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Sample records for adult obstructive sleep

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  2. Adult obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy S; McSharry, David G; Malhotra, Atul

    2014-02-22

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is an increasingly common disorder of repeated upper airway collapse during sleep, leading to oxygen desaturation and disrupted sleep. Features include snoring, witnessed apnoeas, and sleepiness. Pathogenesis varies; predisposing factors include small upper airway lumen, unstable respiratory control, low arousal threshold, small lung volume, and dysfunctional upper airway dilator muscles. Risk factors include obesity, male sex, age, menopause, fluid retention, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and smoking. Obstructive sleep apnoea causes sleepiness, road traffic accidents, and probably systemic hypertension. It has also been linked to myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus though not definitively. Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice, with adherence of 60-70%. Bi-level positive airway pressure or adaptive servo-ventilation can be used for patients who are intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure. Other treatments include dental devices, surgery, and weight loss. PMID:23910433

  3. Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea*

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Susheel P.; Schneider, Hartmut; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction that result in recurrent arousals and episodic oxyhemoglobin desaturations during sleep. Significant clinical consequences of the disorder cover a wide spectrum, including daytime hypersomnolence, neurocognitive dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, metabolic dysfunction, and cor pulmonale. The major risk factors for the disorder include obesity, male gender, and age. Current understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of the disorder suggests that a balance of anatomically imposed mechanical loads and compensatory neuromuscular responses are important in maintaining upper airway patency during sleep. OSA develops in the presence of both elevated mechanical loads on the upper airway and defects in compensatory neuromuscular responses. A sleep history and physical examination is important in identification of patients and appropriate referral for polysomnography. Understanding nuances in the spectrum of presenting complaints and polysomnography correlates are important for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Knowledge of common patterns of OSA may help to identify patients and guide therapy. PMID:17625094

  4. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns.

  5. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns. PMID:27597768

  6. CT demonstration of pharyngeal narrowing in adult obstructive sleep apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlman, M.E.; Haponik, E.F.; Smith, P.L.; Allen, R.P.; Bleecker, E.R.; Goldman, S.M.

    1983-03-01

    Sleep apnea is a major cause of daytime hypersomnolence. Among the proposed etiologies, focal obstruction of the airways at the level of the pharynx has been suggested but not proven. Using computed tomography, the cross-sectional area of the airway can be readily assessed. Thirty-three adults with clinically proven sleep apnea and 12 normal adults underwent systematic computed tomography of the neck. Significant airway narrowing was demonstrated in all the patients with obstructive sleep apnea, whereas no such narrowing was seen in the controls. In 11, the narrowing was at a single level, whereas in 22 patients two or more levels were affected. This study has shown that a structurally abnormal airway may serve as an anatomic substrate for the development of sleep apnea. On the basis of this evidence, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty has been performed in two patients with relief of symptoms in one.

  7. Dynamic Drug-Induced Sleep Computed Tomography in Adults With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hsin, Li-Jen; Lin, Wan-Ni; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Lee, Li-Ang

    2016-01-01

    Surgical success for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) depends on identifying sites of obstruction in the upper airway. In this study, we investigated sites of obstruction by evaluating dynamic changes in the upper airway using drug-induced sleep computed tomography (DI-SCT) in patients with OSA. Thirty-five adult patients with OSA were prospectively enrolled. Sleep was induced with propofol under light sedation (bispectral index 70–75), and low-dose 320-detector row CT was performed for 10 seconds over a span of 2–3 respiratory cycles with supporting a continuous positive airway pressure model. Most (89%) of the patients had multi-level obstructions. Total obstruction most commonly occurred in the velum (86%), followed by the tongue (57%), oropharyngeal lateral wall (49%), and epiglottis (26%). There were two types of anterior-posterior obstruction of the soft palate, uvular (94%) and velar (6%), and three types of tongue obstruction, upper (30%), lower (37%), and upper plus lower obstruction (33%). DI-SCT is a fast and safe tool to identify simulated sleep airway obstruction in patients with OSA. It provides data on dynamic airway movement in the sagittal view which can be used to differentiate palate and tongue obstructions, and this can be helpful when planning surgery for patients with OSA. PMID:27762308

  8. Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults.

    PubMed

    Semelka, Michael; Wilson, Jonathan; Floyd, Ryan

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes patients to temporarily stop or decrease their breathing repeatedly during sleep. This results in fragmented, nonrestful sleep that can lead to symptoms such as morning headache and daytime sleepiness. Obstructive sleep apnea affects persons of all ages, with an increasing prevalence in those older than 60 years. The exact prevalence is unknown but is estimated to be between 2% and 14%. There are many health conditions associated with obstructive sleep apnea, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and depression. Loud snoring, gasping during sleep, obesity, and enlarged neck circumference are predictive clinical features. Screening questionnaires can be used to assess for sleep apnea, although their accuracy is limited. The diagnostic standard for obstructive sleep apnea is nocturnal polysomnography in a sleep laboratory. Home sleep apnea tests can be performed for certain patients but are generally considered less accurate. Continuous positive airway pressure is the first-line treatment; adherence rates are variable and seem to improve with early patient education and support. Other treatment modalities include weight reduction, oral appliance therapy, and surgery to correct anatomic obstructions, although there is insufficient evidence to support these types of surgeries. Bariatric surgery can improve sleep parameters and symptoms in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea and can result in remission in many patients. PMID:27583421

  9. Cervical column morphology in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Petri, Niels; Kjaer, Inger; Svanholt, Palle

    2008-10-01

    Cervical column morphology was examined in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and compared with the cervical morphology of an adult control group with neutral occlusion, normal craniofacial morphology, and no history of sleep apnoea. The sleep apnoea group consisted of 91 patients, 16 females aged 29-59 years (mean 49.4 years) and 75 males aged 27-65 years (mean 49.0 years). All patients were diagnosed with OSA by overnight polysomnography. The control group consisted of 21 subjects, 15 females aged 23-40 years (mean 29.2 years) and 6 males aged 25-44 years (mean 32.8 years). From each individual, a visual assessment of the cervical column was performed on the radiograph. Differences in the cervical column morphology, between the genders and the groups were assessed by Fisher's exact test and the effect of age by logistic regression analysis. In the OSA group, 46.2 per cent had fusion anomalies of the cervical column and 5.5 per cent a posterior arch deficiency. Fusion anomalies occurred in 26.4 per cent as fusions between two cervical vertebrae. Block fusions occurred in 12.1 per cent and occipitalization in 14.3 per cent. A posterior arch deficiency occurred in 2.2 per cent as a partial cleft of C1 and in 3.3 per cent as dehiscence of C3 and C4. No statistical gender differences were found in the occurrence of morphological characteristics of the cervical column. The fusion anomalies of the cervical column occurred significantly more often in the OSA group. The results indicate that the morphological deviations of the upper cervical vertebrae play a role in the phenotypical subdivision and diagnosis of OSA.

  10. Innovative treatments for adults with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Terri E; Calik, Michael W; Farabi, Sarah S; Fink, Anne M; Galang-Boquiren, Maria T; Kapella, Mary C; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects one in five adult males and is associated with significant comorbidity, cognitive impairment, excessive daytime sleepiness, and reduced quality of life. For over 25 years, the primary treatment has been continuous positive airway pressure, which introduces a column of air that serves as a pneumatic splint for the upper airway, preventing the airway collapse that is the physiologic definition of this syndrome. However, issues with patient tolerance and unacceptable levels of treatment adherence motivated the exploration of other potential treatments. With greater understanding of the physiologic mechanisms associated with OSA, novel interventions have emerged in the last 5 years. The purpose of this article is to describe new treatments for OSA and associated complex sleep apnea. New approaches to complex sleep apnea have included adaptive servoventilation. There is increased literature on the contribution of behavioral interventions to improve adherence with continuous positive airway pressure that have proven quite effective. New non-surgical treatments include oral pressure devices, improved mandibular advancement devices, nasal expiratory positive airway pressure, and newer approaches to positional therapy. Recent innovations in surgical interventions have included laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty, radiofrequency ablation, palatal implants, and electrical stimulation of the upper airway muscles. No drugs have been approved to treat OSA, but potential drug therapies have centered on increasing ventilatory drive, altering the arousal threshold, modifying loop gain (a dimensionless value quantifying the stability of the ventilatory control system), or preventing airway collapse by affecting the surface tension. An emerging approach is the application of cannabinoids to increase upper airway tone. PMID:25429246

  11. Usage of Positional Therapy in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Grietje E.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Doff, Michiel H.J.; Kerstjens, Huib A.M.; Meijer, Petra M.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Wijkstra, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Many positional therapy (PT) strategies are available for treating positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). PT is primarily supplied to selected patients as a secondary treatment option when other therapies have failed. To our knowledge this is the largest study to date to assess effectiveness and long-term compliance of PT (both commercial waistband and self-made constructions, mimicking the tennis ball technique) as primary treatment in patients with different positional OSA severities. Methods: PT was used by 53 patients, of which 40 patients underwent a follow-up polygraphic evaluation under treatment after a median time interval of 12 weeks. Patients were routinely contacted regarding their clinical status and treatment compliance. Results: PT was successful in 27 out of 40 patients (68%). Overall AHI reduced significantly from a median (interquartile range [IQR]) AHI of 14.5 (10.7–19.6) to 5.9 (3.1–8.5), p < 0.001. The commercial waistband and self-made constructions were equally effective (median (IQR) reduction in overall AHI (Δ9.6 (5.5–11.9) and Δ6.8 (3.2–11.3) respectively), p = 0.22). Short-term compliance was good as most patients used PT more than 7 hours/night (mean 7.2 ± SD 1.4) and more than 6 days/week (mean 6.5 ± SD 1.3). However, after mean 13 ± 5 months, 26 patients (65%) reported they no longer used PT, especially patients with moderate positional OSA (89%). Conclusions: On the short-term, PT using the tennis ball technique, is an easy method to treat most patients with positional OSA, showing significant reductions in AHI. Unfortunately, long-term compliance is low and close follow-up of patients on PT with regard to their compliance is necessary. Citation: de Vries GE, Hoekema A, Doff MH, Kerstjens HA, Meijer PM, van der Hoeven JH, Wijkstra PJ. Usage of positional therapy in adults with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):131–137. PMID:25406271

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Obstructive Airway Adult Test for Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Giulio; Vicini, Claudio; De Benedetto, Michele; Salamanca, Fabrizio; Sorrenti, Giovanni; Romandini, Mario; Bosi, Marcello; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Foresta, Enrico; Laforì, Andreina; Meccariello, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Alessandro; Toraldo, Domenico Maurizio; Campanini, Aldo; Montevecchi, Filippo; Rizzotto, Grazia; Cervelli, Daniele; Moro, Alessandro; Arigliani, Michele; Gobbi, Riccardo; Pelo, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Rationale. The gold standard for the diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is polysomnography, whose access is however reduced by costs and limited availability, so that additional diagnostic tests are needed. Objectives. To analyze the diagnostic accuracy of the Obstructive Airway Adult Test (OAAT) compared to polysomnography for the diagnosis of OSA in adult patients. Methods. Ninety patients affected by OSA verified with polysomnography (AHI ≥ 5) and ten healthy patients, randomly selected, were included and all were interviewed by one blind examiner with OAAT questions. Measurements and Main Results. The Spearman rho, evaluated to measure the correlation between OAAT and polysomnography, was 0.72 (p < 0.01). The area under the ROC curve (95% CI) was the parameter to evaluate the accuracy of the OAAT: it was 0.91 (0.81–1.00) for the diagnosis of OSA (AHI ≥ 5), 0.90 (0.82–0.98) for moderate OSA (AHI ≥ 15), and 0.84 (0.76–0.92) for severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30). Conclusions. The OAAT has shown a high correlation with polysomnography and also a high diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of OSA. It has also been shown to be able to discriminate among the different degrees of severity of OSA. Additional large studies aiming to validate this questionnaire as a screening or diagnostic test are needed. PMID:26636102

  13. Metabolic disorders associated with obstructive sleep apnea in adults.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is multidirectional. Obesity is recognized as the strongest risk factor for OSA. It is unknown whether metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus contribute to the development or aggravation of OSA, although this is likely. Conversely, OSA may be a risk factor for metabolic disorders. Strong evidence suggests that OSA may increase the risk of developing insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. OSA has also been associated with the development and/or aggravation of obesity, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome. In addition, metabolic disorders are confounding factors in OSA. Metabolic disorders and OSA share common intermediate pathogenic pathways, including alterations in autonomic nervous system regulation, increased inflammatory activity, and alterations in adipokine levels and endothelial dysfunction, which may be involved in the interplay between these conditions. Overall, this complexity makes it especially difficult to reveal and understand the links between OSA and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The International Diabetes Federation has recently published clinical practice recommendations suggesting that OSA patients should be routinely screened for markers of metabolic disturbance and cardiovascular risk, such as waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting lipid and glucose levels. It also recommends that the possibility of OSA should be considered in the assessment of all patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. PMID:22005190

  14. Molecular Signatures of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: A Review and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Arnardottir, Erna S.; Mackiewicz, Miroslaw; Gislason, Thorarinn; Teff, Karen L.; Pack, Allan I.

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are largely mediated by chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. The primary molecular domains affected are sympathetic activity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Other affected domains include adipokines, adhesion molecules and molecules that respond to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Changes in molecular domains affected by OSA, assessed in blood and/or urine, can provide a molecular signature for OSA that could potentially be used diagnostically and to predict who is likely to develop different OSA-related comorbidities. High-throughput discovery strategies such as microarrays, assessing changes in gene expression in circulating blood cells, have the potential to find new candidates and pathways thereby expanding the molecular signatures for OSA. More research is needed to fully understand the pathophysiological significance of these molecular signatures and their relationship with OSA comorbidities. Many OSA subjects are obese, and obesity is an independent risk factor for many comorbidities associated with OSA. Moreover, obesity affects the same molecular pathways as OSA. Thus, a challenge to establishing a molecular signature for OSA is to separate the effects of OSA from obesity. We propose that the optimal strategy is to evaluate the temporal changes in relevant molecular pathways during sleep and, in particular, the alterations from before to after sleep when assessed in blood and/or urine. Such changes will be at least partly a consequence of chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation that occurs during sleep. Citation: Arnardottir ES; Mackiewicz M; Gislason T; Teff KL; Pack AI. Molecular signatures of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: A review and perspective. SLEEP 2009;32(4):447–470. PMID:19413140

  15. Prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Grønli, Janne; Sivertsen, Børge; Lehmann, Sverre

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults presenting symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the general population. Randomly selected participants (N = 1,502; 50.7% men, 49.3% women), ages 40 to 70 yr. (M = 53.6, SD = 8.5) were interviewed over the telephone. Insomnia and excessive sleepiness (hypersomnia) were assessed with the Bergen Insomnia Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. OSA symptoms were identified by self- or spouse reports on snoring, breathing cessations during sleep, and being tired or sleepy. The prevalence of OSA was 6.2%. Among these participants with OSA, 57.6% reported insomnia and 30.1% reported excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, OSA symptoms were associated with self-reported obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and depression, but only in participants with comorbid insomnia or excessive sleepiness.

  16. Quality Measures for the Care of Adult Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Collop, Nancy A.; Jacobowitz, Ofer; Thomas, Sherene M.; Quan, Stuart F.; Aronsky, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes when left untreated. There is significant heterogeneity in the evaluation and management of OSA resulting in variation in cost and outcomes. Thus, the goal for developing these measures was to have a way to evaluate the outcomes and reliability of the processes involved with the standard care approaches used in the diagnosis and management of OSA. The OSA quality care measures presented here focus on both outcomes and processes. The AASM commissioned the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup to develop quality care measures aimed at optimizing care for adult patients with OSA. These quality care measures developed by the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup are an extension of the original Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) approved Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) measures group for OSA. The measures are based on the available scientific evidence, focus on public safety, and strive to improve quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes for individual OSA patients. The three outcomes that were selected were as follows: (1) improve disease detection and categorization; (2) improve quality of life; and (3) reduce cardiovascular risk. After selecting these relevant outcomes, a total of ten process measures were chosen that could be applied and assessed for the purpose of accomplishing these outcomes. In the future, the measures described in this document may be reported through the PQRS in addition to, or as a replacement for, the current OSA measures group. The overall objective for the development of these measures is that implementation of these quality measures will result in improved patient outcomes, reduce the public health burden of OSA, and provide a measurable standard for evaluating and managing OSA. Citation: Aurora RN, Collop NA, Jacobowitz O, Thomas SM, Quan SF, Aronsky AJ. Quality measures for the care of adult patients with

  17. Sleep · 8: Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, G; Brouillette, R

    2005-01-01

    In the past 25 years there has been increasing recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a common condition of childhood. Morbidity includes impairment of growth, cardiovascular complications, learning impairment, and behavioural problems. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition in children differs in many respects from that in adults. We review here the key features of paediatric OSA, highlighting differences from adult OSA, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:15923253

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jaquis, J

    1987-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is estimated to affect 2 million to 3 million Americans. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a breathing pattern characterized by periods of apnea alternating with periods of arousal and breathing, a pattern that recurs throughout the sleep cycle. It is important for the nurse practitioner to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of the syndrome in order to initiate diagnostic testing. The role of the nurse practitioner also involves education of the client and family regarding the disease process and treatment modalities. The client and client's family will need help in coping with the diagnosis and possibly with the physical and psychological symptoms experienced. This article outlines the disease process, treatment modalities, possible complications and the role of the nurse practitioner in assisting the client with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

  19. Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Schwengel, Deborah A; Dalesio, Nicholas M; Stierer, Tracey L

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disorder of airway obstruction with multisystem implications and associated complications. OSAS affects children from infancy to adulthood and is responsible for behavioral, cognitive, and growth impairment as well as cardiovascular and perioperative respiratory morbidity and mortality. OSAS is associated commonly with comorbid conditions, including obesity and asthma. Adenotonsillectomy is the most commonly used treatment option for OSAS in childhood, but efforts are underway to identify medical treatment options. PMID:24491659

  20. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guidelines on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Adult Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Memtsoudis, Stavros G.; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Nagappa, Mahesh; Opperer, Mathias; Cozowicz, Crispiana; Patrawala, Sara; Lam, David; Kumar, Anjana; Joshi, Girish P.; Fleetham, John; Ayas, Najib; Collop, Nancy; Doufas, Anthony G.; Eikermann, Matthias; Englesakis, Marina; Gali, Bhargavi; Gay, Peter; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Kaw, Roop; Kezirian, Eric J.; Malhotra, Atul; Mokhlesi, Babak; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Stierer, Tracey; Wappler, Frank; Hillman, David R.; Auckley, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to present recommendations based on the available clinical evidence on the topic where possible. As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations were developed by experts in the field through consensus processes involving utilization of evidence grading to indicate the level of evidence upon which recommendations were based. This guideline may not be appropriate for all clinical situations and all patients. The decision whether to follow these recommendations must be made by a responsible physician on an individual basis. Protocols should be developed by individual institutions taking into account the patients’ conditions, extent of interventions and available resources. This practice guideline is not intended to define standards of care or represent absolute requirements for patient care. The adherence to these guidelines cannot in any way guarantee successful outcomes and is rather meant to help individuals and institutions formulate plans to better deal with the challenges posed by perioperative patients with OSA. These recommendations reflect the current state of knowledge and its interpretation by a group of experts in the field at the time of publication. While these guidelines will be periodically updated, new information that becomes available between updates should be taken into account. Deviations in practice from guidelines may be justifiable and such deviations should not be interpreted as a basis for claims of negligence. PMID:27442772

  1. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guidelines on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Adult Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Frances; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Nagappa, Mahesh; Opperer, Mathias; Cozowicz, Crispiana; Patrawala, Sara; Lam, David; Kumar, Anjana; Joshi, Girish P; Fleetham, John; Ayas, Najib; Collop, Nancy; Doufas, Anthony G; Eikermann, Matthias; Englesakis, Marina; Gali, Bhargavi; Gay, Peter; Hernandez, Adrian V; Kaw, Roop; Kezirian, Eric J; Malhotra, Atul; Mokhlesi, Babak; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Stierer, Tracey; Wappler, Frank; Hillman, David R; Auckley, Dennis

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to present recommendations based on the available clinical evidence on the topic where possible. As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations were developed by experts in the field through consensus processes involving utilization of evidence grading to indicate the level of evidence upon which recommendations were based. This guideline may not be appropriate for all clinical situations and all patients. The decision whether to follow these recommendations must be made by a responsible physician on an individual basis. Protocols should be developed by individual institutions taking into account the patients' conditions, extent of interventions and available resources. This practice guideline is not intended to define standards of care or represent absolute requirements for patient care. The adherence to these guidelines cannot in any way guarantee successful outcomes and is rather meant to help individuals and institutions formulate plans to better deal with the challenges posed by perioperative patients with OSA. These recommendations reflect the current state of knowledge and its interpretation by a group of experts in the field at the time of publication. While these guidelines will be periodically updated, new information that becomes available between updates should be taken into account. Deviations in practice from guidelines may be justifiable and such deviations should not be interpreted as a basis for claims of negligence. PMID:27442772

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: The Role of Upper Airway and Facial Skeletal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravi K; Afifi, Ahmed M; Sanchez, Ruston; King, Timothy W

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea represents a large burden of disease to the general population and may compromise patient quality of life; workplace and automotive safety; and metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive health. The disease is characterized by repetitive cycles of upper airway collapse resulting from a lack of pharyngeal airway structural support and loss of muscle tone among upper airway dilators. Polysomnography serves as the gold standard for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea and the apnea-hypopnea index is the most commonly used metric for quantifying disease severity. Conservative treatments include lifestyle modification, continuous positive airway pressure treatment, and dental appliance therapy. Surgical treatment options include pharyngeal and facial skeletal surgery. Maxillomandibular advancement has been shown to be the most effective surgical approach for multilevel expansion of the upper airway and may significantly reduce an obstructive sleep apnea patient's apnea-hypopnea index. Patient age, obesity, and the degree of maxillary advancement may be key factors contributing to treatment success. PMID:27673521

  3. Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Capdevila, Oscar Sans; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Dayyat, Ehab; Gozal, David

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children has emerged not only as a relatively prevalent condition but also as a disease that imposes a large array of morbidities, some of which may have long-term implications, well into adulthood. The major consequences of pediatric OSA involve neurobehavioral, cardiovascular, and endocrine and metabolic systems. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA-induced end-organ injury are now being unraveled, and clearly involve oxidative and inflammatory pathways. However, the roles of individual susceptibility (as dictated by single-nucleotide polymorphisms), and of environmental and lifestyle conditions (such as diet, physical, and intellectual activity), may account for a substantial component of the variance in phenotype. Moreover, the clinical prototypic pediatric patient of the early 1990s has been insidiously replaced by a different phenotypic presentation that strikingly resembles that of adults afflicted by the disease. As such, analogous to diabetes, the terms type I and type II pediatric OSA have been proposed. The different manifestations of these two entities and their clinical course and approaches to management are reviewed. PMID:18250221

  4. Effectiveness of Ramelteon for Insomnia Symptoms in Older Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Gehrman, Philip; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Al-Shehabi, Erica; Marie, Elisabeth; Schwab, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of ramelteon, a melatonin receptor agonist, for the treatment of insomnia in older adults starting auto-titrating positive airway pressure (APAP) therapy for sleep apnea. Methods: A parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot effectiveness clinical trial. The study enrolled 21 research study participants who were ≥ 60 years old and had obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 events/h, with complaints of insomnia. The primary outcome measure was change in sleep onset latency determined from polysomnography at 4 weeks. Research study participants, all of whom were starting on APAP, were randomized to ramelteon 8 mg (n = 8) or placebo (n = 13). Results: Ramelteon treatment was associated with a statistically significant difference in sleep onset latency (SOL) as measured by polysomnography of 28.5 min (± 16.2 min) compared to placebo (95% C.I. 8.5 min to 48.6 min, effect size 1.35, p = 0.008). This was due to a 10.7 (± 17.0) min SOL reduction in the ramelteon arm and a 17.8 (± 23.5) min SOL increase in the placebo arm. No change was noted in subjective sleep onset latency (−1.3 min, ± 19.3 min, 95% C.I.: −21.4 min to 18.7 min). No statistically significant changes were noted in the AHI, sleep efficiency (polysomnography and self-report), APAP adherence, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score, or Epworth Sleepiness Scale score when comparing ramelteon vs. placebo. Four adverse events occurred in the ramelteon arm and 2 in the placebo arm; none were considered to be related to treatment. Conclusions: Ramelteon was effective in improving objective, but not subjective, sleep onset latency even in older adults who were starting APAP therapy for sleep apnea. Further research is warranted in examining the role of ramelteon in the care of older adults with insomnia symptoms and sleep apnea. Citation: Gooneratne NS; Gehrman P; Gurubhagavatula I; Al-Shehabi E

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    White, David P; Younes, Magdy K

    2012-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Control of pharyngeal patency is a complex process relating primarily to basic anatomy and the activity of many pharyngeal dilator muscles. The control of these muscles is regulated by a number of processes including respiratory drive, negative pressure reflexes, and state (sleep) effects. In general, patients with OSA have an anatomically small airway the patency of which is maintained during wakefulness by reflex-driven augmented dilator muscle activation. At sleep onset, muscle activity falls, thereby compromising the upper airway. However, recent data suggest that the mechanism of OSA differs substantially among patients, with variable contributions from several physiologic characteristics including, among others: level of upper airway dilator muscle activation required to open the airway, increase in chemical drive required to recruit the pharyngeal muscles, chemical control loop gain, and arousal threshold. Thus, the cause of sleep apnea likely varies substantially between patients. Other physiologic mechanisms likely contributing to OSA pathogenesis include falling lung volume during sleep, shifts in blood volume from peripheral tissues to the neck, and airway edema. Apnea severity may progress over time, likely due to weight gain, muscle/nerve injury, aging effects on airway anatomy/collapsibility, and changes in ventilatory control stability.

  6. The Association Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseini, Meimanat; Mohtashami, Jamileh; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Zagheri Tafreshi, Mansoureh; Ghanei Gheshlagh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is the most frequent psychiatric disorder among the elderly. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic and prevalent disease that has an ambiguous role in triggering depression. Several researches with contradictory findings have been performed about the association between OSA and depression. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the association between OSA and depression among elderly. Patients and Methods A total of 350 home residing elderly took part in this case-control study. The participants were selected using clustering method. All cases were divided into two groups of depressed and non-depressed using the geriatric depression scale (GDS). Then they were matched in age, gender, education and body mass index (BMI). Berlin questionnaire (BQ) was used to diagnose OSA. Data analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test, t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and odds ratio. Results Totally, 60.6 % of depressed group and 18.9 % of non-depressed group were in high risk for OSA. A significant association was found between OSA and depression (P < 0.001, OR = 6.61, CI 95 % = 4.1 - 10.7). In addition, a significant association was found between gender and OSA (P = 0.008). Conclusions OSA was associated with depression among the elderly patients. Given the high prevalence of OSA in older adults, implementation of screening methods is necessary to identify people at high risk of OSA. PMID:27579333

  7. Metabolic complications of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Qanta A

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a widely prevalent disorder, hallmarked by partial or total upper airway obstruction during sleep. These events fracture sleep integrity resulting in chronic partial sleep deprivation with destructive metabolic sequelae, the focus of this review.

  8. [Obstructive sleep apnea in women].

    PubMed

    Turányi, Csilla Zita; Pintér, Nóra; Dunai, Andrea; Novák, Márta

    2014-12-28

    The prevalence of sleep disturbances and their symptomatic manifestations may be different in men and women. Women with obstructive sleep apnea are less likely to be diagnosed with sleep apnea compared to men, probably due to atypical symptoms such as morning headaches, symptoms of depression and daytime fatigue. There is a great importance of diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders regarding quality of life, co-morbidity and mortality in both genders.

  9. Italian recommendations on dental support in the treatment of adult obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Sacchi, Franco; Milano, Francesca; Polimeni, Antonella; Cozza, Paolo; Bernkopf, Edoardo; Segù, Marzia; Zucconi, Marco; Vicini, Claudio; Brunello, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of the present article is to present a set of proposed clinical recommendations aimed at Italian dentists involved in the management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or snoring. Methods With the purpose of creating a study group, some of the most important Italian scientific societies operating in fields relevant to the issue of sleep medicine in dentistry were asked to appoint a representative. Each member of the study group was required to answer questions regarding the clinical management of OSAS and snoring. Results Oral appliances can be used to treat: - simple snoring, in patients who do not respond to, or do not appear to be suitable candidates for behavioral measures such as weight loss or positional therapy; - mild or moderate OSAS, in patients who prefer OAs to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or who are not suitable candidates for CPAP, because of its failure or failure of behavioral approaches like weight loss or positional therapy; - severe OSAS, in patients who do not respond to or do not tolerate CPAP and in whom no indication for either maxillofacial or ENT surgery appears applicable. Conclusions The application of oral appliances is highly desirable in cases of simple snoring or mild to moderate OSAS, whereas considerable caution is warranted when treating severe OSAS. It is fundamental to ensure that the patient understands his problem and, at the same time, to present all the various treatment options. PMID:26941893

  10. Serum Vitamin D Is Significantly Inversely Associated with Disease Severity in Caucasian Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kerley, Conor P.; Hutchinson, Katrina; Bolger, Kenneth; McGowan, Aisling; Faul, John; Cormican, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and possible relationships to OSAS severity, sleepiness, lung function, nocturnal heart rate (HR), and body composition. We also aimed to compare the 25(OH)D status of a subset of OSAS patients compared to controls matched for important determinants of both OSAS and vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an urban, clinical sleep medicine outpatient center. We recruited newly diagnosed, Caucasian adults who had recently undergone nocturnal polysomnography. We compared body mass index (BMI), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), neck circumference, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), lung function, and vitamin D status (serum 25-hydrpoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) across OSAS severity categories and non-OSAS subjects. Next, using a case-control design, we compared measures of serum 25(OH)D from OSAS cases to non-OSAS controls who were matched for age, gender, skin pigmentation, sleepiness, season, and BMI. Results: 106 adults (77 male; median age = 54.5; median BMI = 34.3 kg/m2) resident in Dublin, Ireland (latitude 53°N) were recruited and categorized as non-OSAS or mild/moderate/severe OSAS. 98% of OSAS cases had insufficient 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L), including 72% with VDD (< 50 nmol/L). 25(OH)D levels decreased with OSAS severity (P = 0.003). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with BMI, percent body fat, AHI, and nocturnal HR. Subsequent multivariate regression analysis revealed that 25(OH)D was independently associated with both AHI (P = 0.016) and nocturnal HR (P = 0.0419). Our separate case-control study revealed that 25(OH)D was significantly lower in OSAS cases than matched, non-OSAS subjects (P = 0.001). Conclusions: We observed widespread vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in a Caucasian, OSAS population. There were significant, independent, inverse relationships between 25(OH)D and AHI as well as

  11. [Role of ENT surgery in the assessment and treatment of snoring and of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in adults and children].

    PubMed

    Vavrina, J; Gammert, C

    1995-04-25

    The otolaryngologist is increasingly involved in the evaluation and management of sleep-related respiratory disorders. Main symptoms of intermittent obstruction in adults and children are snoring and stridulous breathing. Important factors causing pharyngeal obstruction are functional and structural narrowings in the upper airways leading to increased upstream resistance. The ENT's examination has two principal aims: 1. habitual snoring must be separated from an obstructive sleep-apnea syndrome (OSAS), as the later is associated with cardiovascular diseases and an increased mortality; 2. a functional or structural cause of the obstruction must be sought. Flexible nasopharyngoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool to determine the nature of obstruction. OSAS patients need a differentiated evaluation in a sleep laboratory, and an attempt of therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) should be undertaken in most of these cases. Today the otolaryngologist is equipped with a whole range of conservative and surgical therapeutic possibilities. The introduction of compact lasers as well as the endoscopic/microscopic endonasal surgery have revolutionized surgical treatment in patients with habitual snoring and OSAS. In contrast to adults, OSAS in children has still received poor attention and leads often to impaired thriving. Most frequently, hypertrophied tonsils are present, and tonsillectomy eliminates obstruction in nearly all of these cases.

  12. Prevalence and risks of habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea symptoms in adult dental patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S.; Nazir, Mohammed A.; Al-Masoud, Naif N.; Alqahtani, Nasser D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among dental patients and investigate factors associated with high-risk OSA. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between October and December 2014. A total of 200 consecutive female and male dental patients were included in this study. Subjective and objective assessments were carried out. Habitual snoring and risk of OSA were assessed using the Arabic version of the Berlin questionnaire. Two trained investigators carried out the objective measurements of anthropometric data, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and clinical examination of upper-airway, and dental occlusion. Results: Habitual snoring was present in 18.2% of the females and 81.8% of the males (p<0.05). Breathing pauses during sleep of more than once a week occurred in 9% (n=17) of the sample. Of the males, 78.3% were at high risk of OSA compared with 21.7% of the females. Multivariate analysis for risk of OSA revealed that obese patients were almost 10 times more likely to report OSA symptoms than their non-obese counterparts (odds ratio: 9.9, 95% confidence intervals: 4.4-22.1). Tongue indentations, tonsil size, and a high Epworth Sleepiness Scale score were also independent risks of OSA. Conclusion: Tongue indentations and tonsil grades III and IV were significantly associated with risk of OSA. This validates the important role of dentists in the recognition of the signs and symptoms of OSA. PMID:26837402

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation estimates ... the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep apnea is generally defined as the presence ...

  14. Neurostimulation for obstructive sleep apnea: investigations.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, D W; Fairbanks, D N

    1993-01-01

    Neurostimulation of the upper airway muscles (accessory muscles of respiration) was accomplished in anesthetized dogs and sleeping humans by electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves. Such stimulations relieved partial airway obstructions in dogs. They also aborted (shortened) obstructive sleep apnea events in humans who suffer with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In one subject, stimulations delivered in advance of apneic events (by automatic cycling) prevented apneas. Neurostimulation for obstructive sleep apnea may be an important concept for future research and development.

  15. Adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome presenting to a medical clinic with depression: co-morbid obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Aidikoff, Jenna M; Taylor, Kay; Rykiel, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    Adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) sometimes experience new-onset mood disorder and decline in adaptive skills. The clinical phenomenon is poorly characterized and its pathogenesis is not understood. The possible contribution of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) to this phenomenon has not been studied. Subjects were ascertained as a convenience sample through our clinic for persons with DS and medical or mental health concerns between 2004 and 2009. When mood symptoms were present an axis I diagnosis was made using DSM-IV-R criteria. Subjects without an axis I diagnosis served as controls. The Reiss scales for children's dual diagnosis and the aberrant behavior checklist (ABC) were completed by caretakers. Twenty-eight cases meeting criteria for major depressive episode (MDE) and nine controls without psychopathology were referred for overnight polysomnography (PSG). Functional decline was reported in 19 (68%) of cases with MDE, but none of the controls. Twenty-four (86%) cases had OSAS compared with only 4 (44%) of controls. Moderate-severe OSAS was present in 15 (54%) of cases compared to only 1 (11%) of controls. Intermittent sleep-associated hypoxia and REM sleep deficits were also more frequent in cases. Across all subjects, prior tonsillectomy was not related to the presence or absence of OSAS. Our findings suggest that OSAS may be a common co-morbidity in adolescents and younger adults with DS and depression. Recognition of this association maybe critical to understanding the pathogenesis and management of mood-related disorders, and functional decline in affected individuals.

  16. Mild obstructive sleep apnea does not modulate baroreflex sensitivity in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Blomster, Henry; Laitinen, Tomi P; Hartikainen, Juha EK; Laitinen, Tiina M; Vanninen, Esko; Gylling, Helena; Sahlman, Johanna; Kokkarinen, Jouko; Randell, Jukka; Seppä, Juha; Tuomilehto, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic and progressive disease. OSA is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, the risk being more frequently encountered with severe degrees of OSA. Increased sympathetic activation and impaired cardiac autonomic control as reflected by depressed baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) are possible mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular complications of OSA. However, it is not known at what stage of OSA that changes in BRS appear. The aim of this study was to evaluate BRS in patients with mild OSA. Methods The study population consisted of 81 overweight patients with mild OSA and 46 body weight-matched non-OSA subjects. BRS, apnea-hypopnea index, body mass index, and metabolic parameters were assessed. The phenylephrine test was used to measure BRS. Results Patients in the OSA group were slightly but significantly older than the non-OSA population (50.3±9.3 years vs 45.7±11.1 years, P=0.02). Body mass index, percentage body fat, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid levels did not differ between the OSA patients and non-OSA subjects. Absolute BRS values in patients with mild OSA and non-OSA subjects (9.97±6.70 ms/mmHg vs 10.51±7.16 ms/mmHg, P=0.67) and BRS values proportional to age-related and sex-related reference values (91.4%±22.7% vs 92.2%±21.8%, P=0.84) did not differ from each other. BRS <50% of the sex-specific reference value was found in 6% of patients with mild OSA and in 2% of non-OSA subjects (P=0.29). Conclusion Patients with mild OSA did not show evidence of disturbed BRS in comparison with weight-matched non-OSA controls. PMID:26203292

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Cristina; Terse-Ramos, Regina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro A

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma. PMID:24310634

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  19. Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Due to Massive Cervical Lipohypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, Alper Mete; Ersozlu, Tolga; Basat, Salih Onur; Ceran, Fatih

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a difficult problem to deal with. Many studies on the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea were performed in the past, and we present cervical lipohypertrophy causing severe obstructive sleep apnea in this article.

  20. The role of upper airway stimulation therapy in the multidisciplinary management approach of obstructive sleep apnea in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Doghramji, Karl; Boon, Maurits

    2016-09-01

    Upper airway stimulation therapy (UAS) is a novel and effective treatment modality for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It is indicated for patients who are intolerant to traditional forms of therapy such as CPAP, and who have moderate to severe disease. Its success also relies upon the absence of certain upper airway structural and functional abnormalities. Therefore, the implementation of UAS necessitates a comprehensive evaluation with the coordinated efforts of otolaryngologist and sleep specialist, utilizing the consultative input of various other specialists. This same collaborative process also underlies the successful long-term followup care of patients following implantation surgery. Laryngoscope, 126:S9-S11, 2016. PMID:27572121

  1. Treatments for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Calik, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the efficacy of current treatment options for adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods Review of the literature. Results OSA, characterized by repetitive ≥ 10-second interruptions (apnea) or reductions (hypopnea) in airflow, is initiated by partial or complete collapse in the upper airway despite respiratory effort. When left untreated, OSA is associated with comorbid conditions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The current “gold standard” treatment for OSA is continuous positive air pressure (CPAP), which pneumatically stabilizes the upper airways. CPAP has proven efficacy and potential cost savings via decreases in health comorbidities and/or motor-vehicle crashes. However, CPAP treatment is not well-tolerated due to various side effects, and adherence among OSA subjects can be as low as 50% in certain populations. Other treatment options for OSA include improving CPAP tolerability, increasing CPAP adherence through patient interventions, weight loss/exercise, positional therapy, nasal expiratory positive airway pressure, oral pressure therapy, oral appliances, surgery, hypoglossal nerve stimulation, drug treatment, and combining 2 or more of the aforementioned treatments. Despite the many options available to treat OSA, none of them are as efficacious as CPAP. However, many of these treatments are tolerable, and adherence rates are higher than those of the CPAP, making them a more viable treatment option for long-term use. Conclusion Patients need to weigh the benefits and risks of available treatments for OSA. More large randomized controlled studies on treatments or combination of treatments for OSA are needed that measure parameters such as treatment adherence, apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation, subjective sleepiness, quality of life, and adverse events. PMID:27134515

  2. Cephalometric predictors of treatment outcome with mandibular advancement devices in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Daniela Rita; Bartolucci, Maria Lavinia; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Incerti-Parenti, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Objective The efficacy of mandibular advancement devices (MADs) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) ranges between 42% and 65%. However, it is still unclear which predictive factors can be used to select suitable patients for MAD treatment. This study aimed to systematically review the literature on the predictive value of cephalometric analysis for MAD treatment outcomes in adult OSA patients. Methods The MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched through December 2014. Reference lists from the retrieved publications were also examined. English language studies published in international peer-reviewed journals concerning the predictive value of cephalometric analysis for MAD treatment outcome were considered for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility, extracted data, and ascertained the quality of the studies. Results Fifteen eligible studies were identified. Most of the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue cephalometric measurements examined were widely recognized as not prognostic for MAD treatment outcome; however, controversial and limited data were found on the predictive role of certain cephalometric measurements including cranial base angle, mandibular plane angle, hyoid to mandibular plane distance, posterior nasal spine to soft-palate tip distance, anterior nasal spine to epiglottis base distance, and tongue/oral cross sectional area ratio thus justifying additional studies on these parameters. Conclusions Currently available evidence is inadequate for identification of cephalometric parameters capable of reliably discriminating between poor and good responders to MAD treatment. To guide further research, methodological weaknesses of the currently available studies were highlighted and possible reasons for their discordant results were analyzed. PMID:26629477

  3. Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children.

    PubMed

    Blechner, Michael; Williamson, Ariel A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has various negative health and behavioral consequences in the pediatric population. As shown in adults, there are metabolic derangements such as obesity, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiovascular derangements like hypertension, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, ventricular size/function abnormalities, and even elevated pulmonary arterial pressures, that can be seen in children with OSAS. The first two sections will discuss the metabolic and cardiovascular consequences on OSAS in children. The last section summarizes selected studies and reviews on the behavioral, neurocognitive and academic consequences of OSAS in children. PMID:26631839

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Due To Extrathoracic Tracheomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren; Nandalike, K.; Bent, J.; Arens, Raanan

    2013-01-01

    We report obstructive sleep apnea in a 3-year-old boy with tracheomalacia secondary to tracheotomy that resolved after placement of a metallic stent in the region of tracheomalacia. The tracheal location of obstruction during sleep in this case contrasts with the usual location in the pharynx or, less often, the larynx. This case also demonstrates the utility of polysomnography in managing decannulation of tracheostomies. Citation: Muzumdar H; Nandalike K; Bent J; Arens R. Obstructive sleep apnea due to extrathoracic tracheomalacia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):163–164. PMID:23372471

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Luigi; Caprioglio, Alberto; Brunetti, Luigia; Nosetti, Luana

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) was first reported in 1976 by Guilleminault. This condition has been defined as a disorder of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial/complete upper airway obstruction that disrupts normal ventilation and normal sleep patterns. The prevalence of this condition varies among the different populations but it is between 1 and 2% in preschool children when adenoid and tonsils volume has a major peak. Loud snoring is very common in these children but not always present. The diagnosis may be suggested by the facial appearance and by personal history but it must be confirmed by a polysomnography recording. OSAS has many associated morbidities which involve the cardiovascular system, the neurocognitive performance, the growth and the metabolic homeostasis. Obesity is a common associated condition and it impairs the therapeutic success. It should be considered when planning the treatment program: it should be stressed the obesity epidemic has already reached the European countries and it is now contributing to the "adult type" of OSAS which was quite rare in childhood until few years ago. The adenotonsillectomy is the most common therapeutic intervention but it is curative only in 2/3 of patients. Orthodontic approaches, associated with orofacial muscle reinforcing physiotherapy are helpful in most of these patients. To conclude we must stress that this condition is quite common and should be promptly diagnosed to prevent the multisystem morbidities; a multidisciplinary approach should be always offered to the parents of these children.

  6. The Relationship Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Self-Reported Stroke or Coronary Heart Disease in Overweight and Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas B.; Foster, Gary D.; Sanders, Mark H.; Unruh, Mark; Reboussin, David; Kuna, Samuel T.; Millman, Richard; Zammit, Gary; Wing, Rena R.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Kelley, David; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Newman, Anne B.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are common, increasingly recognized as comorbid conditions, and individually implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to determine the association between OSA and CVD in an overweight and obese population with T2DM. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Ancillary study to the Look AHEAD trial. Participants: Three hundred five participants of the Sleep AHEAD study who underwent unattended full polysomnography at home with measurement of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Measurements and Results: Self-reported prevalent CVD was obtained at the initial assessment of the parent study and included a history of the following conditions: stroke, carotid endarterectomy, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, and percutaneous coronary intervention. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of OSA, measured continuously and categorically, with prevalent CVD. OSA was present (AHI ≥ 5) in 86% of the population, whereas the prevalence of all forms of CVD was just 14%. The AHI was associated with stroke with an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.57 (1.03, 6.42). Neither the continuously measured AHI nor the categories of OSA severity were significantly associated with the other forms of CVD assessed. Conclusions: We found suggestive evidence of a greater prevalence of stroke at greater values of the AHI. OSA was not associated with prevalent coronary heart disease in the Sleep AHEAD trial. Future studies should confirm the link between OSA and stroke and examine mechanisms that link OSA to stroke in adults with T2DM. Citation: Rice TB; Foster GD; Sanders MH; Unruh M; Reboussin D; Kuna ST; Millman R; Zammit G; Wing RR; Wadden TA; Kelley D; Pi-Sunyer X; Newman AB. The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and self-reported stroke or coronary heart disease in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  7. Cough in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kevin; Ing, Alvin; Birring, Surinder S

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) has recently been reported to be a cause of chronic cough. It should be considered when cough remains unexplained following investigations and treatments for common causes. The presence of nocturnal cough, snoring and gastro-oesophageal reflux may be helpful in identifying patients who require further investigation. Daytime somnolence is often absent. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy has been reported to be effective in alleviating cough. Therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, if present, should be optimised. The mechanism of the association between OSA and cough is not clear, but airway inflammation, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, increased cough reflex sensitivity and tracheobronchomalacia are possible explanations. Further studies should identify clinical predictors of OSA-cough, establish mechanisms and the optimal therapy.

  8. Sleep Endoscopy in the Evaluation of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Aaron C.; Koltai, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is not always resolved or improved with adenotonsillectomy. Persistent or complex cases of pediatric OSA may be due to sites of obstruction in the airway other than the tonsils and adenoids. Identifying these areas in the past has been problematic, and therefore, therapy for OSA in children who have failed adenotonsillectomy has often been unsatisfactory. Sleep endoscopy is a technique that can enable the surgeon to determine the level of obstruction in a sleeping child with OSA. With this knowledge, site-specific surgical therapy for persistent and complex pediatric OSA may be possible. PMID:22518178

  9. Practice Parameters for the Use of Autotitrating Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Devices for Titrating Pressures and Treating Adult Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: An Update for 2007

    PubMed Central

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Aurora, R. Nisha; Brown, Terry; Zak, Rochelle; Alessi, Cathy; Boehlecke, Brian; Chesson, Andrew L.; Friedman, Leah; Kapur, Vishesh; Maganti, Rama; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd J.

    2008-01-01

    These practice parameters are an update of the previously published recommendations regarding the use of autotitrating positive airway pressure (APAP) devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at an effective setting verified by attended polysomnography is a standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). APAP devices change the treatment pressure based on feedback from various patient measures such as airflow, pressure fluctuations, or measures of airway resistance. These devices may aid in the pressure titration process, address possible changes in pressure requirements throughout a given night and from night to night, aid in treatment of OSA when attended CPAP titration has not or cannot be accomplished, or improve patient comfort. A task force of the Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine has reviewed the literature published since the 2002 practice parameter on the use of APAP. Current recommendations follow: (1) APAP devices are not recommended to diagnose OSA; (2) patients with congestive heart failure, patients with significant lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; patients expected to have nocturnal arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation due to conditions other than OSA (e.g., obesity hypoventilation syndrome); patients who do not snore (either naturally or as a result of palate surgery); and patients who have central sleep apnea syndromes are not currently candidates for APAP titration or treatment; (3) APAP devices are not currently recommended for split-night titration; (4) certain APAP devices may be used during attended titration with polysomnography to identify a single pressure for use with standard CPAP for treatment of moderate to severe OSA; (5) certain APAP devices may be initiated and used in the self-adjusting mode for unattended treatment of patients with moderate to severe OSA without

  10. Does obstructive sleep apnea worsen during REM sleep?

    PubMed

    Peregrim, I; Grešová, S; Pallayová, M; Fulton, B L; Štimmelová, J; Bačová, I; Mikuľaková, A; Tomori, Z; Donič, V

    2013-01-01

    Although it is thought that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is worse during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than in non-REM (NREM) sleep there are some uncertainties, especially about apnoe-hypopnoe-index (AHI). Several studies found no significant difference in AHI between both sleep stages. However, REM sleep is associated more with side sleeping compared to NREM sleep, which suggests that body position is a possible confounding factor. The main purpose of this study was to compare the AHI in REM and NREM sleep in both supine and lateral body position. A retrospective study was performed on 422 consecutive patients who underwent an overnight polysomnography. Women had higher AHI in REM sleep than NREM sleep in both supine (46.05+/-26.26 vs. 23.91+/-30.96, P<0.01) and lateral (18.16+/-27.68 vs. 11.30+/-21.09, P<0.01) body position. Men had higher AHI in REM sleep than NREM sleep in lateral body position (28.94+/-28.44 vs. 23.58+/-27.31, P<0.01), however, they did not reach statistical significance in supine position (49.12+/-32.03 in REM sleep vs. 45.78+/-34.02 in NREM sleep, P=0.50). In conclusion, our data suggest that REM sleep is a contributing factor for OSA in women as well as in men, at least in lateral position. PMID:24020811

  11. The pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major source of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and represents an increasing burden on health care resources. Understanding underlying pathogenic mechanisms of OSA will ultimately allow for the development of rational therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review current concepts about the pathogenesis of OSA. Specifically, we consider the evidence that the upper airway plays a primary role in OSA pathogenesis and provide a framework for modelling its biomechanical properties and propensity to collapse during sleep. Anatomical and neuromuscular factors that modulate upper airway obstruction are also discussed. Finally, we consider models of periodic breathing, and elaborate generalizable mechanisms by which upper airway obstruction destabilizes respiratory patterns during sleep. In our model, upper airway obstruction triggers a mismatch between ventilatory supply and demand. In this model, trade-offs between maintaining sleep stability or ventilation can account for a full range of OSA disease severity and expression. Recurrent arousals and transient increases in airway patency may restore ventilation between periods of sleep, while alterations in neuromuscular and arousal responses to upper airway obstruction may improve sleep stability at still suboptimal levels of ventilation. PMID:26380762

  12. The pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Pham, Luu V; Schwartz, Alan R

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major source of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and represents an increasing burden on health care resources. Understanding underlying pathogenic mechanisms of OSA will ultimately allow for the development of rational therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review current concepts about the pathogenesis of OSA. Specifically, we consider the evidence that the upper airway plays a primary role in OSA pathogenesis and provide a framework for modelling its biomechanical properties and propensity to collapse during sleep. Anatomical and neuromuscular factors that modulate upper airway obstruction are also discussed. Finally, we consider models of periodic breathing, and elaborate generalizable mechanisms by which upper airway obstruction destabilizes respiratory patterns during sleep. In our model, upper airway obstruction triggers a mismatch between ventilatory supply and demand. In this model, trade-offs between maintaining sleep stability or ventilation can account for a full range of OSA disease severity and expression. Recurrent arousals and transient increases in airway patency may restore ventilation between periods of sleep, while alterations in neuromuscular and arousal responses to upper airway obstruction may improve sleep stability at still suboptimal levels of ventilation. PMID:26380762

  13. Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    effective, are oral appliances cost effective? Literature Search A literature search was conducted up to February 2009. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 adults with OSA were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes of interest were the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), measures of daytime sleepiness, patient preference, compliance, and adverse events. Summary of Findings Five systematic reviews and 16 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. The systematic reviews consistently concluded that CPAP was more effective than oral appliances at improving sleep disordered breathing, although there may be a niche area for the latter, especially among those with mild OSA as CPAP is difficult to tolerate by some users. Based on the results of the RCTs analyzed for this review, MAS devices are less effective than CPAP when AHI is used as the outcome of interest. MAS devices were shown to decrease AHI levels, but whether this reduction is clinically meaningful is uncertain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was not able to achieve statistical significance in comparisons of MAS versus CPAP and MAS versus placebo. Nonetheless, after treatment with either MAS or CPAP, patients seem to be able to achieve normal ESS levels. The ESS has substantial limitations including its subjective nature and low construct validity (i.e. it is unclear if the scale is an accurate measure of sleepiness). Adverse events among patients with MAS devices in the RCTs were common, but mostly mild and transient. Jaw discomfort was the most commonly reported adverse event. Based on the results of the RCTs, compliance does not seem to be better or worse with MAS or CPAP. Similarly, there is no clear patient preference for MAS or CPAP among the studies reporting preference and satisfaction. Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea, oral appliances, mandibular advancement splints, tongue repositioning devices PMID:23074535

  14. The Effect of Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Weight on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Overweight Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Reboussin, David M.; Foster, Gary D.; Rice, Thomas B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Jakicic, John M.; Millman, Richard P.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Newman, Anne B.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Zammit, Gary; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the effect of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity prior to and following adjustment for changes in weight over the course of a 4-y weight loss intervention. Methods: As secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial, 263 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes and OSA participated in an intensive lifestyle intervention or education control condition. Measures of OSA severity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body weight were obtained at baseline, year 1, and year 4. Change in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) served as the primary outcome. The percentage change in fitness (submaximal metabolic equivalents [METs]) and change in weight (kg) were the primary independent variables. Primary analyses collapsed intervention conditions with statistical adjustment for treatment group and baseline METs, weight, and AHI among other relevant covariates. Results: At baseline, greater METs were associated with lower AHI (B [SE] = −1.48 [0.71], P = 0.038), but this relationship no longer existed (B [SE] = −0.24 [0.73], P = 0.75) after adjustment for weight (B [SE] = 0.31 [0.07], P < 0.0001). Fitness significantly increased at year 1 (+16.53 ± 28.71% relative to baseline), but returned to near-baseline levels by year 4 (+1.81 ± 24.48%). In mixed-model analyses of AHI change over time without consideration of weight change, increased fitness at year 1 (B [SE] = −0.15 [0.04], P < 0.0001), but not at year 4 (B [SE] = 0.04 [0.05], P = 0.48), was associated with AHI reduction. However, with weight change in the model, greater weight loss was associated with AHI reduction at years 1 and 4 (B [SE] = 0.81 [0.16] and 0.60 [0.16], both P < 0.0001), rendering the association between fitness and AHI change at year 1 nonsignificant (B [SE] = −0.04 [0.04], P = 0.31). Conclusions: Among overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes, fitness change did not influence OSA severity change when weight change was

  15. Comparative evaluation of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in Indian adult patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Abhishek; Upadhyay, Snehal; Mathur, Somil; Kant, Surya; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Makwana, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to compare the craniofacial features of North Indian patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to that of normal North Indian population. Materials and Methods: Selected 25 North Indian subjects (age: 18–65 years) were divided into two groups (OSA group [n = 14] and non-OSA group [n = 9]) according to the results of full night polysomnographic sleep study. Body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), and lateral cephalograms were recorded for each subject in both groups and total 22 parameters of craniofacial anthropometric features were measured on lateral cephalograms for each subject. The differences in BMI, NC, and craniofacial features between the OSA and non-OSA groups were compared statistically. Results: Independent sample t-test was used to compare the differences between OSA group and non-OSA group. The results showed that the BMI, NC, bulk of tongue (tongue length, tongue height, and tongue area) and length of the soft palate (PNS-U) were significantly higher in OSA group. OSA group was also found to have inferior positioning of hyoid bone (MP-H, ANS-H, PNS-H, ANS-Eb), narrower superior and middle airway space (SPAS and MAS), antero-inferior positioning of mandible (Gn-C3, ANS-Me, SNB, N-Me) and lower cranial base flexure angle (N-S-Ba). Conclusion: Craniofacial features, which play an important role in the pathophysiology of OSA, differ significantly between North Indian patients suffering from OSA and normal North Indian population. PMID:26929536

  16. Serum sex hormone levels in different severity of male adult obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Qi; Chen, Xiong; Xiao, Ying; Zhang, Rui; Niu, Xun; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a serious health issue, which can impact the hormone secretion. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between serum sex hormone concentrations and different severity degree of OSAHS, and to evaluate the influence of OSAHS on sex hormone levels. We enrolled 116 subjects who were subjected to polysomnography (PSG). They were divided into three groups: control group (n=10) [apnea hypopnea index (AHI) <5/h], mild-moderate OSAHS group (n=15) (5≤AHI<30/h), and severe OSAHS group (n=91) (AHI≥30/h). The patients in OSAHS group were subdivided into obesity and non-obesity subgroups. The parameters such as AHI, body mass index (BMI), lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2), and mean oxygen saturation (MSaO2) were recorded. Serum levels of testosterone, polactin, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined in the morning immediately after waking up. Mean levels of hormones were compared among groups. The correlation between hormone levels and sleep-breathing parameters was analyzed. No significant differences in serum sex hormone levels were found among control, mild-moderate OSAHS, and severe OSAHS groups (P>0.05). There was no correlation between AHI and sex hormone levels (P>0.05). Testosterone was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (P<0.05). These results suggested that BMI might have a direct effect on testosterone level, and it might be an important factor affecting testosterone level in male OSAHS patients, and there may be no correlation between severity of OSAHS and sex hormones levels. PMID:26223926

  17. Clinical Considerations of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Little REM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Dae Lim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more severe during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than during non-REM sleep. We aimed to determine the features of patients with OSA who experience little REM sleep. Methods Patients with a chief complaint of sleep-disordered breathing were enrolled. All subjects underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) and completed questionnaires on sleep quality. Patients were divided into the following three groups according to the proportion of REM sleep detected in overnight PSG: little REM sleep [REM sleep <20% of total sleep time (TST)], normal REM sleep (20–25% of TST), and excessive REM sleep (>25% of TST). Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. The success rate of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration was estimated in these groups. Results The age and body mass index of the patients were 47.9±15.9 years (mean±SD) and 25.2±4.1 kg/m2, respectively. The 902 patients comprised 684 (76%) men and 218 (24%) women. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in the little-REM-sleep group was 22.1±24.4 events/hour, which was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed that a higher AHI (p<0.001; odds ratio, 1.512; 95% confidence interval, 1.020–1.812) was independently predictive of little REM sleep. The titration success rate was lower in the little-REM-sleep group than in the normal-REM-sleep group (p=0.038). Conclusions The AHI is higher and the success rate of CPAP titration is lower in OSA patients with little REM sleep than those with normal REM sleep.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea. Clinical and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Paiva, T; Vasconcelos, P; Leitão, A N; Andrea, M

    1994-12-01

    Our study included 42 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) confirmed by polysomnography. In these patients we investigated the clinical manifestations, the results of the laboratory examinations, including polysomnography, ORL observations and tests of pulmonary function, as well as the therapeutic results. Our patients presented a serious set of symptoms which included excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, obesity, craniofacial abnormalities, systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, incapacity to work with precocious retirement, marital conflicts and high incidence of accidents, namely traffic accidents. An adequate treatment, mostly with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), induced marked relief of the symptoms; some patients had an advantage in surgical treatment and weight reduction. OSAS is a frequent entity, affecting mostly male adults after the 5th decade. The lack of knowledge about this entity and the common social acceptance of some of its cardinal symptoms induces considerable delays in its diagnosis. The severity of the symptoms, the personal and social risks of excessive daytime sleepiness, the cardiocirculatory effects and the risk of sudden death during sleep justify an early diagnosis in order to prevent the severe evolution of the disease. Its complex physiopathology and multiple etiological factors justify a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:7653280

  19. Obstructive sleep apnoea in adults: a common chronic condition in need of a comprehensive chronic condition management approach.

    PubMed

    Heatley, Emer M; Harris, Melanie; Battersby, Malcolm; McEvoy, R Doug; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; Antic, Nicholas A

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder that has all the characteristics of a chronic condition. As with other chronic conditions, OSA requires ongoing management of treatments and problems, such as residual symptoms, deficits and co-morbidities. Also, many OSA patients have modifiable lifestyle factors that contribute to their disease, which could be improved with intervention. As health systems are in the process of developing more comprehensive chronic care structures and supports, tools such as chronic condition management programs are available to enable OSA patients and their health care providers to further engage and collaborate in health management. This review explains why the OSA patient group requires a more comprehensive approach to disease management, describes the chronic care model as a platform for management of chronic conditions, and assesses the suitability of particular chronic disease management programs in relation to the needs of the OSA population. Implementation of an evidence-based health-professional-led chronic condition management program into OSA patient care is likely to provide a context in which health risks are properly acknowledged and addressed. Such programs present an important opportunity to enable more optimal health outcomes than is possible by device-focused management alone.

