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Sample records for adult onset alcohol

  1. Alcohol-Induced Developmental Origins of Adult-Onset Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Emilie R; Washburn, Shannon E; Golding, Michael C; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-07-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure may impair growth, development, and function of multiple organ systems and is encompassed by the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Research has so far focused on the mechanisms, prevention, and diagnosis of FASD, while the risk for adult-onset chronic diseases in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero is not well explored. David Barker's hypothesis on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) suggests that insults to the milieu of the developing fetus program it for adult development of chronic diseases. In the 25 years since the introduction of this hypothesis, epidemiological and animal model studies have made significant advancements in identifying in utero developmental origins of chronic adult-onset diseases affecting cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and psychobehavioral systems. Teratogen exposure is an established programming agent for adult diseases, and recent studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure correlates with adult onset of neurobehavioral deficits, cardiovascular disease, endocrine dysfunction, and nutrient homeostasis instability, warranting additional investigation of alcohol-induced DOHaD, as well as patient follow-up well into adulthood for affected individuals. In utero epigenetic alterations during critical periods of methylation are a key potential mechanism for programming and susceptibility of adult-onset chronic diseases, with imprinted genes affecting metabolism being critical targets. Additional studies in epidemiology, phenotypic characterization in response to timing, dose, and duration of exposure, as well as elucidation of mechanisms underlying FASD-DOHaD inter relation, are thus needed to clinically define chronic disease associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. These studies are critical to establish interventional strategies that decrease incidence of these adult-onset diseases and promote healthier aging among individuals affected with FASD. PMID:27254466

  2. Alcohol-Induced Developmental Origins of Adult-Onset Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Emilie R; Washburn, Shannon E; Golding, Michael C; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-07-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure may impair growth, development, and function of multiple organ systems and is encompassed by the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Research has so far focused on the mechanisms, prevention, and diagnosis of FASD, while the risk for adult-onset chronic diseases in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero is not well explored. David Barker's hypothesis on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) suggests that insults to the milieu of the developing fetus program it for adult development of chronic diseases. In the 25 years since the introduction of this hypothesis, epidemiological and animal model studies have made significant advancements in identifying in utero developmental origins of chronic adult-onset diseases affecting cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and psychobehavioral systems. Teratogen exposure is an established programming agent for adult diseases, and recent studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure correlates with adult onset of neurobehavioral deficits, cardiovascular disease, endocrine dysfunction, and nutrient homeostasis instability, warranting additional investigation of alcohol-induced DOHaD, as well as patient follow-up well into adulthood for affected individuals. In utero epigenetic alterations during critical periods of methylation are a key potential mechanism for programming and susceptibility of adult-onset chronic diseases, with imprinted genes affecting metabolism being critical targets. Additional studies in epidemiology, phenotypic characterization in response to timing, dose, and duration of exposure, as well as elucidation of mechanisms underlying FASD-DOHaD inter relation, are thus needed to clinically define chronic disease associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. These studies are critical to establish interventional strategies that decrease incidence of these adult-onset diseases and promote healthier aging among individuals affected with FASD.

  3. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Chorlian, David B.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Discrete time survival analysis (DTSA) was used to assess the age-specific association of event related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2938 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens. PMID:23963516

  4. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-09-01

    Discrete time survival analysis was used to assess the age-specific association of event-related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2,938 adolescents and young adults ages 12-25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens.

  5. Adult onset retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  6. Adult onset retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  7. Adult-Onset Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Khera, Mohit; Broderick, Gregory A; Carson, Culley C; Dobs, Adrian S; Faraday, Martha M; Goldstein, Irwin; Hakim, Lawrence S; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Kacker, Ravi; Köhler, Tobias S; Mills, Jesse N; Miner, Martin; Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein; Seftel, Allen D; Sharlip, Ira D; Winters, Stephen J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-07-01

    In August 2015, an expert colloquium commissioned by the Sexual Medicine Society of North America (SMSNA) convened in Washington, DC, to discuss the common clinical scenario of men who present with low testosterone (T) and associated signs and symptoms accompanied by low or normal gonadotropin levels. This syndrome is not classical primary (testicular failure) or secondary (pituitary or hypothalamic failure) hypogonadism because it may have elements of both presentations. The panel designated this syndrome adult-onset hypogonadism (AOH) because it occurs commonly in middle-age and older men. The SMSNA is a not-for-profit society established in 1994 to promote, encourage, and support the highest standards of practice, research, education, and ethics in the study of human sexual function and dysfunction. The panel consisted of 17 experts in men's health, sexual medicine, urology, endocrinology, and methodology. Participants declared potential conflicts of interest and were SMSNA members and nonmembers. The panel deliberated regarding a diagnostic process to document signs and symptoms of AOH, the rationale for T therapy, and a monitoring protocol for T-treated patients. The evaluation and management of hypogonadal syndromes have been addressed in recent publications (ie, the Endocrine Society, the American Urological Association, and the International Society for Sexual Medicine). The primary purpose of this document was to support health care professionals in the development of a deeper understanding of AOH, particularly in how it differs from classical primary and secondary hypogonadism, and to provide a conceptual framework to guide its diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. PMID:27343020

  8. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  9. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  10. Differences in early onset alcohol use and heavy drinking among persons with childhood and adulthood trauma.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Angela E; Ana, Elizabeth J Santa; Saladin, Michael E; McRae, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2007-01-01

    We examined predictors for age at onset of first alcohol use and onset of heaviest alcohol use among men (n = 43) and women (n = 46) with alcohol dependence and PTSD, PTSD only, alcohol dependence only, and controls, with a particular focus on individuals with child versus adult trauma. Using analysis of variance procedures, results showed differences in onset of first alcohol use and heaviest drinking between childhood and adulthood trauma victims. These preliminary results indicate that behavioral mechanisms associated with alcohol use patterns between individuals with childhood and adulthood trauma are dissimilar, suggesting greater psychopathological consequences for individuals with childhood trauma.

  11. Adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Sola, J.; Casademont, J.; Grau, J. M.; Graus, F.; Cardellach, F.; Pedrol, E.; Urbano-Marquez, A.

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are polymorphic entities which may affect many organs and systems. Skeletal muscle involvement is frequent in the context of systemic mitochondrial disease, but adult-onset pure mitochondrial myopathy appears to be rare. We report 3 patients with progressive skeletal mitochondrial myopathy starting in adult age. In all cases, the proximal myopathy was the only clinical feature. Mitochondrial pathology was confirmed by evidence of ragged-red fibres in muscle histochemistry, an abnormal mitochondrial morphology in electron microscopy and by exclusion of other underlying diseases. No deletions of mitochondrial DNA were found. We emphasize the need to look for a mitochondrial disorder in some non-specific myopathies starting in adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1589382

  12. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  13. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  14. [Adult-onset rare diseases].

    PubMed

    Pfliegler, György; Kovács, Erzsébet; Kovács, György; Urbán, Krisztián; Nagy, Valéria; Brúgós, Boglárka

    2014-03-01

    The present paper is focusing on rare diseases manifesting in late childhood or adulthood. A part of these syndromes are not of genetic origin, such as relatively or absolutely rare infections, autoimmune diseases, tumours, or diseases due to rare environmental toxic agents. In addition, even a large proportion of genetic disorders may develop in adulthood or may have adult forms as well, affecting are almost each medical specialization. Examples are storage disorders (e.g. adult form of Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher-disease), enzyme deficiencies (e.g. ornithin-transcarbamylase deficiency of the urea cycle disorders), rare thrombophilias (e.g. homozygous factor V. Leiden mutation, antithrombin deficiency), or some rare monogenic disorders such as Huntington-chorea and many others. It is now generally accepted that at least half of the 6-8000 "rare diseases" belong either to the scope of adult-care (e.g. internal medicine, neurology), or to "age-neutral" specialities such as ophtalmology, dermatology etc.). PMID:24566697

  15. Age of Alcohol Drinking Onset Precursors and the Mediation of Alcohol Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnne; Ham-Rowbottom, Kathleen A.; Emptage, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    This study explored early alcohol drinking onset (ADO), its precursors, and the mechanisms by which it leads to later alcohol disorder. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with ADO items from 1982 and 1983 and alcohol symptoms from 1989 and 1994. Drinking began earlier for respondents who were male, younger, non-Hispanic,…

  16. Onset to First Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Network Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Light, John M.; Greenan, Charlotte C.; Rusby, Julie C.; Nies, Kimberley M.; Snijders, Tom A.B.

    2013-01-01

    A novel version of Snijders’s stochastic actor-based modeling (SABM) framework is applied to model the diffusion of first alcohol use through middle school-wide longitudinal networks of early adolescents, aged approximately 11–14 years. Models couple a standard SABM for friendship network evolution with a proportional hazard model for first alcohol use. Meta-analysis of individual models for 12 schools found significant effects for friendship selection based on the same alcohol use status, and for an increased rate of onset to first use based on exposure to already-onset peers. Onset rate was greater at higher grades and among participants who spent more unsupervised time with friends. Neither selection nor exposure effects interacted with grade, adult supervision, or gender. PMID:24039379

  17. Onset to First Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Network Diffusion Model.

    PubMed

    Light, John M; Greenan, Charlotte C; Rusby, Julie C; Nies, Kimberley M; Snijders, Tom A B

    2013-09-01

    A novel version of Snijders's stochastic actor-based modeling (SABM) framework is applied to model the diffusion of first alcohol use through middle school-wide longitudinal networks of early adolescents, aged approximately 11-14 years. Models couple a standard SABM for friendship network evolution with a proportional hazard model for first alcohol use. Meta-analysis of individual models for 12 schools found significant effects for friendship selection based on the same alcohol use status, and for an increased rate of onset to first use based on exposure to already-onset peers. Onset rate was greater at higher grades and among participants who spent more unsupervised time with friends. Neither selection nor exposure effects interacted with grade, adult supervision, or gender.

  18. Adult onset retinoblastoma: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Raj, Amit; Arya, Sudesh Kumar; Punia, Rajpal Singh; Kohli, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor of childhood. About 95% of retinoblastoma cases are diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Not more than 30 cases of Adult-onset retinoblastoma have been reported in literature. A 32 year old male presented with a painful blind eye. There was sudden loss of vision accompanied by severe pain and redness in right eye about 1 year ago, for which some surgery was done with neither a gain in vision nor any relief from pain. Then he was put on maximum tolerable medical therapy, later cyclocryotherapy was done. Now he presented to us with complains of extreme pain and bleeding from right eye since 2 days. There is no history of any ocular trauma. Right eye had no perception of light & showed anterior staphyloma with perforation. Right eye evisceration was done & material sent for histopathological examination, which revealed an adult-onset retinoblastoma. CECT scan revealed thickening of optic nerve throughout its entire length with contrast enhancement. He was further taken up for enucleation of residual sclera with maximum optic nerve stump removal to reconfirm the diagnosis. Histopathological examination revealed tumor deposits present in orbital soft tissue, resection margins and optic nerve cut end.Retinoblastoma presenting in adult age creates a diagnostic dilemma because of its low frequency and atypical features. We want to highlight the importance of high clinical suspicion and imaging modalities before taking any patient for evisceration with unexplained vision loss. One should send the eviscerated material for histopathological examination. PMID:26709674

  19. Alcohol-Specific Parenting as a Mechanism of Parental Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorder Risk on Adolescent Alcohol Use Onset

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the current study was to examine three dimensions of alcohol-specific parenting (anti-alcohol parenting strategies, parental legitimacy in regulating adolescent drinking, and parental disclosure of negative alcohol experiences) as mechanisms in the prospective relations between parental drinking and alcohol use disorder (recovered, current, and never diagnosed) and adolescent alcohol use initiation. Method: Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism. Structural equation modeling was used to test a maternal model (n = 268 adolescents and their mothers) and a paternal model (n = 204 adolescents and their fathers) of alcohol-specific parenting. Results: Results indicated that higher levels of drinking among mothers and current alcohol use disorder among fathers were related to more frequent parental disclosure of personal negative experiences with alcohol. Maternal disclosure of negative alcohol experiences mediated the effect of maternal drinking on adolescent onset of alcohol use such that more disclosure predicted a greater likelihood of adolescent drinking initiation at follow-up over and above general parenting. In addition, currently alcoholic mothers were perceived as having less legitimate authority to regulate adolescent drinking, and low levels of legitimacy among fathers was predictive of drinking onset among adolescents. Conclusions: Alcohol-specific parenting is a distinct and influential predictor of adolescent alcohol use initiation that is partially shaped by parents’ own drinking experiences. Moreover, parental conversations about their own personal experiences with alcohol may not represent a form of parent–child communication about drinking that deters adolescent drinking. PMID:23948527

  20. Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Adlerian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw-Bellemare, Robyne; Mosak, Harold H.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that children of alcoholics use common maladaptively successful methods to achieve their survival-oriented fictive goals and carry these behaviors with them into adulthood. Discusses insidious and enduring effects of alcoholism on lifestyle of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs). Describes developmental legacy of alcoholism as legacy of…

  1. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  2. Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Genetic factors, atopy, and early respiratory tract infections are well-recognized factors predisposing to childhood-onset asthma. Adult-onset asthma is more often associated with obesity, smoking, depression, or other life-style or environmental factors, even though genetic factors and respiratory tract infections may also play a role in adult-onset disease. Adult-onset asthma is characterized by absence of atopy and is often severe requiring treatment with high dose of inhaled and/or oral steroids. Variety of risk factors and nonatopic nature of adult-onset disease suggest that variety of mechanisms is involved in the disease pathogenesis and that these mechanisms differ from the pathobiology of childhood-onset asthma with prevailing Th2 airway inflammation. Recognition of the mechanisms and mediators that drive the adult-onset disease helps to develop novel strategies for the treatment. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma and to concentrate on the mechanisms and mediators involved in establishing adult-onset asthma in response to specific risk factors. We also discuss the involvement of these mechanisms in the currently recognized phenotypes of adult-onset asthma. PMID:26538828

  3. Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Genetic factors, atopy, and early respiratory tract infections are well-recognized factors predisposing to childhood-onset asthma. Adult-onset asthma is more often associated with obesity, smoking, depression, or other life-style or environmental factors, even though genetic factors and respiratory tract infections may also play a role in adult-onset disease. Adult-onset asthma is characterized by absence of atopy and is often severe requiring treatment with high dose of inhaled and/or oral steroids. Variety of risk factors and nonatopic nature of adult-onset disease suggest that variety of mechanisms is involved in the disease pathogenesis and that these mechanisms differ from the pathobiology of childhood-onset asthma with prevailing Th2 airway inflammation. Recognition of the mechanisms and mediators that drive the adult-onset disease helps to develop novel strategies for the treatment. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma and to concentrate on the mechanisms and mediators involved in establishing adult-onset asthma in response to specific risk factors. We also discuss the involvement of these mechanisms in the currently recognized phenotypes of adult-onset asthma. PMID:26538828

  4. Career Indecision in Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorupa, Jessica; Agresti, Albert A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes a sample of community college students to investigate differences in career indecision of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of non-alcoholics. Although both groups were similar in their overall levels of career indecision, there were significant relationships among irrational thinking, trait anxiety, and career…

  5. Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: Cortical Brain Abnormalities as Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Deanna; Lerch, Jason; Shaw, Philip; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare but severe form of the adult onset disorder. While structural brain imaging studies show robust, widespread, and progressive gray matter loss in COS during adolescence, there have been no longitudinal studies of sufficient duration to examine comparability with the more common adult onset…

  6. Substance use among ADHD adults: implications of late onset and subthreshold diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Wilens, Timothy E; Petty, Carter; Antshel, Kevin; Spencer, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosing ADHD in adults is difficult when the diagnostician cannot establish an onset prior to the DSM-IV criterion of age seven or if the number of symptoms does not achieve the DSM threshold for diagnosis. These diagnostic issues are an even larger concern for clinicians faced with adults with substance use disorders (SUD). The present study compared four groups of adults: full ADHD subjects who met all DSM-IV criteria for childhood onset ADHD, late onset ADHD subjects who met all criteria except the age at onset criterion, subthreshold ADHD subjects who did not meet full symptom criteria, and non-ADHD subjects who did not meet any of the above criteria. Diagnoses were by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Drug Use Severity Index (DUSI) was used for self-report of substance use. Cigarette and marijuana use was significantly greater in all ADHD groups relative to non-ADHD controls. Although usage rates of other drugs failed to reach significance, the ADHD groups were more likely to have used each drug (except alcohol) compared with the non-ADHD group. The late onset and full ADHD groups were more likely to have endorsed ever having a problem due to use of cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana and reported more trouble resisting use of drugs or alcohol. The full ADHD group was more likely than the other groups to have reported "getting high" as their reason for using their preferred drug. Adults with ADHD have elevated rates of substance use and related impairment. Data about late onset ADHD provides further support for the idea that the DSM-IV age at onset criterion is too stringent. In contrast, subthreshold ADHD seems to be a milder form of the disorder, or perhaps a heterogeneous group of true ADHD cases and false positives.

  7. Personality Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jean; Blocher, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Investigated personality characteristics of adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) by using the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test and the Personal Orientation Inventory with undergraduate and graduate college students (N=41). Results indicated there were no significant differences between the ACAs and nonACAs in identifying feelings, expressing…

  8. Risk Factors among Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Webster, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Family patterns of dysfunction that often reinforce maladaptive behaviors and cognitions of children growing up in an alcoholic home environment are often difficult to overcome. Adjustment issues associated with being an adult child of an alcoholic (ACOA) are presented along with factors that have been identified as being important in developing…

  9. Communication Apprehension among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Randi; And Others

    Noting that children of alcoholic parents come from home settings similar to those identified as potential sources of communication apprehension, a study compared communication apprehension scores of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) with those of non-ACoAs. Subjects, 85 men and 109 women, were drawn from a local church, undergraduate and…

  10. Is Adolescent-Onset First-Episode Psychosis Different from Adult Onset?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballageer, Trevor; Malla, Ashok; Manchanda, Rahul; Takhar, Jatinder; Haricharan, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether first-episode psychosis patients with onset during adolescence (ages 15-18) differ significantly from those with young-adult onset (ages 19-30). Method: Consecutive patients presenting with first-episode psychosis (N = 242) were assessed for demographic and illness characteristics such as duration of untreated…

  11. The adult children of alcoholics trauma inventory.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49). PMID:21391809

  12. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis.

  13. [Nicotine abusing in adult children of alcoholics].

    PubMed

    Suwała, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACA) are people who were raised in families abusing alcohol where one of the parents (or both) was addicted to alcohol and where alcohol was the main problem affecting all areas of life. It is estimated that in Poland adult population consists of ACA in 35-40%. Those people represent higher risk of addiction to psychoactive substances, most of all alcohol, but also nicotine. Higher addiction propensity among ACA is a result of their personality's features consisting so called "ACA syndrome". The goal of the study was to determine nicotine addiction frequency and assessment of self-propensity to addiction in chosen ACA group, gathered in three abstinent clubs for alcoholics in Warsaw. Nicotine addiction frequency among the study group members was 58.4% and alcohol addiction frequency was 21.2%. Strong nicotine addiction represented 49.2% of smokers. Men more often than women were addicted to nicotine (0.67 vs. 0.52), on the other hand women were more often than men alcohol addicts (0.18 vs. 0.15). All smokers and nicotine addicts (assessment by HIS test) were aware of their addiction. In relation to initial addiction diagnosis by CAGE test regarded higher percentage of people than it resulted from study group self-assessment (21.2% vs. 16.8). Professional psychotherapy for ACA did not influence substantially the nicotine addiction frequency in the study group. PMID:21360917

  14. Associated Markers for Adult-onset Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Ramses-Bedolla-Pulido, Tonatiuh; Fabiola-García-Padilla, Lourdes; Hernández-Colín, Dante

    2015-10-01

    The clinical behavior of asthma varies with age at onset. This study was undertaken to identify associated markers of adult-onset allergic asthma (age ≥20 years).This cross-sectional study compared two groups: 58 patients with asthma onset at ≥20 years and 66 with onset at ≥20 years. They were compared depending on results of clinical history, and body mass index (BMI), aeroallergen sensitization, total serum IgE, eosinophil count, asthma control test, and asthma severity level.Ages at first asthma episode were 10.0 ± 6.6 and 33.4 ± 10.5 (p<0.001) in the <20 and ≥20 group, respectively. BMI was higher in adult asthmatic subjects (29.8 versus 27.1, P=0.017), but BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) was not associated with asthma onset in ≥20 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.759 to 3.211; p= 0.227). After multivariate analysis, allergic rhinitis and IgE ≥150 IU/mL were negatively correlated with asthma onset in ≥20 years old (OR adjusted [ORa] = 0.255, 95% CI 0.078 to 0.837, P= 0.024, and ORa =0.385, 95% CI 0.175 to 0.849, p= 0.018, respectively).Adult-onset allergic asthma was not different from early-onset asthma. PMID:26742445

  15. Associated Markers for Adult-onset Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Ramses-Bedolla-Pulido, Tonatiuh; Fabiola-García-Padilla, Lourdes; Hernández-Colín, Dante

    2015-10-01

    The clinical behavior of asthma varies with age at onset. This study was undertaken to identify associated markers of adult-onset allergic asthma (age ≥20 years).This cross-sectional study compared two groups: 58 patients with asthma onset at ≥20 years and 66 with onset at ≥20 years. They were compared depending on results of clinical history, and body mass index (BMI), aeroallergen sensitization, total serum IgE, eosinophil count, asthma control test, and asthma severity level.Ages at first asthma episode were 10.0 ± 6.6 and 33.4 ± 10.5 (p<0.001) in the <20 and ≥20 group, respectively. BMI was higher in adult asthmatic subjects (29.8 versus 27.1, P=0.017), but BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) was not associated with asthma onset in ≥20 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.759 to 3.211; p= 0.227). After multivariate analysis, allergic rhinitis and IgE ≥150 IU/mL were negatively correlated with asthma onset in ≥20 years old (OR adjusted [ORa] = 0.255, 95% CI 0.078 to 0.837, P= 0.024, and ORa =0.385, 95% CI 0.175 to 0.849, p= 0.018, respectively).Adult-onset allergic asthma was not different from early-onset asthma.

  16. Differences Between Early and Late Onset Adult Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is unclear, whether age-of-onset identifies subgroups of depression. Aim: To assess the clinical presentation of depression with onset in the early adult age (18-30 years) as compared to depression with later onset (31-70 years). Method: A total number of 301 patients with first episode depression were systematically recruited. Characteristics including psychiatric co-morbidity, personality disorders and traits, stressful life events prior to onset, family history, and treatment outcome were assessed by structured interviews and compared by chi-square tests for categorical data, t-tests for continuous parametric data and Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous nonparametric data. Logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to adjust the analyses for potentially confounding variables. Results: Patients with early onset of depression were characterised by a higher prevalence of co-morbid personality disorders, higher levels of neuroticism, and a lower prevalence of stressful life events preceding onset compared to patients with later age-of-onset. There were no differences in severity of the depressive episode, treatment outcome or family loading of psychiatric illness. Conclusion: Early adult onset of depression is associated with co-morbid personality deviances, whereas late onset is associated with environmental risk factors. PMID:21866230

  17. Fetal programming, epigenetics, and adult onset disease.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    How early life events program adult disease is undergoing a transition from the broad field of maternal malnutrition to the current relevant issues of food deserts and prematurity. Although many adult diseases and morbidities associate with various early life events and programming, the morbidities of insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and obesity seem to be common end points of many early life events despite potential confounders.

  18. Personality Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Richard W.; Lyon, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted study to validate characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) as presented by Woititz (1983). Findings from college students self-reported to be ACOAs, non-ACOAs, or individuals who had participated in ACOA treatment group were compared on 12 of Woititz's 13 characteristics using objective personality measures. No significant…

  19. Adult Children of Alcoholics: A Counseling Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert L.; Phyfer, Ann Quinn

    1988-01-01

    Notes that adult children of alcoholics attending college present unique problems and opportunities to the college counselor. Presents a treatment model for serving such students which identifies four survivor roles and their manifestations, and suggests counseling techniques for each role. (Author/NB)

  20. Correlates of Later-onset Cannabis Use in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Much of the research surrounding correlates of cannabis initiation has focused on adolescent and young adult populations. However, there is growing evidence that cannabis onset occurs later in life as well and little is known of the risk and protective influences that are associated with late-onset cannabis initiation. Methods We used data on 34,653 individuals that participated in both the first wave and the 3-year follow-up (3YFU) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between cannabis initiation at 3YFU and socio-demographic, religious/pro-social and psychiatric measures. Analyses were also conducted in age bands to further distinguish across the lifespan. Results Of the 27,467 lifetime abstainers at wave 1, 509 had initiated cannabis use at 3YFU. Consistent associations between divorce, religious attendance, volunteer/community service, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence and cannabis initiation were noted in the full sample and across age-bands. Conclusions Religious and pro-social activities are negatively associated with late-onset cannabis onset while divorce and alcohol and nicotine-related problems are positively associated with later onset. PMID:19632792

  1. Different Phenotypic and Genotypic Presentations in Alcohol Dependence: Age at Onset Matters*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chu; Prescott, Carol A.; Walsh, Dermot; Patterson, Diana G.; Riley, Brien P.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several theoretical typology models have been proposed to classify alcoholism into more homogeneous subtypes using various criteria, for which age at onset of alcohol dependence is shared across many models. We investigated the evidence for the distinction between early- versus late-onset alcoholism by examining relevant phenotypic and genotypic variables. Method: Data are from 1,248 individuals with alcohol dependence, who were interviewed to collect detailed clinical information. Early versus late onset of alcohol dependence was defined by the age at onset of 22 years. Odds ratio (OR) and Cohen's d were calculated as effect size for comparisons of clinical features between the two groups. We adjusted interviewed age and gender in logistic regression models. Case-control genetic analyses were conducted for the association between HTR1B, SLC6A4, DRD2, and OPRμ1 genes and subgroups of alcohol dependence using a sample of 530 controls screened for alcohol problems. Results: Early-onset alcoholism exhibited significantly (p < .01) different clinical characteristics from late-onset alcoholism, including higher severity in alcohol dependence symptoms (d = 0.22) and maximum drinking quantity within 24 hours (d = 0.40), more rapid progression from regular drinking to meet alcohol dependence diagnosis (d = 1.73), higher expectancies for alcohol (d = 0.22−0.47), more comorbidity with externalizing disorders (ORs = 2.8−2.9), and greater prevalence of family alcohol use problems (d = 0.26−0.43). In addition, markers in the HTR1B and OPRμ1 genes showed genetic associations with subgroups of alcohol dependence (ORs = 1.5−2.4). Conclusions: Our findings support that subgroups of alcohol dependence defined by onset age have phenotypic and genetic differences. The early-onset subgroup had more severe features for almost every aspect we examined. Coupled with genetic association findings, age at onset of alcohol dependence may serve as a simple but important

  2. Etiopathogenesis and Therapeutic Approach to Adult Onset Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sarabjit; Verma, Poonam; Sangwan, Ankita; Dayal, Surabhi; Jain, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is usually considered as a skin disorder that primarily affects adolescents reaching a peak at the age of 14–17 years in females and 16–19 years in males. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that a significant number of female patients aged >25 years experience acne. As it is regarded as a disease of teenagers, adults are more apprehensive and experience social anxiety. Hence, adult onset acne has become a matter of concern. PMID:27512185

  3. Etiopathogenesis and Therapeutic Approach to Adult Onset Acne.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sarabjit; Verma, Poonam; Sangwan, Ankita; Dayal, Surabhi; Jain, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is usually considered as a skin disorder that primarily affects adolescents reaching a peak at the age of 14-17 years in females and 16-19 years in males. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that a significant number of female patients aged >25 years experience acne. As it is regarded as a disease of teenagers, adults are more apprehensive and experience social anxiety. Hence, adult onset acne has become a matter of concern. PMID:27512185

  4. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  5. A Comparison of African-American and Caucasian Women Adult Children of Alcoholics and Non Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Shiela; McDermott, Diane

    Alcoholism is a disease that has been shown to affect not only the alcoholic but also the family of the alcoholic. The research on Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) reveals that the effects of parental alcoholism are not something that is eradicated once the child leaves home. This study examined the empirical evidence for characteristics of…

  6. Adult-onset laryngomalacia: case reports and review of management.

    PubMed

    Hey, Shi Ying; Oozeer, Nashreen Banon; Robertson, Stuart; MacKenzie, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    Laryngomalacia is a dynamic airway condition characterised by inward collapse of flaccid supraglottic structures during inspiration. Although the most common cause of stridor in the paediatric population, adult-onset laryngomalacia remains a rare entity and its management, challenging. Two cases of adult-onset laryngomalacia are reported. A review of the English literature is performed and additional publications identified by hand-searching relevant papers; 13 case reports/series comprising 28 cases of adult-onset laryngomalacia were identified, divided into two main groups: idiopathic (6/28) and acquired (22/28). The aetiology of the acquired form includes neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Reported therapeutic measures used are laser supraglottoplasty, epiglottopexy, partial epiglottidectomy, defunctioning tracheostomy and intubation whilst correcting the underlying cause. The majority of patients only required one therapeutic procedure (follow-up of 2-24 months). A strong index of suspicion is required to diagnose adult-onset laryngomalacia aided by in-office laryngoscopy. The rarity of this condition prevents management-based randomised controlled trials. PMID:24615649

  7. Clinical profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Huib; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B.; Eichhorn, Edwin; Reitsma, Bennie H.; Bel, Elisabeth H.D.; ten Brinke, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma is increasingly recognised as a severe and difficult-to-treat subtype of asthma. In clinical practice, early recognition of patients with this asthma subtype is important because it may have treatment implications. Therefore, physicians need to know the distinct characteristics of this asthma phenotype. The objective of the present study was to determine the characteristic profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma. 130 patients with adult-onset (>18 years of age) asthma and high blood eosinophil counts (≥0.3×109 L−1) were compared with 361 adult-onset asthma patients with low (<0.3×109 L−1) blood eosinophils. Measurements included a series of clinical, functional and imaging parameters. Patients with high blood eosinophils were more often male, had less well controlled asthma and higher exacerbation rates, despite the use of higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids. They had higher levels of total IgE without more sensitisation to common inhaled allergens. In addition, these patients had worse lung function, and more often showed fixed airflow limitation, air trapping, nasal polyposis and abnormalities on sinus computed tomography scanning. Chronic rhinosinusitis, air trapping and male sex were three independent factors associated with blood eosinophilia (adjusted OR 3.8 (95% CI 1.7–8.1), 3.0 (95% CI 1.1–8.1) and 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.4), respectively). Patients with adult-onset asthma with elevated blood eosinophils exhibit a distinct profile, which can readily be recognised in clinical practice. PMID:27730197

  8. A Long-Term Longitudinal Examination of the Effect of Early Onset of Alcohol and Drug Use on Later Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Finan, Laura J.; Schulz, Jessica; Hesselbrock, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background Early onset of alcohol use has been linked to later alcohol problems in adulthood. Currently, it is not clear whether early onset of marijuana and tobacco use similarly predicts alcohol problems. Moreover, most studies examining the effect of early substance use onset on later problems only have followed youth into their early 20s. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to examine whether early onset of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use predicts alcohol problems beyond the transition to adulthood. Methods The sample included 225 15-19 year old youth (60% girls; 62% Caucasian) who were surveyed in 1993-1998 (Time 1), 1998–2003 (Time 2), and 2003-2007 (Time 3). Participants reported their age of onset for regular drinking, tobacco use, and marijuana use. At each time of measurement, they also completed surveys relating to their alcohol use and abuse. Results Participants with an earlier age of onset of drinking regularly scored higher on the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and drank more frequently to get high and drunk throughout their twenties. Tobacco use onset and marijuana use onset were not associated with later alcohol use or abuse. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that the relationship between the onset of substance use and later substance abuse may be substance specific. Of note, early onset of regular drinking was associated with alcohol problems during adulthood, underscoring the importance of delaying the onset of regular alcohol use among youth. PMID:25671782

  9. Age at Onset of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorder: Time-trend Study in Patients Seeking De-addiction Services in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Unnikrishnan Reghukumaran; Vidhukumar, K.; Prabhakaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Declining age at onset of alcohol consumption over years has been one of the alarming findings in the epidemiology of alcoholism. The study was done to examine whether there was a decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder in subjects categorized as birth cohorts over the last 60 years seeking de-addiction services from a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A time-trend study, based on data collected from records, was done among 700 randomly selected subjects seeking de-addiction services. The study was done in a Government Medical College. Besides birth year, family history of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric comorbidity were the main independent variables studied. Trend was tested by linear regression. Results: There was a significant linear decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder. The mean age at onset of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder declined from 24 to 17 years and 46 to 21 years, respectively, from the pre-1950 birth cohort to the post-1985 birth cohort. Surprisingly, there was a plateau for mean age at onset of alcohol use during 1960s. The trend was significant even after adjusting for variables related to age at onset of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: The trend of decreasing age at onset of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder over time has policy implications. Further studies are needed for exploring mediating or causal factors for the decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder. PMID:27570342

  10. Adult-onset bulbar ptosis in Joubert syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Benjamin; Levine, Johanan; Le, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a case of adult-onset bulbar ptosis in a patient with Joubert syndrome. Joubert syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with malformations in cerebellum and brainstem. Many ocular abnormalities have been noted in Joubert syndrome, but the association of this syndrome with adult-onset ptosis has not been described to date. This 24-year-old Joubert patient developed a cerebrospinal fluid cyst in her midbrain. She had signs of bilateral third nerve palsy and abducens palsy in the left eye. The bilateral central third nerve palsy causing functional blindness secondary to severe bilateral levator palsy was treated successfully with silicone sling frontalis suspension, as the seventh nerve nucleus was not involved. PMID:22291457

  11. Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.

    2010-01-01

    Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive. PMID:20623001

  12. Adult-Onset Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy Accompanied by Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Yusuke; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Kusakari, Yoshiyuki; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-01-01

    Lipodystrophy is a group of metabolic disorders, possibly caused by autoimmune disease. In this report, we describe a case of adult-onset acquired partial lipodystrophy accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis without a family history. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed dense infiltration of IL-27-producing cells as well as MMP-7-and MMP-28-expressing cells, both of which have been reported to facilitate the development of autoimmune disease. Our present case might suggest possible mechanisms for acquired partial lipodystrophy. PMID:26034476

  13. Distal and Proximal Religiosity as Protective Factors for Adolescent and Emerging Adult Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Wachholtz, Amy; Stone, Rosalie Torres

    2015-01-01

    Data from emerging adults (ages 18–29, N = 900) in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Study was used to examine the influence of childhood and emerging adult religiosity and religious-based decision-making, and childhood adversity, on alcohol use. Childhood religiosity was protective against early alcohol use and progression to later abuse or dependence, but did not significantly offset the influence of childhood adversity on early patterns of heavy drinking in adjusted logistic regression models. Religiosity in emerging adulthood was negatively associated with alcohol use disorders. Protective associations for religiosity varied by gender, ethnicity and childhood adversity histories. Higher religiosity may be protective against early onset alcohol use and later development of alcohol problems, thus, should be considered in prevention programming for youth, particularly in faith-based settings. Mental health providers should allow for integration of clients’ religiosity and spirituality beliefs and practices in treatment settings if clients indicate such interest. PMID:26146565

  14. Coats’ disease of adult-onset in 48 eyes

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Ekta; Rishi, Pukhraj; Appukuttan, Bindu; Uparkar, Mahesh; Sharma, Tarun; Gopal, Lingam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coats’ disease diagnosed in adulthood is an idiopathic, retinal exudative vascular disease without an inciting factor and has retinal features different from the childhood disease. Aim: To describe clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of eyes with Coats’ disease first diagnosed in patients 35 years or older. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients first diagnosed with Coats’ disease at the age of 35 years or more at a tertiary eye care center between January 1995 and 2012. Eyes with retinal exudation or Coats’-like response from secondary causes were excluded. Results: Forty-five of 646 patients (7%) diagnosed with Coats’ disease had adult-onset disease. Mean age at presentation was 47 years. Systemic hypertension was the most common (22%) systemic association and decreased vision the predominant presenting feature (83%). Localized (<6 clock h) presentation (74%) was unique to adults as against diffuse involvement (69%) in children (P < 0.001). Eyes were treated with laser photocoagulation 29 (60%), cryotherapy (4%), or both (2%) with surgical intervention in three (6%) eyes. Following treatment eight (35%) eyes improved, 11 (48%) eyes were stable while four (12%) eyes worsened due to complications. Conclusion: Adult-onset Coats’ disease has less extensive involvement, more benign natural course, and a more favorable treatment outcome as against the childhood-onset disease. The bilateral presentation emphasizes the need for regular follow-up to detect possible future involvement of the fellow eye. PMID:27609165

  15. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  16. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: promiscuous drug, wanton effects.

    PubMed

    Geil, Chelsea R; Hayes, Dayna M; McClain, Justin A; Liput, Daniel J; Marshall, S Alex; Chen, Kevin Y; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche.

  17. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    The concept of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) has received wide public recognition and acceptance. An ACoA is defined as any adult who, as a child, was reared by one or two alcoholic parents. To date research has not sufficiently addressed the many questions generated by the grass roots movement, such as whether or not adult children of…

  18. Office Work Exposures and Adult-Onset Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Background Office exposures have been linked to symptoms of sick building syndrome, but their relation to the development of asthma has not been studied previously. These exposures have increasing importance because an increasing proportion of the workforce is working in office environments. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the relations of exposure to carbonless copy paper (CCP), paper dust, and fumes from photocopiers and printers to adult-onset asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based incident case–control study of adults 21–63 years of age living in the Pirkanmaa District in South Finland. All new clinically diagnosed cases (n = 521) of asthma were recruited during a 3-year study period. A random sample of the source population formed the controls (n = 1,016). This part focused on 133 cases and 316 controls who were office workers according to their current occupation classified by the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations. All participants answered a questionnaire on health, smoking, occupation, and exposures at work and home. Subjects with previous asthma were excluded. Results Exposures to paper dust [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–3.10] and CCP (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.03–2.66) were related to significantly increased risk of adult-onset asthma. An exposure–response relation was observed between exposure to paper dust and risk of asthma. Conclusions This study provides new evidence that exposures to paper dust and CCP in office work are related to increased risk of adult-onset asthma. Reduction of these exposures could prevent asthma in office workers. Clinicians seeing asthma patients should be aware of this link to office exposures. PMID:17637914

  19. New onset of idiopathic bilateral ear tics in an adult.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Amit; Shrestha, Rabin

    2009-04-01

    Tic disorders are commonly considered to be childhood syndromes. Newly presenting tic disorders during adulthood are uncommon and mostly described in relation to an acquired brain lesion or as incidental tics, particularly in context with other neurological or psychiatric diseases. Tic disorder involving the ears is extremely uncommon with only few studies in English literature. In the present case, we describe an adult patient with new-onset idiopathic tics disorder involving both ears, causing social embarrassment. In addition, our patient had recent onset of the tics without any childhood or family history of tic disorders. The single most important component of management is an accurate diagnosis. At the same time, tics should be differentiated from other movement disorders such as chorea, stereotypy, and dystonias.

  20. Adult-Onset Still's Disease: From Pathophysiology to Targeted Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Mavragani, Clio P.; Spyridakis, Evangelos G.; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder affecting primarily young individuals. The diagnosis is primarily clinical and necessitates the exclusion of a wide range of mimicking disorders. Given the lack of solid data in regard to the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms, treatment of AOSD has been for years largely empirical. Recent advances have revealed a pivotal role of several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in disease pathogenesis, giving rise to the development of new targeted therapies aiming at optimal disease control. PMID:22792508

  1. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  2. Prenatal alcohol exposure selectively enhances young adult perceived pleasantness of alcohol odors.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., "pleasantness") to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  3. Group Therapy for Adult Children of Alcoholics: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corazzini, John G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses survival roles adopted by children growing up in families where alcohol is abused, relating them to birth order, and emphasizing their maladaptivity for later adult interactions. Presents case studies of two common roles of adult children of alcoholics (ACAs), those of hero and scapegoat, and demonstrates how ACAs interact in a mixed,…

  4. Traumatic Symptomatology Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Webster, Raymond E.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses traumatic experience symptomatology, resiliency factors, and stress among young adults who had experienced alcohol within their family of origin. Results indicated adult children of alcoholics had more self-reported stress, more difficulty initiating the use of mediating factors in response to life events, and more symptoms of personal…

  5. Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

    When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

  6. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  7. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  8. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  9. Comparing illness presentation, treatment and functioning between patients with adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Christy Lai-Ming; Li, Adrienne Wing-Yee; Leung, Chung-Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry Kit-Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2014-12-30

    Studies have shown that early- and adult-onset schizophrenia patients differ in pre-morbid traits, illness presentation, psychopathology, and prognosis. We aimed to compare adult-onset patients (age range 26-55 years) with an adolescent-onset cohort (15-25 years) in demographics, illness presentation and functioning at baseline. Participants were from two territory-wide early intervention services for adolescent-onset (n=671) and adult-onset psychosis patients (n=360) in Hong Kong. The adolescent-onset cohort had their initial psychotic episode from 2001-2003; retrospective data collection was done through systematic case note review. The adult-onset cohort was recruited for a larger interventional study from 2009-2011; information was collected via face-to-face interviews. Adult-onset psychosis was significantly associated with more females, more smokers, more non-local birth, more full-time employment, better functioning, poorer medication adherence, more psychiatric hospitalization and fewer with schizophrenia than adolescent-onset psychosis (mean age: 20.4). The effect sizes were small, except for medication adherence where a robust effect was found. No group difference in DUP was found. The finding that adult-onset patients had better functioning challenges the view that adolescent- and adult-onset psychoses share a similar prognostic trajectory. Implications for adapting intervention processes for adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis are discussed.

  10. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  11. Syndrome Analysis: Chronic Alcoholism in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendorf, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Provides outline narrative of most possible outcomes of regular heavy alcohol use, regular alcohol abuse, or chronic alcoholism. A systems analysis approach is used to expose conditions that may result when a human organism is subjected to excessive and chronic alcohol consumption. Such an approach illustrates the detrimental effects which alcohol…

  12. Adult Onset Vitiligo: Multivariate Analysis Suggests the Need for a Thyroid Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, L.; Cammi, A.; Dragoni, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are limited epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of age at onset on disease features in vitiligo. Objectives. To identify factors associated with adult onset vitiligo in comparison with childhood onset vitiligo. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively collected medical records of 191 patients. Such records included clinical examination, personal and familial medical history, laboratory evaluations, concomitant vitiligo treatment and drug assumption. Results. 123 patients with a disease onset after the age of 40 (adult onset vitiligo) were compared with 68 patients who developed vitiligo before the age of 12 (childhood onset vitiligo). Multivariate analysis revealed that personal history of thyroid diseases (P = 0.04; OR 0.4), stress at onset (P = 0.002; OR = 0.34), personal history of autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) (P = 0.003; OR = 0.23), and thyroid nodules (P = 0.001; OR 0.90) were independently associated with adult onset vitiligo, whereas family history of dermatological diseases (P = 0.003; OR = 2.87) and Koebner phenomenon (P < 0.001; OR = 4.73) with childhood onset vitiligo. Moreover, in the adult onset group, concomitant thyroid disease preceded vitiligo in a statistically significant number of patients (P = 0.014). Conclusions. Childhood onset and adult onset vitiligo have different clinical features. In particular, ATD and thyroid nodules were significantly associated with adult onset vitiligo, suggesting that a thyroid screening should be recommended in this group of patients. PMID:27747240

  13. Efficacy of Anakinra in Refractory Adult-Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Sanjuán, Francisco; Blanco, Ricardo; Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Castañeda, Santos; Olivé, Alejandro; Riveros, Anne; Velloso-Feijoo, María.L.; Narváez, Javier; Jiménez-Moleón, Inmaculada; Maiz-Alonso, Olga; Ordóñez, Carmen; Bernal, José A.; Hernández, María V.; Sifuentes-Giraldo, Walter A.; Gómez-Arango, Catalina; Galíndez-Agirregoikoa, Eva; Blanco-Madrigal, Juan; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera; del Blanco-Barnusell, Jordi; De Dios, Juan R.; Moreno, Mireia; Fiter, Jordi; Riscos, Marina de los; Carreira, Patricia; Rodriguez-Valls, María J.; González-Vela, M. Carmen; Calvo-Río, Vanesa; Loricera, Javier; Palmou-Fontana, Natalia; Pina, Trinitario; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is often refractory to standard therapy. Anakinra (ANK), an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, has demonstrated efficacy in single cases and small series of AOSD. We assessed the efficacy of ANK in a series of AOSD patients. Multicenter retrospective open-label study. ANK was used due to lack of efficacy to standard synthetic immunosuppressive drugs and in some cases also to at least 1 biologic agent. Forty-one patients (26 women/15 men) were recruited. They had a mean age of 34.4 ± 14 years and a median [interquartile range (IQR)] AOSD duration of 3.5 [2–6] years before ANK onset. At that time the most common clinical features were joint manifestations 87.8%, fever 78%, and cutaneous rash 58.5%. ANK yielded rapid and maintained clinical and laboratory improvement. After 1 year of therapy, the frequency of joint and cutaneous manifestations had decreased to 41.5% and to 7.3% respectively, fever from 78% to 14.6%, anemia from 56.1% to 9.8%, and lymphadenopathy from 26.8% to 4.9%. A dramatic improvement of laboratory parameters was also achieved. The median [IQR] prednisone dose was also reduced from 20 [11.3–47.5] mg/day at ANK onset to 5 [0–10] at 12 months. After a median [IQR] follow-up of 16 [5–50] months, the most important side effects were cutaneous manifestations (n = 8), mild leukopenia (n = 3), myopathy (n = 1), and infections (n = 5). ANK is associated with rapid and maintained clinical and laboratory improvement, even in nonresponders to other biologic agents. However, joint manifestations are more refractory than the systemic manifestations. PMID:26426623

  14. Adult-onset hypothyroidism in a lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Greer, Leah L; Troutman, Mitchell; McCracken, Malcolm D; Ramsay, Edward C

    2003-09-01

    A 19-yr-old female lynx (Lynx canadensis) presented for an acute onset of anorexia and reluctance to move. Physical examination, radiography, hematology, and serum biochemistry revealed evidence of renal failure, presumptive uremic gastritis, chronic intervertebral disk disease at T13-L1, and markedly low serum levels of total thyroxine (1.54 nmol/L) and total triixodothyronine (0.55 nmol/L). Twenty-five hours after its original presentation, the lynx exhibited horizontal nystagmus, which has been suggested as a clinical sign associated with hypothyroidism in domestic dogs. The lynx was euthanatized because of poor prognosis, and medical management concerns related to its chronic renal failure. Necropsy examination substantiated that the lynx had true hypothyroidism with 60-90% of the thyroid gland replaced with adipose tissue. Although feline adult-onset hypothyroidism may have low incidence, it should still be considered as a cause of nonspecific signs of disease in cats, as well as signs suggestive of hypothyroidism. Routine monitoring of baseline exotic felid thyroid levels throughout life would help to identify normal values and diagnose a potential disease that has obscure clinical signs.

  15. Bone Characteristics and Their Determinants in Adolescents and Young Adults with Early-Onset Severe Obesity.

    PubMed

    Viljakainen, H T; Valta, H; Lipsanen-Nyman, M; Saukkonen, T; Kajantie, E; Andersson, S; Mäkitie, O

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with compromised bone health. We studied bone characteristics and their determinants in obese young adults. The study included 68 subjects with early-onset severe obesity and 73 normal-weight controls. Data on physical activity (PA), diet and smoking were collected. Bone characteristics were measured using peripheral QCT. The obese and control subjects were similar in age (mean 19.6 ± 2.6 years) and height but BMIs differed (39.7 and 22.6 kg/m(2)). A clustering of unhealthy lifestyles was marked: Obese subjects reported less supervised PA in childhood, adolescence and currently (p < 0.03) and were more likely to smoke (p = 0.005), and had a lower healthy eating index (HEI) (p = 0.007) but similar alcohol consumption compared with controls. In obese women, all crude bone characteristics were higher than in controls; in men, the differences were smaller. Associations of lifestyle factors with bone characteristics were tested using partial correlations. Independently of BMI, supervised PA in adolescence and alcohol consumption were related positively to bone characteristics in both groups. HEI associated positively with bone characteristics only in controls, while smoking was a positive determinant of bone characteristics only in obese subjects. The multivariate model showed that the contribution of lifestyle factors to bone characteristics was minimal compared with BMI. Early-onset obesity is accompanied by poor dietary quality, sedentary lifestyle, and more frequent smoking, but the overall contribution of these lifestyle factors to bone strength is limited. Bone strength is more likely to be compromised in men and in unloaded bone sites in subjects with early-onset severe obesity. The impact of obesity-related endocrine changes on bone characteristics need to be evaluated in future studies.

