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Sample records for adult oriental fruit

  1. Dietary wheat germ oil and age influences fatty acid compositions in adult oriental fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterile Insect Technique programs have been developed for management of several tephritid fruit fly pests. These programs are based on continous production of adult fruit flies. The high expense of mass-rearing oriental fruit flies drive research to improve the cost effectiveness of rearing programs...

  2. Pupal x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We did protein analysis using 1-12-d-old adults from irradiated and non-irradiated oriental fruit fly pupae. We found that exposing pupae to x-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 30 proteins in adult males. There were 7 proteins (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd...

  3. Seasonal and cultivar-associated variation in oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults and feeding behavior of neonate larvae in apples.

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-04-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early twentieth century. Oriental fruit moth has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the eastern United States were rare until the late 1990s. Recent outbreaks in Mid-Atlantic apple orchards have lead researchers to investigate host-associated effects on oriental fruit moth biology, behavior, and population dynamics. Studies were designed to assess cultivar level effects in apples on oviposition and larval feeding behavior of oriental fruit moth. In a mixed cultivar apple orchard, total oriental fruit moth oviposition and oviposition site preferences varied between cultivars. These preferences also varied over time, when sampling was repeated at various times of the growing season. Although most adult female oriental fruit moth preferentially oviposited in the calyx and stem areas of apple fruit, noticeable numbers of eggs also were laid on the sides of fruit, contradicting some previous reports. Oriental fruit moth females exhibited a strong ovipositional preference for fruit that were previously damaged by oriental fruit moth or codling moth, Cydia ponmonella (L.). The majority of newly hatched oriental fruit moth larvae were observed to spend <24 h on the surface of apple fruit before entry, and this behavior was observed on several apple cultivars. Neonate larvae exhibited a preference for entering fruit at either the stem or calyx ends, regardless of their initial site of placement. Our findings underscore the importance of adequate spray coverage and accurate timing of insecticide applications targeting oriental fruit moth.

  4. Pupal X-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Villalun, MaryAnn; Geib, Scott M; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Stanley, David

    2015-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a pest of fruit in the Asia-Pacific region and also, due to quarantine restrictions, a threat to California fruit production. Area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis integrated several approaches including the sterile insect technique (SIT). SIT involves exposing juveniles to gamma radiation and releasing sterile males in substantial numbers, where they successfully compete for wild females. The resulting infertile eggs lead to reduction of the pest populations. Although these protocols are well documented, arising issues about the international transport and distribution of radioactive products is creating difficulties in use of radioactive sources for sterilizing radiation. This led to a shift toward use of X-ray irradiation, which also sterilizes male and female insects. However, use of X-ray technologies is in its infancy and there is virtually no information on the effects of irradiation, other than sterilization, at the physiological and molecular levels of fruit fly biology. We posed the hypothesis that sterilizing male oriental fruit flies via radiation treatment also influences protein expression in the flies. We found that exposing pupae to X-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 31 proteins in adult males. Seven proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, larval cuticle protein 2, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein alpha-B and A chains, general odorant-binding protein 99b, polyubiquitin, and protein disulfide-isomerase) were impacted in both sexes. Some of the proteins act in central energy-generating and in pheromone-signal processing pathways; we infer that males sterilized by X-ray irradiation may be enfeebled in their ability to compete with wild males for females in nature.

  5. A Single Hot Event Stimulates Adult Performance but Reduces Egg Survival in the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholitha molesta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures). These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h) of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming. PMID:25551751

  6. Larval dietary wheat germ oil influences age-specific protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in essential dietary components alter global gene expression patterns in animals. We reported on a proteomics study designed to identify molecular markers of deficiencies in culture media developed for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. In that study, we found significant changes i...

  7. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  8. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  9. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  10. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  11. Antimicrobial peptide gene cecropin-2 and defensin respond to peptidoglycan infection in the female adult of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Huo; Wei, Dong; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Cecropins and defensins are important antimicrobial peptides in insects and are inducible after injection of immune triggers. In this study, we cloned the cDNAs of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin-2 (BdCec-2) and defensin (BdDef) from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest causing great economic losses to fruits and vegetables. The BdCec-2 sequence of 192bp encodes a protein of 63 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular weight of 6.78kD. The 282bp cDNA of BdDef encodes a protein of 93 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 9.81kD. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that BdCec-2 and BdDef had similar expression profiles among development stages, the highest mRNA levels of these two AMP genes were observed in the adult stage. Among different adult body segments and tissues, both genes had similar transcriptional profiles, the highest mRNA levels appeared in abdomen and fat body, which was consistent with the reported fact that fat body was the main organ synthesizing AMPs in insects. The expression of BdCec-2 and BdDef were up-regulated after challenge with peptidoglycans from Escherichia coli (PGN-EB) and Staphylococcus aureus (PGN-SA), respectively, suggesting their antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms. These results describe for the first time the basic properties of the cecropin-2 and defensin genes from B. dorsalis that probably play an important role in the defense response against invading microbes.

  12. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Bo; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jia, Fu-Xian; Hu, Fei; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most economically important pests in the world, causing serious damage to fruit production. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its development and its ability to resist insecticides. Analysis of the B. dorsalis transcriptome and its expression profile data is essential to extending the genetic information resources on this species, providing a shortcut that will support studies on B. dorsalis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using short read sequencing technology (Illumina). The results generated 484,628 contigs, 70,640 scaffolds, and 49,804 unigenes. Of those unigenes, 27,455 (55.13%) matched known proteins in the NCBI database, as determined by BLAST search. Clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene orthology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations were performed to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Genes related to insecticide resistance were analyzed in additional detail. Digital gene expression (DGE) libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (eggs, third-instar larvae, pupae, and adults). To confirm the DGE results, the expression profiles of six randomly selected genes were analyzed. Conclusion/Significance This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of B. dorsalis and makes a huge number of gene sequences available for further study, including both genes of known importance and genes of unknown function. The DGE data provide comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different developmental stages. This facilitates the study of the role of each gene in the developmental process and in insecticide resistance. PMID:22195006

  14. Adults with Dyslexia Demonstrate Attentional Orienting Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Judy; Davies, Anne Aimola

    2008-01-01

    Alerting, orienting and executive control of attention are investigated in five adult cases of dyslexia. In comparison with a control group, alerting and executive control were found to be generally intact for each case. Two spatial cueing tasks were employed. For the task requiring target detection, orienting difficulties were evident only in…

  15. Classical Olfactory Conditioning in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning. PMID:25837420

  16. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia Li; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  17. Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Kadell, Andria R.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed. PMID:23769545

  18. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  19. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  20. Cultural Orientation. Young Adult Curriculum: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    The cultural orientation curriculum for young adults in the International Catholic Migration Commission's Philippine Refugee Processing Center is discussed and outlined. The program's goals for emotional and character development (self-awareness and self-esteem, cultural awareness, pro-activity, personal responsibility), knowledge of cultural…

  1. Effects of orchard host plants on the oviposition preference of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has emerged as a major problem on apples (Malus spp.) grown in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern United States, despite its historically important and frequent occurrence as a peach (Prunus spp.) pest. It is possible that host-driven biological phenomena may be contributing to changes in G. molesta population dynamics resulting in outbreaks in apple. Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oviposition behavior, in an effort to clarify the host association status of eastern U.S. populations and also to gain insight into how pest modeling and management efforts may be altered to take into account various host-associated effects. G. molesta adults exhibited ovipositional preference for nonbearing peach trees over nonbearing apple trees in close-range choice tests conducted in the field, regardless of the larval host origin. A significant preference for peach shoots over apple shoots was observed on six of 12 sampling dates with a wild G. molesta population at the interface of adjacent peach and apple blocks. Numbers of eggs found on apple fruit were higher after peach fruit were harvested and apple fruit began to approach maturity (during the flight period for third and fourth brood adults). Possible implications for population modeling and integrated management of G. molesta are discussed.

  2. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  3. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  4. Evolution of olfactory receptor in oriental fruit fly Dacus dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Esther R.; Mitchell, W. C.; Lee, Lena W. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Male oriental fruit flies (Dacus dorsalis) from colonies in Taiwan and Hawaii were evaluated for limit of response to various analogues of methyl eugenol. The results are interpreted in terms of the geometry and allosteric requirements of the antennal receptor that triggers the characteristic methyl eugenol reflex. This receptor has evolved for complementarity to all portions of the methyl eugenol molecule and responds only to ortho-substituted benzenes with adjacent oxygen atoms or isoelectronic equivalents. Substantial differences in responses of Taiwan and Hawaiian D. dorsalis suggest that perceptible evolution of the receptor protein has occurred during the past 50 years. A plausible scheme for the coevolution of dacini flies with plants containing phenylpropionoid essential oils is outlined. Images PMID:16592640

  5. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  6. Potential application of digital image-processing method and fitted logistic model to the control of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z G; Rong, E H; Li, S C; Zhang, L J; Zhang, Z W; Guo, Y Q; Ma, R Y

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck) is a prerequisite for its control. This study introduced a digital image-processing method and logistic model for the control of oriental fruit moths. First, five triangular sex pheromone traps were installed separately within each area of 667 m2 in a peach orchard to monitor oriental fruit moths consecutively for 3 years. Next, full view images of oriental fruit moths were collected via a digital camera and then subjected to graying, separation and morphological analysis for automatic counting using MATLAB software. Afterwards, the results of automatic counting were used for fitting a logistic model to forecast the control threshold and key control period. There was a high consistency between automatic counting and manual counting (0.99, P < 0.05). According to the logistic model, oriental fruit moths had four occurrence peaks during a year, with a time-lag of 15-18 days between adult occurrence peak and the larval damage peak. Additionally, the key control period was from 28 June to 3 July each year, when the wormy fruit rate reached up to 5% and the trapping volume was approximately 10.2 per day per trap. Additionally, the key control period for the overwintering generation was 25 April. This study provides an automatic counting method and fitted logistic model with a great potential for application to the control of oriental fruit moths.

  7. Photosynthetically active radiation and carbon gain drives the southern orientation of Myrtillocactus geometrizans fruits.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Bautista, A; Valverde, P L; Flores, J; Zavala-Hurtado, A; Vite, F; López-Ortega, G; Pérez-Hernández, M A

    2017-03-01

    The equatorial orientation of reproductive structures is known in some columnar cacti from extratropical deserts. It has been hypothesised that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception is the main reason for this orientation, because of its key effect on nocturnal CO2 uptake. However, there are no studies addressing both the effect of PAR and its consequence, carbon gain, on fruit orientation. Accordingly, we tested whether PAR and carbon gain could explain the southern fruit orientation of Myrtillocactus geometrizans, an inter-tropical columnar cactus. We studied three populations of M. geometrizans in Mexico. For each population, azimuth of fruits, total daily PAR, nocturnal acid accumulation (NAA) and fruit production were measured. The relationships between rib orientation and number of fruits, as well as total daily PAR, were evaluated using periodic regressions. The effect of total daily PAR and NAA on number of fruits was assessed using generalised linear models. During spring, mean fruit orientation had a south azimuth for three populations. Likewise, rib orientation had a significant effect on fruit production, with the south-facing ribs having the maximum number of fruits. Total daily PAR was highest in the south-facing ribs, at least for those in the northern and central populations. Furthermore, during spring, there was a significant positive effect of total daily PAR and NAA on fruit production. Our results provide strong evidence that the higher carbon gain in equatorial ribs, through a highest interception of PAR, would be the responsible factor for equatorial orientation of fruits in an inter-tropical columnar cactus.

  8. Discovery of Chemosensory Genes in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhengbing; Bin, Shuying; He, Hualiang; Lin, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a devastating fruit fly pest in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Like other insects, this fly uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its environment. However, our understanding of the molecular components comprising B. dorsalis chemosensory system is limited. Using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of four B. dorsalis developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult chemosensory tissues. A total of 31 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 4 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 23 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 11 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs), 6 candidate gustatory receptors (GRs) and 3 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) were identified. The tissue distributions of the OBP and CSP transcripts were determined by RT-PCR and a subset of nine genes were further characterized. The predicted proteins from these genes shared high sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs). Interestingly, one OBP (BdorOBP19c) was exclusively expressed in the sex pheromone glands of mature females. RT-PCR was also used to compare the expression of the candidate genes in the antennae of male and female B. dorsalis adults. These antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs could play a role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants and thus could be useful target genes for the integrated pest management of B. dorsalis and other agricultural pests. PMID:26070069

  9. Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Odorant Binding Proteins in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Peng, Wei; Zhu, Chipan; Zhang, Qun; Saccone, Giuseppe; Zhang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna) of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10) are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies. PMID:23867609

  10. Mexican Fruit Fly Populations in the Semi-Arid Highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vanoye-Eligio, V; Mora-Olivo, A; Gaona-García, G; Reyes-Zepeda, F; Rocandio-Rodríguez, M

    2017-01-04

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most important pests of citrus in Mexico. We report the results of an analysis of A. ludens populations that inhabit the semi-arid highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in northeastern Mexico. This study aimed to provide information on population fluctuation of A. ludens and how it relates to climate variables, as well as insights into habitat and native parasitoids. Population peaked in the period July-November when ripe fruits of the wild host, Casimiroa pubescens Ramírez, were available. No adults were captured the rest of the year, suggesting that high populations depend on the availability of wild host fruit. No significant relationships between population fluctuation and climatic variables were observed, except for minimum temperature. Fruit samples of citron (Citrus medica L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and C. pubescens were collected to determine degree of infestation. Infestation levels (pupae/g) ranged between 0.0006 for citron, 0.0047 for pomegranate, and 0.0240 for C. pubescens. A native parasitoid of Tephritidae, Doryctobracon crawfordii (Viereck) (Braconidae), was identified. Parasitism percentage was calculated at 12.5% on C. pubescens fruits. No parasitoids were observed on citron or pomegranate fruit samples. These results contribute to knowledge on behavior of A. ludens native to temperate environments where no commercial hosts are available. Further research on host expansion of this pest in light of scenarios of global climate change is suggested.

  11. BdorOBP83a-2 Mediates Responses of the Oriental Fruit Fly to Semiochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Lin, Jintian; Zhang, He; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most destructive pests throughout tropical and subtropical regions in Asia. This insect displays remarkable changes during different developmental phases in olfactory behavior between sexually immature and mated adults. The olfactory behavioral changes provide clues to examine physiological and molecular bases of olfactory perception in this insect. We comparatively analyzed behavioral and neuronal responses of B. dorsalis adults to attractant semiochemicals, and the expression profiles of antenna chemosensory genes. We found that some odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) were upregulated in mated adults in association with their behavioral and neuronal responses. Ligand-binding assays further showed that one of OBP83a orthologs, BdorOBP83a-2, binds with high affinity to attractant semiochemicals. Functional analyses confirmed that the reduction in BdorOBP83a-2 transcript abundance led to a decrease in neuronal and behavioral responses to selected attractants. This study suggests that BdorOBP83a-2 mediates behavioral responses to attractant semiochemicals and could be a potential efficient target for pest control. PMID:27761116

  12. Identification of Male- and Female-Specific Olfaction Genes in Antennae of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, endemic to Southeast Asia but also introduced to many regions of the US, and it is one of the major pest species with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. Although males of B. dorsalis respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations, the molecular mechanism of the oriental fruit fly olfaction has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this project, using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of the antennae of male and female adults of B. dorsalis. We identified a total of 20 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 5 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 35 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 12 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 4 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sex-specific expression of these genes was determined and a subset of 9 OR genes was further characterized by qPCR with male and female antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing samples. In the male antennae, 595 genes showed a higher expression, while 128 genes demonstrated a higher expression in the female antennae. Interestingly, 2 ORs (BdorOR13 and BdorOR14) were highly and specifically expressed in the antennae of males, and 4 ORs (BdorOR13, BdorOR16, BdorOR18 and BdorOR35) clustered with DmOR677, suggesting pheromone reception. We believe this study with these antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs can play an important role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants, and so in turn our data improve our current understanding of insect olfaction at the molecular level and provide important information for disrupting the behavior of the oriental fruit fly using chemical communication methods. PMID:26845547

  13. Identification of Male- and Female-Specific Olfaction Genes in Antennae of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Smagghe, Guy; Lei, Zhongren; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, endemic to Southeast Asia but also introduced to many regions of the US, and it is one of the major pest species with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. Although males of B. dorsalis respond strongly to methyl eugenol and this is used for monitoring and estimating populations, the molecular mechanism of the oriental fruit fly olfaction has not been elucidated yet. Therefore, in this project, using next generation sequencing technologies, we sequenced the transcriptome of the antennae of male and female adults of B. dorsalis. We identified a total of 20 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 5 candidate chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 35 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), 12 candidate ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 4 candidate sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sex-specific expression of these genes was determined and a subset of 9 OR genes was further characterized by qPCR with male and female antenna, head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing samples. In the male antennae, 595 genes showed a higher expression, while 128 genes demonstrated a higher expression in the female antennae. Interestingly, 2 ORs (BdorOR13 and BdorOR14) were highly and specifically expressed in the antennae of males, and 4 ORs (BdorOR13, BdorOR16, BdorOR18 and BdorOR35) clustered with DmOR677, suggesting pheromone reception. We believe this study with these antennae-enriched OBPs, CSPs, ORs, IRs and SNMPs can play an important role in the detection of pheromones and general odorants, and so in turn our data improve our current understanding of insect olfaction at the molecular level and provide important information for disrupting the behavior of the oriental fruit fly using chemical communication methods.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of the oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ah-Young; Kim, Yong-Min; Koo, Namjin; Lee, Su Min; Nahm, Seokhyeon

    2017-01-01

    Background The oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of the most important cultivated cucurbits grown widely in Korea, Japan, and northern China. It is cultivated because its fruit has a sweet aromatic flavor and is rich in soluble sugars, organic acids, minerals, and vitamins. In order to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of the developmental changes that determine size, color, and sugar contents of the fruit, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to analyze the genes expressed during fruit development. Results We identified a total of 47,666 of representative loci from 100,875 transcripts and functionally annotated 33,963 of the loci based on orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among those loci, we identified 5,173 differentially expressed genes, which were classified into 14 clusters base on the modulation of their expression patterns. The expression patterns suggested that the differentially expressed genes were related to fruit development and maturation through diverse metabolic pathways. Analyses based on gene set enrichment and the pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes suggested that the expression of genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism and carotenoid biosynthesis were regulated dynamically during fruit development and subsequent maturation. Conclusion Our results provide the gene expression patterns related to different stages of fruit development and maturation in the oriental melon. The expression patterns give clues about important regulatory mechanisms, especially those involving starch, sugar, and carotenoid biosynthesis, in the development of the oriental melon fruit. PMID:28070461

  15. Sexual Orientation of Adult Sons of Gay Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, J. Michael; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the sexual orientation of 82 adult sons of 55 gay men. Found that more than 90% of the sons whose sexual orientation could be rated were heterosexual. Gay and heterosexual sons did not differ on potentially relevant variables such as length of time they had lived with their fathers. (MDM)

  16. Identification of Putative Olfactory Genes from the Oriental Fruit Moth Grapholita molesta via an Antennal Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, is an extremely important oligophagous pest species of stone and pome fruits throughout the world. As a host-switching species, adult moths, especially females, depend on olfactory cues to a large extent in locating host plants, finding mates, and selecting oviposition sites. The identification of olfactory genes can facilitate investigation on mechanisms for chemical communications. Methodology/Principal Finding We generated transcriptome of female antennae of G.molesta using the next-generation sequencing technique, and assembled transcripts from RNA-seq reads using Trinity, SOAPdenovo-trans and Abyss-trans assemblers. We identified 124 putative olfactory genes. Among the identified olfactory genes, 118 were novel to this species, including 28 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins, 17 chemosensory proteins, 48 odorant receptors, four gustatory receptors, 24 ionotropic receptors, two sensory neuron membrane proteins, and one odor degrading enzyme. The identified genes were further confirmed through semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR for transcripts coding for 26 OBPs and 17 CSPs. OBP transcripts showed an obvious antenna bias, whereas CSP transcripts were detected in different tissues. Conclusion Antennal transcriptome data derived from the oriental fruit moth constituted an abundant molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of the species. This study provides a foundation for future research on the molecules involved in olfactory recognition of this insect pest, and in particular, the feasibility of using semiochemicals to control this pest. PMID:26540284

  17. Mechanically induced orientation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, J.-L.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present study describes the spatial orientation of a population of freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes using a computerized mechanical cell stimulator device for tissue cultured cells. A continuous unidirectional stretch of the substratum at 60 to 400 microns/min for 120 to 30 min, respectively, during the cell attachment period in a serum-free medium was found to induce a significant threefold increase in the number of rod-shaped myocytes oriented parallel to the direction of movement. The myocytes orient less well with unidirectional substratum stretching after their adhesion to the substratum. Adult myocytes plated onto a substratum undergoing continuous 10-percent stretch-relaxation cycling show no significant change in the myocyte orientation or cytoskeletal organization. In addition to the type of mechanical activity, orientation of rod-shaped myocytes is dependent on the speed of the substratum, the final stretch amplitude, and the timing between initiation of substratum stretching and adhesion of myocytes to the substratum.

  18. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  19. Post-floral Erection of Stalks Provides Insight into the Evolution of Fruit Orientation and Its Effects on Seed Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yang; Zhou, Zhuo; Sha, Wen; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    That stalks reorient after flowering to face upwards is a common phenomenon in many flowering plants, indicating the potential importance of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. But this idea has not been subject to an empirical test. We examined this hypothesis by analysing the evolutionary correlation between fruit orientation and other characters and by investigating the effects of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. We found that 1) in a sub-alpine plant community, upward fruit orientation strongly correlates with fruits that act as seed containers, which are often of dry type and are dispersed by non-animal vectors; 2) as exemplified by the Campanulaceae s. str., fruit orientation strongly correlates with dehiscence position. Upwardly-oriented capsules dehisce at the apex, whereas pendent ones dehisce at the base, in both cases ensuring that seeds are released from an upright position; 3) in manipulation experiments on Silene chungtienensis, upward fruits (the natural state) exhibit much greater dispersal distances and more dispersive pattern than pendent ones, and have a more even distribution of dispersal direction than horizontal ones. Our results suggest that fruit orientation may have important function in seed dispersal, which may be the reason why the phenomenon that stalk erection after flowering occurs widely. PMID:26832830

  20. Nutrition education effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Meredith G; Rhee, Yeong; Honrath, Kerrie; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Terbizan, Donna

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on weight and decreased risk for chronic disease, Americans' intake of fruits and vegetables is well below the recommended daily servings. While previous studies have assessed fruit and vegetable consumption and the influence of educational interventions on fruit and vegetable intake, no studies to date have examined the effects of nutrition education combined with provision of fruits and vegetables on changes in fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fruit and vegetable consumption patterns, including intake of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, provide education about benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables, expose participants to different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and improve fruit and vegetable consumption. Fifty-four adults (19 men/35 women; 44.7 ± 12.1 y) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. The control group received no intervention, the education group attended weekly nutrition lessons focused on benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the fruit and vegetable group attended weekly nutrition lessons and received one serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables per day for 10 weeks. Intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires and three-day food records. Findings suggested that while the majority of participants failed to consume the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables per day, nutrition education was helpful in improving the consumption frequency of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables among overweight and obese adults.

  1. Early Childhood Education and Adult-Oriented Advertising Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constandinidou-Semoglou, Ourania

    2007-01-01

    Much of the advertising content children see is adult-oriented. However, research has focused on commercials designed for child audiences. Also, whether advertising is commercially successful or not, it constitutes a "form of acculturation". However, research is mainly focused on perception of the commercial dimension of advertising, and…

  2. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth.

  3. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorter, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    In their qualitative study, Young and colleagues (2009) found that youth and adults with cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, and acquired brain injuries of childhood in the province of Ontario, Canada, perceive or have perceived their transfer from pediatric to adult-oriented health care services as a struggle. Although publications on transition…

  4. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nancy L.; Barden, Wendy S.; Mills, Wendy A.; Burke, Tricia A.; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain…

  5. Temporal Consequences, Message Framing, and Consideration of Future Consequences: Persuasion Effects on Adult Fruit Intake Intention and Resolve.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Budding, Jeen

    2016-08-01

    Message framing is a persuasive strategy that has seen mixed evidence for promoting fruit intake intentions, potentially because framed messages for fruit intake have not (a) explicitly compared short-term consequences versus long-term consequences, (b) considered individual-level differences in time perspective, and (c) used alternative measures of fruit intake intentions. In the present online study, the effects of persuasive messages created from temporal context (short term vs. long term) and message frame (gain framed vs. loss framed) were investigated on fruit intake intentions and resolve among a sample of Dutch adults who were categorized as either present oriented or future oriented. For intention and resolve, results showed a significant Type of Frame × Type of Temporal Context interaction, such that gain-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with long-term consequences and loss-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with short-term consequences. The effect sizes for these differences were similar for resolve and intention, but only differences for intentions were significant. No other effects were found. These results demonstrate that message framing theory may usefully consider the inclusion of temporal context of outcomes and alternative motivation measures to maximize their persuasive effects.

  6. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  7. A Systems Approach to Mitigate Oriental Fruit Fly Risk in ‘Sharwil’ Avocados Exported From Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocados, Persea americana Miller, grown in Hawaii cannot be exported to the United States mainland without quarantine treatment for melon fly, oriental fruit fly, and Mediterranean fruit fly. The most widely grown cultivar of avocado in Hawaii is ‘Sharwil’. ‘Sharwil’, like other avocado varieties, ...

  8. Sexual Orientation Discordance and Young Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lourie, Michael A; Needham, Belinda L

    2016-08-01

    During the course of sexual development, many people experience dissonance between dimensions of sexual orientation, including attraction, behavior, and identity. This study assesses the relationship between sexual orientation discordance and mental health. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,915; female = 54.62 %; non-Hispanic black = 18.83 %, Hispanic = 14.91 %, other race (non-white) = 10.79 %). Multivariable linear regression evaluated the correlation between sexual orientation discordance and perceived stress and depressive symptomatology. Models were stratified by sex and sexual identity. Among self-identified heterosexual females and mostly heterosexual males, sexual orientation discordance predicted significantly increased depressive symptomatology. No other subpopulation demonstrated a significant correlation between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology or perceived stress. The association between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology suggests a link between sexuality, self-concept, and mental health.

  9. Do nymphs and adults of three Neotropical zoophytophagous mirids damage leaves and fruits of tomato?

    PubMed

    Silva, D B; Bueno, V H P; Calvo, F J; van Lenteren, J C

    2017-04-01

    The predators Macrolophus basicornis (Stal), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho) consume large numbers of tomato pests such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). However, they are zoophytophagous and feed on plant parts as well. We evaluated the type and effect of injury caused by nymphs and adults of these mirids on tomato seedlings and fruit in the absence of prey. For each mirid species, seedlings were exposed to groups of 20 nymphs or adults for 72 h, and fruits were exposed for 48 h to groups of four nymphs or adults. Type and the number of injury on stems, petioles and leaflets of tomato seedlings and fruits were recorded after removal of insects. Nymphs and adults of these mirids caused necrotic rings on the leaflets, but no injury was observed on stem and petioles. The necrotic rings on leaflets consisted of blemishes, characterized by feeding punctures surrounded by a yellowish, bleached area. The number of necrotic rings did not exceed one per individual mirid and seedlings developed normally. Nymphs also caused feeding punctures on tomato fruit, but in even lower numbers than on leaflets. Two weeks after the start of the experiment the tomato fruit still looked fresh and feeding punctures had disappeared. Adults did not cause any injury to tomato fruit. The results indicate that nymphs and adults of these zoophytophagous mirids cause little injury to tomato seedlings and fruit, even when present in high densities and in the absence of prey, making them interesting candidates for biological control.

  10. California Adults Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption from 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugerman, Sharon; Foerster, Susan B.; Gregson, Jennifer; Linares, Amanda; Hudes, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption among California adults significantly increased from 1997-2007. Design: Biennial telephone surveillance surveys of California adults' dietary practices. Participants: California adults (n = 9,105 total all 6 surveys). Intervention: Surveillance data reporting. Main Outcome Measures:…

  11. Factors influencing aversive learning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, J L; Chen, H L; Chen, X Y; Cui, R K; Guerrero, A; Zeng, X N

    2017-01-01

    Parameters such as the intensity of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, the inter-trial interval, and starvation time can influence learning. In this study, the parameters that govern aversive learning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, a serious pest of fruits and vegetables, were examined. Male flies were trained to associate the attractive odorant methyl eugenol, a male lure, with a food punishment, sodium chloride solution, and the conditioned suppression of the proboscis-extension response was investigated. We found that high methyl eugenol concentrations support a stronger association. With increasing concentrations of sodium chloride solution, a steady decrease of proboscis-extension response during six training trials was observed. A high level of learning was achieved with an inter-trial interval of 1-10 min. However, extending the inter-trial interval to 15 min led to reduced learning. No effect of physiological status (starvation time) on learning performance was detected, nor was any non-associative learning effect induced by the repeat presentation of odor or punishment alone. The memory formed after six training trials could be retained for at least 3 h. Our results indicate that aversive learning by oriental fruit flies can be affected by odor, punishment concentration and inter-trial interval.

  12. Thermal death kinetics of Mediterranean, Malaysian, melon, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and third instars.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, John W; Tang, Juming; Wang, Shaojin

    2009-04-01

    The late-aged egg and third-instar life stages of laboratory-reared Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel); Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett; and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), (Diptera: Tephritidae); and the third instars of wild Mediterranean fruit fly were exposed to thermal treatments. A heating block system was used to determine the thermal death kinetics of the four fruit fly species. Treatments consisted of heating the fruit fly life stages to 44, 46, 48, and 50 degrees C and holding for different times ranging from 0 to 120 min depending on the thermal mortality response and time required to obtain 100% mortality for each species and life stage. The 0.5-order kinetic model had the best fit to the survival ratio for all the treatment temperatures and was used to predict lethal times. The thermal death time (TDT) curves showed a tolerance order of Mediterranean fruit fly eggs < or = third instars at 44, 46, and 50 degrees C, third instars < or = eggs at 48 degrees C, and wild third instars < the laboratory-reared third instars. Comparison between Mediterranean fruit fly third instar thermotolerance from Hawaii and Israel showed that Israel Mediterranean fruit fly was more thermotolerant. A comparison of minimum treatment times at a given temperature required to obtain 100% mortality of laboratory-reared Malaysian, Mediterranean (Hawaii and Israel strains), melon, Mexican, and oriental fruit fly eggs or third instars and wild Mediterranean fruit fly (Hawaii strain) eggs or third instars showed that oriental fruit fly was the most thermotolerant among the third instars, and the difference in heat tolerance between third instars and eggs was negligible at 50 degrees C.

  13. Moon orientation in adult and young sandhoppers under artificial light.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Alberto; Boddi, Vieri; Mercatelli, Luca; Castellini, Carlo

    2005-10-22

    Our experiments, carried out at night and during the day on adults and laboratory-born young of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator, deal with the identification and use of the moon as an orientating factor. Sandhoppers were released in an apparatus (a Plexiglas dome) that produced a scenario similar to the natural one (with artificial sky, moon or sun illuminated at different intensities). When tested at night, the adult and young sandhoppers used the artificial moon like the natural one, independently of the intensity of illumination of the artificial sky and moon. In other words, sandhoppers tested at night always identified the artificial moon as the moon and never as the sun. In daytime releases, the seaward orientation failed at low intensities of artificial sky and sun illumination (3.07 and 1.55 microW cm2, respectively), whereas the sun compass was used effectively at higher levels of artificial sun and sky illumination. The innate ability of moon compass orientation in inexpert young sandhoppers was demonstrated even under artificial light.

  14. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities.

  15. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  16. Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Jang, Eric B; Klungness, Lester M; McInnis, Donald O; Harris, Ernest B; McQuate, Grant T; Bautista, Renato C; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed.

  17. Molecular parameters and olfaction in the oriental fruit fly Dacus dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Esther R.; Mitchell, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The methyl eugenol receptor of the male oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) has been further characterized by evaluating the role of the linear free energy parameters ∏ and σ in the depolarization of the receptor by 37 substituted 3,4-dimethoxybenzenes. There was a strong positive correlation between the hydrophobic character of the primary substituent and intense odor and a positive correlation between the electron donating property of the primary substituent and intense odor. Maximum odor intensity was also associated with substituents of 3 atomic diameters and was improved by a center of unsaturation. Preference tests suggest that this simple and versatile odor receptor can serve as a model for investigation of molecular interactions between receptors and odorant molecules. PMID:16593048

  18. Structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in an agricultural ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Marco V G; Mazzi, Dominique; Hein, Silke; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-07-01

    Intercontinental trade has led to multiple introductions of invasive pest species at a global scale. Molecular analyses of the structure of populations support the understanding of ecological strategies and evolutionary patterns that promote successful biological invasions. The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita (= Cydia) molesta, is a cosmopolitan and economically destructive pest of stone and pome fruits, expanding its distribution range concomitantly with global climate warming. We used ten newly developed polymorphic microsatellite markers to examine the genetic structure of G. molesta populations in an agricultural ecosystem in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. Larvae collected in eight sampling sites were assigned to a mosaic of five populations with significant intra-regional structure. Inferred measures of gene flow within populations implicated both active dispersal, and passive dispersal associated with accidental anthropogenic displacements. Small effective population sizes, coupled with high inbreeding levels, highlighted the effect of orchard management practices on the observed patterns of genetic variation within the sampling sites. Isolation by distance did not appear to play a major role at the spatial scale considered. Our results provide new insights into the population genetics and dynamics of an invasive pest species at a regional scale.

