese juveniles (n = 248) and obese adults (n = 1003) versus normal weight controls (njuvenile = 266, nadults = 595) in a well-defined, ethnically homogenous, age-matched comparative cohort of Austrian Caucasians. Using SNP analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European mitochondrial haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. Of these, only the T haplogroup frequency was increased in the juvenile obese cohort versus the control subjects [11.7% in obese vs. 6.4% in controls], although statistical significance was lost after adjustment for sex and age. Similar data were observed in a local adult cohort, in which haplogroup T was found at a significantly higher frequency in the overweight and obese subjects than in the normal weight group [9.7% vs. 6.2%, p = 0.012, adjusted for sex and age]. When all obese subjects were considered together, the difference in the frequency of haplogroup T was even more clearly seen [10.1% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.002, OR (95% CI) 1.71 (1.2-2.4), adjusted for sex and age]. The frequencies of the T haplogroup-linked CR polymorphisms C16294T and the C16296T were found to be elevated in both the juvenile and the adult obese cohort compared to the controls. Nevertheless, no mtDNA haplogroup or CR polymorphism was robustly associated with any of several investigated metabolic and cardiovascular parameters (e.g., blood pressure, blood glucose concentration, triglycerides, cholesterol) in all obese subjects. By investigation of this large ethnically and geographically homogenous cohort of Middle European Caucasians, only mtDNA haplogroup T was identified as an obesity risk factor.

  18. Greater consumption of sweetened beverages and added sugars is associated with obesity among US young adults.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Odilia I; Gao, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to examine the associations of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and of added sugars with total and abdominal obesity in American adults aged 20-39 years who participated in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the U.S. This was a cross-sectional study based on a sample of 947 adults (aged 20-39 years): 424 non-Hispanic whites, 222 non-Hispanic blacks, and 301 Mexican-Americans. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30 and abdominal obesity as a waist circumference >102 cm in men or >88 cm in women. The use of sweetened beverages and added sugars was stratified into quartiles of intake. Odds ratios (ORs) for total and abdominal obesity were estimated with logistic regression models. Compared to the lowest intake quartile of sweetened beverages, those with the highest intake had a higher intake of energy, added sugars, and carbohydrates, as well as a lower intake of fiber, orange juice, and low-fat milk. A greater intake of sweetened beverages was associated with a higher risk of total and abdominal obesity (p(trend) <0.02 for both). The adjusted ORs comparing 2 extreme quartiles of sweetened beverages were 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.7) for total obesity and 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.6) for abdominal obesity. An increased consumption of sweetened beverages was associated with total and abdominal obesity in US adults aged 20-39 years. Further investigation of the potential role of sweetened beverages and other dietary components, and of the mechanisms by which these intakes contribute to weight gain, is needed to accelerate our efforts to halt or somewhat alleviate the current obesity epidemic facing the American population. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Causes and risks for obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... genes. Genetics is not the only cause of obesity. To become obese, children must also eat more calories than they need for growth and energy. Obesity may be linked to rare genetic conditions, such as Prader Willi syndrome .

  20. Sleep Duration and Obesity in Adults: What Are the Connections?

    PubMed

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain. It is still too early and a too easy solution to suggest that changing the sleep duration will cure the obesity epidemic. Given novel results on emotional stress and poor sleep as mediating factors in the relationship between sleep duration and obesity, detection and management of these should become the target of future clinical efforts as well as future research.

  1. Overweight, obesity, youth, and health-risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. Although the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well documented, comparatively less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health-risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. This study aims to examine the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence, and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11-17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005-2006 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: Frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas these behaviors were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons compared to boys of normal weight. Overweight and obese young people are at risk of developing health-compromising behaviors that may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  4. Coming of age, becoming obese: a cross-sectional analysis of obesity among adolescents and young adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pell, Christopher; Allotey, Pascale; Evans, Natalie; Hardon, Anita; Imelda, Johanna D; Soyiri, Ireneous; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-10-13

    Malaysians have become increasingly obese over recent years. The transition from adolescence to early adulthood is recognized as critical for the development of eating and activity habits. However, little obesity-related research focuses on this life stage. Drawing on data from a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia, this article describes obesity and overweight amongst adolescents and young adults in a multi-ethnic population. Data were collected at the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) in Segamat District, Johor. In this dynamic cohort of approximately 40,000 people, 5,475 were aged 16-35 in 2013-2014. The population consists of Malay, Chinese, Indian and Indigenous (Orang Asli) families in proportions that reflect the national ethnic diversity. Data were collected through health profiles (Body Mass Index [BMI] measurements in homes) and self-report questionnaires. Age and ethnicity were associated with overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9Kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30Kg/m(2)). The prevalence of overweight was 12.8 % at ages 16-20 and 28.4 % at ages 31-35; obesity was 7.9 % and 20.9 % at the same age groups. The main ethnic groups also showed varied patterns of obesity and overweight at the different age groups with Chinese at lowest and Orang Asli at highest risk. Level of education, employment status, physical activity and frequency of eating out were poorly predictive of overweight and obesity. The pattern of overweight and obesity in the 16-35 age group further highlights this as a significant period for changes in health-related behaviours. Further longitudinal research is however needed to confirm the observed pattern and investigate causal factors.

  5. Obesity-related inflammation: implications for older adults.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Amy; Crowe, Kristi; Lawrence, Jeannine

    2013-01-01

    The combination of age-related increases in obesity and inflammation can lead to chronic disease, decreased strength, and physical disability. Lifestyle interventions that include moderate caloric restriction along with aerobic and resistance exercise have shown improvements in metabolic outcomes, strength, and physical function in obese older adults. Although few weight loss studies have addressed diet quality, evidence summarized in this review suggests that encouraging intake of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, high-quality protein, low-glycemic index carbohydrates, and omega-3 fatty acids may further ameliorate obesity-related inflammation. Future controlled trials are indicated to examine the effects of incorporating these foods into multimodal weight loss interventions.

  6. A Review of Adult Obesity Research in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, K G

    2016-06-01

    A literature search of articles as detailed in the paper Bibliography of clinical research in Malaysia: methods and brief results, using the MESH terms Obesity; Obesity, Abdominal; and Overweight; covering the years 2000 till 2015 was undertaken and 265 articles were identified. Serial population studies showed that the prevalence of obesity increased rapidly in Malaysia in the last decade of the twentieth century. This follows the rising availability of food per capita which had been begun two to three decades previously. Almost every birth cohort, even up to those in their seventh decade increased in prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1996 and 2006. However, the rise in prevalence in obesity appears to have plateaued after the first decade of the twentieth century. Women are more obese than men and Malays and Indians are more obese than Chinese. The Orang Asli (Aborigines) are the least obese ethnic group in Malaysia but that may change with socioeconomic development. Neither living in rural areas nor having low income protects against obesity. On the contrary, a tertiary education and an income over RM4,000/month is associated with less obesity. Malaysians are generally not physically active enough, in the modes of transportation they use and how they use their leisure time. Other criteria and measures of obesity have been investigated, such as the relevance of abdominal obesity, and the Asian criteria or Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs value of 23.0 kg/m(2) for overweight and 27.0 kg/m(2) for obesity, with the view that the risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases start to increase at lower values in Asians compared to Europeans. Nevertheless the standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for obesity are still most widely used and hence is the best common reference. Guidelines for the management of obesity have been published and projects to combat obesity are being run. However, more effort needs to be invested. Studies on intervention

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of obesity among Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Salgado, Diana; Valdés Flores, Jesús; Janssen, Ian; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the access to diagnosis and treatment of obesity and intentional weight loss among obese adults in Mexico and to identify the sociodemographic factors related to these events. The 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey - representative of the adults aged 20 to 64 years - was analyzed. Whether people had received diagnosis and treatment from health professionals and whether they had intentional weight loss were explored. The independent variables were: sex, age, socioeconomic position, locality size, and body weight perception. Analyses were carried out for obese people only (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), N = 8,545). Among obese people, just 20.2% were diagnosed with such condition, only 8.0% undertook treatment, and barely 5.6% had lost weight intentionally. Individuals with a higher BMI, older individuals, people with higher education, those living in wealthier households, and those living in metropolitan areas were more likely to receive diagnosis and treatment for obesity. Women and people who had been diagnosed as obese were more likely to lose weight. There is an urgent need to increase access to diagnosis and treatment of obesity in Mexico, particularly for men and for lower socioeconomic groups. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  8. Normal weight obesity and functional outcomes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Sahakyan, Karine R; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P; Bartels, Stephen J; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    Obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) is associated with higher levels of functional impairment. However, BMI strata misrepresent true adiposity, particularly in those with a normal BMI but elevated body fat (BF%) (normal weight obesity [NWO]) whom are at higher metabolic and mortality risk. Whether this subset of patients is associated with worsening functional outcomes is unclear. Subjects aged ≥60 years with a BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2) from NHANES III (1988-1994) were included. We created sex-specific tertiles of BF%. Data on physical limitations (PL), instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (BADL) were obtained. The analysis focused on the association between NWO and these outcomes. Comparative rates among each tertile using logistic regression (referent=lowest tertile) were assessed, incrementally adding co-variates. Of the 4484 subjects aged ≥60 years, 1528 had a normal BMI, and the range of the mean age of tertiles was 69.9-71.2 years. Lean mass was lowest in the elevated BF% group than in the middle or low tertiles (42.6 vs 44.9 vs 45.8; p<0.001). Those with NWO had higher PL risk than the referent in females only in our adjusted model (males OR 1.18 [0.63-2.21]; females OR 1.90 [1.04-3.48]) but not after incorporating lean mass (males OR 1.11[0.56-2.20]; females (1.73 [0.92-3.25]). Neither sex with high BF% had higher IADL risk than the corresponding tertiles (males OR 0.67 [0.35-1.33]; females OR 1.20 [0.74-1.93]). NWO was protective in males only (OR 0.28 [0.10-0.83]) but not in females (OR 0.64 [0.40-1.03]). NWO is associated with increased physical impairment in older adults in females only, highlighting the importance of recognizing the association of obesity with disability in elders. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A high birth weight is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, I W; Haglund, B; Ahlsson, F; Gustafsson, J

    2015-04-01

    The association between low birth weight and adult disease is well known. Less is known on long-term effects of high birth weight. This study aims to investigate whether a high birth weight increases risk for adult metabolic disease. Swedish term single births, 1973-1982 (n = 759,999), were studied to age 27.5-37.5 years using Swedish national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated in relation to birth weight for type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Men with birth weights between 2 and 3 standard deviation score (SDS) had a 1.9-fold increased risk (HR 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.90) of type 2 diabetes, whereas those with birth weights above 3 SDS had a 5.4-fold increased risk (HR 5.44, 95% CI 2.70-10.96) compared to men with birth weights between -2 and 2 SDS. The corresponding HRs for women were 0.60 (95% CI 0.40-0.91) and 1.71 (95% CI 0.85-3.43) for birth weights 2-3 SDS and >3 SDS, respectively. Men with birth weights between 2 and 3 SDS had a 1.5-fold increased risk (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.77) of obesity. The corresponding risk for women was 1.3-fold increased (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19-1.46). For men and women with birth weights above 3 SDS, the risks of adult obesity were higher, HR 2.46 (95% CI 1.63-3.71) and HR 1.85 (95% CI 1.44-2.37), respectively. A high birth weight, particularly very high, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in male young adults. The risk of obesity increases with increasing birth weight in both genders. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  10. Linking sleep duration and obesity among black and white US adults

    PubMed Central

    Donat, Margaret; Brown, Clinton; Williams, Natasha; Pandey, Abhishek; Racine, Christie; McFarlane, Samy I; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Aims The effect of race/ethnicity on the risk of obesity associated with short or long sleep durations is largely unknown. This study assessed whether the sleep–obesity link differentially affects black and whites. Methods Analysis was based on data obtained from 29,818 adult American respondents from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional household interview survey. Results Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for obesity associated with short sleep (≤6 h) among blacks and whites were 1.98 (95% CI: 1.69–2.30) and 1.20 (95% CI: 1.10–1.31), respectively, and with long sleep (≥9 h) for blacks and whites were 1.48 (95% CI: 1.14–1.93) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67–0.89), respectively (all p < 0.001). Conclusion Race/ethnicity may have significantly influenced the likelihood of reporting obesity associated with short and long sleep durations. Relative to white respondents, an excess of 78% of black respondents showed increased obesity odds associated with short sleep. Black long sleepers also showed increased odds for obesity, but white long sleepers may be at a reduced obesity risk. PMID:24340171

  11. Obesity is not associated with mild asthma diagnosis in a population of Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Pilar; Delgado, Julio; Sastre, Joaquín; Vega, José María; Pascual, María José; Barranco, Ruth; García-Río, Francisco; Parra, Antonio; Quirce, Santiago

    2009-11-01

    Several studies have suggested a relationship between asthma and obesity. Moreover, atopy is an important risk factor for asthma, but the relationship between obesity and atopy is uncertain. A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in a population of Spanish adults between November 2007 and July 2008. The subjects included had experienced asthma symptoms in the last year but had a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) > 70%. Mild asthma diagnosis was confirmed by measuring airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Body mass index in kg/m(2) was used as measure of obesity. Subjects were considered atopic when they had at least one positive skin prick test to common aeroallergens. Adjusted odd ratios (OR) were obtained by logistic regression. A total of 662 subjects were included and 234 subjects (35.3%) were diagnosed with asthma (consistent symptoms and positive methacholine test). After adjusting the model for age, gender, atopy, baseline FEV(1), and FEV(1)/FVC ratio, there was no association between overweight or obesity with asthma diagnosis, with OR of 0.889 (95% CI, 0.60-1.38) and 0.925 (95% CI, 0.577-1.48), respectively. A multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that atopy increases the risk of asthma (p = 0.008). The non-atopic obese group had an increased risk of asthma compared to the non-atopic group with normal weight or overweight (p = 0.0032). In this study obesity was not associated with a diagnosis of asthma. The presence of atopy was a risk factor for asthma, independent of obesity. Obesity, however, may be a risk factor for the development of asthma among non-atopic subjects.