  16. Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

  17. Use of the MMPI with Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey-Jones, Kelly

    This article provides a review of several studies, which used the Minnesota Multiphasis Personality Inventory (MMPI) to attempt to differentiate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs). The studies focused on either non-clinical ACOAs or alcoholic ACOAs. Overall, the MMPI differentiated ACOAs, but the degree and patterns of elevations varied…

  18. Theory of Mind Among Young Adult Children From Alcoholic Families

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Glass, Jennifer M; Heitzeg, Mary M; Wojnar, Marcin; Puttler, Leon I; Zucker, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the evidence that several cognitive and emotional functions are impaired in adult alcohol-dependent patients and the possibility that some of these deficits are transmitted to their children, the objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the perception of complex mental states would be reduced in young adults from families with a positive family history of alcohol dependence. It was also anticipated that social-perceptual deficits would confer unique predictive ability beyond that shared with other cognitive risk factors for alcohol dependence and/or substance use risk. Method: Data from 301 youth ages 18–21 years, recruited from an ongoing community longitudinal study of alcoholic and matched control families, were analyzed. Family history of alcohol dependence as well as alcohol-dependence diagnosis in the youth was based on diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. A substance use risk factor measured early problem alcohol/other drug use. The perception of mental states was measured with the computerized version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Results: Children of alcohol-dependent parents did not show impairment in the mental states perception task, nor did social perception skills predict alcohol dependence in the youth. Correlational analysis performed between RMET and the substance use risk factor showed no significant association between the variables. Conclusions: The study results do not confirm the hypothesis that behaviorally measured social perception impairment is more prevalent in the children of alcohol-dependent parents. In addition, social-perceptual deficits were not a unique marker of either alcohol dependence or high risk for alcohol dependence in this young adult sample. PMID:25208207

  19. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Their Family Roles: A Comparison of Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer Fay; And Others

    This study was conducted to empirically investigate the specific suggestion that, without help, children who play the scapegoat role in the alcoholic family may later end up in prison. Family roles assumed by incarcerated and non-incarcerated male and female Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) were compared. The incarcerated subjects were drawn…

  20. Two sporadic cases of adult-onset progressive mucinous histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Young, A; Olivere, J; Yoo, S; Martins, C; Barrett, T

    2006-02-01

    Progressive mucinous histiocytosis is a rare, benign, non-Langerhans' cell histiocytosis limited to the skin. Ten cases--all women--in four families and one sporadic case have been described in the literature. The disorder usually begins in childhood and progresses slowly. We report two sporadic cases of adult-onset progressive mucinous histiocytosis in unrelated African-American women, aged 48 and 55 years, respectively, who developed red-brown and flesh-coloured, asymptomatic papules on the face, the arms and the legs without truncal, mucosal or visceral involvement. The lesions showed no spontaneous regression. Both patients lacked associated systemic symptoms, including polyuria, polydipsia or seizures. There was no underlying hyperlipidaemia, paraproteinaemia or lymphoproliferative disease. No family history of similar lesions could be identified. Light microscopy revealed dermal proliferation of spindle-shaped histiocytes with abundant mucin deposition. Electron microscopy demonstrated a high number of myelin figures or zebra bodies in the cytoplasm of histiocytes. On immunohistochemistry, positive staining with macrophage markers--CD68, HAM56 and lysozyme--and factor XIIIa, a transglutaminase present in dermal dendrocytes, and negative staining with Langerhans' cell markers--CD1a and S100--and CD34, a marker present in dermal dendritic cells derived from uncommitted mesenchymal cells, were observed. PMID:16420313

  1. Obesity's Effects on the Onset of Functional Impairment among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study has two purposes. First, it determines if there is a relationship between body weight and the onset of functional impairment across time among this sample of older adults. More specifically, it examines if obese older adults are more likely to experience the onset of functional impairment. Second, it explores how health…

  2. Warming up Improves Speech Production in Patients with Adult Onset Myotonic Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Swart, B.J.M.; van Engelen, B.G.M.; Maassen, B.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study whether warming up decreases myotonia (muscle stiffness) during speech production or causes adverse effects due to fatigue or exhaustion caused by intensive speech activity in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy. Thirty patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy (MD) and ten healthy controls…

  3. Alcohol and Drug Use among College Student Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braitman, Abby L.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Ladage, Jessica; Schroeder, Valarie; Gumienny, Leslie A.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Klostermann, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The present paper compared drinking and drug use in Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs), compared to non-ACOAs, among college students. Participants were 572 undergraduates. ACOAs were more likely to be current drug users than non-ACOAs. ACOAs reported initiating alcohol use earlier than non-ACOAs; however, ACOAs did not drink more often or more…

  4. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of relationship between parental alcoholism and psychological distress and mediating effects of social support and hardiness among undergraduates. Suggests parental alcoholism is positively related to psychological distress and higher levels of social support and hardiness are associated with lower levels of psychological…

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Cynthia R. Greene; Bert, Minnie

    Persons with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) may be diagnosed at birth based on specific symptoms and anomalies. These are history of prenatal alcohol exposure, mental retardation, central nervous system dysfunctions, growth deficiency, particular physical anomalies, and speech and language anomalies. With aging, cranial and skeletal anomalies become…

  6. Patterns and correlates of multiple risk factors for adult-onset cancer among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    MAYS, DARREN; PESHKIN, BETH N.; WALKER, LESLIE R.; ABRAHAM, ANISHA A.; HAWKINS, KIRSTEN B.; TERCYAK, KENNETH P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated patterns and correlates of multiple, adult-onset cancer risk factors (MCRFs) among adolescents. Baseline data from an intervention efficacy trial were analyzed to examine patterns of co-occurring MCRFs and sociodemographic and theoretical (e.g., prevention self-efficacy) correlates of MCRFs among adolescents (N = 50) age 13 – 21. The mean total MCRFs was 4.6 (SD = 1.6; range 0–9). The most common risk factors were intentions to use alcohol (n = 40, 80%), < 5 daily servings of fruits/vegetables (n = 40, 80%), and lifetime alcohol use (n = 38, 76%). MCRFs commonly co-occurred, suggesting a clustered risk profile. Greater age (B = 0.19 95% CI 0.01, 0.38) and lower prevention self-efficacy (B = −0.16, 95% CI −0.02, −0.30) were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with MCRFs. Multiple health behavior change interventions are needed to prevent accumulation of risk factors as youth mature. Self-efficacy may be an important target for prevention interventions. PMID:22363044

  7. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J

    2014-05-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well.

  8. PNPLA3 I148M (rs738409) genetic variant and age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption are independent risk factors for alcoholic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Burza, Maria Antonella; Molinaro, Antonio; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Rotondo, Claudia; Attilia, Fabio; Ceccanti, Mauro; Ferri, Flaminia; Maldarelli, Federica; Maffongelli, Angela; De Santis, Adriano; Attili, Adolfo Francesco; Romeo, Stefano; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Environmental and genetic factors contribute to alcoholic cirrhosis onset. In particular, age at exposure to liver stressors has been shown to be important in progression to fibrosis in hepatitis C individuals. However, no definite data on the role of age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption are available. Moreover, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) I148M (rs738409) variant has been associated with alcoholic cirrhosis, but only in cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 I148M variant on alcoholic cirrhosis incidence. Methods A total of 384 at-risk alcohol drinkers were retrospectively examined. The association among age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption, PNPLA3 I148M variant and cirrhosis incidence was tested. Results A higher incidence of alcoholic cirrhosis was observed in individuals with an older (≥24 years) compared with a younger (<24) age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption (P-value < 0.001). Moreover, PNPLA3 148M allele carriers showed an increased incidence of cirrhosis (P-value < 0.001). Both age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 148M allele were independent risk factors for developing cirrhosis (H.R. (95% C.I.): 2.76 (2.18–3.50), P-value < 0.001; 1.53(1.07–2.19), P-value = 0.021 respectively). The 148M allele was associated with a two-fold increased risk of cirrhosis in individuals with a younger compared with an older age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption (H.R. (95% C.I.): 3.03(1.53–6.00) vs. 1.61(1.09–2.38). Conclusions Age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 I148M genetic variant are independently associated with alcoholic cirrhosis incidence. PMID:24102786

  9. Adult Social Roles and Alcohol Use among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-01-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  10. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol or substance use disorders. Method We followed for five years 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS), and had no prior diagnoses of alcohol or substance use disorders. TADS initial treatments were cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), the combination of CBT and FLX (COMB), or clinical management with pill placebo (PBO). We used both the original TADS treatment response rating and a more restrictive symptom count rating. During follow-up, diagnostic interviews were completed at six or 12 month intervals to assess onset of alcohol (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD), MDD recovery and recurrence. Results Achieving a positive response to MDD treatment was unrelated to subsequent AUD, but predicted lower rate of subsequent SUD, regardless of the measure of positive response (11.65% versus 24.72%; or 10.0% versus 24.5%, respectively). Type of initial MDD treatment was not related to either outcome. Prior to depression treatment, greater involvement with alcohol or drugs predicted later alcohol or substance use disorders, as did older age (for AUD) and more comorbid disorders (for SUD). Among those with recurrent MDD and AUD, AUD preceded MDD recurrence in 24 of 25 cases. Conclusion Effective short-term adolescent depression treatment significantly reduces the rate of subsequent substance use, but not alcohol use, disorders. Alcohol or drug use should be assessed prior to adolescent MDD treatment and monitored even after MDD recovery. PMID:22250853

  11. Self-Concept, Anxiety, and Knowledge Exhibited by Adult Children of Alcoholics and Adult Children of Non Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Wanda; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared 59 adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and 175 adult children of nonalcoholics (non-ACOAs) on self-concept, anxiety, and their knowledge of ACOA issues. Found no significant differences on self-concept and knowledge of ACOA issues. Significant differences were found on levels of anxiety, such that ACOAs had higher anxiety levels than did…

  12. Alcohol-Impaired Driving Among Adults - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Banerjee, Tanima; Bergen, Gwen

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving crashes account for approximately one third of all crash fatalities in the United States. In 2013, 10,076 persons died in crashes in which at least one driver had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.08 grams per deciliter (g/dL), the legal limit for adult drivers in the United States. To estimate the prevalence, number of episodes, and annual rate of alcohol-impaired driving, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. An estimated 4.2 million adults reported at least one alcohol-impaired driving episode in the preceding 30 days, resulting in an estimated 121 million episodes and a national rate of 505 episodes per 1,000 population annually. Alcohol-impaired driving rates varied by more than fourfold among states, and were highest in the Midwest U.S. Census region. Men accounted for 80% of episodes, with young men aged 21-34 years accounting for 32% of all episodes. Additionally, 85% of alcohol-impaired driving episodes were reported by persons who also reported binge drinking, and the 4% of the adult population who reported binge drinking at least four times per month accounted for 61% of all alcohol-impaired driving episodes. Effective strategies to reduce alcohol-impaired driving include publicized sobriety checkpoints, enforcement of 0.08 g/dL BAC laws, requiring alcohol ignition interlocks for everyone convicted of driving while intoxicated, and increasing alcohol taxes.

  13. Non-daily Smoking and Alcohol Use, Hazardous Drinking, and Alcohol Diagnoses among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L.R.; Desai, Rani A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-daily smoking and heavy alcohol use are prevalent behaviors among young adults, with non-daily smoking occurring primarily in the context of alcohol use. Although the relationship between drinking and daily smoking has been well characterized in young adults, few epidemiological investigations have investigated the association between non-daily smoking and drinking behavior. Methods We examined Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2003; n=43,093). Young adults (age 18-25; n=5,838) were stratified on current smoking behavior (daily, non-daily, and non-smokers in the past 12 months) and differences in weekly quantity of alcohol use, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking behavior, rates of NIAAA-defined hazardous drinking, and rates of DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses were investigated. College student status was examined. Results 25% were current smokers and 7% were smoking on a non-daily basis. 71% were current drinkers, 39% reported binge drinking at least once a month, 41% met criteria for hazardous drinking, and 18% had alcohol use disorders. Across all measures of alcohol use there was a significant effect of smoking status, with daily smokers having greater alcohol use patterns, compared to non-daily smokers, with non-smokers consuming the least. Non-daily smokers were more likely to report any binge drinking in the past 12 months. However, daily smokers were more likely to report daily binge drinking. With regard to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders, non-daily smoking conferred the greatest risk, followed by daily smoking with non-smoking as the reference group. Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated the odds of being a hazardous drinker were 16 times greater (95% CI 9.46 — 26.48) in a non-daily smoker compared to a non-smoker, whereas the odds for a daily smoker were increased by 7-fold (95% CI 5.54 — 9.36). A similar pattern of results was demonstrated

  14. Successful treatment of adult-onset erythromelalgia with steroid pulse and pregabalin.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Aya; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

    2012-09-01

    Adult-onset erythromelalgia (EM) is a rare disease characterized by episodic bouts of burning pain and erythema for which the optimal therapy is unclear. In this report, we describe a 68-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset EM. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate 1,000 mg/day dramatically improved her pain as evaluated by the visual analog scale. Although the patient's pain gradually developed again, it could be controlled with pregabalin. Our present case might suggest a possible, optimal therapy for adult-onset EM. PMID:23275767

  15. Successful Treatment of Adult-Onset Erythromelalgia with Steroid Pulse and Pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Kakizaki, Aya; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

    2012-01-01

    Adult-onset erythromelalgia (EM) is a rare disease characterized by episodic bouts of burning pain and erythema for which the optimal therapy is unclear. In this report, we describe a 68-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset EM. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate 1,000 mg/day dramatically improved her pain as evaluated by the visual analog scale. Although the patient's pain gradually developed again, it could be controlled with pregabalin. Our present case might suggest a possible, optimal therapy for adult-onset EM. PMID:23275767

  16. Cigarette smoking and risk of alcohol use relapse among adults in recovery from alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Platt, Jonathan; Jiang, Bianca; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking status and risk of AUD relapse in adults with remitted AUDs among adults in the United States. Methods Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2001–2002) and Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Analyses included the subsample of respondents who completed both waves of data collection reported a history of alcohol abuse and/or dependence prior to Wave 1 (N=9,134). Relationships between Wave 1 cigarette smoking status (non-smoker, daily cigarette smoker, non-daily cigarette smoker) and Wave 2 alcohol use, abuse, and dependence were examined using logistic regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for Wave 1 demographics; mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders; nicotine dependence; and AUD severity. Results Both daily and non-daily cigarette smoking at Wave 1 were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol use and a greater likelihood of alcohol abuse and dependence at Wave 2 compared to Wave 1 non-smoking. These relationships remained significant after adjusting for demographics, psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, AUD severity, and nicotine dependence. Conclusions Among adults with remitted AUDs, daily and non-daily use of cigarettes was associated with significantly decreased likelihood of alcohol use and increased likelihood of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence three years later. Concurrent treatment of cigarette smoking when treating AUDs may help improve long-term alcohol outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of both substances. PMID:26365044

  17. Alcohol exposure in utero perturbs retinoid homeostasis in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn-Kyung; Zuccaro, Michael V.; Zhang, Changqing; Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal alcohol exposure and adult alcohol intake have been shown to perturb the metabolism of various micro- and macro-nutrients, including vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids). Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the well-known detrimental consequences of alcohol consumption may be due to deregulations of the metabolism of such nutrients rather than to a direct effect of alcohol. Alcohol exposure in utero also has long-term harmful consequences on the health of the offspring with mechanisms that have not been fully clarified. Disruption of tissue retinoid homeostasis has been linked not only to abnormal embryonic development, but also to various adult pathological conditions, including cancer, metabolic disorders and abnormal lung function. We hypothesized that prenatal alcohol exposure may permanently perturb tissue retinoid metabolism, predisposing the offspring to adult chronic diseases. Methods Serum and tissues (liver, lung and prostate from males; liver and lung from females) were collected from 60-75 day-old sprague dawley rats born from dams that were: (I) fed a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol between gestational day 7 and 21; or (II) pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet during the same gestational window; or (III) fed ad libitum with regular rat chow diet throughout pregnancy. Serum and tissue retinoid levels were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels were measured by western blot analysis, and liver, lung and prostate mRNA levels of lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) were measured by qPCR. Results Retinyl ester levels were significantly reduced in the lung of both males and females, as well as in the liver and ventral prostate of males born from alcohol-fed dams. Tissue LRAT mRNA levels remained unchanged upon maternal alcohol treatment. Conclusions Prenatal alcohol exposure in rats affects retinoid metabolism in adult life, in a tissue- and sex

  18. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers. PMID:21477057

  19. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  20. Childhood Psychosocial Stressors and Adult Onset Arthritis: Broad Spectrum Risk Factors and Allostatic Load

    PubMed Central

    Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Ormel, Johan; Angermeyer, Matthais; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fleiz, Clara; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Posada-Villa, José; Scott, Kate M.; Uda, Hidenori

    2009-01-01

    Neural, endocrine and immune stress mediators are hypothesized to increase risks of diverse chronic diseases, including arthritis. Retrospective data from the World Mental Health Surveys (N=18,309) were employed to assess whether adult onset of arthritis was associated with childhood adversities and early onset psychological disorder. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association of number of childhood adversities and the presence of early onset psychological disorder with arthritis age of onset. Controlling for age, sex and early onset mental disorder, relative to persons with no childhood adversities, persons with two adversities had increased risk of adult onset arthritis (Hazard ratio=1.27, 95% CI= 1.08, 1.50), while persons with three or more adversities had higher risk (HR=1.44, CI=1.24,1.67). Early onset depressive and/or anxiety disorder was associated with increased risk of adult-onset arthritis after controlling for childhood adversities (HR=1.43, CI=1.28, 1.61). Since psychosocial stressors may be broad spectrum risk factors that increase risks of diverse chronic conditions in later life (e.g., arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, chronic pain), prospective studies of childhood psychosocial stressors may be most productive if multiple disease outcomes are assessed in the same study. Results from this study provide methodological guidance for future prospective studies of the relationship between childhood psychosocial stressors and subsequent risk of adult onset arthritis. PERSPECTIVE Retrospective reports of early onset mood-anxiety disorder and multiple childhood adversities were independently associated with increased risk of adult onset arthritis. Carrying out prospective studies of these relationships entails significant challenges. Since childhood psychosocial stressors may be broad spectrum risk factors for diverse chronic conditions, multiple disease outcomes should be assessed in prospective studies assessing health consequences

  1. Daily Physical Activity and Alcohol Use Across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L.; Coffman, Donna L.; Lorek, Amy E.; Rebar, Amanda L.; Roche, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In contrast to proposals that physical activity (PA) can be a substitute for alcohol use, people who engage in greater overall PA generally consume more alcohol on average than less-active peers. Acknowledging that both PA and alcohol use vary considerably from day-to-day, this study evaluated whether established associations reflect daily behavioral coupling within-person, are an artifact of procedures that aggregate behavior over time, or both. Methods A lifespan sample of 150 adults (aged 19–89 years) completed three 21-day measurement bursts of a daily diary study. At the end of each day, they reported on their PA and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed in a negative binomial multilevel regression. Results As expected, both behaviors exhibited limited between-person variation. After controlling for age, sex, and seasonal and social calendar influences, daily deviations in PA were significantly associated with daily total alcohol use. Once the within-person process linking PA and alcohol use was controlled, usual PA and total alcohol use were not associated. Conclusions The established between-person association linking PA and alcohol use reflects the aggregation of a daily process that unfolds within-people over time. Further work is needed to identify mediators of this daily association and to evaluate causality, as well as to investigate these relations in high-risk samples. PMID:25222084

  2. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  3. Genetics Home Reference: adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia

    MedlinePlus

    ... it causes a severe decline in thinking and reasoning abilities (dementia). Over time, motor skills are affected, ... Schmahmann JD. Adult onset leukodystrophy with neuroaxonal spheroids: clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathologic observations. Brain Pathol. 2009 Jan; ...

  4. Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Annotated Bibliography. History, Philosophy and Practice of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton A.

    This document presents an annotated bibliography of 18 books on the adult children on alcoholics. The books cited in this bibliography focus on such areas as co-dependency, the roles played by children in alcoholic homes, the impact of the parent-child relationship, anger, guilt, love, intimacy, interventions for chemically dependent persons,…

  5. [Kimura's disease: an unrecognized cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease].

    PubMed

    Shehwaro, N; Langlois, A-L; Gueutin, V; Debchi, L; Charlotte, F; Rouvier, P; Rottembourg, J; Izzedine, H

    2014-02-01

    Kimura's disease (KD) is an angiolymphoid proliferative disorder of soft tissue with eosinophilia, with a predilection for head and neck regions in young Oriental men. Kidney disease is thought to be rare in KD. About a case of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease, we comment Kimura's disease and its associated kidney damage. Kimura disease should be suspected and included in the diagnosis of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease.

  6. [Adult onset Still's disease with the initial symptom of pharyngalgia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Enhui; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingfei

    2015-09-01

    Adult onset Still's disease is a rare inflammatory disease characterized by spiking fevers, arthritis/ arthralgias, typical salmon-colored bumpy rash, pharyngalgia, myalgia and possible involvement of visceral organs. The diagnosis is exclusively based on clinical symptoms, according to the criteria, after the exclusion of well-known infectious, neoplastic, or other autoimmune/autoinflammatory disorders. This report includes one case of adult onset Still's disease with the initial symptom of pharyngalgia. PMID:26647549

  7. Parentification, Parental Alcoholism, and Academic Status among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.

    1998-01-01

    Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…

  8. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Adult Brain Plasticity. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Moderate Fetal Alcohol Exposure Impairs the Neurogenic Response to an Enriched Environment in Adult Mice" (I. Y. Choi; A. M. Allan; and L. A. Cunningham). Observations of mice…

  9. Postsecondary Educational Experiences of Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Cheryll; Orders, Shari

    2013-01-01

    The postsecondary experiences of adults diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) were examined in this qualitative research. Tinto's Student Integration Model (SIM) (1975, 1997) provided the theoretical framework that guided the study. Tinto posits that the interplay of background characteristics, academic integration, and social…

  10. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Implications for Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Bernadette; Halbrook, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Two characteristics of adult children of alcoholics are external orientation and disruption of ego boundaries, which inhibit the development of a sense of self. The dependent attitudes and behaviors associated with these traits affect work habits, career selection, and work relationships. (SK)

  11. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Adjustment to a College Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Heather A.; Radford, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Provides a literature review of family-of-origin issues related to adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) and their adjustment to college. Implications for college personnel are presented, as is a case study to illustrate the many issues an ACOA college student may face in his or her transition. (Author/GCP)

  12. A Psychoeducational Group for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Nancy E.; Walker, Margaret E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a campus-based psychoeducational support group for adult children of alcoholics. Outlines group goals; identifies recruitment procedures; and describes and evaluates sessions. Asserts that this successful group format could be easily adapted to other setting and age groups. (Author/ABB)

  13. Adult Children of Alcoholics in the Classroom: Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jack L.; Oliver, Peter V.

    This study examined the impact of being an adult child of an alcoholic family (COA) on one's personal and interpersonal adjustment. First, it was predicted that because of difficulties with interpersonal trust, COAs would express less of a need for social approval compared with non-COAs. A related prediction was that COAs would report being…

  14. Differences in Distress among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan; Christensen, Sue A.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated psychological distress, social support, and hardiness among 79 adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) compared to 67 ACAs not involved in support groups. Group members reported higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of hardiness, and less satisfaction with perceived social support than did nonmembers. For both groups,…

  15. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  16. Personality Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholics: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Richard W.; Lyon, Mark A.

    This study attempted to validate the characteristics of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) as presented by Woititz (1983). Male (N=52) and female (N=94) college students completed the Personality Research Form, a 352-item measure of personality variables; the Responsibility and Social Adroitness Scales of the Jackson Personality Inventory; the…

  17. Tracking Specialized Book Selection: Books for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degnan, Darrah

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the book review process focuses on a study that evaluated the efficacy of major journal reviews as a selection tool for books for adult children of alcoholics. Highlights include selection strategies for books not reviewed by major media; multiple reviews; small press books; and recommendations for strengthening review media. (12…

  18. A Profile of Collegiate Black Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine

    1995-01-01

    This study sought to identify differences between 100 randomly selected Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) and nonACOAs attending a black university. The ACOAs reported significantly more drinking problems and less healthy family environments and social support than nonACOAs, but no difference in mastery of developmental tasks like autonomy,…

  19. Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Examination of the Category.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemwell, G. Henry, Jr.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of 89 graduate students using criteria taken from popular literature describing the adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) category. No empirical support is found for the ACOA category as defined in popular literature (no significant differences in how ACOA students and non-ACOA students responded to items that are…

  20. Cognitive Deficits in Nonretarded Adults with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Kimberley A.; Don, Audrey; Mateer, Catherine A.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen nonretarded young adults with fetal alcohol syndrome were divided into two groups, one with average to above average IQ and one with borderline to low average IQ. Subjects in both groups manifested clear deficits on neuropsychological measures sensitive to complex attention, verbal learning, and executive function at a frequency and…

  1. Alcohol use and other psychiatric disorders in the formerly homeless and never homeless: prevalence, age of onset, comorbidity, temporal sequencing, and service utilization.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Maureen Lyons; Burns, Andrea B; Preist, Robyn; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Lang, Alan R

    2003-01-01

    Interview survey data were collected on a large (n = 4730) general population sample of adults subsequently classified as "never homeless" (NH) or "formerly homeless" (FH), with the latter group consisting of persons who had past experience of at least a one-month period with no regular place to live. The objective was to analyze differences, as a function of this classification, in the prevalence, age of onset, comorbidity, temporal sequencing, and service utilization pertinent to alcohol-use and other psychiatric disorders. Almost half of the FH group were found to have a one-year DSM diagnosis, nearly twice the rate seen in the NH group. Moreover, at 15.1%, the prevalence of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) comorbid with one or more other psychiatric disorders was five times that reported by NH participants. Subsequent analyses addressed differences betweenthe FH (n = 167) and NH (n = 1031) groups within the subset who met criteria for one or more psychiatric diagnoses. Focusing on drinking behavior, we found that among the FH, dual-diagnosis was associated with elevated rates of alcohol-use problem symptoms and with greater alcohol consumption than were evident in the FH with AUD alone. Also, among the FH with comorbid AUD, as well as among those with two or more psychiatric disorders unrelated to alcohol, there was an earlier onset of psychiatric disorders than in the NH. This earlier onset may have placed these individuals at greater risk for later homelessness and AUD, and may also be indicative of a more severe course of illness. Differences between the FH and the NH suggest the importance of devoting special attention to this unique sample. PMID:12747399

  2. Adult onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease with psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    del Valle-López, Pilar; Pérez-García, Rosa; Sanguino-Andrés, Rosa; González-Pablos, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare neurological disorder characterized by pyramidal and extrapyramidal manifestations, dysarthria and dementia. Its onset is usually in childhood and most patients have a fatal outcome in few years. A high percentage of cases are hereditary with a recessive autosomal pattern. In the majority of the patients reported, a mutation of the gene that encodes the pantothenate kinase (PANK2) located in the 20p13-p12.3 chromosome that causes iron storage in the basal ganglia of the brain has been found. Its diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms as well as specific MRI imaging findings. The most common psychiatric features are cognitive impairment as well as depressive symptoms. There are few documented cases with psychotic disorders. We present the case of a patient with late onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease and psychotic symptoms that preceded the development of neurological manifestations. The pathophysiology and the treatment of psychotic symptomatology are presented and discussed. Key words: Psicosis, Hallervorden-Spatz, late onset, Basal ganglia. PMID:21769749

  3. Adult onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease with psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    del Valle-López, Pilar; Pérez-García, Rosa; Sanguino-Andrés, Rosa; González-Pablos, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare neurological disorder characterized by pyramidal and extrapyramidal manifestations, dysarthria and dementia. Its onset is usually in childhood and most patients have a fatal outcome in few years. A high percentage of cases are hereditary with a recessive autosomal pattern. In the majority of the patients reported, a mutation of the gene that encodes the pantothenate kinase (PANK2) located in the 20p13-p12.3 chromosome that causes iron storage in the basal ganglia of the brain has been found. Its diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms as well as specific MRI imaging findings. The most common psychiatric features are cognitive impairment as well as depressive symptoms. There are few documented cases with psychotic disorders. We present the case of a patient with late onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease and psychotic symptoms that preceded the development of neurological manifestations. The pathophysiology and the treatment of psychotic symptomatology are presented and discussed. Key words: Psicosis, Hallervorden-Spatz, late onset, Basal ganglia.

  4. Sandhoff disease mimicking adult-onset bulbospinal neuronopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P K; Young, E; King, R H

    1989-01-01

    A 32 year old male is described with an onset of upper limb postural tremor in adolescence followed by muscle cramps. Progressive proximal amyotrophy and weakness in the limbs developed late in the third decade. Examination disclosed, in addition, bilateral facial weakness and mild dysarthria. Enzyme studies revealed hexosaminidase A and B deficiency, indicating a diagnosis of Sandhoff disease. Intra-axonal membranocytoplasmic bodies were present in a rectal biopsy. The presentation, which resembled that of X-linked bulbospinal neuronopathy, widens the clinical spectrum for disorders related to G(M2) gangliosidosis. Images PMID:2795083

  5. Predictors of Relapse in Adult-Onset Nephrotic Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hajeong; Yoo, Kyung Don; Oh, Yun Kyu; Kim, Dong Ki; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie; Han, Jin Suk; Lim, Chun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Minimal change disease (MCD) is a well-known benign primary glomerulonephritis because of its distinct rare tendency to progress to end-stage renal disease. However, factors associated with relapse in adults are not well known. We aimed to identify predictors of relapse in adult-onset MCD patients. A retrospective cohort of 195 patients with adult-onset primary MCD with nephritic syndrome and disease onset between 1979 and 2013 was followed up for >12 months. The number of relapses was counted and predictors of relapse were analyzed. A total of 195 patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 38 years (IQR, 23–53 years) and 113 (57.9%) were men. During 81 months (IQR, 44–153 months) of follow-up, 92% of patients achieved remission after initial treatment. However, only 60 (32.8%) did not experience a relapse and 11 patients failed to remit. Among the remaining 124 patients, 65 experienced a relapse once or twice and 59 experienced a relapse more than twice. Younger onset age, increased severity of nephrotic features such as lower serum albumin levels and higher cholesterol level were associated with relapse. Interestingly, the grade of mesangial proliferation was lower in patients who experienced a relapse. Initial combined treatment with corticosteroids (CS) and cyclophosphamide reduced the number of relapses. In addition, patients with shorter treatment duration tended to experience relapse more often. Multivariate analysis showed that younger onset age, combined mesangial proliferation, initial treatment regimen, and treatment duration were independent risk factors for relapse. Progression to end-stage renal disease was developed in only a patient. In conclusion, more than two-thirds of adult-onset nephrotic MCD patients experienced relapse, although their renal progression was rare. Younger onset age, CS without cyclophosphamide treatment, and shorter treatment duration were independent risk factors for relapse in adult-onset MCD patients

  6. Predictors of Relapse in Adult-Onset Nephrotic Minimal Change Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hajeong; Yoo, Kyung Don; Oh, Yun Kyu; Kim, Dong Ki; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie; Han, Jin Suk; Lim, Chun Soo

    2016-03-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is a well-known benign primary glomerulonephritis because of its distinct rare tendency to progress to end-stage renal disease. However, factors associated with relapse in adults are not well known. We aimed to identify predictors of relapse in adult-onset MCD patients.A retrospective cohort of 195 patients with adult-onset primary MCD with nephritic syndrome and disease onset between 1979 and 2013 was followed up for >12 months. The number of relapses was counted and predictors of relapse were analyzed.A total of 195 patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 38 years (IQR, 23-53 years) and 113 (57.9%) were men. During 81 months (IQR, 44-153 months) of follow-up, 92% of patients achieved remission after initial treatment. However, only 60 (32.8%) did not experience a relapse and 11 patients failed to remit. Among the remaining 124 patients, 65 experienced a relapse once or twice and 59 experienced a relapse more than twice. Younger onset age, increased severity of nephrotic features such as lower serum albumin levels and higher cholesterol level were associated with relapse. Interestingly, the grade of mesangial proliferation was lower in patients who experienced a relapse. Initial combined treatment with corticosteroids (CS) and cyclophosphamide reduced the number of relapses. In addition, patients with shorter treatment duration tended to experience relapse more often. Multivariate analysis showed that younger onset age, combined mesangial proliferation, initial treatment regimen, and treatment duration were independent risk factors for relapse. Progression to end-stage renal disease was developed in only a patient.In conclusion, more than two-thirds of adult-onset nephrotic MCD patients experienced relapse, although their renal progression was rare. Younger onset age, CS without cyclophosphamide treatment, and shorter treatment duration were independent risk factors for relapse in adult-onset MCD patients.

  7. Childhood- and adult-onset lupus: an update of similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Papadimitraki, Eva D; Isenberg, David A

    2009-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune rheumatic disease. Although its highest prevalence is among women of childbearing age, the disease is not confined within this population. A total of 15-20% of cases of SLE are diagnosed in children younger than 16 years (childhood-onset lupus). Although there have been few studies directly comparing childhood- to adult-onset lupus, there is substantial evidence to suggest that pediatric lupus patients display some differences in their disease profile compared with adult-onset populations. Overall, an increased male-to-female ratio, a higher prevalence of nephritis and CNS involvement necessitating a more sustained need for steroids and immnosuppressive drugs, and a higher prevalence of progression to end-stage renal disease are distinguishing features of childhood-onset lupus. In contrast, a higher prevalence of pulmonary involvement, arthritis and discoid lupus are reported in adult-onset SLE patients. Furthermore, childhood-onset lupus patients may experience a serious negative impact on their psychosocial and physical development, issues that pose extra challenges to healthcare providers. Growth delay, osteoporosis, the psychological effect of steroid-induced alterations of the physical image, and often poor treatment compliance are the issues that need to be addressed in pediatric lupus populations. In this review, we compare the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features, and treatment options of childhood- and adult-onset lupus, and comment on the applicability of the instruments that measure activity, severity and cumulative disease damage in childhood-onset disease. In addition, we highlight special issues of concern for pediatric lupus patients, discussing the significance in the transition from pediatric to adult rheumatology care.

  8. Niemann-Pick type C: focus on the adolescent/adult onset form.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Marano, Massimo; Florio, Lucia; De Santis, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an inherited sphingolipidosis characterized by progressive neurological deterioration and early mortality. The symptomatology and disease progression of NP-C are markedly affected by the age at onset of neurological manifestations, and categorization into early-infantile, late-infantile, juvenile, adolescent/adult neurological onset forms can aid evaluation of disease course and responses to therapy. Here, we review current information on the detection, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of NP-C, with a focus on the adolescent/adult-onset form. A recent analysis indicated that the combined incidence of NP-C related to NPC1 gene mutations (NPC1) and NP-C related to NPC2 gene mutations (NPC2) is approximately 1 case in every 89 000 live births. In particular, late-onset phenotypes might well provide a greater contribution to the overall incidence than has previously been reported. Some neuropathological features in NP-C are held in common with other advanced age-onset diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Visceral symptoms such as splenomegaly are frequently asymptomatic in patients with adolescent/adult-onset NP-C, and are only occasionally detected during routine ultrasound assessments. In contrast, most patients with adolescent/adult-onset exhibit some degree of slowly progressive, non-disease-specific movement disorders (e.g. cerebellar ataxia), and/or more pathognomonic neurological signs such as vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. An increasing number of adolescent/adult-onset cases have been reported following initial recognition of cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric signs. The recent development and implementation of new clinical screening tools (e.g. the NP-C suspicion index) and biomarkers (e.g. plasma oxysterols) should help identify patients who warrant further investigation and possible treatment. PMID:26998855

  9. Niemann-Pick type C: focus on the adolescent/adult onset form.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Marano, Massimo; Florio, Lucia; De Santis, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an inherited sphingolipidosis characterized by progressive neurological deterioration and early mortality. The symptomatology and disease progression of NP-C are markedly affected by the age at onset of neurological manifestations, and categorization into early-infantile, late-infantile, juvenile, adolescent/adult neurological onset forms can aid evaluation of disease course and responses to therapy. Here, we review current information on the detection, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of NP-C, with a focus on the adolescent/adult-onset form. A recent analysis indicated that the combined incidence of NP-C related to NPC1 gene mutations (NPC1) and NP-C related to NPC2 gene mutations (NPC2) is approximately 1 case in every 89 000 live births. In particular, late-onset phenotypes might well provide a greater contribution to the overall incidence than has previously been reported. Some neuropathological features in NP-C are held in common with other advanced age-onset diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Visceral symptoms such as splenomegaly are frequently asymptomatic in patients with adolescent/adult-onset NP-C, and are only occasionally detected during routine ultrasound assessments. In contrast, most patients with adolescent/adult-onset exhibit some degree of slowly progressive, non-disease-specific movement disorders (e.g. cerebellar ataxia), and/or more pathognomonic neurological signs such as vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. An increasing number of adolescent/adult-onset cases have been reported following initial recognition of cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric signs. The recent development and implementation of new clinical screening tools (e.g. the NP-C suspicion index) and biomarkers (e.g. plasma oxysterols) should help identify patients who warrant further investigation and possible treatment.

  10. Does age at onset have clinical significance in older adults with bipolar disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Chu, David; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Houck, Patricia R.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective While age at onset may be useful in explaining some of the heterogeneity of bipolar disorder (BD) in large, mixed age groups, investigations to date have found few meaningful clinical differences between early versus late age at onset in older adults with BD. Methods Data were collected from sixty-one subjects aged 60 years and older, mean (SD) age 67.6 (7.0), with BD I (75%) and II (25%). Subjects were grouped by early (<40 years; n=43) versus late (≥40 years; n=18) age at onset. Early versus late onset groups were compared on psychiatric comorbidity, medical burden, and percentage of days well during study participation. Results Except for family history of major psychiatric illnesses, there were no differences between the groups on demographic or clinical variables. Patients with early and late onset experienced similar percentages of days well; however, those with early onset had slightly more percentage of days depressed than those with late onset (22% versus 13%) Conclusion Distinguishing older adults with BD by early or late age at onset has limited clinical usefulness. PMID:20082348

  11. Mutations in CIZ1 cause adult-onset primary cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianfeng; Uitti, Ryan J.; Zhao, Yu; Vemula, Satya R.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Maraganore, Demetrius M.; Auburger, Georg; Leube, Barbara; Lehnhoff, Katja; LeDoux, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Primary dystonia is usually of adult onset, can be familial, and frequently involves the cervical musculature. Our goal was to identify the causal mutation in a family with adult-onset, primary cervical dystonia. Methods Linkage and haplotype analyses were combined with solution-based whole-exome capture and massively parallel sequencing in a large Caucasian pedigree with adult-onset, primary cervical dystonia to identify a cosegregating mutation. High-throughput screening and Sanger sequencing were completed in 308 Caucasians with familial or sporadic adult-onset cervical dystonia and matching controls for sequence variants in this mutant gene. Results Exome sequencing led to the identification of an exonic splicing enhancer mutation in Exon 7 of CIZ1 (c.790A>G, p.S264G) which encodes CIZ1, Cip1-interacting zinc finger protein 1. CIZ1 is a p21Cip1/Waf1-interacting zinc finger protein expressed in brain and involved in DNA synthesis and cell-cycle control. Using a minigene assay, we showed that c.790A>G altered CIZ1 splicing patterns. The p.S264G mutation also altered the nuclear localization of CIZ1. Screening in subjects with adult-onset cervical dystonia identified two additional CIZ1 missense mutations (p.P47S and p.R672M). Interpretation Mutations in CIZ1 may cause adult-onset, primary cervical dystonia, possibly by precipitating neurodevelopmental abnormalities that manifest in adults and/or G1/S cell-cycle dysregulation in the mature central nervous system. PMID:22447717

  12. Adult-Onset Esophageal Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kasarala, George; Durrett, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease that can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal involvement is rarely seen in adults, especially at the initial diagnosis of CD. Esophageal symptoms as primary manifestations of the disease are extremely rare. We report a case of a CD with esophageal involvement at the time of her initial diagnosis of CD. PMID:27761477

  13. Alcohol-drinking history and fatal injury in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sorock, Gary S; Chen, Li-Hui; Gonzalgo, Sheila R; Baker, Susan P

    2006-11-01

    Although most clinical guidelines for older adults allow for one drink a day in persons without a history of alcoholism, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease, alcohol may contribute to fatal injury in the elderly. Using two national surveys, this case-control study determined the associations between drinking history and fatal injuries from falls, motor vehicle crashes and suicides. We performed a case-control study using 1,735 cases who died of falls, motor vehicle crashes, or suicides selected from the 1993 National Mortality Follow-Back Survey; controls (n=13,381) were a representative sample of the U.S. population from the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Cases and controls were restricted to ages 55 years and older. Having 12 or more drinks in the year before death or interview for the controls was used to assess alcohol-drinking history. The unadjusted relative odds for drinkers versus nondrinkers for falls, motor vehicle crashes, and suicides were 1.7, 1.7, and 1.6, respectively. Adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, and working in the last year did not change these effect estimates, which all excluded the null value. Drinking increased the risk of suicide more for women than for men. Drinking history in older adults is associated about equally with an increased risk of fatal injury from falls, motor vehicle crashes, and suicides.

  14. Childhood Mental Ability and Adult Alcohol Intake and Alcohol Problems: The 1970 British Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J.; Schoon, Ingrid; Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate; Gale, Catharine R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the potential relation of mental ability test scores at age 10 years with alcohol problems and alcohol intake at age 30 years. Methods. We used data from a prospective observational study involving 8170 members of a birth cohort from Great Britain born in 1970. Data included mental ability scores at age 10 years and responses to inquiries about alcohol intake and problems at age 30 years. Results. After adjustment for potential mediating and confounding factors, cohort members with higher childhood mental ability scores had an increased prevalence of problem drinking in adulthood. This association was stronger among women (odds ratio [OR]1 SD increase in ability = 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16, 1.64) than men (OR1 SD increase in ability = 1.17; CI = 1.04, 1.28; P for interaction = .004). Childhood mental ability was also related to a higher average intake of alcohol and to drinking more frequently. Again, these gradients were stronger among women than among men. Conclusions. In this large-scale cohort study, higher childhood mental ability was related to alcohol problems and higher alcohol intake in adult life. These unexpected results warrant examination in other studies. PMID:18235070

  15. Recurrent adult onset Henoch-Schonlein Purpura: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Neil; Guido, Bruce; Mago, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Henoch-Schonlein purpura is an immunoglobulin A (IgA)-immune complex mediated leukocytoclastic vasculitis that classically manifests with palpable purpura, abdominal pain, arthritis, and hematuria or proteinuria. The condition is much more predominant in children (90% of cases) and commonly follows an upper respiratory infection. We present a case of recurrent Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) complicated by nephritis in an adult female initially categorized as IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We review the pathophysiologic basis of HSP nephritis as the variant of HSP accompanied by renal involvement and its pathogenetic commonality with IgA nephropathy. PMID:27617937

  16. Adult-onset phenylketonuria with rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Tufekcioglu, Zeynep; Cakar, Arman; Bilgic, Basar; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Gurvit, Hakan; Emre, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, which converts phenylalanine (PHE) to tyrosine. Although it is principally a childhood disorder, in rare cases, the first signs of PKU may develop in late adulthood resembling common neurological diseases. Here we report a 59-year-old, previously normal functioning man who was admitted with blurred vision, cognitive problems, and gait difficulty that began 8 months before. He had brisk reflexes and left side dominant parkinsonism. His Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 25/30, and neuropsychological evaluation revealed a dysexecutive syndrome with simultanagnosia and constructional apraxia. His Clinical Dementia Rating score (CDR) was 1. Cranial MRI revealed bilateral diffuse hyperintense lesions in parietal and occipital white matter in T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and diffusion weighted images. Diagnostic workup for rapidly progressive dementias was all normal except PHE level which was found to be highly elevated (1075 μmol/L, normal 39-240 μmol/L) with normal tyrosine level (61.20 μmol/L, normal 35-100 μmol/L). Three months after PHE-restricted diet, his cognitive impairment and signs of parkinsonism significantly improved, with MRI scan unchanged. This case demonstrates that late-onset PKU is a rare, treatable cause of rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism with certain constellations such as consanguinity and white matter abnormalities (WMAs) in imaging. PMID:26962957

  17. Adult-Onset Still's Disease and Cardiac Tamponade: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Doroteia; de Jesus Silva, Maria; André, Rui; Varela, Manuel Gato; Diogo, António Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare disorder with potentially severe clinical features, including cardiac involvement. This systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pericarditis, with or without pericardial effusion. Cardiac tamponade is a very rare sequela that requires an invasive approach, such as percutaneous or surgical pericardial drainage, in addition to the usual conservative therapy. The authors describe a case of adult-onset Still's disease rendered more difficult by pericarditis and cardiac tamponade, and they briefly review the literature on this entity. PMID:26175648

  18. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Security, Avoidance and Ambivalence in Attachment to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary E.

    Children of alcoholics are at risk for socioemotional and behavioral problems. Adult children of alcoholic parents (ACAs) are at risk for problems in interpersonal relationships. ACAs have been found to have decreased self-esteem and self-acceptance in comparison to adults whose parents are not alcoholic (NACAs). College students who were young…

  19. The distinction between juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, J.L.; Haines, J.L.; Damji, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Because of the significant differences between the juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma, especially with regard to inheritance, prevalence, severity, and age of onset, we read with interest the recent publication by Morissette et al., describing a pedigree with a phenotype that overlaps the distinctive features of juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (usually abbreviated as POAG or COAG). These authors conclude that a gene mapped to human chromosome 1q21-q31 (GLC1A) can be responsible for both juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma. The implications of such a result could be extremely important, in light of the high prevalence of the adult form of the disease. However, while the data presented in this report suggest that variable expressivity of the GLC1A gene may lead to a broader range of onset for this form of juvenile glaucoma, these data do not identify the GLC1A gene as an important cause of POAG. To prevent misleading interpretations of this and similar studies, we wish to clarify the distinction between the juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma. 8 refs.

  20. The need for improved detection and management of adult-onset hearing loss in australia.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Catherine M; Gopinath, Bamini; Schneider, Julie; Reath, Jennifer; Hickson, Louise; Leeder, Stephen R; Mitchell, Paul; Cowan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Adult-onset hearing loss is insidious and typically diagnosed and managed several years after onset. Often, this is after the loss having led to multiple negative consequences including effects on employment, depressive symptoms, and increased risk of mortality. In contrast, the use of hearing aids is associated with reduced depression, longer life expectancy, and retention in the workplace. Despite this, several studies indicate high levels of unmet need for hearing health services in older adults and poor use of prescribed hearing aids, often leading to their abandonment. In Australia, the largest component of financial cost of hearing loss (excluding the loss of well-being) is due to lost workplace productivity. Nonetheless, the Australian public health system does not have an effective and sustainable hearing screening strategy to tackle the problem of poor detection of adult-onset hearing loss. Given the increasing prevalence and disease burden of hearing impairment in adults, two key areas are not adequately met in the Australian healthcare system: (1) early identification of persons with chronic hearing impairment; (2) appropriate and targeted referral of these patients to hearing health service providers. This paper reviews the current literature, including population-based data from the Blue Mountains Hearing Study, and suggests different models for early detection of adult-onset hearing loss. PMID:23710184

  1. Psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior in neurotypical young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Baldin, Elisa; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined the association between lifetime, current history of psychiatric disorders, suicidal thoughts and behaviors with childhood-onset epilepsies in a community-based cohort of young adults. METHODS Cases were neurotypical (normal neurological, cognitive, and imaging exams and no evidence of a brain insult responsible for the epilepsy) young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy followed since the onset of their epilepsy approximately 15 years earlier and recruited as part of a community-based study. They were compared to two different control groups, siblings and external controls from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). The Diagnostic Interview Survey assessed lifetime and current DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of mood disorders and anxiety disorders. Suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Survey for Children-IV and the Diagnostic Interview Survey. RESULTS Two hundred fifty-seven cases and 134 sibling controls participated in the DIS portion of the young adult assessment. Comparing cases both to their sibling controls and to the controls drawn from the NCS-R, we did not find any evidence to suggest a higher prevalence of lifetime and current mood or anxiety disorders, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt in young adults with childhood-onset epilepsies. SIGNIFICANCE Our findings, from a community-based sample of neurotypical young adults, do not suggest a substantial or lasting association between childhood epilepsy and psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. PMID:26387857

  2. Adult Onset of Xanthelasmoid Mastocytosis: Report of a Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Nafiseh Sadat; Nejad, Masumeh Hosseini; Feli, Shahab; Bakhshoodeh, Behnoosh; Layegh, Pouran

    2016-01-01

    Xanthelasmoid or pseudoxanthomatous mastocytosis is an extremely rare variant of diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. Herein, we describe an adult male with cutaneous mastocytosis showing multiple widespread yellowish ovoid papules like eruptive xanthoma. A 60-year-old male visited our outpatient clinic with a 1-year history of generalized yellowish, ovoid, and skin color papular eruption located on the trunk, groin, extremities, with the modest pruritus. Vital signs were stable, and Darier's sign was negative. No other subjective and objective signs were detected during the examination. No abnormality was detected in his diagnostic laboratory tests. Skin biopsy was taken, and histopathologic examination revealed proliferation of mast cells with ovoid and spindle nuclei with distinct cytoplasm borders around the capillaries, which was compatible with mastocytosis. Antihistamine was prescribed for pruritus control which was successful, but eruptions were persistent, and even 1-year phototherapy was not useful. PMID:27512209

  3. Management of adults with paediatric-onset chronic liver disease: strategic issues for transition care.

    PubMed

    Vajro, Pietro; Ferrante, Lorenza; Lenta, Selvaggia; Mandato, Claudia; Persico, Marcello

    2014-04-01

    Advances in the management of children with chronic liver disease have enabled many to survive into adulthood with or without their native livers, so that the most common of these conditions are becoming increasingly common in adult hepatology practice. Because the aetiologies of chronic liver disease in children may vary significantly from those in adulthood, adults with paediatric-onset chronic liver disease may often present with clinical manifestations unfamiliar to their adulthood physician. Transition of medical care to adult practice requires that the adulthood medical staff (primary physicians and subspecialists) have a comprehensive knowledge of childhood liver disease and their implications, and of the differences in caring for these patients. Pending still unavailable Scientific Society guidelines, this article examines causes, presentation modes, evaluation, management, and complications of the main paediatric-onset chronic liver diseases, and discusses key issues to aid in planning a program of transition from paediatric to adult patients.

  4. Adult versus adolescent onset of smoking: how are mood disorders and other risk factors involved?

    PubMed Central

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Landolt, Karin; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Gutzwiller, Felix; Rössler, Wulf

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the strength of association between smoking and mood disorders and the association between smoking and its traditional risk factors, comparing those who started smoking in adolescence with those who started smoking in early adulthood. Design and participants The analyses relied on prospective data from the Zurich Study. This longitudinal community study started in 1979 with a stratified sample of 591 participants aged 20/21 years, weighted towards those with mental disorders. Follow-up interviews were conducted at ages 23, 28, 30, 35 and 41. Measurements In this analysis the adult versus adolescent onset of smoking was regressed on the cumulative prevalence of mood disorders, personality characteristics measured by the Freiburg Personality Inventory, common risk factors such as parental smoking, conduct and school problems, troubles with the family and basic sociodemographic variables (sex, education). Findings In the Zurich Study cohort we found that 61.6% were former or current smokers, of whom 87% started smoking before the age of 20 and 13% after the age of 20. Adolescent onset of smoking was associated strongly with later major depression, dysthymia or bipolar disorders and, furthermore, with parental smoking, extroverted personality and discipline problems and rebelliousness in youth. However, only depression and dysthymia were associated with adult onset smoking and other risk factors associated with smoking were not so associated in this group. Conclusions Correlates of smoking onset in adolescence are mainly not applicable to the onset of smoking in young adulthood. Smoking onset beyond adolescence is an open research issue. PMID:19624327

  5. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  6. Early-Onset Psychoses: Comparison of Clinical Features and Adult Outcome in 3 Diagnostic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledda, Maria Giuseppina; Fratta, Anna Lisa; Pintor, Manuela; Zuddas, Alessandro; Cianchetti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of clinical features and adult outcome in adolescents with three types of psychotic disorders: schizophrenic (SPh), schizoaffective (SA) and bipolar with psychotic features (BPP). Subjects (n = 41) were finally diagnosed (DSM-IV criteria) with SPh (n = 17), SA (n = 11) or BPP (n = 13). Clinical evaluation took place at onset and at a…

  7. Physical Therapists' Perceptions of Providing Services to Adults with Childhood-Onset Neuromotor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton-Griffith, Kelsi N.; Cicirello, Nancy A.; Turner, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Adults with childhood-onset neuromotor disabilities face problems accessing health care services. There are often challenges finding primary care providers or specialized providers, such as physical therapists, who are knowledgeable about neuromotor disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of physical therapists…

  8. Adult-Onset Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: Associations with Adolescent Family Processes and Emerging Adulthood Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by conceptual and empirical work on emerging adulthood, this study investigated the role of closeness to mother and father and behavioral autonomy during adolescence on the development of adult-onset antisocial behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we identified four aggressive…

  9. Epidemiology and outcome of articular complications in adult onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Shimi, Rafik; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    The adult onset Still's disease is a rare inflammatory pathology of unknown pathogeny. The clinical features are variable. The diagnosis is difficult since exclusion of infectious, systemic and tumoral pathologies should be done. The articular complications are frequent and can be revelatory of this pathology. The articular prognosis depends on the diagnosis delay and the treatment efficiency. Our study aims to analyze different aspects of articular manifestations complicating adult onset Still disease to define epidemiological, clinical and evolving characteristics of these complications. It was a cross-sectional study concerning 18 cases of adult onset Still disease diagnosed from 1990 to 2014 in the internal medicine A department of Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis, meeting Yamaguchi criteria. We identified clinical, radiological, evolving and therapeutic profile of the articular manifestations occurred in these patients. There were 11 women and 7 men. The average age was 27 years. The arthralgias were reported in all cases; while, the arthritis interested thirteen patients. A hand deformation was found in four patients. A wrist ankylosis was noted in one case and a flexion elbow in one patient. The Standard articular radiographs were normal in ten cases. The treatment associated essentially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and/or corticosteroids and/or methotrexate. Concerning the evolving profile, the monocyclic form was present in 25% of the cases, the intermittent form in 40% and the chronic articular form in 35% of our patients. The adult onset Still's disease is rare and heterogeneous. The articular disturbances are frequent and have various outcomes.