  19. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  20. Ring-fluorinated analog of methyl eugenol: Attractiveness to and metabolism in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly attractive to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds which have both pheromonal and allomonal functions. Side-chain metabolic act...

  1. MicroRNAs in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis: extending Drosophilid miRNA clusters to the Tephritidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest species in the family Tephritidae. It is a phytophagous species with broad host range, and while not established in the mainland United States, is a species of great concern for introduction. Despite of the vast amount of informatio...

  2. The Role of Personality Traits in Young Adult Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Tamlin S.; Thompson, Laura M.; Knight, Rachel L.; Flett, Jayde A. M.; Richardson, Aimee C.; Brookie, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    This project investigated how individual differences in the big-five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) predicted plant-food consumption in young adults. A total of 1073 participants from two samples of young adults aged 17–25 reported their daily servings of fruits, vegetables, and two unhealthy foods for comparison purposes using an Internet daily diary for 21 or 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). Participants also completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measure of personality, and demographic covariates including gender, age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Analyses used hierarchical regression to predict average daily fruit and vegetable consumption as separate dependent variables from the demographic covariates (step 1) and the five personality traits (step 2). Results showed that young adults higher in openness and extraversion, and to some extent conscientiousness, ate more fruits and vegetables than their less open, less extraverted, and less conscientious peers. Neuroticism and agreeableness were unrelated to fruit and vegetable consumption. These associations were unique to eating fruit and vegetables and mostly did not extend to unhealthy foods tested. Young adult women also ate more fruit and vegetables than young adult men. Results suggest that traits associated with greater intellect, curiosity, and social engagement (openness and extraversion), and to a lesser extent, discipline (conscientiousness) are associated with greater plant-food consumption in this population. Findings reinforce the importance of personality in establishing healthy dietary habits in young adulthood that could translate into better health outcomes later in life. PMID:28223952

  3. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field.

  4. The Influence of Motivational Orientations on Academic Achievement among Working Adults in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-Ling; Pang, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of five motivational orientations in continuing education among working adults. The influence of motivational orientations on their academic achievement was identified. The study involved 159 working adults who enrolled into part-time programs in an Open University in Sabah. Boshier's Education Participation Scale…

  5. Tree-Fruit Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Robert C.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    Designed as a guide for teachers in planning and conducting young and adult farmer classes, the unit covers the basic areas of tree-fruit production. The format of the 10-lesson unit allows for the utilization of the problem-solving and discussion methods of teaching. The major objective of the unit is to develop the ability to effectively…

  6. Greater variety in fruit and vegetable intake is associated with lower inflammation in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Puerto Rican adults have prevalent metabolic abnormalities, but few studies have explored fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in this population. OBJECTIVE: Researchers tested the hypothesis that greater FV intake and variety are associated with a lower...

  7. Fruit/Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among Adults with High Cholesterol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Jing; Keenan, Nora L.; Dai, Shifan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether hypercholesterolemic adults followed healthy eating and appropriate physical activity. Methods: Using the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we measured greater than or equal to 5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day and "Healthy People 2010" recommended physical activity. Results: Of 363,667 adults…

  8. Influence of habitat pattern on orientation during host fruit location in the tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens.

    PubMed

    Brévault, T; Quilici, S

    2007-12-01

    Fruit flies have evolved mechanisms using olfactory and visual signals to find and recognize suitable host plants. The objective of the present study was to determine how habitat patterns may assist fruit flies in locating host plants and fruit. The tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens (Bezzi), was chosen as an example of a specialized fruit fly, attacking plants of the Solanaceae family. A series of experiments was conducted in an outdoor field cage wherein flies were released and captured on sticky orange and yellow spheres displayed in pairs within or above potted host or non-host plants. Bright orange spheres mimicking host fruit were significantly more attractive than yellow spheres only when placed within the canopy of host plants and not when either within non-host plants or above both types of plants. Additional experiments combining sets of host and non-host plants in the same cage, or spraying leaf extract of host plant (bug weed) on non-host plants showed that volatile cues emitted by the foliage of host plants may influence the visual response of flies in attracting mature females engaged in a searching behaviour for a laying site and in assisting them to find the host fruit. Moreover, the response was specific to mature females with a high oviposition drive because starved mature females, immature females and males showed no significant preference for orange spheres. Olfactory signals emitted by the host foliage could be an indicator of an appropriate habitat, leading flies to engage in searching for a visual image.

  9. The Reliability and Validity of Short Online Questionnaires to Measure Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults: The Fruit Test and Vegetable Test

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Steenhuyzen, Saidja; Dejaegere, Liesbet; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test over time and whether the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test are capable of measuring fruit and vegetable intake with consistency. Second, the study aimed to examine criterion (concurrent) validity of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test by testing their agreement with 7-day food diary-derived measures of fruit and vegetable intake. In total 58 adults (31% male, mean age = 30.0±12.09y) completed the Flemish Fruit and Vegetable test by indicating the frequency of days that they ate fruit and vegetables and the number of portions during the past week. Validity was tested by using a 7-day food diary as a golden standard. Adults were asked to register their fruit and vegetable intake daily in a diary during one week. Spearman correlations were measured to compare total intake reported in the Fruit and Vegetable Test and in the 7-day diary. Agreement plots were used to illustrate absolute agreement. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by having participants completing the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test twice. The Fruit Test (ICC = 0.81) and Vegetable Test (ICC = 0.78) showed excellent and substantial reliability. The Fruit Test (ρ = 0.73) and Vegetable Test showed good validity. Agreement plots showed modest variability in differences between vegetable and fruit intake as measured by the Vegetable and Fruit Test and the 7-day food diary. Also a small underestimation of fruit intake in the Fruit test and vegetable intake in the Vegetable test against the 7-day food diary was shown. Based on the results, it is suggested to include portion size pictures and consumption of mixed vegetables to prevent underestimation. To prevent overestimation, it is concluded to add a moderate number of representative fruit and vegetable items, questions on portion size, household sizes with sufficient detail and food items highly tailored to the dietary behaviors and local food items of the

  10. Associations of Outside- and Within-School Adult Support on Suicidality: Moderating Effects of Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Robert W S; Kessel Schneider, Shari; Beadnell, Blair; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2016-09-05

    This study examined sexual-orientation differences in reports of outside- and within-school adult support, and whether sexual orientation moderates the associations between adult support and suicidality (i.e., thoughts, plans, and attempts). At 26 high schools across MetroWest Boston, 22,834 students completed surveys assessing: sexual orientation (heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual, or questioning); presence of outside- and within-school adult support; and past-year suicidality. Multivariable regression analyses with General Estimating Equations (adjusting for gender, grade, and race/ethnicity) examined sexual-orientation subgroup differences in adult support, and how sexual orientation and adult support were associated with suicidality. Interaction terms tested whether relationships between adult support and suicidality were moderated by sexual orientation. Gay/lesbian, bisexual, and questioning youth were each less likely than heterosexuals to report having outside-school adult support (risk ratios range: 0.85-0.89). Each group also had greater odds than heterosexuals for suicidal thoughts (odds ratios [ORs] range: 1.86-5.33), plans (ORs range: 2.15-5.22), and attempts (ORs range: 1.98-7.90). Averaged across sexual-orientation subgroups, outside-school support was more protective against suicidality (ORs range: 0.34-0.35) than within-school support (ORs range: 0.78-0.82). However, sexual orientation moderated the protective effects of outside-school adult support, with support being less protective for bisexual and questioning youth than for heterosexuals. Adult support, and particularly outside-school adult support, is associated with lower suicidality. However, fewer gay/lesbian, bisexual, and questioning youth can rely on outside-school support and, even if present, it may be less protective against suicidality. Interventions are needed to help adults support gay/lesbian, bisexual, and questioning youth and reduce suicidality disparities. (PsycINFO Database

  11. Adults with ADHD Benefit from Cognitive-Behaviorally Oriented Group Rehabilitation: A Study of 29 Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…

  12. Characterization of a β-Adrenergic-Like Octopamine Receptor in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Min; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hong; Lu, Xue-Ping; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The biogenic amine octopamine plays a critical role in the regulation of many physiological processes in insects. Octopamine transmits its action through a set of specific G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), namely octopamine receptors. Here, we report on a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor gene (BdOctβR1) from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a destructive agricultural pest that occurs in North America and the Asia-Pacific region. As indicated by RT-qPCR, BdOctβR1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and Malpighian tubules (MT) in the adult flies, suggesting it may undertake important roles in neural signaling in the CNS as well as physiological functions in the MT of this fly. Furthermore, its ligand specificities were tested in a heterologous expression system where BdOctβR1 was expressed in HEK-293 cells. Based on cyclic AMP response assays, we found that BdOctβR1 could be activated by octopamine in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming that this receptor was functional, while tyramine and dopamine had much less potency than octopamine. Naphazoline possessed the highest agonistic activity among the tested agonists. In antagonistic assays, mianserin had the strongest activity and was followed by phentolamine and chlorpromazine. Furthermore, when the flies were kept under starvation, there was a corresponding increase in the transcript level of BdOctβR1, while high or low temperature stress could not induce significant expression changes. The above results suggest that BdOctβR1 may be involved in the regulation of feeding processes in Bactrocera dorsalis and may provide new potential insecticide leads targeting octopamine receptors. PMID:27669213

  13. Transcriptional Regulation of a Chitinase Gene by 20-Hydroxyecdysone and Starvation in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Xu, Kang-Kang; Zhang, Rui-Ying; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that are required for the degradation of glycosidic bonds of chitin. In this study, we identified and characterized a full-length cDNA of the chitinase gene (BdCht2) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1449 bp that encodes 483 amino acid residues and 126- and 296-bp non-coding regions at the 5′- and 3′-ends, respectively. The BdCht2 genome has four exons and three introns. The predicted molecular mass of the deduced BdCht2 is approximately 54.3 kDa, with an isoelectric point of 5.97. The 977 bp 5′ flanking region was identified and the transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Bioinformatic analyses showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of BdCht2 had 34%–66% identity to that of chitinases identified in other insect species. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses indicated that BdCht2 was mainly expressed during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions. The tissue-specific expression showed that the highest expression was in the integument, followed by the fat body and other tissues. Moreover, the expression of BdCht2 was upregulated significantly upon 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) at different dose injections after 8 h compared to that of the control. Starvation also increased the expression of BdCht2 in the third-instar larvae and was suppressed again by re-feeding the insects. These results suggest that BdCht2 plays an important role in the molting process of B. dorsalis larvae and can be regulated by 20E. PMID:24113584

  14. Association between perceived food environment and self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption among US adults, 2007.

    PubMed

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Oh, April Y; Moser, Richard P; Davis, Kia L; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of diets high in fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases, and self-efficacy and the food environment influence consumption of fruits and vegetables. We analyzed data from 3,021 non-Hispanic white (n = 2,187) and non-Hispanic black (n = 834) US adults who responded to National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey to assesss self-efficacy and perception of the food environment. Adults who perceived that it was easy to obtain fruits and vegetables when they ate out reported greater self-efficacy to consume fruits and vegetables than did participants who did not have this perception (odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.97). However, adults who perceived that fruits were not available at restaurants where they ate out (OR = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.50-0.86) or that other (ie, non-fast food) restaurants offered enough choices of fruits and vegetables on their menus (OR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.61-0.97) reported lower self-efficacy to consume fruits and vegetables than did participants who did not have these perceptions. Findings suggest that perceptions about availability of fruits and vegetables in restaurants are important to promote self-efficacy for consuming fruits and vegetables among adults.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a laccase gene potentially involved in proanthocyanidin polymerization in Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qianni; Luo, Chun; Zhang, Qinglin; Luo, Zhengrong

    2013-04-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs, condensed tannins) are important health-promoting phytochemicals that are abundant in many plants. Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is an excellent source of PAs because of its unique ability to accumulate large quantities of these compounds in its young fruit. There are two different spontaneous mutant phenotypes of oriental persimmons which lose their astringent taste naturally on the tree; while plants without these mutations remain rich in soluble PAs until the fruit fully ripened. The mutations are referred to as pollination-constant non-astringent genotypes named J-PCNA and C-PCNA, and are from Japan and China respectively. In this work we speculated that the loss of astringency in C-PCNA fruit is due to the soluble PAs transferred into insoluble upon polymerization, which was quite different from that of the J-PCNA. A DkLAC1 gene was isolated by the homology-based clone method. The predicted protein product of this gene showed that the DkLAC1 is a plant laccase which is phylogenetically related to the known enzyme AtLAC15 involved in the polymerization of PAs. Expression patterns of PAs biosynthetic genes associated with soluble PAs contents in three types of Oriental persimmons. Expression levels of DkLAC1 in C-PCNA type plants were linked with the reduction of soluble PAs in the flesh of the fruit. In addition the cis-elements in the DkLAC1 promoter regions indicated that the gene might also be regulated by the DkMYB4 as is seen with other well-known structural genes in Oriental persimmon. We conclude that DkLAC1 is potentially involved in PA polymerization in C-PCNA during normal ripening in C-PCNA persimmon.

  16. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in China: origin and gradual inland range expansion associated with population growth.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xuanwu; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yinghong

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, expanded throughout mainland China in the last century to become one of the most serious pests in the area, yet information on this process are fragmentary. Three mitochondrial genes (nad1, cytb and nad5) were used to infer the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the oriental fruit fly from its entire distribution range in China. High levels of genetic diversity, as well as a significant correspondence between genetic and geographic distances, suggest that the invasion process might have been gradual, with no associated genetic bottlenecks. Three population groups could be identified, nevertheless the overall genetic structure was weak. The effective number of migrants between populations, estimated using the coalescent method, suggested asymmetric gene flow from the costal region of Guangdong to most inland regions. The demographic analysis indicates the oriental fruit fly underwent a recent population expansion in the Central China. We suggest the species originated in the costal region facing the South China Sea and gradually expanded to colonize mainland China, expanding here to high population numbers.

  17. Toxicity of thiamethoxam and mixtures of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam to neonates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2012-08-01

    To assess the toxicity ofthiamethoxam and three mixtures of insecticides to oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), we added the insecticides to diet and fed it to neonates of two laboratory colonies; mortality was assessed after 96 h. Thiamethoxam was much less toxic than insecticides previously tested. Five of six analyses of the joint action of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam indicated that toxicity was not independent and not correlated. For chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, mortality was slightly lower than expected at low concentrations and greater than expected at high concentrations. For chlorantraniliprole plus esfenvalerate, mortality was less than expected at nearly all concentrations, suggesting antagonism despite the two compounds' different modes of action. For chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam, observed mortality exceeded expected mortality at low concentrations, but this trend did not continue at higher concentrations. Although the null hypothesis of independent and uncorrelated toxicity was rejected for chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid and chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam in three of four analyses, differences between observed and expected mortality were minor and inconsistent over the range of concentrations tested. We do not expect these mixtures to exhibit significant synergism or antagonism in the field. Apparent antagonism between chlorantraniliprole and esfenvalerate is particularly relevant because these insecticides (or chlorantraniliprole plus a different pyrethroid) may be used together in apples or peaches for control of oriental fruit moth and hemipteran pests. The effectiveness of each insecticide against oriental fruit moth might be reduced in such applications.

  18. Eat Smart, Live Strong intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income older adults.

    PubMed

    Hersey, James C; Cates, Sheryl C; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Kosa, Katherine M; Santiago Rivera, Olga J; Contreras, Dawn A; Long, Valerie A; Singh, Anita; Berman, Danielle A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a four-session interactive nutrition education program-Eat Smart, Live Strong (ESLS)-on the consumption of fruit and vegetables by low-income older adults. A pre-post quasi-experimental design study was conducted with a longitudinal sample of 614 low-income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants and those eligible for SNAP, aged 60 to 80 years, in 17 intervention and 16 comparison senior centers in Michigan. The study compared participants' self-reports of their consumption of fruit and vegetables using a modified version of the University of California Cooperative Extension Food Behavior Checklist. ESLS increased participants' average daily consumption of fruit by 0.2 cups (P < 0.05) and vegetables by 0.31 cups (P < 0.01). ESLS, a four-session, cognitive-behavioral nutrition education program is an effective curriculum for helping low-income older adults eat more fruit and vegetables.

  19. Adult fruit fly attraction to larvae biases experience and mediates social learning.

    PubMed

    Durisko, Zachary; Anderson, Blake; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) use cues of larvae as social information in their food patch choice decisions. Adult male and female fruit flies showed attraction to odours emanating from foraging larvae, and females preferred to lay eggs on food patches occupied by larvae over similar unoccupied patches. Females learned and subsequently preferred to lay eggs at patches with novel flavours previously associated with feeding larvae over patches with novel flavours previously associated with no larvae. However, when we controlled for the duration of exposure to each flavoured patch, females no longer preferred the flavour previously associated with feeding larvae. This suggests that social learning in this context is indirect, as a result of strong social attraction biasing experience.

  20. Decisional balance for health and weight is associated with whole-fruit intake in low-income young adults.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Tandalayo; Peters, Paula K

    2010-07-01

    Bone health, decreased risk of certain cancers, heart disease, and stroke has been associated with the consumption of fruits. These and other health benefits, such as feeling better and weight loss, have been identified as intrinsic motivators for consumers to increase their consumption of fruits. Thus, if individuals believe more could be gained than lost (decisional balance) by increasing their fruit intake, it is likely that they will consume more. However, despite fruits' positive effect on health, young adults and individuals with low incomes, limited education, or low self-efficacy consume insufficient amounts. To determine variables associated with increased fruit consumption, we hypothesized that decisional balance pros for health and weight would be associated with increased fruit consumption in young adults with low incomes. We surveyed 235 respondents between the ages of 18 and 24 years, with an annual income less than $25,000. Multiple regression analysis measured the impact of the independent variables' (i.e., age, weight satisfaction, income, education, self-efficacy, and pros and cons decisional balance) association with fruit consumption. The decisional balance pros was significantly (F = 2.189, P = .036) associated with overall fruit consumption. Respondents consumed 1.94 +/- 1.64 cups of fruit daily, with fruit juices consumed in greater amounts than any other form of fruit. Decisional balance questions relating to health (P < .05) and weight (P < .01) were significantly related to increased whole fruit intake. Results of this study suggest that decisional balance pros for health and weight can be used to predict whole-fruit consumption in low-income young adults.

  1. Female-biased attraction of Oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), to a blend of host fruit volatiles from Terminalia catappa L.

    PubMed

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Jang, Eric B

    2006-11-01

    Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., revealed 22 compounds that were detected by antennae of oriental fruit fly females, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Both solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Porapak Q were used for sampling odors in fruit headspace, with SPME collections producing larger EAD responses from a greater number of compounds. Geranyl acetate and methyl eugenol elicited the largest EAD responses. A synthetic blend containing SPME collected, EAD stimulatory compounds showed female-biased attraction in laboratory wind tunnel bioassays, but heavily male-biased trap captures in a larger olfactometer arena. A nine-component subset of compounds eliciting relatively small EAD responses (EAD minor) and consisting of equal parts ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, linalyl acetate, ethyl nonanate, nonyl acetate, ethyl cinnamate, and (E)-beta-farnesene, attracted mainly females. This EAD minor blend was as attractive to females and much less attractive to males when compared to torula yeast in field cage experiments using glass McPhail traps. Similar results were obtained with outdoor rotating olfactometer tests in which the EAD minor blend was almost completely inactive for males.

  2. Characterizing the developmental transcriptome of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) through comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster utilizing modENCODE datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops throughout Asia, and is considered a high risk pest for establishment in the mainland United States. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family ...

  3. Staff Orientation Manual for Adult Basic and Literacy Education Providers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jamie; Wilson, Monty

    This report describes how the Center for Literacy (CFL) developed a staff orientation manual for new educators (teachers and coordinators of volunteers) who work in adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) programs. Orientation needs were assessed through two questionnaires--one for educators and another for administrators at CFL and 13 literacy…

  4. Balearic adults have low intakes of fruits and vegetables compared with the dietary guidelines for adults in Spain.

    PubMed

    Salas, Rogelio; del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Zapata, Maria Elisa; Coll, Josep Lluis; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2013-03-01

    Nutrition is recognized as one of the major health determinants, and so a healthy diet may contribute to the delay or prevention of an important number of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the current food consumption habits of the Balearic Islands adult population. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (2009-2010). A random sample (n = 1388) of the adult population (16-65 years) was interviewed. Dietary habits were assessed by means of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and consumption results were compared with dietary guidelines for the Spanish population. According to the dietary guidelines for the Spanish population, only consumption levels of milk and dairy products, nuts, potatoes, cereals, bread, and water were adequate. Intakes of fruit, vegetables, olive oil, eggs, and pulses were below the recommendation levels. These findings indicate that, to fulfill the dietary guidelines for the Spanish population, the Balearic Islands adult population should decrease their consumption of meat, sugar and cakes, buns, butter/margarine, and soft drinks and increase their consumption of olive oil, fruits, vegetables, fish, and pulses.

  5. Consumers' Perspectives on Effective Orientation and Mobility Services for Diabetic Adults Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Matlock, Dwayne; Page, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The authors interviewed and videotaped diabetic adults with visual impairments about their perceptions of orientation and mobility (O&M) services that they had received. The visual impairments of these middle-aged adults ranged from totally blind to low vision. The interview questions focused on demographic information about the interviewees, the…

  6. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness.

  7. Development of sexual orientation among adolescent and young adult women.

    PubMed

    Diamond, L M

    1998-09-01

    Although some research suggests that sexual orientation is a stable, early appearing trait, interviews with 89 young sexual-minority women revealed that a majority of women failed to report at least one of the following: childhood indicators of sexual orientation, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to the conscious process of sexual questioning. Lesbians were not more likely to report these experiences than bisexuals, although they reported significantly greater same-sex attractions. Consistent with studies on older cohorts, few young women reported exclusive same-sex attractions. These findings suggest that recollected consistency among prior and current behavior, ideation, and attractions are not systematically associated with sexual orientation among contemporary young women.

  8. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangwei; Chen, Xiulin; Li, Boliao; Zhang, Guohui; Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs) within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications. Methodology/Principal Finding Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs) of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2) for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC) experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1) exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition. Conclusion Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Loneliness and Network Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Rebecca L.; Hartshorne, Timothy S.

    1996-01-01

    Data regarding history of sexual abuse, loneliness, and network orientation were gathered from 231 female university students, 24 of whom indicated a history of abuse, and from 26 female clients at 2 treatment centers. Victims of sexual abuse, especially those in treatment, were more lonely and less likely to utilize their social support system…

  10. Executive functions and consumption of fruits/ vegetables and high saturated fat foods in young adults.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Executive functions play a critical role in regulating eating behaviors and have been shown to be associated with overeating which over time can result in overweight and obesity. There has been a paucity of research examining the associations among healthy dietary behaviors and executive functions utilizing behavioral rating scales of executive functioning. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations among fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version. A total of 240 university students completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version, the 26-Item Eating Attitudes Test, and the Diet subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with two separate models in which fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat intake were the outcomes. Demographic variables, body mass index, and eating styles were controlled for in the analysis. Better initiation skills were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables in the last 7 days (standardized beta = -0.17; p < 0.05). Stronger inhibitory control was associated with less consumption of high fat foods in the last 7 days (standardized beta = 0.20; p < 0.05) in the multiple linear regression analysis. Executive functions that predict fruit and vegetable consumption are distinct from those that predict avoidance of foods high in saturated fat. Future research should investigate whether continued skill enhancement in initiation and inhibition following standard behavioral interventions improves long-term maintenance of weight loss.

  11. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-10-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable.

  12. Inferences on the population structure and colonization process of the invasive oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, N; Bonizzoni, M; Thanaphum, S; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Gugliemino, C R

    2007-09-01

    The phytophagous insects of the Tephritidae family offer different case histories of successful invasions. An example is Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, the oriental fruit fly which has been recognized as a key pest of Asia and the Pacific. It is known to have the potential to establish adventive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the genetic aspects of its invasion process have remained relatively unexplored. Using microsatellite markers we have investigated the population structure and genetic variability in 14 geographical populations across the four areas of the actual species range: Far East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Area. Results of clustering and admixture, associated with phylogenetic and migration analyses, were used to evaluate the changes in population genetic structure that this species underwent during its invasion process and establishment in the different areas. The colonization process of this fly is associated with a relatively stable population demographic structure, especially in an unfragmented habitat, rich in intensive cultivation such as in Southeast Asia. In this area, the results suggest a lively demographic history, characterized by evolutionary recent demographic expansions and no recent bottlenecks. Cases of genetic isolation attributable to geographical factors, fragmented habitats and/or fruit trade restrictions were observed in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Hawaii. Regarding the pattern of invasion, the overall genetic profile of the considered populations suggests a western orientated migration route from China to the West.

  13. Proteomics/qPCR approach on estimating physical ages of wild male oriental fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male fruit flies reared in the laboratory in DKI-PBARC rearing facility in Hilo, Hawaii, were collected and whole insects were run through standard proteomic analysis. An odorant binding protein 99b (OBP) (Bdor0907381) located at molecular weight between 9226 dalton and PI 4.56 was identified throug...

  14. Isolation and identification of host cues from mango, Mangifera indica, that attract gravid female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Pagadala D Kamala; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John; Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A

    2012-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an economically damaging, polyphagous pest of fruit crops in South-East Asia and Hawaii, and a quarantine pest in other parts of the world. The objective of our study was to identify new attractants for B. dorsalis from overripe mango fruits. Headspace samples of volatiles were collected from two cultivars of mango, 'Alphonso' and 'Chausa', and a strong positive behavioral response was observed when female B. dorsalis were exposed to these volatiles in olfactometer bioassays. Coupled GC-EAG with female B. dorsalis revealed 7 compounds from 'Alphonso' headspace and 15 compounds from 'Chausa' headspace that elicited an EAG response. The EAG-active compounds, from 'Alphonso', were identified, using GC-MS, as heptane, myrcene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, allo-ocimene, (Z)-myroxide, and γ-octalactone, with the two ocimene isomers being the dominant compounds. The EAG-active compounds from 'Chausa' were 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl butanoate, ethyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate, ethyl tiglate, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl hexanoate, 3-carene, p-cymene, ethyl sorbate, α-terpinolene, phenyl ethyl alcohol, ethyl octanoate, and benzothiazole. Individual compounds were significantly attractive when a standard dose (1 μg on filter paper) was tested in the olfactometer. Furthermore, synthetic blends with the same concentration and ratio of compounds as in the natural headspace samples were highly attractive (P < 0.001), and in a choice test, fruit flies did not show any preference for the natural samples over the synthetic blends. Results are discussed in relation to developing a lure for female B. dorsalis to bait traps with.

  15. Food prices and fruit and vegetable consumption among young American adults.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Wang, Youfa

    2009-12-01

    Multivariate negative binomial count models were estimated to examine associations between young adults' fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and the prices of FV, other food at home grocery items, and fast food and the availability of restaurants and food stores. This study used the 2002 wave of data collected from US young adults aged 18-23 years in the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged by geocode identifiers with food prices and restaurant and food store availability. The results showed that higher levels of FV consumption were associated with lower FV prices (price elasticity of -0.32) and that this own-price effect was robust to the inclusion of other food prices and food outlet availability. Lower income and lower educated young adults and those with lower educated mothers and middle-income parents were found to be most price sensitive. No statistically significant cross-price effects on FV consumption were found with other grocery food (meat, dairy and bread) prices or fast food prices. Fiscal policy instruments such as FV subsidies may help to increase FV intake, particularly among young adults of lower socioeconomic status.

  16. Fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Results Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. Conclusions The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups. PMID:23195518

  17. Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze- and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlamings, Petra H. J. M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van Son, Ilona A. M.; Mottron, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye-or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants,…

  18. Market Socialism Meets the Lost Generation: Motivational Orientations of Adult Learners in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan; Song, Qihui; Song, Lei

    2006-01-01

    In Western countries, women and men, young and old, enroll in adult education for different reasons. This is even more the case in China. This study helps Shanghai program planners better appreciate learners by understanding how motivational orientations vary as a function of gender and age. The Chinese version of the Education Participation Scale…

  19. Molecular Characteristics, mRNA Expression, and Alternative Splicing of a Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR) was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97%) to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis. PMID:24740254

  20. Adult diet affects lifespan and reproduction of the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zwaan, Bas J; Carey, James R; Brakefield, Paul M

    2008-10-01

    Fruit-feeding butterflies are among the longest lived Lepidoptera. While the use of pollen-derived amino acids by Heliconius butterflies has been interpreted as important for the evolution of extended lifespans, very little is known about the life-history consequences of frugivory. This issue is addressed by investigating effects of four adult diets (sugar, sugar with amino acids, banana, and moistened banana) on lifespan and reproduction in the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Female butterflies were collected from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and kept individually in cages near their natural habitat and data were collected on lifespan, oviposition, and hatching of eggs. Lifespan in captivity was longer for the sugar and the amino acid cohort, than for the banana cohorts. The longitudinal pattern of oviposition was erratic, with many days without oviposition and few periods with high numbers of eggs laid. Butterflies typically did not lay eggs during their 1st week in captivity and the length of the period between capture and first reproduction was significantly shorter for butterflies fed moistened banana. The length of the reproduction period (first reproduction-last reproduction in captivity) and the reproduction rate (total number of eggs/length of the reproduction period) did not differ significantly between the diet treatments. Those fed with amino acid and moistened banana had significantly higher egg hatchability than those fed with sugar and banana. We found no evidence for a lifespan cost of reproduction. Our results show that (1) female C. fulvescens can use amino acids in their diet for laying fertile eggs, (2) more wing-wear does correlate with lower survival in captivity (indicating aging in the wild), but not with intensity of reproduction (providing no evidence for reproductive aging), and (3) fruit-feeding butterflies may be dietary restricted in the field.

  1. Adult diet affects lifespan and reproduction of the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zwaan, Bas J.; Carey, James R.; Brakefield, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Fruit-feeding butterflies are among the longest lived Lepidoptera. While the use of pollen-derived amino acids by Heliconius butterflies has been interpreted as important for the evolution of extended lifespans, very little is known about the life-history consequences of frugivory. This issue is addressed by investigating effects of four adult diets (sugar, sugar with amino acids, banana, and moistened banana) on lifespan and reproduction in the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Female butterflies were collected from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and kept individually in cages near their natural habitat and data were collected on lifespan, oviposition, and hatching of eggs. Lifespan in captivity was longer for the sugar and the amino acid cohort, than for the banana cohorts. The longitudinal pattern of oviposition was erratic, with many days without oviposition and few periods with high numbers of eggs laid. Butterflies typically did not lay eggs during their 1st week in captivity and the length of the period between capture and first reproduction was significantly shorter for butterflies fed moistened banana. The length of the reproduction period (first reproduction–last reproduction in captivity) and the reproduction rate (total number of eggs/length of the reproduction period) did not differ significantly between the diet treatments. Those fed with amino acid and moistened banana had significantly higher egg hatchability than those fed with sugar and banana. We found no evidence for a lifespan cost of reproduction. Our results show that (1) female C. fulvescens can use amino acids in their diet for laying fertile eggs, (2) more wing-wear does correlate with lower survival in captivity (indicating aging in the wild), but not with intensity of reproduction (providing no evidence for reproductive aging), and (3) fruit-feeding butterflies may be dietary restricted in the field. PMID:19774093

  2. RNAi-Mediated Knock-Down of transformer and transformer 2 to Generate Male-Only Progeny in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiqing; Wu, Qiang; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Guifen; Wan, Fanghao

    2015-01-01

    The transformer (tra) gene appears to act as the genetic switch that promotes female development by interaction with the transformer2 (tra-2) gene in several dipteran species including the Medfly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we describe the isolation, expression and function of tra and tra-2 in the economically important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Bdtra and Bdtra-2 are similar to their homologs from other tephritid species. Bdtra demonstrated sex-specific transcripts: one transcript in females and two transcripts in males. In contrast, Bdtra-2 only had one transcript that was common to males and females, which was transcribed continuously in different adult tissues and developmental stages. Bdtra-2 and the female form of Bdtra were maternally inherited in eggs, whereas the male form of Bdtra was not detectable until embryos of 1 and 2 h after egg laying. Function analyses of Bdtra and Bdtra-2 indicated that both were indispensable for female development, as nearly 100% males were obtained with embryonic RNAi against either Bdtra or Bdtra-2. The fertility of these RNAi-generated males was subsequently tested. More than 80% of RNAi-generated males could mate and the mated females could lay eggs, but only 40-48.6% males gave rise to progeny. In XX-reversed males and intersex individuals, no clear female gonadal morphology was observed after dissection. These results shed light on the development of a genetic sexing system with male-only release for this agricultural pest.