  12. Increased risk of colorectal cancer after obesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Derogar, Maryam; Hull, Mark A; Kant, Prashant; Östlund, Magdalena; Lu, Yunxia; Lagergren, Jesper

    2013-12-01

    The purpose was to determine whether obesity surgery is associated with a long-term increased risk of colorectal cancer. Long-term cancer risk after obesity surgery is not well characterized. Preliminary epidemiological observations and human tissue biomarker studies recently suggested an increased risk of colorectal cancer after obesity surgery. A nationwide retrospective register-based cohort study in Sweden was conducted in 1980-2009. The long-term risk of colorectal cancer in patients who underwent obesity surgery, and in an obese no surgery cohort, was compared with that of the age-, sex- and calendar year-matched general background population between 1980 and 2009. Obese individuals were stratified into an obesity surgery cohort and an obese no surgery cohort. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR), with 95% confidence interval (CI), was calculated. Of 77,111 obese patients, 15,095 constituted the obesity surgery cohort and 62,016 constituted the obese no surgery cohort. In the obesity surgery cohort, we observed 70 patients with colorectal cancer, rendering an overall SIR of 1.60 (95% CI 1.25-2.02). The SIR for colorectal cancer increased with length of time after surgery, with a SIR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.48-2.64) after 10 years or more. In contrast, the overall SIR in the obese no surgery cohort (containing 373 colorectal cancers) was 1.26 (95% CI 1.14-1.40) and remained stable with increasing follow-up time. Obesity surgery seems to be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer over time. These findings would prompt evaluation of colonoscopy surveillance for the increasingly large population who undergo obesity surgery.

  13. Obese children, adults and senior citizens in the eyes of the general public: results of a representative study on stigma and causation of obesity.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Brähler, Elmar; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2012-01-01

    Obese individuals are blamed for their excess weight based on causal attribution to the individual. It is unclear whether obese individuals of different age groups and gender are faced with the same amount of stigmatization. This information is important in order to identify groups of individuals at risk for higher stigmatization and discrimination. A telephone interview was conducted in a representative sample of 3,003 participants. Experimental manipulation was realized by vignettes describing obese and normal-weight children, adults and senior citizens. Stigmatizing attitudes were measured by semantic differential. Causal attribution was assessed. Internal factors were rated with highest agreement rates as a cause for the vignette's obesity. Lack of activity behavior and eating too much are the most supported causes. Importance of causes differed for the different vignettes. For the child, external causes were considered more important. The overweight vignette was rated consistently more negatively. Higher educational attainment and personal obesity were associated with lower stigmatizing attitudes. The vignette of the obese child was rated more negatively compared to that of an adult or senior citizen. Obesity is seen as a controllable condition, but for children external factors are seen as well. Despite this finding, they are faced with higher stigmatizing attitudes in the general public, contradicting attribution theory assumptions. Internal and external attribution were found to be inter-correlated. Obese children are the population most at risk for being confronted with stigmatization, making them a target point in stigma-reduction campaigns.

  14. Obese Children, Adults and Senior Citizens in the Eyes of the General Public: Results of a Representative Study on Stigma and Causation of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Brähler, Elmar; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2012-01-01

    Obese individuals are blamed for their excess weight based on causal attribution to the individual. It is unclear whether obese individuals of different age groups and gender are faced with the same amount of stigmatization. This information is important in order to identify groups of individuals at risk for higher stigmatization and discrimination. A telephone interview was conducted in a representative sample of 3,003 participants. Experimental manipulation was realized by vignettes describing obese and normal-weight children, adults and senior citizens. Stigmatizing attitudes were measured by semantic differential. Causal attribution was assessed. Internal factors were rated with highest agreement rates as a cause for the vignette's obesity. Lack of activity behavior and eating too much are the most supported causes. Importance of causes differed for the different vignettes. For the child, external causes were considered more important. The overweight vignette was rated consistently more negatively. Higher educational attainment and personal obesity were associated with lower stigmatizing attitudes. The vignette of the obese child was rated more negatively compared to that of an adult or senior citizen. Obesity is seen as a controllable condition, but for children external factors are seen as well. Despite this finding, they are faced with higher stigmatizing attitudes in the general public, contradicting attribution theory assumptions. Internal and external attribution were found to be inter-correlated. Obese children are the population most at risk for being confronted with stigmatization, making them a target point in stigma-reduction campaigns. PMID:23071664

  15. Variability and rapid increase in body mass index during childhood are associated with adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengxu; Chen, Wei; Sun, Dianjianyi; Fernandez, Camilo; Li, Jian; Kelly, Tanika; He, Jiang; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Whelton, Paul K

    2015-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI) in childhood predicts obesity in adults, but it is unknown whether rapid increase and variability in BMI during childhood are independent predictors of adult obesity. The study cohort consisted of 1622 Bogalusa Heart Study participants (aged 20 to 51 years at follow-up) who had been screened at least four times during childhood (aged 4-19 years). BMI rate of change during childhood for each individual was assessed by mixed models; BMI residual standard deviation (RSD) during childhoodwas used as a measure of variability. The average follow-up period was 20.9 years. One standard deviation increase in rate of change in BMI during childhood was associated with 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.61] kg/m(2) increase in adult BMI and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.42-3.56) cm increase in adult waist circumference, independently of childhood mean BMI. Similarly, one standard deviation increase in RSD in BMI during childhood was associated with 0.46 (95% CI: 0.23-0.69) kg/m(2) increase in adult BMI and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.82-2.02) cm increase in adult waist circumference. Odds ratio for adult obesity progressively increased from the lowest to the highest quartile of BMI rate of change or RSD during childhood (P for trend < 0.05 for both). Rapid increase and greater variability in BMI during childhood appear to be independent risk factors for adult obesity. Our findings have implications for understanding body weight regulation and obesity development from childhood to adulthood. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Variability and rapid increase in body mass index during childhood are associated with adult obesity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengxu; Chen, Wei; Sun, Dianjianyi; Fernandez, Camilo; Li, Jian; Kelly, Tanika; He, Jiang; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Whelton, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) in childhood predicts obesity in adults, but it is unknown whether rapid increase and variability in BMI during childhood are independent predictors of adult obesity. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 1622 Bogalusa Heart Study participants (aged 20 to 51 years at follow-up) who had been screened at least four times during childhood (aged 4–19 years). BMI rate of change during childhood for each individual was assessed by mixed models; BMI residual standard deviation (RSD) during childhoodwas used as a measure of variability. The average follow-up period was 20.9 years. Results: One standard deviation increase in rate of change in BMI during childhood was associated with 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–1.61] kg/m2 increase in adult BMI and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.42–3.56) cm increase in adult waist circumference, independently of childhood mean BMI. Similarly, one standard deviation increase in RSD in BMI during childhood was associated with 0.46 (95% CI: 0.23–0.69) kg/m2 increase in adult BMI and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.82–2.02) cm increase in adult waist circumference. Odds ratio for adult obesity progressively increased from the lowest to the highest quartile of BMI rate of change or RSD during childhood (P for trend < 0.05 for both). Conclusions: Rapid increase and greater variability in BMI during childhood appear to be independent risk factors for adult obesity. Our findings have implications for understanding body weight regulation and obesity development from childhood to adulthood. PMID:26452389

  17. Obesity, diabetes, and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Natalia; Gao, Xiang; McCullough, Marjorie L; Jacobs, Eric J; Patel, Alpa V; Mayo, Tinisha; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether obesity and diabetes are related to risk of Parkinson's disease. We prospectively followed 147,096 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2005. Participants provided information on anthropometric variables and medical history at baseline and on waist circumference in 1997. Incident cases of Parkinson's disease (n = 656) were confirmed by treating neurologists and medical record review. Relative risks were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and other risk factors. Neither body mass index nor waist circumference significantly predicted Parkinson's disease risk. Relative risk comparing individuals with a baseline body mass index of ≥ 30 to those with a body mass index <23 was 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.75, 1.34; P trend: 0.79), and that comparing individuals with a waist circumference in the top category (≥ 40.3 inches in men and ≥ 35 inches in women) to those in the bottom category (<34.5 inches in men and <28 inches in women) was 1.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.93; P trend: 0.08). History of diabetes was not significantly associated with Parkinson's disease risk (combined relative risks = 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 1.25; P heterogeneity = 0.96). In addition, neither body mass index at age 18 nor changes in weight between age 18 and baseline were significantly associated with Parkinson's disease risk. The results did not differ significantly by gender. Our results do not provide evidence for a relationship between body mass index, weight change, waist circumference, or baseline diabetes and risk of Parkinson's disease.

  18. Polygenic risk, rapid childhood growth, and the development of obesity: evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G; Biddle, Andrea K; Blumenthal, James A; Evans, James P; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-06-01

    To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic.

  19. Food patterns measured by principal component analysis and obesity in the Nepalese adult

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Archana; Koju, Rajendra Prasad; Beresford, Shirley A A; Gary Chan, Kwun Chuen; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2016-01-01

    Objective About one-fourth of Nepalese adults are overweight or obese but no studies have examined their risk factors, especially pertaining to diet. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in a suburban Nepalese community and assess their associations with overweight and obesity prevalence. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from 1073 adults (18 years or older) participating in the baseline survey of the Dhulikhel Heart Study. We derived major dietary patterns from a principal component analysis of reported intake from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Overweight was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 or higher and obesity was defined as BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher. Statistical analysis was conducted using generalised estimating equations with multivariate logistic regression (with household as cluster) adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, religion, marital status, income, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and systolic blood pressure. Results Four dietary patterns were derived: mixed, fast food, refined grain–meat–alcohol and solid fats–dairy. The refined grain–rice–alcohol pattern was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.39; p=0.02) after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In adults of 40 years or older, the fast food pattern was associated with obesity controlling for demographic and traditional risk factors (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.39; p value=0.003). Conclusions Our results suggest that refined grains–meat–alcohol intake is associated with higher prevalence of overweight, and fast food intake is associated with higher prevalence of obesity in older adults (40 years or above) in suburban Nepalese adults. PMID:27326232

  20. Socioeconomic Costs of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Heon; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988

  1. Socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae Heon; Jeong, Baek Geun; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented.

  2. Obesity among older persons: Screening for risk of adverse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, G L

    2006-01-01

    A research overview is presented that highlights the growing prevalence of obesity among older persons and the associated risks for medical co-morbidity, healthcare resource use, functional decline and homebound status. Findings reveal that even for obese individuals poor diet quality and micronutrient deficiencies are relatively common concerns. Currently available nutrition risk screening instruments lack validity for overweight / obese older persons. Development and preliminary testing of a new Nutrition Health Outcomes Questionnaire (NHOQ) for this application are presented.

  3. Obesity as an Avoidable Cause of Cancer (Attributable Risks).

    PubMed

    Renehan, Andrew G; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    Excess body weight, commonly categorised as overweight (body mass index, BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) is an established risk factor for increased incidence of several adult cancers. As body weight is modifiable, there is a potential for cancer prevention. Calculation of attributable risk (here expressed at population attributable fraction, PAF) offers an estimate of the burden of excess cancers attributable to elevated BMI in populations, and thus an approximation of avoidable cases and the opportunity for prevention. Using counterfactual methods, the estimated PAF worldwide attributed to elevated BMI is 3.6 % or nearly half a million new cancer cases in adults (aged 30 years and older after a 10-year lag period). PAFs are higher in women compared with men (5.4 % vs. 1.9 %). Endometrial, post-menopausal breast, and colon cancers account for nearly two-thirds of cancers attributable to elevated BMI. Globally, excess body weight is the third commonest attributable risk factor for cancer (after smoking and infection); in western populations such as the UK, excess weight ranks as second commonest risk factor.

  4. Association of heart rate recovery after exercise with indices of obesity in healthy, non-obese adults.

    PubMed

    Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Oji, Jude O

    2010-03-01

    We aimed at determining whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with heart rate recovery (HRR) and to demonstrate which of the three indices of obesity, is the strongest predictor of HRR in apparently healthy non-obese adults. Three hundred and twenty-five subjects aged 18-66 years participated in the study. Anthropometric indices were measured, and subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise at 75-85% maximum heart rate. Heart rate (HR) was measured during the last minute of exercise and in the first minute of post-exercise recovery. A partial correlation test and a multiple linear regression analysis, after adjusting for age and peak oxygen uptake indicated that the best predictors of HRR were BMI in males and WHR in females. The present data suggest that, HRR is independently related to indices of obesity-BMI, WC, and WHR and strengthen the usefulness of these anthropometric indices in predicting cardiovascular risks. In addition, the findings suggest that BMI in men and WHR in women best express the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular risks.

  5. Caregiving for Older Adults with Obesity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ankuda, Claire K; Harris, John; Ornstein, Katherine; Levine, Deborah A; Langa, Kenneth M; Kelley, Amy S

    2017-09-01

    To determine the difference in receipt of activity of daily living (ADL) assistance between obese and normal-weight older adults. Retrospective cohort study. National Health and Aging Trends Study, 2011-2015. U.S. adults aged 65 and older with ADL disability and a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 kg/m(2) or greater (N = 5,612) MEASUREMENTS: BMI was classified as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) ), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2) ), or obese (≥30.0 kg/m(2) ). Primary outcome was self-reported receipt of help with specific ADLs. Models were adjusted for demographic characteristics (age, sex, race), degree of need (self-reported general health, severity of disability), household resources (income, marriage, people in household, number of children), and cognitive status (dementia, proxy respondent). Obese with disabilities had lower rates of receiving assistance with walking inside (odds ratio (OR) = 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50-0.81), walking outside (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97), toileting (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52-0.89), and getting in and out of bed (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50-0.87) than normal-weight older adults after adjustment for respondent demographic characteristics. Level of need and cognitive status partially explained the associations. In fully adjusted models, older adults with obesity still had significantly lower odds of receiving assistance in getting in and out of bed than normal weight adults (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.98). Older adults with obesity are less likely to receive assistance for ADL disabilities than their normal-weight counterparts-an important concern because of ongoing demographic changes in the United States. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Adults in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Zhao, Shiwen

    2016-11-03

    Dietary patterns represent a broader picture of food consumption, and are better correlated with a variety of health outcomes. However, few studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity in Southwest China. Data from the 2010-2012 National Nutrition Survey in the province of Yunnan, Southwest China, were analyzed (n = 1604, aged 18-80 years). Dietary data were collected using the 24 h dietary recall over three consecutive days. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between dietary patterns and obesity. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as traditional, modern, and tuber according to their key components. With potential confounders adjusted, adults in the highest quartile of the modern pattern were at higher risk of general and central obesity (odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-3.48; OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.37-2.93). In contrast, adults in the highest quartile of the tuber pattern were at lower risk of general and central obesity (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.61; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.95) but at higher risk of underweight (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.20-6.45). No significant association was found between the traditional pattern and obesity. Moreover, dietary pattern differences occurred due to the differences in socio-demographic characteristics. In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern was positively, and the tuber pattern negatively, associated with general and central obesity among adults in Southwest China.