  20. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children is a frequent disease for which optimal diagnostic methods are still being defined. Treatment of OSA in children should include providing space, improving craniofacial growth, resolving all symptoms, and preventing the development of the disease in the adult years. Adenotonsillectomy (T&A) has been the treatment of choice and thought to solve young patient's OSA problem, which is not the case for most adults. Recent reports showed success rates that vary from 27.2% to 82.9%. Children snoring regularly generally have a narrow maxilla compared to children who do not snore. The impairment of nasal breathing with increased nasal resistance has a well-documented negative impact on early childhood maxilla-mandibular development, making the upper airway smaller and might lead to adult OSA. Surgery in young children should be performed as early as possible to prevent the resulting morphologic changes and neurobehavioral, cardiovascular, endocrine, and metabolic complications. Close postoperative follow-up to monitor for residual disease is equally important. As the proportion of obese children has been increasing recently, parents should be informed about the weight gain after T&A. Multidisciplinary evaluation of the anatomic abnormalities in children with OSA leads to better overall treatment outcome. PMID:21189957

  1. Health Promotion in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which is commonly underdiagnosed, has a high occurrence in the world population. Health education concerning sleep disorders and OSAS should be implemented. Objectives The objective was to identify studies related to preventive actions on sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS. Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted using Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus by combining the following keywords: “Health Promotion,” “Sleep Disorders,” “Primary Prevention,” “Health Education,” and “Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes.” Initially, 1,055 papers, from 1968 to 2013, were located, with the majority from the Scopus database. The inclusion criteria were applied, and four articles published between 2006 and 2012 were included in the present study. Conclusions The studies on preventive actions in sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS, involved the general population and professionals and students in the health field and led to increased knowledge on sleep disorders and more appropriate practices. PMID:25992174

  2. [Obstructive sleep apnea features and occupational fitness of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Buniatyan, M S; Belozerova, N V; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The article covers prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, its role in health disorders of workers engaged into railway safety. The authors analyzed present standards of occupational fitness in workers performing critically important operating activities and methods of occupational selection with possible obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. I stage recommendations are suggested in diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in workers engaged into railway safety. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome appeared to threaten operators' activity, to cause accidents, to early disablement due to life-threatening complications, to unsuitability for the occupation due to diseases connected with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac rhythm and conductivity disorders, obesity). PMID:27396145

  3. [Obstructive sleep apnea features and occupational fitness of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Buniatyan, M S; Belozerova, N V; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The article covers prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, its role in health disorders of workers engaged into railway safety. The authors analyzed present standards of occupational fitness in workers performing critically important operating activities and methods of occupational selection with possible obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. I stage recommendations are suggested in diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in workers engaged into railway safety. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome appeared to threaten operators' activity, to cause accidents, to early disablement due to life-threatening complications, to unsuitability for the occupation due to diseases connected with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac rhythm and conductivity disorders, obesity).

  4. Severe upper airway obstruction during sleep.

    PubMed

    Bonekat, H William; Hardin, Kimberly A

    2003-10-01

    Few disorders may manifest with predominantly sleep-related obstructive breathing. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, varies in severity and is associated with significant cardiovascular and neurocognitive morbidity. It is estimated that between 8 and 18 million people in the United States have at least mild OSA. Although the exact mechanism of OSA is not well-delineated, multiple factors contribute to the development of upper airway obstruction and include anatomic, mechanical, neurologic, and inflammatory changes in the pharynx. OSA may occur concomitantly with asthma. Approximately 74% of asthmatics experience nocturnal symptoms of airflow obstruction secondary to reactive airways disease. Similar cytokine, chemokine, and histologic changes are seen in both disorders. Sleep deprivation, chronic upper airway edema, and inflammation associated with OSA may further exacerbate nocturnal asthma symptoms. Allergic rhinitis may contribute to both OSA and asthma. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment for OSA. Treatment with CPAP therapy has also been shown to improve both daytime and nighttime peak expiratory flow rates in patients with concomitant OSA and asthma. It is important for allergists to be aware of how OSA may complicate diagnosis and treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. A thorough sleep history and high clinical suspicion for OSA is indicated, particularly in asthma patients who are refractory to standard medication treatments.

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Inell C

    2011-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common problem that plays a role in a number of other chronic health concerns including hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, and gastroesophageal reflux disease to name a few. In this article, we discuss the relationship between OSA and these conditions as well as how OSA is diagnosed and treated.

  6. Pulmonary haemodynamics in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Marrone, Oreste; Bonsignore, Maria Rosaria

    2002-06-01

    In patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), pulmonary haemodynamics can show both transient perturbations during sleep and permanent alterations. During sleep, repeated fluctuations in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary wedge pressure, coincident with apnoeas, can be observed. Calculation of transmural pressure values is preferable to intravascular pressures in OSAS, due to the marked swings in intrathoracic pressure associated with obstructive apnoeas. Pulmonary artery pressure may progressively increase during sleep, particularly in close sequences of highly desaturating apnoeas. Apnoea-induced hypoxia appears as the most important determinant of this pulmonary artery pressure behaviour. Stroke volume and cardiac output during obstructive apnoeas show changes mainly related to intrathoracic pressure variations. Permanent precapillary pulmonary hypertension at rest is observed in <50% OSAS patients, and is poorly reversible after OSAS treatment. It correlates best with diurnal respiratory function parameters. However, the finding of pulmonary hypertension in some patients with near normal diurnal lung function led to suggest that sleep respiratory disorders may contribute to permanent pulmonary haemodynamic impairment in predisposed subjects. Knowledge on right ventricle hypertrophy in OSAS is inconsistent. As to right ventricle failure, it is clinically evident in subjects with associated lung disease or morbid obesity, while it may be detected instrumentally in subjects without such alterations, presumably as effect of apnoeas themselves. Besides, it appears more fully reversible after long-term OSAS treatment than pulmonary hypertension. PMID:12531120

  7. Influence of smoking on sleep and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deleanu, Oana-Claudia; Pocora, Diana; Mihălcuţă, Stefan; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Zaharie, Ana-Maria; Mihălţan, Florin Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The various ill effects that tobacco smoking has on health have been largely studied, particularly on vascular, neoplastic, and respiratory diseases. Lately, the discussion about the negative impact of cigarette smoking moved towards sleep medicine. Tobacco consumption has been associated with sleep disordered architecture, both during regular intake and after withdrawal. Its effects on sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) still remain a matter of debate. It is unclear whether smoking represents a risk factor for OSAS or whether smoking cessation has any beneficial effects on OSAS and its therapy. There seems to be a synergistic effect between smoking and OSAS, both causing an increase in cardiovascular morbidity. Future studies are needed in order to establish the strength of this association. We aim to review the literature regarding the consequences of smoking on sleep architecture and SDB, adding emphasis on OSAS clinical implications and treatment.

  8. Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children.

    PubMed

    Tsubomatsu, Chieko; Shintani, Tomoko; Abe, Ayumi; Yajima, Ryoto; Takahashi, Nozomi; Ito, Fumie; Takano, Kenichi; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is important for children pertaining to their physical and mental growth. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children has been shown to have different effects as compared to OSAS in adults, including deficits in cognition and neuropsychological functions, hyperactivity, ADHD, behavior problems, aggressive behavior, learning problems and nocturnal enuresis. Hypertrophy of the adenoids and tonsils is a major cause of OSAS in children; therefore, adenotonsillectomy may decrease the effects of OSAS pertaining to physical and mental growth. It is important to accurately diagnose and appropriately treat OSAS in children to prevent OSAS in their adulthood. PMID:27115764

  9. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia consensus statement on preoperative selection of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea scheduled for ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Girish P; Ankichetty, Saravanan P; Gan, Tong J; Chung, Frances

    2012-11-01

    The suitability of ambulatory surgery for a patient with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains controversial because of concerns of increased perioperative complications including postdischarge death. Therefore, a Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia task force on practice guidelines developed a consensus statement for the selection of patients with OSA scheduled for ambulatory surgery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Although the studies evaluating perioperative outcome in OSA patients undergoing ambulatory surgery are sparse and of limited quality, they do provide useful information that can guide clinical practice. Patients with a known diagnosis of OSA and optimized comorbid medical conditions can be considered for ambulatory surgery, if they are able to use a continuous positive airway pressure device in the postoperative period. Patients with a presumed diagnosis of OSA, based on screening tools such as the STOP-Bang questionnaire, and with optimized comorbid conditions, can be considered for ambulatory surgery, if postoperative pain can be managed predominantly with nonopioid analgesic techniques. On the other hand, OSA patients with nonoptimized comorbid medical conditions may not be good candidates for ambulatory surgery. What other guidelines are available on this topic? The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) practice guidelines for management of surgical patients with OSA published in 2006. Why was this guideline developed? The ASA guidelines are outdated because several recent studies provide new information such as validated screening tools for clinical diagnosis of OSA and safety of ambulatory laparoscopic bariatric surgery in OSA patients. Therefore, an update on the selection of patients with OSA undergoing ambulatory surgery is warranted. How does this guideline differ from existing guidelines? Unlike the ASA guidelines, this

  10. New frontiers in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Ayas, Najib T; Hirsch, Allen A J; Laher, Ismail; Bradley, T Douglas; Malhotra, Atul; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Tasali, Esra

    2014-08-01

    OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea), the most common respiratory disorder of sleep, is caused by the loss of upper airway dilating muscle activity during sleep superimposed on a narrow upper airway. This results in recurrent nocturnal asphyxia. Termination of these events usually requires arousal from sleep and results in sleep fragmentation and hypoxaemia, which leads to poor quality sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, reduced quality of life and numerous other serious health consequences. Furthermore, patients with untreated sleep apnoea are at an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Although there are many predisposing risk factors for OSA, including male gender, endocrine disorders, use of muscle relaxants, smoking, fluid retention and increased age, the strongest risk factor is obesity. The aim of the present review is to focus on three cutting-edge topics with respect to OSA. The section on animal models covers various strategies used to simulate the physiology or the effects of OSA in animals, and how these have helped to understand some of the underlying mechanisms of OSA. The section on diabetes discusses current evidence in both humans and animal models demonstrating that intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation has a negative impact on glucose tolerance. Finally, the section on cardiovascular biomarkers reviews the evidence supporting the use of these biomarkers to both measure some of the negative consequences of OSA, as well as the potential benefits of OSA therapies. PMID:24780001

  11. Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Mwenge, Gimbada B; Rombaux, Philippe; Lengele, Benoit; Rodenstein, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very frequent affliction that affects about 1-5% of the adult population in its severe form. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most commonly used treatment and is highly effective, but its use is limited by low long-term adherence rates and overall poor acceptance among the patients. Therefore, there is a need for developing alternative approaches to OSA treatment, including a more 'natural' concept of maintaining an open airway through neuromodulation. Here we review the concept, scientific rationale, and technical details of hypoglossal nerve stimulation. We also review results of published clinical studies with several hypoglossal stimulation devices that are being investigated today. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation appears to be a very promising treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. If its efficacy is confirmed, it will probably be complementary with CPAP therapy and initially aimed at patients unable or unwilling to use CPAP. Once it becomes a standard therapy, its advantages might prove sufficient to challenge CPAP as the first-line therapy.

  12. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at Altitude.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konrad E; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Bloch, Konrad E., Tsogyal D. Latshang, and Silvia Ulrich. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea at altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:110-116, 2015.--Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the general population, in particular in men and women of older age. In OSA patients sleeping near sea level, the apneas/hypopneas associated with intermittent hypoxemia are predominantly due to upper airway collapse. When OSA patients stay at altitudes above 1600 m, corresponding to that of many tourist destinations, hypobaric hypoxia promotes frequent central apneas in addition to obstructive events, resulting in combined intermittent and sustained hypoxia. This induces strong sympathetic activation with elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, and systemic hypertension. There are concerns that these changes expose susceptible OSA patients, in particular those with advanced age and co-morbidities, to an excessive risk of cardiovascular and other adverse events during a stay at altitude. Based on data from randomized trials, it seems advisable for OSA patients to use continuous positive airway pressure treatment with computer controlled mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in combination with acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn. If CPAP therapy is not feasible, acetazolamide alone is better than no treatment at all, as it improves oxygenation and sleep apnea and prevents excessive blood pressure rises of OSA patients at altitude.

  13. Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at Altitude.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konrad E; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Ulrich, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Bloch, Konrad E., Tsogyal D. Latshang, and Silvia Ulrich. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea at altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:110-116, 2015.--Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the general population, in particular in men and women of older age. In OSA patients sleeping near sea level, the apneas/hypopneas associated with intermittent hypoxemia are predominantly due to upper airway collapse. When OSA patients stay at altitudes above 1600 m, corresponding to that of many tourist destinations, hypobaric hypoxia promotes frequent central apneas in addition to obstructive events, resulting in combined intermittent and sustained hypoxia. This induces strong sympathetic activation with elevated heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, and systemic hypertension. There are concerns that these changes expose susceptible OSA patients, in particular those with advanced age and co-morbidities, to an excessive risk of cardiovascular and other adverse events during a stay at altitude. Based on data from randomized trials, it seems advisable for OSA patients to use continuous positive airway pressure treatment with computer controlled mask pressure adjustment (autoCPAP) in combination with acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn. If CPAP therapy is not feasible, acetazolamide alone is better than no treatment at all, as it improves oxygenation and sleep apnea and prevents excessive blood pressure rises of OSA patients at altitude. PMID:25973669

  14. Cardiopulmonary consequences of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Caples, Sean M; Kara, Tomas; Somers, Virend K

    2005-02-01

    Ongoing research in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) suggests strong associations with cardiopulmonary disorders. There is an abundance of studies describing physiological pathways in OSA that acutely impact the cardiovascular system. These mechanisms, if proven to carry over into the daytime hours, could form the basis for clinical disease. The challenge remains in disentangling these mechanistic processes from the many comorbid conditions often present in patients with OSA. Examples include male gender, obesity, and diabetes mellitus, all of which exert their own influence on the development of cardiopulmonary disease. This review discusses some of the physiological mechanisms associated with disordered breathing during sleep and explores putative cardiopulmonary disease associations.

  15. Endothelial function in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Atkeson, Amy; Yeh, Susie Yim; Malhotra, Atul; Jelic, Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The repetitive hypoxia/reoxygenation and sleep fragmentation associated with OSA impair endothelial function. Endothelial dysfunction, in turn, may mediate increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, in OSA, endothelial nitric oxide availability and repair capacity are reduced, whereas oxidative stress and inflammation are enhanced. Treatment of OSA improves endothelial vasomotor tone and reduces inflammation. We review the evidence and possible mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction as well as the effect of treatment on endothelial function in OSA.

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep-related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Teresa; Attarian, Hrayr

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of breathing cessation due to complete or partial collapse of the upper airway therefore affecting ventilation. It is quite common, with a prevalence of about 2-4%, has a strong genetic component, and creates a proinflammatory state with elevated TNFα and other cytokines. If untreated, OSA can lead to significant neurological problems that include stroke, cognitive decline, depression, headaches, peripheral neuropathy, and nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Treatment reverses some of these neurological problems. Treatment includes continuous positive airway pressure and its variants, oral appliances, weight loss, upper airway surgery, and rarely maxillofacial procedures. Other sleep breathing disorders such as hypoventilation, central sleep apnea, complex sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration are less common and are sometimes associated with neuromuscular disorders causing diaphragmatic paralysis, but can also be seen in opiate exposure and severe obesity.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep-related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Teresa; Attarian, Hrayr

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of breathing cessation due to complete or partial collapse of the upper airway therefore affecting ventilation. It is quite common, with a prevalence of about 2-4%, has a strong genetic component, and creates a proinflammatory state with elevated TNFα and other cytokines. If untreated, OSA can lead to significant neurological problems that include stroke, cognitive decline, depression, headaches, peripheral neuropathy, and nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Treatment reverses some of these neurological problems. Treatment includes continuous positive airway pressure and its variants, oral appliances, weight loss, upper airway surgery, and rarely maxillofacial procedures. Other sleep breathing disorders such as hypoventilation, central sleep apnea, complex sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration are less common and are sometimes associated with neuromuscular disorders causing diaphragmatic paralysis, but can also be seen in opiate exposure and severe obesity. PMID:24365301

  18. The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    AlGhanim, Nayef; Comondore, Vikram R; Fleetham, John; Marra, Carlo A; Ayas, Najib T

    2008-01-01

    Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases healthcare utilization and is associated with reduced work performance and occupational injuries. The economic burden related to untreated OSA is substantial, accounting for billions of dollars per year. Furthermore, therapy of OSA is an extremely cost-efficient use of healthcare resources, comparing highly favorably with other commonly funded medical therapies. Governments, transportation agencies, industry, and insurance companies need to be better informed concerning the economic impact of untreated OSA and the benefits of therapy.

  19. Nasal Involvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Daniel de Sousa; Rodrigues, Amanda da Mota Silveira; Nakanishi, Márcio; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected. PMID:25548569

  20. Relationship of symptoms with sleep-stage abnormalities in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Basunia, Md; Fahmy, Samir A.; Schmidt, Frances; Agu, Chidozie; Bhattarai, Bikash; Oke, Vikram; Enriquez, Danilo; Quist, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) present with a variety of sleep-related symptoms. In polysomnography, sleep architecture is almost always abnormal, but it is not known which of the sleep-stage abnormalities are related to symptoms. Finding key sleep-stage abnormality that cause symptoms may be of therapeutic importance to alleviate symptoms. So far the mainstay of treatment is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP) therapy, but many patients are non-compliant to it. Correcting the sleep-stage abnormality that cause symptoms by pharmacotherapy may become an important adjunct to CPAP/BIPAP therapy. Methods A cross-sectional study. Adult subjects who attended a sleep laboratory for diagnostic polysomnography for a period of 1 month were recruited consecutively. OSAHS was diagnosed using American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Subjects filled a questionnaire for symptoms prior to polysomnography. Results Thirty subjects, of whom 83.3% were obese, met diagnostic criteria, with males constituting 46.7% and females constituting 53%. Mean age was 53.40±11.60 years. Sleep architecture comprised N1 19.50±19.00%, N2 53.93±13.39%, N3 3.90±19.50%, and rapid eye movement 8.92±6.21%. Excessive fatigue or sleepiness, waking up tired, falling asleep during the day, trouble paying attention, snoring and insomnia were significantly related to decreased N3 sleep. Conclusions Most of the symptoms in OSAHS in adults are related to decreased stage N3 sleep. If confirmed by larger controlled studies, correcting N3 sleep deficiency by pharmacotherapy may become an important adjunct to CPAP/BIPAP therapy to alleviate symptoms. PMID:27609729

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea: awakening the hidden truth.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, A; Ramamurthy, J; Dinesh, S P S; Srinivas, A

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common type of sleep apnea and is caused by obstruction of upper airway. Sleep apnea is clinically defined as frequent episodes of apnea, hypopnea and symptoms of functional impairment, which could be life-threatening and associated with extreme daytime hyper somnolence, dysfunction, discrements in health-related quality of life, automobile accidents, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Etiopathogenic factors that contribute to OSA include reduced upper-airway dilator muscle activity during sleep, upper-airway anatomical features, ventilatory control insufficiency, lung volume, and rostral fluid shifts. The presence of risk factors such as age, gender and obesity increases the incidence of OSA. The repetitive nocturnal hypoxemia experienced by patients with OSA is associated with activation of a number of neural, humoral, thrombotic, metabolic, and inflammatory disease mechanisms, all of which have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of various systemic diseases. This article summarizes the etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, associated systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and dental diseases with OSA and the influence of tongue on oropharyngeal airway in OSA patients.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akre, Harriet; Øverland, Britt; Åsten, Pamela; Skogedal, Nina; Heimdal, Ketil

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) among the Norwegian population with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). A secondary aim was to establish whether TCS phenotype severity is associated with OSAS severity. A prospective case study design was used. Individuals who were 5 years old and above with a known diagnosis of TCS in Norway were invited to participate in a study. The study included genetic testing, medical and dental examinations and polysomnography. All participants demonstrated disturbed respiration during sleep; 18/19 met the diagnostic criteria for OSAS. Subjectively evaluated snoring was not a reliable predictor of OSAS. We found no significant association between TCS phenotype severity and the severity of OSAS. OSAS is common in TCS, but there is no association with the phenotype severity. Individuals diagnosed with TCS must undergo sleep studies to identify the presence of OSAS.

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Debaun, Michael R.; Strunk, Robert C.; Redline, Susan; Seicean, Sinziana; Craven, Daniel I.; Gavlak, Johanna C.D.; Wilkey, Olu; Inusa, Baba; Roberts, Irene; Goodpaster, R. Lucas; Malow, Beth; Rodeghier, Mark; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). METHODS: Cross-sectional baseline data were analyzed from the Sleep and Asthma Cohort Study, a multicenter prospective study designed to evaluate the contribution of sleep and breathing abnormalities to SCA-related morbidity in children ages 4 to 18 years, unselected for OSAS symptoms or asthma. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the relationships between OSAS status on the basis of overnight in-laboratory polysomnography and putative risk factors obtained from questionnaires and direct measurements. RESULTS: Participants included 243 children with a median age of 10 years; 50% were boys, 99% were of African heritage, and 95% were homozygous for βS hemoglobin. OSAS, defined by obstructive apnea hypopnea indices, was present in 100 (41%) or 25 (10%) children at cutpoints of ≥1 or ≥5, respectively. In univariate analyses, OSAS was associated with higher levels of habitual snoring, lower waking pulse oxygen saturation (Spo2), reduced lung function, less caretaker education, and non–preterm birth. Lower sleep-related Spo2 metrics were also associated with higher obstructive apnea hypopnea indices. In multivariable analyses, habitual snoring and lower waking Spo2 remained risk factors for OSAS in children with SCA. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of OSAS in children with SCA is higher than in the general pediatric population. Habitual snoring and lower waking Spo2 values, data easily obtained in routine care, were the strongest OSAS risk factors. Because OSAS is a treatable condition with adverse health outcomes, greater efforts are needed to screen, diagnose, and treat OSAS in this high-risk, vulnerable population. PMID:25022740

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea: a palatable treatment option?

    PubMed

    Allison, C

    2007-01-01

    (1) The Pillar(R) Palatal Implant System consists of three polyester threads that are permanently implanted in the palate (the roof of the mouth) to reduce airway obstruction in individuals with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring. (2) Three small, non-randomized uncontrolled trials reported a moderate reduction in the number of breathing interruptions during sleep, three to six months following palatal implant insertion. Statistically significant improvements in daytime sleepiness and snoring intensity were also reported. (3) The minimally invasive surgical procedure causes mild, transient discomfort. A potential complication is partial extrusion of the implant, requiring removal and replacement. (4) Currently, there is insufficient published evidence to determine whether palatal implants are an effective treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA due to palatal obstruction. (5) Larger, randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of the implants in a more diverse patient population, including those who are obese or those with comorbid medical conditions. Comparisons with existing treatments for OSA are also needed.

  5. Effects of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention for reducing body mass in obese adults with obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moss, James; Tew, Garry Alan; Copeland, Robert James; Stout, Martin; Billings, Catherine Grant; Saxton, John Michael; Winter, Edward Mitchell; Bianchi, Stephen Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention in obese adults with continuous positive airway pressure-treated obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Sixty patients were randomised 1 : 1 to either a 12-week lifestyle intervention or an advice-only control group. The intervention involved supervised exercise sessions, dietary advice, and the promotion of lifestyle behaviour change using cognitive-behavioural techniques. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (week 0), intervention end-point (week 13), and follow-up (week 26). The primary outcome was 13-week change in body mass. Secondary outcomes included anthropometry, blood-borne biomarkers, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life. At end-point, the intervention group exhibited small reductions in body mass (-1.8 [-3.0, -0.5] kg; P = 0.007) and body fat percentage (-1 [-2, 0]%; P = 0.044) and moderate improvements in C-reactive protein (-1.3 [-2.4, -0.2] mg·L(-1); P = 0.028) and exercise capacity (95 [50, 139] m; P < 0.001). At follow-up, changes in body mass (-2.0 [-3.5, -0.5] kg; P = 0.010), body fat percentage (-1 [-2, 0]%; P = 0.033), and C-reactive protein (-1.3 [-2.5, -0.1] mg·L(-1); P = 0.037) were maintained and exercise capacity was further improved (132 [90, 175] m; P < 0.001). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01546792.

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Mimics Attention Deficit Disorder.

    PubMed

    Blesch, Lauri; Breese McCoy, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity are known possible symptoms or correlates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, these associations may be missed in children, because children often fail to report excessive daytime sleepiness, and attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common primary diagnoses in themselves. We report on a 17-year-old, slender, non-snoring male who presented to his pediatrician with a prolonged history of four complaints: inattention, fidgeting, frequent sinusitis, and somnolence. He was diagnosed with ADHD, while the somnolence, which often abated somewhat upon use of antibiotics for sinusitis, was attributed to the sinus infections. A later sleep study revealed OSA, and thorough additional testing proved that the original ADHD diagnosis was in error. All four conditions were allayed with proper use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea presenting as pseudopheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Graja, Sameh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled resistant hypertension was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension. She had a history of fatigue and intermittent episodes of palpitations. Laboratory evaluation was significant for elevated 24-h urinary catecholamine levels (3,5 times the upper normal levels). This case was presenting with a clinical and biochemical picture indistinguishable from that of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine scintigraphy detected any catecholamine-producing tumor in or outside the adrenal glands. Our patient was screened with full polysomnography because of heavy snoring, daytime somnolence and obesity. It revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. After three months of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the patient experienced resolution of his presenting symptoms, improved blood pressure control and normalization of his urinary catecholamine levels. This case highlights sleep disordered breathing as a potentially reversible cause of pseudo-pheochromocytoma. PMID:27217898

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea in the obese.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S; Charuzi, I

    1998-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome occurs in 4% to 9% of middle-aged men and in 1% to 2% of middle-aged women. The incidence of OSA among morbidly obese patients is 12- to 30-fold higher. The pathophysiology of OSA is complex and incompletely understood. The important clinical symptoms of OSA include snoring, daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, morning fatigue, and headaches. The diagnosis is made by polysomnography. The possible sequelae of OSA are hypertension, left and right ventricular hypertrophy, sudden cardiovascular death, and increased risk for brain infarction. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) appears to be the recommended treatment for OSA. Morbidly obese patients may also benefit from weight reduction gastric surgery. PMID:9717428

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea presenting as pseudopheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Graja, Sameh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled resistant hypertension was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension. She had a history of fatigue and intermittent episodes of palpitations. Laboratory evaluation was significant for elevated 24-h urinary catecholamine levels (3,5 times the upper normal levels). This case was presenting with a clinical and biochemical picture indistinguishable from that of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine scintigraphy detected any catecholamine-producing tumor in or outside the adrenal glands. Our patient was screened with full polysomnography because of heavy snoring, daytime somnolence and obesity. It revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. After three months of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the patient experienced resolution of his presenting symptoms, improved blood pressure control and normalization of his urinary catecholamine levels. This case highlights sleep disordered breathing as a potentially reversible cause of pseudo-pheochromocytoma. PMID:27217898

  10. Update on paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Dehlink, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is one of the most common causes of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. It is associated with significant morbidity, potentially impacting on long-term neurocognitive and behavioural development, as well as cardiovascular outcomes and metabolic homeostasis. The low grade systemic inflammation and increased oxidative stress seen in this condition are believed to underpin the development of these OSA-related morbidities. The significant variance in degree of end organ morbidity in patients with the same severity of OSA highlights the importance of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in determining the overall OSA phenotype. This review seeks to summarize the current understanding of the aetiology and mechanisms underlying OSA, its risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26904263

  11. Management of Hypertension in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Sofia F; Braz, Caio V; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Drager, Luciano F

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered to be a secondary form of hypertension and in clinical practice OSA is frequently associated with hypertension, even if proof of causality cannot be established. Growing evidence suggests that OSA is associated with worse blood pressure control, alterations in night-time blood pressure dipping, increased target organ damage, and arterial stiffness in patients with hypertension. This review summarizes the current evidence for managing hypertension in patients with OSA. Particular focus will be devoted to discuss the impact of lifestyle changes, preferences for anti-hypertensive treatment in patients with OSA, and the effects of OSA treatment with continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure.

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea treatment with dental appliance.

    PubMed

    Reimão, R; De Gouveia, M M; Pestana, M C; Lopes, S R; Papaiz, E G; Papaiz, L F

    1994-12-01

    The case of a 40-year-old male patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is reported, with emphasis on treatment with a dental appliance. This therapeutic approach, which has been focused on recent research, has as its objective, the posturing of the mandibule and, consequently, the tongue more anteriorly, thus in turn leading to an increase in the posterior oropharyngeal airway space (PAS). Cephalometry contributed determining in this case whereby enlargement limits were observed in the PAS with mandibular displacement. Clinical and polysomnographic controls showed subjective reduction of the excessive daytime sleepiness and objective decrease in apneas intensity to normal limits. Eight months follow-up evidenced the steady improvement.

  13. 77 FR 25226 - Proposed Recommendations on Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... was published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23794) announcing proposed regulatory... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Proposed Recommendations on Obstructive Sleep Apnea AGENCY... withdrawing its proposed regulatory guidance for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and request for comment...

  14. Does nasal decongestion improve obstructive sleep apnea?

    PubMed

    Clarenbach, Christian F; Kohler, Malcolm; Senn, Oliver; Thurnheer, Robert; Bloch, Konrad E

    2008-12-01

    Whether nasal congestion promotes obstructive sleep apnea is controversial. Therefore, we performed a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial on the effects of topical nasal decongestion in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and nasal congestion. Twelve OSA patients with chronic nasal congestion (mean +/- SD age 49.1 +/- 11.1 years, apnea/hypopnea index 32.6 +/- 24.5/h) were treated with nasal xylometazoline or placebo for 1 week each. At the end of treatment periods, polysomnography including monitoring of nasal conductance by an unobtrusive technique, vigilance by the OSLER test, and symptom scores were assessed. Data from xylometazoline and placebo treatments were compared. Mean nocturnal nasal conductance on xylometazoline was significantly higher than on placebo (8.6 +/- 5.3 versus 6.3 +/- 5.8 mL s(-1)Pa(-1), P < 0.05) but the apnea/hypopnea index was similar (29.3 +/- 32.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 32.8/h, P = NS). However, 30-210 min after application of xylometazoline, at the time of the maximal pharmacologic effect, the apnea/hypopnea index was slightly reduced (27.3 +/- 30.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 33.9/h, P < 0.05). Xylometazoline did not alter sleep quality, sleep resistance time (33.6 +/- 8.8 versus 33.4 +/- 10.1 min, P = NS) and subjective sleepiness (Epworth score 10.5 +/- 3.8 versus 11.8 +/- 4.4, P = NS). The reduced apnea/hypopnea index during maximal nasal decongestion by xylometazoline suggests a pathophysiologic link but the efficacy of nasal decongestion was not sufficient to provide a clinically substantial improvement of OSA. PMID:18710420

  15. Reliability of SleepStrip as a screening test in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Yılmaz, Metin; Tutar, Hakan; Aydil, Utku; Kızıl, Yusuf; Damar, Murat; Kemaloğlu, Yusuf K

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep disorder and related to multiple conditions that cause mortality in adults. In the present study, reliability of SleepStrip, a disposable screening device for detection of OSAS, is tested. In this prospective, nonrandomized double-blinded single cohort study at an academic health center, the performance of the SleepStrip in detecting respiratory events and establishing an SleepStrip score (Sscore) in domestic use were compared to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained by the standard polysomnography (PSG) recordings in the sleep laboratory. Forty-one patients who have the PSG results participated the study and wore the SleepStrips at home. Test efficiency rate was 75% and there was a positive correlation between PSG-AHI scores and Sscores (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). However, diagnostic accuracy analysis showed that the correlation between Sscores and PSG-AHI scores were significant only at AHI > 30 levels. The SleepStrip has 100% specificity and positive predictive values, but it also has low negative predictive and sensitivity values. The SleepStrip is not a reliable screening test in differential diagnosis among simple snorers, mild, moderate and severe OSAS patients. However, high Sscores highly indicate the presence of moderate-severe OSAS. We can safely send these patients to split-night PSG and continuous, automatic, bi-level positive airway pressure (CPAP/BPAP/APAP) titration at the same night. The SleepStrip may increase the effective use of the sleep laboratories. PMID:24861563

  16. Occult laryngomalacia resulting in obstructive sleep apnea in an infant.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Karin P Q; Modi, Vikash K

    2013-09-01

    Classic laryngomalacia presents in the awake infant with progressive stridor when agitated. Occult laryngomalacia usually presents with stridor in children older than 2 years and is limited to sleep or exercise. There have been no documented cases of occult laryngomalacia causing obstructive sleep apnea in infants. We report the youngest documented case of an infant with state-dependent laryngomalacia resulting in severe obstructive sleep apnea. This patient was successfully treated with supraglottoplasty, with resolution of symptoms. In conclusion, state-dependent laryngomalacia resulting in obstructive sleep apnea may present in children younger than 12 months of age. In these individuals, supraglottoplasty should be considered. PMID:23911113

  17. Home Sleep Tests for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Mukesh; Greenough, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a fairly common condition that, if left untreated, can lead to complications such as high blood pressure and heart disease. Polysomnography (PSG) is the most accurate method for diagnosing OSA, but it is a cumbersome and expensive test. A well-validated, easier to perform and less expensive alternative is the home sleep test (HST). The purpose of this review is to educate the primary care provider about the important differences between PSG and HSTs, the advantages and limitations of both modalities, identifying patients who are appropriate candidates for the HST, identifying patients in whom the HST should not be performed, and further evaluation of patients who have a negative HST.

  18. Surgical treatment of snoring & obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Ephros, Hillel D; Madani, Mansoor; Yalamanchili, Sumitra C

    2010-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome is a potentially serious disorder affecting millions of people around the world. Many of these individuals are undiagnosed while those who are diagnosed, often exhibit poor compliance with nightly use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a very effective nonsurgical treatment. Various surgical procedures have been proposed to manage and, in some cases, treat OSA. In this article we review methods used to assess the sites of obstruction and a number of surgical procedures designed to address OSA. Effective surgical management of OSA depends upon developing a complete database and determining different levels of obstruction, which may include nasal, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal/retrolingual, or a combination of these sites. A systematic approach to clinical evaluation, treatment planning and surgical management is recommended and is likely to result in more predictable outcomes. Surgical treatment may involve various procedures that are performed in different stages depending on the patient's sites of obstruction. The most commonly performed procedures include nasal reconstruction, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), advancement genioplasty, mandibular osteotomy with genioglossus advancement, and hyoid myotomy and suspension. In more severe cases, maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) with advancement genioplasty may be indicated. Even after appropriate surgical treatment, some patients may demonstrate continued obstruction with associated symptoms. Published indications for surgical treatment include an elevated respiratory disturbance index (RDI) with excessive daytime somnolence (EDS), oxygen desaturations below 90 per cent, medical co-morbidities including hypertension and arrhythmias, anatomic abnormalities of the upper airway and failure of medical treatment. The success of surgery in OSA is generally measured by achieving a (RDI) of less than 5, improvement of oxygen nadir to 90 per cent or

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea – management update

    PubMed Central

    Hukins, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly significant condition based both on the high prevalence in community and significant consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), OSA together with hypersomnolence, is seen in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women. OSA is associated with impaired quality of life and increased risks of motor vehicle accidents, cardiovascular disease (including hypertension and coronary artery disease), and metabolic syndrome. There is some evidence for the use of conservative interventions such as weight loss and position modification. CPAP remains the mainstay of treatment in this condition with high-level evidence supporting its efficacy. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an intrusive therapy, with long-term adherence rates of less than 70%. Dental appliances have been shown to be effective therapy in some subjects but are limited by the inability to predict treatment responders. Alternative treatments are discussed but there is little role for upper airway surgery (except in a select few experienced institutions) or pharmacological treatment. The current levels of evidence for the different treatment regimens are reviewed. PMID:19412478

  20. Emerging therapies for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Akinnusi, Morohunfolu; Saliba, Ranime; El-Solh, Ali A

    2012-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder often associated with daytime sleepiness, cognitive dysfunction, and adverse cardiovascular consequences. Available therapies are limited by either lack of long-term adherence or low response rates. Two emerging therapies hold promise in providing alternatives to patients with OSA. The first stems from the importance of the upper-airway dilator muscles in maintaining pharyngeal stability. Electrical stimulation of the genioglossus muscle improves both upper-airway diameter and ameliorates pharyngeal obstruction. The results of phase I and II clinical trials hold promise, but the reported improvements in the apnea-hypopnea index vary between subjects and concerns about long-term safety await long-term studies. The second technology relies on creating an increased expiratory nasal resistance via a bidirectional valve designed to be worn just inside the nostrils. Initial findings of clinical trials suggest reduction in severity of sleep apnea and subjective daytime sleepiness. Considerable heterogeneity in response to the nasal device was noted despite the high adherence rates. It remains unclear which patients will likely benefit a priori from these devices.

  1. Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang; Kezirian, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study was a retrospective case series in a tertiary referral sleep center. Twenty-five adults with moderate to severe OSA and determined to have retropalatal and tongue base obstruction based on Friedman tongue position III and fiberoptic endoscopy underwent CELL in combination with modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, known as relocation pharyngoplasty. CELL involves transoral resection of tongue base muscle tissue and lingual tonsil using Coblation under endoscopic guidance. The mean operation time for CELL was 42.6 ± 13.7 min. Total blood loss for CELL plus relocation pharyngoplasty was <50 ml in all patients. Mean postoperative pain score (sum of total pain scores/sum of total hospitalization day, visual analog scale, 0-10) was 2.6 ± 0.6. Postoperative bleeding and taste disturbance extending beyond 3 months occurred in one patient (4 %) individually. No patients reported tongue weakness or speech dysfunction. Epworth sleepiness scale improved from 9.6 ± 4.9 to 7.5 ± 4.3 (p = 0.023). Apnea-hypopnea index decreased from 45.7 ± 21.7 to 12.8 ± 8.2 events/hour (p < 0.001) 6 months after surgery. The overall response rate was 80 %. CELL is feasible, safe and effective in treating tongue base obstruction in OSA patients who underwent simultaneous relocation pharyngoplasty.

  2. [Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome as the cause of atypical depression].

    PubMed

    Lang, F U; Hösch, H; Seibert, H; Klug, R; Köppler, D; Jäger, M

    2011-09-01

    Sleep apnoea is a common disorder presenting with somatic comorbidities and psychiatric symptoms. This case report describes a 43-year-old man with an organic depressive disorder due to obstructive sleep apnoea. Initially, an atypical depressive episode or schizophrenic residual syndrome had been considered likely diagnoses; subsequent polysomnography results, however, suggested obstructive sleep apnoea instead. Upon nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), the respiratory distress symptoms improved. The case report highlights the association between sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms. In patients presenting with symptoms of atypical depression and excess body weight sleep apnoea should be considered.

  3. [Usefulness of the basic exploration of the upper airways and neighbor structures in patients with adult obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ferré, Alex; Vila, Javier; Arcalís, Núria

    2014-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a prevalent disease in the general population, associated with an increase in the cardiovascular morbimortality. A basic and/or standardized otolaryngologic exploration could help us to detect the structural abnormalities that alter the upper airway collapsibility and offer a high pre-test risk factor, improve the CPAP adherence or even the possibility of offering alternative treatments. This article offers a revision of the exploration in OSAHS patients. We describe a guideline to identify the main structural abnormalities related to OSAHS. We also include a short algorithm for the diagnosis of OSAHS, when is suspected by primary care physicians.

  4. Parapharyngeal angiolipoma causing obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alobid, Isam; Benítez, Pedro; Berenguer, Juan; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Mullol, Joaquim

    2004-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is the cessation of airflow with the continuance of respiratory effort during sleep. OSAS associated with a neck mass is extremely rare. Angiolipoma is a rare, benign, fatty tumour composed of mature lipocytes and multiple areas containing angiomatous elements. The treatment for an angiolipoma is surgical excision. We report the case of a 47-year-old male who presented with a history of loud snoring associated with sleep apnoea. A polysomnographic study demonstrated an apnoea-hypopnoea index of 72/h. CT showed a 3.5 x 3 x 8 cm3 hypoattenuated mass of fat density in the left parapharyngeal space causing an impression on the nasopharynx and oropharynx with a peripheral hyperintense area. A cervical transparotid surgical approach was used. A histological study led to the definitive diagnosis of angiolipomal without evidence of malignancy. After surgery, the snoring disappeared and the patient remained tumour-free after 54 months of follow-up. This is the first case in the literature of a patient with nocturnal polysomnographic-documented OSAS caused by a left parapharyngeal angiolipoma.

  5. Effects of surgical correction of nasal obstruction in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sériès, F; St Pierre, S; Carrier, G

    1992-11-01

    Negative upper airway pressure is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea. Because nasal resistance contributes to the increase of the transpharyngeal pressure gradient, we evaluated the effects of nasal surgery on sleep-related breathing abnormalities in 20 adults with obstructive sleep apnea. Polysomnographic studies were done before (baseline), and 2 to 3 mo after surgery (septoplasty, turbinectomy, and/or polypectomy). Nasal resistances were measured at these visits in 14 patients. Cephalometric measurements were obtained before surgery. Cephalometric abnormalities consisted in an increase in the distance from the mandibular plane to the hyoid bone (MP-H), a decrease in the space between the base of the tongue and the posterior soft tissues (PAS), a retroposition of the mandibule, and an increase in the length of the soft palate. Body weight did not change between the two studies. Nasal resistance decreased significantly after nasal surgery. The composition of the total sleep time spent in the rapid eye movement stage increased from 11.5 +/- 1.3% (mean +/- SEM) to 14 +/- 1.2% after surgery. For the group as the whole, there was no difference between baseline and postsurgical values in the frequency of respiratory disturbances (39.8 +/- 6.1, 36.8 +/- 5.9 n/h), the total apnea time (17.8 +/- 4.2, 15.4 +/- 2.8), the distribution of the apnea time within the different apnea types (obstructive and nonobstructive), and the severity of the nocturnal desaturations. Interestingly, apnea and apnea plus hypopnea indices returned to normal values (< 5 and 10, respectively) in four subjects with normal posterior soft tissues and mandibular plane to the hyoid bone distances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Azagra-Calero, Eva; Barrera-Mora, José M.; Llamas-Carreras, José M.; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome is characterized by repeated airway collapse during sleep. The li-terature describes multiple causes of the disease. The main cause is a reduction of the expansion forces of the pharyngeal dilator muscles, as in situations of genioglossal muscle dysfunction, and discoordination between the inspiratory activity of the muscle and respiratory effort, which play an important role in progression of the disease. Other described causes are soft tissue disorders, such as macroglossia or tonsillar hypertrophy, and skeletal structural alterations such as micrognathia and retrognathia. The syndrome is also more frequent in obese people, where the accumulation of fat in the neck region produces narrowing of the pharyngeal airway, thereby diminishing the passage of air. This review focuses on the pathogenesis, epidemiology, main features and diagnosis of the disease, and on its main forms of treatment. Key words:Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, sleep apnea syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PMID:22549673

  7. Sleep complaints and sleep breathing disorders in upper and lower obstructive lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Roustan, Valeria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower obstructive lung diseases can induce sleep complaints and can be part of the pathogenesis of sleep breathing disorders. In fact, the physiological changes of the pattern of respiration during sleep, added to the airways disease can lead to symptomatic worsening of rhinitis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD); moreover, their functional and anatomical features can lead to sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This review highlights the above-mentioned relationships and the effect of disease management on its comorbidities and the patient’s quality of life. Rhinitis, asthma and COPD represent causes of sleep complaints that may be reduced with optimal management of these obstructive airways diseases. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of sleep apnea needs to be tailored after optimization of the therapy of concomitant diseases, but it can often ameliorate comorbid disease.

  8. Sleep complaints and sleep breathing disorders in upper and lower obstructive lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Roustan, Valeria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio; Baiardini, Ilaria

    2016-08-01

    Upper and lower obstructive lung diseases can induce sleep complaints and can be part of the pathogenesis of sleep breathing disorders. In fact, the physiological changes of the pattern of respiration during sleep, added to the airways disease can lead to symptomatic worsening of rhinitis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD); moreover, their functional and anatomical features can lead to sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This review highlights the above-mentioned relationships and the effect of disease management on its comorbidities and the patient's quality of life. Rhinitis, asthma and COPD represent causes of sleep complaints that may be reduced with optimal management of these obstructive airways diseases. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of sleep apnea needs to be tailored after optimization of the therapy of concomitant diseases, but it can often ameliorate comorbid disease. PMID:27621908

  9. Sleep complaints and sleep breathing disorders in upper and lower obstructive lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Roustan, Valeria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower obstructive lung diseases can induce sleep complaints and can be part of the pathogenesis of sleep breathing disorders. In fact, the physiological changes of the pattern of respiration during sleep, added to the airways disease can lead to symptomatic worsening of rhinitis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD); moreover, their functional and anatomical features can lead to sleep breathing disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This review highlights the above-mentioned relationships and the effect of disease management on its comorbidities and the patient’s quality of life. Rhinitis, asthma and COPD represent causes of sleep complaints that may be reduced with optimal management of these obstructive airways diseases. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of sleep apnea needs to be tailored after optimization of the therapy of concomitant diseases, but it can often ameliorate comorbid disease. PMID:27621908

  10. Sleep-related breathing disorders. 6. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in infants and children: established facts and unsettled issues.

    PubMed

    Gaultier, C

    1995-11-01

    The presence of increased upper airway resistive loads during sleep can now be diagnosed by paediatricians. However, diagnostic criteria need to be further clarified to allow accurate identification of episodes of partial airway obstruction. New technological advances can be expected to help to determine the clinical usefulness of ambulatory testing during sleep and thus to establish the indications for polysomnographic investigations in the laboratory. A thorough investigation of the anatomical abnormalities that contribute to airways obstruction is essential for selecting the most appropriate therapy. However, the order in which these investigations should be performed remains unclear. The diagnostic tools, including questionnaires and sleep testing, and methods aimed at investigating pathophysiological mechanisms should be standardised for multicentre studies. Familial factors should be taken into account. The best strategy for preventing the complications of the OSA syndrome is to identify the disorder as early as possible. This requires close cooperation between adult physicians and paediatricians called upon to evaluate sleep-related disorders.

  11. Facial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Capistrano, Anderson; Cordeiro, Aldir; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Almeida, Veridiana Correia; Silva, Priscila Izabela de Castro e; Martinez, Sandra; de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at assessing the relationship between facial morphological patterns (I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face) as well as facial types (brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients attending a center specialized in sleep disorders. Methods: Frontal, lateral and smile photographs of 252 patients (157 men and 95 women), randomly selected from a polysomnography clinic, with mean age of 40.62 years, were evaluated. In order to obtain diagnosis of facial morphology, the sample was sent to three professors of Orthodontics trained to classify patients' face according to five patterns, as follows: 1) Pattern I; 2) Pattern II; 3) Pattern III; 4) Long facial pattern; 5) Short facial pattern. Intraexaminer agreement was assessed by means of Kappa index. The professors ranked patients' facial type based on a facial index that considers the proportion between facial width and height. Results: The multiple linear regression model evinced that, when compared to Pattern I, Pattern II had the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) worsened in 6.98 episodes. However, when Pattern II was compared to Pattern III patients, the index for the latter was 11.45 episodes lower. As for the facial type, brachyfacial patients had a mean AHI of 22.34, while dolichofacial patients had a significantly statistical lower index of 10.52. Conclusion: Patients' facial morphology influences OSA. Pattern II and brachyfacial patients had greater AHI, while Pattern III patients showed a lower index. PMID:26691971

  12. New therapies for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    White, David P

    2014-10-01

    A strong demand for new obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) therapies exists and several are emerging. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is designed to activate upper airway muscles. The initial study from Inspire (Maple Grove, MN) suggests that the device will work well in a very selective group of OSA patients. However, it is likely to be quite expensive. The Winx device (ApniCure, Redwood City, CA) works by establishing a vacuum in the oral cavity, which pulls the uvula and soft palate forward and stabilizes the tongue position. The current device works in approximately 40% of patients and the early data suggest adherence may be quite good. The Provent device( Theravent, San Jose, CA) has been available for several years and is disposable. It is to be attached to the nares nightly and establishes substantial expiratory resistance. Multiple studies suggest that Provent can successfully treat OSA in about 35 to 50% of the patients. However, acceptance and adherence may be a problem. OSA phenotyping is not a therapy, but a way to determine exactly what causes airway collapse in each patient, which can vary substantially. This may allow for individualization of apnea therapy. New methods to prevent supine sleep and surgically implantable devices to treat OSA are also evolving.

  13. Independent associations between fatty acids and sleep quality among obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome after controlling for possible confounders. Sixty-three patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome based on overnight attended polysomnography were included. Gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Anthropometric measurements were carried out. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Saturated fatty acids were positively related to total sleep time, sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Significant positive associations were found between polyunsaturated fatty acids and sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Moreover, n-3 fatty acids were positively associated with sleep efficiency, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. This study revealed independent associations between certain gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality after controlling for age, gender, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome indices and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale scores in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

  14. CPAP for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, R Doug; Antic, Nick A; Heeley, Emma; Luo, Yuanming; Ou, Qiong; Zhang, Xilong; Mediano, Olga; Chen, Rui; Drager, Luciano F; Liu, Zhihong; Chen, Guofang; Du, Baoliang; McArdle, Nigel; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Tripathi, Manjari; Billot, Laurent; Li, Qiang; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Barbe, Ferran; Redline, Susan; Wang, Jiguang; Arima, Hisatomi; Neal, Bruce; White, David P; Grunstein, Ron R; Zhong, Nanshan; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-09-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events; whether treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) prevents major cardiovascular events is uncertain. Methods After a 1-week run-in period during which the participants used sham CPAP, we randomly assigned 2717 eligible adults between 45 and 75 years of age who had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and coronary or cerebrovascular disease to receive CPAP treatment plus usual care (CPAP group) or usual care alone (usual-care group). The primary composite end point was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or transient ischemic attack. Secondary end points included other cardiovascular outcomes, health-related quality of life, snoring symptoms, daytime sleepiness, and mood. Results Most of the participants were men who had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and minimal sleepiness. In the CPAP group, the mean duration of adherence to CPAP therapy was 3.3 hours per night, and the mean apnea-hypopnea index (the number of apnea or hypopnea events per hour of recording) decreased from 29.0 events per hour at baseline to 3.7 events per hour during follow-up. After a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, a primary end-point event had occurred in 229 participants in the CPAP group (17.0%) and in 207 participants in the usual-care group (15.4%) (hazard ratio with CPAP, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.32; P=0.34). No significant effect on any individual or other composite cardiovascular end point was observed. CPAP significantly reduced snoring and daytime sleepiness and improved health-related quality of life and mood. Conclusions Therapy with CPAP plus usual care, as compared with usual care alone, did not prevent cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and established cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Health and

  15. CPAP for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, R Doug; Antic, Nick A; Heeley, Emma; Luo, Yuanming; Ou, Qiong; Zhang, Xilong; Mediano, Olga; Chen, Rui; Drager, Luciano F; Liu, Zhihong; Chen, Guofang; Du, Baoliang; McArdle, Nigel; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Tripathi, Manjari; Billot, Laurent; Li, Qiang; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Barbe, Ferran; Redline, Susan; Wang, Jiguang; Arima, Hisatomi; Neal, Bruce; White, David P; Grunstein, Ron R; Zhong, Nanshan; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-09-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events; whether treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) prevents major cardiovascular events is uncertain. Methods After a 1-week run-in period during which the participants used sham CPAP, we randomly assigned 2717 eligible adults between 45 and 75 years of age who had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and coronary or cerebrovascular disease to receive CPAP treatment plus usual care (CPAP group) or usual care alone (usual-care group). The primary composite end point was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or transient ischemic attack. Secondary end points included other cardiovascular outcomes, health-related quality of life, snoring symptoms, daytime sleepiness, and mood. Results Most of the participants were men who had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and minimal sleepiness. In the CPAP group, the mean duration of adherence to CPAP therapy was 3.3 hours per night, and the mean apnea-hypopnea index (the number of apnea or hypopnea events per hour of recording) decreased from 29.0 events per hour at baseline to 3.7 events per hour during follow-up. After a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, a primary end-point event had occurred in 229 participants in the CPAP group (17.0%) and in 207 participants in the usual-care group (15.4%) (hazard ratio with CPAP, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.32; P=0.34). No significant effect on any individual or other composite cardiovascular end point was observed. CPAP significantly reduced snoring and daytime sleepiness and improved health-related quality of life and mood. Conclusions Therapy with CPAP plus usual care, as compared with usual care alone, did not prevent cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and established cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Health and

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea in severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Szaulińska, Katarzyna; Pływaczewski, Robert; Sikorska, Olga; Holka-Pokorska, Justyna; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Wichniak, Adam; Śliwiński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is estimated to be 3-7.5% in men and 2-3% in women. In mentally ill population it is even higher, as these patients are a high risk OSA group. The aim of the paper was a review of literature about the prevalence of sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder.The available data show that OSA is present in 15-48% of patients with schizophrenia, 21-43% of patients with bipolar disorder and 11-18% of patients with recurrent depressive disorder. The lack of diagnosis of OSA in people with mental illnesses has multiple negative consequences. The symptoms of sleep apnoea might imitate the symptoms of mental illnesses such as negative symptoms of schizophrenia and symptoms of depression, they might as well aggravate the cognitive impairment. A number of the drugs used in mental disorders may aggravate the symptoms of OSA. OSA is as well the risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases which are a serious clinical problem in mentally ill people and contribute to shortening of their expected lifespan. From the point of view of the physicians treating OSA it is important to pay attention to the fact that co-existing depression is the most common reason for resistant daytime sleepiness in OSA patients treated effectively with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). CPAP therapy leads to significant improvement of mood. However, in schizophrenia and bipolar patients it may rarely lead to acute worsening of mental state, exacerbation of psychotic symptoms or phase shift from depression to mania. PMID:26688840

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea in severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Szaulińska, Katarzyna; Pływaczewski, Robert; Sikorska, Olga; Holka-Pokorska, Justyna; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Wichniak, Adam; Śliwiński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is estimated to be 3-7.5% in men and 2-3% in women. In mentally ill population it is even higher, as these patients are a high risk OSA group. The aim of the paper was a review of literature about the prevalence of sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder.The available data show that OSA is present in 15-48% of patients with schizophrenia, 21-43% of patients with bipolar disorder and 11-18% of patients with recurrent depressive disorder. The lack of diagnosis of OSA in people with mental illnesses has multiple negative consequences. The symptoms of sleep apnoea might imitate the symptoms of mental illnesses such as negative symptoms of schizophrenia and symptoms of depression, they might as well aggravate the cognitive impairment. A number of the drugs used in mental disorders may aggravate the symptoms of OSA. OSA is as well the risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases which are a serious clinical problem in mentally ill people and contribute to shortening of their expected lifespan. From the point of view of the physicians treating OSA it is important to pay attention to the fact that co-existing depression is the most common reason for resistant daytime sleepiness in OSA patients treated effectively with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). CPAP therapy leads to significant improvement of mood. However, in schizophrenia and bipolar patients it may rarely lead to acute worsening of mental state, exacerbation of psychotic symptoms or phase shift from depression to mania.

  18. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea: a population health perspective.