  3. Role of a tachykinin-related peptide and its receptor in modulating the olfactory sensitivity in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Gui, Shun-Hua; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Xu, Li; Pei, Yu-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Insect tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), an ortholog of tachykinin in vertebrates, has been linked with regulation of diverse physiological processes, such as olfactory perception, locomotion, aggression, lipid metabolism and myotropic activity. In this study, we investigated the function of TRP (BdTRP) and its receptor (BdTRPR) in an important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. BdTRPR is a typical G-protein coupled-receptor (GPCR), and it could be activated by the putative BdTRP mature peptides with the effective concentrations (EC50) at the nanomolar range when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Consistent with its role as a neuromodulator, expression of BdTRP was detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of B. dorsalis, specifically in the local interneurons with cell bodies lateral to the antennal lobe. BdTRPR was found in the CNS, midgut and hindgut, but interestingly also in the antennae. To investigate the role of BdTRP and BdTRPR in olfaction behavior, adult flies were subjected to RNA interference, which led to a reduction in the antennal electrophysiological response and sensitivity to ethyl acetate in the Y-tube assay. Taken together, we demonstrate the impact of TRP/TRPR signaling on the modulation of the olfactory sensitivity in B. dorsalis. The result improve our understanding of olfactory processing in this agriculturally important pest insect.

  4. Substituting homemade fruit juice for sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B; Campos, Hannia

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, studies conducted on Hispanic adults are scarce. To determine the association between beverages consumed by Hispanic adults and MetS and its components, data were analyzed in 1872 Costa Rican adults who served as controls of a population-based, case-control study of coronary heart disease. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of MetS by servings (never, ≤ 1/wk; 2-6/wk, ≥ 1/d) of 2 traditional fruit-based beverages ("fresco" and freshly-squeezed homemade fruit juice, separately) and 2 SSB (instant drinks and regular sodas, separately and combined). The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was calculated for each beverage and the OR was calculated by substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice or water for one of SSB. Significant positive trends were observed for increasing servings of instant drinks with plasma TG and waist circumference and for regular soda with waist circumference (all P-trend < 0.001). Increasing servings of homemade fruit juice were positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.033). Consuming ≥1 serving/d of instant drinks was associated with a higher PR of MetS [1.42 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83)] compared with no consumption. Substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice for instant drink was associated with 29% (95% CI: 7, 47%) lower odds of MetS and for regular soda with 30% (95% CI: 1, 50%) lower odds. Substituting water for combined SSB was marginally significant (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.00). In conclusion, reducing the consumption of SSB and substituting them with homemade fruit juices in moderation may be a culturally appropriate approach to lower MetS among Hispanic adults.

  5. Evaluation of SPLAT with Spinosad and Methyl Eugenol or Cue-Lure for "Attract-and-Kill" of Oriental and Melon Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SPLAT(TM) ME (methyl eugenol) and C-L (cue-lure) “attract and kill” sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared to other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, and B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, respectively. Fie...

  6. Di- and Tri-flourinated analogs of methyl eugenol: attractiveness to and metabolism in the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly 1 attracted to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds that have both pheromonal and allomonal properties. Previously, we demonstra...

  7. Effects of adult nutrition on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly: the role of fruit decay and dietary lipids.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus; Hartstein, Steffi; Janowitz, Susann; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik

    2007-09-01

    It was generally believed that butterflies and other holometabolous insects rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction. Recent studies, however, highlight the often fundamental importance of adult nutrition to realize the full reproductive potential. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of most other adult-derived substances is only partially resolved. We here focus on the effects of dietary lipids (cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids) and fruit decay (dietary yeast, ethanol) on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). We found that banana-fed control females outperformed all other groups fed on sucrose-based diets. Lipids, yeast or ethanol added to a sugar solution did not yield a similarly high reproductive output compared to fruit-fed females. Groups fed fresh or decaying banana showed no differences in reproductive performance. As we could not identify a single pivotal substance, we conclude that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance for maximum reproductive output. Further, dietary quality may affect egg hatching success in spite of no obvious effects on egg size and number. Thus, any implications about potential fitness effects of different diets need to consider egg (and hatchling) viability in addition to fecundity.

  8. Insecticide toxicity to oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is influenced by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuying; Jin, Tao; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental factors (temperature, dose, dietary source, and feeding density) on the insecticide tolerance of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The results indicated that the toxicities of trichlorphon and abamectin to B. dorsalis increased with an increase in temperature. At 15-35 degrees C, the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin decreased with an increase in temperature at low doses (0.82 and 1.86 mg/L), but was similar at a high dose (4.18 mg/L). These results demonstrated that the temperature coefficient of beta-cypermethrin was related to both temperature and dosage. The insecticide sensitivity of B. dorsalis reared on different dietary sources was significantly different. Trichlorphon sensitivity of B. dorsalis fed on banana was the highest with an LC50 of 1.61 mg/L, followed by on apple, carambola, semiartificial diet, pear, mango, guava, orange, and papaya. With an increasing feeding density, the sensitivity of B. dorsalis adults to trichlorphon increased, while the sensitivities of B. dorsalis adults to abamectin and beta-cypermethrin decreased. The differences between LC50 values of insects reared at densities of 10 and 13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet to trichlorphon, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin were not significant. This result suggested that representative toxicity could be obtained by using adults developed at a feeding density between 10-13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet. Adult body weight was positively correlated with the LC50 value of trichlorphon, but was negatively correlated with the toxicities of abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. These results suggested that the effects of adult body weight on the toxicity of insecticides were different among different chemicals.

  9. Timing of reflexive visuospatial orienting in young, young-old, and old-old adults.

    PubMed

    Langley, Linda K; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Saville, Alyson L; Ciernia, Annie T

    2011-07-01

    This study examined adult age differences in reflexive orienting to two types of uninformative spatial cues: central arrows and peripheral onsets. In two experiments using a Posner cuing task, young adults (ages 18-28 years), young-old adults (60-74 years), and old-old adults (75-92 years) responded to targets that were preceded 100-1,000 ms earlier by a central arrow or a peripheral abrupt onset. In Experiment 1, the cue remained present upon target onset. Facilitation effects at short cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were prolonged in duration for the two older groups relative to the young adults. At longer cue-target SOAs, inhibition of return (IOR) that was initiated by peripheral onset cues was observed in the performance of young adults but not in that of the two older groups. In Experiment 2, the cue was presented briefly and removed prior to target onset. The change in cue duration minimized age differences (particularly for young-old adults) in facilitation effects and led to IOR for all three age groups. The findings are consistent with the idea that attentional control settings change with age, with higher settings for older adults leading to delayed disengagement from spatial cues.

  10. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates, amino acids and micronutrients on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    It is generally believed that butterflies (and other holometabolous insects) rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction, whereas the carbohydrate-rich adult diet is thought to mainly cover energy requirements. In at least some species though, realization of the full reproductive potential is extensively affected by post-eclosion nutrition. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of adult-derived amino acids and micronutrients is controversial and largely unknown, respectively. We here focus on the effects of different adult diets on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). Carbohydrates were the most important adult-derived nutrients affecting reproduction. Adding amino acids, vitamins or minerals to sucrose-based solutions did not yield a reproductive output equivalent to that of fruit-fed females, which showed the highest performance throughout. This suggests that either not yet identified compounds of fruit substantially contribute to reproduction, or that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance. Apart from adult income, realized fecundity depended on egg size and longevity, with the former dominating when dietary quality was low, but the latter when quality was high. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off seems to be affected by female nutrition.

  11. Executive functioning and dietary intake: Neurocognitive correlates of fruit, vegetable, and saturated fat intake in adults with obesity.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Emily P; Evans, Brittney C; Manasse, Stephanie M; Butryn, Meghan L; Forman, Evan M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue, and is associated with poor diet. Evidence suggests that eating behavior is related to individual differences in executive functioning. Poor executive functioning is associated with poorer diet (few fruits and vegetables and high saturated fat) in normal weight samples; however, the relationship between these specific dietary behaviors and executive functioning have not been investigated in adults with obesity. The current study examined the association between executive functioning and intake of saturated fat, fruits, and vegetables in an overweight/obese sample using behavioral measures of executive function and dietary recall. One-hundred-ninety overweight and obese adults completed neuropsychological assessments measuring intelligence, planning ability, and inhibitory control followed by three dietary recall assessments within a month prior to beginning a behavioral weight loss treatment program. Inhibitory control and two of the three indices of planning each independently significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption such that those with better inhibition and planning ability consumed more fruits and vegetables. No relationship was found between executive functioning and saturated fat intake. Results increase understanding of how executive functioning influences eating behavior in overweight and obese adults, and suggest the importance of including executive functioning training components in dietary interventions for those with obesity. Further research is needed to determine causality as diet and executive functioning may bidirectionally influence each other.

  12. Let them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well-being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Anitra C.; Mainvil, Louise A.; Vissers, Margreet C. M.

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the psychological benefits of a 14-day preregistered clinical intervention to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in 171 low-FV-consuming young adults (67% female, aged 18–25). Participants were randomly assigned into a diet-as-usual control condition, an ecological momentary intervention (EMI) condition involving text message reminders to increase their FV consumption plus a voucher to purchase FV, or a fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI) condition in which participants were given two additional daily servings of fresh FV to consume on top of their normal diet. Self-report outcome measures were depressive symptoms and anxiety measured pre- and post-intervention, and daily negative and positive mood, vitality, flourishing, and flourishing behaviors (curiosity, creativity, motivation) assessed nightly using a smartphone survey. Vitamin C and carotenoids were measured from blood samples pre- and post-intervention, and psychological expectancies about the benefits of FV were measured post-intervention to test as mediators of psychological change. Only participants in the FVI condition showed improvements to their psychological well-being with increases in vitality, flourishing, and motivation across the 14-days relative to the other groups. No changes were found for depressive symptoms, anxiety, or mood. Intervention benefits were not mediated by vitamin C, carotenoids, or psychological expectancies. We conclude that providing young adults with high-quality FV, rather than reminding them to eat more FV (with a voucher to purchase FV), resulted in significant short-term improvements to their psychological well-being. These results provide initial proof-of-concept that giving young adults fresh fruit and vegetables to eat can have psychological benefits even over a brief period of time. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615000183583 PMID:28158239

  13. LARVAL X-RAY IRRADIATION INFLUENCES PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN PUPAE OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA DORSALIS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Geib, Scott M; Stanley, David

    2016-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed to eradicate the new world screwworm from the southern United States and Mexico, and became a component of many area-wide integrated pest management programs, particularly useful in managing tephritid fruit flies. SIT is based on the idea of rearing and sterilizing male pests, originally by ionizing radiation, and then releasing into field, where they compete for and mate with wild females. Mating with sterile males leads to reduced fecundity to lower pest populations. There are concerns with the use and distribution of radioisotopes for SIT programs, which have led to developing X-ray irradiation protocols to sterilize insects. We considered the possibility that X-ray irradiation exerts sublethal impacts aside form sterilizing insects. Such effects may not be directly observable, which led us to the hypothesis that X-ray irradiation in one life stage creates alterations in biological fitness and protein expression in the subsequent stage. We tested our hypothesis by irradiating larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. There are two major points. One, exposing larvae to X-ray treatments led to reduced adult emergence, fecundity, fertility, and flight capacity from the corresponding pupae and emerged adults. Two, the X-ray treatments led to substantial expression changes in 27 pupal proteins. We assorted the 67 spots representing these proteins into three groups, metabolism, development, and structure. Our interpretation is these X-ray induced changes in biological performance and protein expression indicate their adult counterparts may be disabled in their abilities to successfully compete for and mate wild females in native habitats.

  14. Cystic fibrosis: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care.

    PubMed

    Kreindler, James L; Miller, Victoria A

    2013-12-11

    Survival for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) increased to nearly 40 years in 2012 from the early childhood years in the 1940s. Therefore, patients are living long enough to require transition from pediatric CF centers to adult CF centers. The goal of transition is for the young adult to be engaged in the adult health care system in ways that optimize health, maximize potential, and increase quality of life. A successful transition promotes autonomy and responsibility with respect to one's own health. Currently, there is an information gap in the literature with respect to psychological models that can help guide informed transition processes. In this review, we establish the framework in which transition exists in CF; we review some of the published literature from the last 20 years of experience with transition in CF centers around the world; and we discuss psychological models of pediatric illness that can help to explain the current state of transition to adult-oriented care from pediatric-oriented care and help to formulate new models of ascertaining readiness for transition. Finally, we look at our current knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research endeavors.

  15. Goal orientation, self-regulation strategies, and job-seeking intensity in unemployed adults.

    PubMed

    Creed, Peter A; King, Vivien; Hood, Michelle; McKenzie, Robert

    2009-05-01

    At Time 1 (T1), the authors surveyed 277 unemployed adults using measures of human capital, goal orientation, self-regulation (emotion control, motivation control, work commitment), and job-seeking intensity. At Time 2 (T2), 4 months later, 155 participants indicated their reemployment outcomes in number of job interviews and number of job offers. Using T1 data, the authors tested the predictors of job-seeking intensity and whether self-regulation mediated between goal orientation and job-seeking intensity. Using T1 and T2 data, they tested for predictors of reemployment outcomes and whether job-seeking intensity mediated the relationship between T1 antecedent variables and the reemployment outcomes. Learning goal orientation and self-regulation predicted job-seeking intensity, and self-regulation mediated between learning goal orientation and job-seeking intensity. Job-seeking intensity did not mediate the relationship among human capital, goal orientation, and self-regulation variables and reemployment outcomes.

  16. Perceived Discrimination and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Sleep Duration and Variability: The Moderating Role of Cultural Orientations.

    PubMed

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; McHale, Susan M

    2016-07-22

    Perceived ethnic discrimination is central to the experiences of Latino young adults, yet we know little about the ways in which and the conditions under which ethnic discrimination relates to Latino young adults' sleep patterns. Using a sample of 246 Mexican-origin young adults (M age  = 21.11, SD = 1.54; 50 % female), the current study investigated the longitudinal links between perceived ethnic discrimination and both sleep duration and night-to-night variability in duration, while also examining the moderating roles of Anglo and Mexican orientations in the associations. The results revealed that perceived discrimination predicted greater sleep variability, and this link was not moderated by cultural orientations. The relation between perceived discrimination and hours of sleep, however, was moderated by Anglo and Mexican orientations. Individuals with high Anglo and Mexican orientations (bicultural) and those with only high Mexican orientations (enculturated), showed no association between discrimination and hours of sleep. Individuals with low Anglo and Mexican orientations (marginalized) displayed a positive association, whereas those with high Anglo and low Mexican orientations (acculturated) displayed a negative association. The results suggest that discrimination has long term effects on sleep variability of Mexican-origin young adults, regardless of cultural orientations; however, for sleep duration, bicultural and enculturated orientations are protective.

  17. Correlated changes in circadian clocks in response to selection for faster pre-adult development in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pankaj; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Although, circadian clocks are believed to be involved in the regulation of life-history traits such as pre-adult development time and lifespan in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster, there is very little unequivocal evidence either to support or refute this. Here we report the results of a long-term study aimed at examining the role of circadian clocks in the temporal regulation of pre-adult development in D. melanogaster. We employed laboratory selection protocol for faster pre-adult development on four large, outbred, random mating populations of Drosophila. We assayed pre-adult development time and circadian period of locomotor activity rhythm of these flies at regular intervals of 5-10 generations. After 50 generations of selection, the overall egg-to-adult duration in the selected stocks was reduced by ~29 h (~12.5%) relative to controls, with the selected populations showing a concurrent reduction in time taken to hatching, pupation and wing pigmentation, by ~2, ~16, and ~25.2 h, respectively. Furthermore, selected populations showed a concomitant reduction in the circadian period of locomotor activity rhythm, implying that circadian clocks and development time are correlated. Thus, our study provides the first ever unequivocal evidence for the evolution of circadian clocks as a correlated response to selection for faster pre-adult development, suggesting that circadian clocks and development are linked in fruit flies D. melanogaster.

  18. Invasion history of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in the Pacific-Asia region: two main invasion routes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong; Zhang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, was initially recorded in Taiwan Island in 1912, and has dispersed to many areas in the Pacific-Asia region over the last century. The area of origin of the species may be confidently placed in South-East China. However, routes of range expansion to new areas and underlying population processes remain partially unclear, despite having been the subject of several studies. To explore the invasion history of this species, a partition of the cox1 gene of mitochondrial DNA was used to investigate genetic diversity, haplotype phylogeny and demographic history of 35 populations, covering China and South-East Asia and including marginal populations from Pakistan and Hawaii. Based on neighbor-joining tree analysis and the distribution of haplotypes, two main invasion routes are inferred: one from South-East China to Central China, another from South-East China to South-East Asia, with both routes probably coinciding in Central China. Populations in Taiwan Island and Hainan Island might have originated in South-East China. The marginal populations in Pakistan and Hawaii might have undergone founding events or genetic bottlenecks. Possible strategies for the control of this species are proposed based on the invasion history and reconstructed expansion routes.

  19. Fruit and vegetable intake assessed by food frequency questionnaire and plasma carotenoids: a validation study in adults.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Tracy L; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Boggess, May M; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E

    2015-05-06

    Dietary validation studies of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake should ideally include measurement of plasma biomarkers of intake. The aim was to conduct a validation study of self-reported fruit and vegetable intakes in adults, using the Australian Eating Survey (AES) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), against a range of plasma carotenoids. Dietary intakes were assessed using the semi-quantitative 120 item AES FFQ. Fasting plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene and cryptoxanthin) were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography in a sample of 38 adult volunteers (66% female). Significant positive correlations were found between FFQ and plasma carotenoids for α-carotene, β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin (52%, 47%, 26%, p < 0.001, 0.003, 0.041; respectively) and relationships between plasma carotenoids (except lycopene) and weight status metrics (BMI, waist circumference, fat mass) were negative and highly significant. The results of the current study demonstrate that carotenoid intakes as assessed by the AES FFQ are significantly related to plasma concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin, the carotenoids commonly found in fruit and vegetables. Lower levels of all plasma carotenoids, except lycopene, were found in individuals with higher BMI. We conclude that the AES can be used to measure fruit and vegetable intakes with confidence.

  20. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire and Plasma Carotenoids: A Validation Study in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Hutchesson, Melinda J.; Rollo, Megan E.; Boggess, May M.; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary validation studies of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake should ideally include measurement of plasma biomarkers of intake. The aim was to conduct a validation study of self-reported fruit and vegetable intakes in adults, using the Australian Eating Survey (AES) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), against a range of plasma carotenoids. Dietary intakes were assessed using the semi-quantitative 120 item AES FFQ. Fasting plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene and cryptoxanthin) were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography in a sample of 38 adult volunteers (66% female). Significant positive correlations were found between FFQ and plasma carotenoids for α-carotene, β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin (52%, 47%, 26%, p < 0.001, 0.003, 0.041; respectively) and relationships between plasma carotenoids (except lycopene) and weight status metrics (BMI, waist circumference, fat mass) were negative and highly significant. The results of the current study demonstrate that carotenoid intakes as assessed by the AES FFQ are significantly related to plasma concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin, the carotenoids commonly found in fruit and vegetables. Lower levels of all plasma carotenoids, except lycopene, were found in individuals with higher BMI. We conclude that the AES can be used to measure fruit and vegetable intakes with confidence. PMID:25954899

  1. Comparison of Rain-Fast Bait Stations Versus Foliar Bait Sprays for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2010-01-01

    Bait stations represent an environmentally friendly attract-and-kill approach to fruit fly population suppression. Recently a novel, visually attractive, rain-fast bait station was developed in Hawaii for potential use against multiple species of pestiferous fruit flies. Here, we compared the efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait applied either as foliar sprays or onto bait stations in reducing female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), population density and level of fruit infestation in commercial papaya orchards in Hawaii. Trapping and infestation data were used as indicators of the effectiveness of the two bait application methods. For the first 10 weeks of the study, captures of female B. dorsalis in monitoring traps were significantly greater in control plots than in plots treated with foliar sprays or bait stations. Six weeks after the first bait spray, incidence of infestation (i.e. number of fruit with one or more B. dorsalis larvae) of quarter to half-ripe papaya fruit was reduced by 71.4% and 63.1% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. Twelve weeks after first spray, incidence of infestation was reduced by only 54.5% and 45.4% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. About 42% less GF-120 was used in orchard plots with bait stations compared to those subject to foliar sprays. The impact of field sanitation on the outcome is also discussed. The results indicate that bait stations can provide a simple, efficient, and economical method of applying insecticidal baits to control fruit flies and a safer alternative to foliar sprays. PMID:21067423

  2. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly. PMID:22754363

  3. RNAi-Mediated Knock-Down of transformer and transformer 2 to Generate Male-Only Progeny in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Guifen; Wan, Fanghao

    2015-01-01

    The transformer (tra) gene appears to act as the genetic switch that promotes female development by interaction with the transformer2 (tra-2) gene in several dipteran species including the Medfly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we describe the isolation, expression and function of tra and tra-2 in the economically important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Bdtra and Bdtra-2 are similar to their homologs from other tephritid species. Bdtra demonstrated sex-specific transcripts: one transcript in females and two transcripts in males. In contrast, Bdtra-2 only had one transcript that was common to males and females, which was transcribed continuously in different adult tissues and developmental stages. Bdtra-2 and the female form of Bdtra were maternally inherited in eggs, whereas the male form of Bdtra was not detectable until embryos of 1 and 2 h after egg laying. Function analyses of Bdtra and Bdtra-2 indicated that both were indispensable for female development, as nearly 100% males were obtained with embryonic RNAi against either Bdtra or Bdtra-2. The fertility of these RNAi-generated males was subsequently tested. More than 80% of RNAi-generated males could mate and the mated females could lay eggs, but only 40-48.6% males gave rise to progeny. In XX-reversed males and intersex individuals, no clear female gonadal morphology was observed after dissection. These results shed light on the development of a genetic sexing system with male-only release for this agricultural pest. PMID:26057559

  4. Wheat germ oil in larval diet influences gene expression in adult oriental fruit fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culture media supplemented with wheat germ oil (WGO) exerts observable physiological reactions, such as increased fecundity and mobility, in some insects. Although the impact of WGO on insect physiology is important, the mechanisms of these actions are poorly understood. The hypothesis that the ad...

  5. Pervasive Trauma Exposure Among US Sexual Orientation Minority Adults and Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Corliss, Heather L.; Vandermorris, Ashley K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed sexual orientation disparities in exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events and onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative US sample. Methods. We used data from 34 653 noninstitutionalized adult US residents from the 2004 to 2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results. Lesbians and gay men, bisexuals, and heterosexuals who reported any same-sex sexual partners over their lifetime had greater risk of childhood maltreatment, interpersonal violence, trauma to a close friend or relative, and unexpected death of someone close than did heterosexuals with no same-sex attractions or partners. Risk of onset of PTSD was higher among lesbians and gays (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34, 3.06), bisexuals (AOR = 2.13; 95% CI = 1.38, 3.29), and heterosexuals with any same-sex partners (AOR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.54, 2.74) than it was among the heterosexual reference group. This higher risk was largely accounted for by sexual orientation minorities’ greater exposure to violence, exposure to more potentially traumatic events, and earlier age of trauma exposure. Conclusions. Profound sexual orientation disparities exist in risk of PTSD and in violence exposure, beginning in childhood. Our findings suggest there is an urgent need for public health interventions aimed at preventing violence against individuals with minority sexual orientations and providing follow-up care to cope with the sequelae of violent victimization. PMID:20395586

  6. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  7. Sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns in a cohort of U.S. young adults.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A; Roberts, Andrea L; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Missmer, Stacey; Anatale-Tardiff, Laura; Scherer, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of bullying, discrimination, and violence victimization, all stressors that have been linked to psychological and behavioral stress responses including depressive and anxious symptoms and substance use. Acute and chronic stressors may also elicit physiologic stress responses, including changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between minority sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns. The present study included 1670 young adults ages 18-32 years (69% female, 31% male) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided five saliva samples over one day to estimate diurnal cortisol patterns. Sexual orientation groups included: completely heterosexual with no same-sex partners (referent), completely heterosexual with same-sex partners/mostly heterosexual, and gay/lesbian/bisexual. Covariates included perceived stress and stressful life events in the past month. Sex-stratified multilevel models of log-transformed cortisol values were used to model diurnal cortisol patterns, and generalized estimating equations were used to model area under the curve (AUC), both with respect to ground (AUCg) and increase (AUCi). Among females, sexual minorities reported significantly more stressful life events in the past month than their heterosexual counterparts. In adjusted multilevel models, sexual orientation was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol patterns or with AUCg or AUCi in either females or males. There were no significant interactions between sexual orientation and stressful life events. Time-varying negative mood was significantly associated with higher cortisol levels across the day for both female and male participants, after adjusting for all covariates. This study from a large cohort of U.S. young adults did not detect a relationship between sexual

  8. Sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns in a cohort of U.S. young adults

    PubMed Central

    Austin, S. Bryn; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Gordon, Allegra R.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Missmer, Stacey; Anatale-Tardiff, Laura; Scherer, Emily A.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of bullying, discrimination, and violence victimization, all stressors that have been linked to psychological and behavioral stress responses including depressive and anxious symptoms and substance use. Acute and chronic stressors may also elicit physiologic stress responses, including changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between minority sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns. The present study included 1670 young adults ages 18–32 years (69% female, 31% male) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided five saliva samples over one day to estimate diurnal cortisol patterns. Sexual orientation groups included: completely heterosexual with no same-sex partners (referent), completely heterosexual with same-sex partners/mostly heterosexual, and gay/lesbian/bisexual. Covariates included perceived stress and stressful life events in the past month. Sex-stratified multilevel models of log-transformed cortisol values were used to model diurnal cortisol patterns, and generalized estimating equations were used to model area under the curve (AUC), both with respect to ground (AUCg) and increase (AUCi). Among females, sexual minorities reported significantly more stressful life events in the past month than their heterosexual counterparts. In adjusted multilevel models, sexual orientation was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol patterns or with AUCg or AUCi in either females or males. There were no significant interactions between sexual orientation and stressful life events. Time-varying negative mood was significantly associated with higher cortisol levels across the day for both female and male participants, after adjusting for all covariates. This study from a large cohort of U.S. young adults did not detect a relationship between sexual

  9. Effects of added fruits and vegetables on dietary intakes and body weight in Scottish adults.

    PubMed

    Whybrow, Stephen; Harrison, Claire L S; Mayer, Claus; James Stubbs, R

    2006-03-01

    An increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been suggested as a way to limit, or even lower, energy and fat intakes. The present study examined the effects of incorporating F&V supplements into the diets of adults who reported consuming <240 g (three portions) of F&V per d on energy and fat intakes, and change in body weight, over 8 weeks using a randomised parallel design. Thirty-four males and twenty-eight females (age 42.6 (sd 11.1) years, BMI 23.7 (sd 2.7) kg/m(2)) were each provided with supplements of 0, 300 or 600 g F&V per d. Food, nutrient and energy intakes were measured before, during and at the end of the supplementation period using 7 d weighed records. Mean daily energy intakes were not different among the three groups before (P = 0.151) or during the supplementation periods (P = 0.407), although changes in energy intakes over the study period tended to be more positive with increasing amounts of F&V supplements (P = 0.078). There was no difference in changes of body weights during the study (P = 0.242). Carbohydrate (P < 0.001), sugar (P < 0.001), fibre (P < 0.001) and weight of food consumed (P = 0.022) increased in the treatment groups. There were no significant differences, or changes, in fat intakes among the three groups. Consumption of mandatory F&V supplements for 8 weeks produced beneficial changes in diet composition, but did not result in lower reported energy or fat intakes, and did not result in loss of body weight.

  10. Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) with the ajar bait trap in pome and stone fruit orchards under mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in Oregon, California, Pennsylvania, and Italy evaluated the relative performance of the Ajar trap for Grapholita molesta (Busck), in pome and stone fruit orchards treated with sex pheromone dispensers for mating disruption. The Ajar is a delta-shaped trap with a screened jar filled with a t...

  11. Simultaneous orientation and cellular force measurements in adult cardiac myocytes using three-dimensional polymeric microstructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Lim, Chee Chew; Sawyer, Douglas Brian; Liao, Ronglih; Zhang, Xin

    2007-09-01

    A number of techniques have been developed to monitor contractile function in isolated cardiac myocytes. While invaluable observations have been gained from these methodologies in understanding the contractile processes of the heart, they are invariably limited by their in vitro conditions. The present challenge is to develop innovative assays to mimic the in vivo milieu so as to allow a more physiological assessment of cardiac myocyte contractile forces. Here we demonstrate the use of a silicone elastomer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), to simultaneously orient adult cardiac myocytes in primary culture and measure the cellular forces in a three-dimensional substrate. The realignment of adult cardiac myocytes in long-term culture (7 days) was achieved due to directional reassembly of the myofibrils along the parallel polymeric sidewalls. The cellular mechanical forces were recorded in situ by observing the deformation of the micropillars embedded in the substrate. By coupling the cellular mechanical force measurements with on-chip cell orientation, this novel assay is expected to provide a means of a more physiological assessment of single cardiac myocyte contractile function and may facilitate the future development of in vitro assembled functional cardiac tissue.

  12. Retrospective recall of sexual orientation identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Antonucci, Toni C; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D

    2011-11-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years, identified 3 trajectories of development: early (n = 951; milestones spanning ages 12-20), middle (n = 239; milestones spanning ages 18-31), and late (n = 70; milestones spanning ages 32-43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, we identified 2 subgroups in post hoc analyses of the early profile group: child onset (n = 284; milestones spanning ages 8-18) and teen onset (n = 667; milestones spanning ages 14-22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the early profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research.

  13. Pesticide residues intake of French adults under increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables--a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Barnat, Saida; Boisset, Michel; Casse, Francine; Catteau, Michel; Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Veschambre, Daniel; Periquet, Alain

    2010-02-01

    The increase of fresh vegetable and fruit (FVF) intake could contribute to the prevention of obesity and several major pathologies and thus represents a major public health goal in industrial countries. Nutritional recommendations for increased consumption of FVF could lead to ingestion of unwanted amounts of pesticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate theoretical exposure of French adults to pesticide residues under increasing amounts of FVF intake. Balanced menus with 200 - 400 - 600 - 800 and 1200 g FVF/day were established. Amounts of active substances brought by every FVF vector, at the maximum residue level (MRL) were summed up to determine the intake for each active substance. Values were compared to the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) to point out any potential over exposure. A maximalistic approach was adopted and no reducing factor due to processing was taken into account. It was found that under minimal recommended consumption of fruit and vegetables (400 g/d), no active substance reached the ADI, but 18 vs 144 were over 10% of the ADI. Raising FVF to 600 g/d increased the number of active substances over 10 % of the ADI to 24, but again in no case was the ADI exceeded. Doubling the intake to 800 g/d gives values over the ADI for 2 active substances only (cyhexatin and thirame). It was concluded that the increase in fruit and vegetables up to 800 g per day should not expose adults over the ADIs for a majority of authorized pesticides. In this regard, residues levels of ten active substances in fruit and vegetables should deserve particular attention.

  14. Sexual Fluidity and Related Attitudes and Beliefs Among Young Adults with a Same-Gender Orientation.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-07-01

    Little research has examined whether experiencing sexual fluidity--changes over time in attractions and sexual orientation identity--is related to specific cognitions. This study explored attitudes and beliefs among sexually fluid and non-sexually fluid individuals and developed two new measures of sexuality beliefs based on Diamond's sexual fluidity research and Dweck's psychological theory of intelligence beliefs. Participants were 188 female and male young adults in the United States with a same-gender orientation, ages 18-26 years. Participants completed an online questionnaire which assessed sexual fluidity in attractions and sexual orientation identity, attitudes toward bisexuality, sexuality beliefs, and demographics. Sexual fluidity in attractions was reported by 63 % of females and 50 % of males, with 48 % of those females and 34 % of those males reporting fluidity in sexual orientation identity. No significant gender differences in frequency of sexual fluidity were observed. Sexually fluid females had more positive attitudes toward bisexuality than non-sexually fluid females; however, no significant difference was observed for males. Females were more likely than males to endorse sexual fluidity beliefs and to believe that sexuality is changeable; and sexually fluid persons were more likely than non-sexually fluid persons to hold those two beliefs. Among males, non-sexually fluid individuals were more likely than sexually fluid individuals to believe that sexuality is something an individual is born with. Females were more likely than males to endorse the belief that sexuality is influenced by the environment. Findings from this research link sexual fluidity with specific cognitions.