  7. Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Adults in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S.; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Zhao, Shiwen

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns represent a broader picture of food consumption, and are better correlated with a variety of health outcomes. However, few studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity in Southwest China. Data from the 2010–2012 National Nutrition Survey in the province of Yunnan, Southwest China, were analyzed (n = 1604, aged 18–80 years). Dietary data were collected using the 24 h dietary recall over three consecutive days. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between dietary patterns and obesity. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as traditional, modern, and tuber according to their key components. With potential confounders adjusted, adults in the highest quartile of the modern pattern were at higher risk of general and central obesity (odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–3.48; OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.37–2.93). In contrast, adults in the highest quartile of the tuber pattern were at lower risk of general and central obesity (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15–0.61; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.95) but at higher risk of underweight (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.20–6.45). No significant association was found between the traditional pattern and obesity. Moreover, dietary pattern differences occurred due to the differences in socio-demographic characteristics. In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern was positively, and the tuber pattern negatively, associated with general and central obesity among adults in Southwest China. PMID:27827895

  8. The Use of a Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System to Determine the Age, Period and Cohort Effects on the Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in South Australian Adults - 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anne W.; Shi, Zumin; Montgomerie, Alicia; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Campostrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background Age, period and cohort (APC) analyses, using representative, population-based descriptive data, provide additional understanding behind increased prevalence rates. Methods Data on obesity and diabetes from the South Australian (SA) monthly chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system from July 2002 to December 2013 (n = 59,025) were used. Age was the self-reported age of the respondent at the time of the interview. Period was the year of the interview and cohort was age subtracted from the survey year. Cohort years were 1905 to 1995. All variables were treated as continuous. The age-sex standardised prevalence for obesity and diabetes was calculated using the Australia 2011 census. The APC models were constructed with ‘‘apcfit’’ in Stata. Results The age-sex standardised prevalence of obesity and diabetes increased in 2002-2013 from 18.6% to 24.1% and from 6.2% to 7.9%. The peak age for obesity was approximately 70 years with a steady increasing rate from 20 to 70 years of age. The peak age for diabetes was approximately 80 years. There were strong cohort effects and no period effects for both obesity and diabetes. The magnitude of the cohort effect is much more pronounced for obesity than for diabetes. Conclusion The APC analyses showed a higher than expected peak age for both obesity and diabetes, strong cohort effects with an acceleration of risk after 1960s for obesity and after 1940s for diabetes, and no period effects. By simultaneously considering the effects of age, period and cohort we have provided additional evidence for effective public health interventions. PMID:25923664

  9. Telemedicine and primary care obesity management in rural areas - innovative approach for older adults?

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Pletcher, Sarah N; Stahl, James E

    2017-01-05

    The growing prevalence of obesity is paralleling a rise in the older adult population creating an increased risk of functional impairment, nursing home placement and early mortality. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid recognized the importance of treating obesity and instituted a benefit in primary care settings to encourage intensive behavioral therapy in beneficiaries by primary care clinicians. This benefit covers frequent, brief, clinic visits designed to address older adult obesity. We describe the challenges in the implementation and delivery into real-world settings. The challenges in rural settings that have the fastest growing elderly population, high obesity rates, but also workforce shortages and lack of specialized services are emphasized. The use of Telemedicine has successfully been implemented in other specialties and could be a useful modality in delivering much needed intensive behavioral therapy, particularly in distant, under-resourced environments. This review outlines some of the challenges with the current benefit and proposed solutions in overcoming rural primary care barriers to implementation, including changes in staffing models. Recommendations to extend the benefit's coverage to be more inclusive of non-physician team members is needed but also for improvement in reimbursement for telemedicine services for older adults with obesity.

  10. Obesity and Health Risk of Children in the Mississippi Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Abigail; Waddell, Dwight; Ford, M. Allison; Bentley, John P.; Woodyard, Catherine D.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mississippi (MS) Delta adults and youth report obesity rates far exceeding those of the state and nation. State law requires in-school physical activity and nutrition practices to address childhood obesity but does not require evaluation of outcomes, specifically the impact on weight-related outcomes. This paper offers 3 things: (1)…

  11. Obesity and Health Risk of Children in the Mississippi Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Abigail; Waddell, Dwight; Ford, M. Allison; Bentley, John P.; Woodyard, Catherine D.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mississippi (MS) Delta adults and youth report obesity rates far exceeding those of the state and nation. State law requires in-school physical activity and nutrition practices to address childhood obesity but does not require evaluation of outcomes, specifically the impact on weight-related outcomes. This paper offers 3 things: (1)…

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rumińska, Małgorzata; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Brzewski, Michał; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cardiometabolic risk factors andcarotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children. We studied 122 obese children fulfilling the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force and 58 non-obese children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were assessed in all children. Glucose and insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in obese children. The IMT was determined using ultrasound B-mode imaging in 81 obese and 32 non-obese children. We found that obese children had significantly higher levels of lipid andother non-lipid atherogenic indicators, but lower levels of adiponectin compared with non-obese children. The difference in the mean carotid IMT was insignificant in the two groups. Taking the combined groups, the level of adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index and lipid atherogenic indicators. The IMT strongly correlated with systolic blood pressure in obese children. In the children fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome, 17 out of the 84 obese children older than 10 years of age, IMT was greater than in those who did not fulfil these criteria. We conclude that the coexistence of abdominal obesity with abnormal lipid profile and hypertension leads to the early development of atherosclerosis accompanied by increased carotid intima-media thickness. Obesity initiates the atherosclerotic processes in early childhood.

  13. Childhood obesity: the impact on long-term risk of metabolic and CVD is not necessarily inevitable.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population is estimated to be 35%. These trends are reflected in childhood obesity prevalence, and the potential impact of early-onset obesity is of great concern. The aim of this review was to investigate the long-term implications of childhood obesity for metabolic and cardiovascular health, focusing on the independent contribution of childhood obesity to adult disease risk, as distinct from associations mediated by tracking of obesity across the lifespan. The data systematically reviewed provide little evidence to suggest that childhood overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular risk during adulthood. Instead, the data demonstrate that the relationships observed are dependent on tracking of BMI between childhood and adulthood, alongside persistence of dietary patterns and physical activity. Adjustment for adult BMI uncovers unexpected negative associations between childhood BMI and adult disease, suggesting a protective effect of childhood obesity at any given level of adult BMI. Further work is required to explain these findings, both in terms of pathways and statistical artefacts. To conclude, it must be stressed that it is not suggested that childhood obesity is without negative consequence. Childhood obesity is clearly associated with a range of adverse physical and psychological outcomes. However, the data are important in supporting a positive message that the long-term consequences of childhood obesity are avoidable; and that there remains opportunity for intervention across the lifespan. This nuance in understanding long-term risk is important when considering the effectiveness of interventions at different stages of the lifespan.

  14. The Effect of Interactive Simulations on Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Melba C. Stetz, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Effect of Interactive Simulations on Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults 5b. GRANT...overweight and obese adults . A prototype stationary exercise bicycle that integrated video game play capabilities was developed and tested. Due to many

  15. Comprehensive Guidance for Antibiotic Dosing in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lina; Mui, Emily; Holubar, Marisa K; Deresinski, Stan C

    2017-09-04

    Physiologic alterations seen in obesity commonly impact the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antibiotics and may result in suboptimal dosing in this expanding but understudied population. Much of the published clinical and PK evidence to date consists of small patient populations and are retrospective with, not infrequently, heterogenous results that, in some cases, are contradictory. In the last 10 years, additional antimicrobial PK/PD and clinical data encompassing prolonged infusion strategies and examination of critically ill populations has emerged to inform antimicrobial dosing in obesity. In this narrative review, we critically review literature on dosing, PK, and possible dosing strategies in obese adults. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Library using MESH terms, including 'anti-infectives', specific antimicrobial names, 'obese', 'pharmacokinetics' and others. We reviewed articles, cross referenced select cited references, and when applicable, referenced drug databases and package inserts to develop dosing recommendations. We provide an overall critical review of the available data regarding PK and dosing issues including dosing recommendations, in both critically ill and non-critically ill patients with significant obesity. We developed dosing recommendations for 34 antimicrobials based on 121 articles of the 2,336 identified by the search strategy. While 11 of these do not appear to require dose adjustment, obesity-specific dosing guidance is provided for the remaining 23 antimicrobials. Additional studies are needed to better understand and resolve discrepant published results regarding the PK of antibiotics in order to establish optimal dosing strategies in obese adults. Alternative dosing strategies, such as extended infusions, should be considered for time-dependent antibiotics (e.g. β-lactams) in obese patients to reliably achieve pharmacodynamics targets. Therapeutic drug monitoring across the spectrum of

  16. Ghrelin signaling in heart remodeling of adult obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lacerda-Miranda, Glauciane; Soares, Vivian M; Vieira, Anatalia K G; Lessa, Juliana G; Rodrigues-Cunha, Alessandra C S; Cortez, Erika; Garcia-Souza, Erica P; Moura, Anibal S

    2012-05-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has been suggested to be associated to obesity, insulin secretion, cardiovascular growth and homeostasis. GHS-R has been found in most of the tissues, and among the hormone action it is included the regulation of heart energy metabolism. Therefore, hypernutrition during early life leads to obesity, induces cardiac hypertrophy, compromises myocardial function, inducing heart failure in adulthood. We examined ghrelin signaling process in cardiac remodeling in these obese adult mice. The cardiomyocytes (cmy) of left ventricle were analyzed by light microscopy and stereology, content and phosphorilation of cardiac proteins: ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a, GHSR-1a), protein kinase B (AKT and pAKT), phosphatidil inositol 3 kinase (PI3K), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and pAMPK) and actin were achieved by Western blotting. GHSR-1a gene expression was analyzed by Real Time-PCR. We observed hyperglycemia and higher liver and visceral fat weight in obese when compared to control group. Obese mice presented a marked increase in heart weight/tibia length, indicating an enlarged heart size or a remodeling process. Obese mice had increased GHSR-1a content and expression in the heart associated to PI3K content and increased AKT content and phosphorylation. In contrast, AMPK content and phosphorylation in heart was not different between experimental groups. Ghrelin plasma levels in obese group were decreased when compared to control group. Our data suggest that remodeled myocardial in adult obese mice overnourished in early life are associated with higher phosphorylation of GHSR-1a, PI3K and AKT but not with AMPK.

  17. Which Food Patterns Are Predictors of Obesity in Tehranian Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Djazaieri, Seyed-Abolghasem; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether changes in food patterns over a period of 6 years were related to obesity in Tehranian adults. Design: Data on dietary intake, using the food frequency questionnaire, and anthropometry were obtained in 2 periods of the survey (1999-2001 and 2005-2007). Setting: Participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.…

  18. Which Food Patterns Are Predictors of Obesity in Tehranian Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Djazaieri, Seyed-Abolghasem; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether changes in food patterns over a period of 6 years were related to obesity in Tehranian adults. Design: Data on dietary intake, using the food frequency questionnaire, and anthropometry were obtained in 2 periods of the survey (1999-2001 and 2005-2007). Setting: Participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.…

  19. Are 24 h urinary sodium excretion and sodium:potassium independently associated with obesity in Chinese adults?

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Zhang, Jiyu; Chen, Xiaorong; Yan, Liuxia; Guo, Xiaolei; Lu, Zilong; Xu, Aiqiang; Ma, Jixiang

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association of 24 h urinary Na excretion and Na:K with obesity in Chinese adults. Population-based cross-sectional study using a four-stage stratified sampling strategy. Shandong Province, China. Chinese adults (n 1906) aged 18-69 years who provided complete 24 h urine samples. Odds of obesity increased significantly across increasing quartiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·54, 1·69 and 2·52, respectively, for overweight; 1·00, 1·20, 1·50, and 2·03, respectively, for obesity; 1·00, 1·44, 1·85 and 2·53, respectively, for abdominal obesity (assessed by waist circumference); and 1·00, 1·28, 1·44 and 1·75, respectively, for abdominal obesity (assessed by waist-to-height ratio); P for linear trend <0·001 for all). In addition, odds of abdominal obesity, but not odds of overweight and obesity, increased significantly with successive Na:K quartiles. Additionally, for each increment in urinary Na excretion of 100 mmol, odds of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity (by waist circumference) and abdominal obesity (by waist-to-height ratio) increased significantly by 46 %, 39 %, 55 % and 33 %, respectively. Similarly, with a 1 sd increase in Na:K, odds of abdominal obesity (by waist circumference) and abdominal obesity (by waist-to-height ratio) increased significantly by 12 % and 15 %, respectively. These findings suggest that 24 h urinary Na excretion and Na:K might be important risk factors for obesity in Chinese adults.

  20. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.