    PubMed

    Young, Terry; Peppard, Paul E; Gottlieb, Daniel J

    2002-05-01

    Population-based epidemiologic studies have uncovered the high prevalence and wide severity spectrum of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea, and have consistently found that even mild obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significant morbidity. Evidence from methodologically strong cohort studies indicates that undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea, with or without symptoms, is independently associated with increased likelihood of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, daytime sleepiness, motor vehicle accidents, and diminished quality of life. Strategies to decrease the high prevalence and associated morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea are critically needed. The reduction or elimination of risk factors through public health initiatives with clinical support holds promise. Potentially modifiable risk factors considered in this review include overweight and obesity, alcohol, smoking, nasal congestion, and estrogen depletion in menopause. Data suggest that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with all these factors, but at present the only intervention strategy supported with adequate evidence is weight loss. A focus on weight control is especially important given the expanding epidemic of overweight and obesity in the United States. Primary care providers will be central to clinical approaches for addressing the burden and the development of cost-effective case-finding strategies and feasible treatment for mild obstructive sleep apnea warrants high priority. PMID:11991871

  19. Mini Tracheostomy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Evidence Based Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Macario; Zaghi, Soroush; Chang, Edward T.; Song, Sungjin A.; Szelestey, Blake; Certal, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To search for articles evaluating the use of tracheostomies (either permanent stomas or tracheostomy tubes) in adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and to evaluate the potential for the use of mini tracheostomies as treatment for OSA. Study Design. Systematic review. Methods. Nine databases were searched from inception through July 21, 2015. Results. The overall tracheostomy search yielded 516 articles, of which eighteen studies provided polysomnographic data. No study was identified (empty review) for the use of mini tracheostomies for treating OSA. The mini tracheostomy search yielded ninety-five articles which describe findings for either mini tracheostomy kits (inner cannula diameter of 4 mm) or the performance of mini tracheotomies. Six articles described the use of mini tracheostomies as a temporary procedure to relieve acute upper airway obstruction and none described the use for OSA. For tracheostomy stomal sites, suturing the skin directly to the tracheal rings with defatting can minimize stomal site collapse. The smallest tracheostomy stomal size that can successfully treat OSA has not been described. Conclusion. Mini tracheostomies as small as 4 mm have been successfully used in the short term to relieve upper airway obstruction. Given that polysomnography data are lacking, additional research is needed. PMID:26925105

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Cluster Analysis at Time of Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Yves; Richard, Philippe; Stach, Bruno; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Lévy, Patrick; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background The classification of obstructive sleep apnea is on the basis of sleep study criteria that may not adequately capture disease heterogeneity. Improved phenotyping may improve prognosis prediction and help select therapeutic strategies. Objectives: This study used cluster analysis to investigate the clinical clusters of obstructive sleep apnea. Methods An ascending hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on baseline symptoms, physical examination, risk factor exposure and co-morbidities from 18,263 participants in the OSFP (French national registry of sleep apnea). The probability for criteria to be associated with a given cluster was assessed using odds ratios, determined by univariate logistic regression. Results: Six clusters were identified, in which patients varied considerably in age, sex, symptoms, obesity, co-morbidities and environmental risk factors. The main significant differences between clusters were minimally symptomatic versus sleepy obstructive sleep apnea patients, lean versus obese, and among obese patients different combinations of co-morbidities and environmental risk factors. Conclusions Our cluster analysis identified six distinct clusters of obstructive sleep apnea. Our findings underscore the high degree of heterogeneity that exists within obstructive sleep apnea patients regarding clinical presentation, risk factors and consequences. This may help in both research and clinical practice for validating new prevention programs, in diagnosis and in decisions regarding therapeutic strategies. PMID:27314230

  1. Screening for Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea before Ambulatory Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ishman, Stacey L.; Tawfik, Kareem O.; Smith, David F.; Cheung, Kristin; Pringle, Lauren M.; Stephen, Matthew J.; Everett, Tiffany L.; Stierer, Tracey L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society of Anesthesia practice guidelines recommend that pediatric and adult patients who undergo ambulatory surgery be screened for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). With this in mind, our objective was to assess the frequency of screening by anesthesia providers for the signs and symptoms of OSA in children undergoing surgery in an ambulatory setting. Methods: Prospective single-blinded observational study of anesthesia providers' preoperative interview of caregivers of consecutive patients younger than age 18 who were scheduled for ambulatory surgery. Results: One hundred one children (30 females) were identified, with a mean age of 6.9 ± 5.0 years; 54 were classified as white, 33 as black, and 14 as other. Total OSA-18 scores ranged from 18 to 97, with a mean of 33.1 ± 14.8. The mean score for adenotonsillectomy patients was higher than that for children who underwent procedures other than adenotonsillectomy. Thirty-one percent of children were screened for OSA, and snoring was the most common symptom recorded (28%). Patients who were screened for OSA were more likely to have snoring (p < 0.001), known OSA (p = 0.006), and a scheduled adenotonsillectomy (p = 0.02). Conclusion: OSA was not routinely screened for by anesthesia providers prior to ambulatory pediatric surgery. When screening did occur, “snoring” was the most commonly recorded symptom. Paradoxically, patients with undiagnosed OSA who would benefit the most from screening were the least likely to be screened. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 697. Citation: Ishman SL, Tawfik KO, Smith DF, Cheung K, Pringle LM, Stephen MJ, Everett TL, Stierer TL. Screening for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea before ambulatory surgery. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):751–755. PMID:25902820

  2. [Hungarian Society for Sleep Medicine guideline for detecting drivers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Szakács, Zoltán; Ádám, Ágnes; Annus, János Kristóf; Csatlós, Dalma; László, Andrea; Kalabay, László; Torzsa, Péter

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is the most frequent sleep-disordered breathing. The prevalence of sleep apnea in the general population is 2-4% and the main characteristics of the disease are the intermittent cessation or substantial reduction of airflow during sleep, which is caused by complete, or near complete upper airway obstruction. Decreased airflow is followed by oxygen desaturation and intermittent arousals. Untreated patients are 4-6 times more likely to cause traffic accidents than their healthy counterparts. The aims of the obstructive sleep apnea screening are to prevent and reduce the incidence of serious car accidents, which are often caused by one of the most dangerous sleep disorders. Since April 1, 2015 a modification of the 13/1992 regulation has been in force in Hungary which orders screening of obstructive sleep apnea during medical checkup of drivers. The Hungarian Society for Sleep Medicine made a guideline according to the regulation which was adapted to national circumstances and family doctors, occupational health specialists can more easily screen obstructive sleep apnea in suspected patients. In sleep ambulances the disease can be diagnosed and effective treatment can be started. Patients receiving appropriate treatment and with appropriate compliance can get their driving licence under regular care and control. PMID:27233832

  3. Update on obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to COPD

    PubMed Central

    Mieczkowski, Brian; Ezzie, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and preventable lung disease that affects millions of people in the United States. Sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are also common. It is not surprising that many people with COPD also suffer from OSA. This relationship, however, puts people at risk for more nocturnal desaturations and potential complications related to this, including pulmonary hypertension and heart rhythm disturbances. This update focuses on the physiology of sleep disturbances in COPD as well as the clinical implications of OSA in COPD. PMID:24748786

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Preoperative Screening and Postoperative Care.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Robert M; Pomerantz, Jonathan; Miller, Deborah E; Weiss-Coleman, Rebecca; Solomonides, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has reached epidemic proportions, and it is an often unrecognized cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Profound hypoxic injury from apnea during the postoperative period is often misdiagnosed as cardiac arrest due to other causes. Almost a quarter of patients entering a hospital for elective surgery have OSA, and >80% of these cases are undiagnosed at the time of surgery. The perioperative period puts patients at high risk of apneic episodes because of drug effects from sedatives, narcotics, and general anesthesia, as well as from the effects of postoperative rapid eye movement sleep changes and postoperative positioning in the hospital bed. For adults, preoperative screening using the STOP or STOP-Bang questionnaires can help to identify adult patients at increased risk of OSA. In the pediatric setting, a question about snoring should be part of every preoperative examination. For patients with known OSA, continuous positive airway pressure should be continued postoperatively. Continuous pulse oximetry monitoring with an alarm system can help to prevent apneic catastrophes caused by OSA in the postoperative period. PMID:26957384

  5. Relationship between Oral Flow Patterns, Nasal Obstruction, and Respiratory Events during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Furukawa, Taiji; Sugimoto, Akira; Katada, Koji; Kotani, Ryosuke; Yoshizawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep breathing patterns are altered by nasal obstruction and respiratory events. This study aimed to describe the relationships between specific sleep oral flow (OF) patterns, nasal airway obstruction, and respiratory events. Methods: Nasal flow and OF were measured simultaneously by polysomnography in 85 adults during sleep. OF was measured 2 cm in front of the lips using a pressure sensor. Results: OF could be classified into three patterns: postrespiratory event OF (postevent OF), during-respiratory event OF (during-event OF), and spontaneous arousal-related OF (SpAr-related OF). Postevent OFs begin at the end of airflow reduction, are preceded by respiratory arousal, and are accompanied by postapneic hyperventilation; during-event OFs occur during nasal flow reduction; and SpAr-related OFs to OF begin during stable breathing, and are preceded by spontaneous arousal but are rarely accompanied by apnea/hypopnea. Multivariate regression showed that nasal obstruction was predictive of SpAr-related OF. The relative frequency of SpAr-related OF events was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. The fraction of SpAr-related OF duration relative to total OF duration was significantly greater in patients with nasal obstruction than in those without. Conclusions: SpAr-related OF was associated with nasal obstruction, but not respiratory events. This pattern thus functions as a “nasal obstruction bypass”, mainly in normal subjects and patients with mild sleep disordered breathing (SDB). By contrast, the other two types were related to respiratory events and were typical patterns seen in patients with moderate and severe SDB. Citation: Suzuki M, Furukawa T, Sugimoto A, Katada K, Kotani R, Yoshizawa T. Relationship between oral flow patterns, nasal obstruction, and respiratory events during sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):855–860. PMID:25766699

  6. Childhood obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity in children seems to be associated with an increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to this association include the following: adenotonsillar hypertrophy due to increased somatic growth, increased critical airway closing pressure, altered chest wall mechanics, and abnormalities of ventilatory control. However, the details of these mechanisms and their interactions have not been elucidated. In addition, obesity and OSAS are both associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of features such as hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory states. There is some evidence that OSAS may contribute to the progression of metabolic syndrome with a potential for significant morbidity. The treatment of OSAS in obese children has not been standardized. Adenotonsillectomy is considered the primary intervention followed by continuous positive airway pressure treatment if OSAS persists. Other methods such as oral appliances, surgery, positional therapy, and weight loss may be beneficial for individual subjects. The present review discusses these issues and suggests an approach to the management of obese children with snoring and possible OSAS. PMID:19875714

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea screening by NIRS imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashefi, Feraydune; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Liu, Hanli

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed at determining cerebral hemodynamic parameters in human subjects during breath holding using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath holding serves as a method of simulation OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea). Data was acquired non-invasively from 40 subjects, twenty OSA sufferers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-70 years), and twenty normal volunteers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-65 years). Measurements were conducted using a LED Imager (LEDI) during breath holding. In comparing OSA subjects with controls during breath holding, a consistent increase or even a decrease in oxy- ([O IIHb]), deoxy- ([HHb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentrations, and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO II) in the regional brain tissue were observed. The LEDI probe consists of 4 sources and 10 detectors serving as 4 sets of 1 source and 4 detectors each. A three wavelength (730, 805, and 850 nm) LED was used and the wavelengths were switched sequentially. The distance between sources and the source-detector separation were 2.5 cm. Data acquisition consisted of three segments, baseline for one minute, followed by a period of breath holding, and then 2 minutes of recovery time. The duration of the breath holding was subject-dependent. Our investigation proves that NIR spectroscopy could be used as a tool for detecting cerebral hemodynamics and also serves as a method of screening patients with OSA.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with obesity and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Di Guardo, Antonino; Profeta, Gaetano; Crisafulli, Cristiano; Sidoti, Giuseppe; Zammataro, Marcello; Paolini, Italo; Filippi, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Background The links between obstructive sleep apnoea and hypertension are well established; obstructive sleep apnoea is reported in up to 30% of patients with hypertension, although it is frequently underdiagnosed. Physicians can assess the degree of sleepiness by administering the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, but the large number of patients with hypertension makes this strategy difficult for busy physicians to implement. Obese patients form a subgroup at higher risk for obstructive sleep apnoea, which can be targeted for screening. Aim The study carried out a preliminary exploration of the effectiveness of screening patients with hypertension and obesity for obstructive sleep apnoea in general practice using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Setting One group practice in Italy. Design of study ‘Good clinical practice’ was systematically applied: identification of patients with hypertension and obesity; qualitative interview to identify obstructive sleep apnea; and consequent work-up and therapy. Method Three family physicians, caring for 769 pharmacologically-treated patients with hypertension, identified 220 obese patients without relevant pulmonary or neurological diseases or insomnia; 31 of these 220 patients scored >11 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results Polysomnography confirmed obstructive sleep apnoea in 10% of the obese, hypertensive population (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.03% to 13.63%), and in 3.9% of the whole hypertensive population (95% CI = 2.74% to 5.51%). At baseline, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring showed uncontrolled blood pressure in all these patients. Under continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the blood pressure value normalised (P<0.05), and the mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score decreased significantly: mean 13.68 versus 7.84 (P<0.001). Conclusion In obese patients with hypertension examined in this study, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea prevalence is about 10%. CPAP significantly ameliorates the blood pressure

  9. Sleep-related eating disorder as a cause of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Eveloff, S E; Millman, R P

    1993-08-01

    A patient with obesity resulting from sleep-related eating disorder demonstrated signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Incarceration restricted access to food during the night, leading to weight loss and clinical improvement. Release from prison allowed recurrence of unrestricted sleep-eating, recurrent obesity, and documented OSA. Successful treatment of sleep-related eating disorder can result in improvement in coexisting OSA.

  10. CPAP, Weight Loss, or Both for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chirinos, Julio A.; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Teff, Karen; Rader, Daniel J.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Townsend, Raymond; Foster, Gary D.; Maislin, Greg; Saif, Hassam; Broderick, Preston; Chittams, Jesse; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Pack, Allan I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea tend to coexist and are associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure, but their causal relation to these abnormalities is unclear. METHODS We randomly assigned 181 patients with obesity, moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) greater than 1.0 mg per liter to receive treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a weight-loss intervention, or CPAP plus a weight-loss intervention for 24 weeks. We assessed the incremental effect of the combined interventions over each one alone on the CRP level (the primary end point), insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, and blood pressure. RESULTS Among the 146 participants for whom there were follow-up data, those assigned to weight loss only and those assigned to the combined interventions had reductions in CRP levels, insulin resistance, and serum triglyceride levels. None of these changes were observed in the group receiving CPAP alone. Blood pressure was reduced in all three groups. No significant incremental effect on CRP levels was found for the combined interventions as compared with either weight loss or CPAP alone. Reductions in insulin resistance and serum triglyceride levels were greater in the combined-intervention group than in the group receiving CPAP only, but there were no significant differences in these values between the combined-intervention group and the weight-loss group. In per-protocol analyses, which included 90 participants who met prespecified criteria for adherence, the combined interventions resulted in a larger reduction in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure than did either CPAP or weight loss alone. CONCLUSIONS In adults with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea, CPAP combined with a weight-loss intervention did not reduce CRP levels more than either intervention alone. In secondary analyses, weight loss provided an incremental reduction

  11. OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA AND CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    BRODIE, FRANK L.; CHARLSON, EMILY S.; ALEMAN, TOMAS S.; SALVO, REBECCA T.; GEWAILY, DINA Y.; LAU, MARISA K.; FARREN, NEIL D.; ENGELHARD, STEPHANIE B.; PISTILLI, MAXWELL; BRUCKER, ALEXANDER J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods Patients with CSCR without a history of steroid use or secondary retinal disease were matched based on age/gender/body mass index with control patients and administered the Berlin Questionnaire to assess for OSA risk. Patients were scored “OSA+” if they were at “high risk” on the Berlin Questionnaire or reported a previous OSA diagnosis. Rates of OSA+ were compared between the 2 groups, odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval was calculated using exact conditional logistic regression. Results Forty-eight qualifying patients with CSCR were identified. There were no statistically significant differences between the CSCR and control groups by age (mean = 55 years), gender (79% male), body mass index (mean = 28.2), history of diabetes, or hypertension. Within the CSCR group, 22 patients (45.8%) were OSA+ versus 21 control patients (43.8%) (difference = 2.1%; 95% confidence interval, −18.2% to 22.2%; exact odds ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval, 0.47–2.49; P = 1.00). Conclusion When compared with matched controls, patients with CSCR did not have statistically significant higher rates of OSA risk or previous diagnosis. This finding contrasts with previous work showing a strong association between the diseases. The divergence is likely due to our matching controls for body mass index, a significant risk factor for OSA. PMID:25127049

  12. [Obstructive sleep apneas. A clinical and laboratory study].

    PubMed

    Paiva, T; Vasconcelos, P; Leitão, A N; Andrea, M

    1993-10-01

    Our study included 42 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS) confirmed by polysomnography. In these patients we investigated the clinical manifestations, the results of the laboratory examinations, including polysomnography, ORL observations and tests of pulmonary function, as well as the therapeutic results. Our patients presented a serious set of symptoms which included excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, obesity, cranio-facial abnormalities, systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, incapacity to work with precocious retirement, marital conflicts and high incidence of accidents, namely traffic accidents. An adequate treatment, mostly with nasal CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), induced marked relief of the symptoms; some patients had an advantage in surgical treatment and weight reduction. OSAS is a frequent entity, affecting mostly male adults after the 5th decade. The lack of knowledge about this entity and the common social acceptance of some of its cardinal symptoms induces considerable delays in its diagnosis. The severity of the symptoms, the personal and social risks of excessive daytime sleepiness, the cardio-circulatory effects and the risk of sudden death during sleep justify an early diagnosis in order to prevent the severe evolution of the disease. Its complex physiopathology and multiple etiological factors justify a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:8285115

  13. Low-grade albuminuria in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Varlami, Vasiliki; Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Theologi, Vasiliki; Theophanous, Eleni; Liakos, Nikolaos; Daskalopoulou, Euphemia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-06-01

    Small urinary protein loss (low-grade albuminuria or microalbuminuria) may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. In the present study, it was hypothesized that children with obstructive sleep apnea have an increased risk of microalbuminuria compared with control subjects without sleep-disordered breathing. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in morning spot urine specimens collected from consecutive children with or without snoring who were referred for polysomnography. Three groups were studied: (i) control subjects (no snoring, apnea-hypopnea index < 1 episode h(-1) ; n = 31); (ii) mild obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index = 1-5 episodes h(-1) ; n = 71); and (iii) moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index > 5 episodes∙h(-1) ; n = 27). Indications for polysomnography in control subjects included nightmares, somnambulism and morning headaches. An albumin-to-creatinine ratio > median value in the control group (1.85 mg of albumin per g of creatinine) was defined as elevated. Logistic regression analysis revealed that children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, but not those with mild obstructive sleep apnea, had increased risk of elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio relative to controls (reference) after adjustment for age, gender and presence of obesity: odds ratio 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-12.6); P = 0.04 and 1.5 (0.6-3.7); P > 0.05, respectively. Oxygen desaturation of hemoglobin and respiratory arousal indices were significant predictors of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r = 0.31, P = 0.01; and r = 0.43, P < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea are at significantly higher risk of increased low-grade excretion of albumin in the morning urine as compared with control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea. These findings may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular

  14. PHARYNGEAL MOTOR CONTROL AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy S; White, David P

    2008-01-01

    The upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is thought to collapse during sleep at least in part, because of a sleep related reduction in upper airway dilator muscle activity. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of the neural regulation of these muscles is warranted. The dilator muscles can be classified in two broad categories; those that have respiratory related activity and those that fire constantly throughout the respiratory cycle. The motor control of these two groups likely differs with the former receiving input from respiratory neurons and negative pressure reflex circuits. The activity of both muscle groups is reduced shortly after sleep onset, indicating that both receive input from brainstem neurons involved in sleep regulation. In the apnea patient, this may lead to pharyngeal airway collapse. This review briefly describes the currently proposed sleep and respiratory neural pathways and how these circuits interact with the upper airway dilator muscle motorneurones, including recent evidence from animal studies. PMID:17869188

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: Etiology and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sankri-Tarbichi, Abdul Ghani

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing is a common chronic condition in the general population. This review will highlight the prevalence of different types of sleep apnea in general and obstructive type in particular in the United States and Middle East. Despite the extensive research studies on the sleep apnea pathogenesis, the exact mechanism is not well known. Obesity, however, is the leading risk factor to upper airway narrowing and obstruction and main contributor to the escalating prevalence of morbidity worldwide including the Arab countries. Due to the serious consequences of the untreated sleep disordered breathing, this article will emphasize on the importance of early recognition, key clinical manifestations, and how to treat and prevent the disease. PMID:23210013

  16. Promoting safety of postoperative orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Veney, Amy J

    2013-01-01

    Orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea are at risk for postoperative complications related to administration of pain medications, anxiolytics, and antiemetics. They are more likely to experience respiratory and cardiac complications, be transferred to an intensive care unit, or have an increased length of stay in the hospital. This informational article is for nurses who care for postoperative orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The focus is on promoting patient safety through communication, vigilant postoperative sedation assessment, and nursing interventions that include appropriate patient positioning, patient education, and involving patients and their families in care. PMID:24247310

  17. Anaesthetic Management in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome for Adenotonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Şanlı, Mukadder; Toplu, Yüksel; Özgül, Ülkü; Kayhan, Gülay Erdoğan; Gülhaş, Nurçin

    2014-01-01

    The anaesthetic management of adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is characteristic due to respiratory and cardiac side effects. A detailed physical examination in the preoperative period should be performed, including children’s respiratory and cardiac systems. If they have an active infection, surgery should be postponed until the end of medical treatment. Preparation for difficult airway management should be done in the preoperative period. In this case, we presented a report of two children who had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, with airway management performed at the right lateral position to prevent the pharyngeal collapse and rapid sequence intubation performed using a short-acting muscle relaxant. PMID:27366426

  18. Obstructive apnea during sleep is associated with peripheral vasoconstriction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imadojemu, Virginia A.; Gleeson, Kevin; Gray, Kristen S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.; Leuenberger, Urs A.

    2002-01-01

    Obstructive apnea during sleep is associated with a substantial transient blood pressure elevation. The mechanism of this pressor response is unclear. In this study we measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (Psa), and mean limb blood velocity as an index of blood flow (MBV, Doppler) and calculated changes in limb vascular resistance during and after apneas during both wakefulness and sleep in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Immediately postapnea during sleep Psa increased significantly compared with the earlier stages of apnea and this was preceded by a rise of MSNA (n = 5). In contrast to blood pressure, MBV remained unchanged. Because resistance = blood pressure/blood flow, limb vascular resistance increased by 29 +/- 8% from late apnea to postapnea (n = 7, p < 0.002). Voluntary breathhold maneuvers during room air exposure evoked similar responses (n = 10). Supplemental oxygen administered via nonrebreather face mask attenuated the MSNA and vasoconstrictor responses to obstructive (n = 2) and voluntary apneas (n = 10). Our data suggest that obstructive apneas in patients with the obstructive apnea syndrome are accompanied by transient limb vasoconstriction. This vasoconstrictor response appears to be, at least in part, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and may be linked to hypoxia.

  19. Hyperinflation is associated with lower sleep efficiency in COPD with co-existent obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeff S; Wolfe, Lisa F; Lu, Brandon S; Kalhan, Ravi

    2009-12-01

    Prior research has shown that individuals with obstructive lung disease are at risk for sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality. We postulated that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (known as overlap syndrome) who have more severe lung disease, as measured by lung hyperinflation (inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity), would have greater sleep disturbances independent of traditional measures of sleep apnea. We performed a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients evaluated and treated in an academic pulmonary clinic for overlap syndrome. Pulmonary function tests and polysomnogram data were collected. Thirty patients with overlap syndrome were included in the analysis. We found significant univariable associations between sleep efficiency and apnea/hypopnea index (beta = -0.285, p = 0.01) and between sleep efficiency and lung hyperinflation (beta = 0.654, p = 0.03). Using multivariable linear regression, the relationship between sleep efficiency and lung hyperinflation remained significant (beta = 1.13, p = 0.02) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, apnea/hypopnea index, FEV(1)% predicted, oxygen saturation nadir, medications, and cardiac disease. We conclude that increased severity of hyperinflation is associated with worse sleep efficiency, independent of apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia. The mechanisms underlying this observation are uncertain. We speculate that therapies aimed at reducing lung hyperinflation may improve sleep quality in patients with overlap syndrome.

  20. Wrist actigraphic assessment of sleep in 116 community based subjects suspected of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Middelkoop, H. A.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; van Hilten, J. J.; Ruwhof, C. W.; Kamphuisen, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The combined use of wrist actigraphic assessment and self assessment of sleep in the screening of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was evaluated in a community based sample. METHODS--One hundred and sixteen community based subjects clinically suspected of having obstructive sleep apnoea (syndrome) were evaluated by means of simultaneous ambulatory recording of respiration (oronasal flow thermistry), motor activity (wrist actigraphy), and subjective sleep (sleep log) during one night of sleep. RESULTS--The subjects were distributed according to their apnoea index (AI); AI < 1 (non-apnoeic snorers) 44%; AI 1- < 5 39%; and AI > or = 5 17%. High apnoea index values were associated with self reported disturbed sleep initiation and more fragmented and increased levels of motor activity and decreased duration of immobility periods, particularly in those with an apnoea index of > or = 5. Across subjects the duration of immobility periods was the only predictor of the apnoea index, explaining 11% of its variance. Use of the multiple regression equation to discriminate retrospectively between those with an apnoea index of < 1 and > or = 5 resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 75% and 43%, and 5% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS--The combined use of a sleep log and actigraphic assessment of sleep failed to identify reliably those subjects who suffered from obstructive sleep apnoea (syndrome) in a sample of community based subjects reporting habitual snoring combined with excessive daytime sleepiness and/or nocturnal respiratory arrests. Images PMID:7660344

  1. Inflammatory cytokines in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Cheng, Chuan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and with cognitive impairments. This study aimed to investigate the status of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 23 (IL-23) and cognition in pediatric OSA. Controls and OSA children participated in the study. Exclusion criteria were adenotonsillectomy, heart, neurological and severe psychiatric diseases, craniofacial syndromes, and obesity. Polysomnogram was followed by serum testing for inflammatory markers and neurocognitive tests such as continuous performance task (CPT) and Wisconsin card sorting test, questionnaires, analyses of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, and IL-23. Seventy-nine, 4 to 12-year-old subjects in 2 groups ended the study: 47 nonobese OSA children (mean age = 7.84 ± 0.56 years, body mass index [BMI] = 16.95 ± 0.47 kg/m2, BMI z-score = 0.15 ± 0.21, and mean apnea–hypopnea index [AHI] = 9.13 ± 1.67 events/h) and 32 healthy control children (mean age = 7.02 ± 0.65 years, with BMI = 16.55 ± 0.58 kg/m2, BMI z-score = −0.12 ± 0.27, and mean AHI = 0.41 ± 0.07 event/h) were enrolled. Serum cytokine analyses showed significantly higher levels of HS-CRP, IL-17, and IL-23 in OSA children (P = 0.002, P = 0.024, and P = 0.047). Regression test showed significant influence of HS-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and specifically IL-23, with the continuous performance test and Wisconsin card sorting test. OSA children have abnormal levels of IL-17, an interleukin related to T helper 17 cells, a T helper cell involved in development of autoimmunity and inflammation. This high expression level may contribute to the complications of pediatric OSA; we also found a significant influence of inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-23, on abnormal neurocognitive testing. PMID

  2. Heart rate variability in childhood obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka-Li; Yung, Tak-Cheung; Ng, Daniel K; Chan, Chung-Hong; Lau, Wing-Fai; Fu, Yu-Ming

    2011-03-01

    The identification of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is important because of morbidities associated with OSA. A previous adult study demonstrated the use of heart rate variability (HRV) as a tool to identify patients with moderate to severe OSA. Either a reduction in time parameters or an increase in LF/HF ratio was seen at overnight or 24-hr studies suggestive of increased sympathetic modulation. To study the feasibility of daytime HRV as a screening tool, a short-term recording of HRV is studied. Since it was shown in adult study that increased normalized LF, decreased normalized HF and increased LF/HF ratio could be detectable during supine rest at daytime awake period, the authors hypothesize that the differences are also detectable in children. Children who underwent sleep polysomnography for suspected OSA were recruited. Subjects were classified OSA if apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 1.5/hr and non-OSA if AHI ≤ 1.5/hr. Continuous 1-hr electrocardiographic monitoring was recorded in awake children during the day. Parameters from time domain and frequency domain were analyzed. Seventy-four male and 17 female snoring subjects were included in this study. Fifty-one (56%) and 40 (44%) of them were classified as "non-OSA" and "OSA," respectively. pNN50, a parameter for parasympathetic modulation, was significantly reduced in the OSA group when compared with the non-OSA group. Using multiple regression, all time domain variables were shown to be decreased in OSA group. Our results suggest that 1-hr study of HRV may be a feasible tool in identifying children with OSA.

  3. Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Atkeson, Amy; Jelic, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial activation and inflammation are important mediators of accelerated atherogenesis and consequent increased cardiovascular morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Repetitive episodes of hypoxia/reoxygenation associated with transient cessation of breathing during sleep in OSA resemble ischemia/reperfusion injury and may be the main culprit underlying endothelial dysfunction in OSA. Additional factors such as repetitive arousals resulting in sleep fragmentation and deprivation and individual genetic susceptibility to vascular manifestations of OSA contribute to impaired endothelial function in OSA. The present review focuses on possible mechanisms that underlie endothelial activation and inflammation in OSA.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mohsenin, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder which is characterized by recurrent upper closure with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. OSA increases the risk of vascular disorders in the form of stroke, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and hypertension. The mechanisms underlying the vascular disorders are several and include intermittent hypoxia with release of cytokines, angiogenic inhibitors, free radicals, and adhesion molecules. During apneas, arterial blood pressure gradually rises and surges abruptly after the termination of apnea. Two thirds of patients with OSA will ultimately have diurnal hypertension. This review discusses the literature supporting the significant role of OSA in hypertension and the effect of OSA treatment on blood pressure.

  5. Quality Measures for the Care of Pediatric Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kothare, Sanjeev V.; Rosen, Carol L.; Lloyd, Robin M.; Paruthi, Shalini; Thomas, Sherene M.; Troester, Matthew M.; Carden, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    The Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a Task Force to develop quality measures as part of its strategic plan to promote high quality patient-centered care. Among many potential dimensions of quality, the AASM requested Workgroups to develop outcome and process measures to aid in evaluating the quality of care of five common sleep disorders: insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea in adults, obstructive sleep apnea in children, restless legs syndrome, and narcolepsy. This paper describes the rationale, background, general methods development, and considerations in implementation of these quality measures in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. This document describes measurement methods for five desirable process measures: assessment of symptoms and risk factors of OSA, initiation of an evidence-based action plan, objective evaluation of high-risk children with OSA by obtaining a polysomnogram (PSG), reassessment of signs and symptoms of OSA within 12 months, and documentation of objective assessment of positive airway pressure adherence. When these five process measures are met, clinicians should be able to achieve the two defined outcomes: improve detection of childhood OSA and reduce signs and symptoms of OSA after initiation of a management plan. The AASM recommends the use of these measures as part of quality improvement programs that will enhance the ability to improve care for patients with childhood OSA. Citation: Kothare SV, Rosen CL, Lloyd RM, Paruthi S, Thomas SM, Troester MM, Carden KA. Quality measures for the care of pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):385–404. PMID:25700879

  6. Chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and autonomic deregulation in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gozal, David; Hakim, Fahed; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent sleep disorder of breathing in both adults and children that is fraught with substantial cardiovascular morbidities, the latter being attributable to a complex interplay between intermittent hypoxia (IH), episodic hypercapnia, recurrent large intra-thoracic pressure swings, and sleep disruption. Alterations in autonomic nervous system function could underlie the perturbations in cardiovascular, neurocognitive, immune, endocrine and metabolic functions that affect many of the patients suffering from OSA. Although these issues have received substantial attention in adults, the same has thus far failed to occur in children, creating a quasi misperception that children are protected. Here, we provide a critical overview of the evidence supporting the presence of autonomic nervous system (ANS) perturbations in children with OSA, draw some parallel assessments to known mechanisms in rodents and adult humans, particularly, peripheral and central chemoreceptor and baroreceptor pathways, and suggest future research directions.

  7. Physiological Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren; Arens, Raanan

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing in children refers to a group of respiratory disorders that occur or are exacerbated during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the most significant disorders in this group. OSAS can present in all age groups from early infancy to adolescent years. The cardinal feature of OSAS is limitation of inspiratory flow and volume during sleep resulting in abnormal gas exchange and/or alteration of sleep patterns. When OSAS is a chronic condition it often results in adverse physiological effects that impact on health and development. The present review discusses genesis of OSAS in children and consequent end organ injury with special emphasis on behavior and cognition, cardiovascular function, autonomic regulation, inflammation, endothelial function and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23707879

  8. Complementary and integrative treatments: managing obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Billings, Kathleen R; Maddalozzo, John

    2013-06-01

    This article familiarizes the otolaryngologist with potential integrative and complementary treatment options for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The authors discuss current medical and surgical regimens, and then provide a review of the current literature on integrative and complementary approaches for treatment of this disorder.

  9. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypertension. Evidence of their relationship].

    PubMed

    González-Pliego, José Angel; González-Marines, David; Guzmán-Sánchez, César Manuel; Odusola-Vázquez, Samuel O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze the relation between obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. We present epidemiological data of the respiratory disorder and its association with high blood pressure, as well as physiopathological interactions between both conditions, the diagnostic methods, and the impact of treatment on pathophysiology and prognosis.

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is More Common than Central Sleep Apnea in Methadone Maintenance Patients with Subjective Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Katherine M.; Kurth, Megan E.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Corso, Richard P.; Millman, Richard P.; Stein, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Opioid-dependent patients treated with methadone have subjective sleep complaints and disrupted sleep on polysomnography (PSG). Previous studies of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in this population have focused on central sleep apnea (CSA). Our objectives were to: (1) characterize obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and CSA in patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid dependence; (2) examine factors associated with SDB in this population; and (3) investigate whether SDB was related to severity of subjective sleep complaints in MMT patients with subjective sleep disturbances. Methods We analyzed OSA and CSA from one night of home PSG in 71 patients who were in MMT for at least 3 months and had a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) score > 5. Results OSA (defined as obstructive apnea-hypoponea index (OAHI) ≥ 5) was observed in 35.2% of our sample. OSA was associated with higher body mass index, longer duration in MMT, and non-Caucasian race. CSA (defined as central apnea index (CAI) ≥ 5) was observed in 14.1% of the sample. CSA was not associated with methadone dose or concomitant drug use. Subjective sleep disturbance measured with the PSQI was not related to OSA or CSA. Conclusions SDB was common in this sample of MMT patients and OSA was more common than CSA. Given the lack of association between presence of SDB and severity of subjective sleep difficulties, factors other than sleep apnea must account for complaints of disturbed sleep in this population. PMID:20079978

  11. Sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence Gaps and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jen, Rachel; Li, Yanru; Owens, Robert L; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence is rising to epidemic proportions due to historical smoking trends, the aging of the population, and air pollution. Although blaming the victims has been common in COPD, the majority of COPD worldwide is now thought to be nonsmoking related, that is, caused by air pollution and cookstove exposure. It is increasingly appreciated that subjective and objective sleep disturbances are common in COPD, although strong epidemiological data are lacking. People with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus COPD (the so-called overlap syndrome) have a high risk of cardiovascular death, although again mechanisms are unknown and untested. This review aims to draw attention to the problem of sleep in COPD, to encourage clinicians to ask their patients about symptoms, and to stimulate further research in this area given the large burden of the disease. PMID:27445564

  12. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Neurocognitive Function and Impact of Continuous Positive Air Pressure.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charles R; Harrington, John J

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can negatively impact attention, memory, learning, executive function, and overall intellectual function in adults and children. Imaging techniques, including MRI, MR diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and fMRI, have provided additional insight into the anatomic and functional underpinnings of OSA-related cognitive impairment. Both animal and human studies have looked to elucidate the separate effects of oxygen desaturation and sleep fragmentation on independent aspects of cognition. Data from animal models point to neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress as driving factors of cognitive impairment. PMID:27542875

  13. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment: Effect on Serum Lipids in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Michailidis, Vassileios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Nena, Evangelia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder in adults. Its hallmark is repetitive episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during sleep associated with increasing respiratory efforts. This leads to oxyhaemoglobin desaturation, sleep fragmentation, and daytime symptoms, mainly excessive sleepiness. Accumulating evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia and oxyhaemoglobin desaturation may, irrespective of obesity, lead to elevation of serum lipids even in non-dyslipidaemic OSA patients. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for OSA, since it eliminates upper airway collapse during sleep and improves sleep fragmentation, daytime symptoms and quality of life. Moreover, it has been proposed that the amelioration of breathing disturbances during sleep can improve several markers of the lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as apolipoproteins A, B and C. Indeed, some studies have reported improvements in these parameters especially in CPAP adherent patients. However, other studies failed to confirm this beneficial effect. The present article reviews the issue whether CPAP treatment exerts a beneficial effect on lipids. PMID:22216063

  14. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment: effect on serum lipids in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, Vassileios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Nena, Evangelia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder in adults. Its hallmark is repetitive episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during sleep associated with increasing respiratory efforts. This leads to oxyhaemoglobin desaturation, sleep fragmentation, and daytime symptoms, mainly excessive sleepiness. Accumulating evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia and oxyhaemoglobin desaturation may, irrespective of obesity, lead to elevation of serum lipids even in non-dyslipidaemic OSA patients. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for OSA, since it eliminates upper airway collapse during sleep and improves sleep fragmentation, daytime symptoms and quality of life. Moreover, it has been proposed that the amelioration of breathing disturbances during sleep can improve several markers of the lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as apolipoproteins A, B and C. Indeed, some studies have reported improvements in these parameters especially in CPAP adherent patients. However, other studies failed to confirm this beneficial effect. The present article reviews the issue whether CPAP treatment exerts a beneficial effect on lipids. PMID:22216063

  15. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and health-related quality of life in individuals affected with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Østertun Geirdal, Amy; Øverland, Britt; Heimdal, Ketil; Storhaug, Kari; Asten, Pamela; Akre, Harriet

    2013-11-01

    Although the relationship between Quality of Life (QoL) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported in several studies, little is known about this relationship among individuals affected with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The aim of this study was to examine the associations between obstructive sleep and QoL in TCS patients. Thirty-six individuals with TCS (8-75 years) were invited to participate in expanded medical examinations, including a sleep study, polysomnography, as well as to respond to questionnaires about health related Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Twenty-three (64 %) responded to the invitation, but four were later excluded due to additional diagnoses or unconfirmed TCS, and four were below 12 years and excluded due to different scoring rules for sleep and respiratory disturbances in young children and adults. The remaining group comprised 15 adults and adolescents with TCS, 5 male (33 %) and 10 female (66 %). The participants were between 12 and 75 years of age (mean 38.6, SD 18.5). Obstructive sleep was found in 87 % of the patients and several sleep apnea parameters, among these wake time after sleep, subjective snoring and mean saturation, were associated with poorer HRQoL. OSA appears to account for reduced HRQoL in adolescents and adults with TCS.

  16. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40-300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses.

  17. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40-300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses. PMID:27471038

  18. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40–300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02–2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses. PMID:27471038

  19. Disparities and genetic risk factors in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Katherine A; Patel, Sanjay R

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent condition. A growing body of literature supports substantial racial disparities in the prevalence, risk factors, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. Craniofacial structure among Asians appears to confer an elevated risk of OSA despite lower rates of obesity. Among African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics, OSA prevalence is increased, likely due in part to obesity. The burden of symptoms, particularly excessive daytime sleepiness, is higher among African Americans, although Hispanics more often report snoring. Limited data suggest that African Americans may be more susceptible to hypertension in the setting of OSA. While differences in genetic risk factors may explain disparities in OSA burden, no definitive genetic differences have yet been identified. In addition to disparities in OSA development, disparities in OSA diagnosis and treatment have also been identified. Increased severity of disease at diagnosis among African Americans suggests a delay in diagnosis. Treatment outcomes are also suboptimal among African Americans. In children, tonsillectomy is less likely to cure OSA and more commonly associated with complications in this group. Among adults, adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is substantially lower in African Americans. The reasons for these disparities, particularly in outcomes, are not well understood and should be a research priority. PMID:26428843

  20. Assessing severity of obstructive sleep apnea by fractal dimension sequence analysis of sleep EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, X. C.; Luo, L.; Shao, J.; Zhang, C.; Ma, J.; Wang, G. F.; Liu, Y.; Peng, C.-K.; Fang, J.

    2009-10-01

    Different sleep stages are associated with distinct dynamical patterns in EEG signals. In this article, we explored the relationship between the sleep architecture and fractal dimension (FD) of sleep EEG. In particular, we applied the FD analysis to the sleep EEG of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), which is characterized by recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturation and arousals from sleep, a disease which received increasing public attention due to its significant potential impact on health. We showed that the variation of FD reflects the macrostructure of sleep. Furthermore, the fast fluctuation of FD, as measured by the zero-crossing rate of detrended FD (zDFD), is a useful indicator of sleep disturbance, and therefore, correlates with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and hourly number of blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2) decreases greater than 4%, as obstructive apnea/hypopnea disturbs sleep architecture. For practical purpose, a modified index combining zDFD of EEG and body mass index (BMI) may be useful for evaluating the severity of OSAHS symptoms.

  1. Acoustic-integrated dynamic MR imaging for a patient with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunn-Jy; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Chang, Yi-Chung; Hsu, Ying-Chieh; Huon, Leh-Kiong; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pham, Van-Truong; Lin, Chen; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is caused by multi-level upper airway obstruction. Anatomic changes at the sites of obstruction may modify the physical or acoustic properties of snores. The surgical success of OSA depends upon precise localization of obstructed levels. We present a case of OSAS who received simultaneous dynamic MRI and snore acoustic recordings. The synchronized image and acoustic information successfully characterize the sites of temporal obstruction during sleep-disordered breathing events.

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in a Railroad Controller Worker.

    PubMed

    Raşcu, Agripina; Moise, Laura; Naghi, Eugenia; Handra, Claudia; Oţelea, Marina; Raşcu, Alexandra; Lăcătuşu, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) constitutes a healthcare issue of major importance at international level with a prevalence of 5% in the active population. Consequentially to the induced co-morbidities, the mortality reaches as high as 39% at eight years time lapse from the initial diagnostic. Seldom undiagnosed, the severity spectrum of SAS, in the absence of therapy, only continues to amplify. Here below, we are presenting the case of a 49 years old patient, railroad controller worker, non-smoker and occasionally alcohol user, who was hospitalized in our Clinic for Occupational Medicine. During last year, the patient was accusing excessive daytime somnolence, breath arrests during sleep, intense snoring, morning headaches, morning oral dryness, pin point chest pain, nocturia (4-5 nocturnal urination), concentration difficulties and an overall reduced work capacity. The presumptive diagnostic of Obstructive Sleep Apnea is being considered based on the correlation between the clinical presentation and the Epworth, Stanford and Berlin questionnaire results. The key diagnostic element was the polygraph recording over an 8 hours sleep period. Positive Diagnosis: Obstructive Sleep Apnea severe form. Management and recommendations: (1) Behavioral therapy (weight loss) and (2) CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) therapy which was instituted immediately after the positive diagnosis was made. As a consequence, the respiratory symptoms, the frequent episodes of daytime snoozing and the concentration difficulties at work place diminished considerably. PMID:26076566

  3. Using the Pathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea to Teach Cardiopulmonary Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The effects of intermittent upper airway obstruction include alveolar hypoventilation, altered arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors, which leads to frequent arousals. These arousals disturb sleep…

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Insomnia Comorbid with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Lack, Leon; Sweetman, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Insomnia is often comorbid with obstructive sleep apnea. It reduces positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy acceptance and adherence. Comorbid patients show greater daytime impairments and poorer health outcomes. The insomnia often goes undiagnosed, undertreated, or untreated. Pharmacotherapy is not recommended for long-term treatment. Although care should be taken administering behavioral therapies to patients with elevated sleepiness, cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTi) is an effective and durable nondrug therapy that reduces symptoms and may increase the effectiveness of PAP therapy. Sleep clinics should be alert to comorbid insomnia and provide adequate diagnostic tools and clinicians with CBTi expertise. PMID:27542883

  5. A new treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by electrical stimulation of submental region.

    PubMed

    Miki, H; Hida, W; Inoue, H; Takishima, T

    1988-01-01

    Loss of upper airway muscle tone during sleep has been thought to be responsible for obstructive apnea episodes. To examine the effect of electrical stimulation of the submental region on sleep apnea episodes, patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were polysomnographically studied during all-night session with and without stimulation.

  6. Baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep in severe obstructive sleep apnoea: effects of acute CPAP.

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, M R; Parati, G; Insalaco, G; Castiglioni, P; Marrone, O; Romano, S; Salvaggio, A; Mancia, G; Bonsignore, G; Di Rienzo, M

    2006-01-01

    Baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep (baroreflex sensitivity; BRS) has been shown to be depressed in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and improved after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Whether CPAP also acutely affects BRS during sleep in uncomplicated severe OSA is still debatable. Blood pressure was monitored during nocturnal polysomnography in 18 patients at baseline and during first-time CPAP application. Spontaneous BRS was analysed by the sequence method, and estimated as the mean sequence slope. CPAP did not acutely affect mean blood pressure or heart rate but decreased cardiovascular variability during sleep. Mean BRS increased slightly during CPAP application (from 6.5+/-2.4 to 7.5+/-2.9 ms x mmHg(-1)), mostly in response to decreasing blood pressure. The change in BRS did not correlate with changes in arterial oxygen saturation or apnoea/hypopnoea index. The small change in baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep at first application of continuous positive airway pressure in severe obstructive sleep apnoea was unrelated to the acute resolution of nocturnal hypoxaemia, and might reflect autonomic adjustments to positive intrathoracic pressure, and/or improved sleep architecture. The small increase in baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep may be of clinical relevance as it was accompanied by reduced cardiovascular variability, which is acknowledged as an independent cardiovascular risk factor.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnoea in Treacher Collins syndrome: prevalence, severity and cause.

    PubMed

    Plomp, R G; Bredero-Boelhouwer, H H; Joosten, K F M; Wolvius, E B; Hoeve, H L J; Poublon, R M L; Mathijssen, I M J

    2012-06-01

    This cohort study in 35 patients (13 children) evaluates the prevalence, severity and anatomical cause of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. Ambulatory polysomnography was performed cross-sectionally to determine OSAS prevalence and severity. All upper airway related surgical interventions were evaluated retrospectively. In 11 patients, sleep endoscopy, and flexible and rigid endoscopy were applied to determine the level of anatomical obstruction of the upper airway. The overall prevalence of OSAS in Treacher Collins patients was 46% (54% in children; 41% in adults). Thirty-eight upper airway related surgical interventions were performed in 17 patients. Examination of the upper airway revealed various anatomical levels of obstruction, from the nasal septum to the trachea. Most significant obstruction was found at the level of the oro/hypopharynx. OSAS in Treacher Collins patients is an important problem so all patients should be screened for OSAS by polysomnography. Endoscopy of the upper airways was helpful in determining the level of obstruction. Surgical treatment at one level will not resolve OSAS in most patients because OSAS in Treacher Collins has a multilevel origin. Non-invasive ventilation (continuous positive airway pressure or bilevel positive airway pressure) or tracheotomy should be considered as a treatment modality.

  8. Oxygen desaturation during night sleep affects decision-making in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Högl, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed decision-making and its associations with executive functions and sleep-related factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Thirty patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea and 20 healthy age- and education-matched controls performed the Iowa Gambling Task, a decision-making task under initial ambiguity, as well as an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Patients, but not controls, also underwent a detailed polysomnographic assessment. Results of group analyses showed that patients performed at the same level of controls on the Iowa Gambling Task. However, the proportion of risky performers was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. Decision-making did not correlate with executive functions and subjective ratings of sleepiness, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between advantageous performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and percentage of N2 sleep, minimal oxygen saturation, average oxygen saturation and time spent below 90% oxygen saturation level. Also, the minimal oxygen saturation accounted for 27% of variance in decision-making. In conclusion, this study shows that a subgroup of patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at risk of disadvantageous decision-making under ambiguity. Among the sleep-related factors, oxygen saturation is a significant predictor of advantageous decision-making. PMID:26899164

  9. Oxygen desaturation during night sleep affects decision-making in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Högl, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed decision-making and its associations with executive functions and sleep-related factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Thirty patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea and 20 healthy age- and education-matched controls performed the Iowa Gambling Task, a decision-making task under initial ambiguity, as well as an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Patients, but not controls, also underwent a detailed polysomnographic assessment. Results of group analyses showed that patients performed at the same level of controls on the Iowa Gambling Task. However, the proportion of risky performers was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. Decision-making did not correlate with executive functions and subjective ratings of sleepiness, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between advantageous performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and percentage of N2 sleep, minimal oxygen saturation, average oxygen saturation and time spent below 90% oxygen saturation level. Also, the minimal oxygen saturation accounted for 27% of variance in decision-making. In conclusion, this study shows that a subgroup of patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at risk of disadvantageous decision-making under ambiguity. Among the sleep-related factors, oxygen saturation is a significant predictor of advantageous decision-making.

  10. Fatal Consequences: Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Train Engineer

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    This special report describes the findings of the National Transportation Safety Board’s investigation into the probable cause of the derailment of a Metro-North passenger train in the Bronx, New York on December 1, 2013, that resulted in 4 deaths and injuries to 59 additional persons. A key finding in the medical investigation was the engineer’s post-accident diagnosis of severe, obstructive sleep apnea, and the probable cause of the accident was determined to be the result of the engineer having fallen asleep while operating the train. This accident highlights the importance of screening, evaluating, and ensuring adequate treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly among patients working in positions where impairment of physical or cognitive function or sudden incapacitation may result in serious harm to the public. PMID:26553898

  11. Fatal Consequences: Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Train Engineer.

    PubMed

    McKay, Mary Pat

    2015-11-01

    This special report describes the findings of the National Transportation Safety Board's investigation into the probable cause of the derailment of a Metro-North passenger train in the Bronx, New York on December 1, 2013, that resulted in 4 deaths and injuries to 59 additional persons. A key finding in the medical investigation was the engineer's post-accident diagnosis of severe, obstructive sleep apnea, and the probable cause of the accident was determined to be the result of the engineer having fallen asleep while operating the train. This accident highlights the importance of screening, evaluating, and ensuring adequate treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly among patients working in positions where impairment of physical or cognitive function or sudden incapacitation may result in serious harm to the public.

  12. Fatal Consequences: Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Train Engineer.

    PubMed

    McKay, Mary Pat

    2015-11-01

    This special report describes the findings of the National Transportation Safety Board's investigation into the probable cause of the derailment of a Metro-North passenger train in the Bronx, New York on December 1, 2013, that resulted in 4 deaths and injuries to 59 additional persons. A key finding in the medical investigation was the engineer's post-accident diagnosis of severe, obstructive sleep apnea, and the probable cause of the accident was determined to be the result of the engineer having fallen asleep while operating the train. This accident highlights the importance of screening, evaluating, and ensuring adequate treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly among patients working in positions where impairment of physical or cognitive function or sudden incapacitation may result in serious harm to the public. PMID:26553898

  13. Ophthalmic Diseases in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Skorin, Leonid; Knutson, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 2% of women and 4% of men, but the prevalence of asymptomatic OSA is significantly higher. Several ophthalmic conditions are associated with OSA, including floppy eyelid syndrome, glaucoma, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema, keratoconus, and central serous chorioretinopathy. The purpose of this review is to provide primary care physicians with a general knowledge of the signs, symptoms, and management of the ophthalmic diseases associated with OSA. PMID:27455101

  14. Solitary fibrous tumor of the retropharynx causing obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ivan H; Eisele, David W; Yang, Tony L; Iezza, Gioia

    2006-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare, usually benign, spindle cell neoplasms that most often originate near mesothelium-lined surfaces of the pleural or peritoneal cavity. SFTs reported in the head and neck occur most commonly in the oral cavity, sinonasal tract, and orbit. We report a case of SFT of the retropharynx causing severe obstructive sleep apnea. The diagnostic and management strategies of SFTs are discussed.

  15. Preoperative evaluation of patients with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Cartagena, Rafael

    2005-09-01

    Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea are conditions frequently encountered by the anesthesiologist and may have a significant impact on perioperative outcomes. This article discusses the preoperative evaluation of patients with one or both of these conditions. The goals of the preoperative assessment are to identify issues that can adversely affect the patient. This information is critical to forming an effective plan for the perioperative care of the patient.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kiely, J L; McNicholas, W T

    2000-07-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) but there is debate as to whether OSAS is an independent risk factor for their development, since OSAS may be associated with other disorders and risk factors that predispose to cardiovascular disease. In an effort to quantify the risk of OSAS patients for cardiovascular disease arising from these other factors, the authors assessed the future risk for cardiovascular disease among a group of 114 consecutive patients with established OSAS prior to nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy, using an established method of risk prediction employed in the Framingham studies. Patients were 100 males, aged (mean+/-SD) 52+/-9.0 yrs, and 14 females, aged 51+/-10.4 yrs, with an apnoea/hypopnoea index of 45+/-22 x h(-1). Based on either a prior diagnosis, or a mean of three resting blood pressure recordings >140 mmHg systolic and/or 90 diastolic, 68% of patients were hypertensive. Only 18% were current smokers, while 16% had either diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance, and 63% had elevated fasting cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels. The estimated 10-yr risk of a coronary heart disease (CHD) event in males was (mean+/-SEM) 13.9+/-0.9%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 12.1-16.0, and for a stroke was 12.3+/-1.4%; 95% CI 9.4-15.1, with a combined 10 yr risk for stroke and CHD events of 32.9+/-2.7%; 95% CI 27.8-38.5 in males aged >53 yrs. These findings indicate that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients are at high risk of future cardiovascular disease from factors other than obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, and may help explain the difficulties in identifying a potential independent risk from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. PMID:10933098

  17. Sleep Architecture Following a Weight Loss Intervention in Overweight and Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes: Relationship to Apnea-Hypopnea Index

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Kuna, Samuel T.; Zammit, Gary; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Newman, Anne B.; Millman, Richard P.; Reboussin, David M.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Jakicic, John M.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Wing, Rena R.; Foster, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine if weight loss and/or changes in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) improve sleep architecture in overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial including 264 overweight/obese adults with T2D and OSA. Participants were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a diabetes and support education (DSE) control group. Measures included anthropometry, AHI, and sleep at baseline and year-1, year-2, and year-4 follow-ups. Results: Changes in sleep duration (total sleep time [TST]), continuity [wake after sleep onset (WASO)], and architecture stage 1, stage 2, slow wave sleep, and REM sleep) from baseline to year 1, 2, and 4 did not differ between ILI and DSE. Repeated-measure mixed-model analyses including data from baseline through year-4 for all participants demonstrated a significant positive association between AHI and stage 1 sleep (p < 0.001), and a significant negative association between AHI and stage 2 (p = 0.01) and REM sleep (p < 0.001), whereas changes in body weight had no relation to any sleep stages or TST. WASO had a significant positive association with change in body weight (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Compared to control, the ILI did not induce significant changes in sleep across the 4-year follow-up. In participants overall, reduced AHI in overweight/obese adults with T2D and OSA was associated with decreased stage 1, and increased stage 2 and REM sleep. These sleep architecture changes are more strongly related to reductions in AHI than body weight, whereas WASO may be more influenced by weight than AHI. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00194259 Citation: Shechter A, St-Onge MP, Kuna ST, Zammit G, RoyChoudhury A, Newman AB, Millman RP, Reboussin DM, Wadden TA, Jakicic JM, Pi-Sunyer FX, Wing RR, Foster GD, Sleep AHEAD Research Group of the Look AHEAD Research Group. Sleep architecture following a

  18. Physiotherapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Lequeux, T; Chantrain, G; Bonnand, M; Chelle, A J; Thill, M P

    2005-06-01

    Apneic patients have hypotonia of the lingual and supra-hyoid muscles. The dysfunction of theses muscles leading to a collapse of the upper airway is responsible for the apnea. The goal of this study, designed as a before-after trial, is to determine the effect of lingual and supra-hyoid muscle strengthening on obstructive sleep apnea. Thirty-four patients with obstructive sleep apnea were included (consecutive sample). Only 16 patients completed the study. The treatment consisted of 30 sessions of transcutaneous neuromuscular stimulation administered to the submental region associated with muscular exercises. The effect on apneic events was analyzed with a polysomnography before and after the treatment. Thirteen patients could be analyzed for the statistical studies. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) decreased from 32.9 to 20.6 (Wilcoxon rank test: P = 0.017). Seven patients ended the study with an AHI of less than 10, and three more patients decreased their AHI by more than 50%. This treatment significantly decreased the AHI in most of the patients. A larger study with more patients and with a long-term follow-up is necessary to determine the place of physiotherapy in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

  19. Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea consequences

    PubMed Central

    Zamarrón, Carlos; Paz, Vanesa García; Morete, Emilio; del Campo Matías, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two diseases that often coexist within an individual. This coexistence is known as overlap syndrome and is the result of chance rather than a pathophysiological link. Although there are claims of a very high incidence of OSAS in COPD patients, recent studies report that it is similar to the general population. Overlap patients present sleep-disordered breathing associated to upper and lower airway obstruction and a reduction in respiratory drive. These patients present unique characteristics, which set them apart from either COPD or OSAS patients. COPD and OSAS are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events and their coexistence in overlap syndrome probably increases this risk. The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular risk are still unclear, but may involve systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and tonic elevation of sympathetic neural activity. The treatment of choice for overlap syndrome in stable patients is CPAP with supplemental oxygen for correction of upper airway obstructive episodes and hypoxemia during sleep. PMID:19281082

  20. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  1. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  2. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  3. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  4. 21 CFR 872.5570 - Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...

  5. Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.; Sofer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4% (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnoea and schizophrenia--a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kalucy, Megan J; Grunstein, Ron; Lambert, Timothy; Glozier, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significantly increased physical morbidity and mortality particularly secondary to cardiometabolic disorders. In people with schizophrenia, rates of obesity and the metabolic syndrome are high compared to the general population. Whilst the weight gain secondary to antipsychotic medication is largely to blame, other factors include inactivity, poor diet and possibly the illness itself. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common and frequently under-recognized condition which may be associated with disabling symptoms including daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety and long term increases in morbidity and mortality secondary to cardiometabolic disease. As the primary risk factor is obesity, elevated rates of sleep apnoea would therefore seem likely in association with schizophrenia. Thus, OSA might represent a treatable cause of psychiatric and physical co-morbidity in patients with schizophrenia. A review of the literature revealed a paucity of quality research in this area. Available data suggest increased rates of sleep apnoea in schizophrenia and that psychotic symptoms may improve when co-morbid sleep apnoea is treated. Health practitioners may be unaware of the need to screen for sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia and the disorder may be significantly under-recognised. Research is required to clarify the epidemiology, consequences and management of sleep apnoea in association with schizophrenia. PMID:23528272

  7. Obstructive sleep apnoea and schizophrenia--a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kalucy, Megan J; Grunstein, Ron; Lambert, Timothy; Glozier, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significantly increased physical morbidity and mortality particularly secondary to cardiometabolic disorders. In people with schizophrenia, rates of obesity and the metabolic syndrome are high compared to the general population. Whilst the weight gain secondary to antipsychotic medication is largely to blame, other factors include inactivity, poor diet and possibly the illness itself. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common and frequently under-recognized condition which may be associated with disabling symptoms including daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety and long term increases in morbidity and mortality secondary to cardiometabolic disease. As the primary risk factor is obesity, elevated rates of sleep apnoea would therefore seem likely in association with schizophrenia. Thus, OSA might represent a treatable cause of psychiatric and physical co-morbidity in patients with schizophrenia. A review of the literature revealed a paucity of quality research in this area. Available data suggest increased rates of sleep apnoea in schizophrenia and that psychotic symptoms may improve when co-morbid sleep apnoea is treated. Health practitioners may be unaware of the need to screen for sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia and the disorder may be significantly under-recognised. Research is required to clarify the epidemiology, consequences and management of sleep apnoea in association with schizophrenia.

  8. Rehabilitation of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chwieśko-Minarowska, Sylwia; Minarowski, Łukasz; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Chwieśko, Jan; Chyczewska, Elżbieta

    2013-12-01

    The current treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) focuses on alleviation of symptoms by increasing airway patency during sleep through positive airway pressure, oral appliances, changes in sleep position, weight loss, or surgical treatment. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is currently the treatment of choice and prevents upper airway obstruction, resulting in improved sleep architecture and daytime symptoms. Despite proven efficacy, adherence to CPAP treatment is still not efficient. The new methods of rehabilitation (exercise training programs, hypoglossal nerve stimulation) for patients with OSAS are currently modified. The aim of the present study was to present recent developments in the field of selected aspects of rehabilitation in patients with OSAS. Database search was focused on exercise training programs and electrostimulation of genioglossus muscle. The search for articles on the rehabilitation interventions for OSAS was performed using the PubMed database from 1966 to 2013. Most of the findings have shown beneficial effects of rehabilitation. In detail, we describe the recent developments and potential adverse effects of electrostimulation and physical exercises. According to the results of studies presented, the above therapy might support conventional treatment or may be an alternative for patients with poor compliance to CPAP therapy, mandibular advancement devices, or ineffective results of surgical procedures as well.

  9. Ventilatory control and airway anatomy in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Andrew; Jordan, Amy S; Malhotra, Atul; Fogel, Robert B; Katz, Eliot S; Schory, Karen; Edwards, Jill K; White, David P

    2004-12-01

    Ventilatory instability may play an important role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. We hypothesized that the influence of ventilatory instability in this disorder would vary depending on the underlying collapsibility of the upper airway. To test this hypothesis, we correlated loop gain with apnea-hypopnea index during supine, nonrapid eye movement sleep in three groups of patients with obstructive sleep apnea based on pharyngeal closing pressure: negative pressure group (pharyngeal closing pressure less than -1 cm H(2)O), atmospheric pressure group (between -1 and +1 cm H(2)O), and positive pressure group (greater than +1 cm H(2)O). Loop gain was measured by sequentially increasing proportional assist ventilation until periodic breathing developed, which occurred in 24 of 25 subjects. Mean loop gain for all three groups was 0.37 +/- 0.11. A significant correlation was found between loop gain and apnea-hypopnea index in the atmospheric group only (r = 0.88, p = 0.0016). We conclude that loop gain has a substantial impact on apnea severity in certain patients with sleep apnea, particularly those with a pharyngeal closing pressure near atmospheric.

  10. Defining common outcome metrics used in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Al-Shawwa, Baha A; Badi, Arunkumar N; Goldberg, Andrew N; Woodson, B Tucker

    2008-12-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing a spectrum that ranges from snoring through disorder of increased airway resistance, to overt sleep apnea affects many clinical disease outcomes. Traditionally, disease outcomes have been measured by polysomnography, with the most common metric being the apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Multiple other clinical metrics are commonly used to assess the severity and impact of disease on important outcomes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These allow assessment of sleepiness, quality of life, performance, and medical, especially cardiovascular outcomes. Currently the available metrics only partially explain the associated disease outcomes in different patients. This review highlights the available clinical, physiological and biomarker metrics in measuring OSA and associated co-morbidities and defines treatment goals.

  11. The burden of obstructive sleep apnea and associated excessive sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F

    2008-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent within the primary care community, and yet it is frequently undiagnosed. The most common symptom of OSA--excessive sleepiness (ES)--can negatively affect quality of life. Because the ES associated with OSA results in an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, occupational accidents, and decreased daily functioning, the primary care provider (PCP) needs to be vigilant for risk factors and symptoms associated with this sleep disorder. Commercial drivers in particular need to be carefully assessed and monitored in collaboration with a sleep specialist. The economic costs of untreated OSA are high. Early diagnosis and treatment of OSA is cost-effective and is greatly aided by a high level of clinical suspicion and an awareness of risk factors for OSA on the part of PCPs.