  15. Differences in Sexual Orientation Diversity and Sexual Fluidity in Attractions among Gender Minority Adults in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Reisner, Sari L.; White, Jaclyn M.; Keo-Meier, Colton L.

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bi-model methods (online and in-person) to complete a one-time web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated Adjusted Risk Ratios (aRR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n=452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n=205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other non-binary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR=1.69; 95% CI=1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions post-transition and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR=0.44; 95% CI=0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people. PMID:26156113

  16. Orientation of craniofacial planes and temporomandibular disorder in young adults with normal occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ciancaglini, R; Colombo-Bolla, G; Gherlone, E F; Radaelli, G

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between orientation of craniofacial planes relative to the true horizontal and temporomandibular disorder (TMD), in normal occlusion. Fourteen university dental students, with full natural dentition and bilateral Angle Class I occlusion, who exhibited signs and symptoms of TMD, were compared with 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Frontal and lateral photographs were taken in natural head position with the subject standing up, clenching a Fox plane and having a facial arch positioned. Photographs were examined by a standardized image analysis. Inter-pupillary axis, Frankfurt, occlusal and Camper planes were evaluated. In frontal view, the Frankfurt plane was right rotated relative to the true horizontal both in TMD subjects (P < 0.01) and controls (P < 0.05), but rotation was larger in TMD subjects (mean difference between groups, 1.1 degrees, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 0.2-2.0 degrees ). No significant deviation from the horizontal or difference between groups was observed for the interpupillary axis and occlusal plane. In lateral view, the Frankfurt plane was upward-orientated relative to the true horizontal in TMD group (mean angular deviation 2.8 degrees, 95% CI, 1.0-4.6 degrees ). The occlusal and Camper planes were downward-orientated in both groups (P < 0.0001), but inclination of occlusal plane tended to be smaller in TMD subjects (mean difference between groups, -3.8 degrees, 95% CI, -7.6-0.1 degrees ). Angles between any craniofacial planes did not significantly differ between groups. The findings show that in young adults with normal occlusion, a weak association exists between the orientation of craniofacial planes in natural head position and signs and symptoms of TMD. Furthermore, they suggest that, within this population, TMD might be mainly associated with head posture rather than with craniofacial morphology.

  17. Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

  18. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, α-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + α-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + α-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, α-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; α-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene expression profiling of the

  19. Sexual orientation of trans adults is not linked to outcome of transition-related health care, but worth asking.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Timo O; Elaut, Els; Richards, Christina; Dekker, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of contemporary transition-related care at the outset of the 20th century, sexual orientation has ben considered to be closely connected with gender identity and the developmental trajectories of trans people. Specifically, health professionals have regarded the anticipated post-transitional heterosexual behaviour of trans adults as predictive of a good outcome of cross-sex hormones and gender-confirming surgeries. This article reviews the current literature according to the question of whether the sexual orientation of trans people is linked to outcome measures following transition-related interventions. A comprehensive review was undertaken using the Medline database, searching for empirical studies published between 2010 and 2015. Out of a total of 474 studies, only 10 studies reported a follow-up of trans adults and assessed sexual orientation in the study protocol at all. Sexual orientation was predominantly assessed as homosexual versus non-homosexual related to sex assigned at birth. Only one 1 of 10 follow-up studies found a significant association according to the outcome between groups differentiated by sexual orientation. Empirically there is no link between sexual orientation and outcome of transition-related health care for trans adults. In order to provide comprehensive health care, we recommend asking for sexual behaviours, attractions and identities, as well as for gender experiences and expressions; however, this knowledge should not drive, but simply inform, such comprehensive care.

  20. Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapal, Ramaiyan; Ratna, J.Vijaya; Sarathchandran, I.; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp southern India. Methods Fourty Wistar male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were equally divided into four groups. Experimental groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Feronia limonia (F. limoni) fruit pulp at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily for 55 days. All treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each treatment periods, various spermatological indices, tissue biochemicals and testicular enzymes levels were analysed. Blood profiles were also estimated. Results Compared with the control, the F. limonia fruit pulp at both dose levels did not decrease body weight, which were associated with decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percent of abnormal sperm. Further, F. limonia fruit pulp at 500 mg/kg body weight markedly reduced the epididymal and testicular protein content by 24.58% and 29.86%, respectively, as well as the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Δ5-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase) levels by 42.82% and 38.08%, respectively, while a significant elevation was observed in testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid content. A gradual recovery of all parameters was observed after 55 days of treatment withdrawal. No significant alterations in haematological indices were observed. Conclusions The present findings indicate that F. limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, and could partially support the traditional use as male contraceptive. PMID:23569995

  1. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Female Sexual Orientation, Childhood Gender Typicality and Adult Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Cherkas, Lynn; Spector, Timothy; Rahman, Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Background Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%), AGI (11%) and CGT (31%). For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. Conclusions/Significance This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation. PMID:21760939

  2. Adults' Orientation of Children--And Children's Initiative to Pitch In--To Everyday Adult Activities in a Tsotsil Maya Community.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines how 2-year-old children attempt to actively participate in adult work in a Mayan community in Chiapas, Mexico, and how adults contribute and accommodate to the contributions. As children enter into activities and adults orient and reorient the activity to direct the children, teaching from expert to novice is generated by children's agency in co-participatory interactions. The chapter enriches the LOPI model by focusing on the structure of participation and communication, social and community organization, and the evaluation that occurs in the activity itself.

  3. Tegumental Effects of Methanolic Extract of Balanites aegyptiaca Fruits on Adult Paramphistomum microbothrium (Fischoeder 1901) under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    SHALABY, Hatem; NASR, Soad; FARAG, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Weak efficacy of different fasciolicidal compounds used for treatment of paramphistomosis has drawn the attention of many authors to alternative drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of the methanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits (BAE) on adult Paramphistomum microbothrium. Methods: The effect of BAE on adult P. microbothrium after 24 h incubating the parasites in RPMI 1640 culture medium containing 10, 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml BAE was determined by light and scanning electron microscopic studies. Results: Differences in response to BAE action were concentration dependent.The major target organ that was highly affected was the tegument. Maximum anthelmintic activity was found with a dose of 200 μg/ml BAE, at which distinct damage to the whole body surface of the trematodes was very much distinct. Shape and structure of both suckers were deformed due to BAE. This damage would undoubtedly disrupt many of the physiological processes associated with the tegument. Besides, the damage of the tegumental folds of the acetabular region might disrupt its function in drawing the rumen wall tissue of the host into the acetabular cavity. Conclusion: the use of methanolic extract of B. aegyptiaca fruits offers a new dimension and potential for control of such a neglected infectious disease in ruminants, at a time when paramphistomosis has emerged as an important cause of productivity loss. PMID:28127347

  4. The Official Knowledge and Adult Education Agents: An Ethnographic Study of the Adult Education Team of a Local Development-Oriented Nongovernmental Organization in the North of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loureiro, Armando Paulo Ferreira; Cristovao, Artur Fernando Arede Correia

    2010-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations, particularly those related to development work (local development-oriented nongovernmental organizations; LDNGO), and their agents have been assuming, in Portugal, an important role in the field of adult education. These organizations develop with the State, at the national level, and with supranational institutions…

  5. Some Outcomes of an Employment-Oriented Post-Secondary Training Program for Educably Mentally Handicapped Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, P.; McLean, A.

    The Alberta Vocational Centre (AVC) Transitional Vocational (T-V) Program, in Edmonton, began in 1982. The program currently employs six instructors to provide a postsecondary employment-oriented program for mildly mentally disabled adults. The yearlong program is offered in two sessions and has an approximate enrollment of 30 incoming students…

  6. Adult but Not Aged C57BL/6 Male Mice Are Capable of Using Geometry for Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Melitta; Morellini, Fabio; Fellini, Laetitia

    2006-01-01

    Geometry, e.g., the shape of the environment, can be used by numerous animal species to orientate, but data concerning the mouse are lacking. We addressed the question of whether mice are capable of using geometry for navigating. To test whether aging could affect searching strategies, we compared adult (3- to 5-mo old) and aged (20- to 21-mo old)…

  7. The Effects of Adult-Oriented Advertising on First, Second, and Third Grade Children across Socioeconomic Bounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Richard Jay

    The purpose of this study was to examine the socializing effect the viewing of adult-oriented commercials has on young children of differing socioeconomic backgrounds. The subjects, 227 children in the first, second, and third grades, included 109 lower-socioeconomic-level black children and 118 white children representing upper-middle-income…

  8. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  9. The Contribution of Visual and Vestibular Information to Spatial Orientation by 6- to 14-Month-Old Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Hatton, Fran; Foster, Kirsty A.; Mason, Uschi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is much research on infants' ability to orient in space, little is known regarding the information they use to do so. This research uses a rotating room to evaluate the relative contribution of visual and vestibular information to location of a target following bodily rotation. Adults responded precisely on the basis of visual flow…

  10. Self-Acceptance and Self-Disclosure of Sexual Orientation in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Adults: An Attachment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2003-01-01

    A model linking attachment variables with self-acceptance and self-disclosure of sexual orientation was tested using data from 489 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. The model included the following 4 domains of variables: (a) representations of childhood attachment experiences with parents, (b) perceptions of parental support for sexual…

  11. The Relationship between Self-Determination, Achievement Goal Orientation and Satisfaction with the Learning Experience: Working with Adult Lifelong Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how self-perceptions of self-determination and of achievement goal orientation were related to self-perceptions of satisfaction with the learning experience in a population of 495 adults engaged in non-formal lifelong learning through participation as amateur members of the United States Dressage Association.…

  12. A qPCR-based method for detecting parasitism of Fopius arisanus (Sonan) in oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Parasitism rate detection and parasitoid species identification are necessary in fruit fly biological control. Currently release of mass-reared Fopius arisanus is occurring world-wide, as this species is effective in controlling Bactrocera dorsalis and Ceratitis capitata. While release i...

  13. A low-cost color vision system for automatic estimation of apple fruit orientation and maximum equatorial diameter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall objective of this research was to develop an in-field presorting and grading system to separate undersized and defective fruit from fresh market-grade apples. To achieve this goal, a cost-effective machine vision inspection prototype was built, which consisted of a low-cost color camera,...

  14. Gender role orientations and alcohol use among Moscow and Toronto adults.

    PubMed

    Van Gundy, Karen; Schieman, Scott; Kelley, Margaret S; Rebellon, Cesar J

    2005-12-01

    Using self-report data from representative community samples of Moscow and Toronto adults, we examine the effects of sex, masculinity, and femininity on alcohol use. Consistent with prior research, our results show that men in Moscow and Toronto drink significantly more than women; women in both samples tend more toward conventional femininity than men; and masculinity levels are greater among Toronto men relative to Toronto women. Moscow men and women, however, show comparable masculinity levels. Neither masculinity nor femininity explains the sex gap in alcohol use in either sample. However, sex- and sample-specific effects are identified. In Toronto, femininity is associated with higher alcohol use among women. In Moscow, masculinity is associated with lower use among men and higher use among women. The findings provide preliminary support for our assertion that the characteristics of national contexts, such as drinking norms and "Soviet-style socialism" [Cockerham, Snead, and Dewaal (2002). Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 42-55] interact with traditional gender role orientations to influence alcohol use patterns. We suggest that a movement toward culturally sensitive policies that consider sex-specific social expectations and responses may contribute to improved health outcomes across nations.

  15. Adults Learning Together. Resources for Staff Development with an Orientation toward Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Helena; Burrichter, Art

    This guide contains ideas and resources for adult education. It provides practical suggestions and specific guidance in five areas of adult education: adult basic education, high school completion/general education development, English for speakers of other languages, exceptional adult basic education, and the elderly. The guide focuses on the…

  16. Sexual Orientation Prototypicality and Well-Being Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adults.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality--or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category--and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women.

  17. Novel microsatellite markers for the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Cao, L-J; Wang, Y-Z; Li, B-Y; Wei, S-J

    2016-11-07

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important economic pest of stone and pome fruits worldwide. We sequenced the OFM genome using next-generation sequencing and characterized the microsatellite distribution. In total, 56,674 microsatellites were identified, with 11,584 loci suitable for primer design. Twenty-seven polymorphic microsatellites, including 24 loci with trinucleotide repeat and three with pentanucleotide repeat, were validated in 95 individuals from four natural populations. The allele numbers ranged from 4 to 40, with an average value of 13.7 per locus. A high frequency of null alleles was observed in most loci developed for the OFM. Three marker panels, all of the loci, nine loci with the lowest null allele frequencies, and nine loci with the highest null allele frequencies, were established for population genetics analyses. The null allele influenced estimations of genetic diversity parameters but not the OFM's genetic structure. Both a STRUCTURE analysis and a discriminant analysis of principal components, using the three marker panels, divided the four natural populations into three groups. However, more individuals were incorrectly assigned by the STRUCTURE analysis when the marker panel with the highest null allele frequency was used compared with the other two panels. Our study provides empirical research on the effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses. The microsatellites developed will be valuable markers for genetic studies of the OFM.

  18. Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M; Carey, James R; Zwaan, Bas J

    2008-08-01

    1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild.2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments.3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost.

  19. The importance of training strategy adaptation: a learner-oriented approach for improving older adults' memory and transfer.

    PubMed

    Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena; Dunlosky, John; Vecchi, Tomaso; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the benefits of strategy-adaptation training for promoting transfer effects. This learner-oriented approach--which directly encourages the learner to generalize strategic behavior to new tasks--helps older adults appraise new tasks and adapt trained strategies to them. In Experiment 1, older adults in a strategy-adaptation training group used 2 strategies (imagery and sentence generation) while practicing 2 tasks (list and associative learning); they were then instructed on how to do a simple task analysis to help them adapt the trained strategies for 2 different unpracticed tasks (place learning and text learning) that were discussed during training. Two additional criterion tasks (name-face associative learning and grocery-list learning) were never mentioned during training. Two other groups were included: A strategy training group (who received strategy training and transfer instructions but not strategy-adaptation training) and a waiting-list control group. Both training procedures enhanced older adults' performance on the trained tasks and those tasks that were discussed during training, but transfer was greatest after strategy-adaptation training. Experiment 2 found that strategy-adaptation training conducted via a manual that older adults used at home also promoted transfer. These findings demonstrate the importance of adopting a learner-oriented approach to promote transfer of strategy training.

  20. Analysis of Kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption trends among Korean adults: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Ae-Wha; Choi, Eun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to analyze daily kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption by general characteristics and vegetable and fruit consumption from 1998 to 2012 by the Korean population based on the data of the KNHANES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study is based on the 1998-2012 KNHNES. Analysis data on 54,700 subjects aged 19 years and older were obtained from health behavior interviews and the 24-hour dietary recall method. RESULTS Daily kimchi consumption and portion size of kimchi decreased significantly from 1998 to 2012 (adjusted P for trend < 0.0001). Meanwhile, daily consumption of both non-salted vegetable and fruit with and without kimchi did not significantly change between 1998 and 2012. Reduced consumption of kimchi, non-salted vegetable, and fruit was observed for both genders as well as daily meal episodes and cooking locations. Male and female subjects with insufficient non-salted vegetable and fruit intake were increased 1.4 times and 1.3 times, respectively, in 2012 than 1998. All subjects consumed at least 400 g/day of non-salted vegetable, fruit, and kimchi in each survey year, although they consumed insufficient amounts (< 400 g/day) of non-salted vegetable and fruit without kimchi. CONCLUSIONS Since Koreans generally consume high amounts of fermented vegetables, including kimchi, total vegetables and fruit. Consumption of these foods by the Korean adult population reached 400 g, which is the recommended intake of the WCRF/AICR. Based on this result, it is necessary to promote consumption of kimchi in the Korean population and research the development of low sodium kimchi in the future. PMID:27087903

  1. Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with adult laboratory Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Kuzina, L V; Peloquin, J J; Vacek, D C; Miller, T A

    2001-04-01

    From the guts of new and old colonies (female and male) of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae), we identified a total of 18 different bacterial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Vibrionaceae, Micrococcaceae, Deinococcacea, Bacillaceae, and the genus Listeria. Enterobacter, Providencia, Serratia, and Staphylococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated genera, with Citrobacter, Streptococcus, Aerococcus, and Listeria found less frequently. We found Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Providencia stuartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa only in the new colony, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae only in the old colony. We also studied resistance/sensitivity to 12 antibiotics for six bacterial isolates such as Enterobacter cloacae, E. sakazakii, K. pneumoniae spp., Providencia rettgeri, P. aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus. Isolates on the whole were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin (five of six isolates) and sensitive to rifampin and streptomycin (six of six isolates). Antibiotic resistance profiles might be useful characteristics for distinguishing among species and strains of these bacteria, probably having ecological significance with respect to intra- and inter-specific competition within host cadavers, and could have implications for the utility of these organisms for biological control, including the alternative control strategy, paratransgenesis.

  2. The Relationship between General Causality Orientation and Treatment Outcome among Marijuana-Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Claire E.; Banes, Kelsey E.; Walker, Denise D.; Stephens, Robert S.; Roffman, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    General causality orientations are motivational styles that are indicative of a person’s belief about personal change and their motivation to change. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether causality orientations were associated with marijuana treatment outcomes in a sample of marijuana-dependent individuals. A total of 74 participants (66% male) were recruited from the Seattle, Washington area and randomly assigned to receive a combination of motivational enhancement and cognitive behavioral therapy or the combination treatment plus additional “check-up” sessions. Follow-up assessments evaluated frequency of use, use-related problems, and marijuana use disorder symptoms through 9 months. Causality orientations were relatively stable over time. Posttreatment Autonomy orientations were associated with lower frequency of use and Controlled orientations were associated with a reduction in use, problems, and marijuana use disorder symptoms. Autonomy and Controlled orientations were associated with readiness to change. Results suggest that both autonomous and controlled orientations have implications for response to treatment; perhaps for different reasons. Causality orientations may be a promising avenue of research to predict treatment response and outcome. PMID:26562679

  3. Functional analysis of five trypsin-like protease genes in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Li; Hou, Ming-Zhe; Shen, Guang-Mao; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Jia, Fu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Insect midgut proteases catalyze the release of free amino acids from dietary proteins and are essential for insect normal development. To date, digestive proteases as potential candidates have made great progress in pest control. To clarify the function of trypsin-like protease genes in the digestive system of Bactrocera dorsalis, a serious pest of a wide range of tropical and subtropical fruit and vegetable crops, five trypsin genes (BdTry1, BdTry2, BdTry3, BdTry4 and BdTry5) were identified from transcriptome dataset, and the effects of feeding condition on their expression levels were examined subsequently. RNA interference (RNAi) was applied to further explore their function on the growth of B. dorsalis. The results showed that all the BdTrys in starving midgut expressed at a minimal level but up-regulated upon feeding (except BdTry3). Besides, RNAi by feeding dsRNAs to larvae proved to be an effective method to cause gene silencing and the mixed dsRNAs of the five BdTrys slowed larvae growth of B. dorsalis. The current data suggest that trypsin genes are actively involved in digestion process of B. dorsalis larvae and thereafter play crucial roles in their development.

  4. Impact of Prolonged Absence of Low Temperature on Adult Eclosion Patterns of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2017-03-25

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in tropical export markets because cold temperatures, below 5 °C, in those regions appear insufficient to complete diapause. However, it is unclear how prolonged absence of cold exposure affects diapause termination in R. indifferens. Here, we examined this question by exposing R. indifferens pupae for 40 wk to simulated temperate and tropical conditions of 23 or 26 °C, 40 or 80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 or 12:12 (L:D) h. Eclosion patterns among fly groups in the four conditions did not differ. For all groups, fly eclosion from pupae not exposed to cold exhibited a bimodal distribution. The first major peak, comprising 3.2% of the total fly emergence, occurred at 1-10 wk. The second major peak, comprising the remaining 96.8%, occurred at a mode of ∼30 wk. Based on responses to no cold and cold (3 ± 1.5 °C) exposures, there were three distinct pupal diapause groups: the first eclosion group was likely nondiapausing pupae; the second eclosion group was likely diapausing pupae; a third group that remained viable but did not produce adults after 40 wk may represent prolonged dormancy pupae. We suggest that eclosion of adults after prolonged absence of cold exposure needs to be incorporated into models for potential fly establishment in warm climates.

  5. Transcriptomics and Identification of the Chemoreceptor Superfamily of the Pupal Parasitoid of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuping; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Dunsong; Fan, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, causes serious losses to fruit production and is one of the most economically important pests in many countries, including China, Spalangia endius Walker is a pupal parasitoid of various dipteran hosts, and may be considered a potentially important ectoparasitic pupal parasitoid of B. dorsalis. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its interaction with this host. Analysis of the S. endius transcriptome is essential to extend the resources of genetic information on this species and, to support studies on S. endius on the host B. dorsalis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo assembly RNA-seq of S. endius. We obtained nearly 10 Gbp of data using a HiSeq platform, and 36319 high-quality transcripts using Trinity software. A total of 22443 (61.79%) unigenes were aligned to homologous sequences in the jewel wasp and honeybee (Apis florae) protein set from public databases. A total of 10037 protein domains were identified in 7892 S. endius transcripts using HMMER3 software. We identified expression of six gustatory receptor and 21 odorant receptor genes in the sample, with only one gene having a high expression level in each family. The other genes had a low expression level, including two genes regulated by splicing. This result may be due to the wasps being kept under laboratory conditions. Additionally, a total of 3727 SSR markers were predicted, which could facilitate the identification of polymorphisms and functional genes within wasp populations. Conclusion/Significance This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of S. endius and provides a large number of gene sequences for further study. PMID:24505315

  6. De novo characterization of microRNAs in oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and selection of reference genes for normalization of microRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have critical regulatory functions in almost all known biological processes at the post-transcriptional level in a variety of organisms. The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the most serious pests in orchards worldwide and threatens the production of Rosacea fruits. In this study, a de novo small RNA library constructed from mixed stages of G. molesta was sequenced through Illumina sequencing platform and a total of 536 mature miRNAs consisting of 291 conserved and 245 novel miRNAs were identified. Most of the conserved and novel miRNAs were detected with moderate abundance. The miRNAs in the same cluster normally showed correlated expressional profiles. A comparative analysis of the 79 conserved miRNA families within 31 arthropod species indicated that these miRNA families were more conserved among insects and within orders of closer phylogenetic relationships. The KEGG pathway analysis and network prediction of target genes indicated that the complex composed of miRNAs, clock genes and developmental regulation genes may play vital roles to regulate the developmental circadian rhythm of G. molesta. Furthermore, based on the sRNA library of G. molesta, suitable reference genes were selected and validated for study of miRNA transcriptional profile in G. molesta under two biotic and six abiotic experimental conditions. This study systematically documented the miRNA profile in G. molesta, which could lay a foundation for further understanding of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in the development and metabolism in this pest and might also suggest clues to the development of genetic-based techniques for agricultural pest control. PMID:28158242

  7. Molecular characterizations of natalisin and its roles in modulating mating in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Gui, S-H; Jiang, H-B; Liu, X-Q; Xu, L; Wang, J-J

    2017-02-01

    Initially, natalisin (NTL) was identified from three holometabolous insect species, Drosophila melanogaster, Tribolium castaneum and Bombyx mori, and was documented to regulate reproductive behaviours in D. melanogaster and T. castaneum. In this study, we report the sequences of the NTL precursor and its receptor (NTLR) from an important agricultural pest, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). NTLR is a typical G-protein coupled receptor and phylogenetic analysis showed that B. dorsalis NTLR was closely related to insect natalisin receptors from other species. A functional assay of NTLR transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that it was activated by putative natalisin mature peptides in a concentration-dependent manner, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50 ) at nanomolar or micromolar levels. As indicated by quantitative real-time PCR, both NTL and NTLR had the highest expression in the central nervous system of B. dorsalis compared with the other tested tissues. Three pairs of adult brain neurones of B. dorsalis were identified with immunohistochemical antibody staining against D. melanogaster NTL4, and in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes. Moreover, RNA interference mediated by double-stranded RNA injection in adults provided evidence for the important roles of NTL in regulating both male and female mating frequencies in this fly.

  8. The curvilinear effects of sexual orientation on young adult substance use.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Jamie E; Rahm-Knigge, Ryan L; Conner, Bradley T

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are commonly used by adolescents and linked with harmful health-related outcomes (e.g. injury, dependence). Moreover, heavy episodic (binge) drinking predicts more severe consequences. When examined by sexual orientation, highest rates of substance use have been found among bisexual individuals, with lower use at either end of the spectrum. When examined also by sex, this curvilinear trend is maintained among women but not men. These substance use patterns were identified using group differences (i.e. heterosexual vs. bisexual vs. homosexual). However, evidence suggests that sexual orientation is a continuous, not categorical, variable. This study examined the hypotheses that sexual orientation and commonly used substances (heavy episodic drinking, tobacco, marijuana) would have a quadratic relation among women, but not among men. Six negative binomial regressions tested study hypotheses using data from 7372 participants. Results indicated that sexual orientation had a quadratic relation with heavy episodic drinking, tobacco use, and marijuana use among women, as hypothesized. Additionally, a quadratic relation was found between marijuana use and sexual orientation among men. These findings indicate that women identifying as having mixed sexual orientation are at higher risk than women at either end of the sexual orientation continuum for substance use and related negative outcomes. For men, this is only true for marijuana use and resultant negative consequences. This observed increased use may relate to coping with increased stressors, which has been linked to more problematic use. By better understanding LBG identities and behaviors, clinicians and researchers will be more adept at identifying risk factors and better understanding the nuances across the sexual orientation spectrum.

  9. Associations between active living-oriented zoning and no adult leisure-time physical activity in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F; Thrun, Emily

    2017-02-01

    Nearly one-third of adults report no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Governmental and authoritative bodies recognize the role that community design through zoning code changes can play in enabling LTPA. This study examined the association between zoning and no adult LTPA in the U.S. This study was conducted between 2012 and 2016, with analyses occurring in 2015-2016. Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for jurisdictions located in the 495 most populous U.S. counties and were evaluated for pedestrian-oriented code reform zoning, 11 active living-oriented provisions (e.g., sidewalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, mixed use, bike lanes) and a summated zoning scale (max=12). Individual-level LTPA data were obtained from the 2012 CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). County-aggregated, population-weighted zoning variables were constructed for linking to BRFSS. Log-log multivariate regressions (N=147,517 adults), controlling for individual and county characteristics and with robust standard errors clustered on county, were conducted to examine associations between zoning and no LTPA. Relative risks (RR) compared predicted lack of LTPA at 0% and 100% county-level population exposure to each zoning predictor. Zoning code reforms were associated with a 13% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82-0.92). Except for crosswalks, all zoning provisions were associated with an 11-16% lower probability of no LTPA. Having all 12 zoning provisions was associated with a 22% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.83). The results suggest that active living-oriented zoning is a policy lever available to communities seeking to reduce rates of no LTPA.

  10. Transcriptome profiling of the testis reveals genes involved in spermatogenesis and marker discovery in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wei, D; Li, H-M; Yang, W-J; Wei, D-D; Dou, W; Huang, Y; Wang, J-J

    2015-02-01

    The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays a vital role in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa, which are transferred to the female during mating. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm, and involves significant structural and biochemical changes in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis. The identification of genes involved in spermatogenesis of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is critical for a better understanding of its reproductive development. In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of testes from male B. dorsalis adults at different ages, and performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript data set, using Illumina sequencing technology. The analysis yielded 52 016 732 clean reads, including a total of 4.65 Gb of nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 47 677 contigs (average 443 bp) and then clustered into 30 516 unigenes (average 756 bp). Based on BLAST hits with known proteins in different databases, 20 921 unigenes were annotated with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5). The transcriptome sequences were further annotated using the Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Orthology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Functional genes involved in spermatogenesis were analysed, including cell cycle proteins, metalloproteins, actin, and ubiquitin and antihyperthermia proteins. Several testis-specific genes were also identified. The transcripts database will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying spermatogenesis in B. dorsalis. Furthermore, 2913 simple sequence repeats and 151 431 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which will be useful for investigating the genetic diversity of B. dorsalis in the future.

  11. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and mRNA Expression of a Chitin Synthase 2 Gene from the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Yang, Wen-Jia; Cong, Lin; Xu, Kang-Kang; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis. PMID:23965972

  12. De novo Cloning and Annotation of Genes Associated with Immunity, Detoxification and Energy Metabolism from the Fat Body of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Cong, Lin; Xie, Yi-Fei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive pest in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analysis of the fat body of B. dorsalis and obtained more than 59 million sequencing reads, which were assembled into 27,787 unigenes with an average length of 591 bp. Among them, 17,442 (62.8%) unigenes matched known proteins in the NCBI database. The assembled sequences were further annotated with gene ontology, cluster of orthologous group terms, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. In depth analysis was performed to identify genes putatively involved in immunity, detoxification, and energy metabolism. Many new genes were identified including serpins, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and defensins, which were potentially linked to immune defense. Many detoxification genes were identified, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Many new transcripts possibly involved in energy metabolism, including fatty acid desaturases, lipases, alpha amylases, and trehalose-6-phosphate synthases, were identified. Moreover, we randomly selected some genes to examine their expression patterns in different tissues by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated that some genes exhibited fat body-specific expression in B. dorsalis. The identification of a numerous transcripts in the fat body of B. dorsalis laid the foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes. PMID:24710118

  13. Response of heat shock protein genes of the oriental fruit moth under diapause and thermal stress reveals multiple patterns dependent on the nature of stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Yu; Zheng, Jincheng; Liang, Lina; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2016-07-01

    Heat shock protein gene (Hsp) families are thought to be important in thermal adaptation, but their expression patterns under various thermal stresses have still been poorly characterized outside of model systems. We have therefore characterized Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta, a widespread global orchard pest, and compared patterns of expression in this species to that of other insects. Genes from four Hsp families showed variable expression levels among tissues and developmental stages. Members of the Hsp40, 70, and 90 families were highly expressed under short exposures to heat and cold. Expression of Hsp40, 70, and Hsc70 family members increased in OFM undergoing diapause, while Hsp90 was downregulated. We found that there was strong sequence conservation of members of large Hsp families (Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsc70) across taxa, but this was not always matched by conservation of expression patterns. When the large Hsps as well as small Hsps from OFM were compared under acute and ramping heat stress, two groups of sHsps expression patterns were apparent, depending on whether expression increased or decreased immediately after stress exposure. These results highlight potential differences in conservation of function as opposed to sequence in this gene family and also point to Hsp genes potentially useful as bioindicators of diapause and thermal stress in OFM.

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and mRNA expression of a chitin synthase 2 gene from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yang, Wen-Jia; Cong, Lin; Xu, Kang-Kang; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-08-19

    Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis.

  15. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-11-19

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets.

  16. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets. PMID:26582577

  17. Heme orientational disorder in human adult hemoglobin reconstituted with a ring fluorinated heme and its functional consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Satoshi; Hirai, Yueki; Kawano, Shin; Imai, Kiyohiro; Suzuki, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko . E-mail: yamamoto@chem.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2007-03-16

    A ring fluorinated heme, 13,17-bis(2-carboxylatoethyl)-3,8-diethyl-2-fluoro-7,12, 18-trimethyl-porphyrin-atoiron(III), has been incorporated into human adult hemoglobin (Hb A). The heme orientational disorder in the individual subunits of the protein has been readily characterized using {sup 19}F NMR and the O{sub 2} binding properties of the protein have been evaluated through the oxygen equilibrium analysis. The equilibrated orientations of hemes in {alpha}- and {beta}- subunits of the reconstituted protein were found to be almost completely opposite to each other, and hence were largely different from those of the native and the previously reported reconstituted proteins [T. Jue, G.N. La Mar, Heme orientational heterogeneity in deuterohemin-reconstituted horse and human hemoglobin characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 119 (1984) 640-645]. Despite the large difference in the degree of the heme orientational disorder in the subunits of the proteins, the O{sub 2} affinity and the cooperativity of the protein reconstituted with 2-MF were similar to those of the proteins reconstituted with a series of hemes chemically modified at the heme 3- and 8-positions [K. Kawabe, K. Imaizumi, Z. Yoshida, K. Imai, I. Tyuma, Studies on reconstituted myoglobins and hemoglobins II. Role of the heme side chains in the oxygenation of hemoglobin, J. Biochem. 92 (1982) 1713-1722], whose O{sub 2} affinity and cooperativity were higher and lower, respectively, relative to those of native protein. These results indicated that the heme orientational disorder could exert little effect, if any, on the O{sub 2} affinity properties of Hb A. This finding provides new insights into structure-function relationship of Hb A.