  1. Obesity and the risk for premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Garnet L; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2012-04-01

    Obesity has been consistently associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in population-based studies. Conversely, obesity in such studies has been inversely associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. In a report of data from two large chemoprevention trials, both of which enrolled women at a high risk of breast cancer, obesity was associated with only a modest, nonsignificantly increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer and a surprising statistically significant 70% increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer (vs. normal weight). The discrepancies between these results and those from previous observational studies may be due to differences in study design and exposure ascertainment or due to inherent biologic differences whereby the obesity-breast cancer association differs for high-risk women in the clinical setting compared with general population, average-risk women in the observational setting. 2012 AACR

  2. Management of obesity in children differs from that of adults.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Hilary

    2014-11-01

    Obesity in childhood is a very common disorder with an increasing prevalence. It is one of the most serious public health challenges. The objectives of the present paper are to increase the awareness of the problem of obesity in childhood, its serious complications and the need for prevention. Overweight and obese children are likely to remain obese into adulthood and more likely to develop serious complications including health problems such as diabetes and CVD, as well as psychological and social challenges. Overweight and obesity are largely preventable. In adults it is difficult to reduce excessive weight gain once it has become established, thus children should be considered the priority population for intervention strategies and prevention. Nutrition, exercise, weight gain in infancy, genetic and environmental factors, all contribute to the aetiology. Prevention and treatment of obesity in childhood requires education and empowerment of families relating to diet and exercise, along with the regulation and control of food marketing and clear nutritional labelling. The eating and physical activity behaviour of a child is strongly influenced by environmental and social factors. Therefore treatment will have only limited success in an environment where adequate physical activity is inhibited and the consumption of high-energy food is stimulated. Government investment in a health promotion programme addressing the issue of obesity in the population as a whole, with particular emphasis on the prevention and management of obesity in childhood is vital. The family doctor and multidisciplinary team play an important role. Regular visits to the family doctor, including growth assessment, will help motivate the family to restrict energy intake and to increase exercise. Therefore the prevention of childhood obesity needs high priority.

  3. Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity describes an abnormally high fat accumulation that impairs health. It is crudely measured by a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/sq meters. Obesity now ranks among the highest of concerns by the World Health Organization (WHO) and not only in countries of affluence; the figures of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980 and the…

  4. Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity describes an abnormally high fat accumulation that impairs health. It is crudely measured by a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/sq meters. Obesity now ranks among the highest of concerns by the World Health Organization (WHO) and not only in countries of affluence; the figures of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980 and the…

  5. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Results Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn’t. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224–1.461), 1.323 (1.193–1.456) and 1.261 (1.152–1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department. PMID:27467819

  6. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn't. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224-1.461), 1.323 (1.193-1.456) and 1.261 (1.152-1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department.

  7. Systematic review of the evidence for an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and risk of obesity.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Paula R; Rivers, Crystal R

    2014-09-01

    A systematic review of the evidence for an association between sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity was conducted. This review focused specifically on the role of sugar-sweetened beverages in obesity risk, taking into account energy balance. For the purpose of this review, scientific conclusions could not be drawn from the intervention studies that evaluated the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and obesity risk. Results of observational studies that examined the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and obesity risk that were adjusted for energy intake and physical activity were inconsistent for each of the three age groups evaluated (children, adolescents, and adults). From this review, evidence for an association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and obesity risk is inconsistent when adjustment for energy balance is made. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  8. Bias and accuracy of resting metabolic rate equations in non-obese and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Frankenfield, David C

    2013-12-01

    Consensus on the best equation for predicting metabolic rate in healthy people remains elusive. New equations continue to appear. The purpose of the current study was to validate several standard and new metabolic rate equations in obese and non-obese adults. Resting metabolic rate was measured with indirect calorimetry and calculated using the Mifflin St. Jeor, Livingston, Harris Benedict, Muller, Vander Weg, WHO equations, and the Oxford variation of WHO. Each equation was compared for accuracy (percent of estimates falling within 10% of measured) and bias (95% confidence intervals of differences between estimate and measured expenditure that excluded zero). Three hundred thirty-seven ambulatory, community-living adults were measured. The Mifflin St. Jeor equation was unbiased (95% confidence interval -26 to +8 kcal/day), the Livingston equation tended to underestimate true metabolic rate (95% confidence interval -63 to -25 kcal/day), while all other equations tended to overestimate true metabolic rate. Accuracy rate was similar between Mifflin St. Jeor and Livingston (82 vs. 79%). Accuracy rate was lower in obese than non-obese volunteers, no matter which equation was used (for example 87 vs. 75% for the Mifflin St. Jeor equation). The Mifflin St. Jeor equation is confirmed as a useful prediction equation for resting metabolic rate in community-living ambulatory adults of various body sizes, though the Livingston equation is similar. Accuracy rate is lower in obese than non-obese people, and so an obesity-specific equation is proposed. This equation needs validation before it is adopted for clinical use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Prefrontal gray matter volume mediates genetic risks for obesity.

    PubMed

    Opel, N; Redlich, R; Kaehler, C; Grotegerd, D; Dohm, K; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Thalamuthu, A; Koutsouleris, N; Arolt, V; Teuber, A; Wersching, H; Baune, B T; Berger, K; Dannlowski, U

    2017-05-01

    Genetic and neuroimaging research has identified neurobiological correlates of obesity. However, evidence for an integrated model of genetic risk and brain structural alterations in the pathophysiology of obesity is still absent. Here we investigated the relationship between polygenic risk for obesity, gray matter structure and body mass index (BMI) by the use of univariate and multivariate analyses in two large, independent cohorts (n=330 and n=347). Higher BMI and higher polygenic risk for obesity were significantly associated with medial prefrontal gray matter decrease, and prefrontal gray matter was further shown to significantly mediate the effect of polygenic risk for obesity on BMI in both samples. Building on this, the successful individualized prediction of BMI by means of multivariate pattern classification algorithms trained on whole-brain imaging data and external validations in the second cohort points to potential clinical applications of this imaging trait marker.

  10. Overweight, obesity, central adiposity and associated chronic diseases in cuban adults.

    PubMed

    Díaz, María Elena; Jiménez, Santa; García, René Guillermo; Bonet, Mariano; Wong, Iraida

    2009-10-01

    Introduction Prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide in parallel with the growing burden of noncommunicable chronic diseases. According to the World Health Organization, in 2005 approximately 1.6 billion individuals aged ≥15 years were overweight and at least 400 million were obese; by 2015 these figures will almost double. Central distribution of adiposity has also been associated with higher rates of cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Objective Determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity, and their association with noncommunicable chronic diseases and related lifestyle risk factors in Cuban adults. Methods The Second National Survey on Risk Factors and Chronic Diseases (ENFRENT II), conducted in 2000-2001, surveyed a representative sample of males and females aged ≥15 years using a stratified, multi-stage cluster sampling design. Data from a sub-sample of 19,519 individuals aged ≥20 years were analyzed and prevalence calculated for diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and for each of these variables in association with overweight, obesity and central distribution of adiposity, and with the presence of sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol consumption, eating regular daily meals and daily breakfast. Results Estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population was 30.8% (CI: 30.1-31.5) and 11.8% (CI: 11.2-12.4), respectively. Obesity prevalence was twice as high in women (15.4%; CI: 14.5-16.3) as in men (7.9%; CI: 7.3-8.6). Obesity was significantly more frequent in diabetics, hypertensives and people with heart disease, while central adiposity was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, obesity and overweight. Smoking and alcohol consumption were low among overweight and obese subjects, who exhibited a higher prevalence of irregular and inadequate eating patterns

  11. Development and evaluation of a genetic risk score for obesity.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Houts, Renate; McCarthy, Jeanette; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Multi-locus profiles of genetic risk, so-called "genetic risk scores," can be used to translate discoveries from genome-wide association studies into tools for population health research. We developed a genetic risk score for obesity from results of 16 published genome-wide association studies of obesity phenotypes in European-descent samples. We then evaluated this genetic risk score using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort GWAS sample (N = 10,745, 55% female, 77% white, 23% African American). Our 32-locus GRS was a statistically significant predictor of body mass index (BMI) and obesity among ARIC whites [for BMI, r = 0.13, p<1 × 10(-30); for obesity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.57 (95% CI 0.55-0.58)]. The GRS predicted differences in obesity risk net of demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic information. The GRS performed less well among African Americans. The genetic risk score we derived from GWAS provides a molecular measurement of genetic predisposition to elevated BMI and obesity.[Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Biodemography and Social Biology for the following resource: Supplement to Development & Evaluation of a Genetic Risk Score for Obesity.].

  12. Associations between U.S. Adult Obesity and State and County Economic Conditions in the Recession

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Lamichhane, Rajan; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the association between state and county unemployment rates and individuals’ body weight status during the latest recession in the U.S. We used the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data in 2007, 2009 and 2011, which were collected from 722,692 American adults aged 18 or older. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25, and ≥30, respectively. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were applied to assess the association between BMI, risks of overweight and obesity, and state and county unemployment rates. State unemployment rates were negatively associated with individual BMI across years, while county unemployment rates were significantly positively associated with BMI and obesity rates in all years (p < 0.05). However, the scale of the positive relationship was reduced in 2009 and 2011. Stratified analyses were conducted among adults with employment and without employment. The unemployed group’s body weight status was not related to state- and county-level economic conditions in most times. In the pooled analyses with all three years’ data, the relationship between unemployment rates and body weight status were consistently reduced after the recession of 2008–2009. Our results indicated that macroeconomic conditions at different levels can have different associations with individuals’ obesity risk across time. PMID:26237254

  13. Trends and risk factors for obesity among HIV positive Nigerians on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ezechi, L O; Musa, Z A; Otobo, V O; Idigbe, I E; Ezechi, O C

    2016-06-01

    The increased access to antiretroviral therapy has changed the once deadly infection to a chronic medical condition, resulting in a dramatic change in causes of morbidity and mortality among HIV infected individuals. Obesity and its cardiovascular sequelae are increasingly reported in the literature. However, data on the burden, trends and risk factors for obesity are sparse in countries worst hit by the epidemic. To investigate the trend and risk factors for obesity among a cohort of HIV infected adults on antiretroviral therapy. We analysed prospectively collected data in an ongoing longitudinal observational study conducted at the HIV treatment centre, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria. Patients who started treatment between June 2004 and December 2009, and completed a five year follow up were included in the analysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the risk factors for obesity among the cohort. A total of 12 585 adults were enrolled in the treatment programme during the study period. Of which, 8819 (70.1%) met the inclusion criteria. At the start of treatment, 27.0% were either overweight (19.6%) or obese (7.4%) compared to 62.2% that were either overweight (35.7%) or obese (26.5%) at the end of 5 years. The observed differences were statistically significant (p<0.01). Female gender (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.81-2.67), low baseline BMI less than 20 (aOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2) and baseline CD4 count less than 350/μl (aOR: 2.51; 95% CI: 2.13 - 3.09) were associated with the development of obesity at multivariate analysis. Type of antiretroviral drug, age, marital status, viral load and haemoglobin level were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounding variables. Obesity is common among HIV infected Nigerians on antiretroviral therapy and is associated with.

  14. Childhood obesity patterns and relation to middle-age sleep apnoea risk: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, L A; Hu, T; Bertisch, S M; Yao, L; Harville, E W; Gustat, J; Chen, W; Webber, L S; Shu, T; Redline, S

    2016-12-01

    Obese adults have a higher risk of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA); however, the relationship between childhood obesity and adult OSA risk is unclear. Objectives This study aimed to examine overweight/obesity (OW) in childhood and risk of OSA in middle age. Childhood OW status was classified as never OW, weight cycling, persistent OW and incident OW. After 35 years of follow-up, high risk for OSA was determined by a positive score in ≥2 domains on the Berlin Questionnaire with obesity removed from scoring. At initial assessment, mean (SD) age was 9.9 (2.9) years, and 23.9% were OW. Overall, 25.7% had scores indicating a high risk for OSA. Compared with participants who were never OW, those with persistent OW and incident OW were 1.36 (95%CI: 1.04-1.77) and 1.47 (1.11-1.96) times more likely to be high risk for OSA, after adjustment for multiple risk factors and adult OW status. Participants with an OW duration of 1-4 years, 5-8 years, and 8+ years were 0.96 (0.44-2.09), 1.20 (0.70-2.04) and 1.52 (1.22-1.90) times more likely to be high risk for OSA compared with those who were never OW (P for trend: 0.0002). These results suggest that childhood OW is associated with a high risk of OSA in middle age. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. [Obesity in adult patients: check up and treatment].

    PubMed

    Daubressse, J C; Cadière, G B; Sternon, J

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is now one of the major health problems in industrial countries as well as in developing world. Excess caloric intake and reduction of the physical activity are the main causes of obesity. This epidemic precedes a tremendous increase of type 2 diabetes, which is generally linked to weight excess. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with morbidity and mortality and are very expensive for the social security. The important point is to define the risks linked to obesity taking into account the Body Mass Index and the importance of visceral obesity evaluated by waist measurement. After medical check up, a strategy will be discussed with the patient, including moderate caloric restriction and increased physical activity. Our patients and also some doctors suggest "popular diets" whose efficacy has not been demonstrated as superior. On a short time basis, low carbohydrate and high protein diets have some advantages, which can help our obese subjects but on long term, only hypocaloric and equilibrated diets are advisable. Drugs that proved their efficacy and tolerance may be prescribed in case of failure. Three drugs are presented, orlistat, sibutramine and metformine: their efficacy, secondary effects, interactions and finally their positioning. Bariatric surgery will be proposed to highly selected patients presenting morbid obesity.

  16. Human Adenovirus 36 Infection Increased the Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mei-Yan; Cao, Bing; Wang, Dong-Fang; Guo, Jing-Hui; Chen, Kai-Li; Shi, Mai; Yin, Jian; Lu, Qing-Bin

    2015-01-01

    .19; 95%CI: −0.31, 0.70; PI: −2.10, 2.49), which had no significantly statistical difference (P = 0.453). HAdV-36 infection increased the risk of obesity. HAdV-36 also increased the risk of weight gain in adults, which was not observed in children. PMID:26705235

  17. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia.

  18. An EASO position statement on multidisciplinary obesity management in adults.

    PubMed

    Yumuk, Volkan; Frühbeck, Gema; Oppert, Jean Michel; Woodward, Euan; Toplak, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has proven to be a gateway to ill health. It has already reached epidemic proportions becoming one of the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and world-wide. Obesity plays a central role in the development of a number of risk factors and chronic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus inducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore weight management plays a central role in controlling the respective risk factors and their consequences. Obesity is a complex condition of multifactorial origin. Biological but also psychological and social factors interfere to lead to excess body weight and its deleterious outcomes. Obesity management cannot focus any more only on weight (and BMI) reduction. More attention is to be paid to waist circumference (or waist-to-hip ratio, especially in females), the improvement in body composition (measured with body composition tracking systems like BOD POD, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis) which is focusing on ameliorating or maintaining fat-free mass and decreasing fat mass. Management of co-morbidities, improving quality of life and well-being of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. This statement emphasises the importance of a comprehensive approach to obesity management.