  12. Personalized Medicine for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Therapies: Are We There Yet?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane; Joosten, Simon A; Hamilton, Garun S

    2016-09-01

    Currently there is no method to predict which treatments for obstructive sleep apnea will have the best outcomes in individual patients. Given that there is increasing interest in a personalized medicine approach to the treatment of a variety of disorders, this review describes the personalized approaches that are currently available for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea as well as future directions for individualized obstructive sleep apnea treatment. PMID:27542876

  13. Tongue Fat and its Relationship to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andrew M.; Keenan, Brendan T.; Jackson, Nicholas; Chan, Eugenia L.; Staley, Bethany; Poptani, Harish; Torigian, Drew A.; Pack, Allan I.; Schwab, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether tongue fat is increased in obese sleep apneics compared to obese subjects without sleep apnea. We hypothesized that excess fat is deposited in the tongue in obese patients with sleep apnea. Design: Case-control design. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients: We examined tongue fat in 31 obese controls (apnea-hypopnea index, 4.1 ± 2.7 events/h) and 90 obese apneics (apnea-hypopnea index, 43.2 ± 27.3 events/h). Analyses were repeated in a subsample of 18 gender-, race-, age-, and BMI-matched case-control pairs. Interventions: All subjects underwent a MRI with three-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging. We used sophisticated volumetric reconstruction algorithms to study the size and distribution of upper airway fat deposits in the tongue and masseter muscles within apneics and obese controls. Measurements and Results: The data supported our a priori hypotheses that after adjustment for age, BMI, gender, and race, the tongue in apneics was significantly larger (P = 0.001) and had an increased amount of fat (P = 0.002) compared to controls. Similar results were seen in our matched sample. Our data also demonstrate that within the apneic and normal tongue, there are regional differences in fat distribution, with larger fat deposits at the base of the tongue. Conclusions: There is increased tongue volume and deposition of fat at the base of tongue in apneics compared to controls. Increased tongue fat may begin to explain the relationship between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Kim AM, Keenan BT, Jackson N, Chan EL, Staley B, Poptani H, Torigian DA, Pack AI, Schwab RJ. Tongue fat and its relationship to obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1639-1648. PMID:25197815

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea–Hypopnea and Incident Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Redline, Susan; Yenokyan, Gayane; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Shahar, Eyal; O'Connor, George T.; Resnick, Helaine E.; Diener-West, Marie; Sanders, Mark H.; Wolf, Philip A.; Geraghty, Estella M.; Ali, Tauqeer; Lebowitz, Michael; Punjabi, Naresh M.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Although obstructive sleep apnea is associated with physiological perturbations that increase risk of hypertension and are proatherogenic, it is uncertain whether sleep apnea is associated with increased stroke risk in the general population. Objectives: To quantify the incidence of ischemic stroke with sleep apnea in a community-based sample of men and women across a wide range of sleep apnea. Methods: Baseline polysomnography was performed between 1995 and 1998 in a longitudinal cohort study. The primary exposure was the obstructive apnea–hypopnea index (OAHI) and outcome was incident ischemic stroke. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 5,422 participants without a history of stroke at the baseline examination and untreated for sleep apnea were followed for a median of 8.7 years. One hundred ninety-three ischemic strokes were observed. In covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, a significant positive association between ischemic stroke and OAHI was observed in men (P value for linear trend: P = 0.016). Men in the highest OAHI quartile (>19) had an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.86 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–7.4). In the mild to moderate range (OAHI, 5–25), each one-unit increase in OAHI in men was estimated to increase stroke risk by 6% (95% confidence interval, 2–10%). In women, stroke was not significantly associated with OAHI quartiles, but increased risk was observed at an OAHI greater than 25. Conclusions: The strong adjusted association between ischemic stroke and OAHI in community-dwelling men with mild to moderate sleep apnea suggests that this is an appropriate target for future stroke prevention trials. PMID:20339144

  15. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep - an underdiagnosed phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Anttalainen, Ulla; Tenhunen, Mirja; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli; Rauhala, Esa; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a well-recognized disorder conventionally diagnosed with an elevated apnea-hypopnea index. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction is a common phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which however is still largely underreported. The major reasons for this are that cyclic breathing pattern coupled with arousals and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation are easy to detect and considered more important than prolonged episodes of increased respiratory effort with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the absence of cycling breathing pattern and repetitive arousals. There is also a growing body of evidence that prolonged partial obstruction is a clinically significant form of SDB, which is associated with symptoms and co-morbidities which may partially differ from those associated with OSAS. Partial upper airway obstruction is most prevalent in women, and it is treatable with the nasal continuous positive pressure device with good adherence to therapy. This review describes the characteristics of prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep in terms of diagnostics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and comorbidity to improve recognition of this phenotype and its timely and appropriate treatment. PMID:27608271

  16. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep – an underdiagnosed phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Anttalainen, Ulla; Tenhunen, Mirja; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli; Rauhala, Esa; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a well-recognized disorder conventionally diagnosed with an elevated apnea–hypopnea index. Prolonged partial upper airway obstruction is a common phenotype of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which however is still largely underreported. The major reasons for this are that cyclic breathing pattern coupled with arousals and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation are easy to detect and considered more important than prolonged episodes of increased respiratory effort with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the absence of cycling breathing pattern and repetitive arousals. There is also a growing body of evidence that prolonged partial obstruction is a clinically significant form of SDB, which is associated with symptoms and co-morbidities which may partially differ from those associated with OSAS. Partial upper airway obstruction is most prevalent in women, and it is treatable with the nasal continuous positive pressure device with good adherence to therapy. This review describes the characteristics of prolonged partial upper airway obstruction during sleep in terms of diagnostics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and comorbidity to improve recognition of this phenotype and its timely and appropriate treatment. PMID:27608271

  17. Treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Peter R.; Barnes, Maree; Walsh, Jennifer H.; Maddison, Kathleen J.; Hee, Geoffrey; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.; Malhotra, Atul; McEvoy, R. Douglas; Wheatley, John R.; O'Donoghue, Fergal J.; Rochford, Peter D.; Churchward, Tom; Campbell, Matthew C.; Palme, Carsten E.; Robinson, Sam; Goding, George S.; Eckert, Danny J.; Jordan, Amy S.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Tyler, Louise; Antic, Nick A.; Worsnop, Christopher J.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Hillman, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Reduced upper airway muscle activity during sleep is fundamental to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) counteracts this problem, with potential to reduce OSA severity. Study Objectives: To examine safety and efficacy of a novel HGNS system (HGNS, Apnex Medical, Inc.) in treating OSA. Participants: Twenty-one patients, 67% male, age (mean ± SD) 53.6 ± 9.2 years, with moderate to severe OSA and unable to tolerate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Design: Each participant underwent surgical implantation of the HGNS system in a prospective single-arm interventional trial. OSA severity was defined by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) at baseline and 3 and 6 months post-implant. Therapy compliance was assessed by nightly hours of use. Symptoms were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: HGNS was used on 89% ± 15% of nights (n = 21). On these nights, it was used for 5.8 ± 1.6 h per night. Nineteen of 21 participants had baseline and 6-month PSGs. There was a significant improvement (all P < 0.05) from baseline to 6 months in: AHI (43.1 ± 17.5 to 19.5 ± 16.7), ESS (12.1 ± 4.7 to 8.1 ± 4.4), FOSQ (14.4 ± 2.0 to 16.7 ± 2.2), SAQLI (3.2 ± 1.0 to 4.9 ± 1.3), and BDI (15.8 ± 9.0 to 9.7 ± 7.6). Two serious device-related adverse events occurred: an infection requiring device removal and a stimulation lead cuff dislodgement requiring replacement. Conclusions: HGNS demonstrated favorable safety, efficacy, and compliance. Participants experienced a significant decrease in OSA severity and OSA-associated symptoms. Clinical Trial Information: Name: Australian Clinical Study of the Apnex Medical HGNS System to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Registration Number: NCT01186926. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2

  18. Airway observations during upper endoscopy predicting obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Harvin, Glenn; Ali, Eslam; Raina, Amit; Leland, William; Abid, Sabeen; Vahora, Zahid; Movahed, Hossein; Kachru, Sumyra; Tee, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Background This pilot study examined airway characteristics during upper endoscopy to determine who is at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Methods Patients undergoing routine upper endoscopy were divided into 2 groups according to the Berlin Questionnaire (high and low risk for sleep disordered breathing). Patients underwent routine upper endoscopy using propofol sedation. The airway was then evaluated for no, partial, or complete collapse at the levels of the palate/uvula/tonsils, the tongue base, the hypopharynx, and the larynx. They were given a score of 0 for no collapse, 1 for partial collapse, and 2 for complete collapse. The score for each of these levels was added to give a total score or severity index. The larynx was also evaluated for lateral pharyngeal collapse (minimal, up to 50%, >50%, or 100%). Results We found that patients with a partial obstruction at the level of the palate/uvula/tonsils, tongue base, hypopharynx, or larynx, or complete obstruction at any level more often had a positive Berlin questionnaire. Patients with a positive Berlin questionnaire were more often of increased weight (mean 197 vs 175 lbs, P=0.19), increased body mass index (31.2 vs 27.42 kg/m2, P=0.11), increased neck circumference (36.7 vs 34.7 cm, P=0.23), and had a higher total airway score (2.61 vs 1.67, P=0.09). Conclusions The results of our pilot study represent preliminary data regarding the use of upper endoscopy as a potential tool to evaluate patients for obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:27708514

  19. The bidirectional interactions between psoriasis and obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hirotsu, Camila; Nogueira, Heloisa; Albuquerque, Rachel G; Tomimori, Jane; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder which can impair general routine activities and has been closely related to poor quality of life. Pruritus and scratching are frequently observed, occurring mainly during sleep and precipitating nighttime arousals. Indeed, sleep quality has been shown to be negatively affected in psoriatic patients, in a close relationship with stress exposure and immune response. Although psoriasis is known to impair sleep, leading to insomnia, its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is controversial. Similarly, OSA is considered a multifactorial inflammatory disease, characterized by intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysfunction, with important outcomes on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, immunological activities and pro-inflammatory cytokines play a prominent role in both OSA and psoriasis. Currently it is not clear whether OSA is a risk factor for psoriasis development or if psoriasis is a possible predictor of OSA. Thus, our main purpose is to provide an overview of this intriguing relationship and show the current link between psoriasis and OSA in a bidirectional relationship.

  20. The bidirectional interactions between psoriasis and obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hirotsu, Camila; Nogueira, Heloisa; Albuquerque, Rachel G; Tomimori, Jane; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder which can impair general routine activities and has been closely related to poor quality of life. Pruritus and scratching are frequently observed, occurring mainly during sleep and precipitating nighttime arousals. Indeed, sleep quality has been shown to be negatively affected in psoriatic patients, in a close relationship with stress exposure and immune response. Although psoriasis is known to impair sleep, leading to insomnia, its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is controversial. Similarly, OSA is considered a multifactorial inflammatory disease, characterized by intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysfunction, with important outcomes on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, immunological activities and pro-inflammatory cytokines play a prominent role in both OSA and psoriasis. Currently it is not clear whether OSA is a risk factor for psoriasis development or if psoriasis is a possible predictor of OSA. Thus, our main purpose is to provide an overview of this intriguing relationship and show the current link between psoriasis and OSA in a bidirectional relationship. PMID:26220730

  1. The effect of electrical stimulation on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, C; Powell, N; Bowman, B; Stoohs, R

    1995-01-01

    Patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea polygraphically documented underwent electrical stimulation treatment trials. Submental and intraoral stimulations were applied during waking and during nocturnal sleep. The stimulation was applied using a custom-designed neuromuscular electrical stimulator (EdenTec Corp) providing symmetric biphasic constant voltage pulses. Pulse duration of each phase was set to 80 microseconds based on a subjective evaluation of pulse durations from 80 to 300 microseconds to minimize sensation while generating equivalent motor responses. Pulse repetition rate was set to 50 pulses per second. Cephalometric radiographs and endoscopies were obtained with and without stimulations during waking. Most commonly, stimulations induced alpha EEG arousals. Submental subcutaneous stimulation induced good contractions of platysmal muscles but had no impact on the upper airway. Intraoral stimulation induced clear tongue muscle movements but with change of shape of the upper airway and posterior movements of the tongue. Each time a breakage of apnea was noted, it was associated with a time-linked alpha EEG arousal. The results obtained by us and others do not, at this time, give convincing support for the use of electrical stimulation using submental surface or intraoral electrodes as a viable approach for effective control of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome symptoms.

  2. Timing Matters: Circadian Rhythm in Sepsis, Obstructive Lung Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Truong, Kimberly K; Lam, Michael T; Grandner, Michael A; Sassoon, Catherine S; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-07-01

    Physiological and cellular functions operate in a 24-hour cyclical pattern orchestrated by an endogenous process known as the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms represent intrinsic oscillations of biological functions that allow for adaptation to cyclic environmental changes. Key clock genes that affect the persistence and periodicity of circadian rhythms include BMAL1/CLOCK, Period 1, Period 2, and Cryptochrome. Remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of circadian rhythms and their role in common medical conditions. A critical review of the literature supports the association between circadian misalignment and adverse health consequences in sepsis, obstructive lung disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and malignancy. Circadian misalignment plays an important role in these disease processes and can affect disease severity, treatment response, and survivorship. Normal inflammatory response to acute infections, airway resistance, upper airway collapsibility, and mitosis regulation follows a robust circadian pattern. Disruption of normal circadian rhythm at the molecular level affects severity of inflammation in sepsis, contributes to inflammatory responses in obstructive lung diseases, affects apnea length in obstructive sleep apnea, and increases risk for cancer. Chronotherapy is an underused practice of delivering therapy at optimal times to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity. This approach has been shown to be advantageous in asthma and cancer management. In asthma, appropriate timing of medication administration improves treatment effectiveness. Properly timed chemotherapy may reduce treatment toxicities and maximize efficacy. Future research should focus on circadian rhythm disorders, role of circadian rhythm in other diseases, and modalities to restore and prevent circadian disruption.

  3. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a cause of cognitive disorders in the elderly?].

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, K; Nguyen-Michel, V H; Mariani, J

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a chronic disease characterized by repeated upper airway obstructions during sleep, resulting in fragmented sleep with arousals, nocturnal intermittent hypoxemia and diurnal dysfunctions. Despite its high prevalence in elderly, sleep apnea syndrome seems to be underestimated and difficult to be recognized because of the lack of clinical symptoms specificity in this population. Among the numerous consequences of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, cognitive impairment prevails on the attention, executive functions and memory. Neuroimaging studies in human and experimental models allowed to highlight neural correlates of these cognitive dysfunctions in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with cognitive impairment shares some features with Alzheimer's disease, involving genetic predisposition ApoE4, hippocampus and synaptic plasticity abnormalities. In this context, the question arises whether obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a possible etiological or aggravating factor of cognitive decline in elderly with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Although there are conflicting results in studies evaluating therapeutic efficiency of continuous positive air pressure, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome seems nevertheless as a correctable factor, at least for its impact on some cognitive consequences. Looking for sleep apnea syndrome in elderly with cognitive decline should be considered in a global, diagnosis and therapeutic management.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms in Japanese people with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ono, Junji; Chishaki, Akiko; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Sawatari, Hiroyuki; Nishizaka, Mari; Ando, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms and assessed the relationship with obesity or unusual sleep postures in Down syndrome patients in Japan. We obtained the demographic characteristics, sleep postures, and obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms experienced by 90 people as reported by their caregivers. Although 71% reported snoring and 59% arousals, obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms were not significantly different between obese and non-obese participants. The youngest age group had the fewest obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms, especially symptoms of snoring. The odds for arousal, nocturia, and apnea tended to be higher in the unusual sleep-postures group. Unusual sleep postures were most frequent in the group 6-15 years of age. People with Down syndrome might sleep in unusual postures to avoid upper airway obstruction caused by other anatomical factors. For nurses and other health professionals working in mainstream service, it is important to screen all persons with Down syndrome for symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly those six years of age and older, and to refer them for further evaluation for sleep disorders.

  5. Distraction osteogenesis as a treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Wai Kin; Yang, Yanqi; Cheung, Lim Kwong; Leung, Yiu Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: To conduct a systematic review to answer the clinical question “What are the effectiveness of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) and its complications to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)?”. Methods: A systematic search including a computer search with specific keywords, reference list search, and manual search were done. Relevant articles on MDO were assessed and selected in 3 rounds for final review based on 5 predefined inclusion criteria and followed by a round of critical appraisal. Different types of distraction and their treatment outcomes of OSAS were recorded with standardized form and analyzed. Results: Twelve articles were included in the final review. A total of 256 patients aged 7 days to 60 years were treated with either external or internal MDO, with a mean follow-up period of 6 to 37 months. The average distraction distance of 12 to 29 mm was achieved with various distraction protocols. The success rate for adult patients was 100%, and cure rates were ranged from 82% to 100%. The definition of success or cure for OSAS in children or infants was not defined. Therefore, there were no clearly reported success or cure rates for children/infants in the included studies. However, all studies reported that these patients showed significant improvement in OSAS, with many of them who avoided tracheostomy or had the tracheostomy decannulated. The complication rates were ranged from 0% to 21.4%, with most being from local wound infections or neurosensory disturbances. Conclusion: This systematic review showed that MDO was effective in resolving OSAS in adults with retrognathic mandible. MDO also showed promising results in infants or children with OSAS. From the results of this systematic review, we recommend to define the criteria of success or cure for OSAS surgery in children and infants. We also recommend setting up randomized controlled trials to compare MDO with traditional maxillomandibular

  6. Comorbidities Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Ribeiro, Davi Knoll; Cavallini, Andre Freitas da Silva; Duarte, Caue; Freitas, Gabriel Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial or complete recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiac and encephalic alterations, behavioral, among others, resulting in a significant source of public health care by generating a high financial and social impact. The importance of this assessment proves to be useful, because the incidence of patients with comorbidities associated with AOS has been increasing consistently and presents significant influence in natural disease history. Objective The objective of this study is to assess major comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prevalence in a group of patients diagnosed clinically and polysomnographically with OSA. Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 charts from patients previously diagnosed with OSA in our service between October 2010 and January 2013. Results We evaluated 100 patients with OSA (84 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50.05 years (range 19–75 years). The prevalence of comorbidities were hypertension (39%), obesity (34%), depression (19%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (18%), diabetes mellitus (15%), hypercholesterolemia (10%), asthma (4%), and no comorbidities (33%). Comorbidities occurred in 56.2% patients diagnosed with mild OSA, 67.6% with moderate OSA, and 70% of patients with severe OSA. Conclusion According to the current literature data and the values obtained in our paper, we can correlate through expressive values obesity with OSA and their apnea hypopnea index (AHI) values. However, despite significant prevalence of OSA with other comorbidities, our study could not render expressive significance values able to justify their correlations. PMID:27096019

  7. Optic Nerve Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Claudio; Palmieri, Maria Giuseppina; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Cesareo, Massimo; Romigi, Andrea; Izzi, Francesca; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Oliva, Corrado; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Placidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the integrity of the visual system in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by means of electroretinogram (ERG) and visual evoked potential (VEP). Methods: We performed electrophysiological study of the visual system in a population of severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea events/time in bed ≥ 30/h) patients without medical comorbidities compared to a group of healthy controls similar for age, sex, and body mass index. Patients and controls did not have visual impairment or systemic disorders with known influence on the visual system. ERG and VEP were elicited by a reversal pattern generated on a television monitor at low (55') and high (15') spatial frequencies stimulation. Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in both patients and controls. Results: In comparison with healthy controls (n = 27), patients with OSA (n = 27) showed a significant latency delay coupled with a significant amplitude reduction of P100 wave of VEP at all spatial frequencies in both eyes. No significant differences between groups were detected as concerning ERG components. No correlations were found between polygraphic parameters, ESS scores, or VEP and ERG components in OSA patients. Conclusions: This study documented that patients with OSA, without medical comorbidities, present VEP alteration as documented by lower amplitude and longer latency of the P100 component than healthy controls. These altered electrophysiological findings may be the expression of optic nerve dysfunction provoked by hypoxia, acidosis, hypercarbia and airway obstruction, frequently observed in patients with OSA. Hence, we hypothesize that OSA per se may impair optic nerve function. Citation: Liguori C, Palmieri MG, Pierantozzi M, Cesareo M, Romigi A, Izzi F, Marciani MG, Oliva C, Mercuri NB, Placidi F. Optic nerve dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea: an electrophysiological study. SLEEP 2016;39(1):19–23. PMID

  8. Quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Relationship with daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, depression, and apnea severity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonhee; Lee, Sang-Ahm; Ryu, Han Uk; Chung, Yoo-Sam; Kim, Woo Sung

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, depression, and apnea severity to mental and physical quality of life (QoL) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were adults diagnosed with OSA. Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form 36 (SF-36), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used. The factors predicting the physical and mental QoL were evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. Seven hundred ninety three OSA patients participated in the study. The average age was 48.9 years (SD = 11.7 years). The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 29.5 hour(-1) (SD = 20.6 hour(-1)). The SF-36 scores were 72.6 (SD = 18.5). The BDI, sleep quality, and age were related to both mental and physical QoL. However, ESS, minimal arterial oxygen saturation, gender, and body mass index were associated with the physical but not mental QoL. The BDI was the strongest predictor of both physical and mental QoL. AHI was related to neither physical nor mental QoL. The potential factors affecting QoL are different between physical and mental dimensions of QoL. Depressive mood was the strongest predictor of both the physical and mental QoL.

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea in children: a critical update

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Leng; Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children is a highly prevalent disorder caused by a conglomeration of complex pathophysiological processes, leading to recurrent upper airway dysfunction during sleep. The clinical relevance of OSA resides in its association with significant morbidities that affect the cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic systems. The American Academy of Pediatrics recently reiterated its recommendations that children with symptoms and signs suggestive of OSA should be investigated with polysomnography (PSG), and treated accordingly. However, treatment decisions should not only be guided by PSG results, but should also integrate the magnitude of symptoms and the presence or absence of risk factors and signs of OSA morbidity. The first-line therapy in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy is adenotonsillectomy, although there is increasing evidence that medical therapy, in the form of intranasal steroids or montelukast, may be considered in mild OSA. In this review, we delineate the major concepts regarding the pathophysiology of OSA, its morbidity, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24109201

  10. [Continuous positive airways pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea].

    PubMed

    Antone, E; Gilbert, M; Bironneau, V; Meurice, J C

    2015-04-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) still remains the most frequently used and the most efficient treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, its efficiency is conditioned by healthcare quality depending on many factors such as medical specificities of the patients as well as the severity of sleep-related breathing disorders. In order to optimize CPAP efficiency, it is necessary to be aware of the functional abilities of the different devices, and to perform a close monitoring of the patients, particularly during the first weeks of treatment, by maximally using the data provided by the CPAP apparatus. Some questions remain unsolved, such as the impact of nasal CPAP on glucose metabolism or cardiovascular prognosis. Furthermore, the strategy of CPAP use should be improved according to future results of studies dedicated to the interest of home telemonitoring and taking into account the validated mode of CPAP initiation. PMID:25823935

  11. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome associated with stroke.

    PubMed

    Mello-Fujita, Luciane; Kim, Lenise Jihe; Palombini, Luciana de Oliveira; Rizzi, Camila; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho

    2015-06-01

    The association between sleep-disordered breathing and stroke has been a subject of increased interest and research. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important risk factor for stroke incidence and mortality. Moreover, OSA is a common clinical outcome after stroke, directly influencing the patient's recovery. The treatment of choice for OSA is positive airway pressure (PAP) support and the PAP appliance is considered the most recommended clinical management for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular complications. However, the implementation of PAP in stroke patients remains a challenge, considering the increased frequency of motor and language impairments associated with the cerebrovascular event. In the present study, we reviewed the main findings describing the association between stroke and OSA treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. We also discussed the types of OSA treatment, the different options and indications of PAP treatment, PAP adherence and the clinical outcomes after treatment.

  12. Correlation of Lateral Cephalogram and Flexible Laryngoscopy with Sleep Study in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Anila; Faizal, Bini

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the correlation between lateral cephalogram, flexible laryngoscopy, and sleep study in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Background. Screening tools should be devised for predicting OSA which could be performed on an outpatient basis. With this aim we studied the skeletal and soft tissue characteristics of proven OSA patients. Methods. A prospective study was performed in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study. They were evaluated clinically and subjected to lateral cephalometry and nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. The findings were matched to see if they corresponded to AHI of sleep study in severity. An attempt was made to see whether the data predicted the patients who would benefit from oral appliance or surgery as the definitive treatment in indicated cases. Results. A retropalatal collapse seen on endoscopy could be equated to the distance from mandibular plane to hyoid (MP-H) of lateral cephalometry and both corresponded to severity of AHI. At the retroglossal region, there was a significant correlation with MP-H, length of the soft palate, and AHI. Conclusion. There is significant correlation of lateral cephalogram and awake flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy with AHI in OSA. In unison they form an excellent screening tool for snorers. PMID:26689652

  13. Overview of proteomics studies in obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Amélia; Torres, Vukosava Milic; Vaz, Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Matthiesen, Rune; Pinto, Paula; Malhotra, Atul; Bárbara, Cristina; Penque, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underdiagnosed common public health concern causing deleterious effects on metabolic and cardiovascular health. Although much has been learned regarding the pathophysiology and consequences of OSA in the past decades, the molecular mechanisms associated with such processes remain poorly defined. The advanced high-throughput proteomics-based technologies have become a fundamental approach for identifying novel disease mediators as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for many diseases, including OSA. Here, we briefly review OSA pathophysiology and the technological advances in proteomics and the first results of its application to address critical issues in the OSA field. PMID:25770042

  14. Management of obstructive sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E; Sawyer, Amy

    2009-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common problem, with 9% to 28% of women and 24% to 26% of males having apneic events at a treatable level, making this syndrome a serious public health issue. This article describes the outcomes associated with continuous positive airway pressure treatment, significance of the issue of poor adherence in OSA, discusses evidence regarding the optimal duration of nightly use, describes the nature and predictors of nonadherence, and reviews interventions that have been tested to increase nightly use and suggests management strategies.

  15. Obstructive sleep apnoea in children with craniofacial syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Cielo, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is common in children. Craniofacial anomalies such as cleft palate are among the most common congenital conditions. Children with a variety of craniofacial conditions, including cleft palate, micrognathia, craniosynostosis, and midface hypoplasia are at increased risk for OSAS. Available evidence, which is largely limited to surgical case series and retrospective studies, suggests that OSAS can be successfully managed in these children through both surgical and non-surgical techniques. Prospective studies using larger cohorts of patients and including polysomnograms are needed to better understand the risk factors for this patient population and the efficacy of treatment options for OSAS and their underlying conditions. PMID:25555676

  16. Decision making is affected in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Daurat, Agnès; Ricarrère, Matthieu; Tiberge, Michel

    2013-03-01

    We assessed decision making in 20 patients newly diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and 20 healthy controls with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which evaluates the ability to learn to sacrifice immediate rewards in favour of long-term gains. A standard neuropsychological battery was administered. Switching scores tended to be lower in patients. Patients persisted in selecting risky decks throughout the IGT, whereas controls behaved normally. Performance was correlated with hypoxaemia. Brain regions underlying decision making may be affected by OSA-related hypoxaemia.

  17. Remote Ambulatory Management of Veterans with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Barry G.; Behari, Pratima Pathak; McCloskey, Susan; True, Gala; Richardson, Diane; Thomasson, Arwin; Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Davies, Keith; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite significant medical sequelae of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the condition remains undiagnosed and untreated in many affected individuals. We explored the feasibility of a comprehensive, telemedicine-based OSA management pathway in a community-based Veteran cohort. Methods: This prospective, parallel-group randomized pilot study assessed feasibility of a telemedicine-based pathway for OSA evaluation and management in comparison to a more traditional, in-person care model. The study included 60 Veterans at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center and two affiliated community-based outpatient clinics. Telemedicine pathway feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes were assessed through a variety of quantitative (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, dropout rates, positive airway pressure [PAP] adherence rates, participant satisfaction ratings) and qualitative (verbal feedback) metrics. Results: There was no significant difference in functional outcome changes, patient satisfaction, dropout rates, or objectively measured PAP adherence between groups after 3 months of treatment. Telemedicine participants showed greater improvement in mental health scores, and their feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Conclusions: Our pilot study suggests that telemedicine-based management of OSA patients is feasible in terms of patient functional outcomes and overall satisfaction with care. Future studies should include larger populations to further elucidate these findings while assessing provider- and patient-related cost effectiveness. Citation: Fields BG, Behari PP, McCloskey S, True G, Richardson D, Thomasson A, Korom-Djakovic D, Davies K, Kuna ST. Remote ambulatory management of veterans with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2016;39(3):501–509. PMID:26446115

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and sequelae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Jung; Chae, Kyu Young

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is approximately 3% in children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common cause of OSAS in children, and obesity, hypotonic neuromuscular diseases, and craniofacial anomalies are other major risk factors. Snoring is the most common presenting complaint in children with OSAS, but the clinical presentation varies according to age. Agitated sleep with frequent postural changes, excessive sweating, or abnormal sleep positions such as hyperextension of neck or abnormal prone position may suggest a sleep-disordered breathing. Night terror, sleepwalking, and enuresis are frequently associated, during slow-wave sleep, with sleep-disordered breathing. Excessive daytime sleepiness becomes apparent in older children, whereas hyperactivity or inattention is usually predominant in younger children. Morning headache and poor appetite may also be present. As the cortical arousal threshold is higher in children, arousals are not easily developed and their sleep architectures are usually more conserved than those of adults. Untreated OSAS in children may result in various problems such as cognitive deficits, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and emotional instability. Mild pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon. Rarely, cardiovascular complications such as cor pulmonale, heart failure, and systemic hypertension may develop in untreated cases. Failure to thrive and delayed development are serious problems in younger children with OSAS. Diagnosis of pediatric OSAS should be based on snoring, relevant history of sleep disruption, findings of any narrow or collapsible portions of upper airway, and confirmed by polysomnography. Early diagnosis of pediatric OSAS is critical to prevent complications with appropriate interventions. PMID:21189956

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the quality of life

    PubMed Central

    COMAN, ANDREEA CODRUTA; BORZAN, CRISTINA; VESA, CRISTIAN STEFAN; TODEA, DOINA ADINA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) affects the quality of life (QOL) due to the effects on the patient’s physical and mental function. QOL in sleep apnea may improve under continuous airway positive pressure (CPAP) therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the OSA patients QOL before and after 3 months of CPAP therapy using Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI). Methods We conducted a study in 79 sleep apnea subjects diagnosed using cardiorespiratory portable monitoring, under CPAP therapy, monitored in our Sleep Laboratory from January 2011 to December 2014. This is a cross-sectional study, achieved through quantitative research (SAQLI questionnaire application) about the perception of quality of life in patients with sleep apnea in the moment of diagnosis and 3 months after CPAP therapy. Results Of the 79 subjects, 59 (74.7%) were men and 20 (26.3%) women; mean age was 54.13 years (SD±10.87), the mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 52.46±20.83 events/h. In all 4 domains of SAQLI: daily functioning with mean pretreatment score 4.13±0.58 versus mean post treatment score 5.43±0.52; social interactions with mean pretreatment score 3.68±0.55 versus post treatment mean score 5.36±0.57; emotional functioning with mean pretreatment score 3.83±0.53 versus mean post treatment mean 5.38±0.56 and symptoms with mean pretreatment score 0.81±0.12 versus mean post treatment score 1.15±0.14, quality of life was improved after 3 months of therapy, with significantly statistical correlation (p=0.00). Also, an improvement was seen in mean total score of SAQLI after therapy as compared to baseline 3.11±0.32 versus 4.24±0.39 (p<0.01). Conclusion The quality of life in sleep apnea was better after CPAP therapy than from baseline, according Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index. The SAQLI is a useful toll to evaluate quality of life in sleep apnea, especially to highlight the benefits of CPAP therapy, even with short time

  20. Reduced innervation in the human pharynx in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    de Carlos, Félix; Cobo, Juan; Macías, Emilio; Feito, Jorge; González, Mónica; Cobo, Teresa; Fernández-Mondragón, María P; García-Suárez, Olivia; Vega, José A

    2015-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a disease characterized by repetitive breathing during sleep that lead to reduced oxygen saturation and sleep disturbance among other symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by blockade of the upper respiratory airway, although the pathogenic mechanism underlying this occlusion remains unknown. In these studies we explored the hypothesis that alterations in the innervation, especially mechanosensory innervation, of the pharynx may contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the innervation of the human pharynx in normal individuals and in subjects clinically diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. Using immunohistochemistry for axon and Schwann cells, as well as for two putative mechanoproteins (ASIC2 and TRPV4), we observed a significant reduction in the density of nerve fibers in the submucosa of patients with obstructive sleep apnea as well as morphological abnormalities in mechanosensory corpuscles. Importantly, while ASIC2 and TRPV4 expression was regularly found in the axons of mechanosensory corpuscles distributed throughout the muscular layer in the control subjects, it was absent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. These findings support that neurological alterations are important contributors to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea.

  1. Myofunctional Therapy to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Macario; Certal, Victor; Abdullatif, Jose; Zaghi, Soroush; Ruoff, Chad M.; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature for articles evaluating myofunctional therapy (MT) as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children and adults and to perform a meta-analysis on the polysomnographic, snoring, and sleepiness data. Data Sources: Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, and The Cochrane Library. Review Methods: The searches were performed through June 18, 2014. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement was followed. Results: Nine adult studies (120 patients) reported polysomnography, snoring, and/or sleepiness outcomes. The pre- and post-MT apneahypopnea indices (AHI) decreased from a mean ± standard deviation (M ± SD) of 24.5 ± 14.3/h to 12.3 ± 11.8/h, mean difference (MD) −14.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) −20.98, −7.54], P < 0.0001. Lowest oxygen saturations improved from 83.9 ± 6.0% to 86.6 ± 7.3%, MD 4.19 (95% CI 1.85, 6.54), P = 0.0005. Polysomnography snoring decreased from 14.05 ± 4.89% to 3.87 ± 4.12% of total sleep time, P < 0.001, and snoring decreased in all three studies reporting subjective outcomes. Epworth Sleepiness Scale decreased from 14.8 ± 3.5 to 8.2 ± 4.1. Two pediatric studies (25 patients) reported outcomes. In the first study of 14 children, the AHI decreased from 4.87 ± 3.0/h to 1.84 ± 3.2/h, P = 0.004. The second study evaluated children who were cured of OSA after adenotonsillectomy and palatal expansion, and found that 11 patients who continued MT remained cured (AHI 0.5 ± 0.4/h), whereas 13 controls had recurrent OSA (AHI 5.3 ± 1.5/h) after 4 y. Conclusion: Current literature demonstrates that myofunctional therapy decreases apnea-hypopnea index by approximately 50% in adults and 62% in children. Lowest oxygen saturations, snoring, and sleepiness outcomes improve in adults. Myofunctional therapy could serve as an adjunct to other obstructive sleep apnea treatments. Citation: Camacho M, Certal V, Abdullatif J, Zaghi S, Ruoff CM

  2. Derived Arterial Stiffness is Increased in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Drakatos, Panagis; Higgins, Sean; Pengo, Martino F.; Kent, Brian D.; Muza, Rex; Karkoulias, Kiriakos; Leschziner, Guy; Williams, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Both periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). OSA has also been linked to increased large arterial stiffness, which is considered an independent risk factor for CVD. We utilized a previously validated index of large artery stiffness (SIDVP) derived from the digital volume pulse (DVP) to seek comparison in patients with PLMS and OSA. Methods: Forty-nine adult male subjects, without known comorbidities that could affect arterial stiffness or on vasoactive medication, were retrospectively identified and categorized into controls (n = 8), PLMS (n = 13), OSA (n = 17), and OSA/PLMS (n = 11). The cutoff for PLMS was a periodic limb movement index (PLMI) > 15 events/h, and for OSA an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 10 events/h. SIDVP was derived from the raw data of photoplethysmography of the nocturnal polysomnography, averaged for 2 min prior to sleep study initiation (baseline), after completion in the morning, and every half hour after sleep onset. Results: The groups were age/body mass index-matched. Controls showed lower baseline, morning, and overall SIDVP compared to the other groups (p < 0.01). Patients with PLMS (PLMI: 50.69 ± 9.7 events/h) and the OSA group (AHI: 29.7 ± 2 events/h) demonstrated similar overall SIDVP (6.78 ± 0.08 versus 6.94 ± 0.04, respectively, p = 0.5), whereas the OSA/PLMS (AHI: 29.35 ± 8, PLMI: 50.63 ± 7.2) group demonstrated the highest (7.40 ± 0.06, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Based on an easily reproducible and applicable marker of large arterial stiffness, patients with significant PLMS had higher SIDVP when compared to controls and comparable to those with moderate/severe OSA. The OSA/PLMS group had the highest SIDVP, implying a possible additive effect of OSA and PLMS on arterial stiffness. Citation: Drakatos P, Higgins S, Pengo MF, Kent BD, Muza R, Karkoulias K, Leschziner G, Williams A. Derived arterial

  3. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T. S.

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced (“bigdata”) preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow). PMID:27170854

  4. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes.

    PubMed

    Le, Trung Q; Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced ("bigdata") preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow).

  5. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes.

    PubMed

    Le, Trung Q; Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced ("bigdata") preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow). PMID:27170854

  6. Long-Term Effectiveness and Compliance of Positional Therapy with the Sleep Position Trainer in the Treatment of Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    van Maanen, J. Peter; de Vries, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate effectiveness, long-term compliance, and effects on subjective sleep of the Sleep Position Trainer (SPT) in patients with position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (POSAS). Design: Prospective, multicenter cohort study. Patients or Participants: Adult patients with mild and moderate POSAS were included. Interventions: Patients asked to use the SPT for 6 mo. At baseline and after 1, 3, and 6 mo, questionnaires would be completed: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and questions related to SPT use. Measurements and Results: One hundred forty-five patients were included. SPT use and SPT data could not be retrieved in 39 patients. In the remaining 106 patients, median percentage of supine sleep decreased rapidly during SPT's training phase (day 3 to 9) to near-total avoidance of supine sleep. This decrease was maintained during the following months of treatment (21% at baseline versus 3% at 6 mo). SPT compliance, defined as more than 4 h of nightly use, was 64.4%. Regular use, defined as more than 4 h of usage over 5 nights/w, was 71.2%. Subjective compliance and regular use were 59.8% and 74.4%, respectively. Median ESS (11 to 8), PSQI (8 to 6), and FOSQ (87 to 103) values significantly improved compared with baseline. Conclusions: Positional therapy using the Sleep Position Trainer (SPT) effectively diminished the percentage of supine sleep and subjective sleepiness and improved sleep related quality of life in patients with mild to moderate position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SPT treatment appeared to have sustained effects over 6 months. SPT compliance and regular use rate were relatively good. Subjective and objective compliance data corresponded well. The lack of a placebo-controlled group limited the efficacy of conclusions. Citation: van Maamen JP, de Vries N. Long-term effectiveness and compliance of positional

  7. Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Cardiovascular Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Whether Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Reduces that Risk.

    PubMed

    Khayat, Rami; Pleister, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is present in up to 25% of otherwise healthy individuals. OSA is associated with intermittent hypoxia, oxidative stress, sympathetic activation, and an inflammatory response. These perturbations mediate the role of OSA as an independent and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). OSA can induce CVD or accelerate the progression of CVD into an end-stage disorder, including heart failure and stroke. Current clinical recommendations are based on existing clinical trial data and the clinical experience of our program; current and future clinical trials will help to optimize management of OSA in the setting of CVD. PMID:27542874

  8. Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Buerger's Disease: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Navvabi, Iman; Ahmadi Hoseini, Seyed Hosein; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar

    2015-10-01

    In this study we evaluated the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans for reduction of crisis. In 40 patients with Buerger's disease daily sleepiness and risk of Obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated using the Epworth sleeping scale (ESS) and the Stop-Bang score. An Apnea-link device was used for evaluation of chest motion, peripheral oxygenation, and nasal airflow during night-time sleep. The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and respiratory disurbance index were used for Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosis. All subjects were cigarette smokers and 80% were opium addicted. The prevalence of Obstructive sleep apnea (AHI>5) was 80%, but incidence of Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (AHI>5 + ESS≥10) was 5% (2/40). There was no association between duration or frequency of hospitalization and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (P=0.74 and 0.86, respectively). In addition, no correlation between ESS and Stop-Bang scores and AHI was observed (P=0.58 and 0.41, respectively). There was an inverse correlation between smoking rate and AHI (P=0.032, r = -0.48). We did not find an association between Buerger's disease and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the AHI was high (80%) and daily sleepiness was low. The negative correlation of smoking with AHI and on the other hand daily napping in addiction may be caused by the absence of a clear relationship between Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and Buerger's disease. PMID:26615374

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Adolescents and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sara E.; Li, Zhuokai; Tu, Wanzhu; Jalou, Hasnaa; Brubaker, Jamie L.; Gupta, Sandeep; Huber, Jordan N.; Carroll, Aaron; Hannon, Tamara S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric studies examining the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and insulin sensitivity/cardiometabolic risk are limited and conflicting. Objective To determine if cardiometabolic risk markers are increased among obese youth with obstructive sleep apnea as compared with their equally obese peers without OSA. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 patients (age 14.2 ± 1.4 years) who underwent polysomnography for suspected OSA. Fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were performed as part of routine clinical evaluation. Patients were categorized into two groups by degree of OSA as measured by the apnea hypopnea index (AHI): none or mild OSA (AHI < 5) and moderate or severe OSA (AHI ≥ 5). Results Despite similar degrees of obesity, patients with moderate or severe OSA had higher fasting insulin (p = 0.037) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR (p = 0.0497)], as compared with those with mild or no OSA. After controlling for body mass index, there was a positive association between the AHI and log HOMA-IR (p = 0.005). There was a positive relationship between arousals plus awakenings during the polysomnography and fasting triglycerides. Conclusions OSA is linked with greater cardiometabolic risk markers in obese youth. PMID:24106092

  10. Breathing and Snoring Sound Characteristics during Sleep in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Levartovsky, Asaf; Dafna, Eliran; Zigel, Yaniv; Tarasiuk, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sound level meter is the gold standard approach for snoring evaluation. Using this approach, it was established that snoring intensity (in dB) is higher for men and is associated with increased apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of breathing and snoring sound characteristics using an algorithm designed to detect and analyze breathing and snoring sounds. The effect of sex, sleep stages, and AHI on snoring characteristics was explored. Methods: We consecutively recruited 121 subjects referred for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. A whole night audio signal was recorded using noncontact ambient microphone during polysomnography. A large number (> 290,000) of breathing and snoring (> 50 dB) events were analyzed. Breathing sound events were detected using a signal-processing algorithm that discriminates between breathing and nonbreathing (noise events) sounds. Results: Snoring index (events/h, SI) was 23% higher for men (p = 0.04), and in both sexes SI gradually declined by 50% across sleep time (p < 0.01) independent of AHI. SI was higher in slow wave sleep (p < 0.03) compared to S2 and rapid eye movement sleep; men have higher SI in all sleep stages than women (p < 0.05). Snoring intensity was similar in both genders in all sleep stages and independent of AHI. For both sexes, no correlation was found between AHI and snoring intensity (r = 0.1, p = 0.291). Conclusions: This audio analysis approach enables systematic detection and analysis of breathing and snoring sounds from a full night recording. Snoring intensity is similar in both sexes and was not affected by AHI. Citation: Levartovsky A, Dafna E, Zigel Y, Tarasiuk A. Breathing and snoring sound characteristics during sleep in adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):375–384. PMID:26518701

  11. Severity of depression and anxiety in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Alimohamad; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Tavakoli, Saman; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder which can result in mood problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms as the most prevalent psychological disturbances present in different severity of OSA. We performed a cross-sectional study of 685 recently diagnosed sleep-disordered patients, over the age of 18, referred to Noor Sleep Lab from August 2008 to November 2010. The participants filled the Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) to assess the depression and anxiety symptoms. We collected other characteristics of subjects such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was determined by an overnight polysomnography. Mean age of the participants was 47.63 years (SD 11.73). More than half of patient had some degrees of depression and anxiety. AHI showed no significant correlation with BDI (p = 0.105, r = -0.070) or BAI (p = 0.712, r = -0.016). Obesity was not either correlated with depression or anxiety (p = 0.18, r = 0.05). Nonetheless, ESS was weakly correlated with depression (p = 0.001, r = 0.148) and anxiety scores (p = 0.006, r = 0.120). BMI and ESS means were significantly higher in patients with severe OSA (p = 0.000). In comparison with men, the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was significantly higher in women (p = 0.000). In this cross-sectional study of patients with sleep problems, OSA was not associated with severity of depression and anxiety symptoms.

  12. Exercise capacity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Przybyłowski, T; Bielicki, P; Kumor, M; Hildebrand, K; Maskey-Warzechowska, M; Korczyński, P; Chazan, R

    2007-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disease characterized by repetitive partial or complete closure of the upper airway during sleep. Cardiovascular disturbances are the most important complications responsible for increased morbidity and mortality. It is suggested that daytime somnolence, chronic fatigue, and nocturnal hypoxemia may further impair muscle function and decrease exercise fitness. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiopulmonary response to exercise in OSAS patients. One hundred and eleven middle aged (50.2+/-10 yr), obese (BMI 31.0+/-4.6 kg/m2) patients (109 M, 2F) with severe OSAS (AHI 47.2+/-23.1 h(-1)) were enrolled into the study. OSAS was diagnosed with overnight polysomnography and a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed on a treadmill using Bruce protocol. The results showed that the most frequent reason for exercise termination were: muscle fatigue and/or dyspnea (66+/-), increase in systolic blood pressure>220 mmHg (20%), ECG abnormalities, and chest pain (6%). Although the mean VO2 peak was within the reference value (29.6+/-6 mlO2/kg/min), in 52 patients (46%) VO2 peak was <84% of predicted. Hypertensive response to exercise was diagnosed in 39 of patients (35%). Patients with severe sleep apnea (AHI40>or=h(-1)) were characterized by higher mean blood pressure at rest, at 25%, 50% of maximal work load, at peak exercise and at post-exercise recovery. Several significant correlations between hemodynamic responses to exercise and sleep apnea severity were also noted. We conclude that exercise tolerance can be limited due to hypertensive response in about 20% of patients. Patients with severe OSAS have exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and delayed post-exercise blood pressure recovery. Cardiopulmonary response to exercise seems to be related to sleep apnea severity.

  13. SleepAp: an automated obstructive sleep apnoea screening application for smartphones.

    PubMed

    Behar, Joachim; Roebuck, Aoife; Shahid, Mohammed; Daly, Jonathan; Hallack, Andre; Palmius, Niclas; Stradling, John; Clifford, Gari D

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a sleep disorder with long-term consequences. Long-term effects include sleep-related issues and cardiovascular diseases. OSA is often diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram. Monitoring can be costly with long wait times for diagnosis. In this paper, a novel OSA screening framework and prototype phone application are introduced. A database of 856 patients that underwent at-home polygraphy was collected. Features were derived from audio, actigraphy, photoplethysmography (PPG), and demographics, and used as the inputs of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The SVM was trained on 735 patients and tested on 121 patients. Classification on the test set had an accuracy of up to 92.2% when classifying subjects as having moderate or severe OSA versus being healthy or a snorer based on the clinicians' diagnoses. The signal processing and machine learning algorithms were ported to Java and integrated into the phone application-SleepAp. SleepAp records the body position, audio, actigraphy and PPG signals, and implements the clinically validated STOP-BANG questionnaire. It derives features from the signals and classifies the user as having OSA or not using the SVM trained on the clinical database. The resulting software could provide a new, easy-to-use, low-cost, and widely available modality for OSA screening. PMID:25561453

  14. Sleep Position Trainer versus Tennis Ball Technique in Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eijsvogel, Michiel M.; Ubbink, Rinse; Dekker, Janita; Oppersma, Eline; de Jongh, Frans H.; van der Palen, Job; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein G.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Positional therapy (PT) is an effective therapy in positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (POSAS) when used, but the compliance of PT is low. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a new kind of PT is effective and can improve compliance. Methods: 29 patients were treated with the sleep position trainer (SPT), 26 patients with the tennis ball technique (TBT). At baseline and 1 month polysomnography, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire (QSQ) were taken. Daily compliance was objectively measured in both groups. Results: Both therapies prevent supine sleep position to a median of 0% (min-max: SPT 0.0% to 67%, TBT 0.0% to 38.9%), resulting in a treatment success (AHI < 5) in 68.0% of the SPT and 42.9% of the TBT patients. The ESS at baseline was < 10 in both groups. Sleep quality parameters, such as wake after sleep onset (WASO; p = 0.001) and awakenings (p = 0.006), improved more in the SPT group. Total QSQ scores (0.4 ± 0.2, p = 0.03), the QSQ domains nocturnal symptoms (0.7 ± 0.2, p = 0.01), and social interactions (0.8 ± 0.3, p = 0.02) changed in favor of the SPT group. Effective compliance (≥ 4 h/night + ≥ 5 days/week) was 75.9% for the SPT and 42.3% for the TBT users (p = 0.01). Conclusion: In mild POSAS with normal EES the new SPT device and the standard TBT are equally effective in reducing respiratory indices. However, compared to the TBT, sleep quality, quality of life, and compliance improved significantly more in the SPT group. Citation: Eijsvogel MM, Ubbink R, Dekker J, Oppersma E, de Jongh FH, van der Palen J, Brusse-Keizer MG. Sleep position trainer versus tennis ball technique in positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):139–147. PMID:25515276

  15. A Case of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Assessments of Fitness for Work

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder that can cause excessive daytime sleepiness and impairment of cognition. These symptoms may lead to the occurrence of occupational accidents in workers with obstructive sleep apnea. Case presentation A 36-year-old man who worked as a dimensional control surveyor caused a vehicle accident while he was driving at the work site. Although he experienced loss of consciousness at the time of the accident, he had no other symptoms. His brain computed tomography and laboratory test did not show any specific findings. Medical tests were conducted to evaluate his fitness for work. Decreased sleep latency was observed on the electroencephalography image, which is suggestive of a sleep disorder. He frequently experienced daytime sleepiness and his Epworth sleepiness score was 13. The polysomnography showed a markedly increased apnea-hypopnea index of 84.3, which led to a diagnosis of severe obstructive sleep apnea. The patient was advised to return to work only when his obstructive sleep apnea improved through proper treatment. Conclusion Proper screening for obstructive sleep apnea among workers is important for preventing workplace accidents caused by this disorder, but screening guidelines have not yet been established in Korea. An effort toward preparing practical guidelines for obstructive sleep apnea is needed. PMID:24822091

  16. Central and Peripheral factors contributing to Obstructive Sleep Apneas

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Garcia, Alfredo J.; Anderson, Tatiana M.; Koschnitzky, Jenna E.; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kumar, Ganesh; Prabhakar, Nanduri

    2013-01-01

    Apnea, the cessation of breathing, is a common physiological and pathophysiological phenomenon with many basic scientific and clinical implications. Among the different forms of apnea, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is clinically the most prominent manifestation. OSA is characterized by repetitive airway occlusions that are typically associated with peripheral airway obstructions. However, it would be a gross oversimplification to conclude that OSA is caused by peripheral obstructions. OSA is the result of a dynamic interplay between chemo- and mechanosensory reflexes, neuromodulation, behavioral state and the differential activation of the central respiratory network and its motor outputs. This interplay has numerous neuronal and cardiovascular consequences that are initially adaptive but in the long-term become major contributors to the morbidity and mortality associated with OSA. However, not only OSA, but all forms of apnea have multiple, and partly overlapping mechanisms. In all cases the underlying mechanisms are neither “exclusively peripheral” nor “exclusively central” in origin. While the emphasis has long been on the role of peripheral reflex pathways in the case of OSA, and central mechanisms in the case of central apneas, we are learning that such a separation is inconsistent with the integration of these mechanisms in all cases of apneas. This review discusses the complex interplay of peripheral and central nervous components that characterizes the cessation of breathing. PMID:23770311

  17. Predictors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Polysomnography after a Technically Inadequate or Normal Home Sleep Test

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler, Michelle R.; Santiago, Vicente; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Mitchell, Michael N.; Santiago, Silverio; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Home sleep testing (HST) is an accepted alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in high-risk populations. Clinical guidelines recommend PSG in cases where the HST is technically inadequate (TI) or fails to establish the diagnosis of OSA in patients with high pretest probability. This retrospective study evaluated predictors of OSA on PSG within patients who had a TI or normal HST. Methods: Electronic medical records were reviewed on 1,157 patients referred for HST at our sleep center. Two hundred thirty-eight patients had a TI or normal HST with subsequent PSG. Age, BMI, Epworth score, HST result, and PSG-based apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) were abstracted. Results: Two hundred thirty-eight consecutive patients with either a normal HST (n = 127) or TI HST (n = 111) underwent subsequent PSG. Of 127 who had a normal HST, 76% had a normal PSG and 24% had OSA (23 mild, 6 moderate, 1 severe). Of 111 who had a TI HST, 29% had a normal PSG and 71% had OSA (43 mild, 19 moderate, 17 severe). Individuals younger than 50 years old with a normal HST were more likely to have a normal PSG. Older age predicted diagnosis of OSA on PSG among individuals with a TI HST. Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis of a clinical sample, when the HST is interpreted as normal in a younger patient population, the subsequent PSG is likewise normal in majority of the patients, although significant OSA is sometimes discovered. When a HST is read as TI, the majority of patients have OSA. Citation: Zeidler MR, Santiago V, Dzierzewski JM, Mitchell MN, Santiago S, Martin JL. Predictors of obstructive sleep apnea on polysomnography after a technically inadequate or normal home sleep test. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1313–1318. PMID:26156951

  18. Brain Structure Network Analysis in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yun-gang; Wang, Defeng; Liu, Kai; Weng, Jian; Guan, Yuefeng; Chan, Kate C. C.; Chu, Winnie C. W.; Shi, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleeping disorder commonly affecting school-aged children and is characterized by repeated episodes of blockage of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, we performed a graph theoretical analysis on the brain morphometric correlation network in 25 OSA patients (OSA group; 5 female; mean age, 10.1 ± 1.8 years) and investigated the topological alterations in global and regional properties compared with 20 healthy control individuals (CON group; 6 females; mean age, 10.4 ± 1.8 years). A structural correlation network based on regional gray matter volume was constructed respectively for each group. Our results revealed a significantly decreased mean local efficiency in the OSA group over the density range of 0.32–0.44 (p < 0.05). Regionally, the OSAs showed a tendency of decreased betweenness centrality in the left angular gyrus, and a tendency of decreased degree in the right lingual and inferior frontal (orbital part) gyrus (p < 0.005, uncorrected). We also found that the network hubs in OSA and controls were distributed differently. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that characterizes the brain structure network in OSA patients and invests the alteration of topological properties of gray matter volume structural network. This study may help to provide new evidence for understanding the neuropathophysiology of OSA from a topological perspective. PMID:26413809

  19. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in children: A practical approach.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Kevin D; Jon, Cindy K; Szmuk, Peter; Lazar, Rande H; Mitchell, Ron B

    2016-07-01

    The management of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children differs between institutions, and there is a need for an updated review of current practice. Literature was reviewed using the PubMed database from 1995 to 2015 by four tertiary care providers experienced in the management of children with SDB. Articles were selected for clinical applicability, strength of evidence, and practicality for practicing clinicians. Fifty-five articles were identified by tertiary care providers in pediatric anesthesiology, pediatric pulmonology, sleep medicine, and pediatric otolaryngology. Each reviewed and analyzed literature independently based on their specialties, and a consensus document was created. The consensus was that the majority of children with SDB do not undergo polysomnography (PSG) before adenotonsillectomy (T&A). Indications for PSG are presented, with a practical approach recommended for the otolaryngologist. Clinical practice guidelines are available from leading national societies, but their recommendations differ. T&A is the first-line treatment and is highly effective in normal-weight but not in obese children. The perioperative management of children is challenging and needs to be individualized. Young children, those with severe obstructive sleep apnea, and those with significant comorbidities need to be observed overnight. PMID:27434480

  20. Different heart rate patterns in obstructive apneas during NREM sleep.

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, M R; Romano, S; Marrone, O; Chiodi, M; Bonsignore, G

    1997-12-01

    Both bradycardia and a trend to tachycardia have been reported in obstructive sleep apneas (OSA). Because heart rate (HR) behavior may yield information on parasympathetic activity during OSA, we analyzed HR in samples of consecutive apneic cycles in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, recorded in normotensive patients breathing room air (n = 7) and supplemental O2 (n = 4). In air, the patients showed different HR trends during apnea, as HR decreased (HR decreased), remained constant (HR=), or increased (HR increased). By multiple regression analysis, development of HR trends correlated with the HR fall in the late interapneic period, HR at first effort, the decrease in esophageal pressure, and the lengthening of inspiration during apnea (R2 = 0.42). O2 abolished HR decreased-OSA, whereas HR= and HR increased-OSA still occurred but at higher HR than in air. In both the air and O2 series, the HR fall preceding apnea correlated significantly with the degree of hypoxia reached in the previous apneic cycle. These data indicate a complex modulation of HR during OSA, with the HR fall in the late interapneic period possibly reflecting the effectiveness of parasympathetic cardiac control in OSA patients during sleep. PMID:9493928

  1. Exercise training effect on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Norman, J F; Von Essen, S G; Fuchs, R H; McElligott, M

    2000-01-01

    The role, if any, of exercise training in the management of individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is unclear. Anecdotally, patients have reported improvement in symptoms with regular participation in an exercise regime. In this study, we evaluated the effects of an exercise training program and weight loss on physical and subjective measures associated with OSAS. Nine subjects with mild to moderate OSAS completed a six month supervised exercise program. Pre and post-training measures on polysomnographic testing, physical training, anthropometric measures, quality of life (QOL), daytime somnolence and mood states were assessed. A significant decrease in the AHI (p=0.002) was noted along with improvements (p<0.05) in total sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings/hour, arousals/hour, apnea index and mean exercise training workloads. Significant decreases (p<.001) in weight (-6.2 kg) and body mass index (-1.6) were observed. Evaluation of QOL measures by the Health Status Questionnaire, Profile of Mood States and Epworth Sleepiness Scale showed significant changes in health status, affective state, and a decrease in daytime somnolence. Regular exercise training had a positive impact on the AHI, aerobic capacity, body mass index and QOL. However, exercise training alone was not an adequate intervention strategy for most individuals with OSAS but may serve well as an adjunct treatment strategy in the conservative management of individuals with mild to moderate OSAS.

  2. Skin disorders and sleep in adults: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Thorburn, Patrick T; Riha, Renata L

    2010-12-01

    Sleep deprivation has been shown to have detrimental effects on behavioural, physiological and psychological functioning. Skin disorders are variably associated with sleep disturbance and sleep deprivation, some associated with specific sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnoea. Paradoxically, there is very little literature focussed on the management of sleep problems in the context of skin disorders. Furthermore, randomised controlled trials of treatments for skin conditions are few and rarely measure sleep as an outcome, either subjectively or objectively. This review focuses on common skin disorders and how they affect sleep.

  3. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph.