  18. Retrospective Recall of Sexual Orientation Identity Development among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual…

  19. Promoting the Educational Attainment of Adults: The Potential Role of Youth-Oriented Precollege Outreach Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura; Walsh, Erin; Fester, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This study draws on data collected from case studies of four precollege outreach programs and a survey of program administrators to explore the ways that youth-oriented precollege outreach programs may promote the educational attainment of the parents of participating students. The results suggest that precollege outreach programs may expand the…

  20. Impact of Orientation Programs on Nontraditional Students' Perceived Academic Success in Adult Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Many administrators and faculty within higher education institutions have grappled with identifying and employing effective strategies to facilitate student success and persistence. The current study focuses on assessing nontraditional students' self-efficacy beliefs and their perception of the orientation program at a 2-year continuing education…

  1. Associations of Bisexual-Specific Minority Stress and Health Among Cisgender and Transgender Adults with Bisexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Mereish, Ethan H; Woulfe, Julie

    2016-11-11

    Among sexual minorities, bisexuals are at the greatest risk for poor health due in part to prejudice and stigma. This research examined associations of bisexual-specific minority stress and health among cisgender (non-transgender) and transgender adults with bisexual orientation. Participants were 488 adults (378 cisgender women, 49 cisgender men, 61 transgender individuals), age 18 to 66 years, with bisexual orientation based on identity and/or attractions to multiple genders. Participants completed an online survey. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted with sexual minority stress and bisexual-specific minority stress as the predictors and physical health, measured by the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), as the outcome. Models controlled for demographic variables. Moderation analyses were conducted to test for gender differences. Greater bisexual-specific minority stress significantly predicted poorer overall physical health (β = -0.16), greater pain (β = -0.16), and poorer general health (β = -0.25) above and beyond the effects of sexual minority stress. Gender moderated the association between bisexual-specific minority stress and health, such that bisexual-specific minority stress predicted overall physical health and role limitations for transgender individuals but not for cisgender women. Addressing bisexual-specific minority stress is necessary to improve the health and well-being of bisexual individuals.

  2. Artistic orientation as a clinical indicator of chronic career indecision in adult children and grandchildren of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Pedoto, J P; Hartman, B W

    1992-12-01

    This study has empirically assessed whether artistic orientation and avoidance are good predictors of chronic career indecision for college-attending adult children and grandchildren of alcoholics. The sample consisted of 143 freshman and sophomore introductory psychology students attending a county college in the northeast. Osipow's Career Decision Scale total scores of artistically oriented children and grandchildren of alcoholics were not significantly higher than scores of those who were not artistic. As predicted, the Career Decision Scale total scores of avoidant subjects were significantly higher than those of nonavoidant subjects. As expected in both instances, no differences were found between artistic subjects and nonartistic subjects or between the avoidant and nonavoidant subjects. The findings suggest (1) that the artistic career-undecided children of alcoholics observed by Schumrum and Hartman in 1988 were, in fact, members of a broader avoidant group and (2) that the relationship between career indecision and avoidant personality style does vary according to family status of whether subjects are adult children and grandchildren of alcoholics.

  3. Insecticidal activity of a Moroccan strain of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes LD-37 on larvae, pupae and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Samri, S E; Baz, M; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Zitouni, A; El Meziane, A; Barakate, M

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is considered the most important fruit pest worldwide. Its management is mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides. Although these conventional pesticides are effective at high doses, they cause considerable human health and environment problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess insecticidal activity of Moroccan actinobacteria against C. capitata. A total of 12 preselected actinobacteria isolated from various Moroccan habitats were screened for their insecticidal activity against larvae, pupae and adults of C. capitata. Four actinobacteria isolates were significantly active against the first-instar larvae, and nine were active against the medfly adult, while no significant mortality was obtained against the third-instar larval and pupal stages. Among the selected isolates, the biological screening revealed that strain Streptomyces LD-37, which showed 99.4% similarity with Streptomyces phaeochromogenes, exhibited the maximal corrected larval mortality of 98%. Moreover, the isolates AS1 and LD-37 showed the maximum significant corrected mortality against adults of 32.5 and 28.2%, respectively. The crude extract obtained from a fermented culture of strain S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 was separated into six fractions by thin layer chromatography. Fractions F3 and F4 caused a significant corrected larval mortality of 66.7 and 53.3%, respectively; whereas the maximum reduction in adult emergence was obtained with fraction F4. This finding could be useful for utilizing S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 as an alternative to chemical insecticides in pest management of C. capitata.

  4. Reproductive Behavior and Basic Biology of the Oriental Bamboo-Inhabiting Anoplomus rufipes and a Comparison with Frugivorous Dacinae Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Damir

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive behaviors and mating systems of the fruit-infesting species of the Dacinae tribes Ceratitidini and Dacini are increasingly well understood, while in the non-frugivorous tribe Gastrozonini, data are lacking. In the present study, the reproductive behavior of Anoplomus rufipes from North Thailand was studied in the field, other behaviors also in the laboratory. A. rufipes mated on young bamboo plants growing in areas destroyed by fire. Exudates of extrafloral nectaries produced by the young bamboo plants provided food for the females. Factors affecting the choice of the mating site were favorable microclimatic conditions and food. Courtship behavior was performed on the upper sides of bamboo leaves and included pheromone calling (abdominal elevation, anal pouch eversion, abdominal pleural distention), anal dabbing, looping flights and a specific lofting/body swaying behavior. The males searched individually for females or formed leks containing up to four males. The reproductive behaviors and lek formation of A. rufipes are compared to other Dacinae (Ceratitis, Bactrocera), and their functions are discussed. Hitherto unknown data on the general biology of A. rufipes are also included. A. rufipes larvae infested living bamboo shoots of Cephalostachyum pergracile, and the observed behaviors of the adults included locomotion, grooming, feeding, oral droplet deposition, bubbling and agonistic behavior. PMID:26512699

  5. Plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adult mortality and associated fruit injury after exposure to field-aged insecticides on tart cherry branches.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2010-08-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were exposed to field-aged residues of thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, indoxacarb, or azinphos-methyl on tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency. At 1, 3, 7, and 14 d postapplication, fruit were sampled for chemical residues, and bioassays were used to assess beetle mortality and plant tissue injury. Azinphos-methyl had lethal activity within 1 d of exposure at all postapplication intervals and significant fruit protection extended to 14 d postapplication. All of the neonicotinoids had lethal activity at 3 d posttreatment, with acetamiprid activity extending to 7 d. Antifeedant and oviposition deterrent effects were seen with thiamethoxam and thiacloprid; damage incidence was significantly reduced in the absence of significant beetle mortality or intoxication. Thiamethoxam and acetamiprid penetrated into leaf and fruit tissue and were detected in the interior tissues at 14 d postapplication, but interior thiacloprid residues were not detected after day 1. Indoxacarb provided some fruit protection out to 7 d postapplication, and 14-d-old residues intoxicated beetles, but the slow action of this compound allowed significant damage to occur before beetles were incapacitated. Indoxacarb was only detected as a surface residue after the first day postapplication. These data on the plant-insect-chemistry interactions will support use and management decisions as compounds with acute contact activity are phased out.

  6. Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T

    2011-01-01

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its

  7. Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

  8. STD and HIV Risk Factors Among U.S. Young Adults: Variations by Gender, Race, Ethnicity and Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Mojola, Sanyu A.; Everett, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT STDs, including HIV, disproportionately affect individuals who have multiple minority identities. Understanding differences in STD risk factors across racial, ethnic and sexual minority groups, as well as genders, is important for tailoring public health interventions. METHODS Data from Waves 3 (2001–2002) and 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to develop population-based estimates of STD and HIV risk factors among 11,045 young adults (mean age, 29 at Wave 4), by gender, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation (heterosexual, mixed-oriented, gay). Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between risk factors and young adults’ characteristics. RESULTS Overall, sexual-minority women in each racial or ethnic group had a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors—including a history of multiple partners, forced sex and incarceration—than their heterosexual counterparts. Mixed-oriented women in each racial or ethnic group were more likely than heterosexual white women to have received an STD diagnosis (odds ratios, 1.8–6.4). Black men and sexual-minority men also appeared to be at heightened risk. Gay men in all racial and ethnic groups were significantly more likely than heterosexual white men to report having received an STD diagnosis (2.3–8.3); compared with heterosexual white men, mixed-oriented black men had the highest odds of having received such a diagnosis (15.2). CONCLUSIONS Taking account of multiple minority identities should be an important part of future research and intervention efforts for STD and HIV prevention. PMID:22681428

  9. Why Adults Participate in Education: Some Implications for Program Development of Research on Motivational Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darkenwald, Gordon G.

    While recent research on why adults participate in continuing education programs does not provide educational planners with any easy prescriptions for programing success, it does suggest some broad directions for more effective program development, particularly in relation to needs assessment, the promotional aspect of marketing, and the design…

  10. Functions of an Adult Sickle Cell Group: Education, Task Orientation, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Dennis J.; Beltran, Lou R.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on development of adult sickle cell support group and provides description of psychosocial factors most prevalent in patients' lives (anxiety about death, disruption of social support network, disability, dependence on pain medication, conflicts with health care providers). Notes that support group enhanced participants' knowledge about…

  11. Evaluation of SPLAT with spinosad and methyl eugenol or cue-lure for "attract-and-kill" of oriental and melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Hertlein, Mark; Neto, Agenor Mafra; Coler, Reginald; Piñero, Jaime C

    2008-06-01

    Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) "attract-and-kill" sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared with other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively. Field tests were conducted with three different dispensers (Min-U-Gel, Acti-Gel, and SPLAT) and two different insecticides (naled and spinosad). SPLAT ME with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel ME with naled formulation up to 12 wk. SPLAT C-L with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel C-L with naled formulation during weeks 7 to12, but not during weeks 1-6. In subsequent comparative trials, SPLAT ME + spinosad compared favorably with the current standard of Min-U-Gel ME + naled for up to 6 wk, and it was superior from weeks 7 to 12 in two separate tests conducted in a papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchard and a guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard, respectively. In outdoor paired weathering tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers (SPLAT + spinosad, SPLAT + naled, and Min-U-Gel + naled) were effective up to 70 d. Weathered ME dispensers with SPLAT + spinosad compared favorably with SPLAT + naled and Min-U-Gel + naled, and they were equal to fresh dispensers for 21-28 d, depending on location. Our current studies indicate that SPLAT ME and SPLAT C-L sprayable attract-and-kill dispensers containing spinosad are a promising substitute for current liquid organophosphate insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii.

  12. Relationship between behavior and physiology in an invasive pest species: oviposition site selection and temperature-dependent development of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Notter-Hausmann, Claudia; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-04-01

    Oviposition site selection is crucial for the reproductive success of a herbivore insect species with relatively sedentary larvae. The optimal oviposition theory, i.e., the preference-performance hypothesis, has thus far mainly been tested with a focus on nutritional quality of the host. This study investigates whether female oriental fruit moth Grapholita (Cydia) molesta choose a microhabitat for oviposition characterized by a temperature range within which their offspring perform best. Thermal preferences of females during oviposition were assessed in a circular temperature gradient arena. Offspring performance and survival were assessed under different constant temperature conditions. Females preferred oviposition sites of approximately 30 degrees C over lower and higher temperatures. At this temperature, egg, larval, and pupal development was significantly faster than at 22 and 25 degrees C, and larval development was also faster than at 33 degrees C. At 30 degrees C and at the lower temperatures tested, survival of eggs and larvae was significantly higher than at 33 degrees C, whereas development was precluded at 35 degrees C. Furthermore, female pupal weight attained at 30 and 33 degrees C exceeded that reached at the lower temperatures tested. Considering the potentially reduced predation risk caused by the shorter developmental time of eggs and larvae, the laboratory data suggest that this species maximizes its fitness by selecting a thermally optimal environment for its offspring, supporting the optimal oviposition theory. Conversely, it is known that the codling moth (C. pomonella) lacks a mechanism to avoid temperatures lethal to progeny development, which may reflect the differences in geographic ranges of these tortricids.

  13. Generational differences in young adults' life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation, 1966-2009.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Freeman, Elise C

    2012-05-01

    Three studies examined generational differences in life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation among American high school seniors (Monitoring the Future; N = 463,753, 1976-2008) and entering college students (The American Freshman; N = 8.7 million, 1966-2009). Compared to Baby Boomers (born 1946-1961) at the same age, GenX'ers (born 1962-1981) and Millennials (born after 1982) considered goals related to extrinsic values (money, image, fame) more important and those related to intrinsic values (self-acceptance, affiliation, community) less important. Concern for others (e.g., empathy for outgroups, charity donations, the importance of having a job worthwhile to society) declined slightly. Community service rose but was also increasingly required for high school graduation over the same time period. Civic orientation (e.g., interest in social problems, political participation, trust in government, taking action to help the environment and save energy) declined an average of d = -.34, with about half the decline occurring between GenX and the Millennials. Some of the largest declines appeared in taking action to help the environment. In most cases, Millennials slowed, though did not reverse, trends toward reduced community feeling begun by GenX. The results generally support the "Generation Me" view of generational differences rather than the "Generation We" or no change views.

  14. Pregnenolone sulphate enhances spatial orientation and object discrimination in adult male rats: evidence from a behavioural and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Plescia, Fulvio; Sardo, Pierangelo; Rizzo, Valerio; Cacace, Silvana; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Brancato, Anna; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Carletti, Fabio; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Neurosteroids can alter neuronal excitability interacting with specific neurotransmitter receptors, thus affecting several functions such as cognition and emotionality. In this study we investigated, in adult male rats, the effects of the acute administration of pregnenolone-sulfate (PREGS) (10mg/kg, s.c.) on cognitive processes using the Can test, a non aversive spatial/visual task which allows the assessment of both spatial orientation-acquisition and object discrimination in a simple and in a complex version of the visual task. Electrophysiological recordings were also performed in vivo, after acute PREGS systemic administration in order to investigate on the neuronal activation in the hippocampus and the perirhinal cortex. Our results indicate that, PREGS induces an improvement in spatial orientation-acquisition and in object discrimination in the simple and in the complex visual task; the behavioural responses were also confirmed by electrophysiological recordings showing a potentiation in the neuronal activity of the hippocampus and the perirhinal cortex. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PREGS systemic administration in rats exerts cognitive enhancing properties which involve both the acquisition and utilization of spatial information, and object discrimination memory, and also correlates the behavioural potentiation observed to an increase in the neuronal firing of discrete cerebral areas critical for spatial learning and object recognition. This provides further evidence in support of the role of PREGS in exerting a protective and enhancing role on human memory.

  15. Mats made from fibronectin support oriented growth of axons in the damaged spinal cord of the adult rat.

    PubMed

    King, Von R; Henseler, Manuel; Brown, Robert A; Priestley, John V

    2003-08-01

    A variety of biological as well as synthetic implants have been used to attempt to promote regeneration into the damaged spinal cord. We have implanted mats made from fibronectin (FN) into the damaged spinal cord to determine their effectiveness as a substrate for regeneration of axons. These mats contain oriented pores and can take up and release growth factors. Lesion cavities 1 mm in width and depth and 2 mm in length were created on one side of the spinal cord of adult rats. FN mats containing neurotrophins or saline were placed into the lesion. Mats were well integrated into surrounding tissue and showed robust well-oriented growth of calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, GABAergic, cholinergic, glutamatergic, and noradrenergic axons into FN mats. Transganglionic tracing using cholera toxin B indicated large-diameter primary afferents had grown into FN implants. Schwann cells had also infiltrated FN mats. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons within implants sites, with most axons either ensheathed or myelinated by Schwann cells. Mats incubated in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 showed significantly more neurofilament-positive and glutamatergic fibers compared to saline- and nerve growth factor-incubated mats, while mats incubated with nerve growth factor showed more calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive axons. In contrast, neurotrophin treatment had no effect on PGP 9.5-positive axons. In addition, in some animals with neurotrophin-3-incubated mats, cholera toxin B-labelled fibers had grown from the mat into adjoining intact areas of spinal cord. The results indicate that FN mats provide a substrate that is permissive for robust oriented axonal growth in the damaged spinal cord, and that this growth is supported by Schwann cells.

  16. Host status of Vaccinium reticulatum (Ericaceae) to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T

    2011-04-01

    Ohelo (Vaccicinium reticulatum Small) (Ericaceae) is a native Hawaiian plant that has commercial potential in Hawaii as a nursery crop to be transplanted for berry production or for sale as a potted ornamental. No-choice infestation studies were conducted to determine whether ohelo fruit are hosts for four invasive tephritid fruit fly species. Ohelo berries were exposed to gravid female flies ofBactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly),or Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in screen cages outdoors for 24 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Only B. dorsalis successfully attacked and developed in ohelo berries. In total, 1570 berries produced 10 puparia, all of which emerged as adults, for a fruit infestation rate of 0.0064% and an average of 0.0053 puparia per gram of fruit. By comparison, papaya fruit used as controls produced an average of 1.44 B. dorsalis puparia per g of fruit. Ohelo berry is a marginal host for B. dorsalis and apparently a nonhost for C. capitata, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons. Commercial plantings of ohelo will rarely be attacked by fruit flies in Hawaii.

  17. Holding Back the Tears: Individual Differences in Adult Crying Proneness Reflect Attachment Orientation and Attitudes to Crying.

    PubMed

    Millings, Abigail; Hepper, Erica G; Hart, Claire M; Swift, Louise; Rowe, Angela C

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a universal human attachment behavior, little is known about individual differences in crying. To facilitate such examination we first recommend shortened versions of the attitudes and proneness sections of the Adult Crying Inventory using two independent samples. Importantly, we examine attachment orientation differences in crying proneness and test the mediating role of attitudes toward crying in this relationship. Participants (Sample 1 N = 623, Sample 2 N = 781), completed online measures of adult attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety), attitudes toward crying, and crying proneness. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 revealed four factors for crying attitudes: crying helps one feel better; crying is healthy; hatred of crying; and crying is controllable; and three factors for crying proneness: threat to self; sadness; and joy. Confirmatory factor analyses in Sample 2 replicated these structures. Theoretically and statistically justified short forms of each scale were created. Multiple mediation analyses revealed similar patterns of results across the two samples, with the attitudes "crying is healthy" and "crying is controllable" consistently mediating the positive links between attachment anxiety and crying proneness, and the negative links between attachment avoidance and crying proneness. Results are discussed in relation to attachment and emotion regulation literature.

  18. Holding Back the Tears: Individual Differences in Adult Crying Proneness Reflect Attachment Orientation and Attitudes to Crying

    PubMed Central

    Millings, Abigail; Hepper, Erica G.; Hart, Claire M.; Swift, Louise; Rowe, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a universal human attachment behavior, little is known about individual differences in crying. To facilitate such examination we first recommend shortened versions of the attitudes and proneness sections of the Adult Crying Inventory using two independent samples. Importantly, we examine attachment orientation differences in crying proneness and test the mediating role of attitudes toward crying in this relationship. Participants (Sample 1 N = 623, Sample 2 N = 781), completed online measures of adult attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety), attitudes toward crying, and crying proneness. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 revealed four factors for crying attitudes: crying helps one feel better; crying is healthy; hatred of crying; and crying is controllable; and three factors for crying proneness: threat to self; sadness; and joy. Confirmatory factor analyses in Sample 2 replicated these structures. Theoretically and statistically justified short forms of each scale were created. Multiple mediation analyses revealed similar patterns of results across the two samples, with the attitudes “crying is healthy” and “crying is controllable” consistently mediating the positive links between attachment anxiety and crying proneness, and the negative links between attachment avoidance and crying proneness. Results are discussed in relation to attachment and emotion regulation literature. PMID:27458402

  19. Child-orientated environmental education influences adult knowledge and household behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damerell, P.; Howe, C.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2013-03-01

    Environmental education is frequently undertaken as a conservation intervention designed to change the attitudes and behaviour of recipients. Much conservation education is aimed at children, with the rationale that children influence the attitudes of their parents, who will consequently change their behaviour. Empirical evidence to substantiate this suggestion is very limited, however. For the first time, we use a controlled trial to assess the influence of wetland-related environmental education on the knowledge of children and their parents and household behaviour. We demonstrate adults exhibiting greater knowledge of wetlands and improved reported household water management behaviour when their child has received wetland-based education at Seychelles wildlife clubs. We distinguish between ‘folk’ knowledge of wetland environments and knowledge obtained from formal education, with intergenerational transmission of each depending on different factors. Our study provides the first strong support for the suggestion that environmental education can be transferred between generations and indirectly induce targeted behavioural changes.

  20. Orientation and navigation during adult transport between nests in the ant Cataglypis iberica.

    PubMed

    Fourcassie, V; Dahbi, A; Cerdá, X

    2000-08-01

    Cataglyphis iberica is a polydomous ant species in which adult transports between nests are frequently observed. When pairs of workers were captured and released at the same location, the transporters (Ts) field directly towards their destination nest and reached it in most of the cases. The transportees (Te), on the other hand, fled in the opposite direction and only a third of them eventually reached their nest of departure. Additional experiments suggest that this result may be explained by the fact that the Ts ants have a memory of the compass direction of the nest they are heading to and that they adjust their course by using a sequence of memorised landmarks. As regards to the Te, the reversal of their direction of transport seems to be based essentially on celestial cues.

  1. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Results from Prospective Cohort Studies of Chinese Adults in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Danxia; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Huang, Jie; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Protective associations of fruit and vegetables against coronary heart disease (CHD) have been suggested in many epidemiological studies among Western populations. However, prospective data are lacking for Asian populations. We examined the associations of fruit and vegetable intake with incidence of CHD among 67,211 women (40–70 years) and 55,474 men (40–74 years) living in Shanghai, China. Food intake was assessed using validated food-frequency questionnaires through in-person interviews. Coronary events (nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD) were identified by biennial home visits and further confirmed by medical records review. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 and 5.4 years, 148 events in women and 217 events in men were documented and verified, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, women in the highest quartile of total fruit and vegetable intake (median: 814 g/d) had a hazard ratio (HR) for CHD of 0.62 (95% CI 0.38, 1.02) (P for trend=0.04) compared with those in the lowest quartile (median: 274 g/d). This association was primarily driven by fruits (the HR for the highest vs. the lowest intake in women: 0.62; 95% CI, 0.37, 1.03). The strength of the association was attenuated after further controlling for history of diabetes or hypertension. For men, no significant association was found for fruit and vegetable intake when analyzed either in combination or individually. Our findings suggest that a high consumption of fruits may reduce the risk of CHD in Chinese women. PMID:23866068

  2. The Relationship between Background Demographics and Motivational Orientation for Learning of Adult Education Students and Their Career Choices and Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostwick, Dana T.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated what components of background demographics and motivation orientation in learning impact career selection and educational aspirations for adult students participating in a post-secondary institution in West Virginia, one of the Washington, DC, metropolitan areas. The research boundaries set for the area of learning…

  3. The Protective Role of Ethnic and Racial Identity and Aspects of an Africentric Orientation against Drug Use among African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Pahl, Kerstin

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined (a) the protective potential of multiple components of ethnic and racial identity and (b) the aspects of an Africentric orientation for moderating psychobehavioral risk and protective factors for drug use among a sample of 333 urban low-income African American young adults. Ethnic and racial identity and…

  4. Using the Career Orientation and Planning Profile (COPP) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) To Strengthen Adult Students' Knowledge of Self and of the Work World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Jo

    A study worked with three groups of female students to determine whether using the Career Orientation and Planning Profile (COPP) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) would enable adults to make better career choices the second time around. The students were women in the Access to Careers and Training (ACT) program for unemployed or…

  5. Kinetics of Colonization of Adult Queensland Fruit Flies (Bactrocera tryoni) by Dinitrogen-Fixing Alimentary Tract Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K M; Teakle, D S; Macrae, I C

    1994-07-01

    The average total population of bacteria remained constant in the alimentary tracts of adult laboratory-raised Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) although the insects had ingested large numbers of live bacteria as part of their diet. The mean number of bacteria (about 13 million) present in the gut of the insects from 12 to 55 days after emergence was not significantly modified when, at 5 days after emergence, the flies were fed antibiotic-resistant bacteria belonging to two species commonly isolated from the gut of field-collected B. tryoni. Flies were fed one marked dinitrogen-fixing strain each of either Klebsiella oxytoca or Enterobacter cloacae, and the gastrointestinal tracts of fed flies were shown to be colonized within 7 days by antibiotic-resistant isolates of K. oxytoca but not E. cloacae. The composition of the microbial population also appeared to be stable in that the distribution and frequency of bacterial taxa among individual flies exhibited similar patterns whether or not the flies had been bacteria fed. Isolates of either E. cloacae or K. oxytoca, constituting 70% of the total numbers, were usually dominant, with oxidative species including pseudomonads forming the balance of the population. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be spread from one cage of flies to the adjacent surfaces of a second cage within a few days and had reached a control group several meters distant by 3 weeks. Restriction of marked bacteria to the population of one in five flies sampled from the control group over the next 30 days suggested that the bacterial population in the gut of the insect was susceptible to alteration in the first week after emergence but that thereafter it entered a steady state and was less likely to be perturbed by the introduction of newly encountered strains. All populations sampled, including controls, included at least one isolate of the dinitrogen-fixing family Enterobacteriaceae; many were distinct from the marked strains fed to the

  6. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  7. Effects of Several Newer Insecticides and Kaolin on Oviposition and Adult Mortality in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of newer insecticides and kaolin-based particle film (Surround™ WP Crop Protectant), on oviposition and mortality in the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In a no-choice experiment, azinphos-methyl sprayed on cherries reduced oviposition by 98.5% comp...

  8. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  9. [Helminth control in the adult horse: the need for a re-orientation].

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, H; Schwarzwald, C C; Grimm, F; Frey, C F; Gottstein, B; Gerber, V

    2014-02-01

    The epidemiological situation of strongyle infections in adult horses in Switzerland is characterized by a strong dominance of small strongyles (Cyathostominae) and an overall low level of egg shedding in the faeces. The prevailing attitude towards anthelmintic therapy considers neither husbandry conditions nor pasture hygiene measures. Instead, calendar-based routine medication, comprising usually 3 to 4 annual treatments, is the typical strategy. Such an approach, however, often results in an excessive administration of anthelmintics. With respect to the continuous spread of drug resistant cyathostomins a change of strategy seems inevitable. A consensus has been agreed on between equine parasitologists and clinicians of the Vetsuisse Faculty in Zurich and Berne to focus on the concept of a selective control approach, based on individual faecal egg counts as the central element. It is now recommended that clinically healthy horses (> 4 y) are treated only when their strongyle egg count is equal to or higher than 200 eggs per gram of faeces. A regular analysis of the strongyle population based on larval cultures, the control of drug efficacy, and quarantine measures for incoming horses are mandatory components of the concept. Recent experiences in several pilot farms have indicated that only 4 % of the McMaster analyses resulted in a deworming treatment. For horses that did not receive any nematicidal anthelmintic during the current season, a "safety" treatment is recommended at the end of the grazing period.

  10. Cumulative adversity and depressive symptoms among older adults in Israel: the differential roles of self-oriented versus other-oriented events of potential trauma

    PubMed Central

    Shmotkin, Dov; Litwin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Background The study examined the association between cumulative adversity and current depressive symptoms in a national sample of Israelis aged 50+. Referring to cumulative adversity as exposure to potentially traumatic events along life, the study distinguished between events primarily inflicted upon the self (self-oriented adversity) versus upon another person (other-oriented adversity). Method Data were drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). During 2005–2006, 1710 Jews and Arabs completed an inventory of potentially traumatic events and two measures of depressive symptoms: the European Depression scale (Euro-D) and the Adapted Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression scale (ACES-D). The Euro-D is more detailed in querying cognitions and motivations while the ACES-D is more detailed in querying feelings and social alienation. Results In line with the hypothesis, self-oriented adversity had a positive association with depressive symptoms whereas other-oriented adversity had either no association or an inverse association with depressive symptoms. Sociodemographic characteristics and perceived health were controlled in the multivariate regressions. Conclusions The differential association of self- versus other-oriented adversity with depressive symptoms may be explained in terms of social commitments that are inherent in other-oriented adversity and incompatible with depressive symptoms. The study points to the variations in the symptom compositions represented by the Euro-D and ACES-D, with the latter better capturing the difference between self- and other-oriented adversities. PMID:19288036

  11. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  12. Low consumption of fruits and dairy foods is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults from outpatient clinics in and near Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Song, SuJin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soyoung; Shin, Sangah; Song, YoonJu; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS Study subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from four outpatient clinics in and near the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea between 2006 and 2012. A total of 668 subjects (413 men and 255 women) aged ≥ 30 y were included in the final data analyses. For each subject, daily nutrient intake and food consumption were calculated using three days of dietary intake data obtained from a combination of 24-hour recalls and dietary records. To evaluate food consumption, mean number of servings consumed per day and percentages of recommended number of servings for six food groups were calculated. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The general linear model was performed to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS Nutrient intake did not differ by the presence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Men with metabolic syndrome had lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for fruits compared with those without metabolic syndrome (1.6 vs. 1.1 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 63.5 vs. 49.5%, P-value = 0.013). Women with metabolic syndrome showed lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for dairy foods than those without metabolic syndrome (0.8 vs. 0.5 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 78.6 vs. 48.9%, P-value = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Low intakes of fruits and dairy foods might be associated with the risk of having metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Dietary advice on increasing consumption of these foods is needed to prevent and attenuate the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26425287

  13. Adult diet and male-female contact effects on female reproductive potential in Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) (Diptera tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    Wild strains of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) placed into laboratory rearing conditions are subjected to selection pressures caused by the diet, cages, density of flies, and other factors. Selection that changes mating behavior of the strain may result in less effective males released in sterile insect programs. Tests were performed to examine the effects of protein in diet and adult interactions on egg production and mating during sexual maturation of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) in laboratory cages. Flies were offspring of wild flies collected from Chiapas or Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and reared on Valencia oranges. Experiments demonstrated effects of yeast hydrolysate protein in adult diet and pairing with males on production of mature and immature eggs, numbers of females producing eggs, and mating with females aged 15 d. Addition of protein to 4% fructose in the adult diet approximately tripled mature egg production in females maintained for the total maturation period with an equal number of males. Females that matured without males produced approximately 33% more-mature eggs when fed protein than those fed no protein. Total egg production of females matured without males and fed sugar only or sugar with protein was more than twice that of females matured with males. Tests to examine the effects of male and female diet separately on female egg production showed slightly higher egg production in females fed protein, or females paired with males fed protein, but these differences were not significant. The most definitive effects were that combining wild strain females and males in cages during maturation reduced egg production. This effect was greatest when flies were not fed protein.

  14. Greater Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Lower Osteoporosis Risk in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hui-yuan; He, Juan; Chen, Geng-dong; Chen, Yu-ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective A few studies have suggested that the consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) may benefit bone health, but limited data are available in Asian subjects. We examined the association between FV intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Chinese adults. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study involved 2083 women and 1006 men aged 40–75 years in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary data was collected from a 79-item food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The BMD was measured for the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH) and femur neck (FN) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results After adjustment for potential covariates, we observed dose-dependent associations between total FV intake and BMD and osteoporosis risk. The mean BMD was higher in tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 by 1.33% (TH) and 1.31% (FN) for FV, and 1.10% (WB), 1.57% (TH), and 2.05% (FN) for fruit (all P-trends < 0.05). Significant beneficial associations with BMD at some sites were also found in most fruit categories but not in total vegetables or their subgroups. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of osteoporosis (T-score ≤ −2.5) in tertile 3 (vs. 1) were 0.73 (0.58–0.92), 0.37 (0.22–0.60), and 0.71 (0.52–0.97) for FV; 0.82 (0.66–1.03), 0.48 (0.30–0.77) and 0.89 (0.61–1.12) for fruit; and 0.80 (0.64–1.01), 0.57 (0.35–0.92) and 0.76 (0.55–1.05) for vegetables at the LS, TH, and FN, respectively. The favorable association between FV intake and the occurrence of osteoporosis was evident only in subjects with lower BMI (<24.0 kg/m2, P-trends < 0.05). Conclusions Greater intake of FV was independently associated with a higher BMD and a lower presence of osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects with lower BMI. Fruit tended to have more contribution to the favorable association than vegetables. PMID:28045945

  15. Effects of a fruit and host-derived compound on orientation and oviposition in Utetes anastrephae, a little studied opiine braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Anastrepha spp. fruit flies (Tephritidae:Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentative biological control of tephritid fruit flies would benefit from: 1) synthetic attractants to monitor the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids and 2) synthetic oviposition stimulants to more economical to produce parasitoid species that are now prohibitively costly to mass-rear....