  19. Obesity and awareness of obesity as risk factors for breast cancer in six ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; Conway, Francine; Neugut, Alfred I

    2004-10-01

    To document BMI and knowledge regarding obesity as a risk factor for breast cancer among subpopulations of African-, Caribbean-, and European-American women and to consider the variables predicting obesity in these diverse groups. A stratified cluster-sampling plan was used to recruit 1364 older women from Brooklyn, NY, during 2000-2002. Two groups were born in the United States (African Americans and European Americans), whereas others were from the English-speaking Caribbean, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Eastern Europe. Participants provided demographics, height and weight measures, and estimates of the risk obesity posed for breast cancer. Women from all groups were significantly overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m(2)), although European Americans were lowest, followed by Dominicans and Haitians; African-American and English-speaking Caribbean women fell into the obese range, even when background variables were controlled. Knowledge of obesity as a breast cancer risk factor was also poor across groups, but Dominicans and Haitians had the lowest scores on knowledge. Importantly, knowledge was not associated with BMI in the overall sample, even when controlling for demographics and ethnicity, although logistic regressions comparing normal weight women with overweight and obese groupings suggested some knowledge of breast cancer risk in the overweight, but not the obese, group. The findings remind health professionals of the need to consider more specific ethnic groupings than has hitherto been the case, as well as consider how ethnic and cultural variables may influence perceptions of obesity and its relation to cancer risk.

  20. Childhood obesity, bone development, and cardiometabolic risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Norman K.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis and obesity are both major public health concerns. It has long been considered that these are distinct disorders rarely found in the same individual; however, emerging evidence supports an important interaction between adipose tissue and the skeleton. Whereas overweight per se may augment bone strength, animal studies suggest that the metabolic impairment that accompanies obesity is detrimental to bone. Obesity during childhood, a critical time for bone development, likely has profound and lasting effects on bone strength and fracture risk. This notion has received little attention in children and results are mixed, with studies reporting that bone strength development is enhanced or impaired by obesity. Whether obesity is a risk factor for osteoporosis or childhood bone health, in general, remains an important clinical question. Here, we will focus on clarifying the controversial relationships between childhood obesity and bone strength development, and provide insights into potential mechanisms that may regulate the effect of excess adiposity on bone. PMID:25817542

  1. Comparison of Diabetes Risk Following Smoking Cessation Treatment Using Varenicline Versus Bupropion Among Obese Smokers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mo; Chen, Hua; Johnson, Michael L; Essien, Ekere James; Peters, Ronald J; Wu, I-Hsuan; Abughosh, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature suggests an initial increased risk of diabetes following smoking cessation. To compare the risk of developing diabetes among obese smokers who tried to quit smoking using bupropion versus varenicline. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the General Electric (GE) electronic medical record database (2006-2011). The cohort consisted of obese adult smokers without a diabetes diagnosis at baseline and newly initiating use of either bupropion or varenicline. This cohort was then followed for 1 year to observe the risk of developing diabetes. The relative risk of bupropion versus varenicline on developing diabetes was assessed using Cox Proportional Hazards regression model after controlling for covariates. The sample comprised of 78,002 obese smokers of which 1,937 (2.36%) developed diabetes during 1 year follow-up. Diabetes incidence rate was relatively comparable who used varenicline and bupropion (23.50 versus 25.80 per 1,000 person-years). Obese smokers who were prescribed bupropion had a statistically significant higher risk of developing diabetes during 1 year following cessation treatment than those who were prescribed varenicline. ([HR]: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.09-2.27) in the multivariate model. Obese smokers who were prescribed bupropion might have a higher risk of developing diabetes during 1 year follow up compared to those who were prescribed varenicline. The clinical significance of the finding that bupropion had a higher risk of developing diabetes may need further investigation.

  2. Appropriate classification of obesity of mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Fox, R; Burkhart, J E; Rotatori, A F

    1983-07-01

    Triceps skinfold thickness and body weight measures were obtained for 44 female and 40 male mentally retarded adults participating in a sheltered workshop setting. Subjects' relative weights and skinfold thicknesses were found to correlate reasonably well for females and males, rs = .88 and .59, respectively. Use of only height and weight tables for determining the presence of obesity, however, resulted in 22.5 percent of the males and 13.7 percent of the females being misclassified as nonobese. The distinction between overweight and obesity was discussed. Clinical/research implications of the findings were delineated.

  3. Family functioning and obesity risk behaviors: implications for early obesity intervention.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li Ming; Simpson, Judy M; Baur, Louise A; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M

    2011-06-01

    Family functioning is found to be associated with overweight and obesity in childhood, but its association with maternal obesity risk behaviors is not clear. This study aimed to investigate whether family functioning is associated with maternal obesity risk behaviors and to inform the development of early obesity interventions. A total of 408 first-time mothers at 24-34 weeks of pregnancy were included in the study. They participated in the Healthy Beginnings Trial (HBT) conducted in southwest Sydney, Australia in 2008. An analysis of cross-sectional baseline data was conducted using ordinal logistic regression modeling. Key measures were assessed using the McMaster Family Assessment Device, and self-reported obesity risk behaviors including excessive consumption of soft drinks, fast food, and excessive small screen time. The study found that 30% of the study population had a family functioning score ≥2, indicating unhealthy family functioning. About one-third (36%) of the mothers had more than one obesity risk behavior. Mothers with a family functioning score ≥2 were more likely to have more than one obesity risk behavior (47% vs. 32%, P < 0.05) than mothers with a lower score. The proportion of mothers with a family functioning score ≥2 increased from 22% to 29% to 39% as the number of maternal obesity risk behaviors increased from 0 to 1 to 2 or more, giving an adjusted proportional odds ratio (AOR) of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.0, P = 0.001). Family functioning is independently associated with the number of maternal obesity risk behaviors after allowing for the effects of maternal age and education. Overweight and obesity interventions should consider addressing family functioning.

  4. Mental Health Problems and Cancer Risk Factors Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; King, Jessica; Ragan, Kathleen; Buchanan Lunsford, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults. Mental health problems were associated with white race; less than a high school education; lower income; being out of work or unable to work; being uninsured (for men only); poor health; previous diagnosis of asthma, skin cancer, or diabetes; and not having a recent checkup. After controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status, mental health problems among young adults were associated with smoking, binge drinking, inadequate sleep, having no leisure time physical activity, and being overweight or obese (among women only). Cervical cancer screening was not associated with mental health problems after controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status. Mental health problems in young adulthood were associated with potentially modifiable factors and behaviors that increase risk for cancer. Efforts to prevent cancer and promote health must attend to mental health disparities to meet the needs of young adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. [Relationship between overweight/obesity and hypertension among adults in China: a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Feng, B Y; Chen, J C; Li, Y; Huang, J F; Li, J X; Zhao, L C; Cao, J; Liu, X Q; Huang, C; Deng, Y; Ruan, L S; Guo, D S; Yu, L; Chen, N Y; Yang, R H; Yang, X P; Gu, D F

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of overweight/obesity on the incidence of hypertension among adults in China. The subjects of this prospective study were 13 739 Chinese adults aged 35-74 years recruited at the baseline surveys of China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in Asian. Baseline surveys were conducted in 1998 and during 2000-2001, respectively, and the follow-up was conducted during 2007-2008. According to the body mass index, the subjects were divided into four groups: underweight group(<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight group(18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight group(24.0-27.9 kg/m(2))and obesity group(≥28.0 kg/m(2)). Age-standardized cumulative incidence of hypertension was calculated for each group, respectively. The relative risks(RRs)and 95% confidence intervals(CIs)for the incidence of hypertension of underweight, overweight and obesity groups were estimated by using generalized linear regression model with normal weight group as reference. During 8.1 years of follow-up, 4 271 hypertension cases were detected(2 012 in men and 2 259 in women). Age-standardized cumulative incidence of hypertension for the underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups were 20.3%, 30.9%, 43.6% and 50.8% in men, respectively; and 22.9%, 30.4%, 41.1% and 50.8% in women, respectively. Compared with the normal weight group, multivariate-adjusted RR(95% CI)for the incidence of hypertension in underweight, overweight and obesity groups were 0.78(0.64-0.95), 1.22(1.13-1.30)and 1.28(1.16-1.42)in men, respectively; and 0.89(0.77-1.03), 1.16(1.09-1.23)and 1.28(1.18-1.38)in women, respectively. The overweight and obese subjects had higher risk for the incidence of hypertension, with the population attributable risk proportion of 7.4% in men and 8.8% in women, respectively. Overweight or obese people are at an increased risk of developing hypertension, thus prevention and control of

  6. Neighborhoods and Obesity in Older Adults: The Baltimore Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Thomas A; Rasmussen, Meghan D.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Although its causes are not well understood, its increasing prevalence is not likely to be due to genetic factors or underlying biology. This has led to interest in the role of environmental factors, although few studies have focused on the role of the social environment. This study investigated whether neighborhood psychosocial hazards independent of individual risk factors were associated with increased odds of obesity. Methods Baseline data were analyzed in 2005 from a cohort study of 1140 randomly selected community-dwelling men and women aged 50–70 years from 65 contiguous neighborhoods in Baltimore MD. Body mass index (BMI in kg/m2) was calculated from measured height and weight at baseline (2001–2002). People with BMI ≥30 were considered obese. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine associations between a 12-item scale of neighborhood psychosocial hazards and the odds of obesity. Results Thirty-eight percent of the cohort were obese. Residents of neighborhoods in the highest quartile of the Multidimensional Neighborhood Hazards scale were nearly twice as likely to be obese compared to residents in the least-hazardous neighborhoods (53% vs 27%). After adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, household wealth, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, self-reported physical activity, and dietary intake, living in more hazardous neighborhoods was associated with a graded increase in the odds of obesity. This association was partially mediated by physical activity. Conclusions Even after controlling for a large set of demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic individual-level risk factors, living in a neighborhood with greater psychosocial hazards was independently associated with obesity. PMID:17169707

  7. Risk factor medicalization, hubris, and the obesity disease.

    PubMed

    Sadler, John Z

    2014-01-01

    The essays on obesity in this issue frequently refer to the recent American Medical Association (AMA) declaration of obesity as a disease. In response to these essays, I describe and explore the significance of 'risk-factor medicalization' and how negative unintended consequences with this approach to disease modeling are exemplified in many of the essays. I also relate the essays' content to the issue of physician hubris in the face of their own helplessness in aiding the obese patient.

  8. Short sleep is a questionable risk factor for obesity and related disorders: statistical versus clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Horne, Jim

    2008-03-01

    Habitually insufficient sleep could contribute towards obesity, metabolic syndrome, etc., via sleepiness-related inactivity and excess energy intake; more controversially, through more direct physiological changes. Epidemiological studies in adult/children point to small clinical risk only in very short (around 5h in adults), or long sleepers, developing over many years, involving hundreds of hours of 'too little' or 'too much' sleep. Although acute 4h/day sleep restriction leads to glucose intolerance and incipient metabolic syndrome, this is too little sleep and cannot be sustained beyond a few days. Few obese adults/children are short sleepers, and few short sleeping adults/children are obese or suffer obesity-related disorders. For adults, about 7h uninterrupted daily sleep is 'healthy'. Extending sleep, even with hypnotics, to lose weight, may take years, compared with the rapidity of utilising extra sleep time to exercise and evaluate one's diet. The real health risk of inadequate sleep comes from a sleepiness-related accident.

  9. Unevenly distributed: a systematic review of the health literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing literature documenting socioeconomic inequalities in obesity risk among adults in the UK, with poorer groups suffering higher risk. Methods In this systematic review, we summarize and appraise the extant peer-reviewed literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity risk in the UK published between 1980 and 2010. Only studies featuring empirical assessments of relations between socioeconomic indicators and measures of obesity among adults in the UK were included. Results A total of 35 articles met inclusion criteria, and were reviewed here. Conclusion Socioeconomic indicators of low socioeconomic position (SEP), including occupational social class of the head-of-household at birth and during childhood, earlier adulthood occupational social class, contemporaneous occupational social class, educational attainment, and area-level deprivation were generally inversely associated with adult obesity risk in the UK. Measures of SEP were more predictive of obesity among women than among men. We outline important methodological limitations to the literature and recommend avenues for future research. PMID:22230643

  10. Older adults fighting obesity with bariatric surgery: Benefits, side effects, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Marihart, Cindy L; Brunt, Ardith R; Geraci, Angela A

    2014-01-01

    The aging population is growing exponentially worldwide. Associated with this greater life expectancy is the increased burden of chronic health conditions, many of which are exacerbated by the continued rise in obesity. In the US, the prevalence of obesity in adults aged 60 years and older increased from 23.6% to 37% in 2010. This review examines bariatric surgery as a treatment option for obese adults > 60 years old. The most common types of weight-loss surgery are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and the duodenal switch. A comprehensive literature search found 349 articles that referred to bariatric surgery in older adults. Of these, 70 relevant articles on bariatric surgery for older adults were utilized for this article. Weight-loss surgery procedures were found to be equally safe for both older adults and their younger counterparts. Pre-surgical psychological assessment is critical for positive outcomes for older adults. Benefits of bariatric surgery include a decrease in comorbidities, chronic disease risk, and medication use coupled with improved mobility and quality of life outcomes. Side effects include surgical failure, changes in psychological status, and increased physical and mental stress. Bariatric surgery can offer patients an effective and long-lasting treatment for obesity and related diseases. There does not appear to be any one bariatric procedure that is recommended for older adults, so individual needs should be taken into consideration when exploring options. Costs range from US$17,000 for laparoscopic procedures to US$26,000 for open gastric surgeries. Estimated savings start accruing within 3 months of surgery making bariatric surgery a serious cost saving consideration.