    PubMed

    Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m(2), and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences. PMID:26483920

  4. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph

    PubMed Central

    Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m2, and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences. PMID:26483920

  5. Significance of vaspin in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    PAN, ZHE; ZHUANG, XIANGHUA; LI, XIAOBO; HUANG, SHAOYI; ZHANG, LIANG; LOU, FUCHEN; CHEN, SHIHONG; NI, YIHONG

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a commonly-diagnosed chronic sleep disorder. It is considered to be an important independent risk factor in the development of insulin resistance (IR). Patients with OSAHS exhibit a variety of metabolic disorders, including obesity and metabolic syndrome. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin) is an adipokine that is considered to be a link between obesity and IR. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of plasma vaspin in patients with OSAHS and examine their potential correlation with sleep characteristics. A total of 20 healthy male subjects and 42 male patients with OSAHS were selected, and patients were divided into mild (n=22) and severe (n=20) OSAHS groups. The 20 patients in the severe OSAHS group received nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment for 2 months. Venous blood samples were drawn from all patients in a fasting state prior to and subsequent to nCPAP treatment, which were used to measure the levels of biochemical indicators. The sleep parameters and serologic index changes were compared prior to and following treatment. The values of contractive pressure (SBP), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and hip circumference (HC) in the two OSAHS groups were significantly increased compared with those in the control group. In addition, the levels of vaspin in OSAHS patients were markedly increased and vaspin was revealed to be positively associated with fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment-IR, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), NC, WC, BMI and WHR (P<0.05). After 2 months of nCPAP treatment, the SBP and AHI were significantly reduced. In conclusion, vaspin may have an important role in OSAHS patients with IR and treatment using nCPAP may improve the condition of OSAHS patients. PMID:26998001

  6. Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation Improves Obstructive Sleep Apnea: 12 Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kezirian, Eric J.; Goding, George S.; Malhotra, Atul; O'Donoghue, Fergal J.; Zammit, Gary; Wheatley, John R.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Smith, Philip L.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Walsh, Jennifer H.; Maddison, Kathleen J.; Claman, David M.; Huntley, Tod; Park, Steven Y.; Campbell, Matthew C.; Palme, Carsten E.; Iber, Conrad; Eastwood, Peter R.; Hillman, David R.; Barnes, Maree

    2013-01-01

    Reduced upper airway muscle activity during sleep is a key contributor to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) pathogenesis. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) activates upper airway dilator muscles, including the genioglossus, and has the potential to reduce OSA severity. The objective of this study was to examine the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of a novel HGNS system (HGNS®, Apnex Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN) in treating OSA at 12 months following implantation. Thirty-one subjects (35% female, age 52·4±9·4 years) with moderate to severe OSA and unable to tolerate positive airway pressure underwent surgical implantation and activation of the HGNS system in a prospective single-arm interventional trial. Primary outcomes were changes in OSA severity (apnoea-hypopnoea index, AHI, from in-laboratory polysomnogram) and sleep-related quality of life (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, FOSQ). HGNS was used on 86±16% of nights for 5·4±1·4 hours per night. There was a significant improvement (p < 0·001) from baseline to 12 months in AHI (45.4±17·5 to 25·3±20·6 events/h) and FOSQ score (14·2±2·0 to 17·0±2·4) as well as other polysomnogram and symptom measures. Outcomes were stable compared to 6 months following implantation. Three serious device-related adverse events occurred: an infection requiring device removal and two stimulation lead cuff dislodgements requiring replacement. There were no significant adverse events with onset later than 6 months following implantation. HGNS demonstrated favourable safety, feasibility, and efficacy. PMID:24033656

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Overnight Body Fluid Shift before and after Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Mihalache, Alexandra; Pruijm, Menno; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Cornette, Françoise; Bassi, Isabelle; Haba Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload may promote obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ESRD through an overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck soft tissues. Body fluid shift and severity of obstructive sleep apnea before and after hemodialysis were compared in patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventeen patients with hemodialysis and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were included. Polysomnographies were performed the night before and after hemodialysis to assess obstructive sleep apnea, and bioimpedance was used to measure fluid overload and leg fluid volume. Results The mean overnight rostral fluid shift was 1.27±0.41 L prehemodialysis; it correlated positively with fluid overload volume (r=0.39; P=0.02) and was significantly lower posthemodialysis (0.78±0.38 L; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index before and after hemodialysis (46.8±22.0 versus 42.1±18.6 per hour; P=0.21), but obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly lower posthemodialysis (−10.1±10.8 per hour) in the group of 12 patients, with a concomitant reduction of fluid overload compared with participants without change in fluid overload (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index +8.2±16.1 per hour; P<0.01). A lower fluid overload after hemodialysis was significantly correlated (r=0.49; P=0.04) with a lower obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Fluid overload—assessed by bioimpedance—was the best predictor of the change in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index observed after hemodialysis (standardized r=−0.68; P=0.01) in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Fluid overload influences overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea severity in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Although no benefit of hemodialysis on obstructive sleep apnea severity

  8. Sleep-Related Painful Erections in a Patient With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abouda, Maher; Jomni, Taieb; Yangui, Ferdaws; Charfi, Mohamed Ridha; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Sleep-related painful erection (SRPE) is a rare sleep disorder characterized by recurrent, painful penile erections occurring when awakening from rapid eye movement sleep, while erections are painless during wakefulness. Almost 35 cases have been reported worldwide, and only two of them had an associated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We report a new case of a 61-year-old man suffering from SRPE associated with OSAS. The adequate treatment of respiratory events with continuous positive airway pressure did not alleviate the SRPE symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness. The SRPE diagnosis was made by polysomnography coupled with video surveillance when the patient was referred to the sleep laboratory for residual excessive daytime sleepiness. The patient had 2-4 episodes of SRPE/night. Beta-blocker did not alleviate the SRPE, but a transient improvement was noted when the patient was treated with paroxetine. In contrast with the two previously published cases of SRPE plus OSAS, continuous positive airway treatment did not improve SRPE symptoms in our patient. PMID:26392186

  9. Hypertension, Snoring, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea During Pregnancy: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Louise M.; Bullough, Alexandra S.; Chames, Mark C.; Shelgikar, Anita V.; Armitage, Roseanne; Guilleminualt, Christian; Sullivan, Colin E.; Johnson, Timothy R. B.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea among women with and without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Design Cohort study. Setting Obstetric clinics at an academic medical center. Population Pregnant women with hypertensive disorders (chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, or pre-eclampsia) and normotensive women. Methods Women completed a questionnaire about habitual snoring and underwent overnight ambulatory polysomnography. Main Outcome Measures The presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea. Results Obstructive sleep apnoea was found among 21 of 51 women with hypertensive disorders (41%), but in only three of 16 women who were normotensive (19%, chi-square test, P = 0.005). Non-snoring hypertensive women typically had mild obstructive sleep apnea but >25% of snoring hypertensive women had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Among the hypertensive women, the mean apnea/hypopnea index was substantially higher in snorers than non-snorers (19.9±34.1 vs. 3.4±3.1, p=0.013) and the oxyhemoglobin saturation nadir was significantly lower (86.4±6.6 vs. 90.2±3.5, p=0.021). Among hypertensive women, after stratification by obesity the pooled relative risk for obstructive sleep apnea in snoring women with hypertension compared to non-snoring hypertension was 2.0 [95%CI 1.4–2.8]. Conclusions Pregnant women with hypertension are at high risk for unrecognised obstructive sleep apnea. While longitudinal and intervention studies are urgently needed, it would seem pertinent given the known relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension in the general population, that hypertensive pregnant women who snore should be tested for obstructive sleep apnea, a condition believed to cause or promote hypertension. PMID:24888772

  10. Hypertension and stroke in a young man with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tikare, S K; Chaudhary, B A; Bandisode, M S

    1985-11-15

    In the case reported here, a 34-year-old man with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome had arterial hypertension and had had a stroke that caused right hemiplegia. A review of the literature reveals a surprisingly high occurrence of arterial hypertension in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, including children. The cause of hypertension in these patients is not clear. Surgical procedures and a new nonsurgical treatment have been successful in relieving the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. Our patient's symptoms resolved completely after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and tonsillectomy. However, his arterial hypertension persisted.

  11. Mechanism of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Airway Obstruction or Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Kelly; Orr, William

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: This is the first study to compare reflux events during wake and sleep in obese and non-obese individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obese individuals without OSA. The primary aim of the study was to investigate any additive effect of OSA on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) above that of obesity. Methods: Twenty obese individuals (body mass index, BMI > 30 kg/m2), 9 non-obese individuals (BMI < 30 kg/m2) with moderate-to-severe OSA, and 17 obese control subjects (BMI > 30 kg/m2) underwent high-resolution esophageal manometry, 24-h esophageal pH-impedance monitoring, and in-laboratory polysomnography. Results: Mean body mass index was 40 ± 6 and 27 ± 4 kg/m2 for the obese and non-obese OSA groups, respectively, and 34 ± 5 kg/m2 for the obese control group. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 50 ± 30 and 30 ± 25 per hour for the obese and non-obese OSA groups (p > 0.05), significantly higher than that of the obese control group (3 ± 3 per hour, p < 0.05). The two obese groups did not show any significant differences in the total number of acidic reflux events (41 ± 20 vs 28 ± 16); however, the obese OSA group had a greater number of acidic reflux events compared to the non-obese OSA group (22 ± 12 events, p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, BMI significantly predicted number of acidic reflux events (r2 = 0.16, p = 0.01) during the 24-h period; however, AHI showed no significant association with any measure of GER severity. Conclusions: This study confirms an important role for obesity, rather than OSA per se in the relationship between OSA and GER. Citation: Shepherd K, Orr W. Mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux in obstructive sleep apnea: airway obstruction or obesity? J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):87–94. PMID:26446244

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea and insight into mechanisms of sympathetic overactivity

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, François; Kumar, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    Nearly two decades ago, we evaluated ten patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We determined that alarming nocturnal oscillations in arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were caused by regulatory coupling and neural interactions among SNA, apnea, and ventilation. Patients with OSA exhibited high levels of SNA when awake, during normal ventilation, and during normoxia, which contributed to hypertension and organ damage. Additionally, we achieved a beneficial and potentially lifesaving reduction in SNA through the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which remains a primary therapeutic approach for patients with OSA. With these results in hindsight, we herein discuss three concepts with functional and therapeutic relevance to the integrative neurobiology of autonomic cardiovascular control and to the mechanisms involved in excessive sympathoexcitation in OSA. PMID:24691480

  13. Functional Role of Neural Injury in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Saboisky, Julian P.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Eckert, Danny J.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are multifactorial. Neural injury affecting the upper airway muscles due to repetitive exposure to intermittent hypoxia and/or mechanical strain resulting from snoring and recurrent upper airway closure have been proposed to contribute to OSA disease progression. Multiple studies have demonstrated altered sensory and motor function in patients with OSA using a variety of neurophysiological and histological approaches. However, the extent to which the alterations contribute to impairments in upper airway muscle function, and thus OSA disease progression, remains uncertain. This brief review, primarily focused on data in humans, summarizes: (1) the evidence for upper airway sensorimotor injury in OSA and (2) current understanding of how these changes affect upper airway function and their potential to change OSA progression. Some unresolved questions including possible treatment targets are noted. PMID:22715333

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea and cancer: effects of intermittent hypoxia?

    PubMed

    Kukwa, Wojciech; Migacz, Ewa; Druc, Karolina; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Czarnecka, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by pauses in regular breathing. Apneic episodes lead to recurrent hypoxemia-reoxygenation cycles with concomitant cellular intermittent hypoxia. Studies suggest that intermittent hypoxia in OSA may influence tumorigenesis. This review presents recent articles on the potential role of OSA in cancer development. Relevant research has focused on: molecular pathways mediating the influence of intermittent hypoxia on tumor physiology, animal and epidemiological human studies linking OSA and cancer. Current data relating OSA to risk of neoplastic disease remain scarce, but recent studies reveal the potential for a strong relation. More work is, therefore, needed on the impact of OSA on many cancer-related aspects. Results may offer enlightenment for improved cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26562000

  15. The Link Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Bauters, Fré; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Hertegonne, Katrien B C; Chirinos, Julio A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in the general population and highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we review (1) the pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA that may causally contribute to cardiovascular disease; (2) current evidence regarding the association between OSA and hypertension, stroke, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and cardiovascular mortality; and (3) the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes. We emphasize the importance of obesity as a comorbidity of OSA and a confounder in the association between OSA and cardiovascular disease. We also discuss the importance of addressing obesity in patients with OSA, as a strategy to reduce the burden of cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Implications for the approach of patients' OSA in clinical practice and future research directions are discussed.

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea in North American commercial drivers.

    PubMed

    Kales, Stefanos N; Straubel, Madeleine G

    2014-01-01

    The most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Specifically, among an estimated 14 million US commercial drivers, 17-28% or 2.4 to 3.9 million are expected to have OSA. Based on existing epidemiologic evidence, most of these drivers are undiagnosed and not adequately treated. Untreated OSA increases the risk of vehicular crashes as documented in multiple independent studies and by meta-analysis. Therefore, identifying commercial drivers with OSA and having them effectively treated should decrease crash-related fatalities and injuries. Several strategies are available for screening and identifying drivers with OSA. The simplest and most effective objective strategies use body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for obesity. Functional screens are promising adjuncts to other objective tests. The most effective approach will likely be a combination of a good questionnaire; BMI measures; and a careful physician-obtained history complemented by a functional screen. PMID:24317450

  17. [Implantable nerve stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Afonso Delgado, Lidia; Micoulaud Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Monteyrol, Pierre-Jean; Philip, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common disorder that has been identified as a contributor to cardiovascular disease making it a major public health problem. Continuous positive airway pressure is the standard treatment but compliance is suboptimal. Mandibular advancement devices and surgery have limited indications, inconstant efficiency and potential irreversible side effects. Stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve, that innervates the genioglossus, a protrusor muscle of the tongue, is now a new treatment option for moderate and severe cases of OSAHS. Two types of stimulation are currently available: stimulation synchronous with inspiration and continuous stimulation. The indication of each type of stimulation and long-term effects still need to be assessed but the implantable nerve stimulation is a promising treatment for patients without a therapy solution so far.

  18. Craniocervical Posture in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Piccin, Chaiane Facco; Pozzebon, Daniela; Scapini, Fabricio; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective  The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Methods  This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG), and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG). Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results  The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group), age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years), and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2). We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion  OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization. PMID:27413397

  19. Results of electromyostimulation therapy in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Arwed

    2008-08-01

    Innovative muscle stimulation techniques have become alternatives for therapy of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome breathing disorders. In group I, an individually shaped mouth floor electrode (IME) and in group II, an individually adaptable multi-point electrode (MPE) on a silicone carrier has been used for electromyostimulation (EMS) therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The enoral-cutaneous EMS was carried out with the low-frequency stimulation apparatus I-pulse over a period of 8 weeks, two times daily for 30 min during daytime hours only. In group III, the patients used EMS therapy for half a year continuously. Before and after stimulation treatment, three-dimensional volumetric sonographical measurement of the geniohyoid muscle was carried out. All patients (n = 14) totally applied the EMS therapy. Under IME and MPE application after 4 weeks of EMS therapy, a median volume increase of 19.6% (minimum 9.7%, maximum 27.9%) was registered, the median after 8 weeks IME was 27.6% and in MPE 24.0%). No significant difference (analysis of variance type: P > 0.05) between electrodes could be found. In all groups, a reduction of the muscle length of 4.7% was proved. In groups I and II after 26 weeks, the volume was near baseline before stimulation (+4.3%). In the third group, the increase of volume persisted (+29.4%) over the observation period of 12-26 weeks. Opposed to established stimulation techniques, a threefold effectiveness enhancement could be verified by using both individually adaptable electrodes. The EMS therapy should be carried out as continuous long-term therapy or as interval therapy.

  20. Underlying Mechanisms for Coexisting Central and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Nocturnal PaCO2 and Poor Sleep Quality Are Key Issues.

    PubMed

    Contal, Olivier; Pépin, Jean Louis; Borel, Jean Christian; Espa, Fabrice; Perrig, Stephen; Lücker, Lise-Margrit; Adler, Dan; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Lador, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Coexisting central and obstructive sleep apnea is a challenging clinical situation. We report a case exhibiting an overnight shift from obstructive to central events. The central sleep apnea component was related to sleep instability, hyperventilation and low nocturnal PaCO2. Both types of respiratory events were successfully treated with adaptive servoventilation.

  1. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Luciana Balester Mello; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Palombini, Luciana Oliveira; e Silva, Luciana Oliveira; Hoshino, Wilson; Guimarães, Thaís Moura; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia; Togeiro, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS), mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and normal individuals. Methods UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale—ESS—≥ 10) and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale—MFIS—≥ 38) associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38) associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. “Control group” criteria were AHI < 5 events/hour and RDI ≤ 5 events/hour and ESS ≤ 9, without any sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in “control group”), adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) was performed five times (each two hours) from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Results UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire—FOSQ—and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index—PSQI: p < 0.05) and more fatigue than mild OSA patients (p = 0.003) and scored significantly higher in both Beck inventories than “control group” (p < 0.02). UARS patients had more lapses early in the morning (in time 1) compared to the results in the afternoon (time 5) than mild OSA (p = 0.02). Mild OSA patients had more lapses in times 2 than in time 5 compared to “control group” (p = 0.04). Conclusions UARS patients have a worse sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls. PMID:27228081

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow alterations in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Santosh K; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M; Richardson, Heidi L; Wang, Danny J J; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M

    2013-10-25

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition characterized by upper airway muscle atonia with continued diaphragmatic efforts, resulting in repeated airway obstructions, periods of intermittent hypoxia, large thoracic pressure changes, and substantial shifts in arterial pressure with breathing cessation and resumption. The hypoxic exposure and hemodynamic changes likely induce the structural and functional deficits found in multiple brain areas, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures. Altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) may contribute to these localized deficits; thus, we examined regional CBF, using arterial spin labeling procedures, in 11 OSA (age, 49.1±12.2 years; 7 male) and 16 control subjects (42.3±10.2 years; 6 male) with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. CBF maps were calculated, normalized to a common space, and regional CBF values across the brain quantified. Lowered CBF values emerged near multiple bilateral brain sites in OSA, including the corticospinal tracts, superior cerebellar peduncles, and pontocerebellar fibers. Lateralized, decreased CBF appeared near the left inferior cerebellar peduncles, left tapetum, left dorsal fornix/stria terminalis, right medial lemniscus, right red nucleus, right midbrain, and midline pons. Regional CBF values in OSA are significantly reduced in major sensory and motor fiber systems and motor regulatory sites, especially in structures mediating motor coordination; those reductions are often lateralized. The asymmetric CBF declines in motor regulatory areas may contribute to loss of coordination between upper airway and diaphragmatic musculature, and lead to further damage in the syndrome.

  3. Immediate postarousal sleep dynamics: an important determinant of sleep stability in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Younes, Magdy; Hanly, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    Arousability from sleep is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of the clinical spectrum of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Patients with SDB display a wide range of arousability. The reason for these differences is not known. We hypothesized that differences in the speed with which sleep deepens following arousals/awakenings (postarousal sleep dynamics) is a major determinant of these differences in arousability in patients with SDB. We analyzed 40 preexisting clinical polysomnography records from patients with a range of SDB severity (apnea-hypopnea index 5-135/h). Sleep depth was determined every 3 s using the odds ratio product (ORP) method, a continuous index of sleep depth (0 = deep sleep, 2.5 = full wakefulness) that correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with arousability (Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, and Hanly P. Sleep 38: 641-654, 2015). Time course of ORP was determined from end of arousal until the next arousal. All arousals were analyzed (142 ± 65/polysomnogram). ORP increased from 0.58 ± 0.32 during sleep to 1.67 ± 0.35 during arousals. ORP immediately (first 9 s) following arousals/awakenings (ORP-9) ranged from 0.21(very deep sleep) to 1.71 (highly arousable state) in different patients. In patients with high ORP-9, sleep deepened slowly (over minutes) beyond 9 s but only if no arousals/awakenings recurred. ORP-9 correlated strongly with average non-rapid eye movement sleep depth (r = 0.87, P < 2E-13), the arousal/awakening index (r = 0.68, P < 5E-6), and with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). ORP-9 was consistent within each patient and did not change on continuous positive airway pressure despite marked improvement in sleep architecture. We conclude that postarousal sleep dynamics are highly variable among patients with sleep-disordered breathing and largely determine average sleep depth and continuity.

  4. Emerging technology: electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) of the upper airway (UAW) dilator muscles for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been used for several decades, but in recent years research in this field has experienced a renaissance; the results of several studies have triggered a steady rise in the interest in this topic. Prospective trials, although still lacking a sham-controlled and randomised approach, have revealed the potential of ES. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) leads to a significant reduction in the apnoea-hypopnoea index and the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). There are similar results published from feasibility studies for transcutaneous ES. A limitation of HNS remains the invasive procedure, the costs involved and severe adverse events, while for the non-invasive approach complications are rare and limited. The limiting step for transcutaneous ES is to deliver a sufficient current without causing arousal from sleep. Despite the progress up to date, numerous variables including optimal stimulation settings, different devices and procedures remain to be further defined for the invasive and the non-invasive method. Further studies are required to identify which patients respond to this treatment. ES of the UAW dilator muscles in OSA has the potential to develop into a clinical alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. It could benefit selected patients who fail standard therapy due to poor long-term compliance. It is likely that international societies will need to review and update their existing guidance on the use of ES in OSA. PMID:26380757

  5. [Non-CPAP therapies in obstructive sleep apnoea: an overview].

    PubMed

    Keymel, S; Kelm, M; Randerath, W J

    2013-01-01

    Optimal treatment of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) requires an individually designed and interdisciplinary approach. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is accepted as the first line therapy for patients with OSAS. However, non-CPAP therapies may be indicated as supportive therapeutical approach in CPAP failure or as an alternative approach in CPAP intolerance. Overall, the level of evidence for the majority of non-CPAP therapies is low. Mandibular advancement devices as a medical non-CPAP treatment have proven to reduce respiratory disturbances to a level which may be sufficient in mild to moderate sleep apnoea. Apnoea triggered neurostimulation of upper airway muscles is an innovative approach that has shown promising results in preclinical studies. Surgical treatment has previously been performed as single level surgery of the nasal, the oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal level. However, only tonsillectomy in the presence of tonsillar hypertrophy and maxillomandibular advancement are recommended in carefully selected cases. Due to low success rates for single level surgery, multilevel surgery has been proposed as the surgical approach for the future.

  6. Drug induced sleep endoscopy in the decision-making process of children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Francesca; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Gaini, Renato Maria; Garavello, Werner

    2015-03-01

    Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) is currently recommended in children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). However, the condition persists after surgery in about one third of cases. It has been suggested that Drug Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) may be of help for planning a more targeted and effective surgical treatment but evidence is yet weak. The aim of this review is to draw recommendation on the use of DISE in children with OSA. More specifically, we aimed at determine the proportion of cases whose treatment may be influenced by DISE findings. A comprehensive search of articles published from February 1983 to January 2014 listed in the PubMed/MEDLINE databases was performed. The search terms used were: "endoscopy" or "nasoendoscopy" or "DISE" and "obstructive sleep apnea" and "children" or "child" or "pediatric." The main outcome was the rate of naive children with hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids. The assumptions are that clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids is reliable and does not require DISE, and that exclusive T&A may solve OSA in the vast majority of cases even in the presence of other concomitant sites of obstruction. Five studies were ultimately selected and all were case series. The median (range) number of studied children was 39 (15-82). Mean age varied from 3.2 to 7.8 years. The combined estimate rate of OSA consequent to hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids was 71% (95%CI: 64-77%). In children with Down Syndrome, the combined estimated rate of hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids was 62% (95%CI: 44-79%). Our findings show that DISE may be of benefit in a minority of children with OSA since up to two thirds of naive cases presents with hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids. Its use should be limited to those whose clinical evaluation is unremarkable or when OSA persists after T&A.

  7. Altered clot microstructure detected in obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    D׳Silva, Lindsay; Wilczynska, Maria; Lewis, Keir; Lawrence, Matthew; Hawkins, Karl; Williams, Rhodri; Stanford, Sophia; Davidson, Simon; Morris, Keith; Evans, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal clot microstructure plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of thromboembolic diseases. Assessing the viscoelastic properties of clot microstructure using novel parameters, Time to Gel Point (TGP), Fractal Dimension (df) and clot elasticity (G׳GP) could explain the increased cardiovascular and thromboembolic events in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS). We wanted to compare TGP, df, and G׳GP and their diurnal variation in OSAHS and symptomatic comparators. thirty six patients attending a sleep disturbed breathing clinic with symptoms of OSAHS were recruited. TGP, df and G׳GP were measured alongside standard coagulation screening, thrombin generation assays, and platelet aggregometry at 16:00 h and immediately after an in-patient sleep study at 07:30 h. OSAHS group had significantly lower afternoon df than comparators (1.705±0.033 vs. 1.731±0.031, p<0.05). df showed diurnal variation and only in the OSAHS group, being significantly lower in the afternoon than morning (p<0.05). Diurnal changes in df correlated with 4% DR, even after controlling for BMI (r=0.37, p=0.02). The lower df in the afternoon in OSAHS suggests a partial compensatory change that may make up for other pro-clotting abnormalities/hypertension during the night. The change to the thrombotic tendency in the afternoon is biggest in severe OSAHS. df Shows promise as a new microstructural indicator for abnormal haemostasis in OSAHS. PMID:27226818

  8. Electrical stimulation therapy improves sleep respiratory parameters in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie-wen; Qi, Wei-wei; Ye, Rui-xin; Wu, Yuan-yuan

    2013-10-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown that electrical stimulation has beneficial effects in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of electrical stimulation therapy for OSAS with a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of all relative studies was performed through searching international literature, including PUBMED, CNKI, and EMBASE databases. This literature analysis compared all patients undergoing electrical stimulation therapy with respect to the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and changes in sleep structure. Six studies were selected involving a total of 91 patients. The meta-analysis indicated that electrical stimulation therapy reduced RDI, longest apnea time, and improved the minimum SaO2. Based on the evidence found, electrical stimulation may be a potential therapy for OSAS, warranting further clinical trials.

  9. Sleep Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Etiology, Impact, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Siddiqi, Tauseef A.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and may frequently be complicated by sleep disorders. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are commonly encountered in patients with COPD. Nocturnal hypoxemia is also prevalent in COPD may occur despite adequate awake oxygenation and can be especially severe in rapid eye movement sleep. Additionally, several factors—some of them unique to COPD—can contribute to sleep-related hypoventilation. Recognition of hypoventilation can be vital as supplemental oxygen therapy itself can acutely worsen hypoventilation and lead to disastrous consequences. Finally, accruing data establish an association between restless leg syndrome and COPD— an association that may be driven by hypoxemia and/or hypercapnia. Comorbid sleep disorders portend worse sleep quality, diminished quality of life, and multifarious other adverse consequences. The awareness and knowledge regarding sleep comorbidities in COPD has continued to evolve over past many years. There are still several lacunae, however, in our understanding of the etiologies, impact, and therapies of sleep disorders, specifically in patients with COPD. This review summarizes the latest concepts in prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of diverse sleep disorders in COPD. Citation: Budhiraja R, Siddiqi TA, Quan SF. Sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: etiology, impact, and management. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):259–270. PMID:25700872

  10. Cephalometric comparisons between Chinese and Caucasian patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Lowe, A A; Zeng, X; Fu, M; Fleetham, J A

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two groups of adult men from different ethnic backgrounds and with obstructive sleep apnea; they were selected by matching age, gender, skeletal pattern, body mass index, and respiratory disturbance index. Pretreatment cephalometric radiographs and overnight polysomnograms of 30 Chinese and 43 Caucasian patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions were analyzed to investigate if there were craniofacial and upper airway structural differences between the two ethnic groups. The Chinese group, when compared with the group of Caucasian patients, revealed more severe underlying craniofacial skeletal discrepancies with significantly smaller maxilla and mandibles, more severe mandibular retrognathism, proclined lower incisors, increased total and upper facial heights, and steeper and shorter anterior cranial bases. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups in posterior facial height, ratio of upper to lower anterior facial height, and the position of hyoid bone, maxilla, and upper incisors. With regard to soft tissue and upper airway measurements, there were no significant ethnic differences in tongue and soft palate size, vertical length of oropharynx, and anteroposterior dimensions of the upper airway at most of the levels except for a larger super-posterior airway space, a larger nasopharynx and oropharynx cross-sectional area, and a smaller tongue height in the Chinese group. We conclude that there are a number of craniofacial and upper airway structures that differ between the two ethnic groups that may be relevant to the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in various ethnic groups.

  11. [Clinical features of sleep disorders in older adults].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru; Tamura, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    There are three major neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the sleep-waking cycle: the sleep system, the waking system, and the system that determines sleep-waking timing. Sleep dlisorders of older adults seem to be caused by functional or organic changes in one or more of the three systems, and are roughly classified into two categories: (i) normal age-related, and (ii) pathological. The former includes decreased amplitude and advanced phase of circadian rhythms (body temperature, melatonin secretion, and sleep-waking), as well as reduced sleep duration, sleep fragmentation, and a decrease of slow-wave sleep in sleep architecture. Pathological sleep disorders include medical and psychiatric diseases (e.g., lifestyle-related diseases, dementia, delirium, and depression) and primary age-related sleep disorders (e.g., REM sleep behavior disorder and periodic limb move- ment disorders). This mini-review delineates the clinical features of sleep disorders in older adults.

  12. Tube Law of the Pharyngeal Airway in Sleeping Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Genta, Pedro R.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Sands, Scott A.; Owens, Robert L.; Butler, James P.; Loring, Stephen H.; White, David P.; Wellman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep. However, the dynamics of pharyngeal narrowing and re-expansion during flow-limited breathing are not well described. The static pharyngeal tube law (end-expiratory area versus luminal pressure) has demonstrated increasing pharyngeal compliance as luminal pressure decreases, indicating that the airway would be sucked closed with sufficient inspiratory effort. On the contrary, the airway is rarely sucked closed during inspiratory flow limitation, suggesting that the airway is getting stiffer. Therefore, we hypothesized that during inspiratory flow limitation, as opposed to static conditions, the pharynx becomes stiffer as luminal pressure decreases. Methods: Upper airway endoscopy and simultaneous measurements of airflow and epiglottic pressure were performed during natural nonrapid eye movement sleep. Continuous positive (or negative) airway pressure was used to induce flow limitation. Flow-limited breaths were selected for airway cross-sectional area measurements. Relative airway area was quantified as a percentage of end-expiratory area. Inspiratory airway radial compliance was calculated at each quintile of epiglottic pressure versus airway area plot (tube law). Results: Eighteen subjects (14 males) with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index = 57 ± 27 events/h), aged 49 ± 8 y, with a body mass index of 35 ± 6 kg/m2 were studied. A total of 163 flow limited breaths were analyzed (9 ± 3 breaths per subject). Compliances at the fourth (2.0 ± 4.7 % area/cmH2O) and fifth (0.0 ± 1.7 % area/cmH2O) quintiles were significantly lower than the first (12.2 ± 5.5 % area/cmH2O) pressure quintile (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The pharyngeal tube law is concave (airway gets stiffer as luminal pressure decreases) during respiratory cycles under inspiratory flow limitation. Citation: Genta PR, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Owens RL, Butler JP, Loring SH, White DP, Wellman A. Tube law of

  13. Measurement properties of a screening questionnaire of obstructive sleep apnea risk: Little information, great prediction?☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sargento, Paulo; Perea, Victoria; Ladera, Valentina; Lopes, Paulo; Oliveira, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous research had shown the suitability of several questionnaires predicting the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Measurement properties of an online screening questionnaire were studied. Methods The sample consisted of 184 Portuguese adults (89 men and 95 women); 46 of them were polysomnographically diagnosed with the untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The participants were assessed with an online questionnaire of sleep apnea risk, from University of Maryland. Results A principal component factor analysis was performed, revealing a single factor (49.24% of the total variance). Internal consistency was minimally adequate (α=0.74). The mean of inter-item correlation was of 0.35 (0.120.61), whereas the item-total correlations were considered good (0.520.81). The total score for patients was significantly higher than for healthy participants (p<0.000), but no significant statistical differences between severity groups of patients were found (p>0.05). Furthermore, the ability of the measure in discriminating between healthy subjects and OSA subjects was good. Overall data from the Rasch analysis was consistent with the guidelines of Linacre, scores show good model fit and psychometric adequacy. Conclusions The measure showed an adequate structural, internal and criterion validity, suggesting this as a useful and effective screening for sleep apnea risk in Portuguese adults. PMID:26483909

  14. Insomnia Severity, Subjective Sleep Quality, and Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Veterans With Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Chao, Linda L; Abadjian, Linda R; Esparza, Iva L; Reeb, Rosemary

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that sleep disturbances are common in veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI), there has been a paucity of published sleep studies in this veteran population to date. Therefore, the present study examined subjective sleep quality (assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia severity (assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index), and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (assessed with the STOP questionnaire) in 98 Gulf War veterans. Veterans with GWI, defined either by the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, had greater risk for obstructive sleep apnea (i.e., higher STOP scores) than veterans without GWI. This difference persisted even after accounting for potentially confounding demographic (e.g., age, gender) and clinical variables. Veterans with GWI, defined by either the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, also had significantly greater insomnia severity and poorer sleep quality than veterans without GWI (p < 0.05), even after accounting for potentially confounding variables. Furthermore, there were significant, positive correlations between insomnia severity, subjective sleep quality, and GWI symptom severity (p ≤ 0.01). In stepwise linear regression models, insomnia severity significantly predicted GWI status over and above demographic and clinical variables. Together these findings provide good rationale for treating sleep disturbances in the management of GWI. PMID:27612364

  15. Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Vascular Perfusion Map Findings in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Li, Daniel Q; Golding, John; Choudhry, Netan

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent chronic sleep disorder associated with considerable systemic and ophthalmic consequences. The authors present the retinal vascular findings of a visually asymptomatic 56-year-old man clinically diagnosed with OSA using swept-source optical coherence tomography and vascular perfusion mapping. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:880-884.]. PMID:27631487

  16. Preliminary evaluation of Wearable Wellness System for Obstructive Sleep Apnea detection.

    PubMed

    Crupi, R; Faetti, T; Paradiso, R

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have proven how sleep deprivation has a negative impact on daily life, affecting people's psychophysical state. In this field, research is focusing on the improvement of unobtrusive sleep monitoring devices for promoting sleep hygiene and early detection of sleep disorders. This study aims to assess the use of a textile-based wearable system, with its associated apnea detection algorithm, in monitoring of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAs). The system has been compared through the simultaneous acquisition of physiological signals in parallel with polysomnograph in laboratory and home environments. Results show that such a wearable system could be successfully used for early detection of OSAs (Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome) and could stimulate people to a better self healthcare looking for a specialized medic examination and eventually undergoing to proper treatment avoiding the onset of OSAs co-morbidities. PMID:26737206

  17. Modified Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and Coblation Channeling of the Tongue for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Multi-Centre Australian Trial

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Stuart G.; Carney, A. Simon; Woods, Charmaine; Antic, Nick; McEvoy, R. Doug; Chia, Michael; Sands, Terry; Jones, Andrew; Hobson, Jonathan; Robinson, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the surgical outcomes and efficacy of modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (mod UPPP) and Coblation channelling of the tongue (CCT) as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Adult patients with simple snoring or obstructive sleep apnea were treated with combined modified UPPP, bilateral tonsillectomy, and CCT (N = 48). Full polysomnography was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Postoperative clinical assessment, sleep questionnaires, and patient demographics including body mass index were compared to preoperative data. All polysomnograms were re-scored to AASM recommended criteria by 2 sleep professionals. Results: The preoperative AHI (median and interquartile range) of 23.1 (10.4 to 36.6) was lowered to a postoperative AHI of 5.6 (1.9 to 10.4) (p < 0.05). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score fell from 10.5 (5.5 to 13.5) to 5.0 (3.09 to 9.5) (p < 0.05). Morbidity of the surgery was low, with no long-term complications recorded. Conclusions: Modified UPPP combined with CCT is a highly efficacious intervention for OSA with minimal morbidity. It should be considered for individuals who fail or are intolerant of CPAP or other medical devices. Citation: MacKay SG; Carney AS; Woods C; Antic N; McEvoy RD; Chia M; Sands T; Jones A; Hobson J; Robinson S. Modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and coblation channeling of the tongue for obstructive sleep apnea: a multi-centre australian trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):117–124. PMID:23372463

  18. Speckle tracking echocardiography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and overlapping obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Carmen; van Essen, Fabian; Linnhoff, Fabian; Schueler, Robert; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk; Weber, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD and congestive heart failure represent two disease entities of growing global burden that share common etiological features. Therefore, we aimed to identify the degree of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in COPD as a function of COPD severity stages and concurrently placed particular emphasis on the presence of overlapping obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods A total of 85 COPD outpatients (64.1±10.4 years, 54.1% males) and 20 controls, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, underwent speckle tracking echocardiography for LV longitudinal strain imaging. Complementary 12-lead electrocardiography, laboratory testing, and overnight screening for sleep-disordered breathing using the SOMNOcheck micro® device were performed. Results Contrary to conventional echocardiographic parameters, speckle tracking echocardiography revealed significant impairment in global LV strain among COPD patients compared to control smokers (−13.3%±5.4% vs −17.1%±1.8%, P=0.04). On a regional level, the apical septal LV strain was reduced in COPD (P=0.003) and associated with the degree of COPD severity (P=0.02). With regard to electrocardiographic findings, COPD patients exhibited a significantly higher mean heart rate than controls (71.4±13.0 beats per minute vs 60.3±7.7 beats per minute, P=0.001) that additionally increased over Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.01). Albeit not statistically significant, COPD led to elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (453.2±909.0 pg/mL vs 96.8±70.0 pg/mL, P=0.08). As to somnological testing, the portion of COPD patients exhibiting overlapping OSA accounted for 5.9% and did not significantly vary either in comparison to controls (P=0.07) or throughout the COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.49). COPD-OSA overlap solely correlated with nocturnal hypoxemic events, whereas LV performance status was unrelated to coexisting OSA. Conclusion

  19. Circulating adhesion molecules in obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pak, Victoria M; Grandner, Michael A; Pack, Allan I

    2014-02-01

    Over 20 years of evidence indicates a strong association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease. Although inflammatory processes have been heavily implicated as an important link between the two, the mechanism for this has not been conclusively established. Atherosclerosis may be one of the mechanisms linking OSA to cardiovascular morbidity. This review addresses the role of circulating adhesion molecules in patients with OSA, and how these may be part of the link between cardiovascular disease and OSA. There is evidence for the role of adhesion molecules in cardiovascular disease risk. Some studies, albeit with small sample sizes, also show higher levels of adhesion molecules in patients with OSA compared to controls. There are also studies that show that levels of adhesion molecules diminish with continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Limitations of these studies include small sample sizes, cross-sectional sampling, and inconsistent control for confounding variables known to influence adhesion molecule levels. There are potential novel therapies to reduce circulating adhesion molecules in patients with OSA to diminish cardiovascular disease. Understanding the role of cell adhesion molecules generated in OSA will help elucidate one mechanistic link to cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA.

  20. Early cardiovascular abnormalities in newly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Nadra, Marie; Barone-Rochette, Gilles; Ormezzano, Olivier; Pierre, Hélène; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that it is associated with atherosclerosis and left ventricular dysfunction markers. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiovascular effects of OSA depending on its severity, in patients without clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease. One hundred thirty newly diagnosed, nondiabetic OSA patients (mean age 49 ± 10 years), without vasoactive treatment were included. They underwent clinical and ambulatory blood pressure measurements, echocardiography, carotid ultrasound examination, and a carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement. Seventy-five percent of the subjects were hypertensive according to the clinical or ambulatory measurement. More patients with the most severe forms (respiratory disturbance index >37/hour) had a nondipper profile (52% vs 34%; P = 0.025) and their left ventricular mass was higher (40 ± 7 vs 36 ± 8 g/m, p = 0.014). This last parameter was independently and inversely associated with mean nocturnal oxygen saturation (P = 0.004). PWV and carotid intima-media thickness did not differ between one OSA severity group to another, but the prevalence of carotid hypertrophy was higher when mean SaO2 was below 93.5% (29.5 vs 16%; P = 0.05). Our study shows that in OSA patients without clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease, there is a significant left ventricular and arterial effect, which is even more marked when OSA is severe. PMID:20057899

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea and systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Aizpuru, Felipe; Martínez-Null, Cristina; Barbé-Illa, Ferrán

    2009-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSAH) syndrome is a highly prevalent condition. Severe OSAH affects 2-6% of the population, although only 10% of subjects are correctly diagnosed and treated. OSAH is an important and unresolved public health care problem because of its role in the development of cardiovascular events, negative impact on quality of life, and as a cause of traffic accidents. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have shown a strong association between OSAH and hypertension. Moreover, a number of open-label studies, the majority of 21 controlled studies included in the present review, a systematic review, and 4 recent meta-analyses have shown a reduction of blood pressure (BP) of about 2 mm Hg with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This lowering of blood pressure is significant in terms of reduction of both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk and death. The effect is greater in hypertensive subjects and in those with more severe OSAH. Accordingly, treatment with CPAP could be considered in patients with severe OSAH and hypertension even in the absence of symptoms. The challenge to researchers is to find markers for discriminating subjects in whom blood pressure will decrease from non-responders. This will help to refine relevant clinical indicators for CPAP treatment in clinical practice.

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Women: Specific Issues and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Woehrle, Holger; Ketheeswaran, Sahisha; Ramanan, Dinesh; Armitstead, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has traditionally been seen as a male disease. However, the importance of OSA in women is increasingly being recognized, along with a number of significant gender-related differences in the symptoms, diagnosis, consequences, and treatment of OSA. Women tend to have less severe OSA than males, with a lower apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and shorter apneas and hypopneas. Episodes of upper airway resistance that do not meet the criteria for apneas are more common in women. Prevalence rates are lower in women, and proportionally fewer women receive a correct diagnosis. Research has also documented sex differences in the upper airway, fat distribution, and respiratory stability in OSA. Hormones are implicated in some gender-related variations, with differences between men and women in the prevalence of OSA decreasing as age increases. The limited data available suggest that although the prevalence and severity of OSA may be lower in women than in men, the consequences of the disease are at least the same, if not worse for comparable degrees of severity. Few studies have investigated gender differences in the effects of OSA treatment. However, given the differences in physiology and presentation, it is possible that personalized therapy may provide more optimal care.

  3. Metabolomics Profiling for Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Simple Snorers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huajun; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Qian, Yingjun; Guan, Jian; Yi, Hongliang; Zou, Jianyin; Wang, Yuyu; Meng, Lili; Zhao, Aihua; Yin, Shankai; Jia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Few clinical studies have explored altered urinary metabolite levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Thus, we applied a metabolomics approach to analyze urinary metabolites in three groups of participants: patients with polysomnography (PSG)-confirmed OSA, simple snorers (SS), and normal subjects. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used. A total of 21 and 31 metabolites were differentially expressed in the SS and OSA groups, respectively. Patients with OSA had 18 metabolites different from those with SS. Of the 56 metabolites detected among the 3 groups, 24 were consistently higher or lower. A receiver operator curve analysis revealed that the combination of 4-hydroxypentenoic acid, arabinose, glycochenodeoxycholate-3-sulfate, isoleucine, serine, and xanthine produced a moderate diagnostic score with a sensitivity (specificity) of 75% (78%) for distinguishing OSA from those without OSA. The combination of 4-hydroxypentenoic acid, 5-dihydrotestosterone sulfate, serine, spermine, and xanthine distinguished OSA from SS with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 80%. Multiple metabolites and metabolic pathways associated with SS and OSA were identified using the metabolomics approach, and the altered metabolite signatures could potentially serve as an alternative diagnostic method to PSG. PMID:27480913

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Women: Specific Issues and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Woehrle, Holger; Ketheeswaran, Sahisha; Ramanan, Dinesh; Armitstead, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has traditionally been seen as a male disease. However, the importance of OSA in women is increasingly being recognized, along with a number of significant gender-related differences in the symptoms, diagnosis, consequences, and treatment of OSA. Women tend to have less severe OSA than males, with a lower apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and shorter apneas and hypopneas. Episodes of upper airway resistance that do not meet the criteria for apneas are more common in women. Prevalence rates are lower in women, and proportionally fewer women receive a correct diagnosis. Research has also documented sex differences in the upper airway, fat distribution, and respiratory stability in OSA. Hormones are implicated in some gender-related variations, with differences between men and women in the prevalence of OSA decreasing as age increases. The limited data available suggest that although the prevalence and severity of OSA may be lower in women than in men, the consequences of the disease are at least the same, if not worse for comparable degrees of severity. Few studies have investigated gender differences in the effects of OSA treatment. However, given the differences in physiology and presentation, it is possible that personalized therapy may provide more optimal care. PMID:27699167

  5. Sympathoexcitation and arterial hypertension associated with obstructive sleep apnea and cyclic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J Woodrow; Tamisier, Renaud; Liu, Yuzhen

    2015-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. These obstructive episodes are characterized by cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), by sleep fragmentation, and by hemodynamic instability, and they result in sustained sympathoexcitation and elevated arterial pressure that persist during waking, after restoration of normoxia. Early studies established that 1) CIH, rather than sleep disruption, accounts for the increase in arterial pressure; 2) the increase in arterial pressure is a consequence of the sympathoactivation; and 3) arterial hypertension after CIH exposure requires an intact peripheral chemoreflex. More recently, however, evidence has accumulated that sympathoactivation and hypertension after CIH are also dependent on altered central sympathoregulation. Furthermore, although many molecular pathways are activated in both the carotid chemoreceptor and in the central nervous system by CIH exposure, two specific neuromodulators-endothelin-1 and angiotensin II-appear to play crucial roles in mediating the sympathetic and hemodynamic response to intermittent hypoxia.

  6. Oral appliances in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring.

    PubMed

    Ayas, N T; Epstein, L J

    1998-11-01

    Treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea with oral appliances is a promising alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Although there is wide variability in appliance design, these devices produce enlargement of the upper airway by advancing the mandible, tongue, or both. Oral appliances effectively reduce snoring in a significant proportion of individuals. In general they are less effective than CPAP in eliminating obstructive sleep apnea, with approximately 50% of individuals experiencing resolution of their obstructive sleep apnea with these devices. Patients with milder disease have greater success with oral appliance therapy than those with more severe disease. A small proportion of patients will experience worsening of their sleep apnea with an oral appliance, and close follow-up after device prescription is mandatory. Patient satisfaction with oral appliances may be better than that with CPAP.

  7. Effects of Positive Airway Pressure on Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Acute Ascent to Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Katsufumi; Cloward, Tom V.; Weaver, Lindell K.; Brown, Samuel M.; Bell, James E.; Grissom, Colin K.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: In acute ascent to altitude, untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often replaced with central sleep apnea (CSA). In patients with obstructive sleep apnea who travel to altitude, it is unknown whether their home positive airway pressure (PAP) settings are sufficient to treat their obstructive sleep apnea, or altitude-associated central sleep apnea. Methods: Ten participants with positive airway pressure–treated obstructive sleep apnea, who reside at 1,320 m altitude, underwent polysomnography on their home positive airway pressure settings at 1,320 m and at a simulated altitude of 2,750 m in a hypobaric chamber. Six of the participants were subsequently studied without positive airway pressure at 2,750 m. Measurements and Main Results: At 1,320 m, all participants’ sleep apnea was controlled with positive airway pressure on home settings; at 2,750, no participants’ sleep apnea was controlled. At higher altitude, the apnea–hypopnea index was higher (11 vs. 2 events/h; P < 0.01), mostly due to hypopneas (10.5 vs. 2 events/h; P < 0.01). Mean oxygen saturations were lower (88 vs. 93%; P < 0.01) and total sleep time was diminished (349 vs. 393 min; P = 0.03). Four of six participants without positive airway pressure at 2,750 m required supplemental oxygen to prevent sustained oxygen saturation (as determined by pulse oximetry) less than 80%. Positive airway pressure also was associated with reduced central sleep apnea (0 vs. 1; P = 0.03), improved sleep time (358 vs. 292 min; P = 0.06), and improved sleep efficiency (78 vs. 63%; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Acute altitude exposure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea treated with positive airway pressure is associated with hypoxemia, decreased sleep time, and increased frequency of hypopneas compared with baseline altitude. Application of positive airway pressure at altitude is associated with decreased central sleep apnea and increased sleep efficiency. PMID:25884271

  8. A Combination Appliance for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Effectiveness of Mandibular Advancement and Tongue Retention

    PubMed Central

    Dort, Leslie; Remmers, John

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea would experience increasing treatment effect when a tongue retention component was added to a mandibular repositioning appliance. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep clinic. Patients: Forty-four sequentially recruited patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Interventions: Subjects were sleep tested at 4 treatment stages of oral appliance therapy. The 4 stages were: 6-mm mandibular protrusion, 8-mm protrusion, 6-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb, and 8-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb. Measurements and Results: Forty-one of 44 subjects completed the protocol. There was a decrease in mean respiratory disturbance index from 33.5 events/h at baseline to 18.1 events/h at stage 4 (p = 0.001). Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) decreased from 12.3 at baseline to 9.0 at stage 4 (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: A combined approach utilizing both mandibular protrusion and tongue retention can provide effective treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The addition of a tongue bulb may provide further treatment effect when mandibular protrusion is limited. Appliance designs that allow for convenient combination therapy need to be developed for this purpose. Citation: Dort L; Remmers J. A combination appliance for obstructive sleep apnea: the effectiveness of mandibular advancement and tongue retention. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):265-269. PMID:22701383

  9. Sleepiness and nocturnal hypoxemia in Peruvian men with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Jorge Rey; Mezones-Holguín, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the intensity of nocturnal hypoxemia associated with sleepiness in Peruvian men with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis based on a study which includes patients with OSA who were seen in a private hospital in Lima, Peru from 2006 to 2012. We included male adults who had polysomnographic recordings and who answered the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESE). The intensity of nocturnal hypoxemia (oxygen saturation ≤90 %) was classified in four new categories: 0, <1, 1 to 10 and >10 % total sleep time with nocturnal hypoxemia (NH). When the ESE score was higher than 10, we used the definitions presence or absence of sleepiness. We used Poisson regression models with robust variance to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for association between sleepiness and NH. Results 518 male patients with OSA were evaluated. Four hundred and fifty-two (87 %) patients had NH and 262 (51 %) had sleepiness. Of the 142 (27.4 %) patients who had >10 % total sleep time with NH, 98 (69.0 %) showed sleepiness and had a greater probability of sleepiness prevalence, with a crude PR of 1.82 (95 % CI 1.31–2.53). This association persisted in the multivariate models. Conclusions We found an association between NH and sleepiness. Only patients with the major intensity of NH (over 10 % of the total sleep time) had a greater probability of sleepiness. This suggests that sleepiness probably occurs after a chronic process and after overwhelming compensatory mechanisms. PMID:24249663

  10. Comparison of the effects of sleep deprivation, alcohol and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) on simulated steering performance.

    PubMed

    Hack, M A; Choi, S J; Vijayapalan, P; Davies, R J; Stradling, J R

    2001-07-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are reported to have an increased risk of road traffic accidents. This study examines the nature of the impairment during simulated steering in patients with OSA, compared to normal subjects following either sleep deprivation or alcohol ingestion. Twenty-six patients with OSA and 12 normal subjects, either deprived of one night's sleep or following alcohol ingestion [mean (SD) alcohol blood level 71.6 mg dl(-1) (19.6)], performed a simulated steering task for a total of 90 min. Performance was measured using the tendency to wander (SD), deterioration across the task, number of 'off-road' events and the reaction time to peripheral events. Control data for OSA, sleep deprivation and alcohol were obtained following treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), after a normal night of sleep, and following no alcohol, respectively. Patients with untreated OSA, and sleep-deprived or alcohol-intoxicated normal subjects performed significantly less well, compared to their respective controls (P<0.01 for all tests), with untreated OSA lying between that of alcohol intoxication and sleep deprivation. Alcohol impaired steering error equally throughout the whole drive, whilst sleep deprivation caused progressive deterioration through the drive, but not initially. Untreated OSA was more like sleep deprivation than alcohol, although there was a wide spread of data. This suggests that the driving impairment in patients with OSA is more compatible with sleep deprivation or fragmentation as the cause, rather than abnormal cognitive or motor skills.

  11. Model-based stability assessment of ventilatory control in overweight adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea during NREM sleep.

    PubMed

    Nava-Guerra, L; Tran, W H; Chalacheva, P; Loloyan, S; Joshi, B; Keens, T G; Nayak, K S; Davidson Ward, S L; Khoo, M C K

    2016-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) involves the interplay of several different factors such as an unfavorable upper airway anatomy, deficiencies in pharyngeal muscle responsiveness, a low arousal threshold, and ventilatory control instability. Although the stability of ventilatory control has been extensively studied in adults, little is known about its characteristics in the pediatric population. In this study, we developed a novel experimental setup that allowed us to perturb the respiratory system during natural non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep conditions by manipulating the inspiratory pressure, provided by a bilevel pressure ventilator, to induce sighs after upper airway stabilization. Furthermore, we present a modeling framework that utilizes the noninvasively measured ventilatory responses to the induced sighs and spontaneous breathing data to obtain representations of the processes involved in the chemical regulation of respiration and extract their stability characteristics. After validation with simulated data, the modeling technique was applied to data collected experimentally from 11 OSA and 15 non-OSA overweight adolescents. Statistical analysis of the model-derived stability parameters revealed a significantly higher plant gain and lower controller gain in the OSA group (P = 0.046 and P = 0.007, respectively); however, no differences were found in loop gain (LG) and circulatory time delay between the groups. OSA severity and LG, within the 0.03-0.04-Hz frequency band, were significantly negatively associated (r = -0.434, P = 0.026). Contrary to what has been found in adults, our results suggest that in overweight adolescents, OSA is unlikely to be initiated through ventilatory instability resulting from elevated chemical loop gain. PMID:27174926

  12. Rapid resolution of intense suicidal ideation after treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Lois E; Miller, Bernard W; Bergstrom, Larry R

    2008-02-15

    Patients with insomnia may develop suicidal ideation; however, we know of no reports of suicidal ideation associated with obstructive sleep apnea. We report on a 74-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with excessive daytime sleepiness, poor quality nocturnal sleep, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation with active suicide plans. An emergency outpatient psychiatry consultation was arranged. The patient declined psychiatric hospitalization. He agreed to a trial of continuous positive airway pressure, using a self-titrating machine, followed by an urgent sleep study. Polysomnography revealed an apnea hypopneaindex of 64, arousal index of 91 and minimum oxygen saturation of 65%. The patient's sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness responded to nCPAP. The patient declined antidepressant medication but had excellent adherence to nCPAP. Suicidal ideation and depression resolved promptly and at 4-month followup were in remission. Further studies examining the relationship among untreated obstructive sleep apnea, depression, and suicidal ideation are warranted. PMID:18350966

  13. Evidence of neurodegeneration in obstructive sleep apnea: Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Daulatzai, Mak Adam

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of dementia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases with age. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease of the elderly characterized by amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The disease involves widespread synaptic loss in the neocortex and the hippocampus. Rodent and clinical studies suggest that OSA impairs the structural integrity of several brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe. Indeed, hypoxia, hypertension, hypoperfusion, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress noted in OSA patients also occur in AD patients. This Review highlights pathological commonality, showing that OSA upregulates Aβ, tau hyperphosphorylation, and synaptic dysfunction. Indeed, OSA and hypertension trigger hypoperfusion and hypometabolism of brain regions, including cortex and hippocampus. Several studies show that hypertension-driven brain damage and pathogenic mechanisms lead to an Aβ increase. The pathophysiological mechanism by which OSA enhances hypertension may be linked to sympathoexcitation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Strong pathophysiological similarities that exist between OSA and AD are underscored here. For example, the hippocampus is negatively impacted in both OSA and AD. OSA promotes hippocampal atrophy, which is associated with memory impairment. Cognitive impairment, even in the absence of manifest dementia, is an important independent predictor of mortality. However, several pathophysiological mechanisms in OSA are reversible with appropriate therapy. OSA, therefore, is a modifiable risk factor of cognitive dysfunction, and treating OSA prior to mild cognitive impairment may be an effective prevention strategy to reduce risk for cognitive decline and AD in middle-aged persons and the elderly. PMID:26301370

  14. Tooth loss and obstructive sleep apnea signs and symptoms in the US population

    PubMed Central

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke A.; Slade, Gary D.; Essick, Greg K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between tooth loss and signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a representative sample of the general US population. Methods Data were from 7305 men and women aged ≥25 years participating in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Tooth loss, occlusal contacts, and denture use were determined by dental examination. Four cardinal OSA signs and symptoms were evaluated by questions based on American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Adults with ≥2 signs/symptoms of OSA were classified at high-risk of OSA. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence limits (CL) from log binomial regression models estimated the strength of association between tooth loss and high-risk for OSA, adjusting for demographic characteristics, body mass index, dentures, and sleep duration. Results Prevalence of high-risk for OSA increased 2 % for each additional lost tooth (PR = 1.02, 95 % CL, 1.01, 1.03) among adults aged 25 to 65 years. When tooth loss was modeled as an ordinal variable with 0–4 lost teeth as the referent category, adjusted prevalence of high-risk for OSA was as follows: 25 % greater in those missing 5–8 teeth (PR = 1.25, 95 % CL, 1.07, 1.46); 36 % greater in those missing 9–31 teeth (PR = 1.36, 95 % CL, 1.06, 1.73); and 61 % greater in the edentulous (PR = 1.61, 95 % CL, 1.11, 2.33). Conclusion Tooth loss may be an independent risk factor for OSA. PMID:26779902

  15. Effects of submental stimulation for several consecutive nights in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed Central

    Hida, W.; Okabe, S.; Miki, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Taguchi, O.; Takishima, T.; Shirato, K.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--It has previously been reported that short term submental stimulation can reduce the frequency of apnoea and improve sleep architecture in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. The effects of submental stimulation during consecutive nights on apnoea or on daytime sleepiness have not, however, been studied. METHODS--Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were studied by polysomnography on a control night, for five consecutive nights of submental stimulation, and on three following nights (n = 8). A multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) (n = 8) and measurement of the upper airway resistance (n = 5) were performed during the day after the polysomnographic study, on the control night, and on the fifth stimulation night. In an additional five patients with obstructive sleep apnoea, matched for age, sex, and weight, the effects of two nights of stimulation were examined for comparison. Submental stimulation began when an apnoea lasted for five seconds and stopped with the resumption of breathing as detected by oronasal flow. RESULTS--The apnoea index, the number of times per hour that SaO2 dropped below 85% (SaO2 < 85%/hour), and the total apnoea duration expressed as a percentage of total sleep time during stimulation nights decreased to approximately 50% of the corresponding values on the control night. This improvement persisted for at least two nights after the five consecutive stimulation nights, but not after the two consecutive stimulation nights. Sleep architecture and MSLT following the stimulation nights improved but upper airway resistance did not change. CONCLUSIONS--Submental stimulation for five consecutive nights in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea improved the breathing disturbance, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. The effect lasted for the following two nights, but did not completely abolish the sleep disordered breathing. PMID:8016764

  16. Consensus and evidence-based Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea guidelines 2014 (first edition)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Mohan, Alladi; Kadhiravan, T.; Elavarasi, A.; Ragesh, R.; Nischal, Neeraj; Sethi, Prayas; Behera, D.; Bhatia, Manvir; Ghoshal, A. G.; Gothi, Dipti; Joshi, Jyotsna; Kanwar, M. S.; Kharbanda, O. P.; Kumar, Suresh; Mohapatra, P. R.; Mallick, B. N.; Mehta, Ravindra; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, S. C.; Sikka, Kapil; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Shukla, Garima; Suri, J. C.; Vengamma, B.; Grover, Ashoo; Vijayan, V. K.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Gupta, Rasik

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences among the general public as well as the majority of primary care physicians across India is poor. This necessitated the development of the Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities or ≥15 such episodes without any sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents, and high-risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers, and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography is the “gold standard” for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances (OA) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer OA to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioral measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy. PMID:26180408

  17. Consensus and evidence-based Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea guidelines 2014 (first edition).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surendra K; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Mohan, Alladi; Kadhiravan, T; Elavarasi, A; Ragesh, R; Nischal, Neeraj; Sethi, Prayas; Behera, D; Bhatia, Manvir; Ghoshal, A G; Gothi, Dipti; Joshi, Jyotsna; Kanwar, M S; Kharbanda, O P; Kumar, Suresh; Mohapatra, P R; Mallick, B N; Mehta, Ravindra; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, S C; Sikka, Kapil; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Shukla, Garima; Suri, J C; Vengamma, B; Grover, Ashoo; Vijayan, V K; Ramakrishnan, N; Gupta, Rasik

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences among the general public as well as the majority of primary care physicians across India is poor. This necessitated the development of the Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities or ≥15 such episodes without any sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents, and high-risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers, and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography is the "gold standard" for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances (OA) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer OA to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioral measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: a perspective and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pack, Allan I; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2009-01-01

    Data from animal and human studies provide a biological plausibility to the notion that obstructive sleep apnea activates pathways that lead to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Sleep apnea thus activates the same pathways as does obesity. That obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is supported by epidemiological association studies. Longitudinal cohort studies also provide evidence that patients with untreated severe sleep apnea have an increased rate of cardiovascular events. But these studies, while highly suggestive, do not provide the evidence needed to convince the skeptic. This would only be obtained by randomized treatment trials with hard cardiovascular endpoints such as cardiac events and deaths. While such studies are in the planning stages, they will be challenging. There are issues about randomizing individuals with severe sleep apnea and excessive sleepiness into no therapy, since they are at known increased risk for car crashes. Thus, lack of therapy puts others on the road at risk as well as the subject with sleep apnea. There is, moreover, the concern that treating obstructive sleep apnea in very obese individuals will have little impact, since any effect of therapy for OSA will be overwhelmed by the effects of obesity itself. Data from randomized treatment trials for cardiovascular endpoints will likely not be available for many years. In the interim, physicians need to consider how to treat such patients. It is proposed that given that CPAP treatment for obstructive sleep apnea is highly effective and essentially totally safe, and that the evidence is suggestive that sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, then we propose all patients with severe sleep apnea should be treated to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:19249449

  19. Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chiner, Eusebi; Llombart, Mónica; Valls, Joan; Pastor, Esther; Sancho-Chust, José N.; Andreu, Ada Luz; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Barbé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can predispose individuals to lower airway infections and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to upper airway microaspiration. This study evaluated the association between OSA and CAP. Methods We performed a case-control study that included 82 patients with CAP and 41 patients with other infections (control group). The controls were matched according to age, sex and body mass index (BMI). A respiratory polygraph (RP) was performed upon admission for patients in both groups. The severity of pneumonia was assessed according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI). The associations between CAP and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), OSA, OSA severity and other sleep-related variables were evaluated using logistic regression models. The associations between OSA, OSA severity with CAP severity were evaluated with linear regression models and non-parametric tests. Findings No significant differences were found between CAP and control patients regarding anthropometric variables, toxic habits and risk factors for CAP. Patients with OSA, defined as individuals with an Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥10, showed an increased risk of CAP (OR = 2·86, 95%CI 1·29–6·44, p = 0·01). Patients with severe OSA (AHI≥30) also had a higher risk of CAP (OR = 3·18, 95%CI 1·11–11·56, p = 0·047). In addition, OSA severity, defined according to the AHI quartile, was also significantly associated with CAP (p = 0·007). Furthermore, OSA was significantly associated with CAP severity (p = 0·0002), and OSA severity was also associated with CAP severity (p = 0·0006). Conclusions OSA and OSA severity are associated with CAP when compared to patients admitted to the hospital for non-respiratory infections. In addition, OSA and OSA severity are associated with CAP severity. These results support the potential role of OSA in the pathogenesis of CAP and could have clinical implications. This link between OSA and infection risk

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children: Implications for the Developing Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Gozal, David

    2008-01-01

    Recent increases in our awareness to the high prevalence of sleep disorders in general, and of sleep-disordered breathing among children, in particular, has led to concentrated efforts aiming to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations and potential consequences of such conditions. In this review, I will briefly elaborate on some of the pathogenetic elements leading to the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children, focus on the psycho-behavioral consequences of pediatric OSA, and review the evidence on the potential mechanisms underlying the close association between CNS morbidity and the episodic hypoxia and sleep fragmentation that characterize OSA. PMID:18555196

  1. The role of obesity and obstructive sleep apnea in the pathogenesis and treatment of resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Jonathan A; Pothineni, Aravind; Marcus, Carolina Z; Bisognano, John D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of resistant hypertension, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), three highly prevalent conditions in the United States, is rising. Approximately one in three adults in the US has hypertension, and a significant proportion of these individuals have hypertension that is difficult to treat, or resistant. Obesity and OSA are well-established risk factors for resistant hypertension, a condition that portends significant cardiovascular risk. Awareness of the various mechanisms by which obesity and OSA impact systemic blood pressure is essential to better understand how best to effectively care for patients with resistant hypertension. In this review, we discuss the clinical and pathophysiologic associations between obesity, OSA, and resistant hypertension. Furthermore, we will explore the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) and other therapeutic interventions on blood pressure control in patients with resistant hypertension.Key Points• Obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and resistant hypertension are highly prevalent conditions, with increasing overall incidence [1-3].• Both obesity and obstructive sleep apnea are independent risk factors for the development of resistant hypertension.• OSA is characterized by a physiologic cascade of collapse of the upper airway, which can lead to intermittent hypoxia, hypercapnia, significant negative intra-thoracic pressure, and increased SNS output.• Intermittent hypoxia leads to activation of the endothelin system [17, 18, 19•], which can lead to the development of resistant hypertension.• Intermittent hypoxia can lead to the over activation of the SNS, which can also contribute to the development of resistant hypertension [20, 21].• OSA leads to state of elevated adrenergic tone, which in turn may contribute to resistant hypertension [25-27].• OSA patients have a higher incidence of "non-dipping" of nocturnal systolic blood pressure, a marker of increased adrenergic tone

  2. Rat Model of Chronic Recurrent Airway Obstructions to Study the Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Farré, Ramon; Nácher, Maria; Serrano-Mollar, Anna; Gáldiz, Juan B; Alvarez, Francisco J; Navajas, Daniel; Montserrat, Josep M.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To implement a chronic rat model of recurrent airway obstructions to study the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. Design: Prospective controlled animal study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Participants: 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–300 g). Interventions: The rats were placed in a setup consisting of a body chamber and a head chamber separated by a neck collar specially designed to apply recurrent airway obstructions with OSA patterns. Rats in the Obstruction group (n=8) were subjected to 5-s obstructions at a rate of 60 per hour, 6 h/day during 4 weeks. Sham rats (n=8) were placed in the setup but no obstructions were applied. Naive rats (n=8) were subjected to no intervention. Measurements and Results: Breathing flow, pressure, CO2 air concentration, and SpO2 showed that the model mimicked OSA respiratory events (obstructive apneas, increased respiratory efforts, and oxygen saturation dips). Animal stress, assessed by body weight and plasma corticosterone, was not significantly different across Obstruction and Sham groups. This supports the concept that this novel model does not introduce a significant burden of stress in the rat after acclimatization to the chamber. Thromboxane-B2/6-keto-Prostaglandin-F1α ratio in plasma, which is an index of vasoconstriction, was significantly increased in the rats subjected to obstructions. Conclusions: The designed animal model of chronic recurrent airway obstructions is feasible and potentially useful to study the mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular consequences of OSA. Citation: Farré R; Nácher M; Serrano-Mollar A et al. Rat model of chronic recurrent airway obstructions to study the sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2007;30(7):930-933. PMID:17682665

  3. Associations between Macronutrient Intake and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea as Well as Self-Reported Sleep Symptoms: Results from a Cohort of Community Dwelling Australian Men

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yingting; Wittert, Gary; Taylor, Anne W.; Adams, Robert; Shi, Zumin

    2016-01-01

    Background: macronutrient intake has been found to affect sleep parameters including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in experimental studies, but there is uncertainty at the population level in adults. Methods: cross-sectional analysis was conducted of participants in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress cohort (n = 784, age 35–80 years). Dietary intake was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Self-reported poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were measured by questionnaires. Overnight in-home polysomnography (PSG) was conducted among participants with without previously diagnosed OSA. Results: after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases, the highest quartile of fat intake was positively associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.78, 95% CI 1.10, 2.89) and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥20, (RRR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.20–7.38). Body mass index mediated the association between fat intake and AHI (30%), but not daytime sleepiness. There were no associations between other intake of macronutrient and sleep outcomes. Conclusion: high fat is associated with daytime sleepiness and AHI. Sleep outcomes are generally not assessed in studies investigating the effects of varying macronutrient diets on weight loss. The current result highlights the potential public health significance of doing so. PMID:27070639

  4. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Antonio; Mozzanica, Francesco; Sonzini, Giulia; Plebani, Daniela; Urbani, Emanuele; Pecis, Marica; Montano, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    Although previous studies demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may present subclinical manifestations of dysphagia, in not one were different textures and volumes systematically studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) with boluses of different textures and volumes in a large cohort of patients with OSAS. A total of 72 OSAS patients without symptoms of dysphagia were enrolled. The cohort was divided in two groups: 30 patients with moderate OSAS and 42 patients with severe OSAS. Each patient underwent a FEES examination using 5, 10 and 20 ml of liquids and semisolids, and solids. Spillage, penetration, aspiration, retention, and piecemeal deglutition were considered. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), pooling score (PS), and dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) were used for quantitative analysis. Each patient completed the SWAL-QOL questionnaire. Forty-six patients (64 %) presented spillage, 20 (28 %) piecemeal deglutition, 26 (36 %) penetration, and 30 (44 %) retention. No differences were found in the PAS, PS, and DOSS scores between patients with moderate and severe OSAS. Patients with severe OSAS scored higher General Burden and Food selection subscales of the SWAL-QOL. Depending on the DOSS score, the cohort of patients was divided into those with and those without signs of dysphagia. Patients with signs of dysphagia scored lower in the General Burden and Symptoms subscales of the SWAL-QOL. OSAS patients show signs of swallowing impairment in about half of the population; clinicians involved in the management of these patients should include questions on swallowing when taking the medical history.