  10. Age of Alcohol-Dependence Onset: Associations with Severity of Dependence and Seeking Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hingson, Ralph W.; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We explored whether people who become alcohol dependent at younger ages are more likely to seek alcohol-related help or treatment or experience chronic relapsing dependence. Methods: In 2001-2002 the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism completed a face-to-face interview survey with a multistage probability sample of 43…

  11. Childhood-Onset Disease Predicts Mortality in an Adult Cohort of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Aimee O.; Trupin, Laura; Yazdany, Jinoos; Panopalis, Peter; Julian, Laura; Katz, Patricia; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Yelin, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood-onset disease as a predictor of mortality in a cohort of adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Data were derived from the University of California Lupus Outcomes Study, a longitudinal cohort of 957 adult subjects with SLE that includes 98 subjects with childhood-onset SLE. Baseline and follow-up data were obtained via telephone interviews conducted between 2002-2007. The number of deaths during 5 years of follow-up was determined and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the cohort, and across age groups, were calculated. Kaplan-Meier life table analysis was used to compare mortality rates between childhood (defined as SLE diagnosis <18 years) and adult-onset SLE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine predictors of mortality. Results During the median follow-up period of 48 months, 72 deaths (7.5% of subjects) occurred, including 9 (12.5%) among those with childhood-onset SLE. The overall SMR was 2.5 (CI 2.0-3.2). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, after adjusting for age, childhood-onset subjects were at increased risk for mortality throughout the follow-up period (p<0.0001). In a multivariate model adjusting for age, disease duration and other covariates, childhood-onset SLE was independently associated with an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-7.3), as was low socioeconomic status measured by education (HR: 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2) and end stage renal disease (HR: 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0). Conclusion Childhood-onset SLE was a strong predictor of mortality in this cohort. Interventions are needed to prevent early mortality in this population. PMID:20235215

  12. A multi-hit endocrine model of intrinsic adult-onset asthma.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L

    2008-04-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that adult-onset asthma is initiated by stress (anxiety and depression), obesity and menopause. Ironically, despite our understanding of the various stressors that promote chronic adult-onset asthma, most of which are known to elevate cortisol production via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay for the treatment of chronic asthma. This implicates other endocrine or cellular changes independent of cortisol synthesis in non-allergic adult-onset asthma. The mechanism by which corticosteroids are thought to modulate bronchial tone in relieving asthma is via corticosteroid-responsive genes that increase PGE(2) and cAMP production which promote muscle relaxation. Therefore, any physiological condition that suppresses intracellular PGE(2) and cAMP production would counter cortisol-induced muscle relaxation and potentially trigger non-allergic adult-onset asthma. Stress, obesity and menopause act on three interrelated endocrine pathways, the serotonergic, leptinergic and hypothalamic pathways, all of which operate through receptors to modulate cAMP and Ca(2+) metabolism in smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We propose that the level of SMC cAMP, as determined by overall signaling through corticosteroid receptors, leptin receptors and the GPCRs of the HPG and serotonergic pathways, will regulate bronchial tone (i.e. the 'Multi-Hit Endocrine Model of Adult-Onset Asthma'). Thus, decreases in HPG (menopause) and serotonergic (depression) signaling and increases in leptinergic (obesity) signaling relative to HPA signaling would decrease cellular SMC cAMP and promote muscle contraction. This model can explain the discrepant epidemiological data associating stress, obesity, depression and menopause with adult-onset asthma and is supported by basic and clinical data. Treatment of depressed or menopausal asthmatics with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or hormone replacement therapy

  13. The Evidence-Based Approach to Adult-Onset Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Canetta, Pietro A. A.; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2015-01-01

    Adult-onset nephrotic syndrome (NS) differs from its pediatric counterpart in several important ways. Most importantly, NS in adults is more etiologically heterogeneous compared to children, and thus treatment approaches rely heavily on the histological diagnosis provided by renal biopsy. The evidence-based approach to treatment of adult NS has been critically examined by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines in glomerulonephritis, published in 2012. Here, we examine the strengths and limits of those guidelines and review recent work that expands the evidence-based approach. PMID:26442238

  14. Adult-onset Nemaline Myopathy Coexisting With Myasthenia Gravis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lingling; Wang, Yanling; Liu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Yanxia; Li, Nianchun; Qiu, Guoping; Luo, Yun; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorder which is characterized by fluctuating muscle fatigue. However, the association of MG with nemaline myopathy is rarely reported. Here we report a case of MG coexisting with adult-onset nemaline myopathy. A 55-year-old man endured fluctuating muscle weakness with positive acetylcholine receptor and titin antibodies. After the patient was administrated cholinergic drugs and immunosuppression, the muscle weakness of the patient had mildly been alleviated. Electromyography showed a progressive decrement in the amplitude of muscle action potential at low frequency. Muscle biopsy showed numerous nemalines in the muscle fibers. This is the first reported case of nemalines present in the muscle fibers of adult patient with MG. The pathogenesis of nemaline may be related to titin antibody in adult-onset nemaline myopathy with MG. PMID:26825889

  15. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Kramer, P.L.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-on-set primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. 57 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus: institutional experience with 2001 patients.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span. Significant differences between the groups were analyzed by a chi-square test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The overall mean (± SEM) incidence of adult hydrocephalus in this population was 77 ± 30 per year, with a significant increase in incidence in the past decade (55 ± 3 [1990-2003] vs 102 ± 6 [2004-2015]; p < 0.0001). Hydrocephalus in a majority of the patients had a vascular etiology (45.5%) or was a result of a tumor (30.2%). The incidence of hydrocephalus in different age groups varied according to various pathologies. The incidence was significantly higher in males with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (p = 0.03) or head injury (p = 0.01) and higher in females with pseudotumor cerebri (p < 0.0001). In addition, the overall incidence of hydrocephalus was significantly higher in Caucasian patients (p = 0.0002) than in those of any other race. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the demographic variations in adult-onset hydrocephalus is helpful in achieving better risk stratification and better managing the disease in patients. For general applicability, these results should be validated in a large-scale meta-analysis based on a national population database.

  17. Epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus: institutional experience with 2001 patients.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span. Significant differences between the groups were analyzed by a chi-square test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The overall mean (± SEM) incidence of adult hydrocephalus in this population was 77 ± 30 per year, with a significant increase in incidence in the past decade (55 ± 3 [1990-2003] vs 102 ± 6 [2004-2015]; p < 0.0001). Hydrocephalus in a majority of the patients had a vascular etiology (45.5%) or was a result of a tumor (30.2%). The incidence of hydrocephalus in different age groups varied according to various pathologies. The incidence was significantly higher in males with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (p = 0.03) or head injury (p = 0.01) and higher in females with pseudotumor cerebri (p < 0.0001). In addition, the overall incidence of hydrocephalus was significantly higher in Caucasian patients (p = 0.0002) than in those of any other race. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the demographic variations in adult-onset hydrocephalus is helpful in achieving better risk stratification and better managing the disease in patients. For general applicability, these results should be validated in a large-scale meta-analysis based on a national population database. PMID:27581317

  18. Rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses to static handgrip in older hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Greaney, J L; Edwards, D G; Fadel, P J; Farquhar, W B

    2015-07-01

    Exaggerated pressor and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses have been reported during static handgrip in hypertensive (HTN) adults. Recent work suggests that such responses may occur much more rapidly in HTN patients; however, this has not been extensively studied. Thus, we examined the blood pressure (BP) and MSNA responses at the immediate onset of muscle contraction and tested the hypothesis that older HTN adults would exhibit rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses compared with normotensive (NTN) adults. Heart rate (HR), BP (Finometer) and MSNA (peroneal microneurography) were retrospectively analyzed in 15 HTN (62 ± 1 years; resting BP 153 ± 3/91 ± 5 mm Hg) and 23 age-matched NTN (60 ± 1 years; resting BP 112 ± 1/67 ± 2 mm Hg) subjects during the first 30 s of static handgrip at 30 and 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). HTN adults demonstrated exaggerated increases in mean BP during the first 10 s of both 30% (NTN: Δ1 ± 1 vs HTN: Δ7 ± 2 mm Hg; P < 0.05) and 40% (NTN: Δ2 ± 1 vs HTN: Δ8 ± 2 mm Hg; P < 0.05) intensity handgrip. Likewise, HTN adults exhibited atypical increases in MSNA within 10 s. Increases in HR were also greater in HTN adults at 10 s of 30% MVC handgrip, although not at 40% MVC. There were no group differences in 10 s pressor or sympathetic responses to a cold pressor test, suggesting no differences in generalized sympathetic responsiveness. Thus, static handgrip evokes rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses in older HTN adults. These findings suggest that older HTN adults likely have greater cardiovascular risk even during short duration activities of daily living that contain an isometric component. PMID:25471615

  19. Rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses to static handgrip in older hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Greaney, J L; Edwards, D G; Fadel, P J; Farquhar, W B

    2015-07-01

    Exaggerated pressor and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses have been reported during static handgrip in hypertensive (HTN) adults. Recent work suggests that such responses may occur much more rapidly in HTN patients; however, this has not been extensively studied. Thus, we examined the blood pressure (BP) and MSNA responses at the immediate onset of muscle contraction and tested the hypothesis that older HTN adults would exhibit rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses compared with normotensive (NTN) adults. Heart rate (HR), BP (Finometer) and MSNA (peroneal microneurography) were retrospectively analyzed in 15 HTN (62 ± 1 years; resting BP 153 ± 3/91 ± 5 mm Hg) and 23 age-matched NTN (60 ± 1 years; resting BP 112 ± 1/67 ± 2 mm Hg) subjects during the first 30 s of static handgrip at 30 and 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). HTN adults demonstrated exaggerated increases in mean BP during the first 10 s of both 30% (NTN: Δ1 ± 1 vs HTN: Δ7 ± 2 mm Hg; P < 0.05) and 40% (NTN: Δ2 ± 1 vs HTN: Δ8 ± 2 mm Hg; P < 0.05) intensity handgrip. Likewise, HTN adults exhibited atypical increases in MSNA within 10 s. Increases in HR were also greater in HTN adults at 10 s of 30% MVC handgrip, although not at 40% MVC. There were no group differences in 10 s pressor or sympathetic responses to a cold pressor test, suggesting no differences in generalized sympathetic responsiveness. Thus, static handgrip evokes rapid onset pressor and sympathetic responses in older HTN adults. These findings suggest that older HTN adults likely have greater cardiovascular risk even during short duration activities of daily living that contain an isometric component.

  20. Nephrin mutations cause childhood- and adult-onset focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Santín, Sheila; García-Maset, Rafael; Ruíz, Patricia; Giménez, Isabel; Zamora, Isabel; Peña, Antonia; Madrid, Alvaro; Camacho, Juan A; Fraga, Gloria; Sánchez-Moreno, Ana; Cobo, Maria Angeles; Bernis, Carmen; Ortiz, Alberto; de Pablos, Augusto Luque; Pintos, Guillem; Justa, Maria Luisa; Hidalgo-Barquero, Emilia; Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Ballarín, José; Ars, Elisabet; Torra, Roser

    2009-12-01

    Mutations in the NPHS1 gene cause congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type presenting before the first 3 months of life. Recently, NPHS1 mutations have also been identified in childhood-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and milder courses of disease, but their role in adults with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis remains unknown. Here we developed an in silico scoring matrix to evaluate the pathogenicity of amino-acid substitutions using the biophysical and biochemical difference between wild-type and mutant amino acid, the evolutionary conservation of the amino-acid residue in orthologs, and defined domains, with the addition of contextual information. Mutation analysis was performed in 97 patients from 89 unrelated families, of which 52 presented with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome after 18 years of age. Compound heterozygous or homozygous NPHS1 mutations were identified in five familial and seven sporadic cases, including one patient 27 years old at onset of the disease. Substitutions were classified as 'severe' or 'mild' using this in silico approach. Our results suggest an earlier onset of the disease in patients with two 'severe' mutations compared to patients with at least one 'mild' mutation. The finding of mutations in a patient with adult-onset focal segmental glomerulosclerosis indicates that NPHS1 analysis could be considered in patients with later onset of the disease.

  1. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  2. Does Lysosomial Acid Lipase Reduction Play a Role in Adult Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis. PMID:26602919

  3. Early onset alcohol use and self-harm: A discordant twin analysis

    PubMed Central

    Few, Lauren R.; Werner, Kimberly B.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Trull, Timothy; Nock, Matthew K.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Deitz, Sarah K.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Statham, Dixie J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-harm has considerable societal and economic costs and has been extensively studied in relation to alcohol involvement. Whereas early onset alcohol use (EAU) has been causally linked to maladaptive clinical outcomes, its association with self-harm is less well characterized. The current study aimed to further examine the link between EAU and both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA), and elucidate shared familial and causal/individual-specific pathways that explain this co-occurrence. Methods Using data from 6,082 Australian same-sex twin pairs (1,732 MZ and 1,309 DZ), ages 23-40, we examined prevalence rates of NSSI and SA among twin pairs concordant and discordant for EAU. Conditional logistic regression, controlling for early clinical covariates and the influence of zygosity on EAU, was used to examine the odds ratio (OR) of self-harm within twin pairs discordant for EAU. Results Prevalence rates of both NSSI and SA were highest among twin pairs concordant for EAU and for twins who reported EAU within discordant twin pairs. Results from discordant twin analyses revealed nearly four-fold increased odds of SA for the twin who endorsed EAU, and this OR was equal across monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. EAU also was associated with elevated odds of NSSI (OR=7.62), although this was only the case for DZ twins in discordant pairs. Conclusions The equivalent increase in odds of SA for both MZ and DZ twins suggests that causal or individual-specific influences explain the link between EAU and SA. For NSSI, elevated odds for DZ twins and nonsignificant findings for MZ twins implicate correlated genetic factors in the association between EAU and NSSI. Future studies should test mechanisms through which EAU may causally influence SA, as well as examine whether genetic risk for third variables (e.g., negative urgency, stress reactivity) may explain the genetic overlap between EAU and NSSI. PMID:26463647

  4. Literacy-Based Supports for Young Adults with FAS/FAE [Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; Belanger, Joe

    During a 1-year period, a study investigated the contributions made by 3 literacy-based supports (support circles, cognitive compensatory tools, and cognitive enhancement tools) to the lives of 5 young adults, aged 16-34, with FAS/FAE (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects). Four of the five subjects had IQs (intelligence quotients) above…

  5. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712

  6. Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiss, Susan G.; Strauss, Monica; Treole, Kathleen; Stuart, Andrew; Boutilier, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the normal relation of swallowing apnea (SA) onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion along with factors that may alter this relation. Forty adults, composed of 10 men and 10 women in each of 2 age groups (i.e., 20-30 and 63-79 years) participated. SA onset was assessed during 5- and 20-ml bolus volumes…

  7. Converging action of alcohol consumption and cannabinoid receptor activation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Mouret, Aurélie; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Lepousez, Gabriel; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; López-Moreno, José Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by successive periods of abstinence and relapse, resulting from long-lasting changes in various circuits of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence points to the endocannabinoid system as one of the most relevant biochemical systems mediating alcohol addiction. The endocannabinoid system regulates adult neurogenesis, a form of long-lasting adult plasticity that occurs in a few areas of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. Because exposure to psychotropic drugs regulates adult neurogenesis, it is possible that neurogenesis might be implicated in the pathophysiology, and hence treatment, of neurobiological illnesses related to drugs of abuse. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of adult hippocampal neurogenesis to alcohol and the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN). Specifically, we analysed the potential link between alcohol relapse, cannabinoid receptor activation, and adult neurogenesis. Adult rats were exposed to subchronic alcohol binge intoxication and received the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN. Another group of rats were subjected to an alcohol operant self-administration task. Half of these latter animals had continuous access to alcohol, while the other half were subjected to alcohol deprivation, with or without WIN administration. WIN treatment, when administered during alcohol deprivation, resulted in the greatest increase in alcohol consumption during relapse. Together, forced alcohol binge intoxication and WIN administration dramatically reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, adult neurogenesis inversely correlated with voluntary consumption of alcohol. These findings suggest that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a key factor involved in drug abuse and that it may provide a new strategy for the treatment of alcohol addiction and dependence.

  8. [Pathophysiology, subtypes, and treatments of adult-onset Still's disease: An update].

    PubMed

    Gerfaud-Valentin, M; Sève, P; Hot, A; Broussolle, C; Jamilloux, Y

    2015-05-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare and difficult to diagnose multisystemic disorder considered as a multigenic autoinflammatory syndrome. Its immunopathogenesis seems to be at the crossroads between inflammasomopathies and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, the most severe manifestation of the disease. According to recent insights in the pathophysiology and thanks to cohort studies and therapeutic trials, two phenotypes of adult-onset Still's disease may be distinguished: a systemic pattern, initially highly symptomatic and with a higher risk to exhibit life-threatening complications such as reactive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, where interleukin-1 blockade seems to be very effective, a chronic articular pattern, more indolent with arthritis in the foreground and less severe systemic manifestations, which would threat functional outcome and where interleukin-6 blockade seems to be more effective. This review focuses on these data.

  9. How does dementia onset in parents influence unmarried adult children's wealth.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kanika

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing concern that long-term care (LTC) needs of older adults lead to negative financial consequences for their family members. This paper examines whether the onset of dementia in parents influences wealth change among unmarried adult children regardless of their status as informal caregivers. Longitudinal data from seven waves (1998-2010) of the Health and Retirement Study (1540 person-wave observations) are used to analyze this question. Unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate that as a result of parental dementia diagnosis, unmarried adult children have lower wealth accumulation above the median of the wealth change distribution. These effects are more pronounced for unmarried adult children without siblings. Further, this response is observed to persist in the subsequent period as well. Both losses in labor income and nursing home expenditures may play a role in leading to wealth declines. PMID:26859082

  10. How does dementia onset in parents influence unmarried adult children's wealth.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kanika

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing concern that long-term care (LTC) needs of older adults lead to negative financial consequences for their family members. This paper examines whether the onset of dementia in parents influences wealth change among unmarried adult children regardless of their status as informal caregivers. Longitudinal data from seven waves (1998-2010) of the Health and Retirement Study (1540 person-wave observations) are used to analyze this question. Unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate that as a result of parental dementia diagnosis, unmarried adult children have lower wealth accumulation above the median of the wealth change distribution. These effects are more pronounced for unmarried adult children without siblings. Further, this response is observed to persist in the subsequent period as well. Both losses in labor income and nursing home expenditures may play a role in leading to wealth declines.

  11. Attitudinal and Normative Predictors of Alcohol Use by Older Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuther, Tara L.; Higgins-D'Alessandro, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Examines a model of alcohol use based on the theory of planned behavior, and expectancy theory on the influence of parents and peers with older adolescents and young adults. Results suggest that, during adolescence, decisions to consume alcohol are rational, based on the consideration of the positive consequences of alcohol use; however, the…

  12. Identification and Evaluation of Communicator Style in Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Susan G.

    Noting that children growing up with an alcoholic parent often suffer from underdeveloped perceptual skills, unhealthy self-concepts, and low self-esteem, a study examined the impact of an alcoholic family environment on the ability of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) to communicate interpersonally. The Communicator Style Measure (CSM) was…

  13. Incidental and Reflective Learning in the Workplace: An Action Science Study of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; And Others

    There are over 28 million children of alcoholics in the United States, 22 million of whom have now reached adulthood yet continue to experience emotional, mental, and physical effects of life in an alcoholic family. In the workplace, adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) have recently become acknowledged as a group who face special challenges. The…

  14. The Rise and Development of the Adult Children of Alcoholics Movement: Merging Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, David R.; Reeves, Edward B.

    Drinking behavior, from abstinence to alcoholism, has been explored from a wide range of intellectual positions, academic disciplines, and ideological stances. The Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) movement is probably the most rapidly expanding enterprise in the alcoholism arena. Social movement theory seeks to describe, explain, and…

  15. Intra-arterial Chemotherapy for Adult Onset Retinoblastoma in a 32-Year-Old Man.

    PubMed

    Magan, Tejal; Khoo, Chloe T L; Jabbour, Pascal M; Fuller, Dwain G; Shields, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    A 32-year-old man with active unilateral group D retinoblastoma that was recurrent following external beam radiotherapy was treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy, leading to tumor regression. Additional plaque radiotherapy and intravitreal chemotherapy were required for complete control. Final visual acuity was 20/40. In selected cases, adult-onset retinoblastoma can be managed with intra-arterial chemotherapy. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e43-e46.]. PMID:27486894

  16. Urticaria and dermographism in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Ayabe, Liliane Akemi; Brandt, Hebert Roberto Clivati; Romiti, Ricardo; Maruta, Celina W

    2012-08-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) patients typically present with arthralgia, fever, lymphadenopathy and a transient salmon maculopapular rash. Only approximately 25 cases of AOSD with urticaria were described in the literature. In this article, the authors report three additional cases of AOSD with urticarial and dermographic lesions who had a good clinical response to glucocorticoid and antihistamines. A review of the literature concerning this issue is also herein written.

  17. Epidemiology and outcome of articular complications in adult onset still's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Shimi, Rafik; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    The adult onset Still's disease is a rare inflammatory pathology of unknown pathogeny. The clinical features are variable. The diagnosis is difficult since exclusion of infectious, systemic and tumoral pathologies should be done. The articular complications are frequent and can be revelatory of this pathology. The articular prognosis depends on the diagnosis delay and the treatment efficiency. Our study aims to analyze different aspects of articular manifestations complicating adult onset Still disease to define epidemiological, clinical and evolving characteristics of these complications. It was a cross-sectional study concerning 18 cases of adult onset Still disease diagnosed from 1990 to 2014 in the internal medicine A department of Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis, meeting Yamaguchi criteria. We identified clinical, radiological, evolving and therapeutic profile of the articular manifestations occurred in these patients. There were 11 women and 7 men. The average age was 27 years. The arthralgias were reported in all cases; while, the arthritis interested thirteen patients. A hand deformation was found in four patients. A wrist ankylosis was noted in one case and a flexion elbow in one patient. The Standard articular radiographs were normal in ten cases. The treatment associated essentially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and/or corticosteroids and/or methotrexate. Concerning the evolving profile, the monocyclic form was present in 25% of the cases, the intermittent form in 40% and the chronic articular form in 35% of our patients. The adult onset Still's disease is rare and heterogeneous. The articular disturbances are frequent and have various outcomes. PMID:26834930

  18. Spatial Learning Deficits in Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schandler, Steven L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated whether visuospatial deficits displayed by chronic alcoholics are present in persons at risk for alcoholism. Compared 17 social drinkers who were children of alcoholics and 17 who had no family alcoholism history. Visuospatial learning of children of alcoholics was significantly poorer than that of subjects with no family alcoholism…

  19. An active lifestyle postpones dementia onset by more than one year in very old adults.

    PubMed

    Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Fratiglioni, Laura; Xu, Weili; Winblad, Bengt; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an active lifestyle delays age at dementia onset. This study included 388 incident dementia cases (DSM-III-R criteria) that developed over a 9-year follow-up period among 1,375 baseline dementia-free community dwellers with good cognitive function (MMSE >23) (mean age = 81.2) from the Kungsholmen Project. An active lifestyle was defined as participation in mental, physical, or social activity. We used linear regression models to estimate influence of baseline active lifestyle on age at onset of incident dementia and general linear models to estimate mean age at dementia onset. Age at onset of dementia was significantly older in persons who had higher levels of participation in mental, physical, or social activity (β: 0.18, 0.29 and 0.23 respectively, p < 0.001 for all the activities) independent of education, medical condition, functional status, and other confounders including APOE. When the three types of activities were integrated into an index, we found that the broader the spectrum of participation in the activities, the later the onset of disease (β = 0.93, p = 0.01 for participating in two activities, and β = 1.42, p < 0.001 for three activities). There were 17 months difference in mean age at dementia onset between the inactive group and the most active group. An active lifestyle operates as a protective factor for dementia by delaying the clinical onset of the disease. These findings highlight the relevance of encouraging old adults to have active lifestyles, which could have a great impact on public health. PMID:22751170

  20. Examining a Brief Suicide Screening Tool in Older Adults Engaging in Risky Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Braithwaite, Scott R.; Pfaff, Jon J.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol misuse increases risk of suicidal behavior in older adults. The Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS; Metalsky & Joiner, 1997) and its relation to suicide attempt history was examined to see if it differed for older adults as a function of their alcohol use. Structural equation modeling was used in a sample (N = 1,061)…

  1. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

  2. Psychological Adjustment among Hispanic Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Arbona, Consuelo

    1991-01-01

    Compares Hispanic adult children of alcoholics with Hispanic adult children of nonalcoholics on Diagnostic Inventory of Personality and Symptoms. Finds significantly higher scores in Somatoform Disorders and Psychological Factors Affecting Physical Conditions scales among children of alcoholics. Women displayed higher scores than men on Affective…

  3. Hookah and Alcohol Use among Young Adult Hookah Smokers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Curbow, Barbara A.; Moorhouse, Michael D.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hookah tobacco smoking has grown steadily in popularity among young adults in the United States. Little attention has been given to the relationship between hookah smoking and another behavior that is common among young adultsalcohol use. The purpose of this study was to examine hookah and alcohol use among young adults. Methods Forty young adult hookah smokers (55% female) participated in focus group sessions on hookah use beliefs and a brief survey examining hookah and alcohol use including drinking alcohol before, during, or after smoking hookah. Results Quotes from the focus groups indicated that alcohol use may promote hookah use among individuals who have little or no hookah smoking experience. Alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol use before, during, and after hookah use were common among the participants regardless of legal drinking age status. Nearly half of the participants preferred to drink alcohol while smoking hookah due to the improved physical and social effects they associated with combining the 2 behaviors. Conclusions For some young adult hookah smokers, alcohol appears to enhance the hookah smoking experience and may play a role in hookah smoking initiation. Future research and interventions should address the association between hookah and alcohol use. PMID:26248176

  4. Alcohol consumption in older adults and Medicare costs.

    PubMed

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Lumley, Thomas; Luepker, Russell V; Lapin, Pauline; Mittleman, Murray A; McBean, A Marshall; Crum, Rosa M; Siscovick, David S

    2006-01-01

    We determined the relationship of alcohol consumption and Medicare costs among 4,392 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a longitudinal, population-based cohort study of adults age 65 or over in four U.S. communities. We assessed 5-year Parts A and B costs and self-reported intake of beer, wine, and liquor at baseline. Among both sexes, total costs were approximately $2,000 lower among consumers of > 1-6 drinks per week than abstainers. The lower costs associated with moderate drinking were most apparent among participants with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for hospitalization costs for CVD among healthy participants. Former drinkers had the highest costs. PMID:17290648

  5. Type II (adult onset) citrullinaemia: clinical pictures and the therapeutic effect of liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, S; Yazaki, M; Takei, Y; Ikegami, T; Hashikura, Y; Kawasaki, S; Iwai, M; Kobayashi, K; Saheki, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Adult onset type II citrullinemia is an inherited disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by a deficiency of liver specific argininosuccinate synthetase activity. Most of the patients with this disease were reported in Japan and therefore, this disease has not been well recognised outside this country. The detailed clinical pictures of the patients with type II citrullinaemia are reported and their outcomes after liver transplantation referred to.
METHODS—Ten patients with this disease were evaluated. Seven of them underwent liver transplants using a graft obtained from a healthy family member.
RESULTS—There were six men and four women; the age of onset of encephalopathy ranged from 17 to 51 years. The initial symptom in nine patients was sudden onset disturbance of consciousness, and one patient had long been regarded as having a chronic progressive psychotic illness. High concentrations of plasma citrulline and ammonia were commonly seen on admission. Although brain CT or MRI lacked any consistent findings, the EEG was abnormal in all patients, showing diffuse slow waves. Additionally, in five patients chronic pancreatitis preceded the onset of encephalopathy. After liver transplantation the metabolic abnormalities, including abnormal plasma concentrations of citrulline and ammonia, were immediately corrected and all neuropsychic symptoms soon disappeared, except for impaired cognitive function in one patient. Six out of these seven patients returned to their previous social lives, including work.
CONCLUSIONS—The clinical concept of adult onset type II citrullinaemia coincides well with the range of hepatic encephalopathy, and liver transplantation is a very promising therapeutic approach.

 PMID:11606680

  6. Chinese new immigrant mothers' perception about adult-onset non-communicable diseases prevention during childhood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linda Dong Ling; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Wu, Joseph Tsz Kei; Fielding, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Many non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are largely preventable via behaviour change and healthy lifestyle, which may be best established during childhood. This study sought insights into Chinese new immigrant mothers' perceptions about adult-onset NCDs prevention during childhood. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with new immigrant mothers from mainland China who had at least one child aged 14 years or younger living in Hong Kong. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The present study identified three major themes: perceived causes of adult NCDs, beliefs about NCDs prevention and everyday health information practices. Unhealthy lifestyle, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of adult NCDs. Less than half of the participants recognized that parents had responsibility for helping children establish healthy behaviours from an early age to prevent diseases in later life. Most participants expressed helplessness about chronic diseases prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, being perceived as beyond individual control. Many participants experienced barriers to seeking health information, the most common sources of health information being interpersonal conversation and television. Participants' everyday information practice was passive and generally lacked awareness regarding early prevention of adult-onset NCDs. Updated understanding of this issue has notable implications for future health promotion interventions.

  7. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    PubMed

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  8. Chinese new immigrant mothers' perception about adult-onset non-communicable diseases prevention during childhood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linda Dong Ling; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Wu, Joseph Tsz Kei; Fielding, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Many non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are largely preventable via behaviour change and healthy lifestyle, which may be best established during childhood. This study sought insights into Chinese new immigrant mothers' perceptions about adult-onset NCDs prevention during childhood. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with new immigrant mothers from mainland China who had at least one child aged 14 years or younger living in Hong Kong. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The present study identified three major themes: perceived causes of adult NCDs, beliefs about NCDs prevention and everyday health information practices. Unhealthy lifestyle, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of adult NCDs. Less than half of the participants recognized that parents had responsibility for helping children establish healthy behaviours from an early age to prevent diseases in later life. Most participants expressed helplessness about chronic diseases prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, being perceived as beyond individual control. Many participants experienced barriers to seeking health information, the most common sources of health information being interpersonal conversation and television. Participants' everyday information practice was passive and generally lacked awareness regarding early prevention of adult-onset NCDs. Updated understanding of this issue has notable implications for future health promotion interventions. PMID:24842077

  9. Tension-type headache in Parma's adult general population: a focus on age of onset.

    PubMed

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian C; Torelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the age of onset for tension-type headache in a population-based sample in the Parma, distinguishing its different subtypes and considering definite and probable diagnoses. Age of headache onset is a useful clinical feature for differential diagnosis between primary headaches and between primary and secondary headache forms. A total of 904 subjects representative of the Parma's adult general population were interviewed face to face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire specially designed for the diagnosis of primary headaches according to the ICHD-II criteria. In the majority of subjects diagnosed with definite tension-type headache, age of onset was 39 years or less, while mean age of onset was 29.7 years (SD 16.3 years, range 5-79 years), the median being 25 years. Both infrequent and frequent episodic definite tension-type headache first occurred in the majority of cases in the second, third and fourth decades. Subjects with chronic definite tension-type headache reported a later onset in life (i.e. fourth, fifth and sixth decades). In our study, mean age of onset for probable tension-type headache was 23.7 years (SD 9.2 years, range 10-40 years) and the median was 22 years. In no case did we find significant gender differences. Our study results are similar to most of those reported in the literature. Further research needs to be done in the Italian epidemiological context, given the lack of literature reports on this topic.

  10. Pesticide methoxychlor promotes the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease through the female germline.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures.

  11. Pesticide Methoxychlor Promotes the Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult-Onset Disease through the Female Germline

    PubMed Central

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M. Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:25057798

  12. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in peri-adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Sable, Helen J K; Schultz, Jonathon A; Hsu, Cathleen C; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among adolescents continues to be a major health problem for our society. Our laboratory has used the peri-adolescent alcohol-preferring, P, rat as an animal model of adolescent alcohol abuse. Even though peri-adolescent P rats consume more alcohol (g/kg/day) than their adult counterparts, it is uncertain whether their drinking is sufficiently aggregated to result in measurable blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). The objectives of this study were to examine daily alcohol drinking patterns of adolescent and adult, male and female P rats, and to determine whether alcohol drinking episodes were sufficiently aggregated to result in meaningful BECs. Male and female P rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to alcohol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that (a) peri-adolescent P rats consumed more water and total fluids than adult P rats, (b) female P rats consumed more water and total fluids than male P rats, (c) there were differences in alcohol, and water, licking patterns between peri-adolescent and adult and female and male P rats, (d) individual licking patterns revealed that alcohol was consumed in bouts often exceeding the amount required to self-administer 1 g/kg of alcohol, and (e) BECs at the end of the dark cycle, on the 30th day of alcohol access, averaged 50 mg%, with alcohol intakes during the last 1 to 2 h averaging 1.2 g/kg. Overall, these findings indicate that alcohol drinking patterns differ across the age and sex of P rats. This suggests that the effectiveness of treatments for reducing excessive alcohol intake may vary depending upon the age and/or sex of the subjects being tested.

  13. The Onset of Depression During the Great Recession: Foreclosure and Older Adult Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.; Iveniuk, James; English, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined neighborhood-level foreclosure rates and their association with onset of depressive symptoms in older adults. Methods. We linked data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (2005–2006 and 2010–2011 waves), a longitudinal, nationally representative survey, to data on zip code–level foreclosure rates, and predicted the onset of depressive symptoms using logit-linked regression. Results. Multiple stages of the foreclosure process predicted the onset of depressive symptoms, with adjustment for demographic characteristics and changes in household assets, neighborhood poverty, and visible neighborhood disorder. A large increase in the number of notices of default (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14, 2.67) and properties returning to ownership by the bank (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.47) were associated with depressive symptoms. A large increase in properties going to auction was suggestive of such an association (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96, 2.19). Age, fewer years of education, and functional limitations also were predictive. Conclusions. Increases in neighborhood-level foreclosure represent an important risk factor for depression in older adults. These results accord with previous studies suggesting that the effects of economic crises are typically first experienced through deficits in emotional well-being. PMID:24446830

  14. Intermittent rhabdomyolysis with adult onset associated with a mutation in the ACADVL gene.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Ana Patrícia; Nogueira, Célia; Rocha, Hugo; Vilarinho, Laura; Evangelista, Teresinha

    2013-12-01

    Deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is an autosomal recessive disease. Most common phenotypes occur in the neonatal period or in childhood with cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly, and hypoketogenic hypoglycemia. Juvenile/adult-onset is characterized by exercise intolerance and recurrent rhabdomyolysis triggered by prolonged exercise or fasting. This article reports a patient with the homozygous mutation c.1097G>A (p.R366H) in the ACADVL gene. In Portugal, VLCAD deficiency became part of the neonatal screening plan in 2004, and as of 2012, 8 early-onset cases have been diagnosed, giving an incidence rate of 1:97.238 per 737.902 newborns. This patient was diagnosed outside of the neonatal screening plan. Beta-oxidation defects pose a diagnostic challenge because of their transient clinical and laboratorial manifestations and the absence of morphological changes in muscle biopsy further complicate matters, especially in the late-onset forms of the disease. The adult phenotype of VLCAD deficiency is highlighted, emphasizing the need for a high suspicion index and the value of tandem mass spectrometry for the diagnosis. PMID:24263034

  15. Mutated CTSF in adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and FTD

    PubMed Central

    van der Zee, Julie; Mariën, Peter; Crols, Roeland; Van Mossevelde, Sara; Dillen, Lubina; Perrone, Federica; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Verhoeven, Jo; D'aes, Tine; Ceuterick-De Groote, Chantal; Sieben, Anne; Versijpt, Jan; Cras, Patrick; Martin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the molecular basis of a Belgian family with autosomal recessive adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL or Kufs disease [KD]) with pronounced frontal lobe involvement and to expand the findings to a cohort of unrelated Belgian patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: Genetic screening in the ANCL family and FTD cohort (n = 461) was performed using exome sequencing and targeted massive parallel resequencing. Results: We identified a homozygous mutation (p.Ile404Thr) in the Cathepsin F (CTSF) gene cosegregating in the ANCL family. No other mutations were found that could explain the disease in this family. All 4 affected sibs developed motor symptoms and early-onset dementia with prominent frontal features. Two of them evolved to akinetic mutism. Disease presentation showed marked phenotypic variation with the onset ranging from 26 to 50 years. Myoclonic epilepsy in one of the sibs was suggestive for KD type A, while epilepsy was not present in the other sibs who presented with clinical features of KD type B. In a Belgian cohort of unrelated patients with FTD, the same heterozygous p.Arg245His mutation was identified in 2 patients who shared a common haplotype. Conclusions: A homozygous CTSF mutation was identified in a recessive ANCL pedigree. In contrast to the previous associations of CTSF with KD type B, our findings suggest that CTSF genetic testing should also be considered in patients with KD type A as well as in early-onset dementia with prominent frontal lobe and motor symptoms.

  16. Juvenile versus adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis -- clinical, radiographic, and social outcomes. a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jadon, Deepak R; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Sengupta, Raj

    2013-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has 2 main modes of onset: juvenile-onset AS (JoAS) and adult-onset AS (AoAS). It is not known whether JoAS is a subtype of AS, or AS modulated by early age of onset and longer disease duration. We performed a systematic review of the literature, identifying 12 articles and 1 abstract directly comparing JoAS and AoAS cohorts, with observational study design. Patients with JoAS appear to have more peripheral joint involvement both clinically and radiographically (especially knees and ankles) and more root joint involvement (hips and shoulders); they are more likely to proceed to hip arthroplasty and often initially present with peripheral rather than axial symptoms. Patients with AoAS appear to have more axial symptoms and radiographic disease, particularly in the lumbar spine, and worse axial metrology. In terms of other characteristics, more evidence is needed to confidently state whether JoAS and AoAS are different.

  17. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  18. Ketosis-onset diabetes in Tunisian adults: immunological markers and beta-cell function.

    PubMed

    Harzallah, F; Ben Brahim, A; Laadhar, L; Feki, M; Zitouni, M; Makni, S; Kaabachi, N; Slimane, H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study in Tunisia was to classify ketosis-onset diabetes in adult patients. All patients aged > 30 years without known diabetes, presenting with ketosis and admitted to our department were studied. Patients with secondary or gestational diabetes and those on corticoid therapy or with coinciding infection were excluded. The data included clinical characteristics, immunological markers and beta-cell function. Of the 63 patients, islet-cell antibodies were present in 27.0%, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in 25.4% and thyrosin phosphatase antibodies in 19.0%. Beta-cell functional reserve was preserved in 54.0%. Our results confirm that patients with ketosis-onset diabetes mellitus in adulthood are a heterogeneous group. PMID:20214161

  19. Adult-Onset Familial Mediterranean Fever in Northwestern Iran; Clinical Feature and Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Nobakht, H; Zamani, F; Ajdarkosh, H; Mohamadzadeh, Z; Fereshtehnejad, SM; Nassaji, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sporadic, paroxysmal attacks of fever and serosal inflammation. Although the disease usually begins before the age of 20 years, we aimed to evaluate the demography, clinical features and treatment outcome of familial Mediterranean fever in Iranian adult patients above 20 years old. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, adult patients (first attack at the age of >20 years) with a diagnosis of FMF who referred to the gastroenterology and rheumatology Clinics of Ardebil University of Medical Science (situated in north west of Iran) over the period of 2004-2009 were enrolled. FMF diagnosis was based on clinical criteria. RESULTS Forty four FMF patients (30 male and 14 female) with the mean [± Standard Deviation (SD)] age of first attack of 29 ± 7.8 years were enrolled. Abdominal pain (95.5%) and fever (91%) were the most common clinical findings. All of the patients had satisfactorily responded to therapy. Response was complete in 76.7% and partial in 23.3% of the patients. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of amyloidosis at the time of diagnosis or during follow-up. CONCLUSION Our findings demonstrated that adult-onset FMF in Iran has different characteristics (more common in males, lesser prevalence of arthritis and erysipelas-like erythema, less delay in diagnosis) and treatment outcome (favorable response even to low-dose colchicine) in comparison with the previous data on early onset patients. PMID:25197532

  20. Adult-onset familial mediterranean Fever in northwestern iran; clinical feature and treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Nobakht, H; Zamani, F; Ajdarkosh, H; Mohamadzadeh, Z; Fereshtehnejad, Sm; Nassaji, M

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sporadic, paroxysmal attacks of fever and serosal inflammation. Although the disease usually begins before the age of 20 years, we aimed to evaluate the demography, clinical features and treatment outcome of familial Mediterranean fever in Iranian adult patients above 20 years old. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, adult patients (first attack at the age of >20 years) with a diagnosis of FMF who referred to the gastroenterology and rheumatology Clinics of Ardebil University of Medical Science (situated in north west of Iran) over the period of 2004-2009 were enrolled. FMF diagnosis was based on clinical criteria. RESULTS Forty four FMF patients (30 male and 14 female) with the mean [± Standard Deviation (SD)] age of first attack of 29 ± 7.8 years were enrolled. Abdominal pain (95.5%) and fever (91%) were the most common clinical findings. All of the patients had satisfactorily responded to therapy. Response was complete in 76.7% and partial in 23.3% of the patients. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of amyloidosis at the time of diagnosis or during follow-up. CONCLUSION Our findings demonstrated that adult-onset FMF in Iran has different characteristics (more common in males, lesser prevalence of arthritis and erysipelas-like erythema, less delay in diagnosis) and treatment outcome (favorable response even to low-dose colchicine) in comparison with the previous data on early onset patients.

  1. Generation of a novel mouse model that recapitulates early and adult onset glycogenosis type IV.

    PubMed

    Akman, H Orhan; Sheiko, Tatiana; Tay, Stacey K H; Finegold, Milton J; Dimauro, Salvatore; Craigen, William J

    2011-11-15

    Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the glycogen branching enzyme (GBE). The diagnostic feature of the disease is the accumulation of a poorly branched form of glycogen known as polyglucosan (PG). The disease is clinically heterogeneous, with variable tissue involvement and age of disease onset. Absence of enzyme activity is lethal in utero or in infancy affecting primarily muscle and liver. However, residual enzyme activity (5-20%) leads to juvenile or adult onset of a disorder that primarily affects muscle as well as central and peripheral nervous system. Here, we describe two mouse models of GSD IV that reflect this spectrum of disease. Homologous recombination was used to insert flippase recognition target recombination sites around exon 7 of the Gbe1 gene and a phosphoglycerate kinase-Neomycin cassette within intron 7, leading to a reduced synthesis of GBE. Mice bearing this mutation (Gbe1(neo/neo)) exhibit a phenotype similar to juvenile onset GSD IV, with wide spread accumulation of PG. Meanwhile, FLPe-mediated homozygous deletion of exon 7 completely eliminated GBE activity (Gbe1(-/-)), leading to a phenotype of lethal early onset GSD IV, with significant in utero accumulation of PG. Adult mice with residual GBE exhibit progressive neuromuscular dysfunction and die prematurely. Differently from muscle, PG in liver is a degradable source of glucose and readily depleted by fasting, emphasizing that there are structural and regulatory differences in glycogen metabolism among tissues. Both mouse models recapitulate typical histological and physiological features of two human variants of branching enzyme deficiency. PMID:21856731

  2. Characterisation of a syndrome of autoimmune adult onset focal epilepsy and encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Bleasel, Andrew; Parratt, John; Orr, Carolyn; Dale, Russell C; Vincent, Angela; Fung, Victor S C

    2014-07-01

    We report a series of patients with a clinical syndrome characterised by the explosive onset in adulthood of recurrent focal seizures of frontotemporal onset and features suggestive of autoimmune encephalitis. We propose that this presentation of "autoimmune adult onset focal epilepsy and encephalitis" is a recognisable clinical syndrome, and provide evidence it may be associated with heterogeneous immunological targets. Between 2008 and 2011 we encountered six patients with new-onset epilepsy in whom we suspected an autoimmune aetiology. We first characterised the clinical, electroencephalographic, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), imaging, and pathological findings of this syndrome. We subsequently tested them for antibodies against both intracellular and neuronal cell surface antigens. All patients presented with recurrent seizures with focal frontotemporal onset, refractory to multiple anticonvulsants. Four had focal T2-weighted hyperintensities on MRI. CSF mononuclear cells were variably elevated with positive oligoclonal bands in four. Brain biopsy in one patient demonstrated perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. Two were treated with immunosuppression and went on to achieve complete seizure control and return to baseline cognition. Three of four patients who received only pulsed steroids or no treatment had ongoing frequent seizures, with two dying of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Subsequently, three had antibodies identified against neuronal cell surface antigens including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1. We suggest that patients with such a presentation should be carefully evaluated for a suspected autoimmune aetiology targeting cell surface antigens and have a therapeutic trial of immunosuppression as this may improve their long-term outcome. PMID:24518268

  3. Bartonella henselae infection presenting with a picture of adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Durey, Areum; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Im, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Sun Myoung; Baek, JiHyeon; Han, Seung Baik; Kang, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2016-05-01

    We report a patient with a clinical picture of suggestive for adult-onset Still's Disease (ASOD) due to Bartonella infection. A 42-year-old immunocompetent man was admitted with fever, rash, arthralgia and sore throat. As his clinical picture suggested ASOD except unusual skin manifestation, we treated him on steroid and ibuprofen. His fever and constitutional symptoms responded immediately within 24hrs of commencing therapy, yet rash and leukocytosis remained. Meanwhile, Bartonella infection was proved by culture of bone marrow. Minocyclin treatment started combined with hydroxychloroquine sulfate and the patient discharged with overall improvement. PMID:27000538

  4. Adult Onset Still's Disease: A Review on Diagnostic Workup and Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Gopalarathinam, Rajesh; Orlowsky, Eric; Kesavalu, Ramesh; Yelaminchili, Sreeteja

    2016-01-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology and pathogenesis that presents in 5 to 10% of patients as fever of unknown origin (FUO) accompanied by systemic manifestations. We report an interesting case of a 33-year-old African-American male who presented with one-month duration of FUO along with skin rash, sore throat, and arthralgia. After extensive workup, potential differential diagnoses were ruled out and the patient was diagnosed with AOSD based on the Yamaguchi criteria. The case history, incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, differential diagnoses, diagnostic workup, treatment modalities, and prognosis of AOSD are discussed in this case report. PMID:27042373

  5. Psychological impact of genetic testing for adult-onset disorders. An update for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Meiser, B; Gleeson, M A; Tucker, K M

    2000-02-01

    Testing for gene mutations that confer susceptibility to adult-onset disorders has potential benefits, but these must be balanced against the psychological harms, if any. We review published findings on the psychological effects of such testing, focusing on Huntington's disease, which has the most available data, and the hereditary cancer syndromes. Most of the evidence suggests that non-carriers and carriers differ significantly in terms of short-term, but not long-term, psychological adjustment to test results. The psychological impact of genetic testing depends more on pretest psychological distress than the test result itself. PMID:10735024

  6. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  7. Adult Onset Still's Disease: A Review on Diagnostic Workup and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Gopalarathinam, Rajesh; Orlowsky, Eric; Kesavalu, Ramesh; Yelaminchili, Sreeteja

    2016-01-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology and pathogenesis that presents in 5 to 10% of patients as fever of unknown origin (FUO) accompanied by systemic manifestations. We report an interesting case of a 33-year-old African-American male who presented with one-month duration of FUO along with skin rash, sore throat, and arthralgia. After extensive workup, potential differential diagnoses were ruled out and the patient was diagnosed with AOSD based on the Yamaguchi criteria. The case history, incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, differential diagnoses, diagnostic workup, treatment modalities, and prognosis of AOSD are discussed in this case report. PMID:27042373

  8. Cord Blood Transplantation Following Reduced-intensity Conditioning for Adult-onset Inherited Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Takuro; Kato, Koji; Sakamoto, Keiji; Hayashi, Masayasu; Takashima, Shuichiro; Mori, Yasuo; Takenaka, Katsuto; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Teshima, Takanori; Harada, Naoki; Nagafuji, Koji; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Akashi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Inherited hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a genetic anomaly disorder in which abnormally activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes cannot induce the apoptosis of target cells and antigen-presenting cells, leading to hemophagocytosis, pancytopenia, and a variety of symptoms such as a high fever. The present patient with adult-onset HLH developed refractory disease despite receiving immunosuppressive treatments. He underwent a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen that comprised antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by cord blood transplantation (RIC-CBT). He achieved and maintained a complete donor type. The incorporation of ATG into RIC-CBT may prevent graft failure and control hemophagocytosis, however, further efforts are necessary to reduce infectious complications. PMID:26984088

  9. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  10. Adult-onset painful axonal polyneuropathy caused by a dominant NAGLU mutation

    PubMed Central

    Tétreault, Martine; Gonzalez, Michael; Dicaire, Marie-Josée; Allard, Pierre; Gehring, Kalle; Leblanc, Diane; Leclerc, Nadine; Schondorf, Ronald; Mathieu, Jean; Zuchner, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Late-onset painful sensory neuropathies are usually acquired conditions associated with common diseases. Adult presentations of known hereditary forms are often accompanied by other organ involvement. We recruited a large French-Canadian family with a dominantly inherited late-onset painful sensory neuropathy. The main clinical feature is recurrent leg pain that progresses to constant painful paraesthesias in the feet and later the hands. As it evolves, some patients develop a mild sensory ataxia. We selected four affected individuals for whole exome sequencing. Analysis of rare variants shared by all cases led to a list of four candidate variants. Segregation analysis in all 45 recruited individuals has shown that only the p.Ile403Thr variant in the α-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAGLU) gene segregates with the disease. Recessive NAGLU mutations cause the severe childhood lysosomal disease mucopolysacharidosis IIIB. Family members carrying the mutation showed a significant decrease of the enzymatic function (average 45%). The late-onset and variable severity of the symptoms may have precluded the description of such symptoms in parents of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB cases. The identification of a dominant phenotype associated with a NAGLU mutation supports that some carriers of lysosomal enzyme mutations may develop later in life much milder phenotypes. PMID:25818867

  11. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L; Pandey, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  12. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kyzar, Evan J.; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  13. Compound heterozygote mutations in SPG7 in a family with adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Lynch, David R.; Lukas, Thomas; Ahmeti, Kreshnik; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Ryan, Eanna; Schadt, Kimberly A.; Newman, Jordan H.; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic defect for adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) in a family with 5 patients. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the shared genetic variants in 3 affected members in a PLS family with 5 affected individuals. Sanger sequencing was used for validation of the variants and for cosegregation analysis. Mitochondrial activity for both patients and unaffected siblings was measured using a SeaHorse metabolic analyzer. Results: Whole-exome sequencing and subsequent cosegregation analysis demonstrated that compound heterozygous missense variants L695P and I743T in SPG7 were the only mutations cosegregating with the disease in an autosomal recessive fashion in this family. The parents and siblings are genetically heterozygous and clinically unaffected. Functional studies suggested that the PLS-associated SPG7 mutants affect mitochondrial function when glucose is reduced. Conclusions: Compound heterozygote mutations in SPG7 are associated with adult-onset PLS, extending the spectrum of SPG7-linked neurologic diseases. Patients with the PLS phenotype should have genetic testing for paraplegin, especially when the condition is familial. PMID:27123479

  14. Similarities in speech and white matter characteristics in idiopathic developmental stuttering and adult-onset stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Synnestvedt, Anna; Ostuni, John

    2009-01-01

    Adult-onset stuttering (AS) typically occurs following neurological and/or psychological trauma, considered different from developmental stuttering (DS), which starts during early childhood with few if any new cases reported after adolescence. Here we report four cases of AS, two with apparent psychological trigger and two without, none with evidence of neurological injury, and none conforming to previously reported characteristics of psychogenic stuttering. We asked whether this group of AS would have similar speech and neuroanatomical characteristics to those with DS. We conducted blinded analyses of speech samples in both AS cases and 14 cases of DS on type, frequency, and loci of disfluencies. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted to compare white matter tracts using fractional anisotropy (FA). We found that AS did not differ significantly from DS in any of the speech characteristics measured. On DTI, DS had significantly increased FA relative to controls in the right superior longitudinal tract. AS cases showed a similar trend for increases in these regions when compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that symptoms of idiopathic stuttering can begin during adulthood, and that similar neuroanatomical differences from controls may be associated with both developmental and adult onset idiopathic stuttering. PMID:20640049

  15. Efficacy of Retigabine in Adjunctive Treatment of Partial Onset Seizures in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Splinter, Michele Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of retigabine (ezogabine, US adopted name) in the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults. Retigabine is the first anticonvulsant in its class, decreasing neuronal excitability by opening voltage-gated potassium channels. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched using search terms retigabine and ezogabine for randomized controlled trials published from 1980 through August 17, 2013. Additionally, articles relating to pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and interactions were examined for inclusion. Published abstracts and websites of the Food and Drug Administration and European Medication Agency were reviewed for additional relevant information. Results One phase IIb and two phase III trials were identified. Retigabine has been reported to have dose dependent efficacy in adjunctive treatment of resistant partial-onset seizures in adults in doses of 600, 900 and 1200 mg/day. Similar to other anticonvulsants, the most common adverse events were central nervous system related. Retigabine has several unique adverse events compared to other anticonvulsants: urinary retention and, with extended use, pigment changes to the skin and retina. Retigabine is metabolized by glucuronidation and acetylation. There are few drug interactions with retigabine. Conclusions Retigabine has been shown to have efficacy when used as adjunctive therapy in partial-onset seizures. It has a novel mechanism of action, activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. It has less drug interactions than many other anticonvulsants because it is not metabolized through the P-450 system. Its place in therapy has yet to be determined, especially with recent reports of pigment discoloration of skin and the retina with extended use. PMID:24250245

  16. Axial mitochondrial myopathy in a patient with rapidly progressive adult-onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Hiniker, Annie; Wong, Lee-Jun; Berven, Sigurd; Truong, Cavatina K; Adesina, Adekunle M; Margeta, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Axial myopathy can be the underlying cause of rapidly progressive adult-onset scoliosis; however, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains poorly understood. Here we present a case of a 69-year old woman with a family history of scoliosis affecting both her mother and her son, who over 4 years developed rapidly progressive scoliosis. The patient had a history of stable scoliosis since adolescence that worsened significantly at age 65, leading to low back pain and radiculopathy. Paraspinal muscle biopsy showed morphologic evidence of a mitochondrial myopathy. Diagnostic deficiencies of electron transport chain enzymes were not detected using standard bioassays, but mitochondrial immunofluorescence demonstrated many muscle fibers totally or partially deficient for complexes I, III, IV-I, and IV-IV. Massively parallel sequencing of paraspinal muscle mtDNA detected multiple deletions as well as a 40.9% heteroplasmic novel m.12293G > A (MT-TL2) variant, which changes a G:C pairing to an A:C mispairing in the anticodon stem of tRNA Leu(CUN). Interestingly, these mitochondrial abnormalities were not detected in the blood of either the patient or her son, suggesting that the patient's rapidly progressive late onset scoliosis was due to the acquired paraspinal mitochondrial myopathy; the cause of non-progressive scoliosis in the other two family members currently remains unexplained. Notably, this case illustrates that isolated mitochondrial myopathy can underlie rapidly-progressive adult-onset scoliosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the primary axial myopathy.