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Fruit Extract on Serum Lipids and hs-CRP Levels and Oxidative Stress in Adult Patients with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasool; Hakimi, Mustafa; Asgary, Sedigheh; Ghanadian, Syed Mustafa; Keshvari, Mahtab; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia produces atherosclerosis, which in turn results in coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherosclerosis is being considered as an inflammatory disease. Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. is a plant with fruits rich in anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fruit extract of this plant on serum levels of lipids, hs-CRP, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress, in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 50 hyperlipidemic adult patients were randomly and equally assigned to receive either medicinal (V. arctostaphylos fruit extract) or placebo capsules twice daily for 4 weeks. Each medicinal capsule contained 45 ± 2 mg of anthocyanins. Fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, hs-CRP, and MDA were obtained before and after the intervention and compared. Results. V. arctostaphylos fruit extract significantly reduced total cholesterol (P < 0.001), LDL-C (P = 0.004), TG (P < 0.001), and MDA (P = 0.013) compared to placebo but did not have any significant effect on HDL-C (P = 0.631) and hs-CRP (P = 0.190). Conclusion. Fruit extract of Vaccinium arctostaphylos has beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Therefore, it could be considered as a supplement for treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of atherosclerosis development.

  17. Metabolic impact of 100% fruit juice consumption on antioxidant/oxidant status and lipid profiles of adults: An Evidence-Based review.

    PubMed

    Crowe-White, Kristi; Parrott, J Scott; Stote, Kim S; Gutschall, Melissa; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; O'Neil, Carol E; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula

    2017-01-02

    One hundred percent fruit juice (FJ) contains bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. As such, this fruit form has the potential to improve antioxidant status and mediate outcomes influenced by redox status. A systematic review of the literature published between 1995 and 2013 was conducted using PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% FJ and markers of antioxidant/oxidant status and blood lipid levels in healthy, free-living adults ≥18 years. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Limited evidence from ten clinical trials meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria suggests potential improvements in a variety of antioxidant or oxidants biomarkers postconsumption of 100% FJ. Weak evidence from five studies suggests that one or more blood lipid measures may be positively influenced by consumption of 100% FJ. Heterogeneity in study methodology including biomarkers, 100% FJ type, dosage, and intervention duration precludes the ability to make evidence-based recommendations regarding a specific dose-duration-juice effect. Key characteristics in study designs were identified which must either be controlled or statistically adjusted for in future investigations in order to obtain a more accurate understanding of the complex relationship between metabolic outcomes and consumption of 100% FJ in context of a healthy dietary pattern.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. fruit extract on serum inflammatory biomarkers in adult hyperlipidemic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Soltani, Rasool; Mirvakili, Saeide; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition. Many pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) are expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. The plants of genus Vaccinium are rich in anthocyanins with anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract on the serum level of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia to detect its possible inhibitory effects on progression of atherosclerosis. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, eligible hyperlipidemic patients were randomly and equally divided in to two groups of study drug or placebo control to receive either the Vaccinium extract or placebo capsules, respectively, twice daily for four consecutive weeks. Each drug capsule contained 0.8 mg of anthocyanins. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured before and after the interventions and finally were compared.A total of 8 men and 12 women in drug group as well as 11 men and 9 women in placebo group completed the study (P = 0.527). The use of Vaccinium extract significantly reduced only the IL-6 level (P = 0.037); however, this reduction was not significant compared to placebo (P = 0.062). Consumption of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract with the dose of 500 mg twice daily did not show any significant effect on serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult hyperlipidemic patients. However, considering slight decrease in the level of IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, the use of higher doses with longer duration might have significant effects on these factors. PMID:27651815

  19. More Active Living-oriented County and Municipal Zoning is Associated with Increased Adult Leisure Time Physical Activity-United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Nicholson, Lisa M; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA.

  20. More Active Living–oriented County and Municipal Zoning is Associated with Increased Adult Leisure Time Physical Activity—United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Nicholson, Lisa M.; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA. PMID:27587898

  1. Adults with dyslexia can use cues to orient and constrain attention but have a smaller and weaker attention spotlight.

    PubMed

    Moores, Elisabeth; Tsouknida, Effie; Romani, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    We report results from two experiments assessing distribution of attention and cue use in adults with dyslexia (AwD) and in a group of typically reading controls. Experiment 1 showed normal effects of cueing in AwD, with faster responses when probes were presented within a cued area and normal effects of eccentricity and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). In addition, AwD showed stronger benefits of a longer SOA when they had to move attention farther, and stronger effects of inclusion on the left, suggesting that cueing is particularly important in more difficult conditions. Experiment 2 tested the use of cues in a texture detection task involving a wider range of eccentricities and a shorter SOA. In this paradigm, focused attention at the central location is actually detrimental and cueing further reduces performance. Thus, if AwD have a more distributed attention, they should show a reduced performance drop at central locations and, if they do not use cues, they should show less negative effects of cueing. In contrast, AwD showed a larger drop and a positive effect of cueing. These results are better accounted for by a smaller and weaker spotlight of attention. Performance does not decrease at central locations because the attentional spotlight is already deployed with maximum intensity, which cannot be further enhanced at central locations. Instead, use of cueing helps to focus limited resources. Cues orient attention to the right area without enhancing it to the point where this is detrimental for texture detection. Implications for reading are discussed.

  2. The Effectiveness of Health Literacy Oriented Programs on Physical Activity Behaviour in Middle Aged and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theory-based intervention with respect to patients’ cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior. PMID:27403464

  3. The Effectiveness of Health Literacy Oriented Programs on Physical Activity Behaviour in Middle Aged and Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Leung, Angela Yee-Man

    2016-06-23

    Health literacy is the first step to self-management of type II diabetes mellitus, of which physical activity is the least compliant behavior. However, no reviews have summarized the effect and the process of interventions of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This article is the first to examine the effectiveness of health literacy oriented programs on physical activity behavior among middle aged and older adults with type II diabetes mellitus. This systematic review extracted articles from nine electronic databases between 1990 and 2013. Six interventional studies were extracted and reported in accordance with the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Findings demonstrated that health literacy oriented programs increased the frequency and duration of physical activity among patients with high health literacy. Although some studies effectively improved the health literacy of physical activity, gap in literature remains open for the indistinct and unreliable measurement of physical activity within self-management programs of type II diabetes mellitus, and the questionable cross-culture generalizability of findings. Further studies with well-knit theory-based intervention with respect to patients' cultural background, duration of intervention and objective measurements are encouraged to elucidate the relationship between health literacy oriented programs and physical activity behavior.

  4. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs. PMID:26938555

  5. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Aggarwal, Anju; Vermeylen, Francoise; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH) has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54 ± 15 years) residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p = 0.001; men: p = 0.003). There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.). Females reported eating significantly (p < 0.001) more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption. PMID:26925111

  6. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults.

    PubMed

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19-55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. "Taste" was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  7. Age Differences in Attachment Orientations among Younger and Older Adults: Evidence from Two Self-Report Measures of Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Daniel L.; Needham, Tracy N.; Coolidge, Frederick L.

    2009-01-01

    The attachment patterns of younger and older adults were studied using two-dimensional self-report measures of adult attachment. Community-dwelling younger (n = 144, M = 22.5 years, SD = 3.6) and older (n = 106, M = 68.6 years, SD = 8.3) adults completed the Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ; Carver, 1997) and the Relationship Style…

  8. Effect of larval host food substrate on egg load dynamics, egg size and adult female size in four species of braconid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Lizette; Sivinski, John; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Life history theory predicts that individuals will allocate resources to different traits so as to maximize overall fitness. Because conditions experienced during early development can have strong downstream effects on adult phenotype and fitness, we investigated how four species of synovigenic, larval-pupal parasitoids that vary sharply in their degree of specialization (niche breadth) and life history (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Opius hirtus and Utetes anastrephae), allocate resources acquired during the larval stage towards adult reproduction. Parasitoid larvae developed in a single host species reared on four different substrates that differed in quality. We measured parasitoid egg load at the moment of emergence and at 24 h, egg numbers over time, egg size, and also adult size. We predicted that across species the most specialized would have a lower capacity to respond to changes in host substrate quality than wasps with a broad host range, and that within species, females that emerged from hosts that developed in better quality substrates would have the most resources to invest in reproduction. Consistent with our predictions, the more specialized parasitoids were less plastic in some responses to host diet than the more generalist. However, patterns of egg load and size were variable across species. In general, there was a remarkable degree of reproductive effort-allocation constancy within parasitoid species. This may reflect more "time-limited" rather than "egg-limited" foraging strategies where the most expensive component of reproductive success is to locate and handle patchily-distributed and fruit-sequestered hosts. If so, egg costs, independent of degree of specialization, are relatively trivial and sufficient resources are available in fly larvae stemming from all of the substrates tested.

  9. [Fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    Fruits and vegetables are particularly interesting for health for their content in minerals, antioxidant vitamins, phytochemicals and dietary fiber. All these substances are related to lower risk for the development of health probems, such as certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, constipation or diverticolsys. The sound basis of scientific evidence led European and American scientific organizations and societies to recommend an intake up to 150-200 g of vegetables every day; ie. 2 or more portions daily and 3 or more portions of fruit; five portions of fruit and vegetables all together. According to the consumer panel from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, between the late 80s and the end of the 90s. consumption of fruit and vegetables decreased. However, in late years this trend has slow down and even reversed. Results from food consumption studies based on individual level assessment in Spain estimate an average consumption of fruit and vegetables of 154 g/per person/day in adults aged 25-60 yr. Prevalence of inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables is high among children and young people. In this age group above 70% of the population consume less than 3 portions of fruit every day on average. Reorientation of prevailing food patterns nowadays require investment in measures aimed at increasing the consumption of plant foods and estimulate healthy food habits in families.

  10. Why Adult Stem Cell Functionality Declines with Age? Studies from the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Oren; Toledano, Hila

    2014-01-01

    Highly regenerative adult tissues are supported by rare populations of stem cells that continuously divide to self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. This process is tightly regulated by signals emanating from surrounding cells to fulfill the dynamic demands of the tissue. One of the hallmarks of aging is slow and aberrant tissue regeneration due to deteriorated function of stem and supporting cells. Several Drosophila regenerative tissues are unique in that they provide exact identification of stem and neighboring cells in whole-tissue anatomy. This allows for precise tracking of age-related changes as well as their targeted manipulation within the tissue. In this review we present the stem cell niche of Drosophila testis, ovary and intestine and describe the major changes and phenotypes that occur in the course of aging. Specifically we discuss changes in both intrinsic properties of stem cells and their microenvironment that contribute to the decline in tissue functionality. Understanding these mechanisms in adult Drosophila tissues will likely provide new paradigms in the field of aging. PMID:24955030

  11. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20–30 years

    PubMed Central

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20–30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003–2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ2 was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Results: Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20–7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. Conclusion: EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults

  12. Fruit Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...

  13. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI among U.S. adolescents and young adults in three race/ethnicity groups.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Blood, Emily A; Milliren, Carly E; Calzo, Jerel P; Richmond, Tracy K; Gooding, Holly C; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I-IV (1995-2009) of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11-34 years), we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2) over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities.

  14. Endorsement and Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones Among Sexual Minority Young Adults in the Growing Up Today Study.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-02-01

    This research examined endorsement and timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones. Participants were 1,235 females and 398 males from the Growing Up Today Study, ages 22 to 29 years, who endorsed a sexual minority orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) or reported same-gender sexual behavior (heterosexual with same-gender sexual experience). An online survey measured current sexual orientation and endorsement and timing (age first experienced) of five sexual orientation developmental milestones: same-gender attractions, other-gender attractions, same-gender sexual experience, other-gender sexual experience, and sexual minority identification. Descriptive analyses and analyses to test for gender and sexual orientation group differences were conducted. Results indicated that women were more likely than men to endorse same-gender attraction, other-gender attraction, and other-gender sexual experience, with the most gender differences in endorsement among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. In general, men reached milestones earlier than women, with the most gender differences in timing among lesbian and gay individuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. Results suggest that the three sexual minority developmental milestones may best characterize the experiences of lesbians, gay males, and female and male bisexuals. More research is needed to understand sexual orientation development among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience.

  15. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  16. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (<30 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p < .001). Attachment scales were significant predictors of BPD features across all age groups, but different scales were relevant in different age groups. Our results suggest that in nonclinical populations, BPD may represent a complex constellation of personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  17. Differences by Sexual Orientation in Expectations About Future Long-Term Care Needs Among Adults 40 to 65 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Shippee, Tetyana P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether and how lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults between 40 and 65 years of age differ from heterosexual adults in long-term care (LTC) expectations. Methods. Our data were derived from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. We used ordered logistic regression to compare the odds of expected future use of LTC among LGB (n = 297) and heterosexual (n = 13 120) adults. We also used logistic regression models to assess the odds of expecting to use specific sources of care. All models controlled for key socioeconomic characteristics. Results. Although LGB adults had greater expectations of needing LTC in the future than their heterosexual counterparts, that association was largely explained by sociodemographic and health differences. After control for these differentials, LGB adults were less likely to expect care from family and more likely to expect to use institutional care in old age. Conclusions. LGB adults may rely more heavily than heterosexual adults on formal systems of care. As the older population continues to diversify, nursing homes and assisted living facilities should work to ensure safety and culturally sensitive best practices for older LGB groups. PMID:26378822

  18. Adolescent experiences of discrimination, harassment, connectedness to community and comfort with sexual orientation reported by adult men who have sex with men as a predictor of adult HIV status.

    PubMed

    Raymond, H Fisher; Chen, Yea-Hung; Stall, Ron D; McFarland, Willi

    2011-04-01

    Using data from a probability based sample of adult men who have sex with men (MSM) we examined the association of negative life factors during adolescence and adult HIV status. 521 MSM reported on experiences of connectedness to community, comfort with sexuality, harassment and discrimination due to their sexual orientation at ages 12-18 years. HIV status was determined by serological testing. Overall, men reported moderate levels of being harassed, being discriminated against and high levels of feeling disconnected from gay communities while reporting high levels of being uncomfortable with their sexuality at those ages. However, in analyses of scores on these factors, higher experiences of harassment, higher levels of discrimination and more discomfort with sexuality at these ages are associated with HIV-negative status as adults. This study suggests that the relationship between negative adolescent experiences among MSM and adult HIV infection may not be straightforward, but may also dependent upon aspects of the intensity of the negative experiences, the relationship of the victim and the perpertrator(s), the sexual identity of the victim at the time and/or the number of these experiences or the length of time over which they occurred. Studies investigating specific multiple stressors in adolescent gay development and their effect on adult health outcomes are needed.

  19. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  20. Genetic analysis of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations based on mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 gene sequences from India and other Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Lemtur, Moanaro

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the genetic diversity and demographic history of Bactrocera dorsalis, a destructive and polyphagous insect pest of fruit crops in diverse geographic regions of India. 19 widely dispersed populations of the fly from India and other Asian countries were analysed using partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) genes to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history in the region. Genetic diversity indices [number of haplotypes (H), haloptype diversity (Hd), nucleotide diversity (π) and average number of nucleotide difference (k)] of populations revealed that B. dorsalis maintains fairly high level of genetic diversity without isolation by distance among the geographic regions. Demographic analysis showed significant (negative) Tajimas' D and Fu's F S with non significant sum of squared deviations (SSD) values, which indicate the possibility of recent sudden expansion of species and is further supported through distinctively star-like distribution structure of haplotypes among populations. Thus, the results indicate that both ongoing and historical factors have played important role in determining the genetic structure and diversity of the species in India. Consequently, sterile insect technique (SIT) could be a possible management strategy of species in the regions.

  1. The effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of individualistic-collectivistic value orientations on non-fatal suicidal behavior and attitudes in Turkish adolescents and young adults. A questionnaire containing measures of individualism, collectivism (INDCOL), non-fatal suicidal behaviors and suicidal attitudes was used to collect the data. The results showed that both suicidal ideation and attempts were significantly more frequent in participants classified as individualist than those who were classified as collectivist on the basis of INDCOL scale scores. Participants with individualistic tendencies displayed more permissive attitudes toward suicide than those with collectivistic tendencies but collectivists believed to a greater extent than the individualists that people should communicate suicidal problems to others. Participants with collectivistic tendencies showed more accepting and helping reactions to an imagined suicidal friend than those with individualistic tendencies. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common among adolescents than young adults. The findings suggest that individualistic and collectivistic value orientations and developmental status specific stressors play a role in the distribution of nonfatal suicidal behavior and the nature of suicidal attitudes.

  2. Orientation of apples using their inertial properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Machine vision has the potential to improve quality and safety of fruit available for consumption. However, lack of an effective and inexpensive method for appropriately orienting fruit for imaging has hindered development of optical technologies for sorting fruit. For example, it is difficult to di...

  3. Sexual orientation disparities in smoking vary by sex and household smoking among US adults: Findings from the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Reisner, Sari L.; Mereish, Ethan H.; Matthews, Alicia K.; Operario, Don

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether sexual orientation-related smoking disparities in males and females varied by household smoking behaviors in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods Data were drawn from the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which assessed 14,972 individuals ages 20 to 59 years for sexual orientation, current smoking status, and household smoking. Weighted multivariable logistic models were fit to examine whether differences in current smoking status among sexual minority adults compared to heterosexuals was moderated by household smoking and sex, adjusting for covariates. Results The main effects of identifying as a sexual minority, being male, and living with a household smoker were all associated with a significantly higher odds of being a current smoker. However, there also was a significant three-way interaction among these variables (AOR=3.75, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.54). Follow-up analyses by sex indicated that the interaction between sexual identity and household smoking was significant for both males (AOR=6.40, 95% CI: 1.27, 32.28) and females (AOR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.81) but was in the opposite direction. Among male, living with a smoker was associated more strongly with greater odds of smoking among gay and bisexual males, compared to heterosexual males. In contrast, among females, living with a smoker was more strongly associated with greater odds of smoking for heterosexuals compared to lesbians and bisexuals. Conclusions Future research is warranted to examine characteristics of households, including smoking behaviors and composition, to guide more effective and tailored smoking cessation interventions for males and females by sexual orientation. PMID:26598804

  4. Reflexive orienting in response to short- and long-duration gaze cues in young, young-old, and old-old adults.

    PubMed

    Gayzur, Nora D; Langley, Linda K; Kelland, Chris; Wyman, Sara V; Saville, Alyson L; Ciernia, Annie T; Padmanabhan, Ganesh

    2014-02-01

    Shifting visual focus on the basis of the perceived gaze direction of another person is one form of joint attention. In the present study, we investigated whether this socially relevant form of orienting is reflexive and whether it is influenced by age. Green and Woldorff (Cognition 122:96-101, 2012) argued that rapid cueing effects (i.e., faster responses to validly than to invalidly cued targets) were limited to conditions in which a cue overlapped in time with a target. They attributed slower responses following invalid cues to the time needed to resolve the incongruent spatial information provided by the concurrently presented cue and target. In the present study, we examined the orienting responses of young (18-31 years), young-old (60-74 years), and old-old (75-91 years) adults following uninformative central gaze cues that overlapped in time with the target (Exp. 1) or that were removed prior to target presentation (Exp. 2). When the cue and target overlapped, all three groups localized validly cued targets more quickly than invalidly cued targets, and validity effects emerged earlier for the two younger groups (at 100 ms post-cue-onset) than for the old-old group (at 300 ms post-cue-onset). With a short-duration cue (Exp. 2), validity effects developed rapidly (by 100 ms) for all three groups, suggesting that validity effects resulted from reflexive orienting based on the gaze cue information rather than from cue-target conflict. Thus, although old-old adults may be slow to disengage from persistent gaze cues, attention continues to be reflexively guided by gaze cues late in life.

  5. Three-dimensional precise orientation of bilateral auricular trial prosthesis using a facebow for a young adult with Crouzon syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu; Tamrakar, Amit Kumar; Kundu, Renu; Yunus, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Facial deformity can be debilitating, especially in the psychological and cosmetic aspects. Although surgical correction or replacement of deformed or missing parts is the ideal treatment, prosthetic replacement serves the purpose in case of surgical limitations. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a missing auricle is an acceptable option as it provides better control over the tortuous anatomical shape and shade of the missing portion. Improper spatial orientation of the prosthetic ear on the face can damage the results of even the most aesthetic prosthesis. This case report describes a simple and innovative method for precise spatial orientation of auricular trial prosthesis using a facebow and custom-made adjustable mechanical retention design using stainless steel wire. PMID:25096652

  6. Three-dimensional precise orientation of bilateral auricular trial prosthesis using a facebow for a young adult with Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rathee, Manu; Tamrakar, Amit Kumar; Kundu, Renu; Yunus, Nadeem

    2014-08-05

    Facial deformity can be debilitating, especially in the psychological and cosmetic aspects. Although surgical correction or replacement of deformed or missing parts is the ideal treatment, prosthetic replacement serves the purpose in case of surgical limitations. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a missing auricle is an acceptable option as it provides better control over the tortuous anatomical shape and shade of the missing portion. Improper spatial orientation of the prosthetic ear on the face can damage the results of even the most aesthetic prosthesis. This case report describes a simple and innovative method for precise spatial orientation of auricular trial prosthesis using a facebow and custom-made adjustable mechanical retention design using stainless steel wire.

  7. Associations of Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones and Other Sexual Minority Stressors with Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-07

    Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.

  8. [Effect of the active adult learning/patient oriented clerkship on affective reaction of students ∼ from the results of student survey].

    PubMed

    Saito, Isao; Kogo, Mari; Kobayashi, Aya; Watanabe, Toru; Abe, Seiji; Fuke, Shunya; Wakabayashi, Hitomi; Miyano, Masahiro; Karasawa, Koji; Ohto, Yuji; Okazaki, Keinosuke; Hoshi, Akane; Ohtaki, Yumi; Heito, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fujiwara, Hisato; Yagi, Hitoshi; Ichikura, Daisuke; Ishii, Ayako; Yamada, Kyohei; Sugisawa, Satoshi; Kato, Yukihisa; Murayama, Jun-Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported the efficacy of the Patient Oriented Clerkship (POC) in the clinical clerkship in Showa University Hospitals, by a trial with old four-year pharmacy program students. In the unique clerkship, each student has a patient in charge, and follows his/her clinical conditions throughout the rotation. The aim of the POC is that having the students learn spontaneously (Active Learning) and actively (Adult Learning) promoted by student's commitment and responsibility by communicating with patients and health professionals in a team. As the POC requires students both Active Learning and Adult Learning, we define the POC as Active Adult Learning (AAL). Having a patient in charge for each student gives them many opportunities to participate in the medical team and foster their problem solving skills. Our previous study eventually showed positive results of the POC in the one-month short clerkship in the four-year program. On the other hand, the effect of the unique hospital clerkship in the new six-year program is not known. We conducted a student survey to clarify the learning effect in the new six-year education system which was revised and 2.5 month clinical clerkship was scheduled according to the model core clerkship curriculum. This report is the first report to show a challenge of the AAL/POC clerkship in the new six-year pharmacy education program.

  9. Adult Attachment, Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation, and Depression in Gay Males: Examining the Mediation and Moderation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen

    2006-01-01

    This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…

  10. Effect of the Web-Based Intervention MyPlan 1.0 on Self-Reported Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults Who Visit General Practice: A Quasi-Experimental Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crombez, Geert; Van der Mispel, Celien; Verloigne, Maite; Van Stappen, Vicky; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions typically have small intervention effects on adults’ health behavior because they primarily target processes leading to an intention to change leaving individuals in an intention-behavior gap, they often occur without contact with health care providers, and a limited amount of feedback is provided only at the beginning of these interventions, but not further on in the behavior change process. Therefore, we developed a Web-based intervention (“MyPlan 1.0”) to promote healthy behavior in adults. The intervention was based on a self-regulation perspective that also targets postintentional processes and guides individuals during all phases of behavior change. Objective The study investigated the effectiveness of MyPlan1.0 on fruit and vegetable intake of Flemish adults visiting general practice (3 groups: control group, intervention group recruited by researchers, and intervention group recruited and guided by general practitioners [GPs]). Second, it examined whether there was a larger intervention effect for the intervention group guided by GPs compared to the intervention group recruited by researchers. Methods Adults (≥18 years) were recruited in 19 Flemish general practices. In each general practice, patients were systematically allocated by a researcher either for the intervention group (researchers’ intervention group) or the waiting-list control group that received general advice. In a third group, the GP recruited adults for the intervention (GPs intervention group). The two intervention groups filled in evaluation questionnaires and received MyPlan 1.0 for a behavior of choice (fruit, vegetable, or physical activity). The waiting-list control group filled in the evaluation questionnaires and received only general information. Self-reported fruit and vegetable intake were assessed at baseline (T0), 1 week (T1), and 1 month (T2) postbaseline. Three-level (general practice, adults, time) linear regression models were

  11. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  12. Sexual-orientation disparities in substance use in emerging adults: a function of stress and attachment paradigms.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Calzo, Jerel; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-09-01

    More lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths than heterosexuals report substance use. We examined a theoretical model to understand these disparities in lifetime and past-year substance use by means of stress and attachment paradigms, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants are the children of participants in NHSII; thus, child and maternal data are available. In addition, GUTS contains siblings, allowing for comparisons of LGB and heterosexual siblings. Of 5,647 GUTS youths (M = 20.6 years old in 2005), 1.6% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.6% bisexual (BI), 9.9% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.9% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for sibling clustering in GUTS and covariates, significantly more sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) than CHs reported lifetime and past-year smoking, nonmarijuana illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse. More sexual minorities also reported marijuana use in the past year. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were moderated by the stress markers: As mother's discomfort with homosexuality increased, more BIs and MHs than CHs used substances. As childhood gender nonconforming behaviors increased, more LGs than CHs used substances. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were mediated by attachment and maternal affection (percent of effect mediated ranged from 5.6% to 16.8%% for lifetime substance use and 4.9% to 24.5% for past-year use). In addition, sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities reported more substance use, more childhood gender nonconforming behaviors, and less secure attachment than CH siblings; mothers reported less affection for their sexual minority than CH offspring. The findings indicate the importance of stress and attachment paradigms for understanding sexual-orientation disparities in substance use.

  13. Sexual-Orientation Disparities in Substance Use in Emerging Adults: A Function of Stress and Attachment Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Wypij, David; Calzo, Jerel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    More lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths than heterosexuals report substance use. We examined a theoretical model to understand these disparities in lifetime and past-year substance use by means of stress and attachment paradigms, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants are the children of participants in NHSII; thus, child and maternal data are available. In addition, GUTS contains siblings, allowing for comparisons of LGB and heterosexual siblings. Of 5,647 GUTS youths (M = 20.6 years old in 2005), 1.6% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.6% bisexual (BI), 9.9% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.9% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for sibling clustering in GUTS and covariates, significantly more sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) than CHs reported lifetime and past-year smoking, non-marijuana illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse. More sexual minorities also reported marijuana use in the past year. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were moderated by the stress markers: As mother's discomfort with homosexuality increased, more BIs and MHs than CHs used substances. As childhood gender nonconforming behaviors increased, more LGs than CHs used substances. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were mediated by attachment and maternal affection (percent of effect mediated ranged from 5.6%–16.8%% for lifetime substance use and 4.9%–24.5% for past-year use). In addition, sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities reported more substance use, more childhood gender nonconforming behaviors, and less secure attachment than CH siblings; mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings indicate the importance of stress and attachment paradigms for understanding sexual-orientation disparities in substance use. PMID:25134050

  14. Disparities in Depressive Distress by Sexual Orientation in Emerging Adults: The Roles of Attachment and Stress Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Wypij, David; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have elevated rates of depression compared to heterosexuals. We proposed and examined a theoretical model to understand whether attachment and stress paradigms explain disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants eligible for this analysis reported sexual orientation, childhood gender nonconforming behaviors (GNBs), attachment to mother (all in 2005), and depressive symptoms (in 2007). Mothers of the GUTS participants who are the NHSII participants reported attitudes toward homosexuality (in 2004) and maternal affection (in 2006). The sample had 6,122 participants. Of GUTS youth (M = 20.6 years old in 2005; 64.4% female), 1.7% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.7% bisexual (BI), 10.0% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.7% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for demographic characteristics and sibling clustering, LGs, BIs, and MHs reported more depressive distress than CHs. This relation was partially mediated (i.e., explained) for LGs, BIs, and MHs relative to CHs by less secure attachment. A conditional relation (i.e., interaction) indicated that BIs reported more distress than CHs as GNBs increased for BIs; no comparable relation was found for LGs vs. CHs. Sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) reported more depressive distress, less secure attachment, and more childhood GNBs than CH siblings; the mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings suggest that attachment and childhood gender nonconformity differentially pattern depressive distress by sexual orientation. Attachment and related experiences are more problematic for sexual minorities than for their CH siblings. PMID:23780518

  15. Disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation in emerging adults: the roles of attachment and stress paradigms.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Frazier, A Lindsay; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-07-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (BI) youth have elevated rates of depression compared to heterosexuals. We proposed and examined a theoretical model to understand whether attachment and stress paradigms explain disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants eligible for this analysis reported sexual orientation, childhood gender nonconforming behaviors (GNBs), attachment to mother (all in 2005), and depressive symptoms (in 2007). Mothers of the GUTS participants who are the NHSII participants reported attitudes toward homosexuality (in 2004) and maternal affection (in 2006). The sample had 6,122 participants. Of GUTS youth (M = 20.6 years old in 2005; 64.4 % female), 1.7 % were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.7 % bisexual (BI), 10.0 % mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.7 % completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for demographic characteristics and sibling clustering, LGs, BIs, and MHs reported more depressive distress than CHs. This relation was partially mediated (i.e., explained) for LGs, BIs, and MHs relative to CHs by less secure attachment. A conditional relation (i.e., interaction) indicated that BIs reported more distress than CHs as GNBs increased for BIs; no comparable relation was found for LGs versus CHs. Sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) reported more depressive distress, less secure attachment, and more childhood GNBs than CH siblings; the mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings suggest that attachment and childhood gender nonconformity differentially pattern depressive distress by sexual orientation. Attachment and related experiences are more problematic for sexual minorities than for their CH siblings.

  16. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh pome fruits produced in Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, J.; Lires, C.; Horak, C.; Pawlak, E.; Docters, A.; Kairiyama, E.

    2009-07-01

    Argentina produces 1.8 million tons/year of apples ( Malus domestica L.) and pears ( Pyrus communis L.) in the Patagonia region. Cydia pomonella, codling moth, and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth, ( Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests in pome fruits. Irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment because a dose of 200 Gy completely prevents pest adult emergence. A pilot irradiation process of commercially packaged 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears was performed in an irradiation facility with a Cobalt 60 source. Quality analyses were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage (1 °C, RH 99%) to evaluate fruit tolerance at 200, 400 and 800 Gy. Irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy had no undesirable effects on fruit quality (pulp firmness, external colour, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluations). Irradiation of 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears can be applied as a commercial quarantine treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 200 Gy (to control codling moth and Oriental fruit moth) and <800 Gy (according to quality results).

  17. Walking direction triggers visuo-spatial orienting in 6-month-old infants and adults: An eye tracking study.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Lara; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Lunghi, Marco; Troje, Nikolaus F; Simion, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigates whether the walking direction of a biological motion point-light display can trigger visuo-spatial attention in 6-month-old infants. A cueing paradigm and the recording of eye movements in a free viewing condition were employed. A control group of adults took part in the experiment. Participants were presented with a central point-light display depicting a walking human, followed by a single peripheral target. In experiment 1, the central biological motion stimulus depicting a walking human could be upright or upside-down and was facing either left or right. Results revealed that the latency of saccades toward the peripheral target was modulated by the congruency between the facing direction of the cue and the position of the target. In infants, as well as in adults, saccade latencies were shorter when the target appeared in the position signalled by the facing direction of the point-light walker (congruent trials) than when the target appeared in the contralateral position (incongruent trials). This cueing effect was present only when the biological motion cue was presented in the upright condition and not when the display was inverted. In experiment 2, a rolling point-light circle with unambiguous direction was adopted. Here, adults were influenced by the direction of the central cue. However no effect of congruency was found in infants. This result suggests that biological motion has a priority as a cue for spatial attention during development.

  18. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THREE ODORANT-BINDING PROTEINS OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH, Grapholita molesta (BUSCK) (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Wei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Yi-Ping; Wu, Jun-Xiang; Xu, Xiang-Li

    2016-02-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) act in insect olfactory processes. OBPs are expressed in the olfactory organs and serve in binding and transport of hydrophobic odorants through the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptor neurons within the antennal sensilla. In this study, three OBP genes were cloned from the antennal transcriptome database of Grapholita molesta via reverse-transcription PCR. Recombinant GmolOBPs (rGmolOBPs) were expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and enriched via Ni ion affinity chromatography. The binding properties of the three rGmolOBPs to four sex pheromones and 30 host-plant volatiles were investigated in fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The results demonstrated that rGmolOBP8, rGmolOBP11, and rGmolOBP15 exhibited high binding affinities with the major sex pheromone components (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate, (Z)-8-dodecenyl alcohol, and dodecanol. The volatiles emitted from peach and pear, decanal, butyl hexanoate, and α-ocimene, also showed binding affinities to rGmolOBP8 and rGmolOBP11. Hexanal, heptanal, and α-pinene showed strong binding affinities to rGmolOBP15. Results of the electrophysiological recording experiments and previous behavior bioassays indicated that adult insects had strong electroantennogram and behavioral responses toward butyl hexanoate, hexanal, and heptanal. We infer that the GmolOBP8 and GmolOBP11 have dual functions in perception and recognition of host-plant volatiles and sex pheromones, while GmolOBP15 was mainly involved in plant volatile odorants' perception.