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: natural history, diagnosis, and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Gharibeh, Tarek; Mehra, Reena

    2010-01-01

    Sleep apnea is an entity characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction resulting in nocturnal hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. It is estimated that 2%–4% of the middle-aged population has sleep apnea with a predilection in men relative to women. Risk factors of sleep apnea include obesity, gender, age, menopause, familial factors, craniofacial abnormalities, and alcohol. Sleep apnea has been increasingly recognized as a major health burden associated with hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Increased airway collapsibility and derangement in ventilatory control responses are the major pathological features of this disorder. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard method for diagnosis of sleep apnea and assessment of sleep apnea severity; however, portable sleep monitoring has a diagnostic role in the setting of high pretest probability sleep apnea in the absence of significant comorbidity. Positive pressure therapy is the mainstay therapy of sleep apnea. Other treatment modalities, such as upper airway surgery or oral appliances, may be used for the treatment of sleep apnea in select cases. In this review, we focus on describing the sleep apnea definition, risk factor profile, underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, associated adverse consequences, diagnostic modalities, and treatment strategies. PMID:23616712

  6. Rapid maxillary expansion and obstructive sleep apnea: A review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zancanella, Edilson; Crespo, Agrício-Nubiato

    2016-01-01

    Background OSAS during childhood leads to significant physical and neuropsychomotor impairment. Thus, it needs to be recognized and treated early in order to avoid or attenuate the chronic problems associated with OSAS, which are deleterious to a child’s development. Adenotonsillectomy and, in select cases, continuous positive airwaypressure (CPAP) have been the preferred treatments for OSAS in children, and yet they are ineffective at fully ameliorating the disease. Minimally invasive treatments have recently been proposed, comprising intra-oral and extra-oral devices as well as speech therapy. Objetive: to conduct a meta-analysis on studies from around the world that used rapid maxillary expansion (RME) to treat OSAS in children. Material and Methods We performed a meta-analysis of studies using RME for OSA treatment in children. A literature survey was conductedusing PubMed and Medline for English articles published up to December 2014 with the following descriptors: Sleep Apnea, Obstructive, Children, Treatment, Orthodontic, Othopaedic, Maxillaryexpansion. Studies were included in the meta-analysisif they were case-controlled studies, randomized, and involved non-syndromic children aged 0 to 12years old diagnosed with OSA by the polysomnography apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) before and after the intervention, submitted RME only. Results In all, 10 articles conformed to the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The total sample size across all these articles was 215 children, having a mean age of 6.7 years,of whom58.6%were male. The mean AHI during the follow-up was -6.86 (p <0.0001). Conclusions We concluded that rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in children with OSAS appears to be an effective treatment for this syndrome. Further randomized clinical studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of RME in adults. Key words:Rapid maxillary expansión, obstructive sleep apnea, meta-analysis. PMID:27031063

  7. Tongue Protrusion Strength in Arousal State Is Predictive of the Airway Patency in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Kanezaki, Masashi; Ogawa, Teruhiro; Izumi, Tadafumi

    2015-01-01

    Contraction of the genioglossus affects either tongue protrusion strength or dilating forces of the upper airway. The upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is thought to collapse during sleep, at least in part because of a sleep related reduction in genioglossus muscle activity. Thus, although tongue protrusion strength by genioglossus activity during sleep contributes to the maintenance of airway patency in patients with OSA, the relationship between tongue protrusion strength in the arousal state and obstructive sleep apnea has not been fully elucidated. Conventional method of tongue protrusion strength cannot be used to evaluate in edentulous subjects and/or subjects with the decreased biting force. In this study, employing a novel measurement method that does not require biting a transducer, we investigated relationships between the tongue protrusion strength and polysomnographic findings. We enrolled twenty normal subjects and 26 subjects with OSA. All subjects completed the measurement of tongue protrusion strength. Each subject with OSA was evaluated by full polysomnography. The degree of tongue protrusion strength was assessed by maximum voluntary contraction against the tongue depressor connected with a strain gauge dynamometer. The tongue protrusion strength was negatively correlated with obstructive apnea time, apnea index (AI) and the percent of sleep stage 2 (r = -0.61, p < 0.0001, r = -0.41 p = 0.03 and r = -0.39 p = 0.04, respectively). Tongue protrusion strength measured in the arousal state is predictive of the airway patency during sleep in OSA.

  8. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep schedules for 1 week before the study and consumed a weight-maintenance diet for 3 days prior to and during the laboratory protocol. Following a habituation night, subjects lived in a whole-room indirect calorimeter for 3 days. The first 24 h served as baseline – 16 h wakefulness, 8 h scheduled sleep – and this was followed by 40 h sleep deprivation and 8 h scheduled recovery sleep. Findings show that, compared to baseline, 24 h EE was significantly increased by ∼7% during the first 24 h of sleep deprivation and was significantly decreased by ∼5% during recovery, which included hours awake 25-40 and 8 h recovery sleep. During the night time, EE was significantly increased by ∼32% on the sleep deprivation night and significantly decreased by ∼4% during recovery sleep compared to baseline. Small differences in EE were observed among sleep stages, but wakefulness during the sleep episode was associated with increased energy expenditure. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that sleep conserves energy and that sleep deprivation increases total daily EE in humans.

  9. Nonrapid Eye Movement-Predominant Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Detection and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Motoo; Fujita, Yukio; Kumamoto, Makiko; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Ohnishi, Yoshinobu; Nakano, Hiroshi; Strohl, Kingman P.; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be severe and present in higher numbers during rapid eye movement (REM) than nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; however, OSA occurs in NREM sleep and can be predominant. In general, ventilation decreases an average 10% to 15% during transition from wakefulness to sleep, and there is variability in just how much ventilation decreases. As dynamic changes in ventilation contribute to irregular breathing and breathing during NREM sleep is mainly under chemical control, our hypothesis is that patients with a more pronounced reduction in ventilation during the transition from wakefulness to NREM sleep will have NREM- predominant rather than REM-predominant OSA. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 451 consecutive patients (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5) undergoing diagnostic polysomnography was performed, and breath-to-breath analysis of the respiratory cycle duration, tidal volume, and estimated minute ventilation before and after sleep onset were examined. Values were calculated using respiratory inductance plethysmography. The correlation between the percent change in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions and the percentage of apnea-hypopneas in NREM sleep (%AHI in NREM; defined as (AHI-NREM) / [(AHI-NREM) + (AHI-REM)] × 100) was the primary outcome. Results: The decrease in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions was 15.0 ± 16.6% (mean ± standard deviation), due to a decrease in relative tidal volume. This decrease in estimated minute ventilation was significantly correlated with %AHI in NREM (r = −0.222, p < 0.01). Conclusions: A greater dynamic reduction in ventilation back and forth from wakefulness to sleep contributes to the NREM predominant OSA phenotype via induced ventilatory instability. Citation: Yamauchi M, Fujita Y, Kumamoto M, Yoshikawa M, Ohnishi Y, Nakano H, Strohl KP, Kimura H. Nonrapid eye movement-predominant obstructive sleep apnea: detection and

  10. Electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kezirian, Eric J; Boudewyns, An; Eisele, David W; Schwartz, Alan R; Smith, Philip L; Van de Heyning, Paul H; De Backer, Wilfried A

    2010-10-01

    Upper airway occlusion in obstructive sleep apnea has been attributed to a decline in pharyngeal neuromuscular activity occurring in a structurally narrowed airway. Surgical treatment focuses on the correction of anatomic abnormalities, but there is a potential role for activation of the upper airway musculature, especially with stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve and genioglossus muscle. We present evidence from research on upper airway neuromuscular electrical stimulation in animals and humans. We also present results from eight obstructive sleep apnea patients with a fully implanted system for hypoglossal nerve stimulation, demonstrating an improvement in upper airway collapsibility and obstructive sleep apnea severity. Future research, including optimization of device features and stimulation parameters as well as patient selection, is necessary to make hypoglossal nerve stimulation a viable alternative to positive airway pressure therapy and upper airway surgical procedures.

  11. Perceived Effectiveness of Diverse Sleep Treatments in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Tavaria, Ashdin; Patel, Nirav; Madhusudan, Lavanya; Nadaraja, Divani; Onen, Fannie; Richards, Kathy C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the different methods older adults use to treat sleep problems and the perceived effectiveness of these methods. Design Cross-sectional study of treatment patterns for sleep disorders using a mailed questionnaire that gathered information concerning sleep history, demographics, and treatment choices. Setting/Participants Study participants were drawn from a community-based sample of adults aged >65 years, of which 242 responded (67% response rate). Measurements Standardized questionnaires to assess sleep parameters (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), demographic information, and sleep treatment options. Results Study participants engaged in a variety of treatment regimens to improve their sleep, with the average number of treatments attempted being 4.7 +/− 2.9. The most commonly used interventions were watching TV or listening to the radio (66.4%) or reading (56.2%). The most commonly used pharmacotherapy was pain medication (40.1%). Prescription sleeping pills had the greatest self-reported effectiveness. Approximately half of all study participants who used alcohol or over-the-counter sleeping aids had not discussed their sleep problems with their doctor. Conclusion Older adults frequently choose treatments for their sleep problems that can potentially worsen their sleep symptoms. Many patients have not spoken to their health care provider about their treatment choices. These findings highlight the importance of discussing sleep habits and self-treatment choices as well as treating sleep disorders in older adults. PMID:21314649

  12. Association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and glucose control in patients with untreated versus treated diabetes.

    PubMed

    Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Chollet, Sylvaine; Pigeanne, Thierry; Masson, Philippe; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Goupil, François; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and glucose control differs between patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes, and patients with known and treated type 2 diabetes. This multicentre cross-sectional study included 762 patients investigated by sleep recording for suspected obstructive sleep apnea, 497 of whom were previously diagnosed and treated for type 2 diabetes (treated diabetic patients), while 265 had no medical history of diabetes but had fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg dL(-1) and/or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) ≥6.5% consistent with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (untreated diabetic patients). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate the independent association between HbA1c and obstructive sleep apnea severity in treated and untreated patients with diabetes. In untreated diabetic patients, HbA1c was positively associated with apnea-hypopnea index (P = 0.0007) and 3% oxygen desaturation index (P = 0.0016) after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, alcohol habits, metabolic dyslipidaemia, hypertension, statin use and study site. The adjusted mean value of HbA1c increased from 6.68% in the lowest quartile of the apnea-hypopnea index (<17) to 7.20% in the highest quartile of the apnea-hypopnea index (>61; P = 0.033 for linear trend). In treated patients with diabetes, HbA1c was associated with non-sleep variables, including age, metabolic dyslipidaemia and insulin use, but not with obstructive sleep apnea severity. Obstructive sleep apnea may adversely affect glucose control in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes, but may have a limited impact in patients with overt type 2 diabetes receiving anti-diabetic medications. PMID:25703309

  13. Sleep protects memories from interference in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Akshata; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-07-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories is preserved in older adults. The present study examined whether this benefit of sleep for declarative learning in older adults reflects a passive role of sleep in protecting memories from decay or an active role in stabilizing them. Young and older adults learned a visuospatial task, and recall was probed after sleep or wake. Although a reduction in performance was observed after sleep and wake, task-related interference before recall had a larger detriment on performance in the wake condition. This was true for young and high performing older adults only. Low performing older adults did not receive a benefit of sleep on the visuospatial task. Performance changes were associated with early night nonrapid eye movement sleep in young adults and with early night rapid eye movement sleep in high performing older adults. These results demonstrate that performance benefits from sleep in older adults as a result of an active memory stabilization process; importantly, the extent of this benefit of sleep is closely linked to the level of initial acquisition of the episodic information in older adults. PMID:25890819

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and 15-Year Cognitive Decline: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Bengtson, Lindsay G.S.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Shahar, Eyal; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Wruck, Lisa M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prospective data evaluating abnormal sleep quality and quantity with cognitive decline are limited because most studies used subjective data and/or had short follow-up. We hypothesized that, over 15 y of follow-up, participants with objectively measured obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other indices of poor sleep quantity and quality would experience greater decline in cognitive functioning than participants with normal sleep patterns. Methods: ARIC participants (n = 966; mean age 61 y, 55% women) with in-home polysomnography (1996–1998) and repeated cognitive testing were followed for 15 y. Three cognitive tests (Delayed Word Recall, Word Fluency, and Digit Symbol Substitution) were administered at two time points (1996–1998 and 2011–2013). Ten additional cognitive tests were administered at the 2011–2013 neurocognitive examination. OSA was modeled using established clinical OSA severity categories. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations of OSA and other sleep indices with change in cognitive tests between the two assessments. Results: A median of 14.9 y (max: 17.3) passed between the two cognitive assessments. OSA category and additional indices of sleep (other measures of hypoxemia and disordered breathing, sleep fragmentation, sleep duration) were not associated with change in any cognitive test. Analyses of OSA severity categories and 10 cognitive tests administered only in 2011–2013 also showed little evidence of an association. Conclusions: Overall, abnormal sleep quality and quantity at midlife was not related to cognitive decline and later-life cognition. The effect of adverse sleep quality and quantity on cognitive decline among the elderly remains to be determined. Citation: Lutsey PL, Bengtson LG, Punjabi NM, Shahar E, Mosley TH, Gottesman RF, Wruck LM, MacLehose RF, Alonso A. Obstructive sleep apnea and 15-year cognitive decline: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. SLEEP 2016

  15. A novel implantable device for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: clinical safety and feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Pavelec, Vaclav; Rotenberg, Brian W; Maurer, Joachim T; Gillis, Edward; Verse, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many cases of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) involve collapse of the tongue base and soft palate during sleep, causing occlusion of the upper airway and leading to oxygen desaturation. Existing therapies can be effective, but they are plagued by patient adherence issues and the invasiveness of surgical approaches. A new, minimally invasive implant for OSA has been developed, which is elastic and contracts a few weeks after deployment, stabilizing the surrounding soft tissue. The device has had good outcomes in preclinical testing; this report describes the preliminary feasibility and safety of its implementation in humans. Patients and methods A prospective, multicenter, single-arm feasibility study was conducted. Subjects were adults with moderate-to-severe OSA who had previously failed or refused conventional continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Intraoperative feasibility data, postoperative pain, and safety information were collected for a 30-day postoperative period. Results Forty subjects participated (37 men, three women; average age of 46.1 years); each received two tongue-base implants and two soft-palate implants. Surgical procedure time averaged 43 minutes. Postsurgical pain resolved readily in most cases; at 30 days post implantation, <20% of subjects reported pain, which averaged less than two out of ten. Adverse events were generally the mild and expected sequelae of a surgical procedure with general anesthesia and intraoral manipulation. The device was well tolerated. Implant extrusions were reported with soft-palate implants (n=12), while tongue-base implants required few revisions (n=2). Quantitative and qualitative sleep effectiveness outcomes (including full-night polysomnographic and quality-of-life measures) will be presented in a subsequent report. Conclusion Implantation of the device was feasible. Although a relatively high rate of extrusions occurred in the now-discontinued palate implants, tongue-base implants were

  16. Comparison of Standard and Novel Signal Analysis Approaches to Obstructive Sleep Apnea Classification

    PubMed Central

    Roebuck, Aoife; Clifford, Gari D.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder characterized by repeated pauses in breathing during sleep, which leads to deoxygenation and voiced chokes at the end of each episode. OSA is associated by daytime sleepiness and an increased risk of serious conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and stroke. Between 2 and 7% of the adult population globally has OSA, but it is estimated that up to 90% of those are undiagnosed and untreated. Diagnosis of OSA requires expensive and cumbersome screening. Audio offers a potential non-contact alternative, particularly with the ubiquity of excellent signal processing on every phone. Previous studies have focused on the classification of snoring and apneic chokes. However, such approaches require accurate identification of events. This leads to limited accuracy and small study populations. In this work, we propose an alternative approach which uses multiscale entropy (MSE) coefficients presented to a classifier to identify disorder in vocal patterns indicative of sleep apnea. A database of 858 patients was used, the largest reported in this domain. Apneic choke, snore, and noise events encoded with speech analysis features were input into a linear classifier. Coefficients of MSE derived from the first 4 h of each recording were used to train and test a random forest to classify patients as apneic or not. Standard speech analysis approaches for event classification achieved an out-of-sample accuracy (Ac) of 76.9% with a sensitivity (Se) of 29.2% and a specificity (Sp) of 88.7% but high variance. For OSA severity classification, MSE provided an out-of-sample Ac of 79.9%, Se of 66.0%, and Sp = 88.8%. Including demographic information improved the MSE-based classification performance to Ac = 80.5%, Se = 69.2%, and Sp = 87.9%. These results indicate that audio recordings could be used in screening for OSA, but are generally under-sensitive. PMID:26380256

  17. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Macey, Paul M; Kumar, Rajesh; Woo, Mary A; Yan-Go, Frisca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years), and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years). We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05). In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males), OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males), slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males); for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males); for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males), and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males). Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in females. The

  18. Branchio-oto-renal syndrome with obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Arjun; Shastri, Aravind R T; Ross-Russell, Robert I

    2012-01-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by branchial arch anomalies, otological and renal abnormalities. To the best of our knowledge, upper airway obstruction has not been hitherto reported in BOR. The authors report a 19-month-old girl with BOR syndrome with features of severe airway obstruction needing tracheostomy. PMID:22891008

  19. Function and modulation of premotor brainstem parasympathetic cardiac neurons that control heart rate by hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related diseases including obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, Olga; Weigand, Letitia A; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Mares, Jacquelyn; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brainstem dominate the control of heart rate. Previous work has determined that these neurons are inherently silent, and their activity is largely determined by synaptic inputs to CVNs that include four major types of synapses that release glutamate, GABA, glycine, or serotonin. Whereas prior reviews have focused on glutamatergic, GABAergic and glycinergic pathways, and the receptors in CVNs activated by these neurotransmitters, this review focuses on the alterations in CVN activity with hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related cardiovascular diseases including obstructive sleep apnea.

  20. CPAP Adherence in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea prior to Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Amy S.; Pant, Melissa; Minhaj, Mohammed; Sweitzer, Bobbie Jean; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in the surgical population, and it has been suggested that preoperative patients should be screened and treated for OSA. However, it remains unclear whether patients diagnosed with OSA in the preoperative period adhere to prescribed CPAP therapy. Objective: Our aim was to objectively quantify CPAP adherence, investigate predictors of poor CPAP adherence, and to establish an optimal CPAP setting in a cohort of presurgical patients diagnosed with OSA as part of the preoperative work-up. Methods: In a retrospective observational study, we collected data on all adult presurgical patients seen by the Anesthesia Perioperative Medicine Clinic (APMC) who screened positive for OSA on the STOP-Bang questionnaire and underwent an in-laboratory diagnostic polysomnogram (PSG) before surgery. CPAP was offered to patients with moderate or severe OSA. Objective CPAP adherence was recorded during the perioperative period. Factors associated with reduced CPAP adherence were delineated. Patient characteristics were compared between those with STOP-Bang scores of 3-4 and those with higher scores (STOP-Bang score ≥ 5). Results: During a 2-year period, 431 patients were referred and 211 patients completed a PSG. CPAP therapy was required in 65% of patients, and the optimal level was 9 ± 2 cm H2O. Objective CPAP adherence was available in 75% of patients who received CPAP therapy; median adherence was 2.5 h per night, without any significant difference between the STOP-Bang subgroups. African American race, male gender, and depressive symptomatology were independent predictors of reduced CPAP adherence. Severe OSA was significantly more prevalent in patients with a STOP-Bang score ≥ 5 than those whose score was 3-4 (55.1% versus 34.4%, p = 0.005). However, optimum CPAP pressure levels and adherence to therapy did not differ between the 2 STOP-Bang groups. Conclusions: Adherence to prescribed CPAP therapy during the perioperative

  1. Abnormalities in the flow-volume loop in obstructive sleep apnoea sitting and supine.

    PubMed Central

    Shore, E T; Millman, R P

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of posture on the sensitivity and specificity of abnormalities in the flow-volume loop in 30 patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea. Flow-volume loops were judged as abnormal if the FEF50/FIF50 ratio was greater than 1 or if the sawtooth sign was judged to be present by at least two of three chest physicians. Detailed nocturnal recordings confirmed the presence of obstructive sleep apnoea in 17 of the 30 patients. Our results showed that both the sensitivity and the specificity of each of the flow-volume criteria for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea were higher when the loops were recorded in the supine than when they were recorded in the sitting position. The sensitivities were low, however, even with the supine posture--sawtoothing 41% and FEF50/FIF50 ratio greater than 1 47%. The highest sensitivity (71%) was obtained by considering a positive result as being the presence of either of the abnormalities in either the sitting or the supine posture. This sensitivity of the flow-volume loop was too low to recommend it as a routine screening test for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea but the presence of the sawtooth sign had a high specificity (92%) for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. Furthermore, there was a greater fall in oxygen saturation in patients with apnoea who had sawtoothing than in those without sawtoothing. The presence of the sawtooth sign should increase the suspicion of sleep apnoea and suggest the need for further investigation. The effect of posture on the occurrence of abnormalities in the flow-volume loop suggests that position alters the configuration of the upper airway. PMID:6495246

  2. Ambulatory Diagnosis and Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Screening Questionnaires, Diagnostic Tests, and the Care Team.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, R Doug; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; Antic, Nick A

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea has increased in prevalence in recent years and despite the expansion in sleep medicine services there is a significant unmet burden of disease. This burden presents a challenge to specialists and requires a reappraisal of service delivery, including a move toward lower-cost, simplified methods of diagnosis and treatment, an expansion of the sleep apnea workforce to include suitably trained and equipped primary care physicians and nurses, and the incorporation of chronic disease management principles that link patients to relevant community resources and empower them through new technologies to engage more fully in their own care. PMID:27542873

  3. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Timothy F

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are common in both children and adults, the clinical features and treatments for these conditions differ considerably between these two populations. Whereas an adult with obstructive sleep apnea typically presents with a history of obesity, snoring, and prominent daytime somnolence, a child with the condition is more likely to present with normal body weight, tonsillar hypertrophy, and inattentiveness during school classes. The adult with suspected sleep apnea almost always undergoes a baseline polysomnogram and proceeds to treatment only if this test confirms the diagnosis, while many children with suspected sleep apnea are treated empirically with adenotonsillectomy without ever receiving a sleep study to verify the diagnosis. This article reviews sleep disorders in children, with a particular focus on age-related changes in sleep, conditions that primarily affect children, and disorders for which clinical manifestations and treatment differ substantially from the adult population. PMID:20146688

  4. The sympathetic nervous system and catecholamines metabolism in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Bisogni, Valeria; Pengo, Martino F.; Maiolino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder of breathing in middle-aged and overweight subjects. It features recurrent episodes of upper airway total (apnoea) o partial (hypopnea) collapse during sleep, which are associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation and with arousal from sleep to re-establish airway patency. An association of OSA with dysregulation of the autonomous nervous system (ANS) and altered catecholamines (CAs) metabolism has been contended for years. However, the pathophysiology mechanisms underlying these alterations remain to be fully clarified. Nonetheless, these alterations are deemed to play a key pathogenic role in the established association of OSA with several conditions besides arterial hypertension (HT), including coronary artery disease, stroke, and, more in general, with increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. Hence, in this review we will analyse the relationship between the sleep disturbances associated with OSA and the altered function of the ANS, including CAs metabolism. PMID:26904265

  5. Design of a new controller to treat the obstructive sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    The obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a sleep related breathing disorder caused by a relaxation of the upper airway structure during the sleep that leads to a complete closure of the upper airway. The most successful therapy is the nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment that keeps the airway opened. More recent devices use an automatic adaptation of the applied pressure. Either the forced oscillation technique (FOT) or the evaluation of the inspiration flow contour are used to evaluate the severity of obstructions. Both methods have disadvantages that may lead to wrong applied pressures. Based on the precise measurement of airflow and mask pressure during nCPAP with a Weinmann SOMNOsmart and additional polysomnography a new parameter set is presented that uses the advantage of both methods to detect the obstructive sleep apnoea. To evaluate the applicability of this parameter set to control Auto-nCPAP-devices a fuzzy-controller is designed under MATLAB/Simulink using an A/D-D/A-converter to control the blower of the SOMNOsmart during Auto-nCPAP-therapy. Obstructive events are detected and treated with a rise of nCPAP-pressure depending on the inspiratory flow requirement. The pressure is lowered after the end of flow limited phases. Although temporary low pressures no oxygen desaturation is recognized by the pulse oxymeter.

  6. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and ischemic heart disease. Evidence of their relationship].

    PubMed

    González-Pliego, José Angel; Hernández-Gordillo, Daniel; Castañeda-Barragán, Edgar; García-Lamas, Leopoldo; Guzmán-Sánchez, César Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyse the relation between obstructive sleep apnea and coronary disease. We present epidemiological data on the respiratory disorder and its association with ischemic cardiopathy, as well as common cardiovascular risk factors, physiopathological interactions between both conditions, clinical evolution and impact of treatment on prognosis.

  7. Dynamics of snoring sounds and its connection with obstructive sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencar, Adriano M.; da Silva, Diego Greatti Vaz; Oliveira, Carolina Beatriz; Vieira, André P.; Moriya, Henrique T.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2013-01-01

    Snoring is extremely common in the general population and when irregular may indicate the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. We analyze the overnight sequence of wave packets - the snore sound - recorded during full polysomnography in patients referred to the Sleep Laboratory due to suspected obstructive sleep apnea. We hypothesize that irregular snore, with duration in the range between 10 and 100 s, correlates with respiratory obstructive events. We find that the number of irregular snores - easily accessible, and quantified by what we call the snore time interval index (STII) - is in good agreement with the well-known apnea-hypopnea index, which expresses the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and is extracted only from polysomnography. In addition, the Hurst analysis of the snore sound itself, which calculates the fluctuations in the signal as a function of time interval, is used to build a classifier that is able to distinguish between patients with no or mild apnea and patients with moderate or severe apnea.

  8. Upper airway function in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea: a review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Robert L.; Eckert, Danny J.; Yeh, Susie Yim; Malhotra, Atul

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Obstructive sleep apnea is an increasingly prevalent disease, with a considerable societal burden. The disease is defined by recurrent intermittent collapse of the upper airway. Understanding of and treatment for the disease is largely confined to relief of the mechanical obstruction of the upper airway by application of continuous positive airway pressure, and less commonly weight loss or surgery. However, recent work has focused on the function, rather than structure alone, of the upper airway. Recent findings The following contributors to upper airway structure and function have been studied: traditional fixed anatomical abnormalities, dynamic anatomical changes, upper airway dilator muscle dysfunction, lung volumes, and instability in control of breathing. In each patient with obstructive sleep apnea, the relative contribution of each of these components may be quite variable. The studies reviewed here describe methods to evaluate these factors, and some attempts at treatment. Summary Ongoing studies are attempting to classify patients on the basis of the underlying pathophysiology. This work suggests that obstructive sleep apnea is a heterogeneous disease with multiple root causes. Ultimately, such a classification may allow more individualized treatment, not only relying on mechanical relief of the upper airway obstruction. PMID:18812828

  9. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps < 0.001). Research is needed to better understand perceptions, predictors, and outcomes of sleep disturbance within ADHC participants. PMID:24654988

  10. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps < 0.001). Research is needed to better understand perceptions, predictors, and outcomes of sleep disturbance within ADHC participants.

  11. Bone Loss in Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chakhtoura, Marlene; Nasrallah, Mona; Chami, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-related respiratory disorder. It is associated with many endocrinopathies including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, and glucose intolerance that may lead to bone loss with secondary osteoporosis. Methods: We report the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with bilateral 9th rib fractures and was found to have obstructive sleep apnea and osteoporosis. We also present a literature review on this topic. Results: OSA can lead to bone loss through various mechanisms. Some are shared with obesity, including hypogonadism, altered adrenergic tone, inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency and diabetes mellitus; others are specific to OSA, such as hypoxia and altered glucocorticoids regulation. Conclusion: There are no guidelines on screening for osteoporosis in OSA. Further research is needed to assess the incidence of bone loss and fractures in OSA. Citation: Chakhtoura M, Nasrallah M, Chami H. Bone loss in obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: a review of literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):575–580. PMID:25580607

  12. Videoradiography at submental electrical stimulation during apnea in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. A case report.

    PubMed

    Hillarp, B; Rosén, I; Wickström, O

    1991-05-01

    Percutaneous submental electrical stimulation during sleep may be a new therapeutic method for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Electrical stimulation to the submental region during obstructive apnea is reported to break the apnea without arousal and to diminish apneic index, time spent in apnea, and oxygen desaturation. The mode of breaking the apnea by electrical stimulation has not yet been shown. However, genioglossus is supposed to be the muscle responsible for breaking the apnea by forward movement of the tongue. To visualize the effect of submental electrical stimulation, one patient with severe OSAS has been examined with videoradiography. Submental electrical stimulation evoked an immediate complex muscle activity in the tongue, palate, and hyoid bone. This was followed by a forward movement of the tongue which consistently broke obstructive apnea without apparent arousal. Time spent in apnea was diminished but intervals between apnea were not affected.

  13. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F.; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  14. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  15. Comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol used for drug-induced sleep endoscopy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kuyrukluyıldız, Ufuk; Binici, Orhan; Onk, Didem; Ayhan Celik, Serap; Torun, Mumtaz Taner; Unver, Edhem; Ozcicek, Adalet; Alagol, Aysin

    2015-01-01

    Backround: Surgical operations are alternative treatments in persons with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome who cannot tolerate continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy is a method with which somnolence is pharmacologically induced and collapse is evaluated through nasal endoscopy in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Aims: We aimed to evaluate efficiency of dexmedetomidine or propofol used for sedation in patients undergoing drug-induced sleep endoscopy. Methods: A total of 40 patients aged between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA STATUS I-II group were included in the study. After premedicatıon wıth midazolam 0.05 mg/kg intravenously, patients were randomly divided into two groups and administered intravenous (iv) propofol with the loading dose of 0.7 mg/kg for 10 minutes, followed 0.5 mg/kg/h infusion (Group P); or dexmedetomidine with the loading dose of 1 mcg/kg for 10 minutes, followed by 0.3 mcg/kg/h infusion (Group D). Haemodynamic and respiratuary parameters, Bispectral index score, Ramsey sedation score, time to achieve sufficient sedation, surgeon’s and patients’ satisfaction, postoperative Aldrete score and side effects were recorded. Results: Time to achieve sufficient sedation, Bispectral index scores at 5, 10 and 15th. minutes intraoperatively, first Aldrete score in the recovery room, SpO2 values and respiratory rates all over the surgical procedure and in the recovery room were found lower in Group P (P<0.05). Bispectral index scores, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in the recovery room were significantly lower in Group D (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine may be preferred as a safer agent with respecting to respiratory function compared with propofol in obstructive sleep apnea patients who known to be susceptible to hypoxia and hypercarbia. PMID:26131153

  16. Is Metabolic Syndrome Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Erdim, Ibrahim; Akcay, Teoman; Yilmazer, Rasim; Erdur, Omer; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether there is an association between metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in obese adolescents. Methods: In total, 240 pubertal children or prepubertal children older than 11 y recruited consecutively from the pediatric endocrinology unit, obesity clinic. Patients with tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy (grade 3/4), systemic illnesses, or chronic drug usage were excluded. After anthropometric measurement and laboratory study, patients were divided into two groups according to metabolic syndrome (MS): MS and non-MS. Overnight polysomnographic evaluation was performed and 104 subjects were included for statistical analysis. The two groups were compared in terms of sleep efficiency, number of awakenings per night, oxygen desaturation index, snoring time, and obstructive/central/ mixed apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results: Of the obese adolescents, 51 had MS and 53 did not. The AHI was ≥ 1 in 25 of the 53 non-MS children (47.2%) and in 25 of the 51 MS children (49%). The median obstructive AHI value was 0.9 (0.2–2.4) and total AHI was 0.9 (0.2–2.5) in the MS group; these values were 0.9 (0.25–3.55) and 0.9 (0.3–3.55), respectively, in the non-MS group. Obstructive, central, mixed, and total AHI values in the MS and non-MS groups were not statistically significantly different (p > 0.05). Conclusions: In our study, we did not find an association between MS and sleep apnea in obese adolescents. Citation: Erdim I, Akcay T, Yilmazer R, Erdur O, Kayhan FT. Is metabolic syndrome associated with obstructive sleep apnea in obese adolescents? J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1371–1376. PMID:26156956

  17. Adults with ADHD and Sleep Complaints: A Pilot Study Identifying Sleep-Disordered Breathing Using Polysomnography and Sleep Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surman, Craig B. H.; Thomas, Robert J.; Aleardi, Megan; Pagano, Christine; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing are both prevalent in adulthood. Because both conditions may be responsible for similar symptoms of cognitive impairment, the authors investigate whether their presentation may overlap in adults diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Data are collected from six adults with sleep complaints who were diagnosed…

  18. The Circadian System Contributes to Apnea Lengthening across the Night in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Matthew P.; Smales, Carolina; Wu, Huijuan; Hussain, Mohammad V.; Mohamed, Yusef A.; Morimoto, Miki; Shea, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that respiratory event duration exhibits an endogenous circadian rhythm. Design: Within-subject and between-subjects. Settings: Inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Participants: Seven subjects with moderate/severe sleep apnea and four controls, age 48 (SD = 12) years, 7 males. Interventions: Subjects completed a 5-day inpatient protocol in dim light. Polysomnography was recorded during an initial control 8-h night scheduled at the usual sleep time, then through 10 recurrent cycles of 2 h 40 min sleep and 2 h 40 min wake evenly distributed across all circadian phases, and finally during another 8-h control sleep period. Measurements and Results: Event durations, desaturations, and apnea-hypopnea index for each sleep opportunity were assessed according to circadian phase (derived from salivary melatonin), time into sleep, and sleep stage. Average respiratory event durations in NREM sleep significantly lengthened across both control nights (21.9 to 28.2 sec and 23.7 to 30.2 sec, respectively). During the circadian protocol, event duration in NREM increased across the circadian phases that corresponded to the usual sleep period, accounting for > 50% of the increase across normal 8-h control nights. AHI and desaturations were also rhythmic: AHI was highest in the biological day while desaturations were greatest in the biological night. Conclusions: The endogenous circadian system plays an important role in the prolongation of respiratory events across the night, and might provide a novel therapeutic target for modulating sleep apnea. Citation: Butler MP, Smales C, Wu H, Hussain MV, Mohamed YA, Morimoto M, Shea SA. The circadian system contributes to apnea lengthening across the night in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1793–1801. PMID:26039970

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea in Prader-Willi syndrome: risks and advantages of adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Leone; Toma, Salvatore; Palonta, Francesca; Teggi, Roberto; Zucconi, Marco; Di Candia, Stefania; Bussi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a well-known clinical manifestation of Prader-Willi syndrome. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy for the treatment of the disorder as well as the improvement of their post-operative quality of life. Five patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apneas and adenotonsillar hypertrophy of grade III-IV underwent adenotonsillectomy. Pre- and postoperative apneas and Quality of Life were assessed respectively with a polysomnography with multi-sleep latency test and with the pediatric Quality of Life questionnaire, performed before and 6 months after surgery. A decrease of apnea/hypopnea index values has been detected between pre- and post-surgery (t=2.64, P=0.005), as well as oxygen desaturation index values (t=5.51, P=0.005), multi-sleep latency test (t=4.54, P=0.01), and of the values of pediatric Quality of Life questionnaire. No correlation has been detected between body mass index and apnea/hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index and multi-sleep latency test values pre- and post-adenotonsillectomy. A correlation has been found between multi-sleep latency test and oxygen desaturation index values post-surgery (P=0.04). No post-operative complications were observed. Our data underline the efficacy of surgery in Prader-Willi patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy in order to improve their quality of life. PMID:26429118

  20. Orexin Plays a Role in Growth Impediment Induced by Obstructive Sleep Breathing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tarasiuk, Ariel; Levi, Avishag; Assadi, Mohammad H.; Troib, Ariel; Segev, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The mechanisms linking sleep disordered breathing with impairment of sleep and bone metabolism/architecture are poorly understood. Here, we explored the role of the neuropeptide orexin, a respiratory homeostasis modulator, in growth retardation induced in an upper airway obstructed (AO) rat model. Methods: The tracheae of 22-day-old rats were narrowed; AO and sham-control animals were monitored for 5 to 7 w. Growth parameters, food intake, sleep/wake activity, and serum hormones were measured. After euthanasia, growth plate (GP) histology, morphometry, orexin receptors (OXR), and related mediators were analyzed. The effect of dual orexin receptor antagonist (almorexant 300 mg/kg) on sleep and GP histology were also investigated. Results: The AO group slept 32% less; the time spent in slow wave and paradoxical sleep during light period and slow wave activity was reduced. The AO group gained 46% less body weight compared to the control group, despite elevated food intake; plasma ghrelin increased by 275% and leptin level decreased by 44%. The impediment of bone elongation and bone mass was followed by a 200% increase in OX1R and 38% reduction of local GP ghrelin proteins and growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. Sry-related transcription factor nine (Sox9), a molecule mediating cartilage ossification, was downregulated and the level of transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was upregulated, explaining the bone architecture abnormalities. Administration of almorexant restored sleep and improved GP width in AO animals. Conclusions: In AO animals, enhanced expression of orexin and OX1R plays a role in respiratory induced sleep and growth abnormalities. Citation: Tarasiuk A, Levi A, Assadi MH, Troib A, Segev Y. Orexin plays a role in growth impediment induced by obstructive sleep breathing in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(4):887–897. PMID:26943473

  1. Sleep Related Breathing Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Onofrio; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Giliberti, Tiziana; Caratozzolo, Gennaro; Cagnazzo, Maria Grazia; Scarpelli, Franco; Nocerino, Maria Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated sleep-related breathing disorders in six adults with Down syndrome. Five were found to have respiratory events justifying the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome. Results suggest that the nocturnal respiratory pattern of adults with Down syndrome depends on several pathogenetic factors such as age, severity of upper airway…

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Modulates Airway Inflammation and Remodelling in Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Taillé, Camille; Rouvel-Tallec, Anny; Stoica, Maria; Danel, Claire; Dehoux, Monique; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Pretolani, Marina; Aubier, Michel; d’Ortho, Marie-Pia

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is frequently observed in severe asthma but the causal link between the 2 diseases remains hypothetical. The role of OSA-related systemic and airway neutrophilic inflammation in asthma bronchial inflammation or remodelling has been rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to compare hallmarks of inflammation in induced sputum and features of airway remodelling in bronchial biopsies from adult patients with severe asthma with and without OSA. Materials and Methods An overnight polygraphy was performed in 55 patients referred for difficult-to-treat asthma, who complained of nocturnal respiratory symptoms, poor sleep quality or fatigue. We compared sputum analysis, reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness, smooth muscle area, vascular density and inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchial biopsies. Results In total, 27/55 patients (49%) had OSA diagnosed by overnight polygraphy. Despite a moderate increase in apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI; 14.2±1.6 event/h [5–35]), the proportion of sputum neutrophils was higher and that of macrophages lower in OSA than non-OSA patients, with higher levels of interleukin 8 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. The RBM was significantly thinner in OSA than non-OSA patients (5.8±0.4 vs. 7.8±0.4 μm, p<0.05). RBM thickness and OSA severity assessed by the AHI were negatively correlated (rho = -0.65, p<0.05). OSA and non-OSA patients did not differ in age, sex, BMI, lung function, asthma control findings or treatment. Conclusion Mild OSA in patients with severe asthma is associated with increased proportion of neutrophils in sputum and changes in airway remodelling. PMID:26934051

  3. Interest in Bariatric Surgery Among Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Katherine A.; Tavakkoli, Ali; Andrews, Robert A.; Seiger, Ashley N.; Bakker, Jessie P.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Standard obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) therapies are poorly tolerated. Bariatric surgery is a potential alternative but the level of interest in this intervention among OSA patients is unknown. Objectives Determine the proportion of OSA patients who would be interested in bariatric surgery. Setting Sleep clinics, United States. Methods Consecutive adult patients with untreated severe OSA and a body mass index of 35–45 kg/m2 were approached. Patients at low peri-operative risk and no urgent indication for OSA treatment were invited to a separate informational visit about bariatric surgery as primary treatment for OSA. Results Of 767 eligible patients, 230 (30.0%) were not at low peri-operative risk, 49 (6.4%) had drowsy driving, and 16 (2.1%) had no insurance coverage for bariatric surgery. Of the remaining 482 patients, over one-third (35.5%) were interested in bariatric surgery. Surgical interest was 47.2% in women vs. 27.6% in men (p <0.01) and 67.3% in diabetics vs. 31.0% in non-diabetics (p<0.01). In multivariable adjusted models, female gender (odds ratio 1.89, 95% CI [1.10–3.25]) and diabetes (odds ratio 3.97, 95% CI [1.97–8.01]) remained highly predictive of bariatric surgery interest. Conclusions Nearly two-thirds of obese patients with severe OSA are good candidates for bariatric surgery. Among candidates, over one-third are interested in this treatment. Interest rates are highest among women and diabetics, indicating that metabolic improvements continue to be a major driver of surgery even in patients with severe OSA. Given patient interest, the role of bariatric surgery should be routinely discussed with obese OSA patients. PMID:25892349

  4. Modified STOP-Bang Tool for Stratifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk in Adolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in children and diagnostic polysomnography is costly and not readily available in all areas. We developed a pediatric modification of a commonly used adult clinical prediction tool for stratifying the risk of OSA and the need for polysomnography. Methods A total of 312 children (age 9–17 years) from phase 2 of the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea cohort study, with complete anthropomorphic data, parent questionnaires, and home polysomnograms were included. An adolescent modification of STOP-Bang (teen STOP-Bang) was developed and included snoring, tired, observed apnea, blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile, BMI > 95th percentile, academic problems, neck circumference >95th percentile for age, and male gender. An apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 1.5 events/hour was considered diagnostic of OSA. Results Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves for parent-reported STOP-Bang scores were generated for teenage and pre-teen children. A STOP-Bang score of < 3 in teenagers was associated with a negative predictive value of 0.96. ROC curves were also generated based upon child-reported sexual maturity rating (SMR; n = 291). The ability of teen STOP-Bang to discriminate the presence or absence of OSA as measured by the AUC for children with SMR ≥ 4 (0.83; 95%CI 0.71–0.95) was better than children with SMR < 4 (0.63; 95%CI 0.46–0.81; p = 0.048). Conclusions In community dwelling adolescents, teen STOP-Bang may be useful in stratifying the risk of OSA. PMID:26581088

  5. Nocturnal mouthpiece ventilation and medical hypnosis to treat severe obstructive sleep apnea in a child with cherubism.

    PubMed

    Khirani, Sonia; Kadlub, Natacha; Delord, Vincent; Picard, Arnaud; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2013-09-01

    A 4-year old boy presented severe obstructive sleep apnoea due to complete nasal obstruction secondary to cherubism. Because of anticipatory anxiety due to numerous surgical interventions, medical hypnosis was proposed to facilitate non-invasive continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPAP) acceptance. CPAP by means of an oral interface was completely accepted after three hypnosis sessions and resulted in the correction of his obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. This report highlights the benefit of medical hypnosis in facilitating CPAP acceptance as well as the efficacy of mouthpiece ventilation in a severe form of cherubism with complete nasal obstruction.

  6. Risk of Common Mental Disorders in Relation to Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome among Ethiopian College Students

    PubMed Central

    Rutagarama, Ornella; Gelaye, Bizu; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Background The Berlin and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) are simple, validated, and widely used questionnaires designed to assess symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) a common but often unrecognized cause of morbidity and mortality. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,639 college students to examine the extent to which symptoms of OSAS are associated with the odds of common mental disorders (CMDs). The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to evaluate the presence of CMDs while the Berlin and ESS were used to assess high-risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness, respectively. Logistic regression procedures were used to derive odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) assessing the independent and joint associations of high-risk for OSA and excessive daytime sleepiness with odds of CMDs. Results Approximately 19% of students had high-risk for OSA while 26.4% had excessive daytime sleepiness. Compared to students without high-risk for OSA and without excessive daytime sleepiness (referent group), students with excessive daytime sleepiness only (OR=2.01; 95%CI: 1.60-2.52) had increased odds of CMDs. The odds of CMDs for students with high-risk OSA only was 1.26 (OR=1.26; 95%CI 0.94-1.68). Students with both high-risk for OSA and excessive daytime sleepiness, compared to the referent group, had the highest odds of CMDs (OR=2.45; 95%CI: 1.69-3.56). Conclusion Our findings indicate that symptoms of OSAS are associated with increased risk of CMDs. These findings emphasize the comorbidity of sleep disorders and CMDs and suggest that there may be benefits to investing in educational programs that extend the knowledge of sleep disorders in young adults. PMID:26925424

  7. Cardiac arrhythmias in obstructive sleep apnea (from the Akershus Sleep Apnea Project).

    PubMed

    Namtvedt, Silje K; Randby, Anna; Einvik, Gunnar; Hrubos-Strøm, Harald; Somers, Virend K; Røsjø, Helge; Omland, Torbjørn

    2011-10-15

    Increased prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias has been reported in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but this may not be generalizable to patients from the general population with a milder form of the condition. The aim of this study was to assess the association between cardiac arrhythmias and OSA of mainly mild and moderate severity. In total, 486 subjects (mean age 49 years, 55% men) recruited from a population-based study in Norway underwent polysomnography for OSA assessment and Holter recordings for arrhythmia assessment. Of these, 271 patients were diagnosed with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥5, median AHI 16.8, quartiles 1 to 3 8.9 to 32.6). Mean nadir oxygen saturations were 82% and 89% in patients with and without OSA, respectively. Ventricular premature complexes (≥5/hour) were more prevalent in subjects with OSA compared to subjects without OSA (median AHI 1.4, quartiles 1 to 3 0.5 to 3.0) during the night (12.2% vs 4.7%, p = 0.005) and day (14% vs 5.1%, p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis after adjusting for relevant confounders, AHI was independently associated with an increased prevalence of ventricular premature complexes at night (odds ratio per 1-U increase of log-transformed AHI 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.0, p = 0.008) and during the day (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.8, p = 0.035). In conclusion, the prevalence of ventricular premature complexes is increased in middle-aged patients with mainly mild or moderate OSA, suggesting an association between OSA and ventricular arrhythmias even in mild OSA.

  8. Neural Respiratory Drive and Arousal in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Si-Chang; He, Bai-Ting; Steier, Joerg; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I.; Luo, Yuan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: It has been hypothesized that arousals after apnea and hypopnea events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea are triggered when neural respiratory drive exceeds a certain level, but this hypothesis is based on esophageal pressure data, which are dependent on flow and lung volume. We aimed to determine whether a fixed threshold of respiratory drive is responsible for arousal at the termination of apnea and hypopnea using a flow independent technique (esophageal diaphragm electromyography, EMGdi) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Setting: Sleep center of state Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease. Patients: Seventeen subjects (two women, mean age 53 ± 11 years) with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome were studied Methods: We recorded esophageal pressure and EMGdi simultaneously during overnight full polysomnography in all the subjects. Measurements and Results: A total of 709 hypopnea events and 986 apnea events were analyzed. There was wide variation in both esophageal pressure and EMGdi at the end of both apnea and hypopnea events within a subject and stage 2 sleep. The EMGdi at the end of events that terminated with arousal was similar to those which terminated without arousal for both hypopnea events (27.6% ± 13.9%max vs 29.9% ± 15.9%max, P = ns) and apnea events (22.9% ± 11.5%max vs 22.1% ± 12.6%max, P = ns). The Pes at the end of respiratory events terminated with arousal was also similar to those terminated without arousal. There was a small but significant difference in EMGdi at the end of respiratory events between hypopnea and apnea (25.3% ± 14.2%max vs 21.7% ± 13.2%max, P < 0.05]. Conclusions: Our data do not support the concept that there is threshold of neural respiratory drive that is responsible for arousal in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Xiao SC, He BT, Steier J, Moxham J, Polkey MI, Luo YM. Neural respiratory drive and arousal in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea. SLEEP 2015

  9. Manipulating REM sleep in older adults by selective REM sleep deprivation and physiological as well as pharmacological REM sleep augmentation methods.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Orla P; Regen, Francesca; Schredl, Michael; Heuser, Isabella; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2006-02-01

    Experimental approaches to manipulate REM sleep within the cognitive neuroscience of sleep are usually based on sleep deprivation paradigms and focus on younger adults. In the present study, a traditional selective REM sleep deprivation paradigm as well as two alternative manipulation paradigms targeting REM sleep augmentation were investigated in healthy older adults. The study sample consisted of 107 participants, male and female, between the ages of 60 and 82 years, who had been randomly assigned to five experimental groups. During the study night, a first group was deprived of REM sleep by selective REM sleep awakenings, while a second group was woken during stage 2 NREM sleep in matched frequency. Physiological REM sleep augmentation was realized by REM sleep rebound after selective REM sleep deprivation, pharmacological REM sleep augmentation by administering an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Deprivation and augmentation paradigms manipulated REM sleep significantly, the former affecting more global measures such as REM sleep minutes and percentage, the latter more organizational aspects such as stage shifts to REM sleep, REM latency, REM density (only pharmacological augmentation) and phasic REM sleep duration. According to our findings, selective REM sleep deprivation seems to be an efficient method of REM sleep manipulation in healthy older adults. While physiological rebound-based and pharmacological cholinergic REM sleep augmentation methods both failed to affect global measures of REM sleep, their efficiency in manipulating organizational aspects of REM sleep extends the traditional scope of REM sleep manipulation methods within the cognitive neuroscience of sleep.

  10. The effect of increased lung volume in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on upper airway obstruction during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Biselli, Paolo; Grossman, Peter R.; Kirkness, Jason P.; Patil, Susheel P.; Smith, Philip L.; Schwartz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit increases in lung volume due to expiratory airflow limitation. Increases in lung volumes may affect upper airway patency and compensatory responses to inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) during sleep. We hypothesized that COPD patients have less collapsible airways inversely proportional to their lung volumes, and that the presence of expiratory airflow limitation limits duty cycle responses to defend ventilation in the presence of IFL. We enrolled 18 COPD patients and 18 controls, matched by age, body mass index, sex, and obstructive sleep apnea disease severity. Sleep studies, including quantitative assessment of airflow at various nasal pressure levels, were conducted to determine upper airway mechanical properties [passive critical closing pressure (Pcrit)] and for quantifying respiratory timing responses to experimentally induced IFL. COPD patients had lower passive Pcrit than their matched controls (COPD: −2.8 ± 0.9 cmH2O; controls: −0.5 ± 0.5 cmH2O, P = 0.03), and there was an inverse relationship of subject's functional residual capacity and passive Pcrit (−1.7 cmH2O/l increase in functional residual capacity, r2 = 0.27, P = 0.002). In response to IFL, inspiratory duty cycle increased more (P = 0.03) in COPD patients (0.40 to 0.54) than in controls (0.41 to 0.51) and led to a marked reduction in expiratory time from 2.5 to 1.5 s (P < 0.01). COPD patients have a less collapsible airway and a greater, not reduced, compensatory timing response during upper airway obstruction. While these timing responses may reduce hypoventilation, it may also increase the risk for developing dynamic hyperinflation due to a marked reduction in expiratory time. PMID:26048975

  11. Treatment of snoring with positional therapy in patients with positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Lee, Li-Ang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Position therapy plays a role in treating snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether position therapy using a head-positioning pillow (HPP) could reduce snoring sounds in patients with mild-to-moderate positional OSAS, taking into account the potential confounding effects of body weight. A total of 25 adults with positional OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]supine:AHInon-supine ≥ 2) were prospectively enrolled. Patients were asked to use their own pillows at home during the first night (N0), and the HPP during the second (N1) and third (N2) nights. The primary outcome measures included the subjective snoring severity (SS, measured on a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 to 10) and the objective snoring index (SI, expressed as the number of snoring events per hour measured on an acoustic analytical program). Both endpoints were recorded over three consecutive nights. From N0 to N2, the median SS and SI values in the entire study cohort decreased significantly from 5.0 to 4.0 and from 218.0 events/h to 115.0 events/h, respectively. In the subgroup of overweight patients, SS showed a significant improvement, whereas SI did not. Both SS and SI were found to be significantly improved in normal-weight patients. PMID:26657174

  12. Treatment of snoring with positional therapy in patients with positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Lee, Li-Ang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Position therapy plays a role in treating snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether position therapy using a head-positioning pillow (HPP) could reduce snoring sounds in patients with mild-to-moderate positional OSAS, taking into account the potential confounding effects of body weight. A total of 25 adults with positional OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]supine:AHInon-supine ≥ 2) were prospectively enrolled. Patients were asked to use their own pillows at home during the first night (N0), and the HPP during the second (N1) and third (N2) nights. The primary outcome measures included the subjective snoring severity (SS, measured on a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 to 10) and the objective snoring index (SI, expressed as the number of snoring events per hour measured on an acoustic analytical program). Both endpoints were recorded over three consecutive nights. From N0 to N2, the median SS and SI values in the entire study cohort decreased significantly from 5.0 to 4.0 and from 218.0 events/h to 115.0 events/h, respectively. In the subgroup of overweight patients, SS showed a significant improvement, whereas SI did not. Both SS and SI were found to be significantly improved in normal-weight patients. PMID:26657174

  13. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and the relationship between sleep disorder and pain level, quality of life, and disability

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life. PMID:26504332

  14. Treatment of Insomnia, Insomnia Symptoms, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea During and After Menopause: Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Joshua Z.; Suh, Sooyeon A.; Dowdle, Claire L.; Nowakowski, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Understanding sleep complaints among menopausal women is an emerging area of clinical and research interest. Several recent reviews have focused on mechanisms of menopausal insomnia and symptoms. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on the treatment of sleep disorders for menopausal women, with a focus on menopause-related insomnia, insomnia symptoms, and obstructive sleep apnea. We discuss both nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), complementary and alternative medicine, hormone replacement therapy, sedative hypnotics, antidepressants, and continuous positive airway pressure. In addition, we briefly discuss methods and considerations of assessment of sleep disorders in menopausal women. PMID:26478725

  15. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Dedhia, Raj C.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Soose, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent clinical problem with significant effects on both personal and public health. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has demonstrated excellent efficacy and low morbidity; long-term adherence rates approach 50%. Although traditional upper airway surgical procedures target the anatomic component of obstruction, upper airway stimulation tackles the twin goals of improving anatomic and neuromuscular pathology. After decades of trials demonstrating proof of concept of hypoglossal nerve stimulation in animal and human subjects, the results of a large multicenter, prospective trial were recently published. The trial demonstrated that hypoglossal nerve stimulation led to significant improvements in objective and subjective measurements of the severity of OSA. This novel approach is the first to combine sleep surgery techniques with a titratable medical device for the treatment of OSA. Further research is required to define optimal patient selection and device performance and to demonstrate long-term effectiveness. Citation: Dedhia RC, Strollo PJ, Soose RJ. Upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea: past, present, and future. SLEEP 2015;38(6):899– 906. PMID:25409109

  16. Childhood socioeconomic status and race are associated with adult sleep.

    PubMed

    Tomfohr, Lianne M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2010-01-01

    Race and current socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with sleep. Parental education, a commonly studied component of childhood SES, is predictive of adult health outcomes; yet, its impact on adult sleep remains unclear. In this study, the sleep of 128 Black and White adults was investigated. Participants with lower childhood SES (assessed via parental education) spent more time in Stage 2 sleep and less time in slow-wave sleep (SWS) than those with higher childhood SES. In addition, women from low childhood SES backgrounds took longer to fall asleep than women from high SES backgrounds. Black participants spent less time in SWS than their White counterparts, and an Age × Race interaction was detected in the prediction of subjective sleep quality. Results were not mediated via current SES or health practices.