  17. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  18. Sensorimotor Oscillations Prior to Speech Onset Reflect Altered Motor Networks in Adults Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Mersov, Anna-Maria; Jobst, Cecilia; Cheyne, Douglas O.; De Nil, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Adults who stutter (AWS) have demonstrated atypical coordination of motor and sensory regions during speech production. Yet little is known of the speech-motor network in AWS in the brief time window preceding audible speech onset. The purpose of the current study was to characterize neural oscillations in the speech-motor network during preparation for and execution of overt speech production in AWS using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twelve AWS and 12 age-matched controls were presented with 220 words, each word embedded in a carrier phrase. Controls were presented with the same word list as their matched AWS participant. Neural oscillatory activity was localized using minimum-variance beamforming during two time periods of interest: speech preparation (prior to speech onset) and speech execution (following speech onset). Compared to controls, AWS showed stronger beta (15–25 Hz) suppression in the speech preparation stage, followed by stronger beta synchronization in the bilateral mouth motor cortex. AWS also recruited the right mouth motor cortex significantly earlier in the speech preparation stage compared to controls. Exaggerated motor preparation is discussed in the context of reduced coordination in the speech-motor network of AWS. It is further proposed that exaggerated beta synchronization may reflect a more strongly inhibited motor system that requires a stronger beta suppression to disengage prior to speech initiation. These novel findings highlight critical differences in the speech-motor network of AWS that occur prior to speech onset and emphasize the need to investigate further the speech-motor assembly in the stuttering population.

  19. Sensorimotor Oscillations Prior to Speech Onset Reflect Altered Motor Networks in Adults Who Stutter.

    PubMed

    Mersov, Anna-Maria; Jobst, Cecilia; Cheyne, Douglas O; De Nil, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Adults who stutter (AWS) have demonstrated atypical coordination of motor and sensory regions during speech production. Yet little is known of the speech-motor network in AWS in the brief time window preceding audible speech onset. The purpose of the current study was to characterize neural oscillations in the speech-motor network during preparation for and execution of overt speech production in AWS using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twelve AWS and 12 age-matched controls were presented with 220 words, each word embedded in a carrier phrase. Controls were presented with the same word list as their matched AWS participant. Neural oscillatory activity was localized using minimum-variance beamforming during two time periods of interest: speech preparation (prior to speech onset) and speech execution (following speech onset). Compared to controls, AWS showed stronger beta (15-25 Hz) suppression in the speech preparation stage, followed by stronger beta synchronization in the bilateral mouth motor cortex. AWS also recruited the right mouth motor cortex significantly earlier in the speech preparation stage compared to controls. Exaggerated motor preparation is discussed in the context of reduced coordination in the speech-motor network of AWS. It is further proposed that exaggerated beta synchronization may reflect a more strongly inhibited motor system that requires a stronger beta suppression to disengage prior to speech initiation. These novel findings highlight critical differences in the speech-motor network of AWS that occur prior to speech onset and emphasize the need to investigate further the speech-motor assembly in the stuttering population. PMID:27642279

  20. Sensorimotor Oscillations Prior to Speech Onset Reflect Altered Motor Networks in Adults Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Mersov, Anna-Maria; Jobst, Cecilia; Cheyne, Douglas O.; De Nil, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Adults who stutter (AWS) have demonstrated atypical coordination of motor and sensory regions during speech production. Yet little is known of the speech-motor network in AWS in the brief time window preceding audible speech onset. The purpose of the current study was to characterize neural oscillations in the speech-motor network during preparation for and execution of overt speech production in AWS using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twelve AWS and 12 age-matched controls were presented with 220 words, each word embedded in a carrier phrase. Controls were presented with the same word list as their matched AWS participant. Neural oscillatory activity was localized using minimum-variance beamforming during two time periods of interest: speech preparation (prior to speech onset) and speech execution (following speech onset). Compared to controls, AWS showed stronger beta (15–25 Hz) suppression in the speech preparation stage, followed by stronger beta synchronization in the bilateral mouth motor cortex. AWS also recruited the right mouth motor cortex significantly earlier in the speech preparation stage compared to controls. Exaggerated motor preparation is discussed in the context of reduced coordination in the speech-motor network of AWS. It is further proposed that exaggerated beta synchronization may reflect a more strongly inhibited motor system that requires a stronger beta suppression to disengage prior to speech initiation. These novel findings highlight critical differences in the speech-motor network of AWS that occur prior to speech onset and emphasize the need to investigate further the speech-motor assembly in the stuttering population. PMID:27642279

  1. Mutated CTSF in adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and FTD

    PubMed Central

    van der Zee, Julie; Mariën, Peter; Crols, Roeland; Van Mossevelde, Sara; Dillen, Lubina; Perrone, Federica; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Verhoeven, Jo; D'aes, Tine; Ceuterick-De Groote, Chantal; Sieben, Anne; Versijpt, Jan; Cras, Patrick; Martin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the molecular basis of a Belgian family with autosomal recessive adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL or Kufs disease [KD]) with pronounced frontal lobe involvement and to expand the findings to a cohort of unrelated Belgian patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: Genetic screening in the ANCL family and FTD cohort (n = 461) was performed using exome sequencing and targeted massive parallel resequencing. Results: We identified a homozygous mutation (p.Ile404Thr) in the Cathepsin F (CTSF) gene cosegregating in the ANCL family. No other mutations were found that could explain the disease in this family. All 4 affected sibs developed motor symptoms and early-onset dementia with prominent frontal features. Two of them evolved to akinetic mutism. Disease presentation showed marked phenotypic variation with the onset ranging from 26 to 50 years. Myoclonic epilepsy in one of the sibs was suggestive for KD type A, while epilepsy was not present in the other sibs who presented with clinical features of KD type B. In a Belgian cohort of unrelated patients with FTD, the same heterozygous p.Arg245His mutation was identified in 2 patients who shared a common haplotype. Conclusions: A homozygous CTSF mutation was identified in a recessive ANCL pedigree. In contrast to the previous associations of CTSF with KD type B, our findings suggest that CTSF genetic testing should also be considered in patients with KD type A as well as in early-onset dementia with prominent frontal lobe and motor symptoms. PMID:27668283

  2. Delta Activity at Sleep Onset and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Gould, Christine E.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Jordan, Josh T.; O'Hara, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) has long been considered to be an abnormal variant in the electroencephalogram (EEG) among older adults. Prior work also indicates a predominance of slow wave EEG activity among patients with dementia. However, instability of state control occurring with aging generally and among many neurodegenerative diseases raises the possibility that FIRDA might represent the intrusion of sleep related elements of the EEG into the waking state. We examined delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in community-dwelling, older adults without dementia, and examined whether this activity is related to poorer cognitive performance. Methods: 153 community-dwelling, older adults without dementia underwent overnight polysomnography and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, and visuospatial ability. Delta activity during sleep/wake transitions (scored either as Waking or N1) was analyzed visually. Results: Participants were 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 y. DASO was present in 30 participants (19.6%). Age, years of education, sex, and body mass index did not differ between DASO (+) and (−) groups. Multiple regression analyses indicated faster reading of the Stroop color words in DASO (+) subjects (P = 0.007). None of the other cognitive domains differed between the two groups. Conclusions: DASO was relatively common in our sample of community-dwelling, older adults without dementia. DASO was not associated with poorer performance on any cognitive domain. Instead, individuals with DASO demonstrated better performance on a simple reading task. Although these findings suggest that an abnormal EEG activity may represent normal variation, our work underscores the importance of distinguishing DASO from FIRDA when examining sleep in older adults. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 725. Citation

  3. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Characteristics of Students in a University Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Judith P.; Kinnick, Bernard C.

    1995-01-01

    Characteristics of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) among traditional-age college students were investigated. Personality characteristics were examined based on birth order, gender of alcoholic parent, and honor society membership. Differences between ACOAs and non-ACOAs are discussed. (Author)

  4. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  5. Dimensions of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement as Predictors of Young-Adult Major Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adolescent alcohol involvement may increase risk for young-adult depression; however, findings are mixed and important questions remain unanswered. Because alcohol involvement among teens is multidimensional, this study examined the extent to which four different adolescent alcohol dimensions (i.e., frequency of alcohol use, quantity of consumption, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of problem use) were predictive of young-adult major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Participants in this prospective longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 22, were 429 rural teens (including 222 girls) and their families. Self-reports of each dimension of adolescent alcohol involvement were obtained at ages 16 and 18. Depression diagnoses were obtained at age 22, using a structured interview. Analyses included adolescent depressed mood, measured via self-report at ages 16 and 18. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The multidimensional nature of adolescent alcohol involvement was best represented by a first-order problem-use factor and a second-order alcohol-intake factor comprised of quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking. After controlling for gender and depressed mood, adolescent problem use, but not alcohol intake, was a significant positive predictor of young-adult MDD. Conclusions Findings help clarify the link between alcohol involvement and depression and suggest that harm-reduction strategies may help prevent later mood disorders. PMID:18299769

  6. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  7. Pain Characteristics Associated With the Onset of Disability in Older Adults: The MOBILIZE Boston Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggermont, Laura H.P.; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Shi, Ling; Kiely, Dan K.; Shmerling, Robert H.; Jones, Rich N.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Bean, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives To determine the effects of chronic pain on the development of disability and decline in physical performance over time among older adults. Design Longitudinal cohort study with 18 months follow-up. Setting Urban/suburban communities Participants 634 community-dwelling older adults aged >64 years. Measurements Chronic pain assessment consisted of musculoskeletal pain locations, and pain severity and pain interference by subscales of the Brief Pain Inventory. Disability was self-reported as any difficulty in mobility and basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL, IADL). Mobility performance was measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Relationships between baseline pain and incident disability in 18 months were determined using risk ratios (RRs) from multivariable Poisson regression models. Results Almost 65% of participants reported chronic musculoskeletal pain at baseline. New onset of mobility difficulty at 18-months was strongly associated with baseline pain distribution: 7% (no sites), 18% (1 site), 24% (multisite) and 39% (widespread pain, p-value for trend <0.001). Similar graded effects were found for other disability measures. Elders with multisite or widespread pain had at least a three-fold increased risk for onset of mobility difficulty compared to their peers without pain after adjusting for disability risk factors (multisite pain: RR=2.95, 95%CI, 1.58–5.50; widespread pain: RR=3.57, 95%CI, 1.71–7.48). Widespread pain contributed to decline in mobility performance (1 point decline in SPPB, RR=1.47, 95%CI, 1.08–2.01). Similar associations were found for baseline pain interference predicting subsequent mobility decline and (I)ADL disability. Weaker and less consistent associations were observed with pain severity. Conclusion Older community-dwelling adults living with chronic pain in multiple musculoskeletal locations have a substantial increased risk for developing disability over time and for

  8. Impulsive-aggressive traits and suicidal adolescents and young adults with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; Oquendo, Maria A; Giner, Lucas; Zalsman, Gil; Roche, Ansley M; Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and alcohol use disorders among adolescents and young adults are serious public health problems. In the study of suicidal behavior among young people with alcoholism, it has been shown that aggression and impulsivity are higher among those who attempted suicide. Impulsivity has been related to suicidal and self-destructive behaviors within different psychiatric conditions, i.e. alcohol and substance use disorders, mood disorders, conduct disorder, impulse control disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. The term impulsivity has been used to define different constructs such as (1) personality trait or cognitive style in which disinhibition is the core characteristic, (2) a tendency to act immediately in response to external or internal stimuli, and (3) a group of psychiatric disorders with behavioral dyscontrol. Among adolescents suicidal behavior is transmitted in families independently of psychiatric conditions, but not independently of impulsivity/aggression. Two causal links between impulsiveness and alcoholism have been proposed: (1) adolescents who develop alcoholism possess higher premorbid levels of impulsiveness than those who do not develop alcoholism, and (2) levels of impulsiveness differentiate both populations only after the development of alcoholism, with higher levels of impulsiveness among those adolescents who developed alcoholism. Cognitive behavioral techniques have shown promising results in the treatment of adolescents with alcohol and substance use disorder and suicidality. The relative frequency of suicidal behavior among adolescents and young adults suffering from alcoholism and its subsequent devastating effects on individuals, families and society merits further research and development of prevention strategies.

  9. Drinking to Distraction: Does Alcohol Increase Attentional Bias in Adults with ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T.; Milich, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias towards alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group. PMID:22121850

  10. Drinking to distraction: does alcohol increase attentional bias in adults with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T; Milich, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias toward alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group.

  11. Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on EEG and Sedative Responses in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Walker, Brendan M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related developmental differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the development of alcoholism. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute effects of alcohol on cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) in adolescent (P36) and adult (P78) Wistar rats. Five minutes of EEG was recorded after administration of 0, 0.75 or 1.5 g/kg alcohol. The righting reflex was performed to measure the sedative effects of alcohol (3.5 g/kg) and total sleeping time for each rat. Our results showed that alcohol (1.5 g/kg) increased power in the 1–2 Hz band and decreased the power in the 32–50 Hz band in the parietal cortical region of adolescent rats. Alcohol (1.5 g/kg) also increased stability of the EEG power in the slow-wave frequency bands (2–4 Hz, 4–6 Hz, and 6–8 Hz) of adolescent rats. In the frontal cortex of adult rats, but not in adolescent rats, alcohol (1.5 or 0.75 g/kg) decreased the power in the 16–32 Hz frequency band. Alcohol (1.5 g/kg) differentially increased power in a multiple of slow-wave frequency bands (2–4 Hz and 4–6 Hz) in the parietal cortex of adult rats as compared to adolescent rats. Adolescent rats were shown significantly shorter sleeping time and higher blood alcohol levels after regaining reflex than adult rats. Our results provide additional evidence of age-related differences in the effects of acute alcohol on cortical EEG, sedation and tolerance. PMID:18191821

  12. Combined use of alcohol hand rub and gloves reduces the incidence of late onset infection in very low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Ng, P; Wong, H; Lyon, D; So, K; Liu, F; Lam, R; Wong, E; Cheng, A; Fok, T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the incidence of late onset (> 72 hours) infection and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants in two 36 month periods using two hand hygiene protocols: conventional handwashing (HW; first 36 month period); an alcohol hand rub and gloves technique (HR; second 36 month period). Method: VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit during the period December 1993–November 1999 were eligible. A new hand hygiene protocol using alcohol handrub and gloves was introduced in December 1996. Each patient's case record was reviewed retrospectively by two independent investigators using a standard data collection form. The incidence of NEC and systemic infections, including bacterial or fungal septicaemia, meningitis, and peritonitis, in the two periods were compared. Results: The HW and HR groups contained 161 and 176 VLBW infants respectively. The incidence of late onset systemic infection decreased from 13.5 to 4.8 episodes (including NEC)/1000 patient days after introduction of the HR regimen, representing a 2.8-fold reduction. Similarly, the incidence of Gram positive, Gram negative, and fungal infections decreased 2.5-fold, 2.6-fold, and 7-fold respectively. There was also a significant reduction in the incidence of NEC in the HR group (p < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis revealed that the incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) septicaemia was significantly decreased in the second 36 month period (p  =  0.048). The clinical data suggest that infants in the HW group had significantly earlier onset of sepsis (p < 0.05) and required oxygen supplementation for longer (p < 0.05) than those in the HR group. Significantly more VLBW infants were discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit without ever being infected (p < 0.0001), and also significantly fewer infants had more than one episode of infection in the HR group (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The introduction of the HR

  13. Adult onset sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma - a rare case report with cytohistological features.

    PubMed

    Sood, N; Sehrawat, N

    2016-08-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a fast growing, malignant tumour arising from immature mesenchymal cells, committed to skeletal muscle differentiation. It is more often seen in the paediatric population and constitutes less than 1% of all malignancies and less than 3% of all soft tissue tumours. RMS of the paranasal sinuses constitutes 10-15% of adult head and neck RMS, ethmoidal and maxillary sinuses being the most common. We report a 56-year-oldman presenting with left nasal obstruction, epistaxis on and off and left cheek swelling. Nasal endoscopy revealed a reddish friable mass, bleeding on touch, in the left nasal cavity. CECT scan showed a heterogeneous growth in the left maxillary sinus eroding the medial orbital wall and lateral nasal wall. FNAC of the left cheek swelling yielded highly cellular smears showing predominantly singly scattered round to ovoid neoplastic cells with scanty cytoplasm and indistinct nucleoli. Few of the cells had eccentric nuclei with moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm. Attempted pseudorossette formation was seen. An impression of round cell tumour was given. A diagnosis of an adult onset sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma was made on histopathological examination of the nasal biopsy, supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) showing strong myogenin positivity, focal positivity for PAX8 and negativity for CK, LCA, S-100 and CD99. Parameningeal RMS is rare in adults especially the elderly. However, it needs to be considered whenever a poorly-differentiated neoplasm is seen in this age and IHC is a useful aid. PMID:27568676

  14. Adult-Onset Hypothyroidism Enhances Fear Memory and Upregulates Mineralocorticoid and Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Fernández-Lamo, Iván; Alieva, María; Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Venero, César; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common hormonal disease in adults, which is frequently accompanied by learning and memory impairments and emotional disorders. However, the deleterious effects of thyroid hormones deficiency on emotional memory are poorly understood and often underestimated. To evaluate the consequences of hypothyroidism on emotional learning and memory, we have performed a classical Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm in euthyroid and adult-thyroidectomized Wistar rats. In this experimental model, learning acquisition was not impaired, fear memory was enhanced, memory extinction was delayed and spontaneous recovery of fear memory was exacerbated in hypothyroid rats. The potentiation of emotional memory under hypothyroidism was associated with an increase of corticosterone release after fear conditioning and with higher expression of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, nuclei that are critically involved in the circuitry of fear memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time that adult-onset hypothyroidism potentiates fear memory and also increases vulnerability to develop emotional memories. Furthermore, our findings suggest that enhanced corticosterone signaling in the amygdala is involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of fear memory potentiation. Therefore, we recommend evaluating whether inappropriate regulation of fear in patients with post-traumatic stress and other mental disorders is associated with abnormal levels of thyroid hormones, especially those patients refractory to treatment. PMID:22039511

  15. Disturbed sleep as risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder--Data from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-09-01

    There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. PMID:26228404

  16. Disturbed sleep as risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder--Data from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-09-01

    There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder.

  17. Effects of alcohol consumption on cognition and regional brain volumes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Downer, Brian; Jiang, Yang; Zanjani, Faika; Fardo, David

    2015-06-01

    This study utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort to examine the relationship between midlife and late-life alcohol consumption, cognitive functioning, and regional brain volumes among older adults without dementia or a history of abusing alcohol. The results from multiple linear regression models indicate that late life, but not midlife, alcohol consumption status is associated with episodic memory and hippocampal volume. Compared to late life abstainers, moderate consumers had larger hippocampal volume, and light consumers had higher episodic memory. The differences in episodic memory according to late life alcohol consumption status were no longer significant when hippocampal volume was included in the regression model. The findings from this study provide new evidence that hippocampal volume may contribute to the observed differences in episodic memory among older adults and late life alcohol consumption status.

  18. [Effect of alcohol in combination with stress in the prenatal period on adult mice behaviour].

    PubMed

    Morozova, M V; Popova, N K

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the prenatal alcohol and stress on behaviour of adult CBA/LacJ male mice. Pregnant mice were given ethanol 11% from to 21 days of the gestation and were exposed to restraint stress for two hours daily from 15 to 21 days gestation. At 3 months of age, the offspring were tested for behaviour. Alcohol and stress-exposed animals buried more marbles in the marble-burying test, which models obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). In addition, the alcohol and stress-exposed males showed increased social activity. No significant effects of the prenatal alcohol and stress exposure on locomotor activity, anxiety, exploring activity of the adult male mice were revealed. Conclusion was made that exposure to the alcohol and stress combination in prenatal period produces predisposition to OCD.

  19. Adult mouse model of early hepatocellular carcinoma promoted by alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ambade, Aditya; Satishchandran, Abhishek; Gyongyosi, Benedek; Lowe, Patrick; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To establish a mouse model of alcohol-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that develops in livers with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 male mice received multiple doses of chemical carcinogen diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) followed by 7 wk of 4% Lieber-DeCarli diet. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and liver Cyp2e1 were assessed. Expression of F4/80, CD68 for macrophages and Ly6G, MPO, E-selectin for neutrophils was measured. Macrophage polarization was determined by IL-1β/iNOS (M1) and Arg-1/IL-10/CD163/CD206 (M2) expression. Liver steatosis and fibrosis were measured by oil-red-O and Sirius red staining respectively. HCC development was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging, confirmed by histology. Cellular proliferation was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). RESULTS: Alcohol-DEN mice showed higher ALTs than pair fed-DEN mice throughout the alcohol feeding without weight gain. Alcohol feeding resulted in increased ALT, liver steatosis and inflammation compared to pair-fed controls. Alcohol-DEN mice had reduced steatosis and increased fibrosis indicating advanced liver disease. Molecular characterization showed highest levels of both neutrophil and macrophage markers in alcohol-DEN livers. Importantly, M2 macrophages were predominantly higher in alcohol-DEN livers. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased numbers of intrahepatic cysts and liver histology confirmed the presence of early HCC in alcohol-DEN mice compared to all other groups. This correlated with increased serum alpha-fetoprotein, a marker of HCC, in alcohol-DEN mice. PCNA immunostaining revealed significantly increased hepatocyte proliferation in livers from alcohol-DEN compared to pair fed-DEN or alcohol-fed mice. CONCLUSION: We describe a new 12-wk HCC model in adult mice that develops in livers with alcoholic hepatitis and defines ALD as co-factor in HCC. PMID:27122661

  20. Solitary mastocytoma presenting in an adult: report and literature review of adult-onset solitary cutaneous mastocytoma with recommendations for evaluation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mastocytosis is either cutaneous (with skin-limited proliferation of mast cells) or systemic (with mast cells in extracutaneous sites). The onset of solitary mastocytoma in an adult is rare. Purpose: A woman with the new onset of solitary mastocytoma is described. The clinical features of patients with adult-onset solitary mastocytoma are summarized. Recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of individuals with adult-onset solitary mastocytoma are proposed. Methods: PubMed was searched with the key words: adult, CD2, CD25, cell, cutaneous, disease, KIT, KIT D816V, mast, mastocytoma, mutation, pigmentosa, solitary, tryptase, and urticarial. The papers generated by the search, and their references, were reviewed. Results: A 38-year-old Taiwanese woman presented with an asymptomatic brown patch, which morphologically mimicked a dysplastic nevus, on her right abdomen; biopsy demonstrated a solitary mastocytoma. Comprehensive evaluation (including serologic and bone marrow examination) excluded systemic mastocytosis and her residual mastocytoma is being monitored. Adult-onset solitary mastocytoma has been described in 16 patients. Lesions were either on the head and neck (5/14), torso (5/14) or extremities (4/14). Urtication following lesion rubbing was noted in 79% (11/14) of patients. Excision of the mastocytoma [75% (9/12)] was the most common treatment. Other management approaches included corticosteroids (topical or intralesional), antihistamines (systemic) or observation. Systemic symptoms were noted in 5 patients: flushing (3 women) and pruritus (3 women); gastrointestinal symptoms and headaches, flushing and/or anaphylaxis were each noted in one woman. None of the patients with adult-onset solitary mastocytoma had systemic mastocytosis; however, only 3 women were evaluated for systemic mastocytosis. Conclusions: Systemic mastocytosis is common in adults with new onset cutaneous mastocytosis. Therefore, a conservative work up for new onset

  1. Solitary mastocytoma presenting in an adult: report and literature review of adult-onset solitary cutaneous mastocytoma with recommendations for evaluation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mastocytosis is either cutaneous (with skin-limited proliferation of mast cells) or systemic (with mast cells in extracutaneous sites). The onset of solitary mastocytoma in an adult is rare. Purpose: A woman with the new onset of solitary mastocytoma is described. The clinical features of patients with adult-onset solitary mastocytoma are summarized. Recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of individuals with adult-onset solitary mastocytoma are proposed. Methods: PubMed was searched with the key words: adult, CD2, CD25, cell, cutaneous, disease, KIT, KIT D816V, mast, mastocytoma, mutation, pigmentosa, solitary, tryptase, and urticarial. The papers generated by the search, and their references, were reviewed. Results: A 38-year-old Taiwanese woman presented with an asymptomatic brown patch, which morphologically mimicked a dysplastic nevus, on her right abdomen; biopsy demonstrated a solitary mastocytoma. Comprehensive evaluation (including serologic and bone marrow examination) excluded systemic mastocytosis and her residual mastocytoma is being monitored. Adult-onset solitary mastocytoma has been described in 16 patients. Lesions were either on the head and neck (5/14), torso (5/14) or extremities (4/14). Urtication following lesion rubbing was noted in 79% (11/14) of patients. Excision of the mastocytoma [75% (9/12)] was the most common treatment. Other management approaches included corticosteroids (topical or intralesional), antihistamines (systemic) or observation. Systemic symptoms were noted in 5 patients: flushing (3 women) and pruritus (3 women); gastrointestinal symptoms and headaches, flushing and/or anaphylaxis were each noted in one woman. None of the patients with adult-onset solitary mastocytoma had systemic mastocytosis; however, only 3 women were evaluated for systemic mastocytosis. Conclusions: Systemic mastocytosis is common in adults with new onset cutaneous mastocytosis. Therefore, a conservative work up for new onset

  2. Young Adult's Immediate Reaction to a Personal Alcohol Overdose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; Harned, Ilene; Riley, William

    2004-01-01

    Following an emergency medical transport for alcohol overdose, first-year college students were asked to complete a survey assessing their reactions to the transport experience, their assessment of why they required this emergency response, and plans for future personal alcohol consumption. Transported students who responded to a baseline survey…

  3. Associations between ADH gene variants and alcohol phenotypes in Dutch adults.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Moor, Marleen H M; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2010-02-01

    Recently, Macgregor et al. (2009) demonstrated significant associations of ADH polymorphisms with reactions to alcohol and alcohol consumption measures in an Australian sample. The aim of the present study was to replicate these findings in a Dutch sample. Survey data on alcohol phenotypes came from 1,754 unrelated individuals registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. SNPs in the ADH gene cluster located on chromosome 4q (n = 491) were subdivided in seven gene sets: ADH5, ADH4, ADH6, ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C and ADH7. Within these sets associations of SNPs with alcohol consumption measures, age at onset variables, reactions to alcohol and problem drinking liability were examined. Of the original 38 SNPs studied by Macgregor et al. (2009), six SNPs were not available in our dataset, because one of them had a minor allele frequency < .01 (rs1229984) and five could not be imputed. The remaining SNP associations with alcohol phenotypes as identified by Macgregor et al. (2009) were not replicated in the Dutch sample, after correcting for multiple genotype and phenotype testing. Significant associations were found however, for reactions to alcohol with a SNP in ADH5 (rs6827292, p = .001) and a SNP just upstream of ADH5 (rs6819724, p = .0007) that is in strong LD with rs6827292. Furthermore, an association between age at onset of regular alcohol use and a SNP just upstream of ADH7 (rs2654849, p = .003) was observed. No significant associations were found for alcohol consumption and problem drinking liability. Although these findings do not replicate the earlier findings at the SNP level, the results confirm the role of the ADH gene cluster in alcohol phenotypes.

  4. Adult-Onset Fatal Neurohepatopathy in a Woman Caused by MPV17 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Bryce A; Mehta, Neil; Hameed, Bilal; Pekmezci, Melike; Packman, Seymour; Ralph, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are classically considered diseases of early childhood, typically affecting the liver, peripheral, and central nervous systems with a rapidly progressive course. Evidence is emerging that initial symptom onset can extend into adulthood, though few such cases have been reported. We describe a 25-year-old woman who presented initially with secondary amenorrhea, followed by a megaloblastic anemia, lactic acidosis, leukoencephalopathy, progressive peripheral neuropathy, and liver cirrhosis. An apparently homozygous P98L mutation was identified in MPV17, a gene associated with a lethal infantile neurohepatopathy. Homozygosity for the same allele was recently reported in a man with a similar hepatic and neurologic phenotype. This is the first clinical report of an adult female with this disorder, and the first to describe amenorrhea and megaloblastic anemia as likely associated symptoms. PMID:24190800

  5. Adult onset Still's disease accompanied by acute respiratory distress syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xiao-Tu; Wang, Mao-Jie; Huang, Run-Yue; Ding, Bang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by rash, leukocytosis, fever and arthralgia/arthritis. The most common pulmonary manifestations associated with AOSD are pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion. The present study describes a 40-year-old male with AOSD who developed fever, sore throat and shortness of breath. Difficulty breathing promptly developed, and the patient was diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The patient did not respond to antibiotics, including imipenem, vancomycin, fluconazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin, doxycycline and meropenem, but was sensitive to glucocorticoid treatment, including methylprednisolone sodium succinate. ARDS accompanied by AOSD has been rarely reported in the literature. In conclusion, in a patient with ARDS who does not respond to antibiotic treatment, the involvement of AOSD should be considered. PMID:27588099

  6. Adult-onset Still's disease with myocarditis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: Rare manifestation with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devika; Jagani, Rajat; Mendonca, Satish; Rathi, Khushi Ram

    2016-01-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by fever, evanescent pink salmon rash, arthritis, and multiorgan involvement. Here, we report an unusual manifestation of AOSD in a 40-year-old male who presented to our hospital with pyrexia of unknown origin and rash of 3 weeks duration. All his serological investigations and imaging studies were unremarkable. He was fulfilling clinical and laboratory criteria as per Yamaguchi for AOSD and was managed for the same. Our patient did not respond well to the treatment, had a downhill course, and succumbed to his illness. Autopsy confirmed myocarditis and florid bone marrow reactive hemophagocytosis as the cause of his death. PMID:26960645

  7. Predictive Medicine: Recombinant DNA Technology and Adult-Onset Genetic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Genetic factors are of great importance in common adult-onset disorders such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and neuro-degenerative diseases. Advances in DNA technology now allow identification of persons at high-risk of developing some of these diseases. This advance is leading to predictive medicine. In some genetic disorders, such as those leading to atherosclerosis and cancer, identification of high-risk individuals allows intervention which alters the natural history of the disorder. In other diseases, for which there is no treatment, such as Huntington's disease, the application of this technology provides information that relieves uncertainty and may affect quality of life, but does not alter the course of the illness. General implementation of predictive testing programs awaits the results of pilot projects, which will demonstrate the needs, appropriate levels of support, and guidelines for delivery of such testing. PMID:21253100

  8. Case report: An adult-onset type II citrin deficiency patient in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    TANG, LUJIA; CHEN, LIANG; WANG, HAIRONG; DAI, LIHUA; PAN, SHUMING

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25A13) gene may result in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency and/or adult-onset type II citrullinemia. These conditions are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The current case report describes a 43-year-old man who presented with sudden delirium and upper limb weakness. Upon admission, the patient was fully conscious and alert but later lost consciousness subsequent to a sudden convulsive seizure. Hyperammonemia was detected and analysis of the SLC25A13 gene identified an 851del4 mutation. Thus, the possibility of genetic disease should be considered as a potential cause of the symptoms of patients with altered states of consciousness, such as delirium and loss of consciousness, in cases where the cause of the disturbance is unknown. PMID:27347070

  9. Adult-onset nemaline myopathy in a dog presenting with persistent atrial standstill and primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, R K; Russell, N J; Shelton, G D

    2012-06-01

    A nine-year-old neutered female mixed breed dog presented for evaluation following a five-day history of lethargy, inappetence, weakness, abdominal distension and generalised muscle atrophy. Persistent vatrial standstill with a junctional rhythm was identified on electrocardiogram. Echocardiogram identified moderate dilation of all cardiac chambers and mild thickening of the mitral and tricuspid valves. Serology was negative for Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Permanent pacemaker implantation was performed in addition to endomyocardial and skeletal muscle biopsies. Cryosections from the biceps femoris muscle showed numerous nemaline rod bodies while endomyocardial biopsies were possibly consistent with end-stage myocarditis. Rod bodies have rarely been reported in the veterinary literature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of adult-onset nemaline rod myopathy and hypothyroidism with concurrent cardiac disease in a dog. PMID:22647214

  10. Myotonia and flaccid dysarthria in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    de Swart, B J M; van Engelen, B G M; van de Kerkhof, J P B M; Maassen, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To specify and quantify possible defects in speech execution in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy. Methods: Studies on speech production were done on 30 mildly affected patients with myotonic dystrophy. Special attention was paid to myotonia. Because muscle activity can result in a decrease of myotonia, speech characteristics were measured before and after warm up. The possibility that warming up causes increased weakness was also assessed. Results: As with other motor skills, a warm up effect was found in speech production, resulting in an increase in repetition rate and a decrease in variability of repetition rate. Signs of fatigue did not occur. Conclusions: Warming up is valuable for patients with myotonic dystrophy in reducing the influence of myotonia on speech production. PMID:15377703

  11. A mouse model of adult-onset anaemia due to erythropoietin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shun; Souma, Tomokazu; Hirano, Ikuo; Pan, Xiaoqing; Minegishi, Naoko; Suzuki, Norio; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin regulates erythropoiesis in a hypoxia-inducible manner. Here we generate inherited super-anaemic mice (ISAM) as a mouse model of adult-onset anaemia caused by erythropoietin deficiency. ISAM express erythropoietin in the liver but lack erythropoietin production in the kidney. Around weaning age, when the major erythropoietin-producing organ switches from the liver to the kidney, ISAM develop anaemia due to erythropoietin deficiency, which is curable by administration of recombinant erythropoietin. In ISAM severe chronic anaemia enhances transgenic green fluorescent protein and Cre expression driven by the complete erythropoietin-gene regulatory regions, which facilitates efficient labelling of renal erythropoietin-producing cells. We show that the majority of cortical and outer medullary fibroblasts have the innate potential to produce erythropoietin, and also reveal a new set of erythropoietin target genes. ISAM are a useful tool for the evaluation of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and to trace the dynamics of erythropoietin-producing cells. PMID:23727690

  12. Prenatal testosterone supplementation alters puberty onset, aggressive behavior, and partner preference in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to testosterone (T) could change the body weight (BW), anogenital distance (AGD), anogenital distance index (AGDI), puberty onset, social behavior, fertility, sexual behavior, sexual preference, and T level of male rats in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rats received either 1 mg/animal of T propionate diluted in 0.1 ml peanut oil or 0.1 ml peanut oil, as control, on the 17th, 18th and 19th gestational days. No alterations in BW, AGD, AGDI, fertility, and sexual behavior were observed (p > 0.05). Delayed onset of puberty (p < 0.0001), increased aggressive behavior (p > 0.05), altered pattern of sexual preference (p < 0.05), and reduced T plasma level (p < 0.05) were observed for adult male rats exposed prenatally to T. In conclusion, the results showed that prenatal exposure to T was able to alter important aspects of sexual and social behavior although these animals were efficient at producing descendants. In this sense more studies should be carried to evaluated the real impact of this hormonal alteration on critical period of sexual differentiation on humans, because pregnant women exposed to hyperandrogenemia and then potentially exposing their unborn children to elevated androgen levels in the uterus can undergo alteration of normal levels of T during the sexual differentiation period, and, as a consequence, affect the reproductive and behavior patterns of their children in adulthood.

  13. Occasional detection of thymic epithelial tumor 4 years after diagnosis of adult onset Still disease

    PubMed Central

    Lococo, Filippo; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Caruso, Andrea; Valli, Riccardo; Ricchetti, Tommaso; Sgarbi, Giorgio; Salvarani, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Thymoma is a T cell neoplasm arising from the thymic epithelium that due to its immunological role, frequently undercover derangements of immunity such a tumors and autoimmune diseases. Methods: Herein, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of an association between thymoma and adult onset Still disease (AOSD) in a 47-year-old man. The first one was occasionally detected 4 years later the diagnosis of AOSD, and surgically removed via right lateral thoracotomy. Histology confirmed an encapsulated thymic tumor (type AB sec. WHO-classification). Results: The AOSD was particularly resistant to the therapy, requiring a combination of immunosuppressant followed by anti-IL1R, that was the only steroids-sparing treatment capable to induce and maintain the remission. The differential diagnosis was particularly challenging because of the severe myasthenic-like symptoms that, with normal laboratory tests, were initially misinterpreted as fibromyalgia. The pathogenic link of this association could be a thymus escape of autoreactive T lymphocytes causing autoimmunity. Conclusion: Clinicians should be always include the possibility of a thymoma in the differential diagnosis of an unusual new onset of weakness and normal laboratories data, in particular once autoimmune disease is present in the medical history. PMID:27603335

  14. Macrophage Activation Syndrome Associated with Adult-Onset Still's Disease Successfully Treated with Anakinra

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication of Adult-Onset Still's disease (Still's disease). Whereas an increasing body of evidence supports interleukin-1 (IL-1) blockade as a promising treatment for Still's disease, whether it is therapeutic for MAS associated with Still's disease remains unclear. We report a 34-year-old Caucasian man with one-decade history of TNF-blockade-responsive seronegative arthritis who presented with abrupt onset of fever, serositis, bicytopenia, splenomegaly, hepatitis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Striking hyperferritinemia was noted without evidence of infection, malignancy, or hemophagocytosis on bone marrow biopsy. NK cells were undetectable in the peripheral blood, whereas soluble IL-2 receptor was elevated. His multiorgan disease resolved in association with methylprednisolone pulse therapy, Anakinra, and a tapering course of prednisone. This case reinforces the notion that Still's disease is inherently poised to manifest MAS as one of the clinical phenotypes by shedding light on the role of IL-1 underlying both Still's disease and related MAS.

  15. Possible risk factors for primary adult onset dystonia: a case-control investigation by the Italian Movement Disorders Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Defazio, G.; Berardelli, A.; Abbruzzese, G.; Lepore, V.; Coviello, V.; Acquistapace, D.; Capus, L.; Carella, F.; De Berardinis, M. T.; Galardi, G.; Girlanda, P.; Maurri, S.; Albanese, A.; Bertolasi, L.; Liguori, R.; Rossi, A.; Santoro, L.; Tognoni, G.; Livrea, P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Little is known about the aetiology of idiopathic adult onset dystonia. The Italian Movement Disorders Study Group promoted a case-control study on some hypothetical risk factors including past medical events, life events, life habits, occupational hazards, and family hystory of dystonia, parkinsonism, and tremor.
METHODS—Cases affected by idiopathic adult onset dystonia (age at symptom onset >20 years, duration of disease >one year and adult onset dystonia, whereas hypertension and cigarette smoking exerted a protective effect. The findings also suggested a positive association between local body injury—for example, previous ocular diseases and neck or trunk trauma—and dystonia of the same body part.
CONCLUSIONS—The results support the idea that environmental and genetic factors may both be important in the aetiology of adult onset dystonia, and suggest aetiological clues worthy of further analytical investigation.

 PMID:9436723

  16. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Asherson, Philip; Belsky, Daniel W; Corcoran, David L; Hammerle, Maggie; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Meier, Madeline; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Caspi, Avshalom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite a prevailing assumption that adult ADHD is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, no prospective-longitudinal study has described the childhoods of the adult-ADHD population. We report follow-back analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in adulthood, alongside follow-forward analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in childhood, in one cohort. Method Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-73 and followed to age 38, with 95% retention. Symptoms of ADHD, associated clinical features, comorbid disorders, neuropsychological deficits, GWAS-derived polygenic risk, and life impairment indicators were assessed. Data sources were participants, parents, teachers, informants, neuropsychological testing, and administrative records. Adult ADHD diagnoses used DSM5 criteria, apart from onset-age and cross-setting corroboration, which were study outcomes. Results As expected, the childhood-ADHD group showed 6% prevalence, male excess, childhood comorbid disorders, neurocognitive deficits, polygenic risk, and, despite having outgrown their ADHD diagnosis, residual adult life impairment. As expected, the adult-ADHD group showed 3% prevalence, gender balance, adult substance dependence, adult life impairment, and treatment contact. Unexpectedly, the childhood-ADHD and adult-ADHD groups comprised virtually non-overlapping sets; 90% of adult-ADHD cases lacked a history of childhood ADHD. Also unexpectedly, the adult-ADHD group did not show tested neuropsychological deficits in childhood or adulthood, nor did they show polygenic risk for childhood ADHD. Conclusion Findings raise the possibility that adults presenting with the ADHD symptom picture may not have a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. If this finding is replicated, then the disorder's place in the classification system must be reconsidered, and research must investigate the etiology of adult ADHD. PMID:25998281

  17. Caregiver Perceptions of the Community Integration of Adults with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…

  18. Control, Attachment Style, and Relationship Satisfaction among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Denise; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates possible differences in need for control, attachment style, and relationship satisfaction between a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of nonalcoholics. Analyses reveals that ACOAs reported a significantly higher need for control and significantly lower relationship satisfaction. Includes a discussion of…

  19. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  20. Correlates of alcohol use among methadone-maintained adults.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Cohen, Allan; Marfisee, Mary; Shoptaw, Steven; Greengold, Barbara; de Castro, Viviane; George, Daniel; Leake, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    This prospective study (n=190) examined correlates of alcohol use from baseline data of a longitudinal trial conducted among moderate and heavy alcohol users receiving methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The sample included MMT clients who were 18-55 years of age, and were receiving MMT from five large methadone maintenance clinics in the Los Angeles area. Half of the sample was heavy drinkers and nearly half (46%) reported heroin use. Using a structured questionnaire, correlates of heavy alcohol use included White and Hispanic ethnicity, and fair or poor physical health combined with older age (> or =50 years). We also found that MMT clients who were younger than 50 years, regardless of health status, were more likely to be heavy drinkers. Compared with moderate alcohol consumers, a greater number of heavy alcohol users also experienced recent victimization. To optimize MMT, alcohol screening should be part of routine assessment and alcohol treatment should be made available within MMT programs. Moreover, special consideration should be provided to the most vulnerable clients, such as the younger user, those with a long-term and current history of heavy drug use, and those victimized and reporting fair or poor health. In addition, promoting attention to general physical and mental health problems within MMT programs may be beneficial in enhancing health outcomes of this population.

  1. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  2. Effects of Aging and Adult-Onset Hearing Loss on Cortical Auditory Regions

    PubMed Central

    Cardin, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common feature in human aging. It has been argued that dysfunctions in central processing are important contributing factors to hearing loss during older age. Aging also has well documented consequences for neural structure and function, but it is not clear how these effects interact with those that arise as a consequence of hearing loss. This paper reviews the effects of aging and adult-onset hearing loss in the structure and function of cortical auditory regions. The evidence reviewed suggests that aging and hearing loss result in atrophy of cortical auditory regions and stronger engagement of networks involved in the detection of salient events, adaptive control and re-allocation of attention. These cortical mechanisms are engaged during listening in effortful conditions in normal hearing individuals. Therefore, as a consequence of aging and hearing loss, all listening becomes effortful and cognitive load is constantly high, reducing the amount of available cognitive resources. This constant effortful listening and reduced cognitive spare capacity could be what accelerates cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss. PMID:27242405

  3. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  4. Differences in Alcohol Brand Consumption between Underage Youth and Adults – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Chen, Kelsey; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The alcohol brand preferences of U.S. underage drinkers have recently been identified, but it is not known whether youth are simply mimicking adult brand choices or whether other factors are impacting their preferences. This study is the first to compare the alcohol brand preferences of underage drinkers and adults. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of youth and adult alcohol brand preferences. A 2012 internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,032 underage drinkers, ages 13–20, was used to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcohol brands, and each brand’s youth market share, based on the total number of standard drinks consumed. Data on the brand-specific prevalence of past 30-day or past 7-day consumption among older youth (ages 18–20), adults (ages 21+), and young adults (ages 21–34) was obtained from Gfk MRI’s Survey of the Adult Consumer for the years 2010–12. Overall market shares for each brand, also measured by the total number of standard drinks consumed, were estimated from national data compiled by Impact Databank for the year 2010. Results Although most alcohol brands popular among underage drinkers were also popular among adult drinkers, there were several brands that appeared to be disproportionately consumed by youth. Conclusions This paper provides preliminary evidence that youth do not merely mimic the alcohol brand choices of adults. Further research using data derived from fully comparable data sources is necessary to confirm this finding. PMID:24483601

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  6. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  7. Alcohol Use and Suicidal Behaviors among Adults: A Synthesis and Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and alcohol use are major public health concerns in the United States; however the association between these behaviors has received relatively little empirical attention. The relative lack of research in this area may be due in part to the absence of theory explaining the alcohol use-suicidality link in the general adult population. The present article expands upon Conner, McCloskey, and Duberstein’s (2008) model of suicide in individuals with alcoholism and proposes a theoretical framework that can be used to explain why a range of adult alcohol users may engage in suicidal behaviors. Guided by this model, we review and evaluate the evidence on the associations among several constructs that may contribute to suicidal behaviors in adult alcohol consumers. The current framework should inform future research and facilitate further empirical analyses on the interactive effects among risk factors that may contribute to suicidal behaviors. Once the nature of these associations is better understood among alcohol using adults, more effective suicide prevention programs may be designed and implemented. PMID:23243500

  8. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  9. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'.

  10. Genetic and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol Use in Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; Lau, Anna S.; Lee, Steve S.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Among Asian American young adults, variations in alcohol-metabolizing genes (i.e., aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH2] and alcohol dehydrogenase [ADH1B]) are protective, whereas Korean ethnicity, family history of alcohol problems (FH), and acculturation represent risk factors for alcohol misuse. This study aims to integrate these genetic and environmental factors in a sample of Asian Americans expressing a wide range of alcohol use behaviors and problems. Method: Participants were 97 Asian American young adults (42% female) recruited as heavy and light drinkers (n = 49 and 48, respectively). Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Timeline Followback, Vancouver Acculturation Index, and Family Tree Questionnaire. All participants provided buccal cell samples for DNA analysis. Results: Family history–positive (FH+) subjects reported greater alcohol use than family history–negative (FH–) subjects. A FH × ALDH2 interaction was observed such that FH– subjects demonstrated no ALDH2 effect, yet in FH+ subjects, the ALDH2*2 genotype was associated with increased alcohol use. A significant main effect of acculturation was also moderated by FH such that the positive association between acculturation and alcohol use was greater among FH+ subjects and, in particular, among FH+ men. Conclusions: Although preliminary, these results suggest that the potential protective effects conferred by ALDH2 and ADH1B are moderated by FH, such that a positive FH appeared to abolish the protective effect of these genes. Further, acculturation was associated with greater alcohol use in FH+ subjects only. If replicated in larger samples, these data suggest that alcohol-metabolism genes may not be protective in the context of high environmental risk. PMID:26402349

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence: does order of onset make a difference?

    PubMed

    McLean, Carmen P; Su, Yi-Jen; Foa, Edna B

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are frequently comorbid and the order in which they develop may affect the clinical presentation and response to treatment. This study compared 73 treatment-seeking participants who developed PTSD prior to developing AD ("PTSD-first") with 64 participants who developed AD prior to developing PTSD ("AD-first") on demographics, clinical presentation, and response to treatment for PTSD and AD. All participants received BRENDA, a medication management and motivational enhancement intervention and were randomly assigned to either prolonged exposure (PE) for PTSD plus BRENDA or BRENDA alone and to either naltrexone (NAL) for AD or placebo (PBO). Results showed that participants with AD-first were more likely to report low income, meet criteria for antisocial or borderline personality disorder, report an index trauma of physical assault, compared to those with PTSD-first. Conversely, participants with PTSD-first were more likely to report an index trauma of sexual assault or a combat experience. Notably, no group differences were observed in treatment outcome despite some differences in clinical presentation.