  19. From trickle to flood: the large-scale, cryptic invasion of California by tropical fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Plant, Richard E.; Carey, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1954, when the first tropical tephritid fruit fly was detected in California, a total of 17 species in four genera and 11 386 individuals (adults/larvae) have been detected in the state at more than 3348 locations in 330 cities. We conclude from spatial mapping analyses of historical capture patterns and modelling that, despite the 250+ emergency eradication projects that have been directed against these pests by state and federal agencies, a minimum of five and as many as nine or more tephritid species are established and widespread, including the Mediterranean, Mexican and oriental fruit flies, and possibly the peach, guava and melon fruit flies. We outline and discuss the evidence for our conclusions, with particular attention to the incremental, chronic and insidious nature of the invasion, which involves ultra-small, barely detectable populations. We finish by considering the implications of our results for invasion biology and for science-based invasion policy. PMID:23926154

  20. Sexual Orientation and Involvement in Nonviolent and Violent Delinquent Behaviors: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Nedelec, Joseph L

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between sexual orientation and nonviolent and violent delinquency across the life course. We analyzed self-reported nonviolent and violent delinquency in a sample of heterosexual males (N = 5220-7023) and females (N = 5984-7875), bisexuals (N = 34-73), gay males (N = 145-189), and lesbians (N = 115-150) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The analyses revealed, in general, that bisexuals were the most delinquent of the sexual orientation categories for both males and females. Additional analyses revealed that heterosexual males reported significantly higher levels of both violent and nonviolent delinquency than gay males, whereas lesbians reported more involvement in nonviolent delinquency and, to a lesser extent, violent delinquency relative to heterosexual females. Analyses also revealed that lesbians reported significantly more delinquent behavior, particularly for nonviolent delinquency, than gay males. Future research should explore the mechanisms that account for these observed patterns and how they can be used to more fully understand the etiology of delinquency.

  1. Memorizing fruit: The effect of a fruit memory-game on children's fruit intake.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anastasiadou, Dimitra Tatiana; Anschütz, Doeschka

    2017-03-01

    Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit (n = 64) or non-food products (n = 63). While playing the memory-game in a separate room in school during school hours, free intake of fruit (mandarins, apples, bananas, and grapes) was measured. Afterwards, the children completed self-report measures, and length and weight were assessed. The main finding is that playing a memory-game containing fruit increases overall fruit intake (P = 0.016). Children who played the fruit version of the memory-game ate more bananas (P = 0.015) and mandarins (P = 0.036) than children who played the non-food memory-game; no effects were found for apples (P > 0.05) and grapes (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that playing a memory-game with fruit stimulates fruit intake among young children. This is an important finding because children eat insufficient fruit, according to international standards, and more traditional health interventions have limited success. Healthy eating habits of children maintain when they become adults, making it important to stimulate fruit intake among children in an enjoyable way.

  2. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development.

    PubMed

    Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our

  3. There is no magic fruit fly trap: multiple biological factors influence the response of adult Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) individuals to MultiLure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2009-02-01

    Field-cage experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of MultiLure traps (Better World MFG Inc., Fresno, CA) baited with NuLure (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, PA) or BioLure (Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR) in capturing individually marked Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), of both sexes. Experimental treatments involved wild and laboratory-reared flies of varying ages (2-4 and 15-18 d) and dietary histories (sugar only, open fruit, open fruit plus chicken feces, and hydrolyzed protein mixed with sugar). Data were divided into two parts: total captures over a 24-h period and trap visits/landings, entrances into interior of trap ,and effective captures (i.e., drowning in liquid bait or water) over a 5-h detailed observation period (0600-1100 hours). The response to the two baits varied by fly species, gender, physiological state, age, and strain. Importantly, there were several highly significant interactions among these factors, underlining the complex nature of the response. The two baits differed in attractiveness for A. obliqua but not A. ludens. The effect of strain (wild versus laboratory flies) was significant for A. ludens but not A. obliqua. For effect of dietary history, adults of both species, irrespective of sex, were significantly less responsive to both baits when fed on a mixture of protein and sugar when compared with adults fed the other diets. Finally, we confirmed previous observations indicating that McPhail-type traps are quite inefficient. Considering the total 24-h fly tenure in the cage, and independent of bait treatment and fly type (i.e., strain, adult diet, gender and age), of a total of 2,880 A. obliqua and 2,880 A. ludens adults released into the field cages over the entire study (15 replicates), only 564 (19.6%) and 174 (6%) individuals, respectively, were effectively caught. When only considering the 5-h detailed

  4. Dental self-care among dentate adults: contrasting problem-oriented dental attenders and regular dental attenders.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, G H; Stoller, E P; Duncan, R P; Earls, J L; Campbell, A M

    2000-01-01

    Self-care behaviors are common and can act as substitutes for or supplements to formal health care services. We tested the hypothesis that problem-oriented dental attenders (POAs) report more dental self-care behaviors than do regular dental attenders (RAs), presumably as a substitute for professional care. The Florida Dental Care Study is a longitudinal cohort study of changes in oral health, in which we measured dental self-care behaviors related to three common dental problems: toothache pain, bleeding gums, and tooth loss. Despite using less dental care, POAs were less likely to report "conventional" methods as means to prevent the three dental problems; however, they were more likely to report that homemade remedies, topical medications, or mouthwashes were ways to prevent or treat these problems. POAs were also more likely to believe that "nothing can be done" to prevent these problems. Additionally, POAs had more negative dental attitudes, used less dental care during follow-up, had more dental disease, were the only persons who extracted at least one of their own teeth, and were more likely to use tobacco. With the exception of dental self-extractions, no single self-care belief or behavior distinguished POAs from RAs, nor were POAs likely to have different explanations for dental problems. Instead, the pattern was one of modest differences on a number of items. Although POAs use less dental care, they do not compensate by employing more "conventional" dental self-care behaviors, but report being more likely to employ "unconventional" behaviors. They also are more likely to believe that nothing can be done to prevent dental problems.

  5. Adolescent sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Spigarelli, Michael G

    2007-12-01

    Sexual orientation has been defined as the patterns of sexual thoughts, fantasies, and attractions that an individual has toward other persons of the same or opposite gender. Throughout childhood and approaching adolescence, children try to understand their own sexuality and sexual orientation in the context of the society in which they live. Typically, this attempt to understand first occurs in thoughts of a sexual nature and later through actions, usually before sexual orientation is clearly defined. How these experiences are handled, by the individual and close friends and relatives, helps to define how an individual views and accepts their sexual orientation ultimately as an adult.

  6. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were...

  7. Fruit and vegetable intake of U.S. adults by two methods: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption vary depending on how intake is defined and the research purpose. Two methods used by researchers to evaluate intake include epidemiological (EPI), which considers all FV defined as cup equivalents (CE) after disaggregating foods and beverages, and b...

  8. Perfectionism and interpersonal orientations in depression: an analysis of validation seeking and rejection sensitivity in a community sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Flett, Gordon L; Besser, Avi; Hewitt, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to uniquely investigate the associations among trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, validation seeking, rejection sensitivity, and depression in a community sample. The authors' primary purpose was to focus on interpersonal orientations as sources of vulnerability that could potentially account for when perfectionism is dysfunctional. A sample of 183 young adults from a community sample completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, and measures of growth seeking, validation seeking, rejection sensitivity, and depressive symptoms. Analyses confirmed that validation seeking was associated positively with all of the perfectionism measures with particularly strong associations between validation seeking and perfectionistic self-presentation. As expected, socially prescribed perfectionism and perfectionistic self-presentation had positive associations with rejection sensitivity. Further analyses established that the associations between interpersonal perfectionism and depressive symptoms were mediated by validation seeking, and socially prescribed perfectionism interacted with high rejection sensitivity to predict higher depressive symptoms. Overall, findings indicate that perfectionists are ego-involved individuals who strive for perfection as a means of proving themselves, and they are hypersensitive to interpersonal cues indicating failure and lack of acceptance from others.

  9. Novel Bait Stations for Attract-and-Kill of Pestiferous Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel, visually attractive bait station was developed in Hawaii for application of insecticidal baits against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The bai...

  10. The use of fruiting synchrony by foraging mangabey monkeys: a 'simple tool' to find fruit.

    PubMed

    Janmaat, K R L; Chapman, C A; Meijer, R; Zuberbühler, K

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a considerable number of primates can remember the location and fruiting state of individual trees in their home range. This enables them to relocate fruit or predict whether previously encountered fruit has ripened. Recent studies, however, suggest that the ability of primates to cognitively map fruit-bearing trees is limited. In this study, we investigated an alternative and arguably simpler, more efficient strategy, the use of synchrony, a botanical characteristic of a large number of fruit species. Synchronous fruiting would allow the prediction of the fruiting state of a large number of trees without having to first check the trees. We studied whether rainforest primates, grey-cheeked mangabeys in the Kibale National Park, Uganda, used synchrony in fruit emergence to find fruit. We analysed the movements of adult males towards Uvariopsis congensis food trees, a strongly synchronous fruiting species with different local patterns of synchrony. Monkeys approached within crown distance, entered and inspected significantly more Uvariopsis trees when the percentage of trees with ripe fruit was high compared to when it was low. Since the effect was also found for empty trees, the monkeys likely followed a synchrony-based inspection strategy. We found no indication that the monkeys generalised this strategy to all Uvariopsis trees within their home range. Instead, they attended to fruiting peaks in local areas within the home range and adjusted their inspective behaviour accordingly revealing that non-human primates use botanical knowledge in a flexible way.

  11. Preservation of a traditional Korean dietary pattern and emergence of a fruit and dairy dietary pattern among adults in South Korea: secular transitions in dietary patterns of a prospective study from 1998 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, Sang Yeun; Wang, Youfa; Lee, Sun Ju; Oh, Kyungwon; Sohn, Chun Young; Moon, Young Myoung; Jee, Sun Ha

    2014-09-01

    Transitions in nutrition patterns tend to emerge through industrialization and economic development. We hypothesized that the dietary patterns among South Korean adults who were 20 years or older have changed significantly from 1998 to 2010. Herein, a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data was followed for 140601 adults. We noted changes in consumption, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and exercise, and tested the trends across the study period. Factor and cluster analyses were used to derive dietary patterns. A decrease in traditional Korean food consumption, including cereals, vegetables (252-176 g), and Kimchi (127-82 g), occurred, whereas fruit (172-252 g), egg, and fried food intakes increased (P < .05). Total daily energy intake declined steadily from 1931 in 1998 to 1691 kcal in 2010. Carbohydrate intakes were unchanged over the study period; however, fat-derived energy intake increased slightly from 19.7% to 20.0% (P < .05). Our factor and cluster analyses identified 3 dietary patterns: "Korean" diet (rice, vegetables, and Kimchi), "Western" diet (soda, eggs, and oil), and "New" diet (low sugar and high fruit and dairy product intakes). Compared to 1998, approximately 40% of participants still followed a Korean diet in 2010. Interestingly, the popularity of the Western diet fell by approximately 20%, whereas the new diet pattern increased 2-fold over the study period. Overall, these data show secular trends in dietary patterns that included a preservation of the traditional Korean diet and the emergence of a new diet pattern, and it demonstrated a unique transition in food and nutrient intakes in Korea.

  12. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  13. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  14. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods.

  15. 100 Things Every Adult College Student Ought To Know: A Self-Orientation Guide with Definitions, Customs, Procedures, and Advice To Assist Adults in Adjusting to the Start of College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Carlette Jackson

    The information for this book was obtained by asking hundreds of adults students, and instructors with experience teaching adult learners, what they felt were the most important things adult students needed to know. Chapter 1, "Getting Started," provides information about what a student needs to know before enrolling in college. It is designed to…

  16. Effects of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) fruit methanol extract on gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, O A; Popoola, Bosede O; Farombi, E O

    2010-09-01

    Xylopia aethiopica (XA) (Annonaceae) possesses great nutritional and medicinal values. This study was designed to investigate the effects of XA fruit methanol extract on oxidative stress in brain of rats exposed to whole body gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 rats each. One group served as control, two different groups were treated with XA and VC (250 mg/kg), 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. The antioxidant status, viz. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated. Results indicate a significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of brain LPO after irradiation. LPO increased by 90% and 151%, after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation, respectively. Irradiation caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in levels of GSH and GST by 61% and 43% after 1 week and, 75% and 73%, respectively, after 8 weeks of exposure. CAT and SOD levels were decreased by 62% and 68%, respectively, after 8 weeks of irradiation. Treatment with XA and VC ameliorated the radiation-induced decreases in antioxidant status of the animals. These suggest that XA could have beneficial effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in brain of exposed rats.

  17. Effectiveness of a sprayable male annihilation treatment with a biopesticide against fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) attacking tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SPLAT-MAT Spinosad ME(aka STATIC Spinosad ME),an "attract and kill" sprayable biopesticide, was evaluated as an area wide suppression treatment against Bactrocera carambolae(Drew & Hancock),carambola fruit fly, in Brazil and Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel),oriental fruit fly, in Hawaii. In Brazil, a sin...

  18. Insecticidal activity of basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Basil oil and its three major active constituents (trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool) obtained from basil (Oscimum basilicum L.) were tested on three tephritid fruit fly species [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] for insecticidal activity. All test chemicals acted fast and showed a steep dose-response relationship. The lethal times for 90% mortality/knockdown (LT90) of the three fly species to 10% of the test chemicals were between 8 and 38 min. The toxic action of basil oil in C. capitata occurred significantly faster than in B. cucurbitae but slightly faster than in B. dorsalis. Estragole acted faster in B. dorsalis than in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae. Linalool action was faster in B. dorsalis and C. capitata than in B. cucurbitae. trans-Anethole action was similar to all three species. Methyl eugenol acted faster in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae than in B. dorsalis. When linalool was mixed with cuelure (attractant to B. cucurbitae male), its potency to the three fly species decreased as the concentration of cuelure increased. This was due to linalool hydrolysis catalyzed by acetic acid from cuelure degradation, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. When methyl eugenol (B. dorsalis male attractant) was mixed with basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, or linalool, it did not affect the toxicity of basil oil and linalool to B. dorsalis, but it did significantly decrease the toxicity of trans-anethole and estragole. Structural similarity between methyl eugenol and trans-anethole and estragole suggests that methyl eugenol might act at a site similar to that of trans-anethole and estragole and serve as an antagonist if an action site exists. Methyl eugenol also may play a physiological role on the toxicity reduction.

  19. Transcriptome of the egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus, an important biocontrol tool for Tephritid fruit fly suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The Braconoid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan) has been utilized for biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), both phytophagous fruit flies pest of economic importance in Hawaii. We have sequenced and assembled t...

  20. Nutritional intakes in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: high intakes of energy and protein based on high consumption of fish, vegetables and fruits provide sufficient micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Reiko; Hanamori, Kiyoko; Kadoya, Hiroko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2004-06-01

    acid, potassium and dietary fiber, phosphorus and vitamin B2, phosphorus and pantothenic acid, iron and folic acid, zinc and vitamin B12, and copper and vitamin B12. From these results, it is evident that age is not an important determinant of dietary intake among apparently healthy elderly Japanese people aged 74 y. In addition, the high intake of energy and protein in the Japanese dietary pattern, based upon high consumption of fish and/or shellfish, vegetables, and fruits, provide sufficient minerals and vitamins.

  1. General and Specific Goal Orientations as Correlates of Adult Student Degree Completion: Lessons from the Community College of the Air Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jeffrey S.; Smith, Albert B.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined degree completion through the lens of Snyder's hope theory (Snyder, 2000) in an effort to expand the research on student retention from Tinto's sociological theory to a theory that focuses on the psychological orientations that might help explain student success. The study focused on a sample of 443 master sergeants enrolled…

  2. Orienteering injuries

    PubMed Central

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering. Imagesp236-ap237-ap237-bp238-ap239-ap240-a PMID:7159815

  3. Sexual Orientation, Adult Connectedness, Substance Use, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Adolescents: Findings From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Kacie S.; Desai, Mayur M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results. The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions. Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812

  4. Orientation and the Young Orienteer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, S. E.; Martland, J. R.

    Orientation within orienteering is dependent on the use of two basic strategies; that is, either a compass or Magnetic-North-based strategy, which relies on the use of one set of information; or the use of a map and landmark-based strategy which relies on the use of at least two sets of information. Walsh and found that, when given the choice, young children use the compass-based strategy when following complex potentially disorientating routes.The efficacy of these two basic orientation strategies was investigated within three different orienteering environments: (1) a familiar known environment; (2) a familiar unknown environment and (3) an unfamiliar unknown environment.Subjects, age range from 9 to 10think aloud particularly the introduction of basic skills to young performers. They support the argument that is essential to introduce the map and compass simultaneously and that relocation and orientation skills should be coached concurrently.

  5. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  6. Feasibility study of utilizing simplified near infrared imaging for detecting fruit fly larvae in intact fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the previous research to classify intact mangoes infested with oriental fruit fly from the control ones using near infrared (NIR) spectra acquired by a spot-type handheld NIR instrument, an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the system by employing NIR imaging technology was conducted. ...

  7. The fruit, the whole fruit, and everything about the fruit.

    PubMed

    Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinéad

    2014-08-01

    Fruits come in an impressive array of shapes, sizes, and consistencies, and also display a huge diversity in biochemical/metabolite profiles, wherein lies their value as rich sources of food, nutrition, and pharmaceuticals. This is in addition to their fundamental function in supporting and dispersing the developing and mature seeds for the next generation. Understanding developmental processes such as fruit development and ripening, particularly at the genetic level, was once largely restricted to model and crop systems for practical and commercial reasons, but with the expansion of developmental genetic and evo-devo tools/analyses we can now investigate and compare aspects of fruit development in species spanning the angiosperms. We can superimpose recent genetic discoveries onto the detailed characterization of fruit development and ripening conducted with primary considerations such as yield and harvesting efficiency in mind, as well as on the detailed description of taxonomically relevant characters. Based on our own experience we focus on two very morphologically distinct and evolutionary distant fruits: the capsule of opium poppy, and the grain or caryopsis of cereals. Both are of massive economic value, but because of very different constituents; alkaloids of varied pharmaceutical value derived from secondary metabolism in opium poppy capsules, and calorific energy fuel derived from primary metabolism in cereal grains. Through comparative analyses in these and other fruit types, interesting patterns of regulatory gene function diversification and conservation are beginning to emerge.

  8. The role of nitric oxide in the effects of cumin (Cuminum Cyminum L.) fruit essential oil on the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Kermani, Mojtaba; Azizi, Pegah; Haghparast, Abbas

    2012-01-12

    OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide is a neural messenger molecule in the central nervous system that is generated from L-arginine via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and is involved in many important oplold-induced effects. In Iranian ancient medicine, Cuminum cyminum L (green seed) has been used for the treatment of some diseases. In the present study, the effect of intraperitoneal (ip) administration of different doses of cumin fruit essential oil (FEO) on the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (GPP) in L-arginine-treated mice was investigated. METHODS: A total of 213 adult male albino Wistar mice were used in these experiments. The CPP paradigm was carried out in 5 continuous days, pre-conditioning, conditioning and post-conditioning. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the two groups for place conditioning. CPP was induced by subcutaneous (sc) injection of morphine (5 mg/kg) in 3 days conditioning schedule. On the test day, conditioning scores and locomotor activity were recorded by Ethovision software. RESULTS: Sole administration of different doses of cumin FEO (0.01%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%; lp) or L-arginine (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; lp) during the CPP protocol could not induce CPP. Nonetheless, morphine-induced CPP was decreased by different doses of cumin FEO (0.01%-2%), whereas it was increased by L-arginine (50-200 mg/kg) when they were injected before morphine (5 rug/kg) during a 3-day conditioning phase (acquisition period). Additionally, cumin FEO could interestingly attenuate the raising effect of L-arginine on morphine-induced CPP in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that some components of the Cuminum cyminum L. seed attenuate the excessive effect of L-arginine on morphine-induced CPP through the NOS inhibitory mechanism. It seems that cumin FEO possibly acts as a NOS inhibitor.

  9. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study).

  10. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study). PMID:26207908

  11. Analyzing Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  12. TESTS OF THE ABILITY TO ORIENT APPLES USING THEIR INERTIAL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Machine vision has the potential to improve quality and safety of fruit available for consumption. However, lack of an effective and inexpensive method for appropriately orienting fruit for imaging has hindered development of optical technologies for sorting fruit. For example, it is difficult to di...

  13. Parents' supportive reactions to sexual orientation disclosure associated with better health: results from a population-based survey of LGB adults in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Sullivan, Mairead; Keyes, Susan; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated associations between coming out to parents, experiences of parental support, and self-reported health behaviors and conditions among a population-based sample of LGB individuals using data collected via the 2002 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS; N = 177). We explored the following two hypotheses: 1) Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals who had never disclosed their sexual orientation to a parent would report higher levels of risk behaviors and poorer health conditions than those who had come out; and 2) among LGB respondents who had come out to their parents, the individuals whose parents had reacted unsupportively would report higher levels of risk behaviors and poorer health conditions than those who had come out to parents who were supportive. Approximately two thirds of gay and bisexual (GB) males and lesbian and bisexual (LB) females reported receiving adequate social and emotional support from the parent to whom they first disclosed their sexual orientation. Among LB females, no disclosure of sexual orientation to a parent was associated with significantly elevated levels of past-month illicit drug use (AOR 12.16, 95% CI 2.87-51.54), fair or poor self-reported health status (AOR 5.71, 95% CI 1.45-22.51), and >15 days of depression in the past month (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 1.78-19.90), controlling for potential confounders. However, nondisclosure to a parent by GB males was not associated with greater odds of any of the health indicators assessed. Among GB males, those with unsupportive parents were significantly more likely to report current binge drinking (AOR 6.94, 95% CI 1.70-28.35) and >15 days depression in the past month (AOR 6.08, 95% CI 1.15-32.15), and among LB females, those with unsupportive parents were significantly more likely to report lifetime illicit drug use (AOR 11.43, 95% CI 2.50-52.30), and >15 days depression in the past month (AOR 5.51, 95% CI 1.36-22.36). We conclude that coming

  14. The Mouse Murr1 Gene Is Imprinted in the Adult Brain, Presumably Due to Transcriptional Interference by the Antisense-Oriented U2af1-rs1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youdong; Joh, Keiichiro; Masuko, Sadahiko; Yatsuki, Hitomi; Soejima, Hidenobu; Nabetani, Akira; Beechey, Colin V.; Okinami, Satoshi; Mukai, Tsunehiro

    2004-01-01

    The mouse Murr1 gene contains an imprinted gene, U2af1-rs1, in its first intron. U2af1-rs1 shows paternal allele-specific expression and is transcribed in the direction opposite to that of the Murr1 gene. In contrast to a previous report of biallelic expression of Murr1 in neonatal mice, we have found that the maternal allele is expressed predominantly in the adult brain and also preferentially in other adult tissues. This maternal-predominant expression is not observed in embryonic and neonatal brains. In situ hybridization experiments that used the adult brain indicated that Murr1 gene was maternally expressed in neuronal cells in all regions of the brain. We analyzed the developmental change in the expression levels of both Murr1 and U2af1-rs1 in the brain and liver, and we propose that the maternal-predominant expression of Murr1 results from transcriptional interference of the gene by U2af1-rs1 through the Murr1 promoter region. PMID:14673161

  15. Task-Oriented Exercise to Reduce Activities of Daily Living Disability in Vulnerable Older Adults: A Feasibility Study of the 3-Step Workout for Life.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Jones, Leah Y; Formyduval A, R M; Clark, Daniel O

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the 3-Step Workout for Life program, a 10-week exercise program that included moderate-intensity muscle strength training followed by task-oriented training. Fourteen participants completed the program (mean age = 73 years; SD = 6.83). The Box and Block test (Z = -2.24, p = .03) and the 30-s chair stand test (Z = -2.21, p = .03) indicate improved physical functioning of the upper and lower extremities. More importantly, results of the function component from the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (Z = -2.04, p = .04) and motor skills scale from the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (Z = -2.97, p = .003) indicate subjective and objective improvements on performing activities of daily living. Supplementing moderate-intensity muscle strength exercise with task-oriented training components is feasible. Preliminary data support the effectiveness of 3-Step Workout for Life in reducing late-life disability.

  16. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    PubMed

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  17. An Adult Prescriptive Program for Levels of Employment--Career Oriented Education (Apple Core). Bulletin #1258. An Adult Education Curriculum Guide Based on Instructional Materials Related to Occupational Needs of Employees. Booklet 4. Instructional Packet: Construction Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Adult and Community Education.

    This booklet along with six others comprises a curriculum guide developed for adult education supervisors and teachers of undereducated workers or job seekers whose inability to develop the skills and obtain the knowledge necessary to meet the requirements of the working world are primarily due to a lack of competence in reading and math skills.…

  18. Strawberry Accessions with Reduced Drosophila suzukii Emergence From Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiaoyun; Bräcker, Lasse; Bölke, Nadine; Plata, Camila; Zeitlmayr, Sarah; Metzler, Dirk; Olbricht, Klaus; Gompel, Nicolas; Parniske, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is threatening soft fruit production worldwide due to the females’ ability to pierce through the intact skin of ripe fruits and lay eggs inside. Larval consumption and the associated microbial infection cause rapid fruit degradation, thus drastic yield and economic loss. Cultivars that limit the proliferation of flies may be ideal to counter this pest; however, they have not yet been developed or identified. To search for potential breeding material, we investigated the rate of adult D. suzukii emergence from individual fruits (fly emergence) of 107 accessions of Fragaria species that had been exposed to egg-laying D. suzukii females. We found significant variation in fly emergence across strawberries, which correlated with accession and fruit diameter, and to a lesser extent with the strawberry species background. We identified accessions with significantly reduced fly emergence, not explained by their fruit diameter. These accessions constitute valuable breeding material for strawberry cultivars that limit D. suzukii spread. PMID:28066452

  19. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  20. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), monitored with ChamP traps captured the highest numbers of adults in olive trees, Olea europaea, in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Significantly more adults were captured in Pherocon ® AM traps than ChamP tra...

  1. Preserving Fresh Fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

  2. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key points Better cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improves Exercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adults The improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  3. Societal Norms Rather Than Sexual Orientation Influence Kin Altruism and Avuncularity in Tribal Urak-Lawoi, Italian, and Spanish Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Battaglia, Umberto; Liotta, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Homosexual males could balance their low fitness by increasing benefits to relatives either through kin-directed altruism or by avuncularity (altruistic behavior toward the children of siblings). Evidence in support of kin selection and avuncularity includes the fact that homosexuals seem to be more empathic and altruistic than heterosexuals. Other studies have not confirmed behaviors that increase kin altruism in homosexuals. We explored altruistic behavior and avuncularity in a sample of 278 subjects, either homosexual or heterosexual, from three populations: Italian, Spanish, and Urak-Lawoi, a Southeast Asian tribal population. Among the Urak-Lawoi, the kathoeys, androphilic men who dress and behave as women, were compared with heterosexuals. All populations were rated for societal norms on the expression of affiliative behavior. No greater kin altruism or avuncularity among the kathoeys or in homosexuals in either Mediterranean population was found. Greater avuncularity and kin-directed altruism, independent of sexual orientation, were found among the Urak-Lawoi, and these traits were the least prevalent among the Italians, corresponding to different societal norms. The increase in kin altruism and avuncularity was associated in all males with societal differences and norms on general altruism toward nonkin children, suggesting it is not an adaptive design to maintain homosexuality in humans.

  4. LEARNING ORIENTATION PRIORITIES OF COOPERATIVE EXTENSION CLIENTELE IN SELECTED PENNSYLVANIA COUNTIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STAUFFER, ROBERT HARRY

    TO TEST THE HOULE THEORY THAT ADULTS HAVE THREE ORIENTATIONS TOWARD LEARNING--THE GOAL, THE ACTIVITY, AND THE KNOWLEDGE ORIENTATIONS, A REVISED SHEFFIELD LEARNING-ORIENTATION SCALE WAS ADMINISTERED TO 704 ADULTS TO DETERMINE LEARNING ORIENTATION PRIORITIES OF MEN AND WOMEN WHO ATTENDED 32 AGRICULTURAL AND HOME ECONOMICS MEETINGS OF COOPERATIVE…

  5. Regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a process unique to plants in which floral seed bearing organs mature into fleshy structures attractive and nutritious to seed dispersing organisms. While the specific characteristics of ripening fruit vary among species, a number of general themes are exhibited in many fleshy rip...

  6. Evaluation of fruit intake and its relation to body mass index of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ham, Eunah; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2014-07-01

    Diets high in fruits and vegetables are recommended to maintain health. However, accurate fruit intake evaluation is hard and high sugar content in most of the fruits suggest possible negative relationships with health indices. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the fruit intake status of adolescents and to examine the relationship between fruit intake and body mass index (BMI). For this, 400 middle and high school students were surveyed for their fruit eating attitude, preference, and intake level for fruit along with the evaluation of their relationship with anthropometric measures. As for fruit preference, the most frequent answer was 'like very much' (60.0%) and the preference of fruit was significantly higher in females than in males (p < 0.01). The highest answer to the reason to like fruits was 'delicious' (67.0%). The highest proportion of subjects replied that the amount of fruit intake was similar in both school meals and at home (39.3%) and unlikable feeling of fruits was 'sour' (47.0%). The favorite fruit was the apple followed by oriental melon, grape, Korean cherry, cherry, tangerine/orange, hallabong, plum, mango, persimmon, peach, pear/kiwi, apricot, Japanese apricot, and fig in order. As for the number of serving sizes per person were 2.9 times/day for male students and 3.0 times/day for female students showing no significant difference. The frequency of eating fruits in the evening showed a significant positive correlation with body weight (p < 0.05) and BMI (p < 0.01), respectively. In summary of these study findings, it was found that the fruit preference of adolescents was relatively high and their fruit intake level satisfied the recommended number of intake. The number of evening fruit intake had a significantly positive correlation with body weight and BMI. Further studies are required to examine the relationship between fruit intake and health indicators.

  7. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in the United States: The Baseline Survey of the Five a Day for Better Health Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subar, Amy F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Telephone surveys queried frequency of fruit and vegetable intake as well as attitudes about and knowledge of fruits and vegetables among adults. Fruit and vegetable intake was lower than the recommended minimum of five daily servings. Intake was higher among women, nonsmokers, and those with higher education and income. (SM)

  8. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations.

  9. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  10. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  11. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  12. Dietary Intake among U.S. Adults with Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Physical, mental, and financial barriers among individuals with disability may limit their access to fruit and vegetable. In this study, we examined the relationship between disability status and vegetable, fruit, and fruit juice intake among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older using a large nationally representative sample. Methods:…

  13. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

    2010-08-01

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatment research against tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) has used artificially infested fruit with the unstated and untested assumption that the method adequately simulated a natural situation. We compare grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfayden, naturally infested by Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), via oviposition until larvae reached the late third instar versus insertion of diet-reared third instars into holes made in grapefruits 24 h before irradiation; the latter technique has been used in other studies. Both infestation techniques resulted in statistically indistinguishable results, indicating that insertion of diet-reared third instar Mexican fruit fly into holes bored into grapefruit and subsequently sealed 24 h before irradiation would adequately represent natural infestation and could be used to develop a radiation phytosanitary treatment of the insect in grapefruit when prevention of adult emergence is used as the measure of efficacy. Nevertheless, it may not be advisable to extend this conclusion to other fruit fly/fruit combinations without doing appropriate comparison studies. Dissection of puparia from nonirradiated control insects that failed to emerge as adults showed a relatively even distribution of mortality among the developmental stages within the puparium. In contrast, dissection of puparia from irradiated third instars that did not emerge as adults revealed a sharp attenuation in development from cryptocephalic to phanerocephalic pupae demonstrating this transition to be the developmental step most affected by radiation.