  17. The predictive value of Muller maneuver in REM-dependent obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Kursat Murat; Ozcan, Muge; Ozdogan, Fatih; Hizli, Omer; Dere, Huseyin; Unal, Adnan

    2013-09-01

    To our knowledge, no studies up to date have investigated the correlation of rapid eye movement (REM) dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and Muller maneuver. The aim of this study is to investigate whether REM-dependent OSAS is predicted by the findings of the Muller maneuver. The study was conducted on 149 patients with witnessed apnea and daytime sleepiness. Muller maneuver was performed to all patients and the obstruction site was determined using a five-point scale. Then, polysomnography of the patient was obtained and the apnea-hypopnea indexes were determined in total sleep time, REM-dependent sleep and non-REM-dependent sleep. The correlations between the Muller maneuver findings and polysomnographic data were analyzed. The ages of the patients included in the study ranged between 25 and 73 years with a mean age of 49.3 ± 10.1 years. Their mean body mass index was 30.8 ± 5.1 kg/m(2) (range 21.9-55.4 kg/m(2)). The patients' mean apnea-hypopnea indexes in total sleep time was 28.1 and ranged between 5.4 and 124.3. REM-dependent OSAS was determined in 49 patients. When the data were analyzed, it was determined that there were no statistically significant correlations between tongue base or lateral pharyngeal band obstruction at the level of hypopharynx and the REM-dependent OSAS. At the level of the soft palate, the obstruction caused by the lateral pharyngeal bands or soft palate and REM dependency did not show any statistically significant correlation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, Muller maneuver does not provide useful data to predict REM dependency of OSAS.

  18. Relationship between perceived sleep and polysomnography in older adult patients

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Silva, Mayra; Bazzana, Caroline Moreira; de Souza, Altay Lino; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Lucchesi, Lígia M.; Lopes, Guiomar Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Aging is a multifactorial process that elicits changes in the duration and quality of sleep. Polysomnography is considered to be the standard examination for the analysis of sleep and consists of the simultaneous recording of selected physiological variables during sleep. Objective The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to compare sleep reported by senior citizens. Methods We selected 40 patients, both male and female, with ages ranging from 64 to 89 years from the Center for the Study of Aging at the Federal University of São Paulo. Patients answered questions about sleep on the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and underwent polysomnography. Results The results were compared, and agreement between perceived sleep and polysomnography was found in several areas. There was an association between difficulty sleeping and sleep onset latency (p=0.015), waking up at night with sleep onset latency (p=0.005), total sleep time with daytime sleepiness (0.005) and snoring (0.027), sleep efficiency with sleepiness (0.004), snoring (0.033) and pause in breathing (p=0.024), awakenings with snoring (p=0.012) and sleep apnea with pauses in breathing (p=0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that the older adult population have a good perception of their sleep. The questionnaires aimed at this population should be used as an alternative to polysomnography. PMID:26483948

  19. Objective assessment of sleep and sleep problems in older adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    van de Wouw, Ellen; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Echteld, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about sleep in older adults with intellectual disability (ID). Aim of this study was to investigate sleep and its associated factors, and to estimate the prevalence of sleep problems in this population. This study was part of the healthy aging and intellectual disabilities study. Sleep was assessed using the Actiwatch, a watch-like device that measures sleep and wakefulness based on movement activity. Participants (n=551) wore the Actiwatch at least seven days and nights continuously. Variables of interest were time in bed (TIB), sleep onset latency, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency and get-up time latency. Multivariate analyses were used to investigate factors associated with these sleep parameters. Provisional definitions were drafted to estimate the prevalence of sleep problems. Mean TIB was 630 min. Longer TIB was independently associated with higher age, more severe level of ID, living at a central facility, wheelchair dependence, female gender and depressive symptoms (adjusted R(2)=.358, F-change=8.302, p<.001). The prevalence of sleep problems was 23.9% settling problem, 63.1% night waking problem, 20.9% short sleep time, 9.3% early waking problem. 72% of the participants had at least one problem, 12.3% had three or more sleep problems. Older adults with ID lie in bed very long, and the prevalence of sleep problems is high. Further research should focus on causality of the relationships found in this study, and effects of sleep problems on health and well-being in this population. PMID:23692894

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Community-Dwelling Children: The NANOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Martinez, Mónica; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity in children is assumed to serve as a major risk factor in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, the prevalence of OSAS in otherwise healthy obese children from the community is unknown. Aim: To determine the prevalence of OSAS in obese children identified and recruited from primary care centers. Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective, multicenter study. Spanish children ages 3–14 y with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for age and sex were randomly selected, and underwent medical history, snoring, and Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) assessments, as well as physical examination, nasopharyngoscopy, and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) recordings. Results: Two hundred forty-eight children (54.4% males) with mean age of 10.8 ± 2.6 y were studied with a BMI of 28.0 ± 4.7 kg/m2 corresponding to 96.8 ± 0.6 percentile when adjusted for age and sex. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI), obstructive RDI (ORDI), and obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) were 5.58 ± 9.90, 5.06 ± 9.57, and 3.39 ± 8.78/h total sleep time (TST), respectively. Using ≥ 3/h TST as the cutoff for the presence of OSAS, the prevalence of OSAS ranged from 21.5% to 39.5% depending on whether OAHI, ORDI, or RDI were used. Conclusions: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in obese children from the general population is high. Obese children should be screened for the presence of OSAS. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01322763. Citation: Alonso-Álvarez ML, Cordero-Guevara JA, Terán-Santos J, Gonzalez-Martinez M, Jurado-Luque MJ, Corral-Peñafiel J, Duran-Cantolla J, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Gozal D, for the Spanish Sleep Network. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese community-dwelling children: the NANOS study. SLEEP 2014;37(5):943-949. PMID:24790273

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID

  2. Is Perioperative Fluid and Salt Balance a Contributing Factor in Postoperative Worsening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

    PubMed

    Lam, Thach; Singh, Mandeep; Yadollahi, Azadeh; Chung, Frances

    2016-05-01

    An understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying recurrent upper airway collapse may help anesthesiologists better manage patients in the postoperative period. There is convincing evidence in the sleep medicine literature to suggest that a positive fluid and salt balance can worsen upper airway collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnea through the redistribution of fluid from the legs into the neck and upper airway while supine, in a process known as "rostral fluid shift." According to this theory, during the day the volume from a fluid bolus or from fluid overload states (i.e., heart failure and chronic kidney disease) accumulates in the legs due to gravity, and when a person lies supine at night, the fluid shifts rostrally to the neck, also owing to gravity. The fluid in the neck can increase the extraluminal pressure around the upper airways, causing the upper airways to narrow and predisposing to upper airway collapse. Similarly, surgical patients also incur large fluid and salt balance shifts, and when recovered supine, this may promote fluid redistribution to the neck and upper airways. In this commentary, we summarize the sleep medicine literature on the impact of fluid and salt balance on obstructive sleep apnea severity and discuss the potential anesthetic implications of excessive fluid and salt volume on worsening sleep apnea.

  3. Screening obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome by home videotape recording in children.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Y; Kornecki, A; Schonfeld, T

    1996-10-01

    Overnight polysomnography (PSG) has been used to diagnose and assess the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in children. The aim of this study was to determine whether home video-recording of children during sleep may be used for screening OSAS. In 58 children suspected of having OSAS, PSG results were compared with the corresponding analyses of 30 min video-recordings of each child sleeping at home. The video-recordings were evaluated by: 1) overall investigator's clinical judgement; and 2) a scoring system based on noisy breathing, movements, walking episodes, apnoea, chest retractions and mouth breathing. PSG results were highly correlated with the video test results, with agreement in 49 out of 58 (84%). In 36 of the 58 children, the PSG was abnormal compared with 41 out of 58 abnormal video tests. The sensitivity of the overall investigator judgement of video test was 94% (34 out of 36) and the specificity 68% (15 out of 22). Video scores > 10 were highly predictive of OSAS, whilst scores < 5 were associated with normality. Using a stepwise logistic regression analysis, each of the scoring variables was tested against the PSG results and an equation was formulated for predicting PSG by the video test. The equation predicted PSG results in 49 out of 58 (84%) cases. Thirty minutes of home video-recordings during sleep is a reliable screening method for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children. This technique may, thus, improve patient selection for polysomnography.

  4. [Successful treatment of diaphragm pacing-induced obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with nasal CPAP].

    PubMed

    Moue, Y; Kamio, K; Tanigaki, T; Hayashi, Y; Kuwahira, I; Takasaki, Y; Ohta, Y; Yamabayashi, H

    1993-08-01

    We report a 71-year-old female patient with primary alveolar hypoventilation syndrome who received diaphragm pacing (DP) and developed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Application of nCPAP markedly improved her nocturnal hypoxemia. The monitored polygrams before and after the application strongly suggested that the main mechanism of OSAS was an imbalance of activity between upper airway dilator muscles and pump muscles. Moreover, paradoxical movement of the rib cage is not necessarily due to upper airway obstruction. Monitoring of tidal volume and arterial oxygen saturation is essential for the diagnosis of DP-induced OSAS.

  5. The efficacy of Watch PAT in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Körkuyu, Emine; Düzlü, Mehmet; Karamert, Recep; Tutar, Hakan; Yılmaz, Metin; Çiftçi, Bülent; Güven, Selma Fırat

    2015-01-01

    Polysomnography is currently considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). But high expense and the backlog of the sleep centers have resulted in a search for an alternative method of diagnosis. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and reliability of Watch PAT as an alternate option in OSAS diagnosis. The patients have worn a Watch PAT(®) 200 device in the sleep laboratory during a standard polysomnography. The correlation in REM and Non-REM AHI scores, sleep periods and the mean O2 saturation percentage between Watch PAT and PSG sleep studies were assessed. There was a statistically significant very strong correlation between PSG and Watch PAT AHI scores (Spearman's rho = 0.802 p < 0.001). The mean recording time with PSG and Watch PAT was 463.06 ± 37.08 and 469.33 ± 72.81 min, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.068). However, there was a statistically significant difference between two methods regarding the average sleep time and REM sleep period. No statistically significant difference was revealed in the mean O2 saturation percentage (p < 0.001). Watch PAT is an efficient device and is considered to be an adjunctive diagnostic method for PSG in diagnosis of OSAS.

  6. Effects of Suvorexant, an Orexin Receptor Antagonist, on Respiration during Sleep In Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Palcza, John; Card, Deborah; Gipson, Adrianna; Rosenberg, Russell; Kryger, Meir; Lines, Christopher; Wagner, John A.; Troyer, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the respiratory effects of suvorexant, an orexin receptor antagonist for treating insomnia, in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period (4 days per period), crossover, sleep laboratory study. Twenty-six patients aged 18–65 years with mild (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 5 and < 15) to moderate (AHI ≥ 15 and < 30) OSA were randomized to receive suvorexant 40 mg or placebo in period-1 and then crossed over to the other treatment in period-2. Breathing during sleep was measured by AHI (primary endpoint) and oxygen saturation assessed by pulse oximetry (SpO2, secondary endpoint). The study was powered to rule out a mean increase in AHI between suvorexant and placebo of 5 or greater on Day 4. Results: There was a small increase in mean AHI (2.66) in OSA patients after multiple doses of suvorexant relative to placebo, with the upper 90% CI bound slightly exceeding 5.00 (0.22, 5.09). No increase in mean AHI was observed after a single dose of suvorexant versus placebo (mean difference = −0.47 [−3.20, 2.26]), and there was no treatment effect on mean SpO2 during total sleep time after single or multiple doses (Day 1: mean difference = −0.04 [−0.49, 0.42]; Day 4: mean difference = −0.06 [−0.45, 0.33]). There was inter- and intra-individual variability in suvorexant respiratory effects. Conclusions: Suvorexant 40 mg, twice the 20 mg maximum recommended dose for treating insomnia in the USA and Japan, does not appear to have clinically important respiratory effects during sleep in patients with mild to moderate OSA as assessed by mean AHI and SpO2. Due to inter- and intra-individual variability in respiratory effects, suvorexant should be used with caution in patients with compromised respiratory function, and at the lowest effective dose. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01300455. Citation: Sun H, Palcza J, Card D, Gipson A

  7. Emerging co-morbidities of obstructive sleep apnea: cognition, kidney disease, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gildeh, Nadia; Drakatos, Panagis; Higgins, Sean; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes daytime fatigue and sleepiness, and has an established relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Recent years have seen the emergence of an evidence base linking OSA with an increased risk of degenerative neurological disease and associated cognitive impairment, an accelerated rate of decline in kidney function with an increased risk of clinically significant chronic kidney disease (CKD), and with a significantly higher rate of cancer incidence and death. This review evaluates the evidence base linking OSA with these seemingly unrelated co-morbidities, and explores potential mechanistic links underpinning their development in patients with OSA, including intermittent hypoxia (IH), sleep fragmentation, sympathetic excitation, and immune dysregulation. PMID:27747026

  8. Predictive factors warrant screening for obstructive sleep apnea in COPD: a Taiwan National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Liang-Wen; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Chang, Chee-Jen; Wang, Hao-Chien; Cheng, Shih-Lung; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Chan, Ming-Cheng; Wang, Chin-Chou; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives COPD and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) share similar pathological processes and cardiovascular sequelae. Coexisting OSA in COPD – “overlap syndrome” – has worse prognosis than either condition alone, and appropriate treatment improves survival. Our objectives were to ascertain the frequency at which COPD coexists with the risk of OSA in Taiwan and to compare the risk factors, COPD symptoms, and life quality metrics between COPD subgroups with versus without risk of OSA. Methods We conducted a random cross-sectional national telephone survey of adults >40 years old in Taiwan. Participants fulfilling an epidemiological case definition of COPD completed a questionnaire to assess COPD symptoms and OSA risk, comorbidities, and performance of daily activities. Data from COPD cohorts with and without risk of OSA were analyzed and compared. Results Of 6,600 interviews completed, 404 subjects fit the epidemiological case definition of COPD – an overall prevalence of 6.1% in this national sample. Data on OSA risk were available for 292 of this COPD cohort, of whom 29.5% were at risk of OSA. Compared to those without risk of OSA, those with risk of OSA were significantly more likely to have hypertension or cardiovascular disease and diabetes, had significantly higher body mass index and COPD Assessment Test scores, and reported impaired work performance and leisure activities. Conclusion Among adults in Taiwan who fulfill epidemiologic criteria for COPD, 29.5% have coexisting risk of OSA. Comorbid hypertension or cardiovascular disease and diabetes are common and significantly more prevalent among the COPD population at risk of OSA than those who are not. OSA screening is warranted in patients with COPD with those risk factors that are more prevalent in COPD with risk of OSA than without, to target early interventions to reduce adverse cardiovascular sequelae from overlap syndrome. PMID:27099484

  9. [Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children: beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Esteller, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in the general childhood population is 1-2% and the most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy, there are other highly prevalent causes of this syndrome in children. The causes are often multifactorial and include muscular hypotonia, dentofacial abnormalities, soft tissue hypertrophy of the airway, and neurological disorders). Collaboration between different specialties involved in the care of these children is essential, given the wide variability of conditions and how frequently different factors are involved in their genesis, as well as the different treatments to be applied. We carried out a wide literature review of other causes of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We organised the prevalence of this syndrome in each pathology and the reasons that cause it, as well as their interactions and management, in a consistent manner.

  10. [Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children: beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Esteller, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in the general childhood population is 1-2% and the most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy, there are other highly prevalent causes of this syndrome in children. The causes are often multifactorial and include muscular hypotonia, dentofacial abnormalities, soft tissue hypertrophy of the airway, and neurological disorders). Collaboration between different specialties involved in the care of these children is essential, given the wide variability of conditions and how frequently different factors are involved in their genesis, as well as the different treatments to be applied. We carried out a wide literature review of other causes of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We organised the prevalence of this syndrome in each pathology and the reasons that cause it, as well as their interactions and management, in a consistent manner. PMID:25107357

  11. Iron Stores, Periodic Leg Movements, and Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Louise M.; Koo, Julie; Fan, Ludi; Owusu, Jocelynn T.; Chotinaiwattarakul, Wattanachai; Felt, Barbara T.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Most clinical sleep studies are performed for suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), yet one-quarter to one-half show periodic leg movements (PLMs), for reasons that remain unknown. Several other disparate sleep disorders also increase the risk for PLMs. We examined the novel hypotheses that OSA as a representative sleep disorder could promote lower body iron stores, as reflected by serum ferritin levels, and, through downstream effects on dopaminergic transmission, increase PLMs and daytime sleepiness. Methods: Subjects were recruited as they underwent laboratory-based polysomnography for suspected OSA. Serum ferritin levels were measured the next morning. Each subject completed an Epworth Sleepiness Scale and a brief questionnaire to assess for restless legs syndrome (RLS). Results: The frequency of apneic events showed no association with serum ferritin levels, before or after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and likely RLS (each p value > 0.3). Serum ferritin levels did not predict the frequency of PLMs (p = 0.7) or Epworth scores (p = 0.8). Iron deficiency as a dichotomous variable, determined by ferritin levels less than < 50μg/L or in combination with low transferrin saturation or mean corpuscular volume, showed similar results. In exploratory analyses, contrary to expectations, lower minimum oxygen saturation and increased sleep-stage shifts predicted increased rather than decreased ferritin levels (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: Results of this study, powered to detect small to moderate effect sizes, strongly suggest that OSA does not cause lower serum ferritin levels, which, in turn, cannot explain PLMs or daytime sleepiness in these patients. Citation: O'Brien LM; Koo J; Fan L; Owusu JT; Chotinaiwattarakul W; Felt BT; Chervin RD. Iron stores, periodic leg movements, and sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(6):525-531. PMID:20465018

  12. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea with excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease regardless of visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji Hee; Ahn, Jae Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Shin, Chol; Kim, Nan Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but it remains unclear whether the risk of NAFLD is independently related to OSA regardless of visceral obesity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether OSA alone or in combination with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or short sleep duration was associated with NAFLD independent of visceral fat in Korean adults. Methods: A total of 621 participants were selected from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). The abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) and hepatic fat components of the participants were assessed using computed tomography scans and they were then categorized into four groups depending on the presence of OSA and EDS. Results: The proportions of NAFLD were 21.1%, 18.5%, 32.4%, and 46.7% in participants without OSA/EDS, with only EDS, with only OSA, and with both OSA and EDS, respectively. A combination of OSA and EDS increased the odds ratio (OR) for developing NAFLD (OR, 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 6.28) compared to those without OSA/EDS, and this association remained significant (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.01 to 5.59) even after adjusting for VFA. In short sleepers (< 5 hours) with OSA, the adjusted OR for NAFLD was 2.50 (95% CI, 1.08 to 5.75) compared to those sleeping longer than 5 hours without OSA. Conclusions: In the present study, OSA was closely associated with NAFLD in Korean adults. This association was particularly strong in those with EDS or short sleep duration regardless of VFA. PMID:26552460

  14. New neurons in the adult brain: The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a matter of debate. In the case of the hippocampus, integration of new cells in to the existing neuronal circuitry may be involved in memory processes and the regulation of emotionality. In recent years, various studies have examined how the production of new cells and their development into neurons is affected by sleep and sleep loss. While disruption of sleep for a period shorter than one day appears to have little effect on the basal rate of cell proliferation, prolonged restriction or disruption of sleep may have cumulative effects leading to a major decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation, cell survival and neurogenesis. Importantly, while short sleep deprivation may not affect the basal rate of cell proliferation, one study in rats shows that even mild sleep restriction may interfere with the increase in neurogenesis that normally occurs with hippocampus-dependent learning. Since sleep deprivation also disturbs memory formation, these data suggest that promoting survival, maturation and integration of new cells may be an unexplored mechanism by which sleep supports learning and memory processes. Most methods of sleep deprivation that have been employed affect both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Available data favor the hypothesis that decreases in cell proliferation are related to a reduction in REM sleep, whereas decreases in the number of cells that subsequently develop into adult neurons may be related to reductions in both NREM and REM sleep. The mechanisms by which sleep loss affects different aspects of adult neurogenesis are unknown. It has been proposed that adverse effects of sleep disruption may be mediated by stress and

  15. Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Obesity on Exercise Function in Children

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Carla A.; Selvadurai, Hiran; Baur, Louise A.; Waters, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate the relative contributions of weight status and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to cardiopulmonary exercise responses in children. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study. Participants underwent anthropometric measurements, overnight polysomnography, spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise function testing on a cycle ergometer, and cardiac doppler imaging. OSA was defined as ≥ 1 obstructive apnea or hypopnea per hour of sleep (OAHI). The effect of OSA on exercise function was evaluated after the parameters were corrected for body mass index (BMI) z-scores. Similarly, the effect of obesity on exercise function was examined when the variables were adjusted for OAHI. Setting: Tertiary pediatric hospital. Participants: Healthy weight and obese children, aged 7–12 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Seventy-one children were studied. In comparison with weight-matched children without OSA, children with OSA had a lower cardiac output, stroke volume index, heart rate, and oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) at peak exercise capacity. After adjusting for BMI z-score, children with OSA had 1.5 L/min (95% confidence interval -2.3 to -0.6 L/min; P = 0.001) lower cardiac output at peak exercise capacity, but minute ventilation and ventilatory responses to exercise were not affected. Obesity was only associated with physical deconditioning. Cardiac dysfunction was associated with the frequency of respiratory-related arousals, the severity of hypoxia, and heart rate during sleep. Conclusions: Children with OSA are exercise limited due to a reduced cardiac output and VO2 peak at peak exercise capacity, independent of their weight status. Comorbid OSA can further decrease exercise performance in obese children. Citation: Evans CA, Selvadurai H, Baur LA, Waters KA. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity on exercise function in children. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1103-1110. PMID:24882905

  16. Portable monitoring devices in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea: current status, advantages, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Polese, Jéssica Fábia; Santos-Silva, Rogério; Kobayashi, Rafael Freire; Pinto, Indira Nunes de Paula; Tufik, Sérgio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of portable monitoring devices for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. These have the potential to be used in lieu of the more complicated and uncomfortable alternative, polysomnography, which has long been considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of this relatively prevalent condition. Following their approval in 2008 by the Center of Medicare and Medicaid Services, the federal agency which administers Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, there has been extensive discussion about the utility and validity of these devices for use in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although there are various models of portable monitoring devices, the literature contains little information regarding how each device should be used in specific age groups, patients presenting comorbidities, and asymptomatic patients. Additionally, studies about the cost-effectiveness of this diagnostic method are scarce and conflicting. Therefore, this objective of this study was to review what has been learned about portable monitoring devices over time, as well as to examine the recent progress, advantages, limitations, and applications of these devices in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in different groups of patients.

  17. Health effects of obstructive sleep apnoea and the effectiveness of continuous positive airways pressure: a systematic review of the research evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J.; Johns, R.; Watt, I.; Melville, A.; Sheldon, T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the research evidence for the health consequences of obstructive sleep apnoea and the effectiveness of continuous positive airways pressure. DESIGN: A systematic review of published research, studies being identified by searching Medline (1966-96), Embase (1974-96), and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) (1982-95); scanning citations; and consulting experts. Studies in all languages were considered which either investigated the association between obstructive sleep apnoea in adults and key health outcomes or evaluated the effectiveness of treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea with continuous positive airways pressure in adults. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality, systematic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, ischaemic heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, vehicle accidents, measures of daytime sleepiness, and quality of life. RESULTS: 54 epidemiological studies examined the association between sleep apnoea and health related outcomes. Most were poorly designed and only weak or contradictory evidence was found of an association with cardiac arrhythmias, ischaemic heart disease, cardiac failure, systemic or pulmonary hypertension, and stroke. Evidence of a link with sleepiness and road traffic accidents was stronger but inconclusive. Only one small randomised controlled trial evaluated continuous positive airways pressure. Five non-randomised controlled trials and 38 uncontrolled trials were identified. Small changes in objectively measured daytime sleepiness were consistently found, but improvements in morbidity, mortality, and quality of life indicators were not adequately assessed. CONCLUSIONS: The relevance of sleep apnoea to public health has been exaggerated. The effectiveness of continuous positive airways pressure in improving health outcomes has been poorly evaluated. There is enough evidence suggesting benefit in reducing daytime sleepiness in some patients to warrant

  18. Dynamic alterations of the tongue in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome during sleep: analysis using ultrafast MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Mcdonald, J P; Liu, Y; Pan, K; Zhang, X; Hu, R

    2014-06-17

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) were evaluated using ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging (UMRI) while asleep and awake to analyze tongue changes. The upper airway of 21 OSAHS patients and 20 normal controls were examined during sleep using UMRI. A series of midline sagittal images of the upper airway were obtained to measure dynamic changes in tongue size and the distance from the tongue to the x-axis (an extended line from the anterior nasal spine to posterior nasal spine) and the y-axis (a perpendicular line from the center of the pituitary to the x-axis). The maximum and minimum sagittal diameters of the tongue were shorter in the OSAHS group than in the control group (P<0.01) while awake, whereas the difference between the maximum and minimum vertical diameters of the tongue and the upper and central part of tongue between the posterior border and the retropharyngeal wall were greater (P<0.05). During sleep, the maximum values and differences between the maximum and minimum tongue sizes in the OSAHS group were larger than in the control group (P<0.05), whereas the minimum values were lower than in the control group (P<0.01). Tongue size significantly differs between OSAHS patients and normal controls during sleep. The tongue tends to move downward during OSAHS, which may be attributed to increased upper airway resistance.

  19. Single-Unit Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Reflects Sleep Apnea Severity, Especially in Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hamaoka, Takuto; Murai, Hisayoshi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Usui, Soichiro; Okabe, Yoshitaka; Tokuhisa, Hideki; Kato, Takeshi; Furusho, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yu; Nakatsumi, Yasuto; Takata, Shigeo; Takamura, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with augmented sympathetic nerve activity, as assessed by multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). However, it is still unclear whether single-unit MSNA is a better reflection of sleep apnea severity according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). One hundred and two OSAS patients underwent full polysomnography and single- and multi-unit MSNA measurements. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to determine which parameters correlated with OSAS severity, which was defined by the AHI. Single- and multi-unit MSNA were significantly and positively correlated with AHI severity. The AHI was also significantly correlated with multi-unit MSNA burst frequency (r = 0.437, p < 0.0001) and single-unit MSNA spike frequency (r = 0.632, p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis revealed that SF was correlated most significantly with AHI (T = 7.27, p < 0.0001). The distributions of multiple single-unit spikes per one cardiac interval did not differ between patients with an AHI of <30 and those with and AHI of 30–55 events/h; however, the pattern of each multiple spike firing were significantly higher in patients with an AHI of >55. These results suggest that sympathetic nerve activity is associated with sleep apnea severity. In addition, single-unit MSNA is a more accurate reflection of sleep apnea severity with alternation of the firing pattern, especially in patients with very severe OSAS. PMID:26973534

  20. Single-Unit Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Reflects Sleep Apnea Severity, Especially in Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Takuto; Murai, Hisayoshi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Usui, Soichiro; Okabe, Yoshitaka; Tokuhisa, Hideki; Kato, Takeshi; Furusho, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yu; Nakatsumi, Yasuto; Takata, Shigeo; Takamura, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with augmented sympathetic nerve activity, as assessed by multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). However, it is still unclear whether single-unit MSNA is a better reflection of sleep apnea severity according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). One hundred and two OSAS patients underwent full polysomnography and single- and multi-unit MSNA measurements. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to determine which parameters correlated with OSAS severity, which was defined by the AHI. Single- and multi-unit MSNA were significantly and positively correlated with AHI severity. The AHI was also significantly correlated with multi-unit MSNA burst frequency (r = 0.437, p < 0.0001) and single-unit MSNA spike frequency (r = 0.632, p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis revealed that SF was correlated most significantly with AHI (T = 7.27, p < 0.0001). The distributions of multiple single-unit spikes per one cardiac interval did not differ between patients with an AHI of <30 and those with and AHI of 30-55 events/h; however, the pattern of each multiple spike firing were significantly higher in patients with an AHI of >55. These results suggest that sympathetic nerve activity is associated with sleep apnea severity. In addition, single-unit MSNA is a more accurate reflection of sleep apnea severity with alternation of the firing pattern, especially in patients with very severe OSAS. PMID:26973534

  1. The utility of neck/thyromental ratio in defining low-risk patients with obstructive sleep apnea in sleep clinics.

    PubMed

    Yuceege, Melike; Firat, Hikmet; Altintas, Nejat; Mutlu, Murad; Ardic, Sadik

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the importance of neck/thyromental distance in the diagnosis of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in sleep clinics. 185 patients (122 males, 63 females) referred to our sleep clinic with OSA symptoms were enrolled to the study. The patients had level-1 polysomnography (PSG). The neck circumference (N), thyromental distance (T), and STOP test were recorded in all patients. Using an obstructive AHI > 15 event/h on PSG as the cut-off, the best N/T ratio to find patients with OSA was calculated with the receiver operator curve analyses. The best cut-off for N/T was chosen as 4.6. We used Modified STOP test: STO-NT test in which P (for hypertension item) was replaced with N/T ratio. N/T ratio >4.6 was scored as "positive". Two positives out of four questions in STO-NT were scored as high risk for OSA. The OSA prevalence was 60 % for AHI > 15. The mean ratio of N/T was significantly different between groups with AHI > 15 and AHI ≤ 15. N and N/T ratio were moderately correlated with AHI. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and negative likelihood ratio of STOP test for AHI > 15 were 88.5, 28.4, 61.8, 65.4 % and 0.40, whereas 97.3, 23, 85, 65.9 % and 0.12 for STO-NT test, respectively. STO-NT test seems better than STOP test in determining patients who do not likely to have moderate to severe OSA in sleep clinics so can be preferred to decide on therapies other than CPAP in a short time.

  2. Computer assisted pulse oximetry for detecting children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vavrina, J

    1995-11-01

    A prospective study was carried out on 110 children undergoing tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy to evaluate the usefulness of computer assisted pulse oximetry (POM) as a screening tool for nocturnal obstructive sleep apnea episodes. Twenty-one healthy age-matched children served as a control group. A self-designed software (CAPO version 1.0) was used to analyse collected oximetric data. Pre-operatively up to 25% of children showed a characteristic pattern of repeated oxygen desaturations related to partial or complete airway obstruction, which was not seen in the matched group. Thirty-one percent had an oxygen desaturation index (ODI) of more than 2 phases/h, being significantly higher than in the matched group. These children could not be identified from history or clinical examination with an acceptable sensitivity. A second monitoring has been performed in 32 patients 5 days after surgery. The nocturnal cyclic oscillations of oxygen saturation resolved in almost all cases. Computer assisted POM is useful in predicting and grading nocturnal obstruction and adds decision making data for the treatment in children suspected of suffering from obstructive sleep apnea.

  3. Simulated Obstructive Sleep Apnea Increases P-Wave Duration and P-Wave Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Wons, Annette M.; Rossi, Valentina; Bratton, Daniel J.; Schlatzer, Christian; Schwarz, Esther I.; Camen, Giovanni; Kohler, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Background A high P-wave duration and dispersion (Pd) have been reported to be a prognostic factor for the occurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), a condition linked to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis of whether a short-term increase of P-wave duration and Pd can be induced by respiratory manoeuvres simulating OSA in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Methods 12-lead-electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded continuously in 24 healthy subjects and 33 patients with PAF, while simulating obstructive apnea (Mueller manoeuvre, MM), obstructive hypopnea (inspiration through a threshold load, ITH), central apnea (AP), and during normal breathing (BL) in randomized order. The P-wave duration and Pd was calculated by using dedicated software for ECG-analysis. Results P-wave duration and Pd significantly increased during MM and ITH compared to BL in all subjects (+13.1ms and +13.8ms during MM; +11.7ms and +12.9ms during ITH; p<0.001 for all comparisons). In MM, the increase was larger in healthy subjects when compared to patients with PAF (p<0.05). Conclusion Intrathoracic pressure swings through simulated obstructive sleep apnea increase P-wave duration and Pd in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Our findings imply that intrathoracic pressure swings prolong the intra-atrial and inter-atrial conduction time and therefore may represent an independent trigger factor for the development for PAF. PMID:27071039

  4. The Prioritization of Clinical Risk Factors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    PubMed Central

    Maranate, Thaya; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a problem of shortage of sleep laboratories that can accommodate the patients in a timely manner. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to worse outcomes particularly in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For this reason, the prioritization in polysomnography (PSG) queueing should be endorsed based on disease severity. To date, there have been conflicting data whether clinical information can predict OSA severity. The 1,042 suspected OSA patients underwent diagnostic PSG study at Siriraj Sleep Center during 2010-2011. A total of 113 variables were obtained from sleep questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The 19 groups of clinical risk factors consisting of 42 variables were categorized into each OSA severity. This study aimed to array these factors by employing Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach based on normalized weight vector. The results revealed that the first rank of clinical risk factors in Severe, Moderate, Mild, and No OSA was nighttime symptoms. The overall sensitivity/specificity of the approach to these groups was 92.32%/91.76%, 89.52%/88.18%, 91.08%/84.58%, and 96.49%/81.23%, respectively. We propose that the urgent PSG appointment should include clinical risk factors of Severe OSA group. In addition, the screening for Mild from No OSA patients in sleep center setting using symptoms during sleep is also recommended (sensitivity = 87.12% and specificity = 72.22%). PMID:26221183

  5. A New Animal Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Responding to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Neuzeret, Pierre-Charles; Gormand, Frédéric; Reix, Philippe; Parrot, Sandrine; Sastre, Jean-Pierre; Buda, Colette; Guidon, Gérard; Sakai, Kazuya; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: An improved animal model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is needed for the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, flexion of the neck and a supine position, two main pathogenic factors during human sleep, are associated with substantially greater OSA severity. We postulated that these two factors might generate OSA in animals. Design: We developed a restraining device for conditioning to investigate the effect of the combination of 2 body positions—prone (P) or supine (S)—and 2 head positions—with the neck flexed at right angles to the body (90°) or in extension in line with the body (180°)—during sleep in 6 cats. Polysomnography was performed twice on each cat in each of the 4 sleeping positions—P180, S180, P90, or S90. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment was then investigated in 2 cats under the most pathogenic condition. Setting: NA. Patients or Participants: NA. Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Positions P180 and, S90 resulted, respectively, in the lowest and highest apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (3 ± 1 vs 25 ± 2, P < 0.001), while P90 (18 ± 3, P < 0.001) and S180 (13 ± 5, P < 0.01) gave intermediate values. In position S90, an increase in slow wave sleep stage 1 (28% ± 3% vs 22% ± 3%, P < 0.05) and a decrease in REM sleep (10% ± 2% vs 18% ± 2%, P < 0.001) were also observed. CPAP resulted in a reduction in the AHI (8 ± 1 vs 27 ± 3, P < 0.01), with the added benefit of sleep consolidation. Conclusion: By mimicking human pathogenic sleep conditions, we have developed a new reversible animal model of OSA. Citation: Neuzeret PC; Gormand F; Reix P; Parrot S; Sastre JP; Buda C; Guidon G; Sakai K; Lin JS. A new animal model of obstructive sleep apnea responding to continuous positive airway pressure. SLEEP 2011;34(4):541-548. PMID:21461333

  6. Toward numerical simulations of fluid-structure interactions for investigation of obstructive sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Jung; Huang, Shao-Ching; White, Susan M.; Mallya, Sanjay M.; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a medical condition characterized by repetitive partial or complete occlusion of the airway during sleep. The soft tissues in the airway of OSA patients are prone to collapse under the low-pressure loads incurred during breathing. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a numerical tool for simulation of air-tissue interactions in the upper airway of patients with sleep apnea. A procedure by which patient-specific airway geometries are segmented and processed from dental cone-beam CT scans into signed distance fields is presented. A sharp-interface embedded boundary method based on the signed distance field is used on Cartesian grids for resolving the airflow in the airway geometries. For simulation of structure mechanics with large expected displacements, a cut-cell finite element method with nonlinear Green strains is used. The fluid and structure solvers are strongly coupled with a partitioned iterative algorithm. Preliminary results are shown for flow simulation inside the three-dimensional rigid upper airway of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Two validation cases for the fluid-structure coupling problem are also presented.

  7. Origins of and implementation concepts for upper airway stimulation therapy for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Strohl M D, Kingman P; Baskin M D, Jonathan; Lance M D, Colleen; Ponsky M D, Diana; Weidenbecher M D, Mark; Strohl B A, Madeleine; Yamauchi M D, Motoo

    2016-07-01

    Upper airway stimulation, specifically hypoglossal (CN XII) nerve stimulation, is a new, alternative therapy for patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome who cannot tolerate positive airway pressure, the first-line therapy for symptomatic patients. Stimulation therapy addresses the cause of inadequate upper airway muscle activation for nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airway collapse during sleep. The purpose of this report is to outline the development of this first-in-class therapy and its clinical implementation. Another practical theme is assessment of the features for considering a surgically implanted device and the insight as to how both clinical and endoscopic criteria increase the likelihood of safe and durable outcomes for an implant and how to more generally plan for management of CPAP-intolerant patients. A third theme is the team building required among sleep medicine and surgical specialties in the provision of individualized neurostimulation therapy. PMID:27424823

  8. Effects of oral care in Down syndrome children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kieko; Shirakawa, Tetsuo; Niikuni, Naoko; Sakata, Hideaki; Asanuma, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    Down syndrome (DS) children with sleep apnea often present with oral breathing associated with nasal obstruction. This causes the oral cavity and pharynx to become dry. We describe the treatment of three DS children with sleep apnea who were treated using products for oral dryness. Snoring disappeared after treatment in two of the children and apnea disappeared in all three. The symptoms of a reddened oral mucosa and coated tongue disappeared in all three DS children. Saliva pH testing demonstrated that the pH value increased in all of the children after treatment. These results indicate that oral care can improve the oral hygiene status of DS children, and that proper oral care can help prevent oral mucosal dryness and thereby reduce sleep apnea symptoms.

  9. Sleep and pain sensitivity in adults.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Lallukka, Tea; Petrie, Keith J; Steingrímsdóttir, Ólöf Anna; Stubhaug, Audun; Nielsen, Christopher Sivert

    2015-08-01

    Sleep problems and pain are major public health concerns, but the nature of the association between the 2 conditions is inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine whether a range of sleep measures is associated with experimental increased pain sensitivity. A cross-sectional large population-based study from 2007 to 2008, the Tromsø 6 study, provided data from 10,412 participants (age: mean [SD], 58 [13] years; 54% women). Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep onset latency (SOL), and sleep efficiency, as well as frequency and severity of insomnia. The main outcome measure was pain sensitivity tests, including assessment of cold-pressor pain tolerance. We found that all sleep parameters, except sleep duration, were significantly associated with reduced pain tolerance. Both the frequency and severity of insomnia, in addition to SOL and sleep efficiency, were associated with pain sensitivity in a dose-response manner. Adjusting for demographics and psychological distress reduced the strengths of the hazard ratios, but most associations remained significant in the fully adjusted models. There was also a synergistic interaction effect on pain tolerance when combining insomnia and chronic pain. We conclude that sleep problems significantly increase the risk for reduced pain tolerance. Because comorbid sleep problems and pain have been linked to elevated disability, the need to improve sleep among patients with chronic pain, and vice versa, should be an important agenda for future research. PMID:25915149

  10. Development of a Five-Dimensional Measure of Adult Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, Vincent J.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a measure of adult sleep quality: the Adult Sleep-Wake Scale (ADSWS). The ADSWS is a self-report pencil-and-paper measure of sleep quality consisting of five behavioral dimensions (Going to Bed, Falling Asleep, Maintaining Sleep, Reinitiating Sleep, and Returning to Wakefulness). Data were collected from…

  11. The neuropharmacology of upper airway motor control in the awake and asleep states: implications for obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Richard L

    2001-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common and serious breathing problem that is caused by effects of sleep on pharyngeal muscle tone in individuals with narrow upper airways. There has been increasing focus on delineating the brain mechanisms that modulate pharyngeal muscle activity in the awake and asleep states in order to understand the pathogenesis of obstructive apnoeas and to develop novel neurochemical treatments. Although initial clinical studies have met with only limited success, it is proposed that more rational and realistic approaches may be devised for neurochemical modulation of pharyngeal muscle tone as the relevant neurotransmitters and receptors that are involved in sleep-dependent modulation are identified following basic experiments. PMID:11686898

  12. Residual effect of nCPAP applied for part of the night in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Hers, V; Liistro, G; Dury, M; Collard, P; Aubert, G; Rodenstein, D O

    1997-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment, applied for only a few hours at the beginning of the night, has any residual effect on sleep and breathing during the ensuing hours of unassisted sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). In 27 patients with newly-diagnosed OSAS, effective nCPAP was applied during the first part of the night and then withdrawn. Polysomnographic parameters after nCPAP withdrawal were compared with those of the corresponding part of the diagnostic polysomnography performed a few days or weeks before and with those of the first part of night on nCPAP. After 255+/-63 (mean+/-SD) min of sleep with normalization of sleep and breathing parameters under nCPAP, there was partial improvement of OSAS severity during the remaining 124+/-56 min of nocturnal sleep without treatment; mean oxygen saturation, desaturation index (equivalent to the apnoea/hypopnoea index) and movement arousal index all improved significantly with respect to the diagnostic night (p=0.001). This improvement was not accounted for by a change in sleep architecture. We conclude that there is an improvement in severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome after only 4 h of nasal continuous positive airway pressure. This carryover effect could explain why a number of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome apply nasal continuous positive airway pressure for only part of the night or not every night.

  13. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takuya; Akinori, Ebihara; Yogo, Yurika; Sakamaki, Fumio; Suzuki, Yukio; Suemasu, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    Sleep-related disordered breathing (SDB) and its influence on desaturation were examined in stable COPD patients with waking SpO2 > 90%. With respiratory inductance plethysmography, thoracic-abdominal respiratory movements for all events with more than 4% desaturation were analyzed in 26 patients. Types of SDB were confirmed by full polysomnography. Irregular breathing induced desaturation, while stable respiration continued during some desaturation events. Three types of altered ventilation were observed: hypoventilation, paradoxical movement and periodic breathing. An unusual type of paradoxical movement, with normal airflow despite progressive desaturation, was observed in REM sleep. Patients were divided into desaturation (15 patients) and non-desaturation (11 patients) groups. Daytime arterial blood gas, lung function values, and 6-min walking distance did not differ. Awake, mode, maximum and minimum nocturnal SpO2 were lower in the desaturation group. SDB-induced desaturation events in the desaturation group were more frequent (9.2+/-3.5 vs. 1.8+/-2.2 times), a greater SpO2 decrease (11.4+/-7.1% vs. 5.2+/-2.1%) and longer duration (73.2+/-34.8 vs. 18.8+/-39.0 min). Patterns of SDB in the desaturation group were hypoventilation (74.4+/-23.4%), paradoxical movement (10.2+/-14.5%), periodic breathing (12.1+/-18.3%) and unclassified (5.8+/-11.2%). These results reveal that lower SpO2 and SDB influence nocturnal desaturation in stable COPD patients. PMID:17136951

  14. Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Obstructive Sleep Apnea Evaluation and Treatment Among Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Raphael; McKenzie, Sharon; Taylor, Tonya; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although blacks are at higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), they are not as likely as their white counterparts to receive OSA evaluation and treatment. This study assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards OSA evaluation and treatment among blacks residing in Brooklyn, New York. Methods Five focus groups involving 39 black men and women (aged ≥18 years) were conducted at the State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn to ascertain barriers preventing or delaying OSA evaluation and treatment. Results Misconceptions about sleep apnea were a common theme that emerged from participants’ responses. Obstructive sleep apnea was often viewed as a type of insomnia, an age-related phenomenon, and as being caused by certain bedtime activities. The major theme that emerged about barriers to OSA evaluation was unfamiliarity with the study environment. Barriers were categorized as: problems sleeping in a strange and unfamiliar environment, unfamiliarity with the study protocol, and fear of being watched while sleeping. Barriers to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment adoption were related to the confining nature of the device, discomfort wearing a mask while they slept, and concerns about their partner’s perceptions of treatment. Conclusion Results of this study suggest potential avenues for interventions to increase adherence to recommended evaluation and treatment of OSA. Potential strategies include reducing misconceptions about OSA, increasing awareness of OSA in vulnerable communities, familiarizing patients and their partners with laboratory procedures used to diagnose and treat OSA. We propose that these strategies should be used to inform the development of culturally and linguistically tailored sleep apnea interventions to increase awareness of OSA among blacks who are at risk for OSA and associated comorbidities. PMID:23560353

  15. Gender Differences in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Treatment Response to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lichuan; Pien, Grace W.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Weaver, Terri E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Whether gender differences exist in clinical manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and whether women's responses to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are similar to those of men are critical areas of exploration in sleep disordered breathing. This exploratory analysis addressed these questions by examining gender differences over a wide range of clinical outcomes at baseline and in response to CPAP in participants with severe OSA. Methods: Data from 152 men and 24 women who participated in a multicenter CPAP effectiveness study were analyzed. Gender differences in functional status (functional outcomes of sleep questionnaire, sickness impact profile), daytime sleepiness (epworth sleepiness scale, multiple sleep latency test), mood disturbance (profile of mood states), apnea symptoms (multivariable apnea prediction index), and neurobehavioral performance (psychomotor vigilance task) were examined. Treatment response was examined by the change in each outcome from baseline to 3 months after treatment. Results: Despite similar age, body mass index, and apnea-hypopnea index, women reported significantly lower functional status, more subjective daytime sleepiness, higher frequency of apnea symptoms, more mood disturbance, and poorer neurobehavioral performance compared to men at baseline. CPAP treatment significantly improved functional status and relieved symptoms for both genders. The magnitude of improvement in each clinical outcome did not vary by gender. Conclusions: Women with OSA showed greater impairment in daytime functioning and symptoms than men. Both genders benefit from CPAP treatment. Adequately powered studies considering possible referral and response bias are necessary to examine gender differences in OSA clinical manifestations and response to CPAP treatment. Citation: Ye L; Pien GW; Ratcliffe SJ; Weaver TE. Gender Differences in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Treatment Response to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. J Clin

  16. Selective indication for positive airway pressure (PAP) in sleep-related breathing disorders with obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Stasche, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the therapy of choice for most sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). A variety of PAP devices using positive airway pressure (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP, ASV) must be carefully considered before application. This overview aims to provide criteria for choosing the optimal PAP device according to severity and type of sleep-related breathing disorder. In addition, the range of therapeutic applications, constraints and side effects as well as alternative methods to PAP will be discussed. This review is based on an analysis of current literature and clinical experience. The data is presented from an ENT-sleep-laboratory perspective and is designed to help the ENT practitioner initiate treatment and provide support. Different titration methods, current devices and possible applications will be described. In addition to constant pressure devices (CPAP), most commonly used for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) without complicating conditions, BiPAP models will be introduced. These allow two different positive pressure settings and are thus especially suitable for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases or patients with pressure intolerance, increasing compliance in this subgroup considerably. Compliance can also be increased in patients during first night of therapy, patients with highly variable pressure demands or position-dependent OSA, by using self-regulating Auto-adjust PAP devices (Automatic positive airway pressure, APAP). Patients with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, a subtype of central sleep apnoea, benefit from adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), which analyzes breathing patterns continually and adjusts the actual ventilation pressure accordingly. This not only reduces daytime sleepiness, but can also influence heart disease positively. Therapy with positive airway pressure is very effective in eliminating obstruction-related sleep diseases and symptoms. However, because therapy is generally applied for life, the optimal PAP device

  17. Frequency of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Dental Patients with Tooth Wear

    PubMed Central

    Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Martínez-Null, Cristina; Aguirre, Jose Javier; Guinea, Elena Rubio; Anitua, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in dental patients with tooth wear, and to assess the role of dentists in the identification of patients at risk of OSAS. Methods: Dental patients with tooth wear and treated with occlusal splint were prospectively recruited to perform sleep study. The severity of tooth wear was established by the treating dentist before patient referral to sleep disorders unit. Sleep questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and validated respiratory polygraphy were performed. Results: All patients with dental wear were offered a sleepiness analysis. Of 31 recruited patients, 30 (77% males) participated in this study. Patients' mean age was 58.5 ± 10.7 years (range: 35–90 years) and the body mass index was 27.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2. Tooth wear was mild in 13 patients, moderate in 8 and severe in 9. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 32.4 ± 24.9. AHI < 5 was reported in 2 patients, AHI of 5–29 in 17, and AHI ≥ 30 in 11. A statistically significant association was found between AHI severity and tooth wear severity (Spearman R = 0.505; p = 0.004). Conclusions: Tooth wear could be a tool to identify those patients at risk of having OSAS. This highlights the importance of dental professionals to identify and refer patients with OSAS. Citation: Durán-Cantolla J, Alkhraisat MH, Martínez-Null C, Aguirre JJ, Guinea ER, Anitua E. Frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in dental patients with tooth wear. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):445–450. PMID:25665693

  18. High Priority Future Research Needs for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kamal; Moorthy, Denish; Chan, Jeffrey A.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify and prioritize future research needs (FRN) topics for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-one panel members represented six stake-holder categories: patients and the public, providers; purchasers of health care, payers, policymakers, and principal investigators. Building on a recently completed comparative effectiveness review, stakeholders nominated and discussed potential FRN topics. Stakeholders then nominated their top priority FRN topics based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program Selection Criteria. From these nominations, the highest priority FRN topics were determined and were elaborated upon to include possible study designs to address the topics. Results: Thirty-seven topics were discussed and prioritized. The nine highest priority FRN topics included: cost-effectiveness of management strategies, defining age- and sex-specific criteria for OSA, evaluating routine preoperative screening for OSA, evaluating involvement of a sleep medicine specialist in diagnosis of OSA, evaluating clinical prediction rules, assessing the effect of treating sleep disordered breathing and long-term clinical outcomes, comparing treatments for patients who do not tolerate positive airway pressure, evaluating strategies to improve treatment compliance, and evaluating the association between sleep apnea severity and long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions: While there are numerous specific research questions with low or insufficient strength of evidence for OSA management, OSA patients, their healthcare providers, and society at large would benefit from refocusing research efforts into the prioritized research questions and away from simple comparisons of short-term outcomes between specific interventions. Citation: Patel K; Moorthy D; Chan JA; Concannon TW. High priority future research needs for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2013

  19. Sleep and adult neurogenesis: implications for cognition and mood.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anka D; Meerlo, Peter; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in learning and memory throughout life, in part by the integration of adult-born neurons into existing circuits. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is regulated by numerous environmental, physiological, and behavioral factors known to affect learning and memory. Sleep is also important for learning and memory. Here we critically examine evidence from correlation, deprivation, and stimulation studies that sleep may be among those factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. There is mixed evidence for correlations between sleep variables and rates of hippocampal cell proliferation across the day, the year, and the lifespan. There is modest evidence that periods of increased sleep are associated with increased cell proliferation or survival. There is strong evidence that disruptions of sleep exceeding 24 h, by total deprivation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic restriction or fragmentation, significantly inhibit cell proliferation and in some cases neurogenesis. The mechanisms by which sleep disruption inhibits neurogenesis are not fully understood. Although sleep disruption procedures are typically at least mildly stressful, elevated adrenal corticosterone secretion is not necessary for this effect. However, procedures that prevent both elevated corticosterone and interleukin 1β signaling have been found to block the effect of sleep deprivation on cell proliferation. This result suggests that sleep loss impairs hippocampal neurogenesis by the presence of wake-dependent factors, rather than by the absence of sleep-specific processes. This would weigh against a hypothesis that regulation of neurogenesis is a function of sleep. Nonetheless, impaired neurogenesis may underlie some of the memory and mood effects associated with acute and chronic sleep disruptions.

  20. [Sleep studies in adults: interest in snoring disorders and the sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sergysels, R; Lorimier, P; Dachy, B; Sanna, A; Lachman, A

    1989-09-01

    The authors review the concept of sleep apnea syndrome in adults. A description of a polysomnigraphic study is given. Personal results in a population of obese heavy snorers are summarized. PMID:2799140

  1. Long-Term Effect of Weight Loss on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kuna, Samuel T.; Reboussin, David M.; Borradaile, Kelley E.; Sanders, Mark H.; Millman, Richard P.; Zammit, Gary; Newman, Anne B.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Jakicic, John M.; Wing, Rena R.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Foster, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether the initial benefit of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity at 1 year is maintained at 4 years. Design: Randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 1, 2, and 4 years. Setting: 4 Look AHEAD clinical centers. Participants: Two hundred sixty-four obese adults with type 2 diabetes and OSA. Interventions: Intensive lifestyle intervention with a behavioral weight loss program or diabetes support and education. Measurements: Change in apnea-hypopnea index on polysomnogram. Results: The intensive lifestyle intervention group's mean weight loss was 10.7 ± 0.7 (standard error), 7.4 ± 0.7, and 5.2 ± 0.7 kg at 1, 2, and 4 years respectively, compared to a less than 1-kg weight loss for the control group at each time (P < 0.001). Apnea-hypopnea index difference between groups was 9.7 ± 2.0, 8.0 ± 2.0, and 7.7 ± 2.3 events/h at 1, 2 and 4 years respectively (P < 0.001). Change in apnea-hypopnea index over time was related to the amount of weight loss (P < 0.0001) and intervention, independent of weight loss (P = 0.001). Remission of OSA at 4 years was 5 times more common with intensive lifestyle intervention (20.7%) than diabetes support and education (3.6%). Conclusions: Among obese adults with type 2 diabetes and OSA, intensive lifestyle intervention produced greater reductions in weight and apnea-hypopnea index over a 4 year period than did diabetes support and education. Beneficial effects of intensive lifestyle intervention on apneahypopnea index at 1 year persisted at 4 years, despite an almost 50% weight regain. Effect of intensive lifestyle intervention on apnea-hypopnea index was largely, but not entirely, due to weight loss. Citation: Kuna ST; Reboussin DM; Borradaile KE; Sanders MH; Millman RP; Zammit G; Newman AB; Wadden TA; Jakicic JM; Wing RR; Pi-Sunyer FX; Foster GD; Sleep AHEAD Research Group. Long-term effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea severity in obese patients with type 2 diabetes

  2. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Badr, M Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K; Martin, Jennifer L; Patel, Sanjay R; Quan, Stuart F; Tasali, Esra

    2015-08-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health.

  3. Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: Methodology and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Badr, M Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K; Martin, Jennifer L; Patel, Sanjay R; Quan, Stuart F; Tasali, Esra

    2015-08-15

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recently released a Consensus Statement regarding the recommended amount of sleep to promote optimal health in adults. This paper describes the methodology, background literature, voting process, and voting results for the consensus statement. In addition, we address important assumptions and challenges encountered during the consensus process. Finally, we outline future directions that will advance our understanding of sleep need and place sleep duration in the broader context of sleep health.

  4. Circadian Variability of Fibrinolytic Markers and Endothelial Function in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Bagai, Kanika; Muldowney, James A. S.; Song, Yanna; Wang, Lily; Bagai, Jayant; Artibee, Kay J.; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Malow, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, including stroke and acute coronary syndromes. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the principal inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), has a pronounced circadian rhythm and is elevated in both OSA and cardiovascular disease and may be an important link between the two conditions. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular disease, and may be altered in OSA. Our primary aim was to compare circadian variability of PAI-1 and t-PA in patients with OSA and normal controls by determining the amplitude (peak level) and mesor (rhythm adjusted mean) of PAI-1 and t-PA in serial blood samples over a 24-h period. The secondary aim was to measure markers of endothelial function (brachial and radial artery flow) in patients with OSA compared with normal controls. Setting: Cross-sectional cohort study. Patients or Participants: Subjects age 18 y or older, with a body mass index of 25-45 kg/m2, with or without evidence of untreated OSA. Interventions: Plasma samples were collected every 2 h, in OSA patients and matched controls, over a 24-h period. PAI-1 and t-PA antigen and activity were measured. The presence or absence of OSA (apnea-hypopnea index of 5 or greater) was confirmed by overnight polysomnography. Endothelial function was measured via brachial artery flow mediated vasodilatation and computerized arterial pulse waveform analysis. Measurements and Results: The rhythm-adjusted mean levels of PAI-1 antigen levels in the OSA group (21.8 ng/mL, 95% confidence level [CI], 18 to 25.7) were significantly higher as compared to the non-OSA group (16 ng/mL, 95% CI, 12.2 to 19.8; P = 0.03). The rhythm-adjusted mean levels of PAI-1 activity levels in the OSA group (23.9 IU/mL, 95% CI, 21.4 to 26.5) were also significantly higher than in the non-OSA group (17.2 IU/ mL, 95% CI, 14.6 to 19.9; P < 0.001).There

  5. Clinical Usefulness of Watch-PAT for Assessing the Surgical Results of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the accuracy and clinical efficacy of a wrist-worn device that is based on peripheral arterial tonometry (watch-PAT) to evaluate the surgical results of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome subjects. Study Design and Method: Thirty-five subjects who were diagnosed with OSA and underwent sleep surgeries such as septoplasty, tonsillectomy, or uvuloplasty to correct their airway collapse, participated in this study; the watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured after the sleep surgery. Results: The present study showed that RDI (32.8 ± 10.7 vs 14.8 ± 7.5), AHI (30.3 ± 8.6 vs 13.4 ± 8.2 events/h), lowest oxygen saturation (78.2% ± 8.4% vs 90.5% ± 7.1%), and valid sleep time (329.1 ± 47.2 min and a postoperative value of 389.1 ± 50.1 min) recovered to within a normal range after surgery in 28 subjects. In addition, good agreement was found between watch-PAT-derived factors and visual analogue scales for changes in subjective symptoms, such as snoring, apnea, and daytime somnolence. Seven of the 35 subjects showed no improvement for their subjective symptoms and complained of snoring and apnea after surgery. We found that the RDI and AHI of those 7 subjects were not reduced, and the changes between pre- and postoperative values which were measured with watch-PAT were minimal. Their postoperative lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time were not elevated per the watch-PAT. The results support a strong correlation between the findings from watch-PAT and improved symptoms after surgical correction of an airway collapse. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that the factors measured by the watch-PAT might be reliable indicators of symptomatic changes in OSA subjects after sleep surgery and also shows that the watch-PAT is a highly sensitive portable device for estimating treatment results in OSA. Citation: Park CY

  6. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Robert J.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Parikh, Samir M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a well-established risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. More recently, OSA has been implicated as an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a well-accepted early biomarker of subclinical kidney tubular injury, preceding an increase in serum creatinine. The goal of this study was to determine if an association exists between OSA and increased urinary NGAL levels. Methods We prospectively enrolled adult patients from the sleep clinic of an academic medical center. Each underwent polysomnography and submitted a urine specimen upon enrollment. We measured NGAL and creatinine levels on all urine samples before participants received treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and, in a subset of OSA patients, after CPAP therapy. We compared the urinary NGAL/creatinine ratio between untreated participants with and without OSA, and within a subset of 11 OSA patients also after CPAP therapy. Results A total of 49 subjects were enrolled: 16 controls based on an apnea-hypopnea index (events with at least 4% oxygen desaturation; AHI-4%) <5 events/hour (mean AHI-4% = 0.59 +/- 0.60); 33 OSA patients based on an AHI-4% >5 events/hour (mean AHI-4% = 43.3 +/- 28.1). OSA patients had a higher mean body-mass index than the control group (36.58 +/- 11.02 kg/m2 vs. 26.81 +/- 6.55 kg/m2, respectively; p = 0.0005) and were more likely to be treated for hypertension (54.5% vs. 6.25% of group members, respectively; p = 0.0014). The groups were otherwise similar in demographics, and there was no difference in the number of diabetic subjects or in the mean serum creatinine concentration (control = 0.86 +/- 0.15 mg/dl, OSA = 0.87 +/- 0.19 mg/dl; p = 0.7956). We found no difference between the urinary NGAL-to-creatinine ratios among untreated OSA patients versus control subjects (median NGAL/creatinine = 6.34 ng/mg vs. 6.41 ng

  7. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  8. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emily J.; Coates, Alison M.; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = −0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  9. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-08-04

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality.