  12. Evolution of disease phenotype in adult and pediatric onset Crohn’s disease in a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Lakatos, Laszlo; Horvath, Agnes; Szita, Istvan; Pandur, Tunde; Mandel, Michael; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra Anna; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Kiss, Lajos Sandor; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the evolution of disease phenotype in adult and pediatric onset Crohn’s disease (CD) populations, diagnosed between 1977 and 2008. METHODS: Data of 506 incident CD patients were analyzed (age at diagnosis: 28.5 years, interquartile range: 22-38 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected prospectively with a complete clinical follow-up and comprehensively reviewed in the population-based Veszprem province database, which included incident patients diagnosed between January 1, 1977 and December 31, 2008 in adult and pediatric onset CD populations. Disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification and long-term disease course was analysed according to the age at onset in time-dependent univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among this population-based cohort, seventy-four (12.8%) pediatric-onset CD patients were identified (diagnosed ≤ 17 years of age). There was no significant difference in the distribution of disease behavior between pediatric (B1: 62%, B2: 15%, B3: 23%) and adult-onset CD patients (B1: 56%, B2: 21%, B3: 23%) at diagnosis, or during follow-up. Overall, the probability of developing complicated disease behaviour was 49.7% and 61.3% in the pediatric and 55.1% and 62.4% in the adult onset patients after 5- and 10-years of follow-up. Similarly, time to change in disease behaviour from non stricturing, non penetrating (B1) to complicated, stricturing or penetrating (B2/B3) disease was not significantly different between pediatric and adult onset CD in a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Calendar year of diagnosis (P = 0.04), ileal location (P < 0.001), perianal disease (P < 0.001), smoking (P = 0.038) and need for steroids (P < 0.001) were associated with presence of, or progression to, complicated disease behavior at diagnosis and during follow-up. A change in disease location was observed in 8.9% of patients and it was associated with smoking status (P = 0.01), but not with age at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Long

  13. Steatogenesis in adult-onset type II citrullinemia is associated with down-regulation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Michiharu; Kimura, Takefumi; Yazaki, Masahide; Tanaka, Naoki; Yang, Yang; Nakajima, Takero; Horiuchi, Akira; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Joshita, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Umemura, Takeji; Tanaka, Eiji; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2015-03-01

    SLC25A13 (citrin or aspartate-glutamate carrier 2) is located in the mitochondrial membrane in the liver and its genetic deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). CTLN2 is one of the urea cycle disorders characterized by sudden-onset hyperammonemia due to reduced argininosuccinate synthase activity. This disorder is frequently accompanied with hepatosteatosis in the absence of obesity and ethanol consumption. However, the precise mechanism of steatogenesis remains unclear. The expression of genes associated with fatty acid (FA) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism was examined using liver samples obtained from 16 CTLN2 patients and compared with 7 healthy individuals. Although expression of hepatic genes associated with lipogenesis and TG hydrolysis was not changed, the mRNAs encoding enzymes/proteins involved in FA oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1α, medium- and very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1), very-low-density lipoprotein secretion (microsomal TG transfer protein), and FA transport (CD36 and FA-binding protein 1), were markedly suppressed in CTLN2 patients. Serum concentrations of ketone bodies were also decreased in these patients, suggesting reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation activity. Consistent with these findings, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was significantly down-regulated. Hepatic PPARα expression was inversely correlated with severity of steatosis and circulating ammonia and citrulline levels. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was enhanced in CTLN2 livers, which was likely associated with lower hepatic PPARα. Collectively, down-regulation of PPARα is associated with steatogenesis in CTLN2 patients. These findings provide a novel link between urea cycle disorder, lipid metabolism, and PPARα.

  14. White matter hyperintensities in middle-aged adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Karen A.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Jennings, J. Richard; Ryan, John; Zgibor, Janice C.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Costacou, Tina; Maynard, John D.; Miller, Rachel G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although microvascular complications are common in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), few studies have quantified the severity, risk factors, and implications of cerebral microvascular damage in these patients. As life expectancy in patients with T1DM increases, patients are exposed to age- and disease-related factors that may contribute to cerebral microvascular disease. Methods: Severity and volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and infarcts were quantified in 97 middle-aged patients with childhood-onset T1DM (mean age and duration: 50 and 41 years, respectively) and 81 non-T1DM adults (mean age: 48 years), concurrent with cognitive and health-related measures. Results: Compared with non-T1DM participants, patients had more severe WMH (Fazekas scores 2 and 3 compared with Fazekas score 1, p < 0.0001) and slower information processing (digit symbol substitution, number correct: 65.7 ± 10.9 and 54.9 ± 13.6; pegboard, seconds: 66.0 ± 9.9 and 88.5 ± 34.2; both p < 0.0001) independent of age, education, or other factors. WMH were associated with slower information processing; adjusting for WMH attenuated the group differences in processing speed (13% for digit symbol, 11% for pegboard, both p ≤ 0.05). Among patients, prevalent neuropathies and smoking tripled the odds of high WMH burden, independent of age or disease duration. Associations between measures of blood pressure or hyperglycemia and WMH were not significant. Conclusions: Clinically relevant WMH are evident earlier among middle-aged patients with childhood-onset T1DM and are related to the slower information processing frequently observed in T1DM. Brain imaging in patients with T1DM who have cognitive difficulties, especially those with neuropathies, may help uncover cerebral microvascular damage. Longitudinal studies are warranted to fully characterize WMH development, risk factors, and long-term effects on cognition. PMID:25904692

  15. Steatogenesis in adult-onset type II citrullinemia is associated with down-regulation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Michiharu; Kimura, Takefumi; Yazaki, Masahide; Tanaka, Naoki; Yang, Yang; Nakajima, Takero; Horiuchi, Akira; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Joshita, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Umemura, Takeji; Tanaka, Eiji; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2015-03-01

    SLC25A13 (citrin or aspartate-glutamate carrier 2) is located in the mitochondrial membrane in the liver and its genetic deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). CTLN2 is one of the urea cycle disorders characterized by sudden-onset hyperammonemia due to reduced argininosuccinate synthase activity. This disorder is frequently accompanied with hepatosteatosis in the absence of obesity and ethanol consumption. However, the precise mechanism of steatogenesis remains unclear. The expression of genes associated with fatty acid (FA) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism was examined using liver samples obtained from 16 CTLN2 patients and compared with 7 healthy individuals. Although expression of hepatic genes associated with lipogenesis and TG hydrolysis was not changed, the mRNAs encoding enzymes/proteins involved in FA oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1α, medium- and very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1), very-low-density lipoprotein secretion (microsomal TG transfer protein), and FA transport (CD36 and FA-binding protein 1), were markedly suppressed in CTLN2 patients. Serum concentrations of ketone bodies were also decreased in these patients, suggesting reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation activity. Consistent with these findings, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was significantly down-regulated. Hepatic PPARα expression was inversely correlated with severity of steatosis and circulating ammonia and citrulline levels. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was enhanced in CTLN2 livers, which was likely associated with lower hepatic PPARα. Collectively, down-regulation of PPARα is associated with steatogenesis in CTLN2 patients. These findings provide a novel link between urea cycle disorder, lipid metabolism, and PPARα. PMID:25533124

  16. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships. PMID:15896922

  17. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  18. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Adaptive Function, and Entry into Adult Roles in a Prospective Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. Method The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n = 59) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. Conclusion PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. PMID:26247662

  19. What Happens When Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Become Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eileen M.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    The range of structural abnormalities and functional deficits caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The disabilities associated with FASDs are said to be lifelong, but we know relatively little regarding outcomes beyond childhood and adolescence. Many of physical, brain, and neurobehavioral features that are present in children with FASDs will endure to adulthood. However, some features may diminish or change over time. Furthermore, secondary disabilities, such as school drop outs, trouble with the law, and substance/alcohol abuse problems are common in young adults with FASDs. The health consequences associated with PAE in the human adult are unknown, but animal models suggest that they may be more susceptible to chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, immune dysfunction, and cancer. More research is needed to understand the lasting effects of PAE on adults and the developmental trajectories of FASDs. PMID:26543794

  20. Brief Alcohol Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports findings from a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents (age 11-18) and young adults (age 19-30). We identified 185 eligible study samples using a comprehensive literature search and synthesized findings using random-effects meta-analyses with robust standard errors. Overall, brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among adolescents (ḡ = 0.27 and ḡ = 0.19) and young adults (ḡ = 0.17 and ḡ = 0.11). These effects persisted for up to one year after intervention and did not vary across participant demographics, intervention length, or intervention format. However, certain intervention modalities (e.g., motivational interviewing) and components (e.g., decisional balance, goal-setting exercises) were associated with larger effects. We conclude that brief alcohol interventions yield beneficial effects on alcohol-related outcomes for adolescents and young adults that are modest but potentially worthwhile given their brevity and low cost. PMID:25300577

  1. Correlates of Concurrent Energy Drink and Alcohol Use among Socially Active Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Pawson, Mark; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research indicates that energy drink consumption and the combined use of energy drinks and alcohol are popular among young adults, although this research has typically focused on college students. Because of the potential for harms associated with this combination, it is critical to understand use among adults in nightlife scenes who may be most at risk for harms associated with combined energy drink and alcohol consumption. Objectives By focusing our sample on individuals in a range of nightlife scenes, we aim to gain a deeper understanding of the demographic factors associated with energy drink use and combined energy drink and alcohol consumption to benefit the targeting of intervention and prevention efforts beyond college campuses. Methods Using a field-based survey in New York City to survey adults active in various nightlife scenes, this study reports on the survey results of 1476 venue patrons at venues in five nightlife scenes in addition to college bar scenes Results Men, younger individuals, Latinos, and sexual minority individuals reported higher prevalence of recent energy drink consumption. Younger individuals, men, and those recruited in gay venues reported higher prevalence of combining alcohol and energy drinks. Conclusion These findings provide information useful to target education and prevention efforts. They also suggest the need for additional research to understand differences in motivations for use and in the behavioral and alcohol-related outcomes associated with consuming energy drinks and combining them with alcohol. PMID:23030475

  2. Prevalence of Alcohol Dependence Among US Adult Drinkers, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Marissa B.; Hedden, Sarra L.; Brewer, Robert D.; Gfroerer, Joseph C.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost the United States $223.5 billion in 2006. It is often assumed that most excessive drinkers are alcohol dependent. However, few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol dependence among excessive drinkers. The objective of this study was to update prior estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers. Methods Data were analyzed from the 138,100 adults who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2009, 2010, or 2011. Drinking patterns (ie, past-year drinking, excessive drinking, and binge drinking) were assessed by sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol dependence (assessed through self-reported survey responses and defined as meeting ≥3 of 7 criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Results Excessive drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence were most common among men and those aged 18 to 24. Binge drinking was most common among those with annual family incomes of $75,000 or more, whereas alcohol dependence was most common among those with annual family incomes of less than $25,000. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 10.2% among excessive drinkers, 10.5% among binge drinkers, and 1.3% among non-binge drinkers. A positive relationship was found between alcohol dependence and binge drinking frequency. Conclusion Most excessive drinkers (90%) did not meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. A comprehensive approach to reducing excessive drinking that emphasizes evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services could have an impact on reducing excessive drinking in addition to focusing on the implementation of addiction treatment services. PMID:25412029

  3. Talking With Your College-Bound Young Adult About Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... 97,000 students are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 400,000 students have unprotected sex. 100,000+ ... March 16, 2015, Rockville, MD. View the companion video, The Sound of Your Voice , and download this ...

  4. Children of Alcoholics: Patterns of Dysfunction in Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Barbara L.

    Children of alcoholic parents often defend against family instability by adopting roles (hero, scapegoat, lost child, mascot) which bring a semblance of stability to the family. While one role may seem to dominate the character of an individual child, all four roles may be seen in the same child; at times conditions may cause an exchange of roles.…

  5. Exclusion of one pedigree affected by adult onset primary open angle glaucoma from linkage to the juvenile glaucoma locus on chromosome 1q21-q31.

    PubMed Central

    Avramopoulos, D; Kitsos, G; Economou-Petersen, E; Grigoriadou, M; Vassilopoulos, D; Papageorgiou, C; Psilas, K; Petersen, M B

    1996-01-01

    A locus for autosomal dominant juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) was recently assigned to chromosome region 1q21-q31. In the present study, a large Greek family with autosomal dominant adult onset POAG was investigated using microsatellite markers. Exclusion of linkage of the adult onset POAG gene to the region D1S194-D1S191 was obtained in this pedigree. Therefore, the data provide evidence that juvenile and adult onset POAG are genetically distinct disease entities. PMID:9004141

  6. Health-related quality of life in sporadic adult-onset ataxia.

    PubMed

    Abele, Michael; Klockgether, Thomas

    2007-02-15

    Despite progressive disability in sporadic adult-onset ataxia (SAOA), little is known about patients' assessment of their ataxic disorder and its impact on health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL). This study investigated Hr-QoL by means of the following self-administered scales: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36). Twenty-two unselected ataxia patients were included. Sleep-related complaints were found in 9 (41%) of 22 and symptoms of depression in 6 (38%) of 16 patients. Compared to a large german control group, SAOA patients had lower scores in all SF-36 dimensions except for bodily pain. The greatest impairment was found in the domain physical functioning, followed by the domains social functioning and role limitations (emotional problems). There was a significant negative correlation of all nonmotor SF-36 dimensions with the BDI score. Walking aid dependency was significantly correlated with poorer health status perception in several motor and nonmotor domains. In addition, impaired sleep quality was correlated with an impaired general health perception and with bodily pain. The study demonstrates a great impact of SAOA on Hr-QoL. Adequate treatment of depression, motor disability, and impaired sleep quality is essential to improve Hr-QoL in ataxic patients. PMID:17149704

  7. Effect size of memory deficits in mice with adult-onset P301L tau expression.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Holly C; Rudy, Carolyn C; Weitzner, Daniel S; Zhang, Chong; Tosto, David E; Knowlan, Kevin; Xu, Ying; Reed, Miranda N

    2014-10-01

    Transgenic mice expressing mutations in tau have yielded essential discoveries for Alzheimer's disease. One of the most commonly used tau mouse models is the tet-off Tg(tauP301L)4510 model that expresses P301L human tau driven by the calcium-calmodulin kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) promoter system. Tau expression in this model is regulatable, allowing for suppression of mutant tau expression until adulthood and prevention of possible developmental alterations resulting from P301L tau expression during development. Here, we compared the effect and sample sizes needed for three learning and memory tasks in mice with adult-onset P301L tau expression. Our findings indicate that the Incremental Repeated Acquisition (IRA) and trace fear conditioning tasks, neither of which have previously been published with these mice, were highly sensitive to P301L tau expression, whereas the Morris water maze, the most commonly used task with this model, was the least sensitive. Memory deficits were observed at a time when tau pathology was subtle and prior to readily detectable neuronal loss. Thus, we provide essential information (effect and sample sizes needed) for establishing experimental designs at a time point when memory deficits are likely to go undetected if inadequate sample sizes are used. Our work also suggests the tet-off Tg4510 model provides a way to avoid mutant tau expression during the perinatal and early postnatal stages, thereby preventing possible developmental alterations unrelated to Alzheimer's disease.

  8. A search for the primary abnormality in adult-onset type II citrullinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Keiko; Shaheen, Nazma; Saheki, Takeyori ); Kumashiro, Ryukichi; Tanikawa, Kyuichi ); O'Brien, W.E.; Beaudet, A.L. )

    1993-11-01

    Deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) causes citrullinemia in human beings. Type II citrullinemia is found in most patients with adult-onset citrullinemia in Japan, and ASS deficiency is found specifically in the liver. Previous studies have shown that the decrease of hepatic ASS activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme protein with normal kinetic properties and that there were no apparent abnormalities in the amount, translational activity, and gross structure of hepatic ASS mRNA. In the present work, the authors show by sequencing analysis that there was no mutation in the ASS mRNA from two patients with type II citrullinemia. The authors also report RFLP analysis of a consanguineous family with type II citrullinemia, by using three DNA polymorphisms located within the ASS gene locus. In spite of having consanguineous parents, the patient was not a homozygous haplotype for the ASS gene. The RFLP analysis of 16 affected patients from consanguineous parents showed that 5 of 16 patients had the heterozygous pattern for one of the three DNA probes and that the frequency of the heterozygous haplotype was not different from the control frequency. These results suggest that the primary defect of type II citrullinemia is not within the ASS gene locus. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Adult-onset liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Stender, Stefan; Chakrabarti, Rima S.; Xing, Chao; Gotway, Garrett; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Hobbs, Helen H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The etiology of liver disease remains elusive in some adults presenting with severe hepatic dysfunction. Methods and results Here we describe a woman of Pakistani descent who had elevated aminotransferases at age 23. She developed muscle weakness in her mid-20s, and was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma at age 29. She died without a diagnosis at age 32 after having a liver transplant. Exome sequencing revealed that she was homozygous for a missense mutation (R49H) in AHCY, the gene encoding S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase. SAH hydrolase catalyzes the final step in conversion of methionine to homocysteine and inactivating mutations in this enzyme cause a rare autosomal recessive disorder, SAH hydrolase deficiency, that typically presents in infancy. An asymptomatic 7-year old son of the proband is also homozygous for the AHCY-R49H mutation and has elevated serum aminotransferase levels, as well as markedly elevated serum levels of SAH, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and methionine, which are hallmarks of SAH hydrolase deficiency. Conclusion This report reveals several new aspects of SAH hydrolase deficiency. Affected women with SAH hydrolase deficiency can give birth to healthy children. SAH hydrolase deficiency can remain asymptomatic in childhood, and the disorder can be associated with early onset hepatocellular carcinoma. The measurement of serum amino acids should be considered in patients with liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma of unknown etiology. PMID:26527160

  10. Dysregulation of axonal sodium channel isoforms after adult-onset chronic demyelination.

    PubMed

    Rasband, Matthew N; Kagawa, Tetsushi; Park, Eunice W; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Trimmer, James S

    2003-08-15

    Demyelination results in conduction block through changes in passive cable properties of an axon and in the expression and localization of axonal ion channels. We show here that adult-onset chronic demyelination, such as occurs in demyelinating disorders and after nerve injury, alters the complement of axonal voltage-dependent Na+ (Nav) channel isoforms and their localization. As a model, we used heterozygous transgenic mice with two extra copies of the proteolipid protein gene (Plp/-). Retinal ganglion cell axons in these mice myelinate normally, with young Plp/- and wild-type mice expressing Nav1.2 at low levels, whereas Nav1.6 is clustered in high densities at nodes of Ranvier. At 7 months of age, however, Plp/- mice exhibit severe demyelination and oligodendrocyte cell death, leading to a profound reduction in Nav1.6 clusters, loss of the paranodal axoglial apparatus, and a marked increase in Nav1.2. We conclude that myelin is crucial not only for node of Ranvier formation, but also to actively maintain the proper localization and complement of distinct axonal Nav channel isoforms throughout life. The altered Nav channel isoform localization and complement induced by demyelination may contribute to the pathophysiology of demyelinating disorders and nerve injury. PMID:12898531

  11. Neural regulation of acid maltase in an unusual adult onset deficiency.

    PubMed

    Meola, G; Sansone, V; Rotondo, G; Radice, S; Sterlicchio, M; Mauri, M; Bresolin, N; Moggio, M

    1994-01-01

    In a 48-year-old female, the first symptoms apparently manifested themselves 18 years before, with occasional tripping and weakness in both legs. During the next 18 years, weakness progressed and the patient developed a waddling gait; she became unable to rise from a lying or seated position unassisted and the shoulder girdle also became affected. Neurological examination revealed limb and shoulder girdle predominantly involving the lower extremities. We established cell cultures from muscle biopsy specimens obtained from our patient and carried out morphological analysis which, although aspecific, demonstrated clear signs of neurogenic suffering. This was confirmed in EMG studies performed. Biochemical analysis revealed very low acid maltase residual activity. We describe an unusual case of adult-onset acid maltase deficiency (AMD) with neurogenic atrophy and low residual activity. Innervated myofibres prepared by co-culturing the patient's myoblasts, with spinal cord foetal mouse explants were not associated with an abnormal in vitro maturation of the innervated myofibres as expected by the very low residual enzymatic activity found both in the muscle biopsy specimens and in the muscle cultures. There is strong suggestion that factors other than the amount of residual activity must be involved to determine the clinical manifestation of this disease.

  12. Alcohol drinking in young adults: the predictive value of personality when peers come around.

    PubMed

    van Schoor, Guido; Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether personality traits and peer drinking affect alcohol consumption in young adults. Data were analyzed from a study that was conducted in a 'bar laboratory' in which ad-lib drinking of peer groups was observed. The findings indicate that extroversion is moderately associated with self-reported daily drinking, while low emotional stability is modestly associated with alcohol-related problems. With regard to drinking in the observational drinking setting, personality is not associated with young adults' actual alcohol consumption. Further, peer drinking levels were strongly related to young adults' drinking. Besides, agreeableness interacted with the effects of peer drinking on young adults' drinking in such a way that agreeable individuals adapted their actual alcohol consumption more easily than others when socializing in a high- or a low-drinking peer group. We concluded that drinking in a peer context, irrespective of personality, played a major role in forming young adults' drinking. However, personality (i.e. agreeableness) definitely played a role to the extent of the individuals' adaptation to peer drinking norms.

  13. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

  14. Childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and alcohol craving in adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Santaella, Julian; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors. Methods Participants were 22,147 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 (2004-2006) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured, face-to-face interview assessed past-year stressful life events, alcohol craving, and history of childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to evaluate the relationship between stressful life events and craving, adjusting for demographic characteristics and parental history of alcoholism. Interaction between stressful life events and childhood maltreatment was also assessed. Results Compared to participants with no stressful life events, those with ≥3 events had increased odds of moderate alcohol craving (aOR=3.15 [95% CI=2.30-4.33]) and severe craving (aOR=8.47 [95% CI=4.78-15.01]). Stressful life events and childhood maltreatment interacted in predicting severe craving (p=0.017); those with ≥3 events were at higher risk for craving if they had been exposed to childhood maltreatment. Conclusion A direct relationship between stressful life events and risk for alcohol craving was observed. Further, history of childhood maltreatment increased the salience of stressful life events in adulthood. Future studies should examine the role of psychiatric comorbidity in more complex models of stress sensitization and alcohol craving. PMID:24961735

  15. [What is known about the outcome as adults for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)?].

    PubMed

    Walloch, J E; Burger, P H; Kornhuber, J

    2012-06-01

    In the field of adult psychiatry in German-speaking countries, little attention is as yet paid to the psychic defects that a fetus can sustain as a result of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Although children of alcohol-dependent mothers do present to psychiatric institutions as adults with manifold symptoms, e. g., attention deficit disorders, affective disorders or intellectual disability, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are rarely diagnosed as an underlying cause. Appropriate therapy guidelines do not exist. Current review papers within the German-speaking countries usually stem from paediatric and adolescent psychiatry or medicine. Based on a selected review of the literature, the following paper addresses and discusses the disease entity of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome and their significance for adult psychiatry and also identifies open questions and research requirements, e. g., the development of diagnostic instruments or the establishment of diagnostic categories.

  16. [What is known about the outcome as adults for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)?].

    PubMed

    Walloch, J E; Burger, P H; Kornhuber, J

    2012-06-01

    In the field of adult psychiatry in German-speaking countries, little attention is as yet paid to the psychic defects that a fetus can sustain as a result of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Although children of alcohol-dependent mothers do present to psychiatric institutions as adults with manifold symptoms, e. g., attention deficit disorders, affective disorders or intellectual disability, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are rarely diagnosed as an underlying cause. Appropriate therapy guidelines do not exist. Current review papers within the German-speaking countries usually stem from paediatric and adolescent psychiatry or medicine. Based on a selected review of the literature, the following paper addresses and discusses the disease entity of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome and their significance for adult psychiatry and also identifies open questions and research requirements, e. g., the development of diagnostic instruments or the establishment of diagnostic categories. PMID:22173965

  17. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reas, E.T.; Laughlin, G.A.; Kritz-Silverstein, D.; Barrett-Connor, E.; McEvoy, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. OBJECTIVE To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. DESIGN Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING A research visit between 1988–1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. PARTICIPANTS 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. RESULTS Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. CONCLUSIONS In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  20. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  1. Acute Alcohol Use and Injury Patterns in Young Adult Prehospital Patients.

    PubMed

    Barton, David J; Tift, Frank W; Cournoyer, Lauren E; Vieth, Julie T; Hudson, Korin B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine if acute alcohol consumption is associated with differences in injury pattern among young adult patients with traumatic injuries presenting to emergency medical services (EMS). A cross-sectional, retrospective review of prehospital patient care reports (PCRs) was conducted evaluating injured patients who presented to a collegiate EMS agency from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012. Included patients were age 18-24 y and sustained an injury within the previous 24 h. PCRs were reviewed independently by two abstractors to determine if the patient was documented to have acutely consumed alcohol proximate to his/her injury. Primary and secondary sites of regional body injury were recorded. Injury severity was recorded using the Revised Trauma Score (RTS). The association between primary injury site and acute alcohol use was assessed using a chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for sex in predicting injury type. Of 440 injured patients, 135 (30.6%) had documented alcohol use prior to injury. Acute alcohol consumption altered the overall pattern of regional injury (p < 0.001). Alcohol users were more likely to present with injury secondary to assault, fall/trip, and unknown mechanism of injury (p < 0.001, all comparisons). RTS scores were statistically lower in the alcohol group (p < 0.001), although the clinical significance of this is unclear. Controlling for sex, acute alcohol consumption predicted increased risk of head/neck injury 5.59-fold (p < 0.001). Acute alcohol use in collegiate EMS patients appears to alter injury patterns in young adults and increases risk of head/neck injury. EMS providers in similar agencies should consider these trends when assessing and treating injured college-aged patients. PMID:27002348

  2. Alcohol and Opioid Use Disorder in Older Adults: Neglected and Treatable Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Christoffel; Tang, Yilang; Drexler, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid use disorder (OUD) in older adults for general psychiatrists. The rapid growth of the geriatric population in the USA has wide-ranging implications as the baby boomer generation ages. Various types of substance use disorders (SUDs) are common in older adults, and they often take a greater toll on affected older adults than on younger adults. Due to multiple reasons, SUDs in older adults are often under-reported, under-detected, and under-treated. Older adults often use substances, which leads to various clinical problems. Space limitations prevents a comprehensive review; therefore, we primarily focus on alcohol use disorder and the problem of opioid use disorder, with more emphasis given to the latter, because the opioid use epidemic in the USA has gained much attention. We reviewed the literature on the topics, integrated across geriatric psychiatry, addiction psychiatry, research, and national trends. We discuss unique vulnerabilities of older adults to SUDs with regard to management of SUDs in older adults, medication-assisted treatment (MAT), and psychosocial treatments. We encourage general psychiatrists to raise their awareness of SUDs in older adults and to provide brief intervention or referral for further assessment. PMID:27488204

  3. Alcohol and Opioid Use Disorder in Older Adults: Neglected and Treatable Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Christoffel; Tang, Yilang; Drexler, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid use disorder (OUD) in older adults for general psychiatrists. The rapid growth of the geriatric population in the USA has wide-ranging implications as the baby boomer generation ages. Various types of substance use disorders (SUDs) are common in older adults, and they often take a greater toll on affected older adults than on younger adults. Due to multiple reasons, SUDs in older adults are often under-reported, under-detected, and under-treated. Older adults often use substances, which leads to various clinical problems. Space limitations prevents a comprehensive review; therefore, we primarily focus on alcohol use disorder and the problem of opioid use disorder, with more emphasis given to the latter, because the opioid use epidemic in the USA has gained much attention. We reviewed the literature on the topics, integrated across geriatric psychiatry, addiction psychiatry, research, and national trends. We discuss unique vulnerabilities of older adults to SUDs with regard to management of SUDs in older adults, medication-assisted treatment (MAT), and psychosocial treatments. We encourage general psychiatrists to raise their awareness of SUDs in older adults and to provide brief intervention or referral for further assessment.

  4. An increased incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma in patients with adult-onset sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sarcomas are rare, often fatal malignancies of connective tissues that can occur in genetic predisposition syndromes or result from carcinogen exposure. Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is not known to contribute to any recognised familial cancer syndrome comprising sarcomas, but is known to be associated with a variety of second cancers, including sarcomas. This study describes the prevalence of HL in families affected by sarcoma. Methods The International Sarcoma Kindred Study (ISKS) is a prospective cohort of 561 families ascertained via a proband with adult-onset sarcoma. Cancer-specific standardised incidence ratios (SIR) for multiple primary malignancies in probands were estimated. Clinical characteristics of individuals reporting both sarcoma and HL were described. Standardised incidence ratios for the occurrence of cancer in ISKS families were also estimated. Results Multiple primary cancers were reported in 16% of probands, significantly higher than in the general population. The risk of HL in probands was increased 15.8-fold (95%CI 7.9-31.6) and increased risks were also seen for breast cancer (SIR 2.9, 95%CI 1.9-4.4) and thyroid cancer (SIR 8.4, 95%CI 4.2-16.8). In 8 probands with both HL and sarcoma, the diagnosis of HL preceded that of sarcoma in 7 cases, and occurred synchronously in one case. Only 3 cases of sarcoma occurred in or close to prior radiotherapy fields. The overall incidence of HL in the ISKS cohort was not significantly increased by comparison with age- and gender-specific population estimates (SIR 1.63, 95%CI 1.05-2.43), suggesting that the association between HL and sarcomas did not extend to other family members. The age of onset of non-sarcoma, non-HL cancers in families affected by both HL and sarcoma was younger than the general population (56.2 y vs 65.6 y, P < 0.0001). Conclusions The basis for the association between HL and sarcomas may include the carcinogenic effects of therapy combined with excellent survival rates for HL

  5. Are schools and alcohol a good mix? A qualitative study of school principals' experiences of adults' alcohol use in Australian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bernadette M; Buykx, Penny; Munro, Geoffrey; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective Parents, schools and the broader community influence children's socialisation to alcohol. In Australia, the UK and the USA, there have been media reports of adults consuming alcohol at family-focused school events such as fairs and graduations. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe school principals' experiences of adults' use of alcohol at school events, when children are present. Design/setting/participants A qualitative study was undertaken. Publicly available lists were used to invite 60 principals from government and Catholic secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. In-depth interviews were conducted and analysed thematically and reported using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. Results 14 principals (5 female, 9 male) participated. Most (10) of the participating principals reported adults' use of alcohol at events when students were present. Regarding these events, most principals reported concerns regarding potential harms and responsibility for decision-making about alcohol availability in schools. Some (4) principals believed alcohol should not be present at such events and this was their practice. Half of the participating schools had recently made changes to reduce the availability or management of alcohol at school functions. Conclusions The findings confirm the common use of alcohol by adults at school events, the challenges this poses for school principals and suggests consideration needs to be given to identifying strategies for supporting schools and school principals in decision-making regarding the conduct of such events. PMID:27481620

  6. Short sleep duration is associated with greater alcohol consumption in adults.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; McNeil, Jessica; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between sleep duration and alcohol consumption in adults (301 men and 402 women aged 18-64years) from the greater Quebec City area. Sleep duration (self-reported), alcohol consumption (3-day food record and questions on drinking habits), and disinhibition eating behavior trait (score ≥ 6 on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were assessed. Participants were categorized as short- ( ≤ 6h), average- (7-8h) or long- ( ≥ 9h) duration sleepers. Overall, short-duration sleepers consumed significantly more alcohol than the two other sleep-duration groups. After adjusting for relevant covariates, short sleep duration was associated with an increase in the odds of exceeding the recommendations for sensible weekly alcohol intake of 14 drinks for men and 7 drinks for women compared to those sleeping between 7 and 8h (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.03-3.54, both sexes combined). In both men and women, daily alcohol intake was significantly higher in short-duration sleepers having a high disinhibition eating behavior trait. However, the prevalence of a binge drinking occasion (i.e. ≥5 drinks on one occasion) was more common in men than women. Men sleeping less than 6h per night with a disinhibited eating behavior were more likely to report binge drinking (41% of them). In summary, the combination of short sleep duration with disinhibited eating behavior is associated with greater alcohol intake in adults.

  7. Validation of Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (B-YAACQ): Portuguese version.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joaquim A; Martins, Jorge S; Coelho, Mariana S; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that Portuguese college students frequently drinking alcohol and experience a variety of alcohol-related negative consequences. However, to our knowledge, there is no validated measure to assess negative consequences of drinking alcohol for college students in Portugal. This article describes a validation of the Portuguese version of the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire. Originally developed by Kahler, Strong, and Read (2005), this 24-item questionnaire is a widely used self-report measure with strong psychometric properties and validity for the evaluation of the negative consequences of drinking in college students. We collected data from 620 students at the University of Coimbra (Portugal). Participants completed (a) a background questionnaire, (b) the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), (c) the Daily Drinking Questionnaire - Revised (DDQ-R), and (d) the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (B-YAACQ) translated into Portuguese as part of this study. Analyses showed that items fit a unidimensional Rasch model well with items infit statistics raging from .82 to 1.27, supporting using all items to create a total sum score of the Portuguese version of the B-YAACQ. The Portuguese version of the B-YAACQ showed adequate internal reliability (α = .87) and concurrent validity. Results support its use and integration in research on interventions targeted to reduce adverse effects associated with excessive drinking among Portuguese college students.

  8. Molecular and behavioral aspects of the actions of alcohol on the adult and developing brain.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Guerri, Consuelo

    2011-01-01

    The brain is one of the major target organs of alcohol actions. Alcohol abuse can lead to alterations in brain structure and functions and, in some cases, to neurodegeneration. Cognitive deficits and alcohol dependence are highly damaging consequences of alcohol abuse. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the developing brain is particularly vulnerable to alcohol, and that drinking during gestation can lead to a range of physical, learning and behavioral defects (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders), with the most dramatic presentation corresponding to fetal alcohol syndrome. Recent findings also indicate that adolescence is a stage of brain maturation and that heavy drinking at this stage can have a negative impact on brain structure and functions causing important short- and long-term cognitive and behavioral consequences. The effects of alcohol on the brain are not uniform; some brain areas or cell populations are more vulnerable than others. The prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the white matter and glial cells are particularly susceptible to the effects of ethanol. The molecular actions of alcohol on the brain are complex and involve numerous mechanisms and signaling pathways. Some of the mechanisms involved are common for the adult brain and for the developing brain, while others depend on the developmental stage. During brain ontogeny, alcohol causes irreversible alterations to the brain structure. It also impairs several molecular, neurochemical and cellular events taking place during normal brain development, including alterations in both gene expression regulation and the molecules involved in cell-cell interactions, interference with the mitogenic and growth factor response, enhancement of free radical formation and derangements of glial cell functions. However, in both adult and adolescent brains, alcohol damages specific brain areas through mechanisms involving excitotoxicity, free radical formation and

  9. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  10. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  11. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  12. A Model of Depression in Adult Children of Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lease, Suzanne H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationships between levels of depression in a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and non-ACOAs and patterns of parental drinking behaviors, intergenerational family interactions, attachment behaviors, and self-esteem. Drinking behaviors directly influenced family processes and indirectly influenced self-esteem but…

  13. Attributional Style, Depressive Features, and Self-Esteem: Adult Children of Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Stephanie I.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Undergraduate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) (n=57) were compared with children of nonalcoholic parents (n=100) on depression, self-esteem, and attributional style. ACOAs were found to have higher depression scores and lower self-esteem and were more likely to have a depressive attributional style. (SLD)

  14. "Scripting" the Inner Child in Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Approach for Rehearsing Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Carol L.

    Performance terminology can be applied as a form of analysis to evoke unique understandings of the identity of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA). By observing ACoA meetings, one can see members relying on positive reinforcement, validation perceptions, rewriting and visualizing healthy parenting skills, and rehearsing more functional alternative…

  15. The Relationship of Self-Perception and Stress in Adult Children of Alcoholics and Their Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Woititz identified 13 generalizations about adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs). Her work was based on clinical populations and may not be generalizable to a nonclinical population. Using 442 undergraduates, a study of students' perceptions of the applicability of Woititz's variables to them was conducted. No significant effects were found, even…

  16. Personality subtypes in adolescent and adult children of alcoholics: a two-part study.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Jonathan; Defife, Jared; Westen, Drew

    2011-07-01

    The authors conducted two studies to identify and to validate potential personality subtypes in the adolescent and adult children of alcoholics. As part of a broader NIMH-funded study, randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists provided personality data on adolescent (n = 208) or adult (n = 349) children of alcoholics using a Q-sort procedure (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure [SWAP]-II-A for adolescents and SWAP-II for adults), which were subjected to a cluster-analytic procedure, Q-factor analysis. Q-factor analysis yielded five personality subtypes in both groups. Despite the different samples and age groups, four of the personality subtypes were highly similar, including externalizing, inhibited, emotionally dysregulated, and high-functioning. Providing initial data on their validity, the subtypes differed on axis I and II pathology, adaptive functioning, and developmental and family history variables. These findings show heterogeneity among children of alcoholics and suggest the importance of addressing personality subtypes for research and practice in treating adolescent and adult children of alcoholics. PMID:21716063

  17. The Family-of-Origin Scale: Discriminant Validity with Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Steven C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined discriminant validity of Family-of-Origin Scale (FOS) with 60 self-defined adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and 64 college students. ACOAs obtained significantly lower scores on 10 FOS subscales, 2 larger dimensions of Autonomy and Intimacy, and global score. Discriminant function correctly classified nearly 88% of sample. Findings…

  18. Inconsistencies in the Literature on Collegiate Adult Children of Alcoholics: Factors to Consider for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine

    1996-01-01

    Several inconsistencies in literature on adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) were found. This paper emphasizes that clinicians and those developing prevention programs should stop believing that certain characteristics are typical of all ACOAs. It makes recommendations for factors to be considered in programs for African American collegiate…

  19. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  20. The Influence of Family Factors on the Executive Functioning of Adult Children of Alcoholics in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning in college aged adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; n = 84) and non-ACOAs (188). We examined whether characteristics of the family environment and family responsibility in one's family of origin were associated with executive functioning above the contribution of ACOA status. ACOAs reported more…

  1. Serving Alcohol at Home: What Do Most People Do? Findings from a 2001 Ontario Adult Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, Lise; Giesbrecht, Norman; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Grand, Larry; Mann, Robert; McAllister, Janet

    2004-01-01

    In Ontario, some court cases have involved attempts to sue social hosts for damage caused by the behaviour of drunken guests. Such legal actions give rise to the question of risks and responsibilities accruing to social hosts who serve alcohol. Using a sample of 1395 male and female adult residents of Ontario, the authors present self-report…

  2. Pesticide use and adult-onset asthma among male farmers in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Umbach, David M.; London, Stephanie J.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Kullman, Greg J.; Coble, Joseph; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific pesticides have been associated with wheeze in farmers, little is known about pesticides and asthma. We used data from 19,704 male farmers in the Agricultural Health Study to evaluate lifetime use of 48 pesticides and prevalent adult-onset asthma, defined as doctor-diagnosed asthma after age 20. We categorized asthma cases as allergic (N=127) and non-allergic (N=314) based on their history of eczema or hayfever. We used polytomous logistic regression controlling for age, state, smoking, and body mass to assess pesticide associations. High pesticide exposure events were associated with a doubling of both allergic and non-allergic asthma. For ever use, 12 individual pesticides were associated with allergic asthma and four with non-allergic asthma. For allergic asthma, coumaphos (odds ratio (OR) =2.34, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.49,3.70), heptachlor (OR=2.01, 95%CI=1.30,3.11), parathion (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.21,3.46), 80/20 mix (carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide) (OR=2.15, 95%CI=1.23,3.76) and ethylene dibromide (OR=2.07, 95%CI=1.02,4.20), all had odds ratios greater than 2.0 and significant exposure-response trends. For non-allergic asthma, DDT had the strongest association (OR=1.41, 95%CI=1.09,1.84) but with little evidence of increasing asthma with increasing use. Current animal handling and farm activities did not confound these results. We saw little evidence that allergy alone was driving these associations. Pesticides may be an overlooked contributor to asthma risk among farmers. PMID:19541724

  3. Parental smoking in pregnancy and the risks of adult-onset hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Layla L; Harris, Holly R; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Willett, Walter C; Forman, Michele R; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Michels, Karin B

    2013-02-01

    Fetal exposure to parental smoking may lead to developmental adaptations and promote various diseases in later life. This study evaluated the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the daughter in adulthood, and assessed whether these associations are explained by birth weight or body weight throughout life. We used data on 33086 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II and the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with the nurse daughter, with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension from 1989 until 2007. Overall, 8575 (25.9%) mothers and 18874 (57.0%) fathers smoked during pregnancy. During follow-up, 7825 incident cases of adult-onset hypertension were reported. Both maternal and paternal smoking of ≥ 15 cigarettes/d during pregnancy were associated with increased risks of hypertension (rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.29; and rate ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25, respectively) in the age-adjusted models. Further adjustment for birth weight did not affect the effect estimates appreciably, whereas additional adjustment for body shape and weight until age 18, or current body mass index, attenuated the associations with both maternal and paternal smoking (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.98-1.16; and rate ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12, respectively). The associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the offspring were largely explained by body weight throughout life, suggesting that these associations may not reflect direct intrauterine mechanisms.

  4. PARENTAL SMOKING IN PREGNANCY AND THE RISKS OF ADULT ONSET HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    De Jonge, Layla L.; Harris, Holly R.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Willett, Walter C.; Forman, Michele R.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Michels, Karin B.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal exposure to parental smoking may lead to developmental adaptations and promote various diseases in later life. This study evaluated the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the daughter in adulthood, and assessed whether these associations are explained by birth weight or body weight throughout life. We used data on 33,086 participants of the Nurses’ Health Study II and the Nurses’ Mothers’ Cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with the nurse daughter, with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension from 1989 until 2007. Overall, 8,575 (25.9%) mothers and 18,874 (57.0%) fathers smoked during pregnancy. During follow-up, 7,825 incident cases of adult-onset hypertension were reported. Both maternal and paternal smoking of ≥15 cigarettes/day during pregnancy were associated with increased risks of hypertension (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.29, and RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.25, respectively) in the age-adjusted models. Further adjustment for birth weight did not affect the effect estimates appreciably, while additional adjustment for body shape and weight until age 18, or current body mass index, attenuated the associations with both maternal and paternal smoking (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.16, and RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12, respectively). The associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the offspring were largely explained by body weight throughout life, suggesting that these associations may not reflect direct intrauterine mechanisms. PMID:23266542

  5. Astrocyte leptin receptor (ObR) and leptin transport in adult-onset obese mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weihong; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Sakharkar, Amul; Cain, Courtney; Yu, Chuanhui; Kastin, Abba J

    2008-06-01

    The agouti viable yellow (A vy) spontaneous mutation generates an unusual mouse phenotype of agouti-colored coat and adult-onset obesity with metabolic syndrome. Persistent production of agouti signaling protein in A vy mice antagonizes melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus. To determine how this disruption of neuroendocrine circuits affects leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we measured leptin influx in A vy and B6 control mice after the development of obesity, hyperleptinemia, and increased adiposity. After iv bolus injection, (125)I-leptin crossed the BBB significantly faster in young (2 month old) B6 mice than in young A vy mice or in older (8 month old) mice of either strain. This difference was not observed by in situ brain perfusion studies, indicating the cause being circulating factors, such as elevated leptin levels or soluble receptors. Thus, A vy mice showed peripheral leptin resistance. ObRa, the main transporting receptor for leptin at the BBB, showed no change in mRNA expression in the cerebral microvessels between the age-matched (2 month old) A vy and B6 mice. Higher ObRb mRNA was seen in the A vy microvasculature with unknown significance. Immunofluorescent staining unexpectedly revealed that many of the ObR(+) cells were astrocytes and that the A vy mice showed significantly more ObR(+) astrocytes in the hypothalamus than the B6 mice. Although leptin permeation from the circulation was slower in the A vy mice, the increased ObR expression in astrocytes and increased ObRb mRNA in microvessels suggest the possibility of heightened central nervous system sensitivity to circulating leptin.

  6. Muscle MRI Findings in Childhood/Adult Onset Pompe Disease Correlate with Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bonaparte, Sebastián; Segovia, Sonia; Llauger, Jaume; Belmonte, Izaskun; Pedrosa, Irene; Alejaldre, Aída; Mayos, Mercè; Suárez-Cuartín, Guillermo; Gallardo, Eduard; Illa, Isabel; Díaz-Manera, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Enzyme replacement therapy has shown to be effective for childhood/adult onset Pompe disease (AOPD). The discovery of biomarkers useful for monitoring disease progression is one of the priority research topics in Pompe disease. Muscle MRI could be one possible test but the correlation between muscle MRI and muscle strength and function has been only partially addressed so far. Methods We studied 34 AOPD patients using functional scales (Manual Research Council scale, hand held myometry, 6 minutes walking test, timed to up and go test, time to climb up and down 4 steps, time to walk 10 meters and Motor Function Measure 20 Scale), respiratory tests (Forced Vital Capacity seated and lying, Maximun Inspiratory Pressure and Maximum Expiratory Pressure), daily live activities scales (Activlim) and quality of life scales (Short Form-36 and Individualized Neuromuscular Quality of Life questionnaire). We performed a whole body muscle MRI using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging centered on thighs and lower trunk region. Results T1w whole body muscle MRI showed a homogeneous pattern of muscle involvement that could also be found in pre-symptomatic individuals. We found a strong correlation between muscle strength, muscle functional scales and the degree of muscle fatty replacement in muscle MRI analyzed using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging studies. Moreover, muscle MRI detected mild degree of fatty replacement in paraspinal muscles in pre-symptomatic patients. Conclusion Based on our findings, we consider that muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful for diagnosis and follow-up in pre-symptomatic and symptomatic patients under treatment. Take home message Muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful to follow-up patients in daily clinic. PMID:27711114

  7. Feasibility and Utility of Experience Sampling to Assess Alcohol Consumption Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Paul; Smith, Cristan A.; Harrington, Donna; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Resnick, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In the literature on alcohol use and aging, drinking has often been conceptualized as a means of coping with negative feelings, such as stress, yet much of the literature on older adults and drinking has utilized cross-sectional or other data ill-suited for exploring dynamic processes. Experience sampling methods have the ability to measure and analyze dynamic processes in real time, such as relations between alcohol use and mood states. Nonetheless, these approaches are intensive and may burden respondents. Therefore, this study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and validity of a modified daily diary to measure alcohol use and explored alternate methods of collecting diary data. Findings suggest that a modified diary was acceptable and not burdensome. Respondents were reluctant to consider technology (e.g., cellphone)-based means of data collection. Measures of alcohol use showed little within-person variation suggesting that for those who drink at all, drinking is a daily habit. PMID:24652928

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  9. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions.

  10. Novel Approaches to Individual Alcohol Interventions for Heavy Drinking College Students and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Fucito, Lisa M.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Efficacious alcohol interventions for college students and young adults have been developed but produce small effects of limited duration. This paper provides a review and critique of novel (e.g., a significant deviation from a traditional, brief, and motivational intervention) interventions published between 2009 and 2014 to reduce alcohol use in this population and covers intervention format/components and efficacy on alcohol outcomes. We reviewed 12 randomized controlled trials of novel, individual-level alcohol interventions that reported alcohol outcomes. Four domains of novel interventions are discussed: content (e.g., pharmaco-therapy and automatic action tendency retraining), setting (e.g., health centers and ED), modality (e.g., mobile technology), and treatment integration. Findings were mixed for intervention efficacy to reduce amount and frequency of alcohol consumption. Few studies assessed impact on alcohol-related problems. Despite the prevalence of efficacious interventions, there is still an urgent need for novel treatment approaches and delivery mechanisms for this difficult-to-treat population. PMID:26258001

  11. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions. PMID:26259003

  12. Further Analyses of Genetic Association Between GRM8 and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth C.; Aliev, Fazil; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Edenberg, Howard J.; Nurnberger, John; Hesselbrock, Victor; Porjesz, Bernice; Dick, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The gene GRM8, a metabotropic glutamate receptor, has emerged as a gene of interest for its possible role in the development of alcohol dependence, with evidence of association with an electrophysiological endophenotype and level of response to alcohol as well as suggestive evidence of association with alcohol dependence. Method: The present study further investigated the association between GRM8 and alcohol dependence symptom counts among young adults using a new sample of individuals collected as part of the prospective sample (ages 18–26 years; N = 842) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Results: Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European Americans using the Nyholt corrected p value of .007: rs886003 (β = -.212, p = .0002) and rs17862325 (β = -.234, p < .0001), but not in African Americans, likely because of the lower power to detect association in this group. Conclusions: These results further implicate the role of glutamate receptor genes such as GRM8 in the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25978827

  13. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions. PMID:26259003

  14. The association between insomnia and suicidal thoughts in adults treated for alcohol dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Ilgen, Mark A.; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation is elevated for individuals with alcohol use disorders. Sleep problems are associated with suicide risk and alcohol use, and sleep problems may be associated with suicide risk in those with alcohol use disorders. For the present study, we hypothesized that self-reported sleep problems are associated with suicidal thoughts in a sample of adults seeking treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland. Methods The sample included 304 patients in addiction treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland who met criteria for alcohol dependence. Measures included demographic characteristics, frequency of alcohol use, psychiatric symptoms, suicidal ideation and two measures of insomnia, which differed by time frame: the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS, past 1 month) and the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ-7, past 6 months). Multivariable logistic regression models tested the association between insomnia and suicidal thoughts. Results In models that controlled for age, gender, and days of recent drinking, both measures of sleep problems were associated with suicidal ideation: AOR= 2.01 (95% CI: 1.50-2.70) [AIS] and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.29-2.31) [SDQ-7]. The association of sleep problems, as measured by the AIS, with suicide remained significant after adjusting for psychiatric symptoms, although the estimated effect size was smaller (AOR= 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05-2.06). Conclusions Among Polish adults with alcohol dependence, insomnia severity was associated with suicidal ideation. This finding highlights the need to assess for sleep problems, in addition to suicidal thoughts, in alcohol treatment settings and to further examine the potential consequences of poor sleep in this population. PMID:21996494

  15. Adult-onset autosomal recessive ataxia associated with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 5 gene (CLN5) mutations.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Cecilia; Nassani, Stefano; Guo, Yiran; Chen, Yulan; Giorgio, Elisa; Brussino, Alessandro; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Cavalieri, Simona; Lo Buono, Nicola; Funaro, Ada; Pizio, Nicola Renato; Nmezi, Bruce; Kyttala, Aija; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Padiath, Quasar Salem; Hakonarson, Hakon; Zhang, Hao; Brusco, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive inherited ataxias are a growing group of genetic disorders. We report two Italian siblings presenting in their mid-50s with difficulty in walking, dysarthria and progressive cognitive decline. Visual loss, ascribed to glaucoma, manifested a few years before the other symptoms. Brain MRI showed severe cerebellar atrophy, prevalent in the vermis, with marked cortical atrophy of both hemispheres. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous mutation (c.935G > A;p.Ser312Asn) in the ceroid neuronal lipofuscinosis type 5 gene (CLN5). Bioinformatics predictions and in vitro studies showed that the mutation was deleterious and likely affects ER-lysosome protein trafficking. Our findings support CLN5 hypomorphic mutations cause autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia, confirming other reports showing CLN mutations are associated with adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders. We suggest CLN genes should be considered in the molecular analyses of patients presenting with adult-onset autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia.