  11. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients. PMID:28252017

  12. Overweight and obesity over the adult life course and incident mobility limitation in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Houston, Denise K; Ding, Jingzhong; Nicklas, Barbara J; Harris, Tamara B; Lee, Jung Sun; Nevitt, Michael C; Rubin, Susan M; Tylavsky, Frances A; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2009-04-15

    Obesity in middle and old age predicts mobility limitation; however, the cumulative effect of overweight and/or obesity over the adult life course is unknown. The association between overweight and/or obesity in young, middle, and late adulthood and its cumulative effect on incident mobility limitation was examined among community-dwelling US adults aged 70-79 years at baseline (1997-1998) in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (n = 2,845). Body mass index was calculated by using recalled weight at ages 25 and 50 years and measured weight at ages 70-79 years. Mobility limitation (difficulty walking 1/4 mile (0.4 km) or climbing 10 steps) was assessed semiannually over 7 years of follow-up and was reported by 43.0% of men and 53.7% of women. Men and women who were overweight or obese at all 3 time points had an increased risk of mobility limitation (hazard ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.06 and hazard ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.15, 3.78, respectively) compared with those who were normal weight throughout. Furthermore, there was a significant graded response (P < 0.0001) on risk of mobility limitation for the cumulative effect of obesity in men and overweight and/or obesity in women. Onset of overweight and obesity in earlier life contributes to an increased risk of mobility limitation in old age.

  13. Secondhand Smoke is Associated with Hearing Threshold Shifts in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuan-Yung; Wu, Li-Wei; Kao, Tung-Wei; Wu, Chen-Jung; Yang, Hui-Fang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Lin, Yu-Jen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss resulted from multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Secondhand smoke (SHS) and obesity had been reported to be related to hearing loss. This study explored the possible associations of SHS and obesity with the hearing threshold. The relations between SHS and the hearing threshold in subjects from three different body mass index classes were analyzed. Our study included data from 1,961 subjects aged 20–69 years that were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 1999–2004. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the subjects with the higher tertiles of serum cotinine levels tended to have higher hearing thresholds than those with the lowest tertile of serum cotinine levels (for both trends, p < 0.05). Notably, the obese subjects with the higher tertiles of serum cotinine levels had significantly higher hearing thresholds for high frequencies and low frequencies than those with the lowest tertile of serum cotinine levels (for both trends, p < 0.05). Our study showed a significant positive association between SHS exposure and hearing thresholds in the adult population, especially in obese individuals. Based on our findings, avoiding exposure to SHS, especially in obese adults, may decrease the risk of hearing loss. PMID:27605137

  14. Trends of Obesity in Iranian Adults from 1990s to late 2000s; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, Ali; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Arabi, Minoo; Navadeh, Soodabeh; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is currently emerging as a global epidemic, affecting 10% of adultpopulation worldwide. The primary objective of the current systematic reviewis to describe the trend of overall prevalence of obesity in Iranian women andmenthrough a meta-analysis. We searched the medical literature published from 1990 to 2007 in Medline(PubMed), EMBASE database, and the Iranian digital library. All publishedreports of research projects, papers in relevant congresses, unpublished crudedata analysis, proceedings, books and dissertations were reviewed. Data fromeligible papers that fulfilled the qualification criteria entered meta-analysis(Random Model). Data from 209,166 individuals were analyzed. The overall prevalence ofobesity in adults was 18.5% (95%CI: 15.1-21.8), respectively. The prevalenceof obesity in men and women was 12.9% (95%CI: 10.9-14.9) and 26.2%(95%CI: 21.3-30.5), respectively. The trend of obesity was similar in both genders;women had almost a constantly higher risk of obesity than men duringthe recent two decades. Data from 209,166 individuals were analyzed. The overall prevalence ofobesity in adults was 18.5% (95%CI: 15.1-21.8), respectively. The prevalenceof obesity in men and women was 12.9% (95%CI: 10.9-14.9) and 26.2%(95%CI: 21.3-30.5), respectively. The trend of obesity was similar in both genders;women had almost a constantly higher risk of obesity than men duringthe recent two decades.

  15. Overweight and obesity in Indonesia: prevalence and risk factors-a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rachmi, C N; Li, M; Alison Baur, L

    2017-06-01

    Overweight/obesity is a problem faced by both high- and low- and middle-income countries. This review aimed to report published data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Indonesian children, adolescents, and adults, along with the associated risk factors. Literature review. We conducted a literature search for articles published in English (through Medline via OvidSP, Scopus, Global Health via OvidSP and Web of Science electronic databases) and Indonesian languages (several websites, direct contact with Indonesian public health researchers, practitioners and Ministry of Health staff) from earliest to March 2016. We screened the results and ensured the quality of included studies with Loney's tools for critically appraising prevalence or incidence studies. We included 17 papers on the topic which were available in full text and passed the critical appraisal process. The prevalence of overweight/obesity has increased over the past two decades in Indonesian children, adolescents and adults. Prevalence rates are higher in boys than girls among children, but higher in females in the adolescent and adult age groups. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is also higher in those living in urban areas and with higher income or education. Overweight/obesity is a serious public health problem in Indonesia with a continuing increase in its prevalence. Interventions at the household level and beyond are needed to successfully lower the prevalence of overweight/obesity in the country. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calcium intake and hypertension among obese adults in United States: associations and implications explored.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Strasser, S; Cao, Y; Wang, K-S; Zheng, S

    2015-09-01

    sample including all of 14,408 obese adults. The protective effect of calcium intake and hypertension was found significantly in obese non-diabetic adults (OR: OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.89, P<0.0001) not in obese diabetic adults. SBP, DBP and calcium intake were log transformed for both ordinary linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Our study findings underscore the need to explore the physiological mechanism between calcium intake and hypertension. In this study, increased calcium intake was associated with the lowest risk of hypertension. Future studies utilizing longitudinal research designs are needed to quantify therapeutic levels of calcium for control of hypertension among obese adults. Increasing calcium intake among American adults may offer promise as a cost-effective strategy to improve hypertension among obese adults; however, further scientific exploration is warranted.

  17. Airway Obstruction Worsens in Young Adults with Asthma Who Become Obese.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Robert C; Colvin, Ryan; Bacharier, Leonard B; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Forno, Erick; Arbelaez, Ana Maria; Tantisira, Kelan G

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined how developing obesity in early adulthood affects the course of asthma. We analyzed lung function and asthma impairment and risk among nonobese children with asthma, comparing those who were obese in young adulthood with those who remained nonobese. We carried out the post hoc analysis of 771 subjects with mild to moderate asthma who were not obese (pediatric definition, body mass index [BMI] < 95th percentile) when enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Management Program at ages 5-12 years. The subjects were then followed to age 20 years or more. For visits at ages 20 years or more, spirometry values as percent predicted and recent asthma symptom scores and prednisone exposure were compared between 579 subjects who were nonobese at all visits and 151 who were obese (adult definition of BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) on at least 1 visit (median number of visits when obese = 4, IQR 2-7). Compared with participants who were nonobese (BMI 23.4 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)), those who became obese (BMI 31.5 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) had significant decreases in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) (P < .0003) and FEV1 (P = .001), without differences in FVC (P = .15) during visits at ages 20 years or more. For each unit increase of BMI, FEV1 percent predicted decreased by 0.29 (P = .0009). The relationship between BMI and lung function was not confounded by sex or BMI at baseline. Asthma impairment (symptom scores) and risk (prednisone use) did not differ between the 2 groups. Becoming obese in early adulthood was associated with increased airway obstruction, without impact on asthma impairment or risk. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Obstetric and Neonatal Risks Among Obese Women Without Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Soo; Zhu, Yeyi; Grantz, Katherine L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Chen, Zhen; Wallace, Maeve E; Smarr, Melissa M; Epps, Nikira M; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether prepregnancy obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women without chronic disease. Singleton deliveries (N=112,309) among mothers without chronic diseases in the Consortium on Safe Labor, a retrospective U.S. cohort, were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated perinatal risks in relation to prepregnancy obesity status adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, parity, insurance, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, and study site. Obstetric risks were variably (and mostly marginally) increased as body mass index (BMI) category and obesity class increased. In particular, the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, and induction increased in a dose-response fashion. For example, the percentage of gestational diabetes among obese class III women was 14.6% in contrast to 2.8% among women with normal BMIs (corresponding relative risks [95% CI] 1.99 [1.86-2.13], 2.94 [2.73-3.18], 3.97 [3.61-4.36], and 5.47 [4.96-6.04] for overweight, obese class I, obese class II, and obese class III women, respectively) compared with women with normal BMIs. Similarly, neonatal risks increased in a dose-response fashion with maternal BMI status including preterm birth at less than 32 weeks of gestation, large for gestational age (LGA), transient tachypnea, sepsis, and intensive care unit admission. The percentage of LGA neonates increased from 7.9% among women with normal BMIs to 17.3% among obese class III women and relative risks increased to 1.52 (1.45-1.58), 1.74 (1.65-1.83), 1.93 (1.79-2.07), and 2.32 (2.14-2.52) as BMI category increased. Prepregnancy obesity is associated with increased risks of a wide range of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among women without chronic diseases.

  19. [Obese children and adolescents. Waist-hip ratio and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Kalker, U; Hövels, O; Kolbe-Saborowski, H

    1993-01-01

    In obese adults body fat distribution is more closely associated with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and gout than the degree of obesity; the android, abdominal body fat pattern carrying more risk than the gynoid, femoral form. For characterizing the different types of fat distribution the ratio of waist to hip girth (WHR) is commonly used. The question was whether these facts can already be demonstrated in obese children. In the studied group of 69 obese children, aged between 3-16 years (mean = 10.8 years) with a mean of 47% overweight no correlations between percentage overweight and waist hip ratio could be found. Better correlations of serum triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol, the atherogenic index LDL/HDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin level, oral glucose tolerance and blood pressure were obtained with percentage overweight than with waist-hip-ratio. HDL-cholesterol was the only parameter showing better and significant correlation with waist-hip-ratio than with percentage overweight. These results are in contrast to the situation in adults but are comparable with other studies in normal weighed and obese children, where correlations of waist hip ratio with body fat and risk factors were low in childhood, becoming higher in adolescence. Only after onset of puberty does waist hip ratio seem to be an indicator for body fat distribution and for possibly associated additional risk factors as in adults. For estimation of the cardiovascular risk in obese children, determination of WHR need not to be recommended.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. A randomized trial on the effects of 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Korean diet patterns on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Natalia; Park, Young-Hee; Kang, Min-Sook; Kim, Yangsuk; Ha, Grace K; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Yates, Allison A; Caballero, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    Dietary patterns that are considered healthy (eg, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet and Mediterranean diet) may be more successful in reducing typical cardiovascular disease risks compared to dietary patterns considered unhealthy (eg, energy-dense diets such as the typical American diet). This study assessed the effects of a Korean diet, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), and a typical American diet on cardiometabolic risk factors, including lipid levels and blood pressure, in overweight, non-Asian individuals in the United States with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The study was a three-period crossover, controlled-feeding study from January 2012 to May 2012. Thirty-one subjects were randomly allocated to one of six possible sequential orders for consuming the three diets for 4 weeks, each separated by a 10-day break. Data analysis included 27 subjects on the Korean diet periods and 29 in the DGA and typical American diet periods. Subjects remained weight stable. Lipid profile, blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and 24-hour urinary sodium were determined at baseline and at the end of each diet period. The additive main effects multiplicative interactions model was used to test for a subject by diet interaction. Differences among diets were determined using a mixed-models procedure (PROC MIXED) with random intercept for each subject. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased on Korean (P<0.0001 and P<0.01, respectively) and DGA (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) diets, but not on the typical American diet. Although an unfavorable outcome, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased on all three diets (Korean: P<0.0001; DGA: P<0.0001; typical American: P<0.05). No diet had a significant effect on serum triglycerides, but a slight increase in triglycerides in the Korean and decrease in the DGA resulted in a significant difference between these two diets (P<0.01). All

  1. Low socioeconomic status may increase the risk of central obesity in incoming university students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chi-Yuan; Shih, Chi-Chen; Wang, Chi-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is related to social disparity. The objective of the study was to evaluate different indicators of parental SES with the association of central obesity in young adult Taiwanese students. This study was cross-sectionally designed and a total of 4552 subjects were recruited. Each subject completed a self-administrated questionnaire and received anthropometric and laboratory measurements. The indicators of SES in study subjects included parental education, occupation, household incomes, childhood and current index of social position (ISP), measured according to the modified Hollingshead's ISP. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women. The prevalence of central obesity was 10.7% in this study. When compared to subjects with normal waist circumferences, subjects with central obesity were older, had a higher BMI, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, a higher proportion of male gender, family history of diabetes and hypertension, alcohol consumption habit, and a higher proportion of low current household income, current parental blue collar occupational level, and lower current and childhood parental ISP level. Multivariate analysis showed the current parental household income and ISP were significantly higher indicators of risk of central obesity after adjustment for possible confounding factors. The odds ratios were 1.26 and 1.30, respectively. Our results showed that low household income and current ISP were independently associated with the risk of central obesity. Therefore, young adults with low SES should be an important target group for prevention and management of central obesity in school health promotion programs. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Rásky, Éva; Großschädl, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  3. Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Cassandra M.; Batsis, John A.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; McQuoid, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment. PMID:27034833

  4. Obesity in older adults and life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Dhana, K; Berghout, M A; Peeters, A; Ikram, M A; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Nusselder, W; Kavousi, M; Franco, O H

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our objective was to evaluate the impact of overweight and obesity on life expectancy and years lived with and without CVD in older adults. The study included 6636 individuals (3750 women) aged 55 years and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed multistate life tables by using prevalence, incidence rate and hazard ratios (HR) for three transitions (free-of-CVD-to-CVD, free-of-CVD-to-death and CVD-to-death), stratifying by the categories of body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders. During 12 years of follow-up, we observed 1035 incident CVD events and 1902 overall deaths. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of CVD among men (HR 1.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 2.11)) and women (HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.19, 1.86)), compared with normal weight individuals. Overweight and obesity were not associated with mortality in men and women without CVD. Among men with CVD, obesity compared with normal weight, was associated with a lower risk of mortality (HR 0.67 (95% CI 0.49, 0.90)). Overweight and obesity did not influence total life expectancy. However, obesity was associated with 2.6 fewer years (95% CI -4.8, -0.4) lived free from CVD in men and 1.9 (95% CI -3.3, -0.9) in women. Moreover, men and women with obesity lived 2.9 (95% CI 1.1, 4.8) and 1.7 (95% CI 0.6, 2.8) more years suffering from CVD compared with normal weight counterparts. Obesity had no effect on total life expectancy in older individuals, but increased the risk of having CVD earlier in life and consequently extended the number of years lived with CVD. Owing to increasing prevalence of obesity and improved treatment of CVD, we might expect more individuals living with CVD and for a longer period of time.