  10. Quality of Life and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Symptoms After Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ron B.; Parker, Portia D.; Moore, Reneé H.; Rosen, Carol L.; Giordani, Bruno; Muzumdar, Hiren; Paruthi, Shalini; Elden, Lisa; Willging, Paul; Beebe, Dean W.; Marcus, Carole L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data from a randomized, controlled study of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were used to test the hypothesis that children undergoing surgery had greater quality of life (QoL) and symptom improvement than control subjects. The objectives were to compare changes in validated QoL and symptom measurements among children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting; to determine whether race, weight, or baseline OSAS severity influenced changes in QoL and symptoms; and to evaluate associations between changes in QoL or symptoms and OSAS severity. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 9.9 years with OSAS (N = 453) were randomly assigned to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting with supportive care. Polysomnography, the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument, and the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale were completed at baseline and 7 months. Changes in the QoL and symptom surveys were compared between arms. Effect modification according to race and obesity and associations between changes in polysomnographic measures and QoL or symptoms were examined. RESULTS: Greater improvements in most QoL and symptom severity measurements were observed in children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy, including the parent-completed Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (effect size [ES]: 0.37), the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument (ES: –0.93), the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (ES: –0.42), and the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (ES: –1.35). Effect modification was not observed by obesity or baseline severity but was noted for race in some symptom measures. Improvements in OSAS severity explained only a small portion of the observed changes. CONCLUSIONS: Adenotonsillectomy compared with watchful waiting resulted in significantly

  11. Sleep • 3: Clinical presentation and diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schlosshan, D; Elliott, M

    2004-01-01

    Patients with OSAHS may present to a sleep clinic or to other specialists with symptoms that are not immediately attributable to the condition. The diagnostic methods available are reviewed. PMID:15047962

  12. Neck Circumference Is a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Short-Sleeping Obese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Lilian; Piaggi, Paolo; Mattingly, Megan; Zhao, Xiongce; Lucassen, Eliane; Rother, Kristina I.; Sumner, Anne E.; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The constellation of metabolic syndrome, although controversial with regard to its clinical usefulness, is epidemiologically related to increased diabetes risk and cardiovascular mortality. Our goal was to investigate the associations among neck circumference (NC), obstructive sleep apnea syndromes (OSAS), and metabolic syndrome in obese men and women sleeping less than 6.5 hr per night. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of obese men and premenopausal obese women sleeping less than 6.5 hr per night. We enrolled 120 individuals (92 women), age 40.5±6.9 years and body mass index (BMI) 38.6±6.5 kg/m2. Metabolic syndrome severity was assessed by a score and OSAS was defined as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥5. Metabolic end endocrine parameters were measured, and sleep duration was determined by actigraphy and validated questionnaires. Results: Metabolic syndrome was found in 41% and OSAS in 58% (28% had both). Subjects with metabolic syndrome were 3 years older and more often Caucasian; they had higher RDI scores, larger NC, more visceral fat, lower serum adiponectin, higher 24-hr urinary norepinephrine (NE) excretion, and lower growth hormone concentrations. A NC of ≥38 cm had a sensitivity of 54% and 58% and a specificity of 70% and 79% in predicting the presence of metabolic syndrome and OSAS, respectively. RDI, adiponectin, and NC accounted for approximately 30% of the variability in the metabolic syndrome score, as estimated by an age-, gender-, and race-corrected multivariate model (R2=0.376, P<0.001). Conclusion: Greater NC is associated with OSAS and metabolic syndrome in short-sleeping obese men and premenopausal obese women. Addition of NC to the definition of metabolic syndrome should be considered and needs to be validated in future studies. PMID:24571423

  13. Daily activities and sleep quality in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Pichler-Mowry, Rene

    2011-04-01

    Daily activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in young adult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the Young Adult Daily Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical daily activities and three blank items for students to include their daily activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking daily activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753

  14. Sleep Duration and Obesity in Adults: What Are the Connections?

    PubMed

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain. It is still too early and a too easy solution to suggest that changing the sleep duration will cure the obesity epidemic. Given novel results on emotional stress and poor sleep as mediating factors in the relationship between sleep duration and obesity, detection and management of these should become the target of future clinical efforts as well as future research. PMID:27372108

  15. The Use of Media as a Sleep Aid in Adults.

    PubMed

    Exelmans, Liese; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 844 adults, aged 18-94 years old, was queried about media habits and sleep behavior in face-to-face interviews with standardized questionnaires. A substantial proportion of this sample reported using books (39.8%), television (31.2%), music (26.0%), Internet (23.2%), and videogames (10.3%) as a sleep aid. The use of media as sleep aids was associated with increased fatigue and higher scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), indicating poorer sleep quality. There was no relationship with sleep duration. Finally, results suggest that media use coincides with later bedtimes, but also later rise times, a process called time shifting.

  16. The Use of Media as a Sleep Aid in Adults.

    PubMed

    Exelmans, Liese; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 844 adults, aged 18-94 years old, was queried about media habits and sleep behavior in face-to-face interviews with standardized questionnaires. A substantial proportion of this sample reported using books (39.8%), television (31.2%), music (26.0%), Internet (23.2%), and videogames (10.3%) as a sleep aid. The use of media as sleep aids was associated with increased fatigue and higher scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), indicating poorer sleep quality. There was no relationship with sleep duration. Finally, results suggest that media use coincides with later bedtimes, but also later rise times, a process called time shifting. PMID:25313639

  17. Numerical analysis for the efficacy of nasal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shen; Liu, Ying-Xi; Sun, Xiu-Zhen; Su, Ying-Feng; Wang, Ying; Gai, Yin-Zhe

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we reconstructed upper airway and soft palate models of 3 obstructive sleep apnea—hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients with nasal obstruction. The airflow distribution and movement of the soft palate before and after surgery were described by a numerical simulation method. The curative effect of nasal surgery was evaluated for the three patients with OSAHS. The degree of nasal obstruction in the 3 patients was improved after surgery. For 2 patients with mild OSAHS, the upper airway resistance and soft palate displacement were reduced after surgery. These changes contributed to the mitigation of respiratory airflow limitation. For the patient with severe OSAHS, the upper airway resistance and soft palate displacement increased after surgery, which aggravated the airway obstruction. The efficacy of nasal surgery for patients with OSAHS is determined by the degree of improvement in nasal obstruction and whether the effects on the pharynx are beneficial. Numerical simulation results are consistent with the polysomnogram (PSG) test results, chief complaints, and clinical findings, and can indirectly reflect the degree of nasal patency and improvement of snoring symptoms, and further, provide a theoretical basis to solve relevant clinical problems. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Sleep apnea and oxygen saturation in adults at 2640 m above sea level☆

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto Zapata, Maria Angelica; Dueñas Meza, Elida; Jaramillo, Claudia; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres Duque, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the SpO2 in wakefulness, sleep and during the apnea–hypopnea in adults living in Bogotá, located at 2640 m above sea level. Methods Descriptive observational study in adults referred for polysomnogram (PSG). A normal Apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was defined as ≤5 and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was classified as mild (AHI 5–15), moderate (AHI 15–30), and severe (AHI >30). T-test or ANOVA test for SpO2 differences between groups was used. Results 1799 patients, 33% women. 222 (12.8%) did not have OSA (normal IAH), 268 (14.9%) mild OSA, 315 (17.5%) moderate ,and 993 (55.2%) severe. In all cases a low SpO2 (SpO2<90%) was found. The SpO2 was lower when the AHI was higher, in wakefulness, in non-REM and in REM (p<0.001). For all grades of severity, SpO2 decreased significantly from wakefulness to non-REM sleep and to REM sleep (p<0.001). Patients with severe OSA had higher desaturation during wakefulness (85.2±6.6%), non-REM sleep (83.1±7.7%), REM sleep (78.8±10.2), and during events (75.1±9.1%). Conclusions Patients with OSA at 2640 m have nocturnal desaturation lower than 88%, which decreases with higher severity of OSA. The clinical impact of sleep disorders at this point may be greater than at sea level and should be studied. PMID:26483911

  19. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea patients in the United Arab Emirates: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alzaabi, Ashraf; Fizal, Salahudeen; Moilothkandy, Rafeek; Mahboub, Bassam; Nagelkerke, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the frequency of symptoms of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to evaluate comorbidities associated with OHS. Design Retrospective study based on patients' medical records and on further sleep tests performed in the study centre during the inclusion visit. Setting Respiratory Care Unit and Sleep Disorder Centre of the Zayed Military Hospital United Arab Emirates. Participants All patients referred to the study centre for a suspicion of sleep-disordered breathing. Main outcome measures Prevalence of OSA and OSA + OHS and comorbidities in patients with OSA and OHS. Results A total of 212 adult patients participated in the study. Of these, 107 patients (50.5% [43.8–57.1% CI 95%]) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for OSA, and the majority were men (79.4%). Among patients with OSA, 18 patients (16.8% [10.8–25.1% CI 95%]) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for OHS. In this group, women were more frequently affected than men (31.8% [7/22] vs. 12.9% [11/85], respectively; p = 0.03) and tended to be older than affected men, with a mean age of 55 ± 10.6 years versus 46 ± 13 for men. After adjustment for gender, OHS was significantly associated with hypertension (OR = 3.5; p = 0.03), diabetes mellitus (OR = 4.6; p = 0.02), ischaemic heart disease (OR = 5.1; p = 0.04) and pulmonary hypertension (OR = 16.1; p = 0.001). Conclusion OHS is a common condition in obese patients in the UAE and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidities and diabetes. PMID:24475348

  20. MRI of the pharynx in ischemic stroke patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Devin L.; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Concannon, Maryann; Helman, Joseph I.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common after stroke and associated with poor stroke outcomes. Whether OSA after acute stroke is caused by anatomic, physiologic, or both etiologies has not been studied. We therefore used brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to assess oropharyngeal anatomy in stroke patients with and without OSA. Methods Patients within 7 days of ischemic stroke underwent nocturnal polysomnography. Sagittal T1-weighted MRI performed for clinical purposes was used to measure retropalatal distance, soft palatal length, soft palatal thickness, retroglossal space, and tongue length. Nasopharyngeal area and high retropharyngeal area were measured from axial T2-weighted images, and lateral pharyngeal wall thickness from coronal T1-weighted images. Results Among 27 subjects, 18 (67%) had OSA (apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5). Demographics, vascular risk factors, and stroke severity were similar in the two groups. Median retropalatal distance was shorter in subjects with OSA (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p= 0.03). Shorter retropalatal distance was associated with higher AHI (linear regression, p=0.04). None of the other morphological characteristics differed. Conclusions Anatomic difference between awake acute stroke patients with and without OSA shows that the sleep disorder cannot be attributed solely to sleep, sleeping position, or changes in neuromuscular control that are specific to the sleep state. PMID:20466584

  1. Utility of portable monitoring in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, U; Aneja, A; Kumar, R Mohan; Kumar, T Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common but underdiagnosed sleep disorder, which is associated with systemic consequences such as hypertension, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and ischemic heart disease. Nocturnal laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard test for diagnosis of OSA. PSG consists of a simultaneous recording of multiple physiologic parameters related to sleep and wakefulness including electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), surface electromyography (EMG), airflow measurement using thermistor and nasal pressure transducer, pulse oximetry and respiratory effort (thoracic and abdominal). Multiple alternative and simpler methods that record respiratory parameters alone for diagnosing OSA have been developed in the past two decades. These devices are called portable monitors (PMs) and enable performing sleep studies at a lower cost with shorter waiting times. It has been observed and reported that comprehensive sleep evaluation coupled with the use of PMs can fulfill the unmet need for diagnostic testing in various out-of-hospital settings in patients with suspected OSA. This article reviews the available medical literature on PMs in order to justify the utility of PMs in the diagnosis of OSA, especially in resource-poor, high-disease burden settings. The published practice parameters for the use of these devices have also been reviewed with respect to their relevance in the Indian setting. PMID:26440391

  2. Comparison of pulse rate variability with heart rate variability during obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Khandoker, Ahsan H; Karmakar, Chandan K; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2011-03-01

    We investigate whether pulse rate variability (PRV) extracted from finger photo-plethysmography (Pleth) waveforms can be the substitute of heart rate variability (HRV) from RR intervals of ECG signals during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Simultaneous measurements (ECG and Pleth) were taken from 29 healthy subjects during normal (undisturbed sleep) breathing and 22 patients with OSA during OSA events. Highly significant (p<0.01) correlations (1.0>r>0.95) were found between heart rate (HR) and pulse rate (PR). Bland-Altman plot of HR and PR shows good agreement (<5% difference). Comparison of 2 min recording epochs demonstrated significant differences (p<0.01) in time, frequency domains and complexity analysis, between normal and OSA events using PRV as well as HRV measures. Results suggest that both HRV and PRV indices could be used to distinguish OSA events from normal breathing during sleep. However, several variability measures (SDNN, RMSSD, HF power, LF/HF and sample entropy) of PR and HR were found to be significantly (p<0.01) different during OSA events. Therefore, we conclude that PRV provides accurate inter-pulse variability to measure heart rate variability under normal breathing in sleep but does not precisely reflect HRV in sleep disordered breathing.

  3. Modified Interim Mandibular Advancement (MIMA) Appliance for Symptomatic Correction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpreet; Mishra, Harsh Ashok; Gupta, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a chronic, progressive, multifactorial, life-threatening disorder that causes significant impact on patient’s life. Patients with OSA [Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI)>30] who cannot tolerate Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy or are not surgical candidates may benefit from oral appliances. This paper describes interim appliance devised from existing Hawley’s retainer in patients with OSA. A 38-year-old man of athletic built with history of orthodontic treatment six months back due to esthetic concerns and wearing upper Hawley’s retainer, reported with chief complaint of frequent nocturnal awakening along with excessive daytime somnolence. Based on diagnostic aids, he was diagnosed with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with severe mandibular retrusion. Sleep test revealed AHI score of 34, suggestive of severe OSA. With ENT and Oral surgeon concurrence, mandibular advancement of 7mm with Bilateral Sagital Split Osteotomy (BSSO) with distraction was contemplated as a viable functional and curative stable treatment plan. Because of non-adherence and non-compliance with CPAP therapy and on request of patient, an interim anterior positioning appliance was devised to facilitate comfortable sound sleep till the time surgery is impending. After three months of wearing this customized appliance, improved quality of sleep was discernible; both subjectively as reported by patient and objectively using sleep test (AHI=9.8). PMID:27656589

  4. Microarray studies of genomic oxidative stress and cell cycle responses in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michal S; Singh, Prachi; Wolk, Robert; Romero-Corral, Abel; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Somers, Virend K

    2007-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the commonest form of sleep-disordered breathing, is characterized by recurrent episodes of intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. This study evaluated microarray measures of gene transcript levels in OSA subjects compared to age and BMI matched healthy controls. Measurements were obtained before and after: (a) a night of normal sleep in controls; and (b) a night of untreated apnea in OSA patients. All subjects underwent full polysomnography. mRNA from the whole blood samples was analyzed by HG-U133A and B Affymetrix GeneChip arrays using Spotfire 7.2 data analysis platform. After sleep in OSA patients, changes were noted in several genes involved in modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, and catalase. Changes were also observed in genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, and the cell cycle such as cell division cycle 25B, signaling lymphocyte activating molecule (SLAM), calgizzarin S100A11, B-cell translocation gene, Src-like adapter protein (SLAP), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2. These overnight changes in OSA patients are suggestive of activation of several mechanisms to modulate, and adapt to, increased ROS developing in response to the frequent episodes of intermittent hypoxia.

  5. Modified Interim Mandibular Advancement (MIMA) Appliance for Symptomatic Correction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rajkumar; Singh, Harpreet; Mishra, Harsh Ashok; Gupta, Ankur

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a chronic, progressive, multifactorial, life-threatening disorder that causes significant impact on patient's life. Patients with OSA [Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI)>30] who cannot tolerate Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy or are not surgical candidates may benefit from oral appliances. This paper describes interim appliance devised from existing Hawley's retainer in patients with OSA. A 38-year-old man of athletic built with history of orthodontic treatment six months back due to esthetic concerns and wearing upper Hawley's retainer, reported with chief complaint of frequent nocturnal awakening along with excessive daytime somnolence. Based on diagnostic aids, he was diagnosed with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with severe mandibular retrusion. Sleep test revealed AHI score of 34, suggestive of severe OSA. With ENT and Oral surgeon concurrence, mandibular advancement of 7mm with Bilateral Sagital Split Osteotomy (BSSO) with distraction was contemplated as a viable functional and curative stable treatment plan. Because of non-adherence and non-compliance with CPAP therapy and on request of patient, an interim anterior positioning appliance was devised to facilitate comfortable sound sleep till the time surgery is impending. After three months of wearing this customized appliance, improved quality of sleep was discernible; both subjectively as reported by patient and objectively using sleep test (AHI=9.8). PMID:27656589

  6. Clinical Effect of Surgical Correction for Nasal Pathology on the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that relief of nasal obstruction in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) would lead to reduce OSA severity and to discuss the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of nasal surgery as a treatment modality for OSA. Study Design Twenty-five subjects who had reduced patency of nasal cavity and narrowing of retroglossal or retropalatal airways were diagnosed with OSA and underwent nasal surgery, such as septoplasty or turbinoplasty to correct nasal pathologies. The effect of the surgery on nasal patency was quantified by measuring minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) using acoustic rhinometry. The watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured before and after nasal surgery. Results The present study shows that the AHI and RDI decreased significantly and the lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time rose after nasal surgery in 25 OSA subjects. In addition, a reduction in subjective symptoms was observed in subjects and mean MCA increased after nasal surgery. Fourteen subjects were classified as responders and 11 subjects as non-responders. Responders showed considerable improvement of their subjective symptoms and the AHI and RDI were significantly lower after surgery. We found that the changes between pre- and post-operative AHI and RDI values were minimal in 11 non-responders. However, daytime somnolence and REM sleep time improved after nasal surgery in non-responders. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that the surgical treatment of nasal pathology improves nasal airway patency and reduces OSA severity in 56% subjects. Furthermore, correction of nasal pathology appears to result in improved sleep quality in both responder and non-responders OSA subjects. PMID:24896824

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Impaired Exercise Capacity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Beitler, Jeremy R.; Awad, Karim M.; Bakker, Jessie P.; Edwards, Bradley A.; DeYoung, Pam; Djonlagic, Ina; Forman, Daniel E.; Quan, Stuart F.; Malhotra, Atul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Because cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) aids in prognostic assessment of heart disease, there is rising interest in its utility for cardiovascular risk stratification of patients with OSA. However, the relationship between OSA and exercise capacity is unclear. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that OSA is associated with impaired exercise capacity. Methods: Fifteen subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA (apneahypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15 events/h) and 19 controls with mild or no OSA (AHI < 15 events/h) were enrolled. Subjects underwent standard polysomnography to determine AHI and exclude other sleep disorders. Resting metabolic rate was measured via indirect calorimetry, followed by maximum, symptom-limited CPET. Subjects completed a sleep diary and physical activity questionnaire characterizing behaviors in the week prior to testing. Results: Percent predicted peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was significantly lower in OSA subjects than controls (70.1% ± 17.5% vs 83.8% ± 13.9%; p = 0.02). Each 1-unit increase in log-transformed AHI was associated with a decrease in percent predicted peak O2 of 3.20 (95% CI 0.53-5.88; p = 0.02). After adjusting for baseline differences, this association remained significant (p < 0.01). AHI alone explained 16.1% of the variability observed in percent predicted peak O2 (p = 0.02). Conclusions: OSA is associated with impaired exercise capacity. Further study is needed to evaluate the utility of CPET for prognostic assessment of patients with OSA. Citation: Beitler JR, Awad KM, Bakker JP, Edwards BA, DeYoung P, Djonlagic I, Forman DE, Quan SF, Malhotra A. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with impaired exercise capacity: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1199-1204. PMID:25325602

  8. Remotely Controlled Mandibular Protrusion during Sleep Predicts Therapeutic Success with Oral Appliances in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Remmers, John; Charkhandeh, Shouresh; Grosse, Joshua; Topor, Zbigniew; Brant, Rollin; Santosham, Peter; Bruehlmann, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: The present study addresses the need for a validated tool that prospectively identifies favorable candidates for oral appliance therapy in treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of a mandibular titration study, performed with a remotely controlled mandibular positioner (RCMP), to predict treatment outcome with a mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) and to predict an effective target protrusive position (ETPP). Design: A prospective, blinded, outcome study. Setting: Standard clinical care with tests performed in the polysomnographic laboratory. Participants: Consecutive patients (n = 67) recruited from a sleep center or a dental practice using broad inclusion criteria (age 21-80 years; AHI > 10/h; BMI < 40 kg/m2). Interventions: Therapeutic outcome with a mandibular protruding oral appliance was predicted following a mandibular protrusive titration study in the polysomnographic laboratory using a remotely controlled positioner and prospectively established predictive rules. An ETPP was also prospectively determined for participants predicted to be therapeutically successful with MRA therapy. All participants were blindly treated with a MRA, at either the predicted ETPP or a sham position, and therapeutic outcome was compared against prediction. Measurements and Results: At the final protrusive position, standard predictive parameters (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values) showed statistically significant predictive accuracy (P < 0.05) in the range of 83% to 94%. The predicted ETPP provided an efficacious protrusive position in 87% of participants predicted to be therapeutically successful with MRA therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Using prospectively established rules for interpreting the polysomnographic data, the mandibular titration study predicted mandibular repositioning appliance therapeutic outcome with significant accuracy, particularly with regard to

  9. Mandibular advancement oral appliance therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea: effect on awake calibre of the velopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, C; Love, L; Peat, D; Fleetham, J; Lowe, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The mechanisms of action of oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea are poorly understood. Videoendoscopy of the upper airway was used during wakefulness to examine whether the changes in pharyngeal dimensions produced by a mandibular advancement oral appliance are related to the improvement in the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea.
METHODS—Fifteen patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea (median (range) apnoea index (AI) 4(0-38)/h, apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) 28(9-45)/h) underwent overnight polysomnography and imaging of the upper airway before and after insertion of the oral appliance. Images were obtained in the hypopharynx, oropharynx, and velopharynx at end tidal expiration during quiet nasal breathing in the supine position. The cross sectional area and diameters of the upper airway were measured using image processing software with an intraluminal catheter as a linear calibration.
RESULTS—AI decreased to a median (range) value of 0 (0-6)/h (p<0.01) and AHI to 8 (1-28)/h (p<0.001) following insertion of the oral appliance. The median (95% confidence interval) cross sectional area of the upper airway increased by 18% (3 to 35) (p<0.02) in the hypopharynx and by 25% (11 to 69) (p<0.005) in the velopharynx, but not significantly in the oropharynx. Although in general the shape of the pharynx did not change following insertion of the oral appliance, the lateral diameter of the velopharynx increased to a greater extent than the anteroposterior diameter. Following insertion of the oral appliance the reduction in AHI was related to the increase in cross sectional area of the velopharynx (p= 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—A mandibular advancement oral appliance increases the cross sectional area of the upper airway during wakefulness, particularly in the velopharynx. Assuming this effect on upper airway calibre is not eliminated by sleep, mandibular advancement oral appliances may reduce the severity of obstructive sleep

  10. Increased phosphatidylcholine concentration in saliva reduces surface tension and improves airway patency in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Kawai, M; Kirkness, J P; Yamamura, S; Imaizumi, K; Yoshimine, H; Oi, K; Ayuse, T

    2013-10-01

    Surface tension may have important role for maintaining upper airway patency in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. It has been demonstrated that elevated surface tension increases the pharyngeal pressures required to reopen the upper airway following collapse. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between the concentrations of endogenous surfactants in saliva with indices of upper airway patency in obstructive sleep apnoea. We studied 20 male patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (age: 60·3 ± 10·3 years; BMI: 25·9 ± 4·6 kg m(-2); AHI: 41·5 ± 18·6 events h(-1)). We obtained 100-μL samples of saliva prior to overnight polysomnographic sleep study. The surface tension was determined using the pull-off force technique. The concentration of phosphatidylcholine (PC) was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Regression analysis between apnoea, hypopnoea and apnoea/hypopnoea indices and the ratio of hypopnoea time/total disordered breathing time (HT/DBT) with surface tension and PC were performed. P < 0·05 was considered significant. The mean saliva surface tension was 48·8 ± 8·0 mN m(-1) and PC concentration was 15·7 ± 11·1 nM. The surface tension was negatively correlated with the PC concentration (r = -0·48, P = 0·03). There was a significant positive correlation between surface tension with hypopnoea index (r = 0·50, P = 0·03) and HT/DBT (r = 0·6, P = 0·006), but not apnoea or apnoea/hypopnoea index (P > 0·11). Similarly, PC concentration negatively correlated with hypopnoea index (r = -0·45, P = 0·04) and HT/DBT (r = -0·6, P = 0·004), but not with apnoea index or AHI (P > 0·08). An increase in salivary PC concentration may increase upper airway patency in obstructive sleep apnoea through a reduction in surface tension.

  11. Zolpidem Induced Sleep-related Eating and Complex Behaviors in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Min; Shin, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Zolpidem-induced sleep-related complex behaviors (SRCB) with anterograde amnesia have been reported. We describe herein a case in which the development of zolpidem-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) and SRCB was strongly suspected. A 71-year-old Korean male was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry due to his repetitive SRED and SRCB with anterograde amnesia, which he reported as having occurred since taking zolpidem. The patient also had restless legs syndrome (RLS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). His baseline serum iron level was low at admission. Zolpidem discontinuation resulted in the immediate disappearance of his SRED, but did not affect his RLS symptoms. These symptoms rapidly improved after adding a single i.v. iron injection once daily, and so he was discharged to day-clinic treatment. These findings indicate that zolpidem can induce SRCB. Although the pathophysiology of zolpidem-induced SRED and other SRCB remains unclear, clinicians should carefully monitor for the potential induction of complex behaviors associated with zolpidem in patients with comorbid RLS or OSA. PMID:27489385

  12. Zolpidem Induced Sleep-related Eating and Complex Behaviors in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Restless Legs Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Min; Shin, Hyun-Woo

    2016-08-31

    Zolpidem-induced sleep-related complex behaviors (SRCB) with anterograde amnesia have been reported. We describe herein a case in which the development of zolpidem-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) and SRCB was strongly suspected. A 71-year-old Korean male was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry due to his repetitive SRED and SRCB with anterograde amnesia, which he reported as having occurred since taking zolpidem. The patient also had restless legs syndrome (RLS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). His baseline serum iron level was low at admission. Zolpidem discontinuation resulted in the immediate disappearance of his SRED, but did not affect his RLS symptoms. These symptoms rapidly improved after adding a single i.v. iron injection once daily, and so he was discharged to day-clinic treatment. These findings indicate that zolpidem can induce SRCB. Although the pathophysiology of zolpidem-induced SRED and other SRCB remains unclear, clinicians should carefully monitor for the potential induction of complex behaviors associated with zolpidem in patients with comorbid RLS or OSA. PMID:27489385

  13. A longitudinal assessment of sleep variables during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Vanaparthy, R; Mota, P; Khan, R; Ehsan, M; Qureshi, A; ZuWallack, R; Leidy, N

    2015-11-01

    Although sleep disturbance is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), relatively little is known on the effect of the exacerbation on sleep quality. Accordingly, we longitudinally assessed sleep variables during exacerbations and clinical stability. This is a sub-study of a larger observational analysis. Inclusion criteria were clinically stable COPD and two or more clinical exacerbations in the preceding 12 months. Patients were followed for approximately 6 months and during this time the following were recorded daily: (1) COPD exacerbations, which were determined in two ways, clinically and symptom defined using the exacerbations of chronic pulmonary disease tool (EXACT); (2) daytime sleepiness, which was measured using the Stanford Sleepiness Scale; (3) subjective awakenings, which was measured from a sleep diary; and (4) sleep duration, efficiency, and objective awakenings, which was measured from actigraphy. These variables for exacerbation and non-exacerbation days were compared. Seventeen patients (9 male, age 63 ± 12 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 52 ± 20%) entered data over 135 ± 18 days. During this time, 15 patients had 27 symptom-defined exacerbations and 8 had 9 clinically reported exacerbations. Symptom-defined exacerbation days were 26% of the total study days. More daytime sleepiness, decreased total sleep time (TST), and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) were present during exacerbations compared with clinical stability (p < 0.001). These disturbances tended to be greater during clinically reported exacerbations than during unreported events (p < 0.05). Increased daytime sleepiness, less TST, and poorer SE are present during COPD exacerbations.

  14. A systematic review of pharmacists performing obstructive sleep apnea screening services.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Michael J; Warning, William J

    2016-08-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic sleep disorder associated with a varying degree of upper airway collapse during sleep. Left untreated, OSA can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease including risk of stroke and increased mortality. Pharmacists are the most accessible and underutilized healthcare resource in the community and can have a significant role in screening patients for OSA. The result may include an expedited referral to the patient's general practitioners or sleep disorder specialists for further diagnostic assessment and therapeutic intervention. Aim of the review The primary aim of this review was to identify the current published evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services in a community pharmacy setting. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify evidence of pharmacists providing OSA screening services. The literature search including five databases [PubMed, (1946-January 2015), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2015), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar] with search terms of ("pharmacist or pharmacy") AND ("obstructive sleep apnea") AND ("sleep disorders") AND ("continuous positive airway pressure-CPAP") were used. Articles were limited to English and reported in humans. Results A total of seven publications (four Australia, two Switzerland and one France) were selected and evaluated. Pharmacists utilized validated screening tools in 6/7 (86 %) of clinical studies to assist in the identification of patients with sleep disorders in community pharmacies. A total of 1701 pharmacies encompassing 9177 patients were screened in the clinical studies. Pharmacists were able to identify between 21.4 and 67 % of patients that were at risk for developing OSA or required a referral to a general practitioner or sleep disorder specialist for further diagnostic testing. Conclusion Studies assessing the role

  15. Adult midgut malrotation presented with acute bowel obstruction and ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Akile; Uçar, Bercis İmge; Düzgün, Şükrü Aydın; Bayhan, Zülfü; Zeren, Sezgin; Yaylak, Faik; Şanal, Bekir; Bayhan, Nilüfer Araz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal malrotation refers to the partial or complete failure of rotation of midgut around the superior mesenteric vessels in embryonic life. Arrested midgut rotation results due to narrow-based mesentery and increases the risk of twisting midgut and subsequent obstruction and necrosis. Presentation of case 40 years old female patient admitted to emergency service with acute abdomen and computerized tomography scan showed dilated large and small intestine segments with air-fluid levels and twisted mesentery around superior mesenteric artery and vein indicating “whirpool sign”. Discussion Malrotation in adults is a rare cause of midgut volvulus as though it should be considered in differential diagnosis in patients presented with acute abdomen and intestinal ischemia. Even though clinical symptoms are obscure, adult patients usually present with vomiting and recurrent abdominal pain due to chronic partial obstruction. Contrast enhanced radiograph has been shown to be the most accurate method. Typical radiological signs are corkscrew sign, which is caused by the dilatation of various duodenal segments at different levels and the relocation of duodenojejunal junction due to jejunum folding. As malrotation commonly causes intestinal obstruction, patients deserve an elective laparotomy. Conclusion Malrotation should be considered in differential diagnosis in patients presented with acute abdomen and intestinal ischemia. Surgical intervention should be prompt to limit morbidity and mortality. PMID:27015011

  16. Inflammatory Markers and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Children: The NANOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Peris, Eduard; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Martinez, Mónica Gonzalez; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are common coexisting conditions associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state underlying some of the cognitive, metabolic, and cardiovascular morbidities. Aim. To examine the levels of inflammatory markers in obese community-dwelling children with OSA, as compared to no-OSA, and their association with clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Methods. In this cross-sectional, prospective multicenter study, healthy obese Spanish children (ages 4–15 years) were randomly selected and underwent nocturnal PSG followed by a morning fasting blood draw. Plasma samples were assayed for multiple inflammatory markers. Results. 204 children were enrolled in the study; 75 had OSA, defined by an obstructive respiratory disturbance index (RDI) of 3 events/hour total sleep time (TST). BMI, gender, and age were similar in OSA and no-OSA children. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in OSA children, with interleukin-6 concentrations being higher in moderate-severe OSA (i.e., AHI > 5/hrTST; P < 0.01), while MCP-1 levels were associated with more prolonged nocturnal hypercapnia (P < 0.001). Conclusion. IL-6, MCP-1, and PAI-1 are altered in the context of OSA among community-based obese children further reinforcing the proinflammatory effects of sleep disorders such as OSA. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01322763. PMID:24991089

  17. Memory monitoring and memory control in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Daurat, Agnès; Huet, Nathalie; Tiberge, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome exhibit memory deficit. The present study looked at whether this deficit is related to impaired memory monitoring and/or memory control. Here 25 patients and 26 healthy controls performed a paired-associate learning task. After participants had made a judgement of learning for each pair and performed an initial recall test they were free to restudy any items they wished, for as long or little as they wished, within a 5-minute period. They then performed a second recall test. Monitoring and control processes were assessed on the basis of judgements of learning, item selection, and study-time allocation. In spite of their memory impairment, patients accurately predicted their recall. For the restudy phase patients preferentially selected the judged-easy items, while controls selected the judged-difficult items. However, all the participants allocated more restudy time to the judged-difficult items than to the judged-easy ones. There were no significant correlations between memory performance, metamemory processes, and clinical measures (i.e., subjective sleepiness, subjective sleep quality, anxiety, and depression scores). Results suggested that both memory monitoring and memory control were preserved in our sample of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

  18. An Economic Evaluation of Home Versus Laboratory-Based Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Richard D.; Kapur, Vishesh K.; Redline-Bruch, Julie; Rueschman, Michael; Auckley, Dennis H.; Benca, Ruth M.; Foldvary-Schafer, Nancy R.; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis C.; Rosen, Carol L.; Redline, Susan; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We conducted an economic analysis of the HomePAP study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial that compared home-based versus laboratory-based testing for the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design: A cost-minimization analysis from the payer and provider perspectives was performed, given that 3-mo clinical outcomes were equivalent. Setting: Seven academic sleep centers. Participants: There were 373 subjects at high risk for moderate to severe OSA. Interventions: Subjects were randomized to either home-based limited channel portable monitoring followed by unattended autotitration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), versus a traditional pathway of in-laboratory sleep study and CPAP titration. Measurements and Results: From the payer perspective, per subject costs for the laboratory-based pathway were $1,840 (95% confidence interval [CI] $1,660, $2,015) compared to $1,575 (95% CI $1,439, $1,716) for the home-based pathway under the base case. Costs were $264 (95% CI $39, $496, P = 0.02) in favor of the home arm. From the provider perspective, per subject costs for the laboratory arm were $1,697 (95% CI $1,566, $1,826) compared to $1,736 (95% CI $1,621, $1,857) in the home arm, for a difference of $40 (95% CI −$213, $142, P = 0.66) in favor of the laboratory arm under the base case. The provider operating margin was $142 (95% CI $85, $202,P < 0.01) in the laboratory arm, compared to a loss of −$161 (95% CI −$202, −$120, P < 0.01) in the home arm. Conclusions: For payers, a home-based diagnostic pathway for obstructive sleep apnea with robust patient support incurs fewer costs than a laboratory-based pathway. For providers, costs are comparable if not higher, resulting in a negative operating margin. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00642486. Citation: Kim RD, Kapur VK, Redline-Bruch J, Rueschman M, Auckley DH, Benca RM, Foldvary-Schafer NR, Iber C, Zee PC, Rosen CL, Redline S, Ramsey SD. An economic

  19. Changes in REM-Sleep Percentage Over the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Judith A.; Janisse, James J.; Jenuwine, Elizabeth S.; Ager, Joel W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To resolve inconsistencies in previously reported changes in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep (REM%) over the adult lifespan and to identify gaps in available information about adults' REM sleep. Design: A research synthesis approach specifically designed to detect nonlinear change. Cubic B smoothing splines were fitted to scatterplots generated from reported means and variance for REM%, REM minutes, and total sleep time. Participants: 382 English-language research reports provided REM% values for 4171 subjects; REM minutes values for 2722 subjects; and values of total sleep time for 5037 subjects. Samples were composed of subjects described by authors as normal or healthy. Mean ages of samples ranged from 18.0 to 91.7 years. Setting: University research center. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Two coders extracted information. Intercoder reliability was above cutoffs for excellent. Authors often failed to describe screening procedures used to determine subjects' health status. Few results were reported separately for women. The functional relationship between age and REM% was essentially linear over much of the adult lifespan, decreasing about 0.6% per decade. The best estimate of when REM% ceased its small linear decline was the mid-70s, after which time a small increase in REM% was observed due to REM minutes increasing while total sleep time declined. Conclusions: Ability to detect both linear and nonlinear change in REM%, REM minutes, and total sleep time over the lifespan was useful for resolving inconsistent findings about the existence of changes in REM% with aging. This approach to research synthesis also facilitated identification of ages for which little normative information about REM sleep was available. Citation: Floyd JA; Janisse JJ; Jenuwine ES et al. Changes in REM-sleep percentage over the adult lifespan. SLEEP 2007;30(7):829-836. PMID:17682652

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder in the population—a review on the epidemiology of sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) defined at an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 was a mean of 22% (range, 9-37%) in men and 17% (range, 4-50%) in women in eleven published epidemiological studies published between 1993 and 2013. OSA with excessive daytime sleepiness occurred in 6% (range, 3-18%) of men and in 4% (range, 1-17%) of women. The prevalence increased with time and OSA was reported in 37% of men and in 50% of women in studies from 2008 and 2013 respectively. OSA is more prevalent in men than in women and increases with age and obesity. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also suggested as risk factors, but the results are conflicting. Excessive daytime sleepiness is suggested as the most important symptom of OSA, but only a fraction of subjects with AHI >5 report daytime sleepiness and one study did not find any relationship between daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea in women. Stroke and hypertension and coronary artery disease are associated with sleep apnea. Cross-sectional studies indicate an association between OSA and diabetes mellitus. Patients younger than 70 years run an increased risk of early death if they suffer from OSA. It is concluded that OSA is highly prevalent in the population. It is related to age and obesity. Only a part of subjects with OSA in the population have symptoms of daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of OSA has increased in epidemiological studies over time. Differences and the increase in prevalence of sleep apnea are probably due to different diagnostic equipment, definitions, study design and characteristics of included subjects including effects of the obesity epidemic. Cardiovascular disease, especially stroke is related to OSA, and subjects under the age of 70 run an increased risk of early death if they suffer from OSA. PMID:26380759

  1. Improvement in obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and management wait times: A retrospective analysis of home management pathway for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Samuel Alan; Skomro, Robert; Reid, John; Penz, Erika; Fenton, Mark; Gjevre, John; Cotton, David

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common condition within the Canadian population. The current gold standard for diagnosis and management of patients is in-laboratory (in-lab) polysomnography; however, the limited availability of testing options for patients has led to long wait times and increased disease burden within the population. The Sleep Research Laboratory in Saskatoon (Saskatchewan) implemented a home management program to run in parallel with the in-lab system several years ago in an effort to increase their capacity and reduce wait times. The present study was a retrospective analysis of all patients referred to the program between 2009 and 2012. The home management system has improved wait times by diagnosing and managing up to one-half of the referred patient population, reducing the wait for in-lab treatment from a median of 152 days in 2009 to 92 days in 2012 (P<0.0001). Moving forward, home management can provide a viable alternative to in-lab testing for patients who meet strict entry criteria, reducing the in-lab workload and, ultimately, reducing wait times.

  2. Obstructive Apnea Hypopnea Index Estimation by Analysis of Nocturnal Snoring Signals in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Israel, Nir; Tarasiuk, Ariel; Zigel, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: To develop a whole-night snore sounds analysis algorithm enabling estimation of obstructive apnea hypopnea index (AHIEST) among adult subjects. Design: Snore sounds were recorded using a directional condenser microphone placed 1 m above the bed. Acoustic features exploring intra-(mel- cepstability, pitch density) and inter-(running variance, apnea phase ratio, inter-event silence) snore properties were extracted and integrated to assess AHIEST. Setting: University-affiliated sleep-wake disorder center and biomedical signal processing laboratory. Patients: Ninety subjects (age 53 ± 13 years, BMI 31 ± 5 kg/m2) referred for polysomnography (PSG) diagnosis of OSA were prospectively and consecutively recruited. The system was trained and tested on 60 subjects. Validation was blindly performed on the additional 30 consecutive subjects. Measurements and Results: AHIEST correlated with AHI (AHIPSG; r2 = 0.81, P < 0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 85% and 92% for thresholds of 10 and 20 events/h, respectively, were obtained for OSA detection. Both Altman-Bland analysis and diagnostic agreement criteria revealed 80% and 83% agreements of AHIEST with AHIPSG, respectively. Conclusions: Acoustic analysis based on intra- and inter-snore properties can differentiate subjects according to AHI. An acoustic-based screening system may address the growing needs for reliable OSA screening tool. Further studies are needed to support these findings. Citation: Ben-Israel N; Tarasiuk A; Zigel Y. Obstructive apnea hypopnea index estimation by analysis of nocturnal snoring signals in adults. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1299–1305. PMID:22942509

  3. Complications of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea in school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinopoulou, Sofia; Gallagher, Paul; Elden, Lisa; Garetz, Susan L.; Mitchell, Ron B.; Redline, Susan; Rosen, Carol L.; Katz, Eliot S.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Amin, Raouf; Arens, Raanan; Paruthi, Shalini; Marcus, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenotonsillectomy is the treatment of choice for most children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but can lead to complications. Current guidelines recommend that high-risk children be hospitalized after adenotonsillectomy, but it is unclear which otherwise-healthy children will develop post-operative complications. We hypothesized that polysomnographic parameters would predict post-operative complications in children who participated in the Childhood AdenoTonsillectomy (CHAT) study. Methods Children in the CHAT study aged 5–9 years with apnea hypopnea index 2–30/hr or obstructive apnea index 1–20/hr without comorbidities other than obesity/asthma underwent adenotonsillectomy. Associations between demographic variables and surgical complications were examined with Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests. Polysomnographic parameters between subjects with/without complications were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Results Of the 221 children (median apnea hypopnea index 4.7/hr, range 1.2–27.7/hr; 31% obese), 16 (7%) children experienced complications. 3 (1.4%) children had respiratory complications including pulmonary edema, hypoxemia and bronchospasm. Thirteen (5.9%) had non-respiratory complications, including dehydration (4.5%), hemorrhage (2.3%) and fever (0.5%). There were no statistically significant associations between demographic parameters (gender, race, and obesity) or polysomnographic parameters (apnea hypopnea index, % total sleep time with SpO2<92%, SpO2 nadir, % sleep time with end-tidal CO2>50 Torr) and complications. Conclusions This study showed a low risk of post-adenotonsillectomy complications in school-aged healthy children with obstructive apnea although many children met published criteria for admission due to obesity, or polysomnographic severity. In this specific population, none of the polysomnographic or demographic parameters predicted post-operative complications. Further research could identify the patients at

  4. Assessment of Surgical Effects on Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gary C.; Koomullil, Roy P.; Ito, Yasushi; Shih, Alan M.; Sittitavornwong, Somsak; Waite, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is one of the most common sleep disorders. To treat patients with this health problem, it is important to detect the severity of this syndrome and occlusion sites in each patient. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that the cure of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by maxillomandibular advancement surgery can be predicted by analyzing the effect of anatomical airway changes on the pressure effort required for normal breathing using a high-fidelity, 3-D numerical model. The employed numerical model consists of: 1) 3-D upper airway geometry construction from patient-specific computed tomographic scans using an image segmentation technique, 2) mixed-element mesh generation of the numerically constructed airway geometry for discretizing the domain of interest, and 3) computational fluid dynamics simulations for predicting the flow field within the airway and the degree of severity of breathing obstruction. In the present study, both laminar and turbulent flow simulations were performed to predict the flow field in the upper airway of the selected patients before and after maxillomandibular advancement surgery. Patients of different body mass indices were also studied to assess their effects. The numerical results were analyzed to evaluate the pressure gradient along the upper airway. The magnitude of the pressure gradient is regarded as the pressure effort required for breathing, and the extent of reduction of the pressure effort is taken to measure the success of the surgery. The description of the employed numerical model, numerical results from simulations of various patients, and suggestion for future work are detailed in this paper. PMID:25530663

  5. Slow and fast changes in transmural pulmonary artery pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Marrone, O; Bonsignore, M R; Romano, S; Bonsignore, G

    1994-12-01

    Our purpose was to assess how pulmonary artery pressure changes in relation to hypoxia and oesophageal pressure during obstructive sleep apnoeas. Transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa,STM), oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) and oesophageal pressure were analysed in two samples of consecutive obstructive apnoeas in each of four patients. In the first samples (samples A; probably recorded during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep), SaO2 swings were small and repetitive. In the second samples (samples B; probably recorded during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep), they were large and more variable. Oesophageal pressure oscillated similarly in the two groups of samples. In all cases, transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure progressively increased throughout apnoeas, and subsequently decreased in the interapnoeic periods. However, both early and end-apnoeic transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure, remained stable in samples A; whilst they progressively increased in samples B. Transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure at the beginning of each apnoea was inversely correlated with SaO2 at the end of the preceding apnoea. These results suggest that transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure is influenced by SaO2, but does not vary at the same speed as SaO2. In all cases, beat-by-beat analysis showed, as expected, that the lower the oesophageal pressure, the higher the transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure however, at each oesophageal pressure level, transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure was more variable and higher, in samples B. In conclusion, transmural systolic pulmonary artery pressure in obstructive apnoeas shows rapid changes, which reflect oesophageal pressure variations, and slower changes, which are likely to be caused by SaO2. PMID:7713203

  6. The Effect of Body Position on Physiological Factors that Contribute to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Simon A.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Wellman, Andrew; Turton, Anthony; Skuza, Elizabeth M.; Berger, Philip J.; Hamilton, Garun S.

    2015-01-01

    Study objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) resolves in lateral sleep in 20% of patients. However, the effect of lateral positioning on factors contributing to OSA has not been studied. We aimed to measure the effect of lateral positioning on the key pathophysiological contributors to OSA including lung volume, passive airway anatomy/collapsibility, the ability of the airway to stiffen and dilate, ventilatory control instability (loop gain), and arousal threshold. Design: Non-randomized single arm observational study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients/participants: 20 (15M, 5F) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated severe OSA patients. Interventions: Supine vs. lateral position. Measurements: CPAP dial-downs performed during sleep to measure: (i) Veupnea: asleep ventilatory requirement, (ii) passive V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are quiescent, (iii) Varousal: ventilation at which respiratory arousals occur, (iv) active V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are activated during sleep, (v) loop gain: the ratio of the ventilatory drive response to a disturbance in ventilation, (vi) arousal threshold: level of ventilatory drive which leads to arousal, (vii) upper airway gain (UAG): ability of airway muscles to restore ventilation in response to increases in ventilatory drive, and (viii) pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit). Awake functional residual capacity (FRC) was also recorded. Results: Lateral positioning significantly increased passive V0 (0.33 ± 0.76L/min vs. 3.56 ± 2.94L/min, P < 0.001), active V0 (1.10 ± 1.97L/min vs. 4.71 ± 3.08L/min, P < 0.001), and FRC (1.31 ± 0.56 L vs. 1.42 ± 0.62 L, P = 0.046), and significantly decreased Pcrit (2.02 ± 2.55 cm H2O vs. −1.92 ± 3.87 cm H2O, P < 0.001). Loop gain, arousal threshold, Varousal, and UAG were not significantly altered. Conclusions: Lateral positioning significantly improves passive airway anatomy/collapsibility (passive V0, pharyngeal

  7. Associations between Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep Duration, and Abnormal Fasting Glucose. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Jia; Wang, Rui; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: No data exist as to the role of ethnicity in the associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), sleep duration, and metabolic dysfunction. Objectives: To examine links between OSA, objectively measured habitual sleep duration, and fasting glucose in U.S. ethnic groups. Methods: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a multisite community-based study that conducted polysomnography and wrist actigraphy. In 2,151 subjects (1,839 in fully adjusted models), the apnea–hypopnea index was used to classify OSA as none (0–4.9/h), mild (5–14.9/h), or moderate to severe (≥15/h). Actigraphic sleep duration was classified as short (≤5 h/night), intermediate (>5 and <8 h/night), or long (≥8 h/night). Subjects were classified as having normal fasting glucose (<100 mg/dl and no hypoglycemic medication use) or abnormal fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dl and/or hypoglycemic medication use). Measurements and Main Results: The sample was 45.8% male, age 68.5 ± 9.2 (mean ± SD) years, and 27.3% African American, 37.2% white, 11.8% Chinese, and 23.8% Hispanic. The prevalence of abnormal fasting glucose was 40.2%. Relative to subjects without apnea, moderate-to-severe OSA was significantly associated with abnormal fasting glucose in African Americans (odds ratio, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–4.08) and white participants (odds ratio, 2.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–6.75), but not among Chinese or Hispanic subjects, after adjusting for site, age, sex, waist circumference, and sleep duration (P = 0.06 for ethnicity-by-OSA severity interaction). In contrast, sleep duration was not significantly associated with abnormal fasting glucose after considering the influence of OSA. Conclusions: This large multiethnic study confirmed previous reports of an independent association between OSA and metabolic dysfunction, and suggested that this association may vary by ethnicity. PMID:26084035

  8. Consequences of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome on left ventricular geometry and diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Bodez, Diane; Damy, Thibaud; Soulat-Dufour, Laurie; Meuleman, Catherine; Cohen, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a frequent sleep disorder that is known to be an independent risk factor for arterial hypertension (AHT). Potential confounding factors associated with both OSAS and AHT, such as age, diabetes mellitus and obesity, have been explored extensively, and are considered as independent but additive factors. However, these factors are also contributors to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) and LV diastolic dysfunction, both of which are important causes of cardiovascular morbidity, and have been reported to be associated with OSAS for decades. In this review, we present an overview of how OSAS may promote changes in LV geometry and diastolic dysfunction through its best-known cardiovascular complication, arterial hypertension. We also summarize the epidemiological links between OSAS and LVH, outline diastolic dysfunction in OSAS patients, and try to highlight the mechanisms responsible, focusing on the effect of confounding factors. PMID:27344377

  9. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Leon; Goldberg, Shmuel; Shitrit, Michal; Picard, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last decade, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy has become an increasingly important and popular mode of noninvasive respiratory support. HFNC facilitates delivery of humidified and heated oxygen at a high flow rate and generates positive airway pressure. Methods: We present five cases of children with OSA without adenotonsillar hypertrophy who were treated with HFNC. Results: We demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in apnea-hypopnea index and nadir oxygen saturation in this small cohort. Conclusion: We present our successful experience of treating severe OSA with HFNC in the home setting. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether HFNC could be considered as an established alternative for CPAP in OSA in children Citation: Joseph L, Goldberg S, Shitrit M, Picard E. High-flow nasal cannula therapy for obstructive sleep apnea in children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(9):1007–1010. PMID:26094930

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Preethi; Greenberg, Harly

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is independently associated with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic risk in several large epidemiologic studies. OSA leads to several physiologic disturbances such as intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and increase in autonomic tone. These disturbances have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in animal and human studies. Studies also suggest a bidirectional relationship between OSA and T2DM whereby T2DM itself might contribute to the features of OSA. Moreover, successful treatment of OSA may reduce these risks, although this is controversial. The purpose of this article is to review 1) the links and bidirectional associations between OSA and T2DM; 2) the pathogenic mechanisms that might link these two disease states; 3) the role of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in improving glucose tolerance, sensitivity, and resistance; and 4) the implications for clinical practice. PMID:26491377

  11. Psychotic depression induced by Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS): a case reported.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Rey, María C; Sánchez-Muñoz, María; Gutiérrez-López, María I; Trujillo-Borrego, Alejandra; Sánchez-Bonome, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep disorder that is frequently associated with a large variety of conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular, neuropsychological or metabolic diseases. The most common and prominent symptoms of apnea is excessive diurnal drowsiness, as well asin addition to alterations of the memory and concentration, irritability, headache, and depression, among others. To date, no known studies have related OSAS with another type of more serious psychiatric disorder, such as psychotic symptoms. The case of a 51-year-old man who was diagnosed of SAOS after presenting psychotic and affective symptoms that did not respond to any medication is presentedreported. The treatment resulted in complete remission of the psychiatric symptoms mentioned.

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: An important piece in the puzzle of cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cátia; Santos, Beatriz; Severino, Davide; Cabanelas, Nuno; Peres, Marisa; Monteiro, Isabel; Leal, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a clinical entity characterized by recurring episodes of apnea and/or hypopnea during sleep, due to a total or partial collapse, respectively, of the upper airway. This collapse originates a set of pathophysiological changes that determine the appearance of several cardiovascular complications. OSA contributes for the development of hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias and coronary heart disease. Nowadays it is recognized to be an important public health problem, taking into account not just its repercussions but also its prevalence, since the main risk factor for the disease is obesity, a growing problem worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about OSA, as regards its definition, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, cardiovascular effects and treatment. PMID:25496654

  13. Management of severe obstructive sleep apnea using mandibular advancement devices with auto continuous positive airway pressures

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Dubey, Abhishek; Kant, Surya; Singh, Balendra Pratap

    2015-01-01

    The use of continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) is considered standard treatment of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Treatment of the disease poses a great challenge not only for its diagnostic purpose but also for its treatment part. In about 29-83% of the patients, treatment is difficult because of non-compliance resulting due to high pressures, air leaks and other related issues. In such situations, alternative methods of treatment need to be looked for so as to ascertain better management. Mandibular advancement devices along with CPAP may show better treatment outcome in specific situations. PMID:25814802

  14. Residual Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea After Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Optimization: Causes and Management.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Julia L; Serinel, Yasmina; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2016-09-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but it is also common in the general population. When sleepiness remains after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA, comorbid conditions or permanent brain injury before CPAP therapy may be the cause of the residual sleepiness. There is currently no broad approach to treating residual EDS in patients with OSA. Individual assessment must be made of comorbid conditions and medications, and of lifestyle factors that may be contributing to the sleepiness. Modafinil and armodafinil are the only pharmacologic agents indicated for residual sleepiness in these patients. PMID:27542881

  15. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with mandibular advancement appliance over prostheses: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Thais Moura; Colen, Sâmia; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Rossi, Rowdley; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Ferraz, Otávio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) is recommended for mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), primary snoring and as a secondary option for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, because it has better adherence and acceptance. However, edentulous patients do not have supports to hold the MAD. This study aimed to present a possible to OSA treatment with MAD in over complete upper and partial lower dentures. The patient, a 38-year-old female with mild OSA, was treated with a MAD. The respiratory parameter, such as apnea–hypopnea index, arousal index and oxyhemoglobin saturation was improved after treatment. PMID:26483952

  16. Morbidly obese patient with obstructive sleep apnoea for major spine surgery: An anaesthetic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Redhu, Shruti; Prakash, Prabhakar Suman; Jain, Virendra; Dash, Hari Hara

    2016-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients with clinical features of obstructive sleep apnoea can present a myriad of challenges to the anaesthesiologists which must be addressed to minimise the perioperative risks. Initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy early in the pre- and post-operative period along with appropriate anaesthetic planning is of paramount importance in such patients. This case report emphasises the usefulness of CPAP therapy, even for a short duration, to minimise morbidity, improve recovery and hasten early discharge from the hospital after major surgery. PMID:27330205

  17. Upper airway surgery of obstructive sleep apnea in pycnodysostosis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Testani, Elisa; Scarano, Emanuele; Leoni, Chiara; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Colicchio, Salvatore; Gnoni, Valentina; Vollono, Catello; Zampino, Giuseppe; Paludetti, Gaetano; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a mutation in the cathepsin K gene, which causes a decrease of the bone turnover; a review of the literature suggests that pycnodysostosis is frequently associated with severe respiratory obstruction, which needs surgical treatment. The aim of this paper is to describe the surgical treatment of a 3½-year-old girl affected by Pycnodysostosis complicated by a severe sleep-related respiratory disorder. The surgical treatment, consisting of adenotonsillectomy and palatoplasty, resulted in a striking amelioration of respiratory parameters and increased posterior airway space, and allowed the patient to avoid tracheotomy while awaiting for maxillo-mandibular surgery.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnoea in the elderly: role of continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Chiner, Eusebi; Hernández, Luis; Cortes, Jose Pascual; Catalán, Pablo; Ponce, Silvia; Diaz, Jose Ramón; Pastor, Ester; Vigil, Laura; Carmona, Carmen; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Aizpuru, Felipe; Lloberes, Patricia; Mayos, Mercedes; Selma, Maria José; Cifuentes, Jose Fernando; Muñoz, Alvaro

    2015-07-01

    Almost all the information about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) comes from clinical trials involving only middle-aged patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of CPAP treatment in elderly patients with severe OSA on clinical, quality-of-life and neurocognitive spheres. We performed an open-label, randomised, multicentre clinical trial in a consecutive clinical cohort of 224 elderly (≥70 years old) patients with confirmed severe OSA (apnoea-hypopnea index ≥30) randomised to receive CPAP (n=115) or no CPAP (n=109) for 3 months. A sleep study was performed by either full polysomnography or respiratory polygraphy. CPAP titration was performed by an autoCPAP device. The primary endpoint was quality of life (Quebec Sleep Questionnaire) and secondary endpoints included sleep-related symptoms, presence of anxiety/depression, office-based blood pressure and some neurocognitive tests. The mean±sd age was 75.5±3.9 years. The CPAP group achieved a greater improvement in all quality-of-life domains (p<0.001; effect size: 0.41-0.98), sleep-related symptoms (p<0.001; effect size 0.31-0.91) as well as anxiety (p=0.016; effect size 0.51) and depression (p<0.001; effect size: 0.28) indexes and some neurocognitive tests (digit symbol test (p=0.047; effect size: 0.20) and Trail Making Test A (p=0.029; effect size: 0.44)) in an intention-to-treat analysis. In conclusion, CPAP treatment resulted in an improvement in quality of life, sleep-related symptoms, anxiety and depression indexes and some neurocognitive aspects in elderly people with severe OSA.

  19. Sleep, Memory, and Aging: The Link Between Slow-Wave Sleep and Episodic Memory Changes from Younger to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Scullin, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    In younger adults, recently learned episodic memories are reactivated and consolidated during slow-wave sleep (SWS). Interestingly, SWS declines across the lifespan but little research has examined whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation occurs in older adults. In the present study, younger adults and healthy older adults encoded word pairs in the morning or evening and then returned following a sleep or no-sleep interval. Sleep stage scoring was obtained using a home sleep-stage monitoring system. In the younger adult group, there was a positive correlation between word retention and amount of SWS. In contrast, the older adults demonstrated no significant positive correlations, but one significant negative correlation, between memory and SWS. These findings suggest that the link between episodic memory and SWS that is typically observed in younger adults may be weakened or otherwise changed in the healthy elderly. PMID:22708533

  20. Role of nocturnal rostral fluid shift in the pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    White, Laura H; Bradley, T Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is common in the general population and increases the risk of motor vehicle accidents due to hypersomnolence from sleep disruption, and risk of cardiovascular diseases owing to repetitive hypoxia, sympathetic nervous system activation, and systemic inflammation. In contrast, central sleep apnoea (CSA) is rare in the general po