  16. The diagnostic evaluation of patients with potential adult-onset autoinflammatory disorders: our experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Muscari, Isabella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Cantarini, Luca; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Simonini, Gabriele; Brizi, Maria Giuseppina; Vitale, Antonio; Frediani, Bruno; Cimaz, Rolando; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2012-11-01

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPFSs) are a group of inherited disorders of the innate immune system caused by mutations of genes involved in the regulation or activation of the inflammatory response, which belong to the category of autoinflammatory disorders. Most HPFs typically have an onset in pediatric age, while a limited number of patients experience disease onset during adulthood. The relative rarity and lack of information on adult-onset autoinflammatory diseases make it likely that genetic testing is often inconclusive. Recently, we have identified a set of variables related to the probability of detecting gene mutations in MEFV, responsible for familial Mediterranean fever, and TNFRSF1A, responsible for tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. In addition, we have proposed a diagnostic score for identifying those patients at high risk of carrying mutations in these genes. However, before the score can be recommended for application, further evaluation by means of longitudinal studies on different ethnicities and different populations deriving from other geographical areas is needed in order to definitively verify both its sensitivity and its specificity. The present manuscript offers our suggestions on how to establish a differential diagnosis for adult-onset HPFs, as well as a review of the literature, and we also provide a score revision available online.

  17. Targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth: results from a national survey of local law enforcement agencies.

    PubMed

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Erickson, Darin J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption.

  18. Frontal White Matter Integrity Predictors of Adult Alcohol Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sorg, Scott F.; Taylor, Michael J.; Alhassoon, Omar M.; Gongvatana, Assawin; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Frank, Lawrence R.; Grant, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has associated abnormalities in frontal lobe functioning with alcohol relapse. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether frontal white matter integrity measured at the start of treatment differs between persons with alcohol use disorders (AUD) who sustain treatment gains and those who return to heavy use after treatment. Methods Forty-five treatment-seeking AUD inpatients and 30 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Six months after completing treatment, 16 of the AUD participants had resumed heavy use (RHU) and 29 others remained abstinent or drank minimally (treatment sustainers [TS]). Voxel-wise group comparisons (TS vs. RHU) were performed on fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity maps generated from each subject’s diffusion tensor imaging scan at the start of treatment. Results We found significantly lower FA and significantly higher RD in the frontal lobes of the RHU group, relative to the TS group. The RHU group data are consistent with previous reports of abnormal frontal white matter tract abnormalities in persons with AUD. Conclusions It is possible that the lower FA and higher RD in the RHU group reflect microstructural injury to frontal circuitries, and these may underlie the reduced cognitive control amid heightened reward sensitivity associated with resumption of heavy drinking. PMID:22047719

  19. Social and Behavioral Characteristics of Young Adult Drink/Drivers Adjusted for Level of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Elliott, Michael R.; Shope, Jean T.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption and drink/driving are positively correlated and many predictors of alcohol use also predict drink/driving. Past research has not fully distinguished the contributions of personal risk factors from the level of alcohol use in the prediction of drink/driving. As a result, the extent to which predictors are specific to drink/driving, versus due to a mutual association to alcohol use, is unclear. Methods This study examined the unique and shared risk factors for drink/driving and alcohol use, and examined the attributable risk (AR) associated with predictors of drink/driving while adjusting for alcohol use. Study data were from a telephone survey of 3,480 Michigan-licensed young adults who were drinkers. Four groups of drink/drivers were formed based on the prior 12-month maximum severity of drink/driving: (1) never drink/driving; (2) driving at least once within an hour of 1 or 2 drinks; (3) driving within an hour of 3 or more drinks or while feeling the effects of alcohol; and (4) drinking while driving. Results Lower perceived risk of drink/driving, greater social support for drinking and drink/driving, greater aggression and delinquency, more cigarette smoking, and more risky driving behaviors uniquely predicted drink/driving severity in models adjusted for alcohol use. The largest ARs were associated with social support for drinking and drink/driving and perceived risk of drink/driving. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol use and drink/driving share risk factors, but also indicate that part of the variation in these factors is specific to drink/driving. Implications for interventions to reduce drink/driving are discussed. PMID:17374045

  20. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Umberson, Debra

    2016-03-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach-which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage-to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (n = 10,457) and couple-level (n = 2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and individual-level (n = 46) and couple-level (n = 42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men's but increases women's drinking relative to being never married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men's but decrease women's drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men's and women's heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. PMID:26957135

  1. Alcohol and Drug Use Among Young Adults Driving to a Drinking Location

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Johnson, Mark B.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clubs that feature electronic music dance events (EMDEs) draw young adults aged 18 to 34 who are at high-risk for alcohol-related crashes to locations where alcohol sales are the principal source of revenue. Up to 30% of these attendees may also use drugs. This provides an important context in which to study driving arrangements that reflect concern with impaired driving. We explored whether drivers were using less alcohol and fewer drugs at exit than their passengers were and whether a driver for the group ever changed after consuming too much during the evening. Methods Using biological measures of alcohol consumption (breath tests) and drug use (oral fluid tests), 175 drivers and 272 passengers were surveyed among young adults arriving at and departing from EMDEs in San Francisco. Results Upon exit from the drinking locations, only 20% of the drivers, compared to 47% of the passengers, had a high breath alcohol concentration (defined as a BrAC of .05 g/dL or greater). Further, there was evidence that drivers with high BrACs switched to passenger status on exit and former passengers with lower BrACs replaced those drivers. However, there were no differences in the prevalence of drug use among drivers and passengers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the effort by young adult drivers to avoid alcohol-impaired driving appears to be reducing the number of drivers with high BrACs returning from drinking locations, such as EMDEs, by about one third. However, there is no similar pattern for drugged driving. PMID:23415848

  2. Trans-Palmitoleic Acid, Metabolic Risk Factors, and New-Onset Diabetes in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Cao, Haiming; King, Irena B.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Song, Xiaoling; Siscovick, David S.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Palmitoleic acid (cis-16:1n-7), produced by endogenous fat synthesis, has been linked to both beneficial and deleterious metabolic effects, potentially confounded by diverse determinants and tissue sources of endogenous production. Trans-palmitoleate (trans-16:1n-7) represents a distinctly exogenous source of 16:1n-7, unconfounded by endogenous synthesis or its determinants, that may be uniquely informative. Objective We investigated whether circulating trans-palmitoleate was independently related to lower metabolic risk and incident type2 diabetes. Design Prospective cohort study (1992–2006). Setting Four US communities. Patients 3,736 adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Measurements Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, anthropometry, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, and glucose-insulin levels were measured at baseline in 1992; and diet, 3 years earlier. In multivariable-adjusted models, we investigated how demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors independently related to trans-palmitoleate; how trans-palmitoleate related to major metabolic risk factors; and how trans-palmitoleate related to new-onset diabetes (304 incident cases). We validated findings for metabolic risk factors in an independent cohort of 327 women. Results In multivariable-analyses, whole-fat dairy consumption was most strongly associated with higher trans-palmitoleate. Higher trans-palmitoleate was associated with slightly lower adiposity and, independently, higher high-density-lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol (across quintiles: +1.9%, P=0.04), lower triglycerides (−19.0%, P<0.001), lower total:HDL-cholesterol (−4.7%, P<0.001), lower C-reactive protein (−13.8%, P=0.05), and lower insulin resistance (−16.7%, P<0.001). Trans-palmitoleate was associated with substantially lower incidence of diabetes, with multivariable-hazard-ratios=0.41 (95%CI=0.27–0.64) and 0.38 (95%CI=0.24–0.62) in quintile-4 and quintile-5, versus quintile-1 (P-trend<0.001). Findings were

  3. 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Meng-Jie; Wang, Cai-Qin; Zhao, Kui; Wang, Guo-Lin; Sun, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Feng; Xu, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) has become useful for the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory conditions, including rheumatic diseases, immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease and giant cell arteritis. However, few articles based on small sample sizes (n = 7) diagnosed as adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) have been published. The study aim was to observe the reliable characteristics and usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of consecutive patients with AOSD. Eligible patients were selected from among those who had undergone (18)F-FDG PET/CT between May 2007 and June 2014. Twenty-six consecutive AOSD patients were recruited retrospectively according to criteria set by Yamaguchi et al. All patients underwent evaluation by (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The characteristics and usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of consecutive patients with AOSD were evaluated. All 26 patients had (18)F-FDG-avid lesion(s) related to their particular disease. Diffuse and homogeneous accumulation of (18)F-FDG was seen in the bone marrow (26/26; 100 %; maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax), 2.10-6.73) and spleen (25/26; 96.15 %). The SUVmax of affected lymph nodes was 1.3-9.53 (mean ± SD, 4.12 ± 2.24). The SUVmax and size factors (maximum diameter and areas) of affected lymph nodes were significantly different (P = 0.033 and P = 0.012, respectively). (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed the general distribution of (18)F-FDG accumulation. This factor helped to exclude malignant disease and aided the diagnosis of AOSD (42.3 %) in 11 cases when combined with clinical features and aided decisions regarding appropriate biopsy sites, such as the lymph nodes (n = 9) and bone marrow (n = 13). (18)F-FDG PET/CT is a unique imaging method for the assessment of metabolic activity throughout the body in subjects with AOSD. Characteristics or patterns of AOSD observed on (18)F-FDG PET/CT can be used for the

  4. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage.

  5. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage. PMID:17977896

  6. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2015-01-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach—which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage—to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (N=10,457) and couple-level (N=2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), and individual-level (N=46) and couple-level (N=42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men’s but increases women’s drinking relative to being never-married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men’s but decrease women’s drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men’s and women’s heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. PMID:26957135

  7. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly directed at reducing alcohol abuse. Methods Tests were conducted on the impact of the CPOL intervention on alcohol use patterns across communities in rural Zimbabwe over three waves from 2003 to 2007, including community- and individual-level tests using data based on in-person interviews of adult men and women (ages 18 to 30; N = 5,543). Data were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests, as well as logistic and ordinary least-squares regression with random effects. Results Higher drinking (any use, more frequent use, greater quantity, and/or frequent drunkenness) was generally associated with being male, older, not married, more highly educated, of Shona ethnicity, away from home frequently, employed, having no religious affiliation, or living in areas with a higher crude death rate or lower population density. Over the study period, significant declines in alcohol use and abuse were found in intervention and control sites at relatively equal levels. Conclusions Although no support was found for the effectiveness of the CPOL study in reducing alcohol abuse, Zimbabwe is similar to other countries in the impact of socio-demographic and cultural factors on alcohol use and abuse. PMID:22386686

  8. Obesity-related abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K Hoa; Ande, Sudharsana R; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-01-29

    The incidence of adult-onset T1D in low-risk non-HLA type has increased several folds, whereas the contemporaneous incidence in high-risk HLA-type remains stable. Various factors behind this selective increase in T1D in young adults remain unclear. Obesity and its associated abnormalities appear to be an important determinant; however, the underlying mechanism involved is not understood. Recently, we have developed two novel transgenic obese mice models, Mito-Ob and m-Mito-Ob, by expressing a pleiotropic protein prohibitin (PHB) and a phospho mutant form of PHB (Y114F-PHB or m-PHB) from the aP2 gene promoter, respectively. Both mice models develop obesity in a sex-neutral manner, independent of diet; but obesity associated chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance in a male sex-specific manner. Interestingly, on a high fat diet (HFD) only male m-Mito-Ob mice displayed marked mononuclear cell infiltration in pancreas and developed insulitis that mimic adult-onset T1D. Male Mito-Ob mice that share the metabolic phenotype of male m-Mito-Ob mice, and female m-Mito-Ob that harbor m-PHB similar to male m-Mito-Ob mice, did not develop insulitis. Thus, insulitis development in male m-Mito-Ob in response to HFD requires both, obesity-related abnormalities and m-PHB. Collectively, this data provides a proof-of-concept that obesity-associated abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D and reveals PHB as a potential susceptibility gene for T1D.

  9. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:25549080

  10. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    PubMed

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p < 0.001). In smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  11. Adolescent Mice, Unlike Adults, Consume More Alcohol in the Presence of Peers than Alone

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Sheree; Chein, Jason; Gould, Thomas; Holliday, Erica; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    One hallmark of adolescent risk taking is that it typically occurs when adolescents are with peers. It has been hypothesized that the presence of peers primes a reward-sensitive motivational state that overwhelms adolescents’ immature capacity for inhibitory control. We examined this hypothesis using a rodent model. A sample of mice were raised in same-sex triads and were tested for alcohol consumption either as juveniles or as adults, with half in each age group tested alone and half tested with their cagemates. The presence of “peers” increased alcohol consumption among adolescent mice, but not adults. The peer effect on human adolescent reward-seeking may reflect a hard-wired, evolutionarily conserved process through which the presence of agemates increases individuals’ sensitivity to potential rewards in their immediate environment. PMID:24341974

  12. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  13. Sporadic adult-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease with the main presentation of repeated cerebellar ataxia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeo; Harada, Seiko; Wakida, Kenji; Yoshida, Mari; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-06-22

    A 66-year-old woman suddenly experienced unsteadiness while walking; she had experienced the same symptom before, but it had resolved immediately. Her neurological findings showed cerebellar ataxia, absence of tendon reflex in the extremities, and orthostatic hypotension. MRI with DWI of the brain showed linear high-intensity areas at the white matter just below the cerebral cortex. Therefore, we suspected neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID). In her cutaneous skin biopsy, intranuclear inclusion bodies, which tested positive for an anti-ubiquitin antibody and anti-p62 antibody, were observed in sweat gland cells and fibroblasts; therefore, we diagnosed her with NIID. As no one in her family had similar symptoms, this was a case of sporadic NIID. Adult-onset NIID with the main presentation of cerebellar ataxia is rare; in our case, this repeated acute-onset symptom was a unique manifestation of the condition. PMID:27181748

  14. Delineation of Early and Later Adult Onset Depression by Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongjun; Nie, Binbin; Li, Na; Luo, Chunrong; Li, Haijun; Liu, Fang; Bai, Yan; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to a lack of evidence, there is no consistent age of onset to define early onset (EO) versus later onset (LO) major depressive disorder (MDD). Fractional anisotropy (FA), derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), has been widely used to study neuropsychiatric disorders by providing information about the brain circuitry, abnormalities of which might facilitate the delineation of EO versus LO MDD. Method In this study, 61 pairs of untreated, non-elderly, first-episode MDD patients and healthy controls (HCs) aged 18–45 years old received DTI scans. The voxel-based analysis method (VBM), classification analysis, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and regression analyses were used to determine abnormal FA clusters and their correlations with age of onset and clinical symptoms. Results Classification analysis suggested in the best model that there were two subgroups of MDD patients, delineated by an age of onset of 30 years old, by which MDD patients could be divided into EO (18–29 years old) and LO (30–45 years old) groups. LO MDD was characterized by decreased FA, especially in the white matter (WM) of the fronto-occipital fasciculus and posterior limb of internal capsule, with a negative correlation with the severity of depressive symptoms; in marked contrast, EO MDD showed increased FA, especially in the WM of the corpus callosum, corticospinal midbrain and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, while FA of the WM near the midbrain had a positive correlation with the severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Specific abnormalities of the brain circuitry in EO vs. LO MDD were delineated by an age of onset of 30 years old, as demonstrated by distinct abnormal FA clusters with opposite correlations with clinical symptoms. This DTI study supported the evidence of an exact age for the delineation of MDD, which could have broad multidisciplinary importance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00703742 PMID:25393297

  15. Effect of adult onset hypothyroidism on behavioral parameters and acetylcholinesterase isoforms activity in specific brain regions of male mice.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Giompres, Panagiotis; Margarity, Marigoula

    2016-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal development and function of mammalian central nervous system (CNS); TH dysregulation has been implicated in several cognitive and behavioral deficits related to dysfunctions of neurotransmitter systems. In the present study, we investigated the effects of adult onset hypothyroidism on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and on related behavioral parameters. For this purpose we used adult male Balb/cJ mice that were divided randomly into euthyroid and hypothyroid animal groups. Animals were rendered hypothyroid through administration of 1% w/v KClO4 in their drinking water for 8weeks. At the end of the treatment, learning/memory procedures were examined through step-through passive avoidance task while fear/anxiety was assessed using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open-field (OF) tests. AChE activity was determined colorimetrically in two different fractions, salt-soluble fraction (SS) (containing mainly the G1 isoform) and detergent-soluble fraction (DS) (containing mainly the G4 isoform) in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, midbrain, hippocampus and striatum. Our results indicate that adult onset hypothyroidism caused significant memory impairment and increased fear/anxiety. Moreover, the activity of both isoforms of AChE was reduced in all brain regions examined in a brain region- and isoform-specific manner. PMID:27317840

  16. Effect of adult onset hypothyroidism on behavioral parameters and acetylcholinesterase isoforms activity in specific brain regions of male mice.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Giompres, Panagiotis; Margarity, Marigoula

    2016-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal development and function of mammalian central nervous system (CNS); TH dysregulation has been implicated in several cognitive and behavioral deficits related to dysfunctions of neurotransmitter systems. In the present study, we investigated the effects of adult onset hypothyroidism on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and on related behavioral parameters. For this purpose we used adult male Balb/cJ mice that were divided randomly into euthyroid and hypothyroid animal groups. Animals were rendered hypothyroid through administration of 1% w/v KClO4 in their drinking water for 8weeks. At the end of the treatment, learning/memory procedures were examined through step-through passive avoidance task while fear/anxiety was assessed using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open-field (OF) tests. AChE activity was determined colorimetrically in two different fractions, salt-soluble fraction (SS) (containing mainly the G1 isoform) and detergent-soluble fraction (DS) (containing mainly the G4 isoform) in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, midbrain, hippocampus and striatum. Our results indicate that adult onset hypothyroidism caused significant memory impairment and increased fear/anxiety. Moreover, the activity of both isoforms of AChE was reduced in all brain regions examined in a brain region- and isoform-specific manner.

  17. Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on Prepulse Inhibition and Event-Related Potentials in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adolescent and adult rats show differential sensitivity to many of the acute effects of alcohol. We recently reported evidence of developmental differences in the effects of acute alcohol on the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). However, it is unclear whether developmental differences are also observed in other neurophysiological and neurobehavioral measurements known to be sensitive to alcohol exposure. The present study determined the age-related effects of acute alcohol on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) responses to acoustic startle (AS) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Methods Male adolescent and adult Wistar rats were implanted with cortical recording electrodes. The effects of acute alcohol (0.0, 0.75, and 1.5 g/kg) on behavioral and ERP responses to AS and PPI were assessed. Results Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) significantly reduced the behavioral and electrophysiological response to AS in adolescent and adult rats. Both 0.75 and 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly enhanced the behavioral response to PPI in adolescent, but not in adult rats. During prepulse+pulse trials, 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly increased the N10 pulse response in the adolescent frontal cortex. Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) also increased the N1 ERP pulse response to prepulse stimuli in frontal and parietal cortices in adult rats, but not in adolescent rats. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol’s effect on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of AS do not differ between adults and adolescents whereas developmental stage does appear to significantly modify alcohol influenced response to PPI. PMID:18828807

  18. Are Sleep Onset/Maintenance Difficulties Associated with Medical or Psychiatric Comorbidities in Nondemented Community-Dwelling Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Bigal, Marcelo E.; Katz, Mindy J.; Derby, Carol A.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Older adults frequently report disruptions in their ability to initiate and maintain sleep. It remains unclear whether these sleep problems are consequent to associated medical comorbidities or if they represent primary sleep disturbances that exist independent of other disorders of senescence. Herein we describe sleep characteristics and associated medical and psychiatric comorbidities among ethnically diverse nondemented older adults. Methods: The cross-sectional sample consisted of 702 participants drawn from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based study of aging. Sleep onset/maintenance difficulties (SO/MD) were ascertained using responses from the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-SS). Participants also completed assessments of medical history, psychological symptoms, and medication use. Results: Participants were an average of 80 ± 5.5 years of age and had 14 ± 3.4 years of education. Older adults reported sleeping an average of 6.5 ± 1.2 h/night. Mild SO/MD was reported in 43% of participants, while moderate/severe SO/MD was reported in 12% of participants. Sleep problems were associated with measures of obesity and symptoms of depression and anxiety. SO/MD was not associated with history of common medical conditions. Use rates of insomnia medication were low (0% to 3%). Conclusions: The prevalence of SO/MD is high in the elderly community-dwelling population and is associated with common psychiatric disorders. With the exception of obesity, SO/MD is not associated with common medical disorders. Further study is necessary to disentangle the nature of the relationship between sleep disturbance and psychiatric comorbidity among older adults. Citation: Zimmerman ME; Bigal ME; Katz MJ; Derby CA; Lipton RB. Are sleep onset/maintenance difficulties associated with medical or psychiatric comorbidities in nondemented community-dwelling older adults? J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):363-369. PMID:23585752

  19. Self-Efficacy for Refusal Mediated by Outcome Expectancies in the Prediction of Alcohol-Dependence amongst Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert J.; Connor, Jason P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relative importance of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy in the production of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult drinkers drawn from a milieu previously reported as supportive of risky drinking. Results suggest that heavy drinking women are particularly at risk of developing drinking-related…

  20. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  1. The Impact of Kin and Fictive Kin Relationships on the Mental Health of Black Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Camille J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how kin and fictive kinship relationships help to ameliorate or buffer responses to parental alcoholism and the breakdown in parenting. This qualitative study investigated coping responses developed by college students, who self-identified as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) who lived with…

  2. Trajectories and Determinants of Alcohol Use among LGB Young Adults and Their Heterosexual Peers: Results from a Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGBs) are at increased risk for alcohol use during young adulthood, but the mechanisms remain inadequately understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the trajectories and determinants of alcohol use among LGB young adults who were sampled prospectively. The sample included 111 LGB individuals (47 women…

  3. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  4. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment.

  5. Evidence for an early onset of endogenous alcohol production in bodies recovered from the water: implications for studying alcohol and drowning.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Jeffrey A; Smith, Gordon S

    2003-09-01

    Endogenous alcohol production can increase the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of drowning victims following submersion and confound epidemiological studies of the role of alcohol. This study seeks to determine how soon after a drowning death a victim's BAC is influenced by post-mortem alcohol production. The drop in mean lung weight that occurs over time in the water was hypothesized to serve as a proxy for the time course of decomposition, and thus provide an empirical measure to determine how soon after death to first suspect endogenous alcohol. The autopsy lung weights of 562 previously healthy males who drowned were compared across six submersion time groups (0-11.9, 12-23.9, 24-47.9, 48-95.9, 96-167.9 and >or=168 h) and two times of year (winter and non-winter). The hypothesis that a drop in lung weight is sensitive to the time course of decomposition was supported by (1). a statistically significant drop in mean lung weight that occurred 12-23.9 h post-submersion in the non-winter months, but not until 96-167.9 h in the colder winter months; and (2). a significant drop in lung weight was not observed in the group of cases with zero BAC. With a parallel finding that an increase in the proportion of cases with a positive BAC first occurred at the 12-23.9 h submersion group during the warmer non-winter months, we concluded that production of alcohol can occur in bodies recovered from the water as early as 12 h after death. Because excluding drownings with submersion durations greater than 12 h would exclude almost half of our cases from epidemiological studies of alcohol and drowning, additional evidence from the forensic literature was used to develop an adjustment procedure to account for endogenous alcohol production for submersion times of up to 1 week.

  6. Protective Connections and Educational Attainment among Young Adults with Childhood-Onset Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Gary; Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Youth with childhood-onset chronic illness (COCI) are at risk of poor educational attainment. Specific protective factors that promote college graduation in this population have not been studied previously. In this study, we examine the role protective factors during adolescence play in promoting college graduation among young adults…

  7. The Effects of Fundamental Frequency Level on Voice Onset Time in Normal Adult Male Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Christopher R.; Morris, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fundamental frequency (F[0]) on stop consonant voice onset time (VOT). VOT was measured from the recordings of 56 young men reading phrases containing all 6 English voiced and voiceless stops in word-initial position across high-, medium-, and low-F[0] levels. Separate analyses of variance for…

  8. The History and Timing of Depression Onset as Predictors of Young Adult Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayman, Mathew D.; Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The 3 main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood, (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult…

  9. Comparison of new-onset gout in adults prescribed chlorthalidone vs. hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Liza; Nair, Kavita V; Saseen, Joseph J

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the risk of new-onset gout following prescribing of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) compared with chlorthalidone (CTD). This retrospective cohort analysis used administrative claims from 2000 to 2012 to identify patients aged 18 to 89 years with hypertension who were prescribed CTD or HCTZ. Patients were excluded if they had a prior diagnosis of gout, conditions or prescription claims for medications that alter risk of gout, or if they switched between these two diuretics. A total of 1011 patients prescribed CTD were matched with 2022 patients prescribed HCTZ based on age, sex, and Chronic Condition Indicator. New-onset gout occurred in 17 of 1011 (1.68%) patients in the CTD group and in 26 of 2022 (1.29%) patients in the HCTZ group (P=.27). The number of days to first occurrence of gout was 183.6 days and 152.7 days in the CTD and HCTZ groups, respectively (P=.39). The mean daily dose was 22.7 mg for CTD and 24.3 mg for HCTZ, and the median dose of both CTD and HCTZ was 25 mg at the time of new-onset gout. Patients prescribed CTD for hypertension have a similar risk of developing new-onset gout compared with patients prescribed similar doses of HCTZ.

  10. Ethical and legal dilemmas arising during predictive testing for adult-onset disease: the experience of Huntington disease.

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, M; Bloch, M; Kanani, S; Quarrell, O W; Theilman, J; Hedrick, A; Dickens, B; Lynch, A; Hayden, M

    1990-01-01

    The goal of predictive testing is to modify the risk for currently healthy individuals to develop a genetic disease in the future. Such testing using polymorphic DNA markers has had major application in Huntington disease. The Canadian Collaborative Study of Predictive Testing for Huntington Disease has been guided by major principles of medical ethics, including autonomy, beneficence, confidentiality, and justice. Numerous ethical and legal dilemmas have arisen in this program, challenging these principles and occasionally casting them into conflict. The present report describes these dilemmas and offers our approach to resolving them. These issues will have relevance to predictive-testing programs for other adult-onset disorders. PMID:1971997

  11. Memory Loss and Frontal Cognitive Dysfunction in a Patient with Adult-onset Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kunihiko; Sone, Jun; Fujioka, Yusuke; Masuda, Michihito; Ohdake, Reiko; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Sobue, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Adult-onset NIID can result in prominent dementia. We herein describe the case of a 74-year-old man who presented with dementia, cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, and autonomic dysfunction. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the corticomedullary junction. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed frontal-dominant white matter hyperintensity. NIID was diagnosed from the presence of intranuclear inclusions in a skin biopsy sample. Neuropsychological testing revealed memory loss and frontal cognitive dysfunction, especially in relation to language and executive functions. We were therefore able to confirm the association of NIID with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27523009

  12. Episodic cervical dystonia associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux. A case of adult-onset Sandifer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shahnawaz, M; van der Westhuizen, L R; Gledhill, R F

    2001-12-01

    Sandifer syndrome is a dystonic movement disorder described in children with severe gastro-oesophageal reflux. We now report a patient who had the features of Sandifer syndrome first developing in adult life. Onset of dystonic episodes followed closely the occurrence of a Bell's palsy, while symptoms of peptic oesophagitis had been present for several months beforehand. Successful symptomatic treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux was accompanied by cessation of the dystonic episodes. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms of the abnormal movements in Sandifer syndrome are discussed. PMID:11714563

  13. Adult-onset nemaline rods in a patient treated for suspected dermatomyositis: study with two-dimensional electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Danon, M.J.; Giometti, C.S.; Manaligod, J.R.; Perurena, O.H.; Skosey, J.L.

    1981-12-01

    A 65-year-old woman with progressive muscle weakness and a diffuse rash of three years' duration was examined. Muscle tissue was studied with histochemical techniques, phase-contrast microscopy, electron microscopy, and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Histochemical studies showed numerous nemaline rods, with a normal ratio of types I and II fibers. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed abnormalities in the myosin light chain and tropomyosin protein patterns when compared with normal and diseased muscle biopsy samples, including those from two patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis.

  14. Preliminary evidence for an association of a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the MAOA gene with early onset alcoholism/substance abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Vanyukov, M.M.; Moss, H.B.; Tarter, R.E.

    1995-04-24

    An association between the liability to early onset alcoholism/substance abuse and a recently discovered dinucleotide repeat length polymorphism at the MAOA gene (MAOCA-1) was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A significant correlation between the presence/absence of the disorder and the length of the MAOCA-1 repeat was found in males, but not females, with {open_quotes}long{close_quotes} alleles (repeat length above 115 bp) associated with both increased risk for the disorder and lower age of onset of substance abuse. These preliminary data suggest that further exploration of the relationship between the MAOA gene and behavioral traits in an expanded sample is warranted. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Integrating alcohol response feedback in a brief intervention for young adult heavy drinkers who smoke: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fridberg, Daniel J.; Cao, Dingcai; King, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Background More effective approaches are needed to enhance drinking and other health behavior (e.g., smoking) outcomes of alcohol brief intervention (BI). Young adult heavy drinkers often engage in other health risk behaviors and show sensitivity to alcohol’s stimulating and rewarding effects, which predicts future alcohol-related problems. However, standard alcohol BIs do not address these issues. The current pilot study tested the utility of including feedback on alcohol response phenotype to improve BI outcomes among young adult heavy drinkers who smoke (HDS). Methods Thirty-three young adult (M ± SD age = 23.8 ± 2.1 years) HDS (8.7 ± 4.3 binge episodes/month; 23.6 ± 6.3 smoking days/month) were randomly assigned to standard alcohol BI (BI-S; n = 11), standard alcohol BI with personalized alcohol response feedback (BI-ARF; n = 10), or a health behavior attention control BI (AC; n = 11). Alcohol responses (stimulation, sedation, reward, and smoking urge) for the BI-ARF were recorded during a separate alcohol challenge session (0.8 g/kg). Outcomes were past-month drinking and smoking behavior assessed at 1- and 6-months post-intervention. Results At 6-month follow-up, the BI-ARF produced significant reductions in binge drinking, alcohol-smoking co-use, drinking quantity and frequency, and smoking frequency, but not maximum drinks per occasion, relative to baseline. Overall, the BI-ARF produced larger reductions in drinking/smoking behaviors at follow-up than did the BI-S or AC. Conclusions Including personalized feedback on alcohol response phenotype may improve BI outcomes for young adult HDS. Additional research is warranted to enhance and refine this approach in a broader sample. PMID:26341847

  16. Laboratory alcohol self-administration experiments do not increase subsequent real-life drinking in young adult social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christian; Seipt, Christian; Spreer, Maik; Blümke, Toni; Markovic, Alexandra; Jünger, Elisabeth; Plawecki, Martin H.; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Background While the utility of experimental free-access alcohol self-administration paradigms is well-established, little data exist addressing the question of whether study participation influences subsequent natural alcohol consumption. We here present drinking reports of young adults before and after participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration studies. Methods Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) drinking reports for the 6 weeks immediately preceding the first, and the 6 weeks after the last experimental alcohol challenge were examined from subjects completing one of two similar alcohol self-administration paradigms. In study 1, eighteen social drinkers (9 females, mean age 24.1 years) participated in 3 alcohol self-infusion sessions up to a maximum blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 160 mg%. Study 2 involved 60 participants (30 females, mean age 18.3 years) of the Dresden Longitudinal Study on Alcohol Use in Young Adults (D-LAYA), who participated in 2 sessions of alcohol self-infusion up to a maximum BAC of 120 mg%, and a non-exposed age- matched control group of 42 (28 females, mean age 18.4 years) subjects. Results In study 1, participants reported (3.7%) fewer heavy drinking days as well as a decrease of 2.5 drinks per drinking day after study participation compared to pre-study levels (p<.05 respectively).. In study 2, alcohol-exposed participants reported 7.1% and non- alcohol-exposed controls 6.5% fewer drinking days at post-study measurement (p<.001), while percent heavy drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ. Conclusion These data suggest that participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration experiments does not increase subsequent real-life drinking of young adults. PMID:25903217

  17. Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

  18. Association between juvenile onset obesity and severe adult obesity in 73, 532 women.

    PubMed Central

    Rimm, I J; Rimm, A A

    1976-01-01

    The association between juvenile obesity and severe adult obesity was examined using a questionnaire completed by 73,532 weight conscious women. Relative obesity as an adult was determined by the ratio Weight/Height. The question, "Were you considered a fat child?" determined childhood weight status. Analysis of the data revealed that severely obese women (regardless of age) were 2.4 times more likely than normal weight women to have been fat children. This association was noted for all parity groups. The data also suggests that the risk of a fat child developing severe obesity is substantially greater than that for a non-fat child. Since adult obesity is associated with a number of adult diseases, this study emphasizes the importance of weight control in childhood. PMID:1275125

  19. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  20. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt.

  1. Clinical features and long-term outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus: comparative data of childhood, adult and late-onset disease in a national register.

    PubMed

    Sousa, S; Gonçalves, M J; Inês, L S; Eugénio, G; Jesus, D; Fernandes, S; Terroso, G; Romão, V C; Cerqueira, M; Raposo, A; Couto, M; Nero, P; Sequeira, G; Nóvoa, T; Melo Gomes, J A; da Silva, J Canas; Costa, L; Macieira, C; Silva, C; Silva, J A P; Canhão, H; Santos, M J

    2016-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affects predominantly women at reproductive age but may present at any age. Age at disease onset has a modulating effect on presentation and course of disease, but controversies persist regarding its impact on long-term outcome. Our aims were to characterize clinical features, co-morbidities and cumulative damage in childhood-onset, adult-onset and late-onset SLE. Patients with childhood-onset SLE fulfilling ACR 1997 criteria were identified in a nationwide register-Reuma.pt/SLE (N = 89) and compared with adult-onset and late-onset counterparts matched 1:1:1 for disease duration. 267 SLE patients with mean disease duration of 11.9 ± 9.3 years were analyzed. Skin (62 %), kidney (58 %), neurological (11 %) and hematologic involvement (76 %) were significantly more common in childhood-onset SLE and disease activity was higher in this subset than in adult- and late-onset disease (SLEDAI-2K 3.4 ± 3.8 vs. 2.2 ± 2.7 vs. 1.6 ± 2.8, respectively; p = 0.004). Also, more childhood-onset patients received cyclophosphamide (10 %) and mycophenolate mofetil (34 %). A greater proportion of women (96 %), prevalence of arthritis (89 %) and anti-SSA antibodies (34 %) were noted in the adult-onset group. There was a significant delay in the diagnosis of SLE in older ages. Co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and thyroid disease were significantly more frequent in late-onset SLE, as well as the presence of irreversible damage evaluated by the SLICC/ACR damage index (20 vs. 26 vs. 40 %; p < 0.001). Greater organ involvement as well as the frequent need for immunosuppressants supports the concept of childhood-onset being a more severe disease. In contrast, disease onset is more indolent but co-morbidity burden and irreversible damage are greater in late-onset SLE, which may have implications for patients' management. PMID:26979603

  2. Assessing the Usability of Web-Based Alcohol Education for Older Adults: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Lorna; Osterweil, Dan; Van Draanen, Jenna; Cooke, Alexis; Beck, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults can experience unfavorable health effects from drinking at relatively low consumption levels because of age-related physiological changes and alcohol’s potentially adverse interactions with declining health, increased medication-use and diminishing functional status. At the same time, alcohol use in older adults may be protective against heart disease, stroke, and other disorders associated with aging. We developed “A Toast to Health in Later Life! Wise Drinking as We Age,” a web-based educational intervention to teach older adults to balance drinking risks and benefits. Objective To examine the intervention’s feasibility in a sample of community-dwelling current drinkers ≥55 years of age and examine its effects on their quantity and frequency of alcohol use, adherence to standard drinking guidelines, and alcohol-related risks. Methods Participants were recruited in person, by mail and by telephone between September and October 2014 from a community-based social services organization serving Los Angeles County. Once enrolled, participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a control group. The conceptual frameworks for the intervention were the Health Belief Model, models of adult learning, and the US Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for designing easy-to-use websites. The intervention’s content focuses on the relationship between drinking and its effects on older adults’ medical conditions, use of medications, and ability to perform daily activities. It also addresses quantity and frequency of alcohol use, drinking and driving and binge drinking. The control group did not receive any special intervention. Data on alcohol use and risks for both groups came from the online version of the Alcohol-Related Problems Survey and were collected at baseline and four weeks later. Data on usability were collected online from the intervention group immediately after it completed its review of the website

  3. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors. PMID:22570777

  4. Are early onset aging conditions correlated to daily activity functions in youth and adults with Down syndrome?

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chen, Wen-Xiu; Lin, Fu-Gong; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia

    2014-11-13

    This study aims to answer the research question of "Are early onset aging conditions correlated to daily activity functions in youth and adults with Down syndrome (DS)?" A cross-sectional survey was employed to recruit 216 individuals with DS over 15 years of age in the analyses. A structured questionnaire included demographic data, brief self-reported aging conditions, Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (DSQIID) and activity of daily living (ADL) scales were completed by the primary caregivers who were well-suited for providing information on the functioning conditions of the DS individuals. Results showed that the most five frequent aging conditions (sometimes, usually and always) included frailty (20.2%), vision problem (15.8%), loss of language ability (15.3%), sleep problem (14.9%) and memory impairment (14.5%). Other onset aging conditions included more chronic diseases (13.9%), hearing loss (13%), chewing ability and tooth loss (12.5%), incontinence (11.1%), depressive syndrome (7.7%), falls and gait disorder (7.2%), loss of taste and smell (7.2%). The data also showed scores of DSQIID, onset aging conditions and ADL has significant relationships each other in Pearson's correlation tests. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses indicated onset aging conditions (β=-0.735, p<0.001) can significantly predicted the variation in ADL scores after adjusting other factors (R(2)=0.381). This study suggests that the authority should initiate early intervention programs aim to improve healthy aging and ADL functions for people with DS. PMID:25462513

  5. Alcohol Use Severity among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ojeda, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. Objectives This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. Methods A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) enrolled in college. Results All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. Conclusions This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation. PMID:26574656

  6. Gender role orientations and alcohol use among Moscow and Toronto adults.

    PubMed

    Van Gundy, Karen; Schieman, Scott; Kelley, Margaret S; Rebellon, Cesar J

    2005-12-01

    Using self-report data from representative community samples of Moscow and Toronto adults, we examine the effects of sex, masculinity, and femininity on alcohol use. Consistent with prior research, our results show that men in Moscow and Toronto drink significantly more than women; women in both samples tend more toward conventional femininity than men; and masculinity levels are greater among Toronto men relative to Toronto women. Moscow men and women, however, show comparable masculinity levels. Neither masculinity nor femininity explains the sex gap in alcohol use in either sample. However, sex- and sample-specific effects are identified. In Toronto, femininity is associated with higher alcohol use among women. In Moscow, masculinity is associated with lower use among men and higher use among women. The findings provide preliminary support for our assertion that the characteristics of national contexts, such as drinking norms and "Soviet-style socialism" [Cockerham, Snead, and Dewaal (2002). Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 42-55] interact with traditional gender role orientations to influence alcohol use patterns. We suggest that a movement toward culturally sensitive policies that consider sex-specific social expectations and responses may contribute to improved health outcomes across nations.

  7. Comparison of the deleterious effects of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure in adolescent and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lacaille, Hélène; Duterte-Boucher, Dominique; Liot, Donovan; Vaudry, Hubert; Naassila, Mickael; Vaudry, David

    2015-03-01

    A major cause of alcohol toxicity is the production of reactive oxygen species generated during ethanol metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure on a panel of genes implicated in oxidative mechanisms in adolescent and adult mice. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in the repair and protection of oxidative DNA damage such as atr, gpx7, or nudt15 and increased the expression of proapoptotic genes such as casp3. In contrast, in the adult brain, genes activated by alcohol were mainly associated with protective mechanisms that prevent cells from oxidative damage. Whatever the age, iterative binge-like episodes provoked the same deleterious effects as those observed after a single binge episode. In adolescent mice, multiple binge ethanol exposure substantially reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and impaired short-term memory in the novel object and passive avoidance tests. Taken together, our results indicate that alcohol causes deleterious effects in the adolescent brain which are distinct from those observed in adults. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity. The effects of alcohol exposure were investigated on genes involved in oxidative mechanisms. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA repair, a potential cause of the observed decrease of neurogenesis. In contrast, in the adult brain, alcohol increased the expression of genes associated with antioxidant mechanisms. Apoptosis was increase in all groups and converged with other biochemical alterations to enhance short-term memory impairment in the adolescent brain. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity. PMID:25556946

  8. Effects of acute administration of ethanol on cerebral glucose utilization in adult alcohol-preferring and alcohol-nonpreferring rats.

    PubMed

    Strother, Wendy N; McBride, William J; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai

    2005-02-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) rates, as determined by the [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) technique, were examined after acute ethanol administration within selected brain regions of alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats. Adult male P and NP rats were injected with saline, 0.25 g/kg, or 1.0 g/kg ethanol, intraperitoneally (ip), 10 min before an intravenous bolus of [(14)C]2-DG (125 microCi/kg). Timed arterial blood samples were collected over 45 min and assayed for plasma glucose, ethanol, and [(14)C]2-DG levels. Image densities were determined using quantitative autoradiography and LCGU values calculated. Data were collected from several key limbic, basal ganglionic, cortical, and subcortical structures. Low-dose ethanol (0.25 g/kg) significantly decreased LCGU rates in several brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory tubercles, and the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus of P rats. Low-dose ethanol had no significant effects on LCGU rates in the NP rats. Moderate-dose ethanol (1.0 g/kg) also significantly lowered LCGU rates in many brain regions of P rats, including key limbic structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory tubercles, ventral tegmental area, basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, lateral septum, and ventral pallidum. Moderate-dose ethanol also significantly lowered LCGU rates in the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the habenula of NP rats. All other regions were unaffected in the NP rats. These findings support the suggestion that certain central nervous system regions of P rats may be more sensitive than those of NP rats to the effects of low to intermediate doses of ethanol.

  9. The Gender Gap in Alcohol Consumption during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Gendered Attitudes and Adult Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Peralta, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N = 1,488) to investigate whether gender role attitudes and the occupation of and transition to three adult roles (i.e., employment, marriage, and parenthood) contribute to the maintenance of the gender gap in the frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Our results…

  10. Deconstructing the Alcohol Harm Paradox: A Population Based Survey of Adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Angus, Colin; Brennan, Alan; Holmes, John; Kaner, Eileen; Meier, Petra; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background The Alcohol Harm Paradox refers to observations that lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups consume less alcohol but experience more alcohol-related problems. However, SES is a complex concept and its observed relationship to social problems often depends on how it is measured and the demographic groups studied. Thus this study assessed socioeconomic patterning of alcohol consumption and related harm using multiple measures of SES and examined moderation of this patterning by gender and age. Method Data were used from the Alcohol Toolkit Study between March and September 2015 on 31,878 adults (16+) living in England. Participants completed the AUDIT which includes alcohol consumption, harm and dependence modules. SES was measured via qualifications, employment, home and car ownership, income and social-grade, plus a composite of these measures. The composite score was coded such that higher scores reflected greater social-disadvantage. Results We observed the Alcohol Harm Paradox for the composite SES measure, with a linear negative relationship between SES and AUDIT-Consumption scores (β = -0.036, p<0.001) and a positive relationship between lower SES and AUDIT-Harm (β = 0.022, p<0.001) and AUDIT-Dependence (β = 0.024, p<0.001) scores. Individual measures of SES displayed different, and non-linear, relationships with AUDIT modules. For example, social-grade and income had a u-shaped relationship with AUDIT-Consumption scores while education had an inverse u-shaped relationship. Almost all measures displayed an exponential relationship with AUDIT-Dependence and AUDIT-Harm scores. We identified moderating effects from age and gender, with AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in men and both AUDIT-Harm and AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in younger age groups. Conclusion Different SES measures appear to influence whether the Alcohol Harm Paradox is observed as a linear trend across SES groups or

  11. "Everyone can loosen up and get a bit of a buzz on": young adults, alcohol and friendship practices.

    PubMed

    Niland, Patricia; Lyons, Antonia C; Goodwin, Ian; Hutton, Fiona

    2013-11-01

    In countries with liberalised alcohol policies, alcohol harm reduction strategies predominantly focus on young adults' excessive drinking harms and risks. However, research shows such risks are largely irrelevant for young adults, who emphasise the sociability, release, pleasure and fun of drinking. Friendship is a central part of their lives and an integral part of their drinking experiences. This study aimed to explore everyday friendship practices, drinking, and pleasure in young people's routine and shared social lives. Twelve friendship discussion groups were conducted in urban and non-urban New Zealand, with 26 women and 25 men aged 18-25 years. Our Foucauldian discursive analysis enabled us to identify how the young adults drew on drinking as 'friendship fun' and 'friends with a buzz' discourses to construct drinking as a pleasurable and socially embodied friendship practice. Yet the young adults also drew on 'good always outweighs bad experiences' and friendship 'caring and protection' discourses to smooth over disruptive negative drinking experiences. Together these discourses function to justify young adults' drinking as friendship pleasure, minimising alcohol harms, and setting up powerful resistances to individualised risk-based alcohol-harm reduction campaigns. These findings are discussed in terms of new insights and implications for alcohol harm reduction strategies that target young adults.

  12. Alcohol Use, Depression, and High-Risk Occupations Among Young Adults in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Polshkova, Svitlana; Chaban, Oleg; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-06-01

    This study examined alcohol consumption in relation to anxiety, depression, and involvement with high risk occupations (HRO; e.g., coal miners), among young adults in the Ukraine (aged 18-25) (N = 192; 60.9% male; 100% Caucasian). Participants were grouped on the basis of drinking status: (1) current drinkers (CDs; n = 132) or (2) nondrinkers (NDs; n = 60). Questionnaires assessed frequency of alcohol use, motives for drinking, problem identification, as well as anxiety and depression (i.e., Hamilton scales). Bivariate analyses showed that CDs were more likely than NDs to be single, have a HRO, and have greater anxiety and depression; for example, 91.7% of CDs had a HRO as compared to 56.7% of NDs. Drinking status was not significantly related to age or gender. Among CDs, common motives for use included: to reduce anxiety and fears (60.6%), because my friends use alcohol (75.0%), to fight stress (78.8%), and to increase self-esteem (64.4%). Among CDs, past month drinking days were: 25% 1-2 days, 37.9% 3-7 days, 25% 8-21 days, and 12.1% 22-30 days. Regarding problem identification, 29.5% reported not having a problem, 34.8% reported possibly having a problem, 21.9% reported having a problem but not needing help, and 13.6% reported having a problem/needing help. Young adults involved in HRO may be a particularly high risk population given increased likelihood of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Early intervention strategies that incorporate motivational interviewing approaches to address coping and social motives for use may be beneficial to address substance use and mental health problems. PMID:27144438

  13. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

  14. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  15. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  16. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  17. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis and causes enduring memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Canales, Juan J; Ferrer-Donato, Agueda

    2014-01-01

    Recreational drug use among pregnant women is a source of concern due to potential harmful effects of drug exposure on prenatal and infant development. The simultaneous abuse of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and alcohol is prevalent among young adults, including young expectant mothers. Here, we used a rat model to study the potential risks associated with exposure to alcohol and MDMA during pregnancy. Pregnant rats received alcohol, MDMA, or both alcohol and MDMA by gavage at E13 through E15 twice daily. Female offspring treated prenatally with the combination of alcohol and MDMA, but not those exposed to either drug separately, showed at 3 months of age decreased exploratory activity and impaired working memory function. Prenatal treatment with the combination of alcohol and MDMA decreased proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labelling, and adult neurogenesis, assessed by quantifying doublecortin expression. These results provide the first evidence that the simultaneous abuse of alcohol and ecstasy during pregnancy, even for short periods of time, may cause significant abnormalities in neurocognitive development.

  18. The effects of parental divorce on adult tobacco and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Wolfinger, N H

    1998-09-01

    I use data from the 1977-1994 National Opinion Research Council General Social Survey to examine the impact of parental divorce on the alcohol and tobacco consumption of adult offspring. Divorce greatly increases the likelihood of being a smoker and, for men, a problem drinker. Parental remarriage completely offsets the effects of parental divorce on men's drinking but does not substantially affect cigarette use. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics accounted for a portion of the relationship between parental divorce and smoking but did not affect rates of problem drinking. Social control and psychosocial adjustment--two established explanations for the effects of parental divorce--could not adequately explain my findings.

  19. ATP1A3 Mutation in Adult Rapid-Onset Ataxia.

    PubMed

    Sweadner, Kathleen J; Toro, Camilo; Whitlow, Christopher T; Snively, Beverly M; Cook, Jared F; Ozelius, Laurie J; Markello, Thomas C; Brashear, Allison

    2016-01-01

    A 21-year old male presented with ataxia and dysarthria that had appeared over a period of months. Exome sequencing identified a de novo missense variant in ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3 subunit of Na,K-ATPase. Several lines of evidence suggest that the variant is causative. ATP1A3 mutations can cause rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) with a similar age and speed of onset, as well as severe diseases of infancy. The patient's ATP1A3 p.Gly316Ser mutation was validated in the laboratory by the impaired ability of the expressed protein to support the growth of cultured cells. In a crystal structure of Na,K-ATPase, the mutated amino acid was directly apposed to a different amino acid mutated in RDP. Clinical evaluation showed that the patient had many characteristics of RDP, however he had minimal fixed dystonia, a defining symptom of RDP. Successive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed progressive cerebellar atrophy, explaining the ataxia. The absence of dystonia in the presence of other RDP symptoms corroborates other evidence that the cerebellum contributes importantly to dystonia pathophysiology. We discuss the possibility that a second de novo variant, in ubiquilin 4 (UBQLN4), a ubiquitin pathway component, contributed to the cerebellar neurodegenerative phenotype and differentiated the disease from other manifestations of ATP1A3 mutations. We also show that a homozygous variant in GPRIN1 (G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1) deletes a motif with multiple copies and is unlikely to be causative. PMID:26990090

  20. ATP1A3 Mutation in Adult Rapid-Onset Ataxia.

    PubMed

    Sweadner, Kathleen J; Toro, Camilo; Whitlow, Christopher T; Snively, Beverly M; Cook, Jared F; Ozelius, Laurie J; Markello, Thomas C; Brashear, Allison

    2016-01-01

    A 21-year old male presented with ataxia and dysarthria that had appeared over a period of months. Exome sequencing identified a de novo missense variant in ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3 subunit of Na,K-ATPase. Several lines of evidence suggest that the variant is causative. ATP1A3 mutations can cause rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) with a similar age and speed of onset, as well as severe diseases of infancy. The patient's ATP1A3 p.Gly316Ser mutation was validated in the laboratory by the impaired ability of the expressed protein to support the growth of cultured cells. In a crystal structure of Na,K-ATPase, the mutated amino acid was directly apposed to a different amino acid mutated in RDP. Clinical evaluation showed that the patient had many characteristics of RDP, however he had minimal fixed dystonia, a defining symptom of RDP. Successive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed progressive cerebellar atrophy, explaining the ataxia. The absence of dystonia in the presence of other RDP symptoms corroborates other evidence that the cerebellum contributes importantly to dystonia pathophysiology. We discuss the possibility that a second de novo variant, in ubiquilin 4 (UBQLN4), a ubiquitin pathway component, contributed to the cerebellar neurodegenerative phenotype and differentiated the disease from other manifestations of ATP1A3 mutations. We also show that a homozygous variant in GPRIN1 (G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1) deletes a motif with multiple copies and is unlikely to be causative.