  5. [Abdominal obesity epidemiology amongst adult women resident in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias da; Kac, Gilberto; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with abdominal obesity in women. A cross-sectional population based study was carried out on 981 women aged 20 to 60 years living in Southern Brazil. Abdominal adiposity was assessed by waist circumference (WC) = 88 cm. Poisson regression models were used to obtain prevalence ratios (PR) and their confidence intervals. The abdominal obesity prevalence was 23.3% (IC95%: 20.7-26.0). The main factors associated with the outcome were: having low education level, being unemployed, being more than 40 years old, having family obesity history, and being married. Adjusted analyses showed increased obesity prevalence in hypertensive women (Prevalence Ratio--PR = 2.06; CI95%: 1.58-2.69) and those having higher number of children (PR = 1.17; CI95% 1.00-1.37). Later menarche, at 12-13 years and at 14 years of age, protected against obesity comparing to women with earlier menarche at 8-11 years, respectively, 31% and 46% of protection. The understanding of how the abdominal obesity is distributed among the population allows effective planning and action implementation towards the reduction rates of this nutritional and public health problem.

  6. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09) and 1.17 (1.25–1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. PMID:26184308

  7. Challenges in the Management of Geriatric Obesity in High Risk Populations

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Weidner, Julia A.; Bales, Connie W.

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity in the older adult population is growing, an increasing concern in both the developed and developing countries of the world. The study of geriatric obesity and its management is a relatively new area of research, especially pertaining to those with elevated health risks. This review characterizes the state of science for this “fat and frail” population and identifies the many gaps in knowledge where future study is urgently needed. In community dwelling older adults, opportunities to improve both body weight and nutritional status are hampered by inadequate programs to identify and treat obesity, but where support programs exist, there are proven benefits. Nutritional status of the hospitalized older adult should be optimized to overcome the stressors of chronic disease, acute illness, and/or surgery. The least restrictive diets tailored to individual preferences while meeting each patient’s nutritional needs will facilitate the energy required for mobility, respiratory sufficiency, immunocompentence, and wound healing. Complications of care due to obesity in the nursing home setting, especially in those with advanced physical and mental disabilities, are becoming more ubiquitous; in almost all of these situations, weight stability is advocated, as some evidence links weight loss with increased mortality. High quality interdisciplinary studies in a variety of settings are needed to identify standards of care and effective treatments for the most vulnerable obese older adults. PMID:27153084

  8. Challenges in the Management of Geriatric Obesity in High Risk Populations.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; McDonald, Shelley R; Weidner, Julia A; Bales, Connie W

    2016-05-04

    The global prevalence of obesity in the older adult population is growing, an increasing concern in both the developed and developing countries of the world. The study of geriatric obesity and its management is a relatively new area of research, especially pertaining to those with elevated health risks. This review characterizes the state of science for this "fat and frail" population and identifies the many gaps in knowledge where future study is urgently needed. In community dwelling older adults, opportunities to improve both body weight and nutritional status are hampered by inadequate programs to identify and treat obesity, but where support programs exist, there are proven benefits. Nutritional status of the hospitalized older adult should be optimized to overcome the stressors of chronic disease, acute illness, and/or surgery. The least restrictive diets tailored to individual preferences while meeting each patient's nutritional needs will facilitate the energy required for mobility, respiratory sufficiency, immunocompentence, and wound healing. Complications of care due to obesity in the nursing home setting, especially in those with advanced physical and mental disabilities, are becoming more ubiquitous; in almost all of these situations, weight stability is advocated, as some evidence links weight loss with increased mortality. High quality interdisciplinary studies in a variety of settings are needed to identify standards of care and effective treatments for the most vulnerable obese older adults.

  9. Education and obesity at age 40 among American adults

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rehkopf, David H.; Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Although many have studied the association between educational attainment and obesity, studies to date have not fully examined prior common causes and possible interactions by race/ethnicity or gender. It is also not clear if the relationship between actual educational attainment and obesity is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment. The authors use generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and obesity (BMI≥30) at age 40 in the USA’s National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for demographics, confounders, and mediators. Race/ethnicity but not gender interacted with educational attainment. In a complete case analysis, after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, among whites only, college graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese (RR= 0.69, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.83). The risk ratio remained similar in two sensitivity analyses when the authors adjusted for educational aspirations and educational expectations and analyzed a multiply imputed dataset to address missingness. This more nuanced understanding of the role of education after controlling for a thorough set of confounders and mediators helps advance the study of social determinants of health and risk factors for obesity. PMID:23246398

  10. The Prevalence and Determinants of Obesity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S. -A.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Smiley, E.; Williamson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major public health concern internationally and this study aimed to measure the prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities in comparison with general population data, and examine the factors associated with obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities,…

  11. The Prevalence and Determinants of Obesity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S. -A.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Smiley, E.; Williamson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major public health concern internationally and this study aimed to measure the prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities in comparison with general population data, and examine the factors associated with obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities,…

  12. [Obesity in children and adolescents. Risks, causes, and therapy from a psychological perspective].

    PubMed

    Mata, J; Munsch, S

    2011-05-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese children and adolescents in Germany and Europe has increased dramatically since the 1990s. About a third of obese preschool children and half of obese school children will become obese adults; the economic, medical, and psychosocial consequences are substantial. This article presents an overview of psychological risk factors and causes of obesity in children and adolescents, including comorbidity with psychological disorders, stigmatization, and relationships with peers, family, and other environment factors, as well as interactions between genes and behavior. Understanding risk factors and causes for obesity is the basis for adequate psychological interventions. We provide an overview of psychological aspects of obesity, such as motivation and impulsivity, and present components of cognitive behavioral therapy and modalities of intervention. A better understanding of psychological factors is necessary to achieve more effective interventions and long-term success of behavior change. This also holds true for changes in the social, media, and physical environment structures with the goal of promoting healthy eating and physical activity.

  13. Metabolic Setup and Risks in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Kocova, Mirjana; Sukarova-Angelovska, Elena; Tanaskoska, Milica; Palcevska-Kocevska, Snezana; Krstevska, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background In the past decades, the obesity epidemic in children of all ages has been an important research field for detecting the metabolic causes and consequences of obesity, the major focus being on insulin and adipocytokine levels. Metabolic work-up in obese children is recommended in the age group as young as 2–6 years. There is evidence that birth weight can be a factor causing obesity later in life accompanied by metabolic complications. Methods Insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were analyzed in 269 obese children and 60 controls, as well as 110 newborn children with different birth weight and different length of gestation, using standard methods. Results In 53.6% of the obese children, complications of obesity such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart attack or stroke were found in family members. The peak insulinemia on OGTT was significantly higher in the pubertal compared to the prepubertal group (110.5± 75.9 μU/mL versus 72.2±62.7 μU/mL) (p<0.005). Glucose intolerance was confirmed in 24%. The leptin level was significantly higher and the adiponectin level was lower in pubertal obese children compared to the prepubertal children and controls (p<0.05). In newborns the leptin and adiponectin levels were in correlation with anthropometric parameters: body weight (BW), body length (BL), BW/BL, BMI, and the pondered index (p<0.05). Conclusion Obese children have high insulinemia in all ages, reaching its peak towards puberty. The leptin and adiponectin levels might be indicators of the metabolic syndrome. Our findings in newborns might influence the nutritional approach in the future in order to prevent complications of obesity. PMID:28356821

  14. Trends of Obesity in Iranian Adults from 1990s to late 2000s; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mirzazadeh, Ali; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Arabi, Minoo; Navadeh, Soodabeh; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is currently emerging as a global epidemic, affecting 10% of adult population worldwide. The primary objective of the current systematic review is to describe the trend of overall prevalence of obesity in Iranian women and menthrough a meta-analysis. METHODS We searched the medical literature published from 1990 to 2007 in Medline (PubMed), EMBASE database, and the Iranian digital library. All published reports of research projects, papers in relevant congresses, unpublished crude data analysis, proceedings, books and dissertations were reviewed. Data from eligible papers that fulfilled the qualification criteria entered meta-analysis (Random Model). RESULTS Data from 209,166 individuals were analyzed. The overall prevalence of obesity in adults was 18.5% (95%CI: 15.1-21.8), respectively. The prevalence of obesity in men and women was 12.9% (95%CI: 10.9-14.9) and 26.2% (95%CI: 21.3-30.5), respectively. The trend of obesity was similar in both genders; women had almost a constantly higher risk of obesity than men during the recent two decades. CONCLUSION Data from 209,166 individuals were analyzed. The overall prevalence of obesity in adults was 18.5% (95%CI: 15.1-21.8), respectively. The prevalence of obesity in men and women was 12.9% (95%CI: 10.9-14.9) and 26.2% (95%CI: 21.3-30.5), respectively. The trend of obesity was similar in both genders; women had almost a constantly higher risk of obesity than men during the recent two decades. PMID:24829686

  15. The relationship between child abuse and adult obesity among california women.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-07-01

    Despite clinical studies suggesting that child abuse is associated with adult obesity, very few studies have been conducted with large community or state-based samples. This study examines the relationship between child abuse and adult obesity, relative to other risk factors such as demographics, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity, in a representative sample of California women. Data are from the California Women's Health Survey, a state-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey of California women. Participants included 11,115 nonpregnant women aged 18 or older, who provided complete data for all study variables. The telephone interview included assessment of child abuse (abstracted from the Traumatic Stress Schedule), food insecurity, perceived stress, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, height, and weight. Data were collected in 2002, 2003, and 2004, and analyzed in 2006. Obese (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or higher) women were significantly more likely to report exposure to child abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.42). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and perceived stress, women exposed to child abuse remained significantly more likely to be obese than unexposed women (adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.13-1.40). The population-attributable fraction of obesity associated with any type of abuse was 4.5% (95% CI=2.28-6.55). Exposure to child abuse is associated with adult obesity among California women, even accounting for other relevant variables. This supports the notion that child abuse and its sequelae may be important targets for public health intervention, particularly in subpopulations where the prevalence of child abuse is known to be high.

  16. Effects of bariatric surgery for knee complaints in (morbidly) obese adult patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Groen, V A; van de Graaf, V A; Scholtes, V A B; Sprague, S; van Wagensveld, B A; Poolman, R W

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of knee osteoarthritis, and over the past 30 years the prevalence of obesity has more than doubled. In an advanced-stage knee osteoarthritis is treated with total knee arthroplasty, and the demand for primary total knee arthroplasties is expected to grow exponentially. However, total knee arthroplasty in obese patients is associated with more complications, longer hospital stay and higher costs. We aimed to determine the effects of bariatric surgery on knee complaints in (morbidly) obese (body mass index >30 kg m(-2) ) adult patients. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, TRIP, BIOSIS-Previews and reference lists of retrieved publications were systematically searched from earliest available up to 20 April 2014 for any English, German, French and Dutch studies. There was no restriction on study design. We included studies on the effect of surgically induced weight reduction on knee complaints in (morbidly) obese adult patients, with a minimal follow-up of 3 months. Studies on the effects of lipectomy or liposuction and studies in which patients had already received a total knee arthroplasty were excluded. Thirteen studies were included in this systematic review with a total of 3,837 patients. Although different assessment tools were used, an overall significant improvement in knee pain was seen in 73% out of the used assessments. All studies measuring intensity of knee pain, knee physical function and knee stiffness showed a significant improvement after bariatric surgery. The quality of evidence was very low or too low for most of the included studies and moderate for one study. Bariatric surgery with subsequent marked weight loss is likely to improve knee pain, physical function and stiffness in (morbidly) obese adult patients. However, with the current available evidence, there is need for high-quality studies.

  17. [Obesity--significant risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men].

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Musialik, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    The obesity affects around 312 million people over the world. In The United States it causes more than 300 000 deaths per year. It leads to many complications, such as ischemic heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. It was proven recently that obesity is also an independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men. 79% of men presenting erectile disorders have BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater. BMI in the range 25-30 kg/m2 is associated with 1,5 times, and in the range of over 30 kg/m2 with 3 times greater risk of sexual dysfunction. The occurrence of erectile dysfunction in patients with obesity is caused by a number of complications which are characteristic for an excessive amount of fat tissue, in example: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or dyslipidemia. In the United States diabetes and obesity are responsible for 8 million cases of erectile dysfunction. Scientific evidence indicates that excessive body weight should be considered as an independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction. This risk increases with increasing BMI. Erectile disorders correlate with the occurrence of obesity at any time during the patient's life. Obesity leads to erectile dysfunction in a considerably greater extent than aging. Mechanisms responsible for the independent influence of obesity on the erectile dysfunction are: hormonal imbalance, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, psychological factors and physical inactivity. The basis for erectile dysfunction treatment in obesity is body weight loss. Erectile disorders in obese men are significantly more frequent than in general population. Obesity is beyond any doubts an independent risk factor of erectile dysfunction.

  18. Obesity Biomarkers, Metabolism and Risk of Cancer: An Epidemiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Pischon, Tobias

    Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations that may pose a biological link between body fatness and risk of cancer. Elucidating the role of obesity-related biomarkers in cancer development is essential for developing targeted strategies aiming at obesity-associated cancer prevention. Molecular epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided evidence that major hormonal pathways linking obesity and cancer risk include the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, sex-steroid hormones, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation. These pathways are interrelated with each other, and their importance varies by obesity-related cancer type. The insulin/IGF-1 axis has been implicated to play an important mediating role in the association between obesity and risk of pancreatic, colorectal and prostate cancer. Endogenous sex-steroid hormone concentrations, in particular obesity-associated pre-diagnostic elevations of estrogens and androgens, play an important role in postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer development. The adipokines adiponectin and leptin and adipocyte-mediated chronic low-grade inflammation represented by the acute-phase C-reactive protein may explain a substantial part of the association between obesity and risk of colorectal cancer. There is less evidence on whether these hormonal pathways play a mediating role in other obesity-associated types of cancer. In this chapter, the molecular epidemiologic evidence from prospective studies relating circulating obesity-related biomarkers to cancer risk is summarized, taking into account available evidence from Mendelian Randomization investigations aiming at improving causal inference.