  1. ATP1A3 Mutation in Adult Rapid-Onset Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Sweadner, Kathleen J.; Toro, Camilo; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Snively, Beverly M.; Cook, Jared F.; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Markello, Thomas C.; Brashear, Allison

    2016-01-01

    A 21-year old male presented with ataxia and dysarthria that had appeared over a period of months. Exome sequencing identified a de novo missense variant in ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3 subunit of Na,K-ATPase. Several lines of evidence suggest that the variant is causative. ATP1A3 mutations can cause rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) with a similar age and speed of onset, as well as severe diseases of infancy. The patient’s ATP1A3 p.Gly316Ser mutation was validated in the laboratory by the impaired ability of the expressed protein to support the growth of cultured cells. In a crystal structure of Na,K-ATPase, the mutated amino acid was directly apposed to a different amino acid mutated in RDP. Clinical evaluation showed that the patient had many characteristics of RDP, however he had minimal fixed dystonia, a defining symptom of RDP. Successive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed progressive cerebellar atrophy, explaining the ataxia. The absence of dystonia in the presence of other RDP symptoms corroborates other evidence that the cerebellum contributes importantly to dystonia pathophysiology. We discuss the possibility that a second de novo variant, in ubiquilin 4 (UBQLN4), a ubiquitin pathway component, contributed to the cerebellar neurodegenerative phenotype and differentiated the disease from other manifestations of ATP1A3 mutations. We also show that a homozygous variant in GPRIN1 (G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1) deletes a motif with multiple copies and is unlikely to be causative. PMID:26990090

  2. Adult-onset cystic hygroma: A case report of rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Sumit; Shah, Vandana; Anchlia, Sonal; Vyas, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Cystic hygroma is a benign congenital malformation of the lymphatic system that occurs in infant or children younger than 2 years of age. Although cystic hygroma is well recognized in pediatric practice, it seldom presents de novo in adulthood. These are commonly present in head and neck but can be present anywhere. Cystic hygroma is very rare in adults, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult neck swellings. Patients presenting with a painless, soft, fluctuant, and enlarging neck mass should have a careful history and physical examination along with radiological imaging to assist with diagnosis. Surgical intervention is the treatment of choice for this rare condition. Here, we are reporting a case of cystic hygroma in a 32-year-old male patient in the neck region. The objectives of this case report are to discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, histopathological findings and management of this malformation. PMID:27134456

  3. Adult-onset cystic hygroma: A case report of rare entity.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Sumit; Shah, Vandana; Anchlia, Sonal; Vyas, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Cystic hygroma is a benign congenital malformation of the lymphatic system that occurs in infant or children younger than 2 years of age. Although cystic hygroma is well recognized in pediatric practice, it seldom presents de novo in adulthood. These are commonly present in head and neck but can be present anywhere. Cystic hygroma is very rare in adults, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult neck swellings. Patients presenting with a painless, soft, fluctuant, and enlarging neck mass should have a careful history and physical examination along with radiological imaging to assist with diagnosis. Surgical intervention is the treatment of choice for this rare condition. Here, we are reporting a case of cystic hygroma in a 32-year-old male patient in the neck region. The objectives of this case report are to discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, histopathological findings and management of this malformation. PMID:27134456

  4. Invisible Victims: Delayed Onset Depression among Adults with Same-Sex Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sullins, D. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of elevated depression risk recently discovered among adult persons raised by same-sex parents with possible precipitating conditions in childhood has not previously been acknowledged. This study tests whether such inattention is supportable. Logistic regression based risk ratios were estimated from longitudinal measures of mental health outcomes observed in three waves (at ages 15, 22, and 28) of the US National Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 15,701). At age 28, the adults raised by same-sex parents were at over twice the risk of depression (CES-D: risk ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–4.6) as persons raised by man-woman parents. These findings should be interpreted with caution. Elevated risk was associated with imbalanced parental closeness and parental child abuse in family of origin; depression, suicidality, and anxiety at age 15; and stigma and obesity. More research and policy attention to potentially problematic conditions for children with same-sex parents appears warranted. PMID:27313882

  5. Invisible Victims: Delayed Onset Depression among Adults with Same-Sex Parents.

    PubMed

    Sullins, D Paul

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of elevated depression risk recently discovered among adult persons raised by same-sex parents with possible precipitating conditions in childhood has not previously been acknowledged. This study tests whether such inattention is supportable. Logistic regression based risk ratios were estimated from longitudinal measures of mental health outcomes observed in three waves (at ages 15, 22, and 28) of the US National Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 15,701). At age 28, the adults raised by same-sex parents were at over twice the risk of depression (CES-D: risk ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.6) as persons raised by man-woman parents. These findings should be interpreted with caution. Elevated risk was associated with imbalanced parental closeness and parental child abuse in family of origin; depression, suicidality, and anxiety at age 15; and stigma and obesity. More research and policy attention to potentially problematic conditions for children with same-sex parents appears warranted. PMID:27313882

  6. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  7. Congenital and prolonged adult-onset deafness cause distinct degradations in neural ITD coding with bilateral cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kenneth E; Chung, Yoojin; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users perform poorly on tasks involving interaural time differences (ITD), which are critical for sound localization and speech reception in noise by normal-hearing listeners. ITD perception with bilateral CI is influenced by age at onset of deafness and duration of deafness. We previously showed that ITD coding in the auditory midbrain is degraded in congenitally deaf white cats (DWC) compared to acutely deafened cats (ADC) with normal auditory development (Hancock et al., J. Neurosci, 30:14068). To determine the relative importance of early onset of deafness and prolonged duration of deafness for abnormal ITD coding in DWC, we recorded from single units in the inferior colliculus of cats deafened as adults 6 months prior to experimentation (long-term deafened cats, LTDC) and compared neural ITD coding between the three deafness models. The incidence of ITD-sensitive neurons was similar in both groups with normal auditory development (LTDC and ADC), but significantly diminished in DWC. In contrast, both groups that experienced prolonged deafness (LTDC and DWC) had broad distributions of best ITDs around the midline, unlike the more focused distributions biased toward contralateral-leading ITDs present in both ADC and normal-hearing animals. The lack of contralateral bias in LTDC and DWC results in reduced sensitivity to changes in ITD within the natural range. The finding that early onset of deafness more severely degrades neural ITD coding than prolonged duration of deafness argues for the importance of fitting deaf children with sound processors that provide reliable ITD cues at an early age.

  8. Wiki-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Adult Onset Sarcoma: A New Paradigm in Sarcoma Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, S. J.; Thomas, D.; Desai, J.; Vuletich, C.; von Dincklage, J.; Olver, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Australia introduced Wiki-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Adult Onset Sarcoma. These guidelines utilized a customized MediaWiki software application for guideline development and are the first evidence-based guidelines for clinical management of sarcoma. This paper presents our experience with developing and implementing web-based interactive guidelines and reviews some of the challenges and lessons from adopting an evidence-based (rather than consensus-based) approach to clinical sarcoma guidelines. Digital guidelines can be easily updated with new evidence, continuously reviewed and widely disseminated. They provide an accessible method of enabling clinicians and consumers to access evidence-based clinical practice recommendations and, as evidenced by over 2000 views in the first four months after release, with 49% of those visits being from countries outside of Australia. The lessons learned have relevance to other rare cancers in addition to the international sarcoma community. PMID:25784832

  9. Adult Onset of BRAFV600E-Mutated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Cutaneous Involvement Successfully Diagnosed by Immunohistochemical Staining

    PubMed Central

    Tono, Hisayuki; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Furudate, Sadanori; Ishibashi, Masaya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by the clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells; it is categorized as a single-system disease with single or multifocal lesions, and as a multi-system disease with or without the risk of organ involvement. Although the skin is not categorized as a risk organ, the precise diagnosis of skin lesions is necessary to determine the protocol for the treatment of LCH. In this report, we describe a 28-year-old Japanese man with adult onset of BRAFV600E-mutated LCH with cutaneous involvement successfully diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. Our report suggests that immunohistochemical staining for the BRAFV600E gene could be a diagnostic tool to determine the clinical type of LCH. PMID:26500535

  10. An unusual manifestation in a patient with adult-onset Still’s disease: Minimal glomerular lesion

    PubMed Central

    El Mezouar, Imane; Abourazzak, Fatima Zahra; Ghani, Najoua; Harzy, Taoufik

    2014-01-01

    Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by arthritis, hectic fever, transient rash and visceral lesions such as pleuropericarditis, lymphadenopathy and hepato splenomegaly. Although kidney involvement may appear in some cases of AOSD, minimal glomerular lesion (MGL) has not been described. We describe a female patient, who presented with multisystemic manifestations, including high spiking fever, arthralgias, striking hyperferritinemia, and proteinuria. Renal biopsy showed classic MGL. A diagnosis of AOSD was made on the basis of Yamaguchi’s criteria. The patient was treated with steroids, resulting in remission of the rheumatological condition closely paralleled by remission of proteinuria, thereby strongly suggesting a causative link between AOSD and MGL in this patient. Renal involvement in the AOSD was rarely reported in the literature. MGL may be a cause of unexplained proteinuria in AOSD. In this situation, renal biopsy is necessary to establish a definitive diagnosis.

  11. Adult-onset presentation of a hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria patient without prior history of neurological complications.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Kamer; Louie, Kristal T; Qu, Yong; Velasquez, Jorge; Zaldivar, Frank; Rioseco-Camacho, Natalia; Camacho, José Angel

    2012-01-01

    The Hyperornithinemia-Hyperammonemia-Homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is a disorder of the urea cycle and ornithine degradation pathway caused by mutations in the mitochondrial ornithine transporter, ORNT1 (SLC25A15). In general, the majority of patients with HHH syndrome come to medical attention during infancy or early school years with symptoms such as learning disabilities, changes in cognitive development, spasticity, or liver dysfunction. In this report, we describe a 35-year-old male of Indian descent who was diagnosed with HHH syndrome after he presented to the emergency room with gastroenteritis, disorientation, and slurred speech. Molecular analysis revealed that this patient was heterozygous for two ORNT1 mutations, p.[Gly220Arg(+)Arg275X] (c.[658G>A(+)823C>T]) that had been previously reported in homozygous probands who presented during the first year of life. Cellular studies revealed that the ORNT1 p.Gly220Arg mutation was nonfunctional but targeted to the mitochondria. Given that this patient was a successful college graduate on a vegetarian diet without a prior history of learning or neurological impairment, additional factors such as gene redundancy, environmental, and epigenetic factors may have contributed to the delay in onset of presentation and lack of any previous symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an adult-onset HHH syndrome presentation without a prior history of neurological or cognitive deficiency.

  12. Mutations in DNAJC5, Encoding Cysteine-String Protein Alpha, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Adult-Onset Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    PubMed Central

    Nosková, Lenka; Stránecký, Viktor; Hartmannová, Hana; Přistoupilová, Anna; Barešová, Veronika; Ivánek, Robert; Hůlková, Helena; Jahnová, Helena; van der Zee, Julie; Staropoli, John F.; Sims, Katherine B.; Tyynelä, Jaana; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Nijssen, Peter C.G.; Mole, Sara E.; Elleder, Milan; Kmoch, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL) is characterized by accumulation of autofluorescent storage material in neural tissues and neurodegeneration and has an age of onset in the third decade of life or later. The genetic and molecular basis of the disease has remained unknown for many years. We carried out linkage mapping, gene-expression analysis, exome sequencing, and candidate-gene sequencing in affected individuals from 20 families and/or individuals with simplex cases; we identified in five individuals one of two disease-causing mutations, c.346_348delCTC and c.344T>G, in DNAJC5 encoding cysteine-string protein alpha (CSPα). These mutations—causing a deletion, p.Leu116del, and an amino acid exchange, p.Leu115Arg, respectively—are located within the cysteine-string domain of the protein and affect both palmitoylation-dependent sorting and the amount of CSPα in neuronal cells. The resulting depletion of functional CSPα might cause in parallel the presynaptic dysfunction and the progressive neurodegeneration observed in affected individuals and lysosomal accumulation of misfolded and proteolysis-resistant proteins in the form of characteristic ceroid deposits in neurons. Our work represents an important step in the genetic dissection of a genetically heterogeneous group of ANCLs. It also confirms a neuroprotective role for CSPα in humans and demonstrates the need for detailed investigation of CSPα in the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and other neurodegenerative diseases presenting with neuronal protein aggregation. PMID:21820099

  13. Adult-onset presentation of a hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria patient without prior history of neurological complications.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Kamer; Louie, Kristal T; Qu, Yong; Velasquez, Jorge; Zaldivar, Frank; Rioseco-Camacho, Natalia; Camacho, José Angel

    2012-01-01

    The Hyperornithinemia-Hyperammonemia-Homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is a disorder of the urea cycle and ornithine degradation pathway caused by mutations in the mitochondrial ornithine transporter, ORNT1 (SLC25A15). In general, the majority of patients with HHH syndrome come to medical attention during infancy or early school years with symptoms such as learning disabilities, changes in cognitive development, spasticity, or liver dysfunction. In this report, we describe a 35-year-old male of Indian descent who was diagnosed with HHH syndrome after he presented to the emergency room with gastroenteritis, disorientation, and slurred speech. Molecular analysis revealed that this patient was heterozygous for two ORNT1 mutations, p.[Gly220Arg(+)Arg275X] (c.[658G>A(+)823C>T]) that had been previously reported in homozygous probands who presented during the first year of life. Cellular studies revealed that the ORNT1 p.Gly220Arg mutation was nonfunctional but targeted to the mitochondria. Given that this patient was a successful college graduate on a vegetarian diet without a prior history of learning or neurological impairment, additional factors such as gene redundancy, environmental, and epigenetic factors may have contributed to the delay in onset of presentation and lack of any previous symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an adult-onset HHH syndrome presentation without a prior history of neurological or cognitive deficiency. PMID:23430880

  14. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 is implicated in disease activity in adult and juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Meshaal, Safa; El Refai, Rasha; El Saie, Ahmed; El Hawary, Rabab

    2016-06-01

    The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeostasis in humans. It is the principal signaling mechanism for a wide array of cytokines and growth factors. Dysregulated cytokine action on immune cells plays an important role in the initiation and progress of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we tried to assess the role of STAT5 in systemic lupus erythematosus and correlate its phosphorylation level with the disease activity. The activation of the STAT5 was assessed by measuring the level of expression of phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) using flow cytometry on the peripheral blood T and B cells in 58 SLE patients (40 adult and 18 juvenile onset) and on 23 healthy age- and sex-matched controls for both groups. Serum prolactin level was also assessed in the patients and control by ELISA. The study revealed that the level of pSTAT5 was higher in adult SLE patients than in healthy control (p = 0.001) and in juvenile-onset SLE patients versus age-matched control (p = 0.031). A positive correlation existed between the pSTAT5 levels and Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) score and also with multiple clinical manifestations indicating a potential role of STAT5 signaling in pathogenesis SLE. The pSTAT5 signaling is implicated in the disease activity of SLE and may be a useful target of therapy by correcting the dysregulation of cytokines involved in the disease pathogenesis.

  15. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 is implicated in disease activity in adult and juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Meshaal, Safa; El Refai, Rasha; El Saie, Ahmed; El Hawary, Rabab

    2016-06-01

    The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeostasis in humans. It is the principal signaling mechanism for a wide array of cytokines and growth factors. Dysregulated cytokine action on immune cells plays an important role in the initiation and progress of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we tried to assess the role of STAT5 in systemic lupus erythematosus and correlate its phosphorylation level with the disease activity. The activation of the STAT5 was assessed by measuring the level of expression of phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) using flow cytometry on the peripheral blood T and B cells in 58 SLE patients (40 adult and 18 juvenile onset) and on 23 healthy age- and sex-matched controls for both groups. Serum prolactin level was also assessed in the patients and control by ELISA. The study revealed that the level of pSTAT5 was higher in adult SLE patients than in healthy control (p = 0.001) and in juvenile-onset SLE patients versus age-matched control (p = 0.031). A positive correlation existed between the pSTAT5 levels and Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) score and also with multiple clinical manifestations indicating a potential role of STAT5 signaling in pathogenesis SLE. The pSTAT5 signaling is implicated in the disease activity of SLE and may be a useful target of therapy by correcting the dysregulation of cytokines involved in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:27041383

  16. Promotion of the Transition of Adult Patients with Childhood-Onset Chronic Diseases among Pediatricians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Higashino, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    The transition of adult patients with childhood-onset chronic diseases (APCCD) from pediatric to adult health-care systems has recently received worldwide attention. However, Japan is lagging behind European countries and North America as this concept of health-care transition was introduced only 10 years ago. In Japan, before the introduction of this concept, APCCD were referred to as “carryover patients,” who were often considered a burden in pediatric practice. In the late 1990s, groups composed of pediatric nephrologists, developmental and behavioral pediatricians, pediatric nurses, and special education teachers researching the quality of life of adult patients with chronic kidney disease began to discuss the physical and psychosocial problems of APCCD. In 2006, a group of pediatricians first introduced the term “transition” in a Japanese journal. By 2010, a group of adolescent nurses had begun a specialized training program aimed at supporting patients during the transitional period. In 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan convened a research committee, focusing on issues related to social, educational, and medical support for APCCD, and the Japan Pediatric Society established a committee for the health-care transition of APCCD and summarized their statements. Moreover, in 2013, the Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center initiated ambulatory services for APCCD managed by specialized nurses. The concept of health-care transition has rapidly spread over these past 10 years. The purpose of this article is to describe how this concept of health-care transition has advanced in Japan, such that APCCD now experience a positive pediatric to adult health-care transition. PMID:27803894

  17. Inflammatory cues acting on the adult intestinal stem cells and the early onset of cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    DE LERMA BARBARO, A.; PERLETTI, G.; BONAPACE, I.M.; MONTI, E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that cancer often arises at sites of chronic inflammation has prompted the idea that carcinogenesis and inflammation are deeply interwoven. In fact, the current literature highlights a role for chronic inflammation in virtually all the steps of carcinogenesis, including tumor initiation, promotion and progression. The aim of the present article is to review the current literature on the involvement of chronic inflammation in the initiation step and in the very early phases of tumorigenesis, in a type of cancer where adult stem cells are assumed to be the cells of origin of neoplasia. Since the gastrointestinal tract is regarded as the best-established model system to address the liaison between chronic inflammation and neoplasia, the focus of this article will be on intestinal cancer. In fact, the anatomy of the intestinal epithelial lining is uniquely suited to study adult stem cells in their niche, and the bowel crypt is an ideal developmental biology system, as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration are all distributed linearly along the long axis of the crypt. Moreover, crypt stem cells are regarded today as the most likely targets of neoplastic transformation in bowel cancer. More specifically, the present review addresses the molecular mechanisms whereby a state of chronic inflammation could trigger the neoplastic process in the intestine, focusing on the generation of inflammatory cues evoking enhanced proliferation in cells not initiated but at risk of neoplastic transformation because of their stemness. Novel experimental approaches, based on triggering an inflammatory stimulus in the neighbourhood of adult intestinal stem cells, are warranted to address some as yet unanswered questions. A possible approach, the targeted transgenesis of Paneth cells, may be aimed at ‘hijacking’ the crypt stem cell niche from a status characterized by the maintenance of homeostasis to local chronic inflammation, with the prospect of initiating

  18. Effects of adult-onset calorie restriction on anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Govic, Antonina; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G; Kent, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has consistently been shown to increase lifespan and ameliorate disease outcomes. Its effects on behavior are less clear, although anxiolytic-like effects have been observed. Rats were subjected to 1 of 4 dietary regimens: control, CR25%, CR50% and, an acute episode of CR and tested in 3 tests of anxiety: the open field test, the elevated plus maze, and the modified open field test. In the open field test, the CR25% and CR50% groups made more central zone entries than the control and Acute groups, which was primarily due to differences in the initial 5 min of the test. Moreover, both CR groups engaged in greater exploration of the central zone than the control group in the initial 5 min of the test. The Acute group also exhibited significantly longer latencies to leave the central zone at test onset than the control and CR50% group. In the elevated plus maze, the Acute group also displayed longer latencies to open arm entry as compared to the control and CR50% group and showed a lower ratio of open to total arm entries compared to all other groups. There were no effects of CR on any variable of the modified open field test. Possible neurochemical mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic-like effect of CR are discussed.

  19. Sporadic early adult-onset distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles: immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ceuterick, C; Martin, J J

    1996-08-01

    We report the histoenzymology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy of the tibialis anterior muscle of a 50-year-old male patient affected by a sporadic distal myopathy with onset during adolescence. There was no family history of muscle disorder and no clinical signs of cardiomyopathy. Extremely large variations in muscle fibre diameter (the size of some fibres exceeding 200-250 microns), rimmed vacuoles, necrotic fibres invaded by macrophages, atrophic fibres and perimysial fibrosis were observed. Using a wide range of antibodies raised against membrane- and cytoskeletal muscle proteins, granular desmin immunoreactivity was observed in muscle fibre lesions. There were no inflammatory parameters. Of special interest was the occurrence of autophagic vacuoles without 18-20 nm thick sarcoplasmic filaments and the presence of small aggregates of intermediate desmin-like filaments among a great diversity of ultrastructural findings. The morphological differential diagnosis is discussed. Our results stress the importance of combined immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy in the delineation of distal myopathies. DNA defects, however, still have to be identified which would improve the present classifications of distal myopathies.

  20. Distinct Muscle Biopsy Findings in Genetically Defined Adult-Onset Motor Neuron Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokela, Manu; Huovinen, Sanna; Raheem, Olayinka; Lindfors, Mikaela; Palmio, Johanna; Penttilä, Sini; Udd, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize and compare muscle histopathological findings in 3 different genetic motor neuron disorders. We retrospectively re-assessed muscle biopsy findings in 23 patients with autosomal dominant lower motor neuron disease caused by p.G66V mutation in CHCHD10 (SMAJ), 10 X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and 11 autosomal dominant c9orf72-mutated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9ALS) patients. Distinct large fiber type grouping consisting of non-atrophic type IIA muscle fibers were 100% specific for the late-onset spinal muscular atrophies (SMAJ and SBMA) and were never observed in c9ALS. Common, but less specific findings included small groups of highly atrophic rounded type IIA fibers in SMAJ/SBMA, whereas in c9ALS, small group atrophies consisting of small-caliber angular fibers involving both fiber types were more characteristic. We also show that in the 2 slowly progressive motor neuron disorders (SMAJ and SBMA) the initial neurogenic features are often confused with considerable secondary “myopathic” changes at later disease stages, such as rimmed vacuoles, myofibrillar aggregates and numerous fibers reactive for fetal myosin heavy chain (dMyHC) antibodies. Based on our findings, muscle biopsy may be valuable in the diagnostic work-up of suspected motor neuron disorders in order to avoid a false ALS diagnosis in patients without clear findings of upper motor neuron lesions. PMID:26999347

  1. Childhood dyspraxia predicts adult-onset nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Jason; Mittal, Vijay; Kline, Emily; Mortensen, Erik L; Michelsen, Niels; Ekstrøm, Morten; Millman, Zachary B; Mednick, Sarnoff A; Sørensen, Holger J

    2015-11-01

    Several neurological variables have been investigated as premorbid biomarkers of vulnerability for schizophrenia and other related disorders. The current study examined whether childhood dyspraxia predicted later adult nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders. From a standardized neurological examination performed with children (aged 10-13) at genetic high risk of schizophrenia and controls, several measures of dyspraxia were used to create a scale composed of face/head dyspraxia, oral articulation, ideomotor dyspraxia (clumsiness), and dressing dyspraxia (n = 244). Multinomial logistic regression showed higher scores on the dyspraxia scale predict nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders relative to other psychiatric disorders and no mental illness outcomes, even after controlling for genetic risk, χ2 (4, 244) = 18.61, p < .001. Findings that symptoms of dyspraxia in childhood (reflecting abnormalities spanning functionally distinct brain networks) specifically predict adult nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders are consistent with a theory of abnormal connectivity, and they highlight a marked early-stage vulnerability in the pathophysiology of nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders. PMID:26439077

  2. Assessment and treatment of insomnia in adult patients with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2015-06-01

    Insomnia in patients with alcohol dependence has increasingly become a target of treatment due to its prevalence, persistence, and associations with relapse and suicidal thoughts, as well as randomized controlled studies demonstrating efficacy with behavior therapies and non-addictive medications. This article focuses on assessing and treating insomnia that persists despite 4 or more weeks of sobriety in alcohol-dependent adults. Selecting among the various options for treatment follows a comprehensive assessment of insomnia and its multifactorial causes. In addition to chronic, heavy alcohol consumption and its effects on sleep regulatory systems, contributing factors include premorbid insomnia; co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and other sleep disorders; use of other substances and medications; stress; environmental factors; and inadequate sleep hygiene. The assessment makes use of history, rating scales, and sleep diaries as well as physical, mental status, and laboratory examinations to rule out these factors. Polysomnography is indicated when another sleep disorder is suspected, such as sleep apnea or periodic limb movement disorder, or when insomnia is resistant to treatment. Sobriety remains a necessary, first-line treatment for insomnia, and most patients will have some improvement. If insomnia-specific treatment is needed, then brief behavioral therapies are the treatment of choice, because they have shown long-lasting benefit without worsening of drinking outcomes. Medications work faster, but they generally work only as long as they are taken. Melatonin agonists; sedating antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics; and benzodiazepine receptor agonists each have their benefits and risks, which must be weighed and monitored to optimize outcomes. Some relapse prevention medications may also have sleep-promoting activity. Although it is assumed that treatment for insomnia will help prevent relapse, this has not been firmly established. Therefore

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology and alcohol use among HIV-seropositive adults in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Attonito, Jennifer M; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Gaston, Stéphanie; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle

    2013-01-01

    Psychological trauma resulting from natural disasters can negatively affect the health of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). This study examined relationships of alcohol use and exposure to the 2010 Haiti earthquake on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention study. Baseline data were collected from male and female PLWH, 19-56 years old on: alcohol consumption and related harms; anxiety; and coping strategies used to deal with HIV. Two to three months postearthquake, data were collected from 104 of the study participants on PTSD and earthquake-related impacts. Most participants had less than a secondary education (66%) and very low income (92% ≤ H$10,000 or ≤ US$1250/year). Over two-thirds of participants felt at some point that they should cut down on drinking. Fifty-two (50.5%) met criteria for PTSD. More than 83% lost their belongings and 64% had someone close to them hurt or killed during the earthquake. Bivariate analysis showed that women, younger participants, those who lost all belongings, and those with greater overall alcohol impact were more likely to report PTSD symptoms. In the multivariate model, participants more likely to meet PTSD criteria (p<0.05) were those who reported feeling a need to cut down on drinking (OR = 3.14, [CI = 1.16, 8.49]) and participants who used behavioral disengagement as a coping mechanism (OR = 1.49, [CI = 1.15, 1.92]). Following a natural disaster, it is important to address trauma-related mental health needs of PLWH - particularly women and individuals who abuse alcohol.

  4. Interactions Between Drinking Motives and Friends in Predicting Young Adults' Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    While drinking motives are well-established proximal predictors of alcohol use, less is known about their role in event-level drinking behavior. The present study examines whether the interaction between individuals' drinking motives and the number of friends present at a given moment can predict alcohol consumption over the course of the evening. Using the Internet-based cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), 183 young adults (53.0 % female, mean age = 23.1) in French-speaking Switzerland completed cell phone questionnaires every Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evening over five weekends. A total of 7205 questionnaires completed on 1441 evenings were analyzed. Drinking motives and gender were assessed at baseline, while the hourly alcohol consumption rate and number of friends present were assessed at 8 p.m., 9 p.m., 10 p.m., 11 p.m., and midnight. Multilevel growth curve models with time-invariant and time-varying covariates were estimated for men and women separately. Among women, enhancement motives were associated with an increase in the hourly alcohol consumption rate over the course of the evening (b = .025; p < .05). The impact of the number of friends present on the hourly consumption rate was stronger among those women who scored high on coping motives at baseline (b = .028; p < .05). Among men, drinking motives were found to have no moderating effects. Results highlight the role of drinking motives and their interactions with situational characteristics in determining event-level drinking, especially among women. Strategies to prevent risky weekend drinking should focus on both the social environment in which drinking takes place (e.g., the drinking group) and individual drinking motives. PMID:27165112

  5. Assessment and treatment of insomnia in adult patients with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2015-06-01

    Insomnia in patients with alcohol dependence has increasingly become a target of treatment due to its prevalence, persistence, and associations with relapse and suicidal thoughts, as well as randomized controlled studies demonstrating efficacy with behavior therapies and non-addictive medications. This article focuses on assessing and treating insomnia that persists despite 4 or more weeks of sobriety in alcohol-dependent adults. Selecting among the various options for treatment follows a comprehensive assessment of insomnia and its multifactorial causes. In addition to chronic, heavy alcohol consumption and its effects on sleep regulatory systems, contributing factors include premorbid insomnia; co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and other sleep disorders; use of other substances and medications; stress; environmental factors; and inadequate sleep hygiene. The assessment makes use of history, rating scales, and sleep diaries as well as physical, mental status, and laboratory examinations to rule out these factors. Polysomnography is indicated when another sleep disorder is suspected, such as sleep apnea or periodic limb movement disorder, or when insomnia is resistant to treatment. Sobriety remains a necessary, first-line treatment for insomnia, and most patients will have some improvement. If insomnia-specific treatment is needed, then brief behavioral therapies are the treatment of choice, because they have shown long-lasting benefit without worsening of drinking outcomes. Medications work faster, but they generally work only as long as they are taken. Melatonin agonists; sedating antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics; and benzodiazepine receptor agonists each have their benefits and risks, which must be weighed and monitored to optimize outcomes. Some relapse prevention medications may also have sleep-promoting activity. Although it is assumed that treatment for insomnia will help prevent relapse, this has not been firmly established. Therefore

  6. Alcohol use among adults in Uganda: findings from the countrywide non-communicable diseases risk factor cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Mutungi, Gerald; Wesonga, Ronald; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Guwatudde, David

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on levels of alcohol use in most sub-Saharan African countries. Objective We analyzed data from Uganda's non-communicable diseases risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to identify alcohol use prevalence and associated factors. Design The survey used the World Health Organization STEPS tool to collect data, including the history of alcohol use. Alcohol users were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-end users. Participants were also classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder if, over the past 12 months, they were unable to stop drinking alcohol once they had started drinking, and/or failed to do what was normally expected of them because of drinking alcohol, and/or needed an alcoholic drink first in the morning to get going after a heavy drinking session the night before. Weighted logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with medium- to high-end alcohol use. Results Of the 3,956 participants, 1,062 (26.8%) were current alcohol users, including 314 (7.9%) low-end, 246 (6.2%) medium-end, and 502 (12.7%) high-end users. A total of 386 (9.8%) were classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder. Male participants were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users compared to females; adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.34 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.88–2.91]. Compared to residents in eastern Uganda, participants in central and western Uganda were more likely to be medium- to high-end users; AOR=1.47 (95% CI=1.01–2.12) and AOR=1.89 (95% CI=1.31–2.72), respectively. Participants aged 30–49 years and those aged 50–69 years were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users, compared to those aged 18–29 years, AOR=1.49 (95% CI=1.16–1.91) and AOR=2.08 (95% CI=1.52–2.84), respectively. Conclusions The level of alcohol use among adults in Uganda is high, and 9.8% of the adult population has an alcohol-use-related disorder. PMID:27491961

  7. Diagnosing young onset dementia can be challenging.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Although the risk of developing dementia increases with age, onset can be as early as the third or fourth decade of life. Genetic influences play a more important role in younger than in older people with dementia, so young onset dementia may cluster in families. Diagnosing young onset dementia is challenging. The range of possible presenting features is broad, encompassing behavioural, cognitive, psychiatric and neurological domains, and symptoms are often subtle initially. Frequently the complaints are misattributed to stress or depression, and the patient is falsely reassured that they are too young to have dementia. The most common causes of young onset dementia are early onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions and alcohol. Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of young onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Conventional vascular risk factors may be absent and diagnosis relies on imaging evidence of cerebrovascular disease. Obtaining a detailed history remains the most important part of the workup and usually requires corroboration by a third party. Undertaking a basic neurological examination is also important. Those with suspected young onset dementia should be referred to a neurology-led cognitive disorders clinic where available as the differenti diagnosis is considerably broader tha in older adults and requires specialist investigation.

  8. Diagnosing young onset dementia can be challenging.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Although the risk of developing dementia increases with age, onset can be as early as the third or fourth decade of life. Genetic influences play a more important role in younger than in older people with dementia, so young onset dementia may cluster in families. Diagnosing young onset dementia is challenging. The range of possible presenting features is broad, encompassing behavioural, cognitive, psychiatric and neurological domains, and symptoms are often subtle initially. Frequently the complaints are misattributed to stress or depression, and the patient is falsely reassured that they are too young to have dementia. The most common causes of young onset dementia are early onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions and alcohol. Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of young onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Conventional vascular risk factors may be absent and diagnosis relies on imaging evidence of cerebrovascular disease. Obtaining a detailed history remains the most important part of the workup and usually requires corroboration by a third party. Undertaking a basic neurological examination is also important. Those with suspected young onset dementia should be referred to a neurology-led cognitive disorders clinic where available as the differenti diagnosis is considerably broader tha in older adults and requires specialist investigation. PMID:27382914

  9. Metabolic impact of adult-onset, isolated, growth hormone deficiency (AOiGHD) due to destruction of pituitary somatotropes.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Lin, Qing; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Subbaiah, Papasani V; Buch, Thorsten; Waisman, Ari; Vankelecom, Hugo; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2011-01-19

    Growth hormone (GH) inhibits fat accumulation and promotes protein accretion, therefore the fall in GH observed with weight gain and normal aging may contribute to metabolic dysfunction. To directly test this hypothesis a novel mouse model of adult onset-isolated GH deficiency (AOiGHD) was generated by cross breeding rat GH promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice (Cre) with inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mice (iDTR) and treating adult Cre(+/-),iDTR(+/-) offspring with DT to selectively destroy the somatotrope population of the anterior pituitary gland, leading to a reduction in circulating GH and IGF-I levels. DT-treated Cre(-/-),iDTR(+/-) mice were used as GH-intact controls. AOiGHD improved whole body insulin sensitivity in both low-fat and high-fat fed mice. Consistent with improved insulin sensitivity, indirect calorimetry revealed AOiGHD mice preferentially utilized carbohydrates for energy metabolism, as compared to GH-intact controls. In high-fat, but not low-fat fed AOiGHD mice, fat mass increased, hepatic lipids decreased and glucose clearance and insulin output were impaired. These results suggest the age-related decline in GH helps to preserve systemic insulin sensitivity, and in the context of moderate caloric intake, prevents the deterioration in metabolic function. However, in the context of excess caloric intake, low GH leads to impaired insulin output, and thereby could contribute to the development of diabetes.

  10. New onset pancytopenia in adults: a review of underlying pathologies and their associated clinical and laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Katherine A; Lunde, John H; Lewis, Michael R

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Pancytopenia is regularly encountered in hematology practice, yet there exist few published assessments of the frequencies of various etiologies, and these frequencies exhibit substantial geographic variation. We reviewed bone marrow specimens from pancytopenic adults to determine the most common etiologies and to identify associations with clinical and laboratory findings. Of 132 patients with no history of hematolymphoid neoplasia, no prior bone marrow study for pancytopenia and no recent cytotoxic chemotherapy, 64% had clonal hematopoietic disorders. Most common were myeloid processes: 26% of patients had acute myeloid leukemia, and 17% had myelodysplasia. Less common were lymphoid neoplasms such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6%), hairy cell leukemia (5%) and precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4%). Among non-clonal cases, the most common specific diagnoses were aplastic anemia (5%), megaloblastic anemia (2%) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related changes (2%). Clonal diagnoses were associated with more severe cytopenias than non-clonal cases. Circulating nucleated erythroid precursors, immature granulocytes and blasts were seen more frequently in clonal cases. Nearly two-thirds of cases of new onset pancytopenia in adults in our North American practice setting have a clonal etiology, with myeloid neoplasms being most common. Blood counts and peripheral smear findings can provide insights into the likelihood of a clonal etiology. PMID:23829306

  11. Adult-onset Kawasaki disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome) and concurrent Coxsackievirus A4 infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yuki; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Noda, Ayako; Yamamoto, Yu; Matsumura, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kawasaki disease (KD) most commonly develops in infants, although its specific cause is still unclear. We report here a rare case of adult-onset KD which revealed to be concurrently infected by Coxsackievirus A4. Case presentation The patient was a 37-year-old Japanese man who presented with fever, exanthema, changes in the peripheral extremities, bilateral non-exudative conjunctival injection, and changes in the oropharynx, signs that meet the diagnostic criteria for KD defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this case, the patient had a significantly high antibody titer for Coxsackievirus A4, which led us to presume that the occurrence of KD was concurrent Coxsackievirus A4 infection. Conclusion We reported a very rare case of KD which suggests that the disease can be concurrent Coxsackievirus A4 infection. Although KD is an acute childhood disease, with fever as one of the principal features, KD should also be considered in the differential diagnosis when adult patients present with a fever of unknown cause associated with a rash. PMID:26491373

  12. Familial adult onset hyperinsulinism due to an activating glucokinase mutation: Implications for pharmacological glucokinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Challis, Benjamin G.; Harris, Julie; Sleigh, Alison; Isaac, Iona; Orme, Steve M.; Seevaratnam, Nandini; Dhatariya, Ketan; Simpson, Helen L.; Semple, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Context Glucokinase (GCK) phosphorylates and thereby “traps” glucose in cells, thus serving as a gatekeeper for cellular glucose metabolism, particularly in hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. In humans, activating GCK mutations cause familial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (GCK-HH), leading to keen interest in the potential of small molecule glucokinase activators (GKAs) as treatments for diabetes mellitus. Many such agents have been developed, however observation of side effects including hypertriglyceridaemia and hepatic steatosis have delayed their clinical development. Objective To describe the clinical presentation and metabolic profiles of affected family members in a kindred with familial hyperinsulinism of adult presentation due to a known activating mutation in GCK. Design Clinical, biochemical and metabolic assessment, and GCK sequencing in affected family members. Results In the 60 year-old female proband, hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (blood glucose 2.1mmol/mol, insulin 18pmol/l) was confirmed following 34 hours of fasting, however abdominal computed tomography (CT), pancreatic MRI, endoscopic ultrasound, octreotide scintigraphy and selective arterial calcium stimulation failed to localise an insulinoma. A prolonged OGTT revealed fasting hypoglycaemia that was exacerbated after glucose challenge, consistent with dysregulated glucose-stimulated insulin release. A heterozygous activating mutation, p.Val389Leu, in the glucokinase gene (GCK) was found in the proband and four other family members. Of these, two had been investigated elsewhere for recurrent hypoglycaemia in adulthood, while the other two adult relatives were asymptomatic despite profound hypoglycaemia. All three of the available family members with the p.Val389Leu mutation had normal serum lipid profiles, normal rates of fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis and had hepatic triglyceride levels commensurate with their degree of adiposity. Conclusion Activating GCK mutations may

  13. Teaching Students with Developmental Disabilities: Tips from Teens and Young Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Cheryll; Stodel, Emma; Fullarton, Stephanie; Hagglund, Karras

    2006-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a term that encompasses the various neurodevelopmental disorders experienced by individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure. FASD incorporates the terms Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND). Early studies showed that students with…

  14. The alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats--animal models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the literature on the utility of using the selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats in studies examining high alcohol drinking in adults and adolescents, craving-like behavior, and the co-abuse of alcohol with other drugs. The P line of rats meets all of the originally proposed criteria for a suitable animal model of alcoholism. In addition, the P rat exhibits high alcohol-seeking behavior, demonstrates an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) under relapse drinking conditions, consumes amounts of ethanol during adolescence equivalent to those consumed in adulthood, and co-abuses ethanol and nicotine. The P line also exhibits excessive binge-like alcohol drinking, attaining blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 200 mg% on a daily basis. The HAD replicate lines of rats have not been as extensively studied as the P rats. The HAD1,2 rats satisfy several of the criteria for an animal model of alcoholism, e.g., these rats will voluntarily consume ethanol in a free-choice situation to produce BACs between 50 and 200 mg%. The HAD1,2 rats also exhibit an ADE under repeated relapse conditions, and will demonstrate similar levels of ethanol intake during adolescence as seen in adults. Overall, the P and HAD1,2 rats have characteristics attributed to an early onset alcoholic, and can be used to study various aspects of alcohol use disorders.

  15. An autopsy case of adult-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia type 2 with a novel mutation in exon 7 of the proteolipid protein 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Arakawa, Kenji; Furuya, Hirokazu; Fujii, Naoki; Iwaki, Akiko

    2011-12-01

    We report an autopsy case of rare adult-onset spastic paraplegia type 2 (SPG2) with a novel missense mutation in exon 7 of the proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1). The patient was a 67-year-old man whose elder brother had died of a similar disease with onset in his 40s. Thirty-three years before death at the age of 35, he noticed difficulty in walking. He gradually became abasic over a period of 6 years. He also developed progressive dementia and eventually became bed-ridden by 28 years after onset. At autopsy, gross inspection revealed diffuse, moderate atrophy of the cerebrum with a dilated ventricular system and softening of the white matter throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Histopathologically, the CNS showed widespread myelin pallor in the white matter. By contrast, the gray matter and peripheral nerves were well preserved. Some white matter tracts, including the corticospinal tracts, were preferentially affected, and severe axonal degeneration was observed in these tracts. Genetic analysis revealed a novel mutation, p.Tyr263Cys, in exon 7 of PLP1. This case represents an adult-onset SPG2 patient with one of the oldest ages of onset reported to date. The late onset and long clinical course suggest that this novel mutation does not affect the maturation of oligodendrocytes, but is related to insufficient maintenance of myelin.

  16. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Braams, Barbara R; Peper, Jiska S; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-02-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development. PMID:26771250

  17. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Braams, Barbara R; Peper, Jiska S; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-02-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development.

  18. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Braams, Barbara R.; Peper, Jiska S.; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12–17 years old) and young adults (18–26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development. PMID:26771250

  19. A common gene for juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucomas confined on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Morissette, J.; Plante, M.; Raymond, V.

    1995-06-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which causes progressive loss of the visual fields, was subdivided into two groups according to age at onset: (1) chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after 40 years and (2) juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) diagnosed between 3 years of age and early adulthood. A JOAG gene (GLC1A) was recently mapped to chromosome 1q. We studied 142 members of a huge multigenerational French Canadian family affected with autosomal dominant POAG. Either JOAG or COAG was diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT), which may lead to POAG. To localize a common disease gene that might be responsible for both glaucoma subsets, we performed linkage analysis considering JOAG and COAG under the same phenotypic category. JOAG/COAG was tightly linked to seven microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 was obtained with AF-M278ye5. To refine the disease locus, we exploited a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect. The same characteristic haplotype, composed of 14 markers spanning 12 cM between loci D1S196 and D1S212, was recognized in all persons affected by JOAG, COAG, or OHT, but it did not occur in unaffected spouses and in normal family members >35 years of age, except for three obligatory carriers. Key combination events confined the disease region within a 9-cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S416/D1S480. These observations demonstrate that the GLC1A gene is responsible for both adult-onset and juvenile glaucomas and suggest that the JOAG and COAG categories within this family may be part of a clinical continuum artificially divided at age 40 years. 49 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Parenchymal lung involvement in adult-onset Still disease: A STROBE-compliant case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gerfaud-Valentin, Mathieu; Cottin, Vincent; Jamilloux, Yvan; Hot, Arnaud; Gaillard-Coadon, Agathe; Durieu, Isabelle; Broussolle, Christiane; Iwaz, Jean; Sève, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Parenchymal lung involvement (PLI) in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) has seldom, if ever, been studied. We examine here retrospective cohort AOSD cases and present a review of the literature (1971-2014) on AOSD-related PLI cases.Patients with PLI were identified in 57 AOSD cases. For inclusion, the patients had to fulfill Yamaguchi or Fautrel classification criteria, show respiratory symptoms, and have imaging evidence of pulmonary involvement, and data allowing exclusion of infectious, cardiogenic, toxic, or iatrogenic cause of PLI should be available. This AOSD + PLI group was compared with a control group (non-PLI-complicated AOSD cases from the same cohort).AOSD + PLI was found in 3 out of the 57 patients with AOSD (5.3%) and the literature mentioned 27 patients. Among these 30 AOSD + PLI cases, 12 presented an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the remaining 18 another PLI. In the latter, a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia computed tomography pattern prevailed in the lower lobes, pulmonary function tests showed a restrictive lung function, the alveolar differential cell count was neutrophilic in half of the cases, and the histological findings were consistent with bronchiolitis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Corticosteroids were fully efficient in all but 3 patients. Ten out of 12 ARDS cases occurred during the first year of the disease course. All ARDS-complicated AOSD cases received corticosteroids with favorable outcomes in 10 (2 deceased). Most PLIs occurred during the systemic onset of AOSD.PLI may occur in 5% of AOSDs, of which ARDS is the most severe. Very often, corticosteroids are efficient in controlling this complication. PMID:27472698

  1. The Huge Reduction in Adult Male Mortality in Belarus and Russia: Is It Attributable to Anti-Alcohol Measures?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s. Data and Methods We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980–2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time. Conclusion Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005–2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality

  2. Dominant-Negative Effects of Adult-Onset Huntingtin Mutations Alter the Division of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Neural Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Carla; Aubert, Sophie; Bourgois-Rocha, Fany; Barnat, Monia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Déglon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the huntingtin protein (HTT) gene underlie both adult-onset and juvenile forms of Huntington’s disease (HD). HTT modulates mitotic spindle orientation and cell fate in mouse cortical progenitors from the ventricular zone. Using human embryonic stem cells (hESC) characterized as carrying mutations associated with adult-onset disease during pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, we investigated the influence of human HTT and of an adult-onset HD mutation on mitotic spindle orientation in human neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hESCs. The RNAi-mediated silencing of both HTT alleles in neural stem cells derived from hESCs disrupted spindle orientation and led to the mislocalization of dynein, the p150Glued subunit of dynactin and the large nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein. We also investigated the effect of the adult-onset HD mutation on the role of HTT during spindle orientation in NSCs derived from HD-hESCs. By combining SNP-targeting allele-specific silencing and gain-of-function approaches, we showed that a 46-glutamine expansion in human HTT was sufficient for a dominant-negative effect on spindle orientation and changes in the distribution within the spindle pole and the cell cortex of dynein, p150Glued and NuMA in neural cells. Thus, neural derivatives of disease-specific human pluripotent stem cells constitute a relevant biological resource for exploring the impact of adult-onset HD mutations of the HTT gene on the division of neural progenitors, with potential applications in HD drug discovery targeting HTT-dynein-p150Glued complex interactions. PMID:26863614

  3. Dominant-Negative Effects of Adult-Onset Huntingtin Mutations Alter the Division of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Neural Cells.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla; Aubert, Sophie; Bourgois-Rocha, Fany; Barnat, Monia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Déglon, Nicole; Perrier, Anselme L; Humbert, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the huntingtin protein (HTT) gene underlie both adult-onset and juvenile forms of Huntington's disease (HD). HTT modulates mitotic spindle orientation and cell fate in mouse cortical progenitors from the ventricular zone. Using human embryonic stem cells (hESC) characterized as carrying mutations associated with adult-onset disease during pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, we investigated the influence of human HTT and of an adult-onset HD mutation on mitotic spindle orientation in human neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hESCs. The RNAi-mediated silencing of both HTT alleles in neural stem cells derived from hESCs disrupted spindle orientation and led to the mislocalization of dynein, the p150Glued subunit of dynactin and the large nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein. We also investigated the effect of the adult-onset HD mutation on the role of HTT during spindle orientation in NSCs derived from HD-hESCs. By combining SNP-targeting allele-specific silencing and gain-of-function approaches, we showed that a 46-glutamine expansion in human HTT was sufficient for a dominant-negative effect on spindle orientation and changes in the distribution within the spindle pole and the cell cortex of dynein, p150Glued and NuMA in neural cells. Thus, neural derivatives of disease-specific human pluripotent stem cells constitute a relevant biological resource for exploring the impact of adult-onset HD mutations of the HTT gene on the division of neural progenitors, with potential applications in HD drug discovery targeting HTT-dynein-p150Glued complex interactions.

  4. Childhood experiences and complicated grief: a study of adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Brabant, S; Martof, M

    1993-09-01

    For the most part, grief research concentrates on type of loss (e.g., loss of spouse, parent, or child) and/or type of death (e.g., expected or sudden). In contrast, the present paper focuses on a category of persons generally assumed to have had troubled childhoods, adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs). Because of assumed problematic histories, the grief process of ACOAs should be expected to differ from the grief process of non-ACOAs. Using both quantitative and qualitative techniques, 27 ACOAs and 20 non-ACOAs, recruited by newspaper, radio, and word-of-mouth, are compared across characteristics generally associated with ACOAs and/or unresolved grief. Implications for counseling are presented.

  5. College student adult children of alcoholics: psychological resilience or emotional distance?

    PubMed

    Hinz, L D

    1990-01-01

    Recent investigations of Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) have focused on identifying factors associated with psychological resilience and their role in academic achievement. The present study hypothesized that rather than being associated with psychological resilience, academic achievement more likely would be associated with decreased psychological functioning or emotional distance due to the single-minded pursuit of one particular endeavor. Gender differences in types of problems reported by ACOAs were also hypothesized. In a sample of 419 college students, ACOAs reported more problems than non-ACOAs in areas of interpersonal anxiety, depression, and family problems but not academic skills. There were few gender effects. Results were discussed in terms of the psychological resilience hypothesis.

  6. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings. PMID:26960969

  7. Where It's at! The Role of Best Friends and Peer Group Members in Young Adults' Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Bot, Sander M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Sentse, Miranda; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger

    2011-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that best friends and members from a broader peer group would not differ in the amount of influence they have on young adults' alcohol consumption and that what counts would be the mere presence of drinking peers in a given context--irrespective of the type of relationship such peers would have with the target young…

  8. Testing Hypothesized Differences between Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) and Non-ACOAs in a College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Amy L.; Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Salyers, Kathleen M.; Laux, John M.; Cochrane, Wendy S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared college adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and non-ACOAs using the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (F.G. Miller, 1999).The results failed to support the hypothesis that ACOAs have higher rates of substance dependence, defensiveness, and codependency than do non-ACOAs. Practical implications are offered for…

  9. Status Variations in Alcohol Use among Young Adults: Results from the 1984 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Joan E.