  19. [Morbidity rate of obesity in children in ukraine. Overweight as noncontagious disease risk factor].

    PubMed

    Заболотна, Ірина Е

    The upsurge of prevalence rate of obesity and overweight that in the majority of cases traces back to childhood is a risk factor of the most common noncontagious diseases in adults. The aim was to analyze prevalence of obesity in children in Ukraine and to conduct the pilot study of medical condition of overweight children. Official state statistics of prevalence rate of obesity in kids and screening data of anthropometric characteristics, arterial tension levels, physical performance decrement and medical condition of children (boys - 50, girls - 90, average age - 15,1±0,1 years) was used in research. Data calculation performed by Statistica v. 6.0 software. Over the past few decades, the morbidity rate of obesity in children in Ukraine has greatly increased, especially in year class 15-17. Insufficient diagnosis of obesity in children is the consequence of the inadequacy of the existing system of preventive care and monitoring survey of decease risk factors. Children with body mass index (BMI) above normal have a risk of work decrement in 5,2 times (odds ratio, OR=5,2, CI95%: 1,7-10,6). Such children have higher risk of development of the diseases of the respiratory system (OR=8,1; CI95%: 3,9-13,6) and allergic dermatitis (OR=7,7; CI95%: 3,7-12,9). The odds ratio of arterial hypertension in such children is equal to 3,46±0,3 (95%CI: 2,0-5,9). According to prediction calculations, the situation with the increase of prevalence rate of obesity in children in Ukraine is unfavorable. The introduction of measures aimed at finding children with obesity, their registration and monitoring of patients' health with due regard to decease risk factors at the primary care level would conduce to improving prevention of obesity and prevention of alimentary diseases progression.

  20. Adenovirus-36 Is Associated with Obesity in Children and Adults in Sweden as Determined by Rapid ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Almgren, Malin; Atkinson, Richard; He, Jia; Hilding, Agneta; Hagman, Emilia; Wolk, Alicja; Thorell, Anders; Marcus, Claude; Näslund, Erik; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Schalling, Martin; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental and natural human adenovirus-36 (Adv36) infection of multiple animal species results in obesity through increasing adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Presence of Adv36 antibodies detected by serum neutralization assay has previously been associated with obesity in children and adults living in the USA, South Korea and Italy, whereas no association with adult obesity was detected in Belgium/the Netherlands nor among USA military personnel. Adv36 infection has also been shown to reduce blood lipid levels, increase glucose uptake by adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies, and to associate with improved glycemic control in non-diabetic individuals. Principal Findings Using a novel ELISA, 1946 clinically well-characterized individuals including 424 children and 1522 non-diabetic adults, and 89 anonymous blood donors, residing in central Sweden representing the population in Stockholm area, were studied for the presence of antibodies against Adv36 in serum. The prevalence of Adv36 positivity in lean individuals increased from ∼7% in 1992–1998 to 15–20% in 2002–2009, which paralleled the increase in obesity prevalence. We found that Adv36-positive serology was associated with pediatric obesity and with severe obesity in females compared to lean and overweight/mildly obese individuals, with a 1.5 to 2-fold Adv36 positivity increase in cases. Moreover, Adv36 positivity was less common among females and males on antilipid pharmacological treatment or with high blood triglyceride level. Insulin sensitivity, measured as lower HOMA-IR, showed a higher point estimate in Adv36-positive obese females and males, although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). Conclusion Using a novel ELISA we show that Adv36 infection is associated with pediatric obesity, severe obesity in adult females and lower risk of high blood lipid levels in non-diabetic Swedish individuals. PMID:22848557

  1. Obesity-specific neural cost of maintaining gait performance under complex conditions in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Osofundiya, Olufunmilola; Benden, Mark E; Dowdy, Diane; Mehta, Ranjana K

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence of obesity-related changes in the prefrontal cortex during cognitive and seated motor activities has surfaced; however, the impact of obesity on neural activity during ambulation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine obesity-specific neural cost of simple and complex ambulation in older adults. Twenty non-obese and obese individuals, 65years and older, performed three tasks varying in the types of complexity of ambulation (simple walking, walking+cognitive dual-task, and precision walking). Maximum oxygenated hemoglobin, a measure of neural activity, was measured bilaterally using a portable functional near infrared spectroscopy system, and gait speed and performance on the complex tasks were also obtained. Complex ambulatory tasks were associated with ~2-3.5 times greater cerebral oxygenation levels and ~30-40% slower gait speeds when compared to the simple walking task. Additionally, obesity was associated with three times greater oxygenation levels, particularly during the precision gait task, despite obese adults demonstrating similar gait speeds and performances on the complex gait tasks as non-obese adults. Compared to existing studies that focus solely on biomechanical outcomes, the present study is one of the first to examine obesity-related differences in neural activity during ambulation in older adults. In order to maintain gait performance, obesity was associated with higher neural costs, and this was augmented during ambulatory tasks requiring greater precision control. These preliminary findings have clinical implications in identifying individuals who are at greater risk of mobility limitations, particularly when performing complex ambulatory tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Frayling, Timothy M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Weedon, Michael N; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ring, Susan M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R; Cardon, Lon R; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I

    2007-05-11

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

  3. Obesity in Pregnancy Tied to Cerebral Palsy Risk in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163962.html Obesity in Pregnancy Tied to Cerebral Palsy Risk in Kids But study authors stress that ... chances that their baby could be born with cerebral palsy, a new study suggests. Researchers looked at information ...

  4. Adenoma Detection Rates for Screening Colonoscopies in Smokers and Obese Adults: Data From the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph C; Weiss, Julia E; Robinson, Christina M; Butterly, Lynn F

    2017-01-05

    To examine screening adenoma detection rates (ADR) and serrated detection rates (SDR) among smokers and obese adults in the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry. ADR, a quality measure for screening colonoscopies, is associated with protection from interval colorectal cancer. Currently, only sex-specific ADR benchmarks are reported. However, obesity and smoking ≥20 pack-years are strong predictors for colorectal neoplasia, as highlighted by the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology CRC Screening Guidelines. Data comparing ADR in smokers and obese adults to those without these risks are limited. We calculated ADR, SDR, and 95% confidence intervals for screening colonoscopies in participants ≥50 years. Sex-specific and sex-age-specific rates were compared by smoking exposure (never vs. <20 vs. ≥20 pack-years) and body mass index (<30 vs. ≥30). A total of 21,539 screening colonoscopies were performed by 77 endoscopists at 20 facilities (April 2009 to September 2013). The difference in ADR between nonsmokers and smokers with ≥20 pack-years was 8.8% (P<0.0001) and between obesity groups 5.0% (P<0.0001). Significant sex-specific and sex-age-specific increases in ADR and SDR were found among smokers and obese participants. ADR and SDR for smokers and obese adults were significantly higher than their counterparts without those risks. Endoscopists should consider the prevalence of these risks within their screening population when comparing their rates to established benchmarks. Calculating sex-specific or sex-age-specific ADR and SDR based on smoking and obesity may provide optimal protection for populations with a particularly high prevalence of smokers and obese adults.

  5. Successful weight loss among obese U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Huskey, Karen W; Davis, Roger B; Wee, Christina C

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about weight control strategies associated with successful weight loss among obese U.S. adults in the general population. To identify strategies associated with losing at least 5% and 10% of body weight. Multivariable analysis of data from obese adult (BMI ≥30) participants in the 2001-2006 NHANES to identify strategies associated with losing ≥5% and ≥10% of body weight (conducted in 2009-2011). Of 4021 obese adults, 2523 (63%) reported trying to lose weight in the previous year. Among those attempting weight loss, 1026 (40%) lost ≥5% and 510 (20%) lost ≥10% weight. After adjustment for potential confounders, strategies associated with losing ≥5% weight included eating less fat (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.14, 1.75); exercising more (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.05, 1.60); and using prescription weight loss medications (OR=1.77, 95% CI=1.00, 3.13). Eating less fat (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.04, 1.79); exercising more (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.12, 1.65); and using prescription weight loss medications (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.09, 3.86) were also associated with losing ≥10% weight, as was joining commercial weight loss programs (OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.00, 2.96). Adults eating diet products were less likely to achieve 10% weight loss (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.31, 0.72). Liquid diets, nonprescription diet pills, and popular diets had no association with successful weight loss. A substantial proportion of obese U.S. adults who attempted to lose weight reported weight loss, at least in the short term. Obese adults were more likely to report achieving meaningful weight loss if they ate less fat, exercised more, used prescription weight loss medications, or participated in commercial weight loss programs. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Successful Weight Loss Among Obese U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Jacinda M.; Huskey, Karen W.; Davis, Roger B.; Wee, Christina C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about weight control strategies associated with successful weight loss among obese U.S. adults in the general population. Purpose To identify strategies associated with losing at least 5% and 10% of body weight. Methods Multivariable analysis of data from obese adult (BMI ≥30) participants in the 2001–2006 NHANES to identify strategies associated with losing ≥5% and ≥10% of body weight (conducted in 2009–2011). Results Of 4034 obese adults, 2523 (63%) reported trying to lose weight in the previous year. Among those attempting weight loss, 1026 (40%) lost ≥5% and 510 (20%) lost ≥10% weight. After adjustment for potential confounders, strategies associated with losing ≥5% weight included eating less fat (OR 1.41, 95% CI=1.14, 1.75), exercising more (OR 1.29 [95% CI=1.05, 1.60]), and using prescription weight loss medications (OR 1.77 [95% CI=1.00, 3.13]). Eating less fat (OR 1.37 [95% CI=1.04, 1.80]), exercising more (OR 1.36 [95% CI=1.12, 1.65]), and using prescription weight loss medications (OR 2.05 [95% CI=1.09, 3.90]) were also associated with losing ≥10% weight, as was joining commercial weight loss programs (OR 1.72 [95% CI=1.00, 2.96]). Adults eating diet products were less likely to achieve 10% weight loss (OR 0.48 [95% CI=0.31, 0.73]). Liquid diets, nonprescription diet pills, and popular diets had no association with successful weight loss. Conclusions A substantial proportion of obese U.S. adults who attempted to lose weight reported weight loss, at least in the short term. Obese adults were more likely to report achieving meaningful weight loss if they ate less fat, exercised more, used prescription weight loss medications, or participated in commercial weight loss programs. PMID:22516488

  7. Meta-Analysis of Short Sleep Duration and Obesity in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Taggart, Frances M.; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Currie, Andrew; Peile, Ed; Stranges, Saverio; Miller, Michelle A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent epidemiological studies suggest that short sleep duration may be associated with the development of obesity from childhood to adulthood. Objectives: To assess whether the evidence supports the presence of a relationship between short sleep duration and obesity at different ages, and to obtain an estimate of the risk. Methods: We performed a systematic search of publications using MEDLINE (1996-2007 wk 40), EMBASE (from 1988), AMED (from 1985), CINHAL (from 1982) and PsycINFO (from 1985) and manual searches without language restrictions. When necessary, authors were contacted. Criteria for inclusion were: report of duration of sleep as exposure, BMI as continuous outcome and prevalence of obesity as categorical outcome, number of participants, age, and gender. Results were pooled using a random effect model. Sensitivity analysis was performed, heterogeneity and publication bias were also checked. Results are expressed as pooled odds ratios (OR [95% confidence intervals, CIs]) and as pooled regression coefficients (β; 95% CIs). Results: Of 696 studies identified, 45 met the inclusion criteria (19 in children and 26 in adults) and 30 (12 and 18, respectively) were pooled in the meta-analysis for a total of 36 population samples. They included 634,511 participants (30,002 children and 604,509 adults) from around the world. Age ranged from 2 to 102 years and included boys, girls, men and women. In children the pooled OR for short duration of sleep and obesity was 1.89 (1.46 to 2.43; P < 0.0001). In adults the pooled OR was 1.55 (1.43 to 1.68; P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of publication bias. In adults, the pooled β for short sleep duration was −0.35 (−0.57 to −0.12) unit change in BMI per hour of sleep change. Conclusions: Cross-sectional studies from around the world show a consistent increased risk of obesity amongst short sleepers in children and adults. Causal inference is difficult due to lack of control for important confounders

  8. Obstetric and Neonatal Risks Among Obese Women Without Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Soo; Zhu, Yeyi; Grantz, Katherine L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Chen, Zhen; Wallace, Maeve E.; Smarr, Melissa M.; Epps, Nikira M.; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether prepregnancy obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women without chronic disease. Methods Singleton deliveries (n=112,309) among mothers without chronic diseases in the Consortium on Safe Labor, a retrospective U.S. cohort, were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated perinatal risks in relation to pre-pregnancy obesity status adjusted for age, race–ethnicity, parity, insurance, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, and study site. Results Obstetric risks were variably (and mostly marginally) increased as BMI category and obesity class increased. In particular, the risk of gestational hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery and induction increased in a dose-response fashion. For example, the percent of gestational diabetes among obese class III women was 14.6% in contrast to 2.8% among normal BMI women, corresponding RR (95% CI) 1.99(1.86–2.13), 2.94(2.73–3.18), 3.97(3.61–4.36) and 5.47(4.96–6.04) for overweight, obese class I, obese class II, and obese class II women, respectively, compared with normal BMI women. Similarly, neonatal risks increased in a dose-response fashion with maternal BMI status including preterm birth <32 weeks, large for gestational age (LGA), transient tachypnea, sepsis and intensive care unit admission. The percent of LGA infants increased from 7.9% among normal BMI women to 17.3% among obese class III women and RR increased to 1.52(1.45–1.58), 1.74(1.65–1.83), 1.93(1.79–2.07) and 2.32(2.14–2.52) as BMI category increased. Conclusions Prepregnancy