    This document gives descriptive results on alcohol use patterns among young adults from the 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market of Youth, a survey of a large, nationally representative sample supplemented by samples of blacks, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanic youth and covering the entire range of…

  10. Cytokine polymorphisms and plasma levels are associated with sleep onset insomnia in adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gay, Caryl L; Zak, Rochelle S; Lerdal, Anners; Pullinger, Clive R; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Lee, Kathryn A

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disturbance has been associated with inflammation and cytokine activity, and we previously described genetic associations between cytokine polymorphisms and sleep maintenance and duration among adults with HIV/AIDS. Although sleep onset insomnia (SOI) is also a commonly reported sleep problem, associations between cytokine biomarkers and SOI have not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to describe SOI in relation to cytokine plasma concentrations and gene polymorphisms in a convenience sample of 307 adults (212 men, 72 women, and 23 transgender) living with HIV/AIDS. Based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index item that asks the time it usually took to fall asleep in the past month, participants were categorized as either >30min to fall asleep (n=70, 23%) or 30min or less to fall asleep (n=237). Plasma cytokines were analyzed, and genotyping was conducted for 15 candidate genes involved in cytokine signaling: interferon-gamma (IFNG), IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1), interleukins (IL1R2, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, IL17A), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB1 and NFKB2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA). Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as potential covariates. After adjusting for genomic estimates of ancestry, self-reported race/ethnicity and viral load, SOI was associated with higher IL-13 plasma levels and with six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): IL1B rs1143642 and rs1143623, IL6 rs4719714, IL13 rs1295686, NFKB1 rs4648110, and TNFA rs2857602. In addition, the IL1B rs1143642 polymorphism was associated with plasma levels of IL-1β in adjusted analyses. This study strengthens the evidence for an association between inflammation and sleep disturbance, particularly self-report of habitual SOI. In this chronic illness population, the cytokine polymorphisms associated with SOI provide direction for future personalized medicine intervention research.

  11. Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia linked CSF1R mutation: Report of four Korean cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Joo; Shin, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Jong Hun; Na, Duk L; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Hwang, Sun Jae; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Young Min; Shin, Myung-Jun; Lee, Myung Jun; Kim, Seong-Jang; Yoon, Uicheul; Park, Do Youn; Jung, Dae Soo; Ahn, Jae Woo; Sung, Suk; Huh, Gi Yeong

    2015-02-15

    We describe detailed clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological features in adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP), encompassing hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) and pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD), linked to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) mutations in four Korean cases. Clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological findings were obtained by direct evaluation and from previous medical records. The genetic analysis of the CSF1R gene was done in two autopsy-confirmed ALSP cases and two cases where ALSP was suspected based on the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics. We identified two known mutations: c.2342C>T (p.A781V) in one autopsy-proven HDLS and clinically ALSP-suspected case and c.2345G>A (p.R782H) in another autopsy-proven POLD case. We also found a novel mutation (c.2296A>G; p.M766V) in a patient presenting with hand tremor, stuttering and hesitant speech, and abnormal behavior whose father died from a possible diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented ALSP-linked CSF1R mutation in Korea and supports the suggestion that HDLS and POLD, with pathological characteristics that are somewhat different but which are caused by CSF1R mutations, are the same spectrum of disease, ALSP.

  12. Adult-onset multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenation deficiency associated with an abnormal isoenzyme pattern of serum lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Fuminobu; Baba, Kousuke; Toyooka, Keiko; Liang, Wen-Chen; Nishino, Ichizo; Yamadera, Misaki; Sumi, Hisae; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshiro

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of a 37 year-old male with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD). The patient had suffered from exercise intolerance in his hip and thigh muscles for one year. Then, restriction of carbohydrates for a diet made his symptoms rapidly deteriorate. Blood test revealed compound heterozygosity for two novel missense mutations in the electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase gene (ETFDH), and an abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern: LDH-1 (60.0%) and LDH-2 (26.0%) predominated with abnormally elevated LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (2.3), compared with muscle-derived LDH-5 (4.0%). Oral riboflavin treatment significantly improved his exercise intolerance and the LDH profile: LDH-1 (34.4%), LDH-2 (34.9%), LDH-5 (6.9%) and LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (1.0). The abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern may be one feature of adult-onset MADD selectively affecting type I muscle fibers with relatively high LDH-1 content. PMID:21907580

  13. Successful Tocilizumab Therapy for Macrophage Activation Syndrome Associated with Adult-Onset Still's Disease: A Case-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eri; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Takeshi; Ishii, Akira; Oda, Aya; Terai, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) in whom macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) developed despite therapy with oral high-dose prednisolone and intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy twice. She was successfully treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). Soon afterward, her fever ceased and high levels of both ferritin and C-reactive protein levels decreased. Her course was complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation, cytomegalovirus infection, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. After these were resolved, AOSD-associated MAS was well controlled. She was discharged on hospital day 87. Although biologics such as TCZ are becoming established for the treatment of AOSD, there is no recommended therapy for AOSD-associated MAS. Several biologics have been tried for this complication, but their efficacy and safety remain controversial. We reviewed reported cases of AOSD-associated MAS successfully treated with various biologics. TCZ initiation after adequate nonselective immunosuppressive therapy, such as methylprednisolone pulse therapy or a prednisolone-based combination of immunosuppressants, can be an effective treatment for AOSD-associated MAS. On the other hand, biologics given after insufficient immunosuppressive therapy may cause MAS. A strategy combining adequate immunosuppression and a biologic could be safe if special attention is given to adverse events such as opportunistic infections or biologic-associated MAS. PMID:27688774

  14. Successful Tocilizumab Therapy for Macrophage Activation Syndrome Associated with Adult-Onset Still's Disease: A Case-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Eri; Yamashita, Takeshi; Ishii, Akira; Oda, Aya; Terai, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) in whom macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) developed despite therapy with oral high-dose prednisolone and intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy twice. She was successfully treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). Soon afterward, her fever ceased and high levels of both ferritin and C-reactive protein levels decreased. Her course was complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation, cytomegalovirus infection, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. After these were resolved, AOSD-associated MAS was well controlled. She was discharged on hospital day 87. Although biologics such as TCZ are becoming established for the treatment of AOSD, there is no recommended therapy for AOSD-associated MAS. Several biologics have been tried for this complication, but their efficacy and safety remain controversial. We reviewed reported cases of AOSD-associated MAS successfully treated with various biologics. TCZ initiation after adequate nonselective immunosuppressive therapy, such as methylprednisolone pulse therapy or a prednisolone-based combination of immunosuppressants, can be an effective treatment for AOSD-associated MAS. On the other hand, biologics given after insufficient immunosuppressive therapy may cause MAS. A strategy combining adequate immunosuppression and a biologic could be safe if special attention is given to adverse events such as opportunistic infections or biologic-associated MAS. PMID:27688774

  15. The Phospholipase D2 Knock Out Mouse Has Ectopic Purkinje Cells and Suffers from Early Adult-Onset Anosmia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qifeng; Smethurst, Elizabeth; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Schrewe, Heinrich; Wakelam, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is an enzyme that produces phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid messenger molecule involved in a number of cellular events including, through its membrane curvature properties, endocytosis. The PLD2 knock out (PLD2KO) mouse has been previously reported to be protected from insult in a model of Alzheimer's disease. We have further analysed a PLD2KO mouse using mass spectrophotometry of its lipids and found significant differences in PA species throughout its brain. We have examined the expression pattern of PLD2 which allowed us to define which region of the brain to analyse for defect, notably PLD2 was not detected in glial-rich regions. The expression pattern lead us to specifically examine the mitral cells of olfactory bulbs, the Cornus Amonis (CA) regions of the hippocampus and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We find that the change to longer PA species correlates with subtle architectural defect in the cerebellum, exemplified by ectopic Purkinje cells and an adult-onset deficit of olfaction. These observations draw parallels to defects in the reelin heterozygote as well as the effect of high fat diet on olfaction. PMID:27658289

  16. Successful Tocilizumab Therapy for Macrophage Activation Syndrome Associated with Adult-Onset Still's Disease: A Case-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Eri; Yamashita, Takeshi; Ishii, Akira; Oda, Aya; Terai, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) in whom macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) developed despite therapy with oral high-dose prednisolone and intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy twice. She was successfully treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). Soon afterward, her fever ceased and high levels of both ferritin and C-reactive protein levels decreased. Her course was complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation, cytomegalovirus infection, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. After these were resolved, AOSD-associated MAS was well controlled. She was discharged on hospital day 87. Although biologics such as TCZ are becoming established for the treatment of AOSD, there is no recommended therapy for AOSD-associated MAS. Several biologics have been tried for this complication, but their efficacy and safety remain controversial. We reviewed reported cases of AOSD-associated MAS successfully treated with various biologics. TCZ initiation after adequate nonselective immunosuppressive therapy, such as methylprednisolone pulse therapy or a prednisolone-based combination of immunosuppressants, can be an effective treatment for AOSD-associated MAS. On the other hand, biologics given after insufficient immunosuppressive therapy may cause MAS. A strategy combining adequate immunosuppression and a biologic could be safe if special attention is given to adverse events such as opportunistic infections or biologic-associated MAS.

  17. Relationship between neuropsychological impairment and grey and white matter changes in adult-onset myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Baldanzi, Sigrid; Cecchi, Paolo; Fabbri, Serena; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Simoncini, Costanza; Angelini, Corrado; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Cosottini, Mirco; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) has a wide phenotypic spectrum and potentially may affect central nervous system with mild to severe involvement. Our aim was to investigate grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structural alterations in a sample of adult-onset DM1 patients and to evaluate relationship with clinical and cognitive variables. Thirty DM1 patients underwent neuropsychological investigation and 3T-MRI protocol. GM and WM changes were evaluated calculating brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), white matter lesion load (LL% and Fazekas scale) and tract based spatial statistical (TBSS). Patients showed main impairment in tests exploring executive and mnesic domains with visuo-spatial involvement, significantly related to BPF. VBM revealed clusters of widespread GM reduction and TBSS revealed areas of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in patients compared to a group of matched healthy controls. Multiple regression analyses showed areas of significant negative relationship between left temporal atrophy and verbal memory, between RD and mnesic and visuo-spatial cognitive domains, and between AD and verbal memory. TBSS results indicate that the involvement of normal appearance WM, beyond the signal changes detected with conventional MR imaging (Fazekas scale and LL%), was associated with neuropsychological deficit. These data suggest that disrupted complex neuronal networks can underlie cognitive-behavioural dysfunctions in DM1. PMID:27437180

  18. Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse among Young Adults in Britain. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…

  19. Adult-Onset Obesity Reveals Prenatal Programming of Glucose-Insulin Sensitivity in Male Sheep Nutrient Restricted during Late Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Philip; Craigon, Jim; Gray, Clint; Rhind, Stuart M.; Loughna, Paul T.; Gardner, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity invokes a range of metabolic disturbances, but the transition from a poor to excessive nutritional environment may exacerbate adult metabolic dysfunction. The current study investigated global maternal nutrient restriction during early or late gestation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the adult offspring when lean and obese. Methods/Principal Findings Pregnant sheep received adequate (1.0M; CE, n = 6) or energy restricted (0.7M) diet during early (1–65 days; LEE, n = 6) or late (65–128 days; LEL, n = 7) gestation (term ∼147 days). Subsequent offspring remained on pasture until 1.5 years when all received glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT & ITT) and body composition determination by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). All animals were then exposed to an obesogenic environment for 6–7 months and all protocols repeated. Prenatal dietary treatment had no effect on birth weight or on metabolic endpoints when animals were ‘lean’ (1.5 years). Obesity revealed generalised metabolic ‘inflexibility’ and insulin resistance; characterised by blunted excursions of plasma NEFA and increased insulinAUC (from 133 to 341 [s.e.d. 26] ng.ml−1.120 mins) during a GTT, respectively. For LEL vs. CE, the peak in plasma insulin when obese was greater (7.8 vs. 4.7 [s.e.d. 1.1] ng.ml−1) and was exacerbated by offspring sex (i.e. 9.8 vs. 4.4 [s.e.d. 1.16] ng.ml−1; LEL male vs. CE male, respectively). Acquisition of obesity also significantly influenced the plasma lipid and protein profile to suggest, overall, greater net lipogenesis and reduced protein metabolism. Conclusions This study indicates generalised metabolic dysfunction with adult-onset obesity which also exacerbates and ‘reveals’ programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male offspring prenatally exposed to maternal undernutrition during late gestation. Taken together, the data suggest that metabolic function appears little compromised in young

  20. Altered adult hippocampal neuronal maturation in a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Boehme, Fanny; Patten, Anna; Cox, Adrian; Kainer, Leah; Giles, Erica; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2011-04-12

    Exposure to ethanol during pregnancy can be devastating to the developing nervous system, leading to significant central nervous system dysfunction. The hippocampus, one of the two brain regions where neurogenesis persists into adulthood, is particularly sensitive to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present study, we tested a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with ethanol administered via gavage throughout all three trimester equivalents. Subsequently, we assessed cell proliferation, as well as neuronal survival, and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adolescent (35 days old), young adult (60 days old) and adult (90 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats. Using both extrinsic (bromodeoxyuridine) and intrinsic (Ki-67) markers, we observed no significant alterations in cell proliferation and survival in ethanol-exposed animals when compared with their pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, we detected a significant increase in the number of new immature neurons in animals that were exposed to ethanol throughout all three trimester equivalents. This result might reflect a compensatory mechanism to counteract the deleterious effects of prenatal ethanol exposure or an ethanol-induced arrest of the neurogenic process at the early neuronal maturation stages. Taken together these results indicate that exposure to ethanol during the period of brain development causes a long-lasting dysregulation of the neurogenic process, a mechanism that might contribute, at least in part, to the hippocampal deficits that have been reported in rodent models of FAS.

  1. Impact of Mid-Life Symptoms of Alcoholism on the Health and Wellbeing of Aging Parents of Adults with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.

  2. Gender Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott E.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined early maladaptive schemas among alcohol-dependent men and women and sought to determine whether men and women differed in their early maladaptive schemas. Using preexisting patient records of adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence from a residential treatment center in the Southeastern United States, from 2005 to 2010 (N = 854), results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on 14 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas assessed. Both women and men endorsed having a number of early maladaptive schemas, with four schemas being particularly prevalent across gender. Study limitations are noted and implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22060801

  3. Effectiveness of Guided and Unguided Low-Intensity Internet Interventions for Adult Alcohol Misuse: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Riper, Heleen; Blankers, Matthijs; Hadiwijaya, Hana; Cunningham, John; Clarke, Stella; Wiers, Reinout; Ebert, David; Cuijpers, Pim

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse ranks within the top ten health conditions with the highest global burden of disease. Low-intensity, Internet interventions for curbing adult alcohol misuse have been shown effective. Few meta-analyses have been carried out, however, and they have involved small numbers of studies, lacked indicators of drinking within low risk guidelines, and examined the effectiveness of unguided self-help only. We therefore conducted a more thorough meta-analysis that included both guided and unguided interventions. Methods Systematic literature searches were performed up to September 2013. Primary outcome was the mean level of alcohol consumption and drinking within low risk guidelines for alcohol consumption at post-treatment. Findings We selected 16 randomised controlled trials (with 23 comparisons and 5,612 participants) for inclusion. Results, showed a small but significant overall effect size in favour of Internet interventions (g = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.13–0.27, p<.001). Participants in Internet interventions drunk on average 22 grams of ethanol less than controls and were significantly more likely to be adhering to low-risk drinking guidelines at post-treatment (RD 0.13, 95% CI: 0.09–0.17, p<.001). Subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences in potential moderators for the outcome of alcohol consumption, although there was a near-significant difference between comparisons with waitlist control and those with assessment-only or alcohol information control conditions (p = .056). Conclusions Internet interventions are effective in reducing adult alcohol consumption and inducing alcohol users to adhere to guidelines for low-risk drinking. This effect is small but from a public health point of view this may warrant large scale implementation at low cost of Internet interventions for adult alcohol misuse. Moderator analyses with sufficient power are, however, needed in order to assess the robustness of these overall results and to

  4. Adults with a family history of alcohol related problems are more impulsive on measures of response initiation and response inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Richard, Dawn M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found individuals with family histories of alcohol use disorders are more impulsive on some but not all laboratory behavioral measures, suggesting deficits on specific forms of impulse control. However, drawing conclusions is tenuous because these different measures have not been administered together in the same group of participants. Methods In the present study, we compared healthy 21–35 year old adults with family histories of alcohol related problems (FHAP+) or without such histories (FHAP−) on behavioral measures of response inhibition, response initiation, and consequence sensitivity impulsivity. FHAP+ (n=36) and FHAP− (n=36) participants were compared on performance on the Immediate Memory Task (IMT, response initiation), GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm (GoStop, response inhibition), Two Choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP, consequence sensitivity) and Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm (SKIP, consequence sensitivity). Results FHAP+ individuals were more impulsive on the IMT and GoStop but not on the TCIP or SKIP. Conclusions These results suggest that response initiation and response inhibition impulsivity are increased in individuals with family histories of alcohol related problems despite not having alcohol or drug use disorders themselves. In contrast, increased consequence sensitivity impulsivity may be associated with additional risk factors such as more severe family histories of alcohol use disorders, or it may be increased as a consequence of heavy drug or alcohol use. PMID:21376480

  5. Can I have a beer, please? A study of alcohol service to young adults on licensed premises in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Eva; Andreásson, Sven

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a community alcohol prevention program on the frequency of alcohol service to young adults at licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. We used a pretest (1996)-posttests (1998 and 2001) design with intervention and control areas. The multicomponent intervention combines training of serving staff in responsible beverage service, policy initiatives, and enforcement of existing alcohol regulations. Adolescents 18 years old (the legal drinking age on licensed premises in Sweden), but younger looking according to an expert panel, visited licensed premises in pairs, where each adolescent ordered a beer. At baseline in 1996, the adolescents made 600 attempts to order. At follow-up in 1998, the number of attempts to order was 252, and at the second follow-up in 2001, the adolescents made 238 attempts. We found no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control areas. Overall, the frequency of alcohol service to adolescents on licensed premises in these areas of Stockholm decreased significantly over time, from 45 to 41 and to 32%, in 1996, 1998, and 2001, respectively. The decrease in alcohol service in 2001 was statistically significant compared to the baseline in 1996. One explanation for this improvement could be more effective enforcement of existing alcohol laws in both the intervention and control areas. We also found that licensed premises that used doormen to screen potential customers were less likely to sell to minors.

  6. Alcohol Use Disorders and Perceived Drinking Norms: Ethnic Differences in Israeli Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Aharonovich, Efrat; Aivadyan, Christina; Greenstein, Eliana; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Individuals’ perceptions of drinking acceptability in their society (perceived injunctive drinking norms) are widely assumed to explain ethnic group differences in drinking and alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but this has never been formally tested. Immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) are more likely to drink and report AUD symptoms than other Israelis. We tested perceived drinking norms as a mediator of differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis in drinking and AUDs. Method: Adult household residents (N = 1,349) selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a structured interview measuring drinking, AUD symptoms, and perceived drinking norms. Regression analyses were used to produce odds ratios (OR) and risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to test differences between FSU immigrants and other Israelis on binary and graded outcomes. Mediation of FSU effects by perceived drinking norms was tested with bootstrapping procedures. Results: FSU immigrants were more likely than other Israelis to be current drinkers (OR = 2.39, CI [1.61, 3.55]), have higher maximum number of drinks per day (RR = 1.88, CI [1.64, 2.16]), have any AUD (OR = 1.75, CI [1.16, 2.64]), score higher on a continuous measure of AUD (RR = 1.44, CI [1.12, 1.84]), and perceive more permissive drinking norms (p < .0001). For all four drinking variables, the FSU group effect was at least partially mediated by perceived drinking norms. Conclusions: This is the first demonstration that drinking norms mediate ethnic differences in AUDs. This work contributes to understanding ethnic group differences in drinking and AUDs, potentially informing etiologic research and public policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:23036217

  7. Rearranged Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Gene in Adult-Onset Papillary Thyroid Cancer Amongst Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    rearrangements, being observed in 6 of 10 PTC cases with ALK rearrangements versus 2 of 15 cases with no ALK rearrangements. The six radiation-exposed cases of PTC harboring both ALK rearrangements and solid/trabecular-like architecture were associated with higher radiation doses and younger ages at the time of the A-bombing and at diagnosis compared to the other 19 PTC with no detectable gene alterations. Conclusion Our findings suggest that ALK rearrangements are involved in the development of radiation-induced adult-onset PTC. PMID:23050789

  8. Liver transplantation versus conservative treatment for adult-onset type II citrullinemia: our experience and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kimura, N; Kubo, N; Narumi, S; Toyoki, Y; Ishido, K; Kudo, D; Umehara, M; Yakoshi, Y; Hakamada, K

    2013-11-01

    Adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the SLC25A13 gene, is characterized by increased serum citrulline and ammonia levels. Patients with CTLN2 also display various neuropsychiatric symptoms. Many individuals with CTLN2 are fond of protein-rich and/or lipid-rich foods with an aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. We herein report two cases of CTLN2 treated with living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and provide a review of the pertinent literature. Case 1 was a 43-year-old man admitted to our hospital for repetitive episodes of consciousness disturbance. Case 2 was a 37-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of abnormal behavior associated with hyperammonemia. A definitive diagnosis of CTLN2 was accomplished by DNA analysis in both patients, who successfully underwent LDLT using liver segments from donor siblings with confirmed heterozygous gene expression. Case 2 also underwent conservative therapy with arginine and a high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted diet prior to LDLT. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and food was unrestricted in both patients. We also identified 77 cases of CTLN2 in the literature and reviewed them in terms of outcome of both liver transplantation and conservative therapy. The survival rate in patients treated by liver transplantation was 100%, whereas that in patients treated by conservative treatment showed improvement from 39.5% to 76.5% over the years. Liver transplantation is a practical treatment that fundamentally improves patient quality of life after transplantation. However, recent studies have suggested that arginine and sodium pyruvate administration combined with intensive nutritional support is also an effective therapy for CTLN2. Further development of conservative therapy may provide a safer, more affordable alternative to liver transplantation in the near future.

  9. Prolonged remission state of refractory adult onset Still's disease following CD34-selected autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lanza, F; Dominici, M; Govoni, M; Moretti, S; Campioni, D; Corte, R L; Latorraca, A; Tieghi, A; Castagnari, B; Trotta, F; Castoldi, G

    2000-06-01

    We report a 38-year-old patient affected by refractory adult onset Still's disease who achieved a prolonged remission following CD34-selected ABMT. The conditioning regimen was based on the use of CY and anti-thymocyte globulin. A 3.0 and 2.0 log reduction of T (CD3+) and B (CD19+) lymphocytes, respectively, was obtained using a Ceprate device to select CD34+ cells from PBSC. In the pre-transplant period (1994-1998) the patient had a chronic persistent disease course with frequent and recurrent systemic articular flares and loss of some functional abilities, despite daily prednisone, pulses of CY and immunosuppressive therapy (CYA or MTX). At the time of ABMT the patient had become non-ambulatory. Within 3 weeks of ABMT the patient showed a marked decrease in joint swelling, and morning stiffness. Joint pain and systemic symptoms disappeared, the patient was able to walk and run and gained general well being. ESR, C-reactive protein and WBC count were significantly decreased, while Hb level increased. This partial remission persisted for at least 1 year after ABMT, although at 15 months of follow-up a reappearance of moderate synovitis in the knees and wrists was noted. Our data further showed that both patient BM microenvironment and stem-progenitor cell function (as assessed by LTC-IC assay) were damaged even 1 year after CD34-selected ABMT, suggesting that the persistence of these alterations could have facilitated the favorable outcome of the disease following ABMT. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 1307-1310. PMID:10871738

  10. Comparison of Glomerular Transcriptome Profiles of Adult-Onset Steroid Sensitive Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Weijia; Wei, Chengguo; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xiao; Wang, Weiming; Lv, Danfeng; He, John Cijiang; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To search for biomarkers to differentiate primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD). Methods We isolated glomeruli from kidney biopsies of 6 patients with adult-onset steroid sensitiveFSGS and 5 patients with MCD, and compared the profiles of glomerular transcriptomes between the two groups of patients using microarray analysis. Results Analysis of differential expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that up-regulated DEGs in FSGS patients compared with MCD patients were primarily involved in spermatogenesis, gamete generation, regulation of muscle contraction, response to unfolded protein, cell proliferation and skeletal system development. The down-regulated DEGs were primarily related to metabolic process, intracellular transport, oxidation/reduction andestablishment of intracellular localization. We validated the expression of the top 6 up-regulated and top 6 down-regulated DEGs using real-time PCR. Membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) is a down-regulated gene that was previously identified as a key gene for kidney development. Immunostaining confirmed that the protein expression of MME decreased significantly in FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Conclusions This report was the first study to examine transcriptomes in Chinese patients with various glomerular diseases. Expressions of MME both in RNA and protein level decreased significantly in glomeruli of FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Our data suggested that MME might play a role in the normal physiological function of podocytes and a decrease in MME expression might be related to podocyte injury. We also identified genes and pathways specific for FSGS versus MCD, and our data could help identify potential new biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between these two diseases. PMID:26536600

  11. Alcohol Prevalence and Attitudes among Adults and Adolescents: Their Relation to Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Although research has identified numerous neighborhood mechanisms influencing urban adolescent risk behaviors, less is known about how community contexts influence rural adolescents. This study explores perceived controls against adolescent drinking (i.e., tolerance of community adolescent alcohol use), adolescent perceptions of community…

  12. Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems between Transgender- and Nontransgender-identified Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Robert W.S.; Blosnich, John R.; Bukowski, Leigh A.; Herrick, A. L.; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Stall, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between transgender- and nontransgender-identified populations. Using data from a large-scale health survey, we compare the drinking patterns and prevalence of alcohol-related problems of transgender-identified individuals to nontransgender-identified males and females. For transgender-identified people, we examine how various forms of victimization relate to heavy episodic drinking (HED). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 75,192 students aged 18–29 years attending 120 post-secondary educational institutions in the United States from 2011–2013. Self-reported measures included alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, victimization, and sociodemographics, including 3 gender-identity groups: transgender-identified individuals; nontransgender-identified males; and nontransgender-identified females. Results Compared to transgender-identified individuals, nontransgender-identified males were more likely to report HED in the past 2 weeks (relative risk=1.42; p=0.006); however, nontransgender-identified males and females reported HED on fewer days than transgender-identified people (incidence-rate ratios [IRRs] ranged from 0.28–0.43; p-values<0.001). Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females had lower odds of past-year alcohol-related sexual assault and suicidal ideation (odds ratios ranged from 0.24–0.45; p-values<0.05). Among transgender-identified people, individuals who were sexually assaulted (IRR=3.21, p=0.011) or verbally threatened (IRR=2.42, p=0.021) in the past year had greater HED days than those who did not experience those forms of victimization. Conclusions Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females: have fewer HED occasions (despite nontransgender-identified males having greater prevalence of HED); and are at lower risk for alcohol-related sexual assaults and

  13. Understanding the use of a community-based drive-home service after alcohol consumption among young adults.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, M; Godin, G; Valois, P

    1999-06-01

    To know and understand the intention of young adults to use, during the Christmas and New Year's period, the community drive-home service after drinking alcohol, that is, to phone for oneself when they are the driver or when they are the passenger to suggest to a friend who is the driver to phone for the service. This study was conducted in the Province of Quebec, Canada, among a representative sample of 544 young adults aged 18 to 24 years. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by mail. Young adults showed a very good knowledge of the drive home service and had a very positive attitude toward its use. Among those who reported having experienced drinking too much alcohol during the Christmas and New Year's period, 17 percent had phoned when they were the driver and 36 percent had, when they were a passenger, suggested to a friend who was the driver to phone the community drive-home service. Nonetheless, more than half of them intended to use or to recommend its use to a friend in the future. Several factors identified in this study might be useful for increasing this drive-home service and therefore, contribute to lowering the risk of injury related to alcohol-impaired driving among young adults.

  14. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. PMID:25900594

  15. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  16. Adolescent Risk Factors for Adult Alcohol Use and Abuse: Stability and Change of Predictive Value across Early and Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Merline, Alicia; Jager, Justin; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To examine age-18 risk factors for alcohol use and heavy drinking during early (ages 22 and 26) and middle (age 35) adulthood, and for symptoms of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in middle adulthood. Design Nationally representative samples of U.S. adolescents in their senior year of secondary school (age 18) were followed into middle adulthood. Structural equation models estimated the associations between age-18 characteristics and current drinking and heavy drinking at ages 22, 26 and 35 and symptoms of AUDs at age 35. Participants The sample consisted of 21,137 respondents from 11 senior year cohorts (1976–1986) from the Monitoring the Future study. Findings Many predictor variables had stable associations with alcohol use over time, although their ability to explain variance in alcohol use declined with increasing time lags. Being White predicted alcohol use, but not symptoms of AUDs. Parental drinking, risk taking, and use of cigarettes and marijuana predicted heavy drinking through age 35. Planning to attend college predicted more heavy drinking at age 22 and less frequent heavy drinking by midlife. High school theft and property damage predicted later AUD symptoms. Most associations were invariant across gender, with variations typically taking the form of stronger associations between predictors and alcohol use for men. Invariance in findings across cohorts indicates that results reflect general developmental trends rather than specific historically bounded ones. Conclusions Many adolescent individual and contextual characteristics remain important predictors of adult alcohol use and abuse, and their predictive impact varies as a function of age and type of alcohol outcome. These associations are largely equivalent across gender and cohort, thus reflecting robust developmental linkages. PMID:18426542

  17. Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among Thai adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Cohen, Joanna E; Schwartz, Robert; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively "youth") in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n=87,176 Thai youth, 15-24 years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol. PMID:26079927

  18. Can pricing deter adolescents and young adults from starting to drink: An analysis of the effect of alcohol taxation on drinking initiation among Thai adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Cohen, Joanna E; Schwartz, Robert; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between alcohol taxation changes and drinking initiation among adolescents and young adults (collectively "youth") in Thailand (a middle-income country). Using a survey panel, this study undertook an age-period-cohort analysis using four large-scale national cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption performed in Thailand in 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (n=87,176 Thai youth, 15-24 years of age) to test the hypothesis that changes in the inflation-adjusted alcohol taxation rates are associated with drinking initiation. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between inflation-adjusted taxation increases and the prevalence of lifetime drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounders, clear cohort and age effects were observed. Furthermore, a 10% increase of the inflation-adjusted taxation rate of the total alcohol market was significantly associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of lifetime drinking among Thai youth. In conclusion, tax rate changes in Thailand from 2001 to 2011 were associated with drinking initiation among youth. Accordingly, increases in taxation may prevent drinking initiation among youth in countries with a high prevalence of abstainers and may reduce the harms caused by alcohol.

  19. Rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Early onset of distal catheter migration into scrotum in an adult male: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bryan S.; Vadera, Sumeet; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of shunt placement is to divert cerebrospinal fluid from within the ventricles to an alternative location in the setting of hydrocephalus. One of the rare shunt complications is distal catheter migration, and various body sites have been reported, including the scrotum. Although cases of scrotal migration of distal catheter have been reported in pediatric patients, cases in adult patients are rare due to obliterated processus vaginalis. Furthermore, there has not been a case reported for scrotal migration in an adult at an early onset. Presentation of case 65-year-old male underwent shunt placement for normal-pressure hydrocephalus-like symptoms. On post-operative day seven patient developed right testicular edema, for which ultrasound was performed, revealing hydrocele along with the presence of distal catheter in the scrotum. On post-operative day nine patient underwent distal catheter trimming via laparoscopic approach with general surgery, with post-operative imaging showing satisfactory location of distal catheter in the peritoneal cavity. Discussion/Conclusion Early onset of distal catheter migration into scrotum in an adult male is a unique case, as most cases are reported in pediatric patients, and it is the first case reported in the English literature to have occurrence at an early onset during the peri-operative period. As our case demonstrates, early occurrence and detection of scrotal migration of the distal catheter prevent shunt malfunction. Prompt surgical management of catheter repositioning is therefore recommended to avoid the risk of further complications. PMID:25553524

  20. Loneliness and Alcoholism Risk in Late Adolescence: A Comparative Study of Adults and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Cole, Galen E.

    1991-01-01

    Administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test to subjects over age 18. Among late adolescents (aged 18 to 20), lonely females had highest mean scores, indicating higher degree of alcoholism risk than lonely males and nonlonely subjects. For males, loneliness appeared to increase alcoholism risk, not in late adolescence, but during early…

  1. The impact of kin and fictive kin relationships on the mental health of black adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Hall, J Camille

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how kin and fictive kinship relationships help to ameliorate or buffer responses to parental alcoholism and the breakdown in parenting. This qualitative study investigated coping responses developed by college students, who self-identified as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) who lived with an alcoholic parent or caregiver. In-depth interviews and follow-up participant checks were used. A descriptive model was developed describing conditions that affected the development of positive self-esteem, the phenomena that arose from those conditions, the context that influenced strategy development, the intervening conditions that influenced strategy development, and the consequences of those strategies. Subcategories of each component of the descriptive model are identified and illustrated by narrative data in relation to the ACOAs' psychological well-being. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:19070273

  2. Light alcohol intake during adolescence induces alcohol addiction in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Balguerie, Kevin; Coune, Fabien; Legastelois, Rémi; Jeanblanc, Virginie; Naassila, Mickaël

    2015-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a series of positive, negative or cognitive symptoms but with also the particularity of exhibiting a high rate of co-morbid use of drugs of abuse. While more than 80% of schizophrenics are smokers, the second most consumed drug is alcohol, with dramatic consequences on frequency and intensity of psychotic episodes and on life expectancy. Here we investigated the impact of light alcohol intake during adolescence on the subsequent occurrence of alcohol addiction-like behavior in neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rats, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrated an increased liability to addictive behaviors in adult NVHL rats after voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence. NVHL rats displayed several signs of alcohol use disorder such as a loss of control over alcohol intake and high motivation to consume alcohol, associated with a higher resistance to extinction. In addition, once NVHL rats relapsed, they maintained higher drinking levels than controls. We finally showed that the anti-addictive drug naltrexone is efficient in reducing excessive alcohol intake in NVHL rats. Our results are in accordance with epidemiological studies underlying the particular vulnerability to alcohol addiction after adolescent exposure to alcohol and highlight the fact that schizophrenic subjects may be particularly at risk even after light alcohol consumption. Based on these results, it seems particularly relevant to prevent early onset of alcohol use in at-risk subjects and thus to reduce the incidence of co-morbid alcohol abuse in psychotic patients.

  3. Adolescents’ Civic Engagement and Alcohol Use: Longitudinal Evidence for Patterns of Engagement and Use in the Adult Lives of a British cohort

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Andrea K.; Flanagan, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Participation in discretionary activities during adolescence may facilitate the development of social networks that recruit youth into adult civic life or provide risky contexts that promote alcohol problems. Using data from the 1970 British Cohort Study, latent class analysis was used to identify adolescents’ patterns of civic engagement, alcohol use, and other out-of-school activities at age 16, and test longitudinal links with adult civic engagement and alcohol use at ages 26, 30, and 34. Three classes were identified for both genders. The latent class characterized by involvement in more activities was more likely to be civically engaged in adulthood. The class characterized by the most alcohol use in adolescence had the highest likelihood of adult alcohol use and problems. Results are discussed in light of the health risks associated with each latent class and potential interventions that could be tailored to adolescents based on their patterns of activities. PMID:23462198

  4. How many versus how much: 52 weeks of alcohol consumption in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Mark S; Greenbaum, Paul E; Darkes, Jack; Brandon, Karen Obremski; Del Boca, Frances K

    2011-03-01

    In previous research using timeline follow-back methods to closely monitor drinking and related variables over the first year of college (9 months), we showed that drinking varied considerably over time in accord with academic requirements and holidays. In a new community sample (N = 576) of emerging adults (18- and 19-year-olds who reported having begun drinking prior to recruitment), we used similar methods to compare drinking patterns in college and noncollege individuals over a full calendar year (including summer). To reduce the extreme distortion in computations of average drinking over restricted time spans (i.e., 1 week) that arise because large numbers of even regular drinkers may not consume any alcohol, we analyzed data using recently developed two-part latent growth curve modeling. This modeling distinguished consumption levels from numbers of individuals drinking in a given period. Results showed that drinking levels and patterns generally did not differ between college and noncollege drinkers, and that both groups responded similarly to even those contexts that may have seemed unique to one (i.e., spring break). We also showed that computation of drinking amounts without accounting for "zero drinkers" could seriously distort estimates of mean drinking on some occasions; for example, mean consumption in the total sample appeared to increase on Thanksgiving, whereas actual average consumption for those who were drinking diminished.

  5. A control profile of adult children of alcoholics: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, D H; Weatherford, V; Kaufman, E; Broenen, R E

    1994-01-01

    In order to more precisely investigate the nature of control and self-control issues for adult children of alcoholics (ACA), a group of ACAs was compared to a group of sex and age matched healthy normals and a sex matched group of college students on the Shapiro Control Inventory (SCI). The SCI provides a profile that is both general domain (positive sense of control, desire/efforts for control, agency of control, and mode of control) and domain specific (body, mind, interpersonal, self, career, environment). Analysis of variance and subsequent planned comparisons on the SCI showed significant differences between the ACA and the two comparison groups in general domain sense of control, in three of the four general domain mode quadrants, and in the domain specific areas of body, mind, interpersonal, and career. Individual areas where ACA subjects felt most out of control were weight, significant other, and family of origin; 89.5% felt concern with self-concept, stress, and relationship with significant other. Although a small subset of ACAs had a strikingly high "in control" profile, most did not. Finally, the sense of control profile of ACAs is compared with two clinical populations--borderline and depression--and is shown to fall midway between the clinical and normative groups. Guidelines and suggestions for further research are offered.

  6. Do Brief Alcohol Interventions Reduce Tobacco Use among Adolescents and Young Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes studies of brief interventions (BIs) that targeted alcohol consumption and reported both alcohol and tobacco outcomes. It examines whether BIs reduce alcohol and tobacco use for adolescents and young adults among interventions that (1) directly targeted tobacco and alcohol use, or (2) did not target tobacco use but measured it as a secondary outcome. Multiple databases and grey literature sources were searched (1980–2012) resulting in the identification of 18 randomized or controlled quasi-experimental studies (5949 participants). Analyses were conducted using random effects inverse-variance weighted three-level models. BIs were associated with a significant reduction in alcohol consumption relative to control groups (ḡ = 0.11, 95% CI [0.04, 0.17]) but not with a significant decrease in tobacco use (ḡ = 0.07, 95% CI [−0.01, 0.16]). Directly addressing tobacco was not a significant moderator affecting tobacco use outcomes. Post-hoc exploratory analysis revealed potential questions to address with future research. PMID:26130030

  7. Adult onset asymmetric upper limb tremor misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s disease: A clinical and electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Schwingenschuh, Petra; Ruge, Diane; Edwards, Mark J; Terranova, Carmen; Katschnig, Petra; Carrillo, Fatima; Silveira-Moriyama, Laura; Schneider, Susanne A; Kägi, Georg; Dickson, John; Lees, Andrew J; Quinn, Niall; Mir, Pablo; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2010-01-01

    different from controls. Taken together, these results may help differentiate these SWEDDs patients from PD and support our hypothesis that adult-onset dystonia is the underlying diagnosis in this sub-group of patients with SWEDDs. PMID:20131394

  8. "I Don't Think Old People Should Go to Clubs": How Universal Is the Alcohol Transition amongst Young Adults in the United Kingdom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Peter; Ikegwuonu, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the meanings, associations and ideas of appropriateness that shape young adults' decision-making around alcohol will assist in developing strategies to promote healthy consumption and anticipate rates of future harm. Increases in per capita consumption as well as the affordability and availability of alcohol suggest the cultural…

  9. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Male Adults at a Slum in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Amrita; Mukherjee, Shuvankar

    2012-01-01

    Globally, alcohol-abuse is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Consumption of alcohol has increased in India in the recent decades. It is imperative to know the patterns of alcohol consumption among different types of consumers to launch a well-planned nationwide programme for the prevention and control of this devastating social pathology. This community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify the patterns of alcohol intake among different types of alcohol consumers and to assess the clinical signs of chronic harmful alcohol-use. A predesigned, pretested, semi-structured alcohol-use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire was used for interviewing males, aged >18 years, selected by random sampling from an updated household list of a randomly-selected sector of the service area of the Urban Health Centre in Chetla, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Written informed consents were obtained from all the respondents. Relevant clinical examination for chronic harmful alcohol-use was done according to the AUDIT clinical screening procedures. The results revealed that 65.8% (150/228) were current consumers of alcohol; 14% were alcohol-dependents; 8% were hazardous or harmful consumers, and 78% were non-hazardous non-harmful consumers. The mean age of the respondents at the initiation of drinking alcohol was 20.8+5.9 years. Eighty-six percent of dependents (n=21) took both Indian-made foreign liquor and locally-made alcoholic beverages. The proportions of alcohol consumers who drank alone among alcohol-dependents, hazardous or harmful consumers, and non-hazardous non-harmful consumers were 71.4%, 50%, and 7.7% respectively, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). Forty-one percent of the consumers drank at public places and workplaces, which may be socially harmful. About 38% of the dependents purchased alcohol from unlicensed liquor shops. Only 16% expressed concerns for their drinking habit mainly to the past illness. The proportion of

  10. Qualitative study of changes in alcohol use among HIV-infected adults entering care and treatment for HIV/AIDS in rural southwest Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Radhika; Wyatt, Monique A; Woolf-King, Sarah; Pisarski, Emily E; Emenyonu, Nneka; Muyindike, Winnie R; Hahn, Judith A; Ware, Norma C

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol has a substantial negative impact on the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Uganda, where heavy alcohol consumption is common. Using a content analytic approach, this qualitative study characterizes changes in alcohol use among 59 HIV-infected Ugandan adults (>18 years old), who reported any alcohol use in the previous year as they entered HIV care. Most participants reported attempting to cease or reduce alcohol intake over the study period. Reasons for decreased use included advice from clinicians, interference with social obligations, threats to financial security, and negative impact on social standing. Participants reported difficulty abstaining from alcohol, with incentives to continue drinking including desire for social inclusion, stress relief, and enjoyment of alcohol. These contrasting incentives created a moral quandary for some participants, who felt 'pulled' between 'good' and 'bad' influences. Results suggest brief interventions addressing self-identified obstacles to change may facilitate long-term reductions in drinking in this population. PMID:25323678

  11. Dietary Patterns Modulate the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Qun; Shu, Long; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Yu; Xuan, Yu-Jie; Wang, Su-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies reported the associations between the intakes of individual foods or nutrients and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the Chinese population has been rarely studied to date. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NAFLD in a middle-aged Chinese population. The Study subjects were 999 Chinese adults aged 45–60 years in the Anhui province who participated in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study. Dietary intake was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the presence of moderate-severe hepatic steatosis (by B-ultrasonic examination); the absence of excessive alcohol use (>20 g day−1 in men and 10 g day−1 in women); no use of steatogenic medications within the past six months; no exposure to hepatotoxins; and no history of bariatric surgery. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Out of 999 participants, 345 (34.5%) were classified as having NAFLD. Four major dietary patterns were identified: “Traditional Chinese”, “Animal food”, “Grains-vegetables” and “High-salt” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of the “Animal food” pattern scores had greater prevalence ratio for NAFLD (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.354; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.063–1.724; p < 0.05) than did those in the lowest quartile. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), compared with the lowest quartile of the “Grains-vegetables” pattern, the highest quartile had a lower prevalence ratio for NAFLD (PR = 0.777; 95% CI: 0.618–0.977, p < 0.05). However, the “traditional Chinese” and “high-salt” dietary patterns showed no association with the risk of NAFLD. Our findings indicated that the

  12. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  13. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  14. The Role of Mobile Applications in Improving Alcohol Health Literacy in Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tamony, Peter; Holt, Richard; Barnard, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mobile health (mHealth) is an expanding field which includes the use of social media and mobile applications (apps). Apps are used in diabetes self-management but it is unclear whether these are being used to support safe drinking of alcohol by people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Alcohol health literacy is poor among young adults with T1DM despite specific associated risks. Methods: Systematic literature review followed by critical appraisal of commercially available apps. An eSurvey investigating access to mHealth technology, attitudes toward apps for diabetes management and their use to improve alcohol health literacy was completed by participants. Results: Of 315 articles identified in the literature search, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Ten diabetes apps were available, most of which lacked the educational features recommended by clinical guidelines. In all, 27 women and 8 men with T1DM, aged 19-31 years were surveyed. Of them, 32 had access to a smartphone/tablet; 29 used apps; 20 used/had used diabetes apps; 3 had used apps related to alcohol and diabetes; 11 had discussed apps with their health care team; 22 felt more communication with their health care team would increase awareness of alcohol-associated risks. Conclusions: Use of mobile apps is commonplace but the use of apps to support safe drinking in this population was rare. Most participants expressed a preference for direct communication with their health care teams about this subject. Further research is needed to determine the preferences of health care professionals and how they can best support young adults in safe drinking. PMID:26251369

  15. Reviewing and interpreting the effects of brief alcohol interventions: comment on a Cochrane review about motivational interviewing for young adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Kulesza, Magdalena; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Cochrane recently published a systematic review on motivational interviewing (MI) for alcohol misuse in young adults. The review authors concluded that ‘there are no substantive, meaningful benefits of MI interventions for the prevention of alcohol misuse’ (p. 2), as effect sizes were ‘small and unlikely to be of any meaningful benefit in practice’ (p. 27). As most of these interventions were quite brief, we wish to open a dialogue about interpreting effect sizes in this review and of (brief) alcohol interventions more generally. Analysis We analyze four methodological aspects of the review that likely influenced the author's conclusions about intervention effects: (1) risk of bias assessments, (2) search strategies, (3) assessing the quality of the body of evidence and (4) definitions of sustainability and clinical significance. Conclusions We interpret the effect sizes found in this review to indicate modest yet beneficial and potentially meaningful effects of these interventions, given their brevity and low cost. This interpretation is consistent with other reviews on brief, MI‐based interventions and brief interventions more generally. We therefore encourage the field to re‐open dialogue about the clinical importance of the effects of MI on alcohol misuse by young adults. Rather than dismissing interventions with small effects, we believe a more fruitful way forward for the field would be to catalogue effect sizes for various alcohol interventions. Such a catalogue would help stakeholders themselves to choose which interventions meet their minimum desired impact, and thus may be suitable given their targeted populations, setting and resources. PMID:26508301

  16. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition over time. Conversely, for an Agebase of ≥70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319

  17. PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ALTERS STEADY-STATE AND ACTIVATED GENE EXPRESSION IN THE ADULT RAT BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Stepien, Katarzyna A.; Lussier, Alexandre A.; Neumann, Sarah M.; Pavlidis, Paul; Kobor, Michael S.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with alterations in numerous physiological systems, including the stress and immune systems . We have previously shown that PAE increases the course and severity of arthritis in an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. While the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully known, changes in neural gene expression are emerging as important factors in the etiology of PAE effects. As the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) play key roles in neuroimmune function, PAE-induced alterations to their transcriptome may underlie abnormal steady-state functions and responses to immune challenge. The current study examined brains from adult PAE and control females from our recent AA study to determine whether PAE causes long-term alterations in gene expression and whether these mediate the altered severity and course of arthritis in PAE females Methods Adult females from PAE, pair-fed [PF], and ad libitum-fed control [C]) groups were injected with either saline or complete Freund’s adjuvant. Animals were terminated at the peak of inflammation or during resolution (days 16 and 39 post-injection, respectively); cohorts of saline-injected PAE, PF and C females were terminated in parallel. Gene expression was analyzed in the PFC and HPC using whole genome mRNA expression microarrays. Results Significant changes in gene expression in both the PFC and HPC were found in PAE compared to controls in response to ethanol exposure alone (saline-injected females), including genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, and energy metabolism. Moreover, in response to inflammation (adjuvant-injected females), PAE animals showed unique expression patterns, while failing to exhibit the activation of genes and regulators involved in the immune response observed in control and pair-fed animals. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that PAE affects neuroimmune function at the level of gene expression

  18. Neonatal androgenization exacerbates alcohol-induced liver injury in adult rats, an effect abrogated by estrogen.

    PubMed

    Ellefson, Whitney M; Lakner, Ashley M; Hamilton, Alicia; McKillop, Iain H; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Steuerwald, Nury M; Huet, Yvette M; Schrum, Laura W

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) affects millions of people worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, fewer than 10% of heavy drinkers progress to later stages of injury, suggesting other factors in ALD development, including environmental exposures and genetics. Females display greater susceptibility to the early damaging effects of ethanol. Estrogen (E2) and ethanol metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, CYP450) are implicated in sex differences of ALD. Sex steroid hormones are developmentally regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which controls sex-specific cycling of gonadal steroid production and expression of hepatic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine if early postnatal inhibition of adult cyclic E2 alters ethanol metabolizing enzyme expression contributing to the development of ALD in adulthood. An androgenized rat model was used to inhibit cyclic E2 production. Control females (Ctrl), androgenized females (Andro) and Andro females with E2 implants were administered either an ethanol or isocalorically-matched control Lieber-DeCarli diet for four weeks and liver injury and CYP450 expression assessed. Androgenization exacerbated the deleterious effects of ethanol demonstrated by increased steatosis, lipid peroxidation, profibrotic gene expression and decreased antioxidant defenses compared to Ctrl. Additionally, CYP2E1 expression was down-regulated in Andro animals on both diets. No change was observed in CYP1A2 protein expression. Further, continuous exogenous administration of E2 to Andro in adulthood attenuated these effects, suggesting that E2 has protective effects in the androgenized animal. Therefore, early postnatal inhibition of cyclic E2 modulates development and progression of ALD in adulthood.

  19. Adult-Onset Leukoencephalopathy with Axonal Spheroids and Pigmented Glia Caused by a Novel R782G Mutation in CSF1R.

    PubMed

    Foulds, Nicola; Pengelly, Reuben J; Hammans, Simon R; Nicoll, James A R; Ellison, David W; Ditchfield, Adam; Beck, Sarah; Ennis, Sarah

    2015-05-15

    We report a new family with autosomal dominant inheritance of a late onset rapidly progressive leukodystrophy in which exome sequencing has revealed a novel mutation p.R782G in the Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor gene (CSF1R). Neuropathology of two affected family members showed cerebral white matter degeneration with axonal swellings and pigmented macrophages. The few recently reported families with CSF1R mutations had been previously labelled "hereditary diffuse leukencephalopathy with axonal spheroids" (HDLS) and "pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy" (POLD), disorders which now appear to form a disease continuum. The term "adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia" (ALSP) has been proposed to encompass this spectrum. As CSF1R regulates microglia this mutation implies that dysregulation of microglia is the primary cause of the disease.

  20. Moderate-Heavy Alcohol Consumption Lifestyle in Older Adults Is Associated with Altered Central Executive Network Community Structure during Cognitive Task.

    PubMed

    Mayhugh, Rhiannon E; Moussa, Malaak N; Simpson, Sean L; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Porrino, Linda J; Laurienti, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65-80 years) that consumed light (< 2 drinks/week and ≥ 1 drink/month, n = 20) or moderate-heavy (7-21 drinks/week, non-bingers, n = 21) amounts of alcohol were enrolled. Twenty-two young adults (24-35 years) were also enrolled (light, n = 11 and moderate-heavy, n = 11). Functional brain networks based on magnetic resonance imaging data were generated for resting state and during a working memory task. Whole-brain, Central Executive Network (CEN), and Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity were assessed in light and moderate-heavy alcohol consuming older adults with comparisons to young adults. The older adults had significantly lower whole brain connectivity (global efficiency) and lower regional connectivity (community structure) in the CEN during task and in the DMN at rest. Moderate-heavy older drinkers did not exhibit whole brain connectivity differences compared to the low drinkers. However, decreased CEN connectivity was observed during the task. There were no differences in the DMN connectivity between drinking groups. Taken together, a lifestyle including moderate-heavy alcohol consumption may be associated with further decreases in brain network connectivity within task-related networks in older adults. Further research is required to determine if this decrease is compensatory or an early sign of decline. PMID:27494180