  14. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  15. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

  16. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

  17. Orienting hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  18. Inattentive Symptoms of ADHD Are Related to Evening Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caci, Herve; Bouchez, Jacques; Bayle, Franck J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Morningness is a stable characteristic of individuals, related to impulsivity and novelty seeking. The evening orientation is a risk factor for psychiatric conditions such as depression and personality disorders. The authors hypothesized that adults suspected of having ADHD are more evening oriented than adults without ADHD. Method:…

  19. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  20. Comparing the emergence of northern strain plum Curculio larvae from multiple fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Selby, R D; Whalon, M E

    2014-08-01

    Increasing restrictions on chemical pesticide use in orchards have encouraged the use of alternative strategies to control the northern strain of the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst). Some of these strategies target larvae as they emerge from fruit, so existing models for larval emergence from fruit were evaluated for accuracy while examining the effect of multiple larvae and fruit type on emergence timing. Larval head width growth rate was established and used to gauge larval development. Larval emergence timing, quantified as degree-days (base 11.1 degrees C), was recorded in tart cherries on trees, and emergence timing was recorded in multiple apple varieties both in cyclical field conditions and in constant laboratory conditions. Ovipositing females and fruit were isolated, so larvae in a fruit were all siblings. Adult emergences from pupation in soil were recorded in the laboratory and compared with existing model predictions. Model predictions did not accurately reflect the timing of larval or adult emergence, and future incorporation of factors that could improve models are discussed. Colder conditions and changing host fruit type had no significant effect on larval emergence timing but changing host fruit type correlated with a shorter pupation interval. Results suggested that females preferred to oviposit on multiple fruit rather than lay multiple eggs in one fruit. Higher numbers of larvae per fruit did not significantly alter the timing of first larval emergence, although more larvae per fruit resulted in a significantly longer emergence period in apples.

  1. Chasing sexual orientation: a comparison of commonly used single-indicator measures of sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Powell, Claudia; Stevens, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the utility of single-indicator measures of sexual orientation in examining group differences. Adolescents and young adults reported their sexual orientations, preferences, and partners. Results indicate that, (a) depending on the measure of sexual orientation, 10% to 22% cannot be categorized into a sexual orientation group using a single-indicator measure; (b) self-identified sexual orientation is often incongruent with preference and behavior; (c) incongruity differs by gender and self-identified sexual orientation; and (d) detected differences in gay/lesbian, bisexual, and straight individuals vary by measure of sexual orientation. These results indicate that classification of sexual orientation by single-indicator measures can lead to inconsistent conclusions across studies.

  2. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.

  3. Physical Activity Perceptions of Task- and Ego-Oriented Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshanks, Carla M.

    2010-01-01

    Children begin to show sedentary behaviors around the age of 12 and increased mortality is associated with sedentary behaviors in children and adults. This case study examined physical activity (PA) perceptions of task oriented and ego oriented children. Research has addressed perceptions based on goal orientations and how perception of PA changes…

  4. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    PubMed

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs.

  5. Multiplex PCR in Determination of Opiinae Parasitoids of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera sp., Infesting Star Fruit and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. PMID

  6. Interaction between visual and olfactory cues during host finding in the tomato fruit fly Neoceratitis cyanescens.

    PubMed

    Brévault, Thierry; Quilici, Serge

    2010-03-01

    Herbivorous insects searching for a host plant need to integrate a sequence of multimodal sensory inputs. We conducted a series of no-choice experiments in a laboratory wind tunnel to examine the behavioral response of the specialist fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens (Diptera: Tephritidae), to host visual and olfactory stimuli presented singly or in combination (e.g., colored fruit model with or without host fruit odor). We also studied the influence of wind flow, age, and sex on the response of flies. In two-choice experiments, we evaluated the ability of mature females to discriminate between two fruit models emitting host vs. non-host fruit odor or clean air. Neoceratitis cyanescens mature females can use independently or interactively olfactory and visual stimuli to locate their host, whereas immature females and males respond primarily to host fruit odor. In the absence of wind, mature females mainly use visual information to locate the host fruit. In wind, host fruit odor significantly increases the probability and speed of locating the host fruit. In a two-choice situation between two bright orange spheres, flies accurately detected the sphere emitting host fruit odor vs. non-host fruit odor or odorless air. Nevertheless, they preferred to land on the bright orange sphere when the sphere emitting host fruit odor was blue. Furthermore, when odor source and fruit model were spatially decoupled (90 or 180 degrees ), >50% flies that landed on the fruit model initially performed an oriented flight toward the odor source, then turned back to the fruit model while in flight or after one landing, thus suggesting visual information to be the ultimate indicator of host fruit.

  7. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School.

    PubMed

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find that the fraction of students eating a full serving of whole fruit increased from 4.3% to 45.1%. As such, school districts should consider offering fruit smoothies as part of a set of interventions designed to increase fruit consumption at school.

  8. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California table olives, USA: Invasion, distribution, and management implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was discovered in California in late 1998. Thereafter, intensive research was conducted to develop pest control methods in table olives. The life history of olive fruit fly was elucidated, and the distribution and abundance of the adults determined through ...

  9. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-05-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  10. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  11. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... fruit at lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat or choose fruits from ... at breakfast At breakfast, top your cereal with bananas, peaches, or strawberries; add blueberries to pancakes; drink ...

  12. Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-10-01

    Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present.

  13. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children.

  14. Reducing Childhood Obesity by Eliminating 100% Fruit Juice

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Melvin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture’s Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

  15. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  16. Goal Orientations of Adolescents, Coaches, and Parents: Is There a Convergence of Beliefs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givvin, Karen B.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relation between goal orientations of 12- to 15-year-old competitive swimmers, and those of parents, and coaches. Found that adolescents' self-reported goal orientations correlated highly with their perceptions of goal orientations of their significant adults but not with self-reports of their significant adults. Adolescents believed…

  17. Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Urban Community Gardeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaimo, Katherine; Packnett, Elizabeth; Miles, Richard A.; Kruger, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between household participation in a community garden and fruit and vegetable consumption among urban adults. Design: Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional random phone survey conducted in 2003. A quota sampling strategy was used to ensure that all census tracts within the city were represented. Setting:…

  18. Role of fruits, nuts, and vegetables in maintaining cognitive health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population aging is leading to an increase in the incidence of age-related cognitive dysfunction and, with it, the health care burden of caring for older adults. Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits, nuts, and vegetables is positively associated with cognitive ability; howev...

  19. Long-term monitoring of fleshy fruit and hard mast production and seasonal bird distribution at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2009-06-15

    A final report of Fruit and hard mast production in five habitat types at SRS with a comparison of fruit consumption by fledgling versus adult birds at SRS and Relative importance of fruit, seeds, and insects in the diets of overwintering birds at SRS.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

    2011-02-01

    Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.

  1. Use of the adult attachment projective picture system in psychodynamic psychotherapy with a severely traumatized patient

    PubMed Central

    George, Carol; Buchheim, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The following case study is presented to facilitate an understanding of how the attachment information evident from Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) assessment can be integrated into a psychodynamic perspective in making therapeutic recommendations that integrate an attachment perspective. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George and West, 2012). The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention. PMID:25140164

  2. The Effects of Aging on Orientation Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Casco, Clara; Barollo, Michele; Contemori, Giulio; Battaglini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Visual perception relies on low-level encoding of local orientation. Recent studies show an age-dependent impairment in orientation discrimination of stimuli embedded in external noise, suggesting that encoding of orientation is inefficient in older adults. In the present study we ask whether aging also reduces decoding, i.e., selecting the neural representations of target orientation while discarding those conflicting with it. We compared younger and older participants capability (mean age 24 and 68 years respectively) in discriminating whether the orientation of a Gabor target was left or right from the vertical. We measured (d′), an index of discrimination sensitivity, for orientation offset ranging from 1° to 12°. In the isolated target condition, d′ was reduced by aging and, in the older group, did not increase with orientation offset, thus resulting in a larger group difference at large than small orientation offsets from the vertical. Moreover, oriented elements in the background impaired more discrimination in the older group. However, distractors reduced more d′ when target-background orientation offset was large than when target and flanker had similar orientation, indicating that the effect of the background was not local, i.e., due to target inhibition by similarly oriented flankers. Altogether, these results indicate that aging reduces the efficiency in discarding the response to orientations differing from the target. Our results suggest that neural decision-making mechanisms, involving not only signal enhancement but also non-signal inhibition, become inefficient with age. This suggestion is consistent with the neurophysiological evidence of inefficient visual cortical inhibition in aging. PMID:28303102

  3. Thinking in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Bjorn Tore

    1997-01-01

    A think-aloud technique, in which 20 orienteers verbalized their exact thoughts during orienteering, was used to examine the phenomenon of cognition during orienteering. Results indicate that orienteering is experienced as a task to be accomplished, a physical movement, and a dynamic process, and that thinking involves attuning perceptions to…

  4. Myxobacteria Fruiting Body Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi

    2006-03-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that swarm and glide on surfaces, and feed cooperatively. When starved, tens of thousands of cells change their movement pattern from outward spreading to inward concentration; they form aggregates that become fruiting bodies, inside which cells differentiate into nonmotile, environmentally resistant spores. Traditionally, cell aggregation has been considered to imply chemotaxis, a long-range cell interaction mediated by diffusing chemicals. However, myxobacteria aggregation is the consequence of direct cell-contact interactions. I will review our recent efforts in modeling the fruiting body formation of Myxobacteria, using lattice gas cellular automata models that are based on local cell-cell contact signaling. These models have reproduced the individual phases in Myxobacteria development such as the rippling, streaming, early aggregation and the final sporulation; the models can be unified to simulate the whole developmental process of Myxobacteria.

  5. Perceived parental control in childhood and sexual preferences of adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2003-06-01

    To assess the relation between perceived parental control during childhood and sexual preferences of offspring during adulthood, 80 adult offspring of heterosexual orientation reported significantly lower parental control during childhood than 7 adult offspring with nonheterosexual orientation.

  6. Habitat-specific flight period in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus; Gut, Larry J

    2007-12-01

    Flight periods of the cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), were compared in the major sweet and tart cherry-growing regions of Michigan, among neglected orchards, managed orchards, and natural areas containing the ancestral host, black cherry. Traps were deployed from early June to late September 2005 and 2006. Captures indicated that cherry fruit fly has an early flight (June-July) in neglected orchards, a mid-season flight peaking immediately after harvest (June-August) in managed orchards, and an extended flight covering most of the season (June-September) in natural areas. We found that the period of fruit infestation mirrored the flight period in neglected and managed orchards. In natural areas, we found infestation late in the season only. The relative emergence periods for adults reared from pupae collected from the three habitats and maintained under the same conditions coincided with adult flight periods for each habitat. We also studied factors related to fruit availability that may have a role in shaping the flight periods. Fruit abundance decreased rapidly early in the season in neglected orchards, whereas in managed orchards, fruit left after harvest remained on the trees until late August. Measurements of fruit size and skin firmness revealed that fly activity in neglected and managed orchards began immediately after fruit increased in size and skin firmness decreased, whereas in natural areas, the flight began before fruit matured. In managed orchards, fruit harvest and insecticide sprays likely maintain the late flight period of resident fly populations by preventing the use of fruit earlier in the season. However, a significant proportion of these resident flies may still emerge before harvest and increase the risk of costly fruit infestation.

  7. Learner-Oriented Virtual Learning: A Booster to Primary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study enlightens the impact of Learner- Oriented-Virtual Learning in enriching knowledge in Environmental Education at primary level.To achieve the expected competency in Biodiversity, various approaches were adopted in the class room transaction which were not fruitful. Hence the researcher practiced the Learner-Oriented-Virtual…

  8. Recruiting and Retaining Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Adult learners, long the stepchildren of colleges and universities, have nearly become the norm, and they spend billions of dollars each year on education. This chapter takes a customer-oriented approach to recruiting and retaining adult students in higher education. (GCP)

  9. Transfer of figural face aftereffects suggests mature orientation selectivity in 8-year-olds' face coding.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Rhodes, Gillian

    2014-10-01

    Adult face perception mechanisms are tuned to upright faces, and this orientation selectivity is central to adult expertise with upright faces. Children are less expert than adults, and it has been argued that their face mechanisms are less orientation selective than those of adults. Here we used face aftereffects to test this hypothesis by examining whether children's aftereffects show greater transfer across changes in orientation than do adults' aftereffects. We adapted 7- to 8-year-old children and adults to figural face distortions in both upright and inverted orientations and examined the size of resulting aftereffects in both upright and inverted test faces. If children's face mechanisms are less orientation selective than those of adults, then children's aftereffects should transfer more strongly across changes in orientation. We found no evidence to support this prediction. Children's and adults' aftereffects were similarly reduced by orientation differences between adapt and test. These results indicate that children, like adults, show a high degree of orientation selectivity in face shape coding and suggest that neural tuning to face orientation may be mature by 8 years of age. Our findings are consistent with an emerging view that many of the key attributes of specialized face perception emerge much earlier in development than previously thought.

  10. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  11. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 μg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs

  12. Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar.

  13. Do 'food deserts' influence fruit and vegetable consumption?--A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Tim; Russell, Jean; Campbell, Michael J; Barker, Margo E

    2005-10-01

    Lack of access to affordable healthy foods has been suggested to be a contributory factor to poor diet. This study investigated associations between diet and access to supermarkets, transport, fruit and vegetable price and deprivation, in a region divergent in geography and socio-economic indices. A postal survey of 1000 addresses (response rate 42%) gathered information on family demographics, supermarket and shop use, car ownership, mobility and previous day's fruit and vegetable intake. Postcode information was used to derive road travel distance to nearest supermarket and deprivation index. Fruit and vegetable prices were assessed using a shopping basket survey. Generalised linear regression models were used to ascertain predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. Male grocery shoppers ate less fruit than female grocery shoppers. Consumption of vegetables increased slightly with age. Deprivation, supermarket fruit and vegetable price, distance to nearest supermarket and potential difficulties with grocery shopping were not significantly associated with either fruit or vegetable consumption. These data suggest that the three key elements of a food desert, fruit and vegetable price, socio-economic deprivation and a lack of locally available supermarkets, were not factors influencing fruit or vegetable intake. We suggest that food policies aimed at improving diet should be orientated towards changing socio-cultural attitudes towards food.

  14. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently.

  15. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit...

  16. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit...

  17. Fruits of neutron research

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1994-12-31

    Car windshields that don`t break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources.

  18. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities.

  19. Reduction of polygalacturonase activity in tomato fruit by antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, R E; Kramer, M; Hiatt, W R

    1988-12-01

    Polygalacturonase [PG; poly(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide) glycanhydrolase; EC 3.2.1.15] is expressed in tomato only during the ripening stage of fruit development. PG becomes abundant during ripening and has a major role in cell wall degradation and fruit softening. Tomato plants were transformed to produce antisense RNA from a gene construct containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and a full-length PG cDNA in reverse orientation. The construct was integrated into the tomato genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The constitutive synthesis of PG antisense RNA in transgenic plants resulted in a substantial reduction in the levels of PG mRNA and enzymatic activity in ripening fruit. The steady-state levels of PG antisense RNA in green fruit of transgenic plants were lower than the levels of PG mRNA normally attained during ripening. However, analysis of transcription in isolated nuclei demonstrated that the antisense RNA construct was transcribed at a higher rate than the tomato PG gene(s). Analysis of fruit from transgenic plants demonstrated a reduction in PG mRNA and enzymatic activity of 70-90%. The reduction in PG activity did not prevent the accumulation of the red pigment lycopene.

  20. They Call it Orienteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Mark

    1977-01-01

    Through the use of personal anecdotes, the author details his initial experience with orienteering, a sport rapidly increasing in popularity that teaches people not to get lost in the woods. Sources of information about orienteering are provided. (BT)

  1. Viability of Cabralea canjerana Extracts to Control the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus

    PubMed Central

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus. PMID:25373194

  2. Viability of Cabralea canjerana extracts to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus.

    PubMed

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-04-10

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus.

  3. Association of Awareness, Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Factors, and Stage of Dietary Change with Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duyn, Mary Ann S.; Kristal, Alan R.; Dodd, Kevin; Campbell, Marci K.; Subar, Amy F.; Stables, Gloria; Nebeling, Linda; Glanz, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Used national telephone survey data to examine associations between adults' fruit and vegetable consumption and awareness of "5 A Day for Better Health," stage of change, taste preferences, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits, barriers, threats, social support, and norms regarding fruit and vegetable consumption. Strong associations…

  4. Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) and the phenology of its native host plant, Yellow Chapote (Rutaceae) in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In northeastern Mexico, the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), breeds on its native host, yellow chapote, Casimiroa greggii (Wats.), which typically produces fruit in the spring. Peak populations of the fly occur in late spring or early summer when adults emerge from the generation of lar...

  5. [Influence of fruit size of Camellia meiocarpa on growth of oil tea weevil, Curculio chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-wen; He, Li-hong; Ma, Ling; Xia, Jiao; Zeng, Ai-ping

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between mature larval mass of oil tea weevil (Curculio chinensis) and fruit volume of its host plant oil tea (Camellia meiocarpa) was fitted with Logistic equation in order to understand the restriction of host fruit size on large larval growth and development of the weevil. The results showed that the larval mass increased with the increasing host fruit volume, which was in good conformity with the Logistic model. The weevil larval growth followed the principle of diminishing marginal utility, and it could be divided into two periods, the fast-growing period (<3.216 cm3, one larva per fruit; <4.747 cm3, two larvae per fruit ) and the asymptotic growing period (>3.216 cm3, one larva per fruit; >4.747 cm3, two larvae per fruit). The minimum fruit size threshold was 1500 cm3 for one larva per fruit, and 2.539 cm3 for two larvae per fruit. The temporal pattern that the mature larvae exited from their host fruits was established, the number of larvae escaping from their host fruits decreased daily after the fruit collection, and the larval escaping peak largely appeared from 6:00 to 10:00 AM with 43.9% of total escaping number, and especially from 7:00 to 8:00 AM with 21.1% of total escaping number. The bigger the larvae, the earlier exited from their host fruits. The restriction of fruit size on growth and development of oil tea weevil was observed, and it should be a behavioral adaptation strategy to increase the offspring' s fitness for the parental weevil adults to oviposit on the bigger fruits.

  6. Hormones and sexual orientation: a questionable link.

    PubMed

    Banks, A; Gartrell, N K

    1995-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the studies which explore a possible causal relationship between sex hormones and the development of sexual orientation. Early studies focused on hormone measurements in adult men and women. While definitive interpretations are hindered by methodological problems, the studies as a whole do not support a causal relationship between postnatal hormone levels and sexual orientation. More recently, a theory that prenatal hormone levels produce varying degrees of brain androgenization and subsequent dimorphic sex role behavior has consistently been supported by studies in lower mammals. Attempts to generalize the causes of sexual orientation from animals to humans have been controversial. Efforts to measure the estrogen feedback as an indication of brain androgenization have produced inconsistent results. Studies of men and women who experienced defect in hormone metabolism (i.e., CAH and testicular feminization) have not found a concurrent increase in homosexual behavior. Overall, the data do not support a causal connection between hormones and human sexual orientation.

  7. Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass…

  8. Anthocyanins Present in Some Tropical Fruits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many tropical fruits are rich in anthocyanins, though limited information is available about the characterization and quantification of these anthocyanins. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in four tropical fruits was determined by ion trap mass spectrometry. Fruits studied included acero...

  9. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide 10 Tips: Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits You are here Home ... Veggies and Fruits Print Share 10 Tips: Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits It is possible to ...

  10. Variability in visual cortex size reflects tradeoff between local orientation sensitivity and global orientation modulation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chen; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich S.; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    The surface area of early visual cortices varies several fold across healthy adult humans and is genetically heritable. But the functional consequences of this anatomical variability are still largely unexplored. Here we show that interindividual variability in human visual cortical surface area reflects a tradeoff between sensitivity to visual details and susceptibility to visual context. Specifically, individuals with larger primary visual cortices can discriminate finer orientation differences, whereas individuals with smaller primary visual cortices experience stronger perceptual modulation by global orientation contexts. This anatomically correlated tradeoff between discrimination sensitivity and contextual modulation of orientation perception, however, does not generalize to contrast perception or luminance perception. Neural field simulations based on a scaling of intracortical circuits reproduce our empirical observations. Together our findings reveal a feature-specific shift in the scope of visual perception from context-oriented to detail-oriented with increased visual cortical surface area. PMID:23887643

  11. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  12. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented.

  13. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-04-30

    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.

  14. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  15. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. )

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  16. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  17. Polyribosomes from Pear Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Drouet, Alain; Hartmann, Claude

    1979-01-01

    Polysome profiles were examined from lyophilized peel tissue of ripening pear (Pyrus communis, L. var. Passe-Crassane). Messenger RNA chains bearing up to eight ribosomes (octamers) were resolved and exhibited the highest absorption peak when ribonuclease activity was eliminated during extraction. Neither normal ripening nor the increase of large polyribosomes that normally accompanies ripening and senescence of the fruit occurred when pretreatment at 0 C was omitted. Normal ripening and increase of large polyribosomes would, however, be initiated by an ethylene treatment. The size distribution of the polyribosomes remained essentially constant throughout a 4-month cold storage; there was, however, a large increase in ribosomes by the 12th week of storage. PMID:16661101

  18. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  19. Benefits and costs to pollinating, seed-eating insects: the effect of flower size and fruit abortion on larval performance.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Anne; Delph, Lynda F; Bernasconi, Giorgina

    2009-08-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions are well-known examples of mutualism, but are not free of antagonism. Antagonistic interactions and defenses or counter-defenses are expected particularly in nursery pollination. In these systems, adult insects, while pollinating, lay their eggs in flowers, and juveniles consume the seeds from one or several fruits, thereby substantially reducing plant fitness. The outcome of such interactions will depend, for the plant, on the balance between pollination versus seed predation and for the larvae on the balance between the food and shelter provided versus the costs imposed by plant defenses, e.g., through abortion of infested fruits. Here, we examine the costs and benefits to the larvae in the nursery-pollination system Silene latifolia/Hadena bicruris. Using selection lines that varied in flower size (large- vs. small-flowered plants), we investigated the effects of variation in flower and fruit size and of a potential defense, fruit abortion, on larval performance. In this system, infested fruits are significantly more likely to be aborted than non-infested fruits; however, it is unclear whether fruit abortion is effective as a defense. Larger flowers gave rise to larger fruits with more seeds, and larvae that were heavier at emergence. Fruit abortion was frequently observed (ca. 40% of the infested fruits). From aborted fruits, larvae emerged earlier and were substantially lighter than larvae emerging from non-aborted fruits. The lower mass at emergence of larvae from aborted fruits indicates that abortion is a resistance mechanism. Assuming that lower larval mass implies fewer resources invested in the frugivore, these results also suggest that abortion is likely to benefit the plant as a defense mechanism, by limiting both resources invested in attacked fruits, as well as the risk of secondary attack. This suggests that selective fruit abortion may contribute to the stability of mutualism also in this non-obligate system.

  20. Orienting in Virtual Environments: How Are Surface Features and Environmental Geometry Weighted in an Orientation Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Debbie M.; Bischof, Walter F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how human adults orient in enclosed virtual environments, when discrete landmark information is not available and participants have to rely on geometric and featural information on the environmental surfaces. In contrast to earlier studies, where, for women, the featural information from discrete landmarks overshadowed the encoding…

  1. A randomised controlled trial of a theory of planned behaviour to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Fresh Facts.

    PubMed

    Kothe, Emily J; Mullan, Barbara A

    2014-07-01

    Young adults are less likely than other adults to consume fruit and vegetables. Fresh Facts is a theory of planned behaviour based intervention designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. The present study sought to evaluate Fresh Facts using a randomised controlled trial. Australian young adults (n = 162) were allocated to the Fresh Facts intervention or to the control group in 2011. Intervention participants received automated email messages promoting fruit and vegetable consumption every 3 days over the course of the 1 month intervention. Messages targeted attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Theory of planned behaviour variables and fruit and vegetable intake were measured at baseline and post-intervention (Day 30). Significant increases in attitude and subjective norm relative to control were found among Fresh Facts participants. However, intention, perceived behavioural control and fruit and vegetable consumption did not change as a result of the intervention. Changes in intention reported by each participant between baseline and follow-up were not correlated with corresponding changes in fruit and vegetable consumption. Fresh Facts was not successful in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Current evidence does not support the use of the theory of planned behaviour in the design of interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake in this population.

  2. Toxicological studies of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides for controlling the fruit fly Dacus ciliatus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Maklakov, A; Ishaaya, I; Freidberg, A; Yawetz, A; Horowitz, A R; Yarom, I

    2001-10-01

    The fruit fly Dacus ciliatus Loew is a pest of the fruits of many cucurbit species. We studied the effect of organaophosphate and pyrethroid compounds on the adult flies by using surface contact and oral administration. In contrast to other fruit flies, we found that organophosphates were ineffective against D. ciliatus. This was supported by the insignificant decrease of head acetylcholinesterase activity. All tested pyrethroids showed satisfactory killing ability, rapid and massive knockdown effect, and prevention of oviposition. Piperonyl butoxide considerably increased the toxicity of pyrethroids, which can be explained by oxidase detoxification of these compounds in D. ciliatus. It can be concluded that pyrethroids have high potential for controlling D. ciliatus.

  3. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  4. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  5. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  6. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  7. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  8. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the...

  9. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the...

  10. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  11. 7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 906.5 Section 906.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both...

  12. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  13. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the...

  14. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  15. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the...

  16. Evaluating health benefits of various fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits are an essential part of our daily diets. Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium and calories. Fruits are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, folic acid and they do not contain cholesterol. Some fruits have laxative effects, prevent uri...

  17. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the...

  18. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit... the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only and...

  19. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  20. Sociological Backgrounds of Adult Education. Notes and Essays on Education for Adults, 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Hobert W., Ed.

    These background papers concentrate on the problem of obsolescence and adult competence; the educational significance of adult roles, developmental tasks, and changing value orientations throughout the life cycle; the effect of work careers on adult education participation; choice of subject matter and methods of study; specific reasons for…

  1. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  7. Neighborhood Retail Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Kannan, Srimathi; Lachance, Laurie L.; Mentz, Graciela; Ridella, William

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine relationships between the neighborhood food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population. Design Analysis of cross-sectional survey and observational data. Setting 146 neighborhoods within three large geographic communities of Detroit, Michigan. Subjects Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and White adults. Measures The dependent variable was mean daily fruit and vegetable servings measured using a modified Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Independent variables included the neighborhood food environment: store availability (large grocery, specialty, convenience, liquor, small grocery), supermarket proximity (street-network distance to nearest chain grocer), and perceived and observed neighborhood fresh fruit and vegetable supply (availability, variety, quality, affordability). Analysis Weighted multilevel regression. Results Presence of a large grocery store in the neighborhood was associated with, on average, 0.69 more daily fruit and vegetable servings in the full sample. Relationships between the food environment and fruit and vegetable intake did not differ between Whites and African-Americans. However, Latinos compared with African-Americans with a large grocery store in their neighborhood consumed 2.20 more daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Presence of a convenience store in the neighborhood was associated with 1.84 fewer daily fruit and vegetable servings among Latinos than African-Americans. Conclusion The neighborhood food environment influences fruit and vegetable intake, and the size of this relationship may vary for different racial/ethnic subpopulations. PMID:19288847

  8. Decision Making In Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Katia

    1997-01-01

    Eight psychometric instruments were administered to 10 elite male Portuguese orienteers. The cognitive process involved in decision making did not differ between the best orienteers and the others. This group of athletes had a high capacity for work realization and a strong need to be in control of interpersonal situations. (Author/SV)

  9. Teaching Orienteering. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Carol; Cory-Wright, Jean; Renfrew, Tom

    The educational value provided by orienteering's blend of navigational and physical skills has given it a permanent place in the primary and secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom. This book is a reference to orienteering for teachers, leaders, and coaches. It provides a "how to" approach to introducing and developing the…

  10. Orienteering in Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Elston F.

    One of the recent developments in camping is "orienteering", a program using a map and compass. Orienteering can be dovetailed into an overall camping program and used to "point up" the entire program, or it can be confined to a single simple game. The arrangement depends on the situation. The minimum age of the participants should be about 9 or…

  11. Bandwidths for the perception of head orientation decrease during childhood.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Wilson, Hugh R; Maurer, Daphne

    2014-05-01

    Adults use the orientation of people's heads as a cue to the focus of their attention. We examined developmental changes in mechanisms underlying sensitivity to head orientation during childhood. Eight-, 10-, 12-year-olds, and adults were adapted to a frontal face view or a 20° left or right side view before judging the orientation of a face at or near frontal. After frontal adaptation, there were no age differences in judgments of head orientation. However, after adaptation to a 20° left or right side view, aftereffects were larger and sensitivity to head orientation was lower in 8- and 10-year-olds than in adults, with no difference between 12-year-olds and adults. A computational model indicates that these results can be modeled as a consequence of decreasing neural tuning bandwidths and decreasing additive internal noise during childhood, and/or as a consequence of increasing inhibition during childhood. These results provide the first evidence that neural mechanisms underlying sensitivity to head orientation undergo considerable refinement during childhood.

  12. Responses of multiple species of Tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Braconidae:Opiinae) to sympatric and exotic and fruit volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Opiine braconid parasitoids of tephritid pests have augmentative biological control potential, but there are no synthetic attractants to monitor their survival and dispersal following release. Adults feed on fruit juices and these could be sources of attractive compounds. While orange juice (Citrus ...

  13. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Work in Pome Fruit: Evidence for the Take-Home Pesticide Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Vigoren, Eric M.; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2006-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are commonly used in the United States, and farmworkers are at risk for chronic exposure. Using a sample of 218 farmworkers in 24 communities and labor camps in eastern Washington State, we examined the association between agricultural crop and OP pesticide metabolite concentrations in urine samples of adult farmworkers and their children and OP pesticide residues in house and vehicle dust samples. Commonly reported crops were apples (71.6%), cherries (59.6%), pears (37.2%), grapes (27.1%), hops (22.9%), and peaches (12.4%). Crops were grouped into two main categories: pome fruits (apples and pears) and non-pome fruits. Farmworkers who worked in the pome fruits had significantly higher concentrations of dimethyl pesticide metabolites in their urine and elevated azinphos-methyl concentrations in their homes and vehicles than workers who did not work in these crops. Among pome-fruit workers, those who worked in both apples and pears had higher urinary metabolites concentrations and pesticide residue concentrations in dust than did those who worked in a single pome fruit. Children living in households with pome-fruit workers were found to have higher concentrations of urinary dimethyl metabolites than did children of non-pome-fruit workers. Adult urinary concentrations showed significant correlations with both the vehicle and house-dust azinphos-methyl concentrations, and child urinary concentrations were correlated significantly with adult urinary concentrations and with the house-dust azinphos-methyl concentration. The results provide support for the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure and show an association between measures of pesticide exposure and the number of pome-fruit crops worked by farmworkers. PMID:16835050

  14. Ecological and evolutionary conditions for fruit abortion to regulate pollinating seed-eaters and increase plant production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Coevolved mutualisms, such as those between senita cacti, yuccas, and their respective obligate pollinators, benefit both species involved in the interaction. However, in these pollination mutualisms the pollinator's larvae impose a cost on plants through consumption of developing seeds and fruit. The effects of pollinators on benefits and costs are expected to vary with the abundance of pollinators, because large population sizes result in more eggs and larval seed-eaters. Here, we develop the hypothesis that fruit abortion, which is common in yucca, senita, and plants in general, could in some cases have the function of limiting pollinator abundance and, thereby, increasing fruit production. Using a general steady-state model of fruit production and pollinator dynamics, we demonstrate that plants involved in pollinating seed-eater mutualisms can increase their fecundity by randomly aborting fruit. We show that the ecological conditions under which fruit abortion can improve plants fecundity are not unusual. They are best met when the plant is long-lived, the population dynamics of the pollinator are much faster than those of the plant, the loss of one fruit via abortion kills a larva that would have the expectation of destroying more than one fruit through its future egg laying as an adult moth, and the effects of fruit abortion on pollinator abundance are spatially localized. We then use the approach of adaptive dynamics to find conditions under which a fruit abortion strategy based on regulating the pollinator population could feasibly evolve in this type of plant–pollinator interaction.

  15. Ecological and evolutionary conditions for fruit abortion to regulate pollinating seed-eaters and increase plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Holland, J Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2002-05-01

    Coevolved mutualisms, such as those between senita cacti, yuccas, and their respective obligate pollinators, benefit both species involved in the interaction. However, in these pollination mutualisms the pollinator's larvae impose a cost on plants through consumption of developing seeds and fruit. The effects of pollinators on benefits and costs are expected to vary with the abundance of pollinators, because large population sizes result in more eggs and larval seed-eaters. Here, we develop the hypothesis that fruit abortion, which is common in yucca, senita, and plants in general, could in some cases have the function of limiting pollinator abundance and, thereby, increasing fruit production. Using a general steady-state model of fruit production and pollinator dynamics, we demonstrate that plants involved in pollinating seed-eater mutualisms can increase their fecundity by randomly aborting fruit. We show that the ecological conditions under which fruit abortion can improve plants fecundity are not unusual. They are best met when the plant is long-lived, the population dynamics of the pollinator are much faster than those of the plant, the loss of one fruit via abortion kills a larva that would have the expectation of destroying more than one fruit through its future egg laying as an adult moth, and the effects of fruit abortion on pollinator abundance are spatially localized. We then use the approach of adaptive dynamics to find conditions under which a fruit abortion strategy based on regulating the pollinator population could feasibly evolve in this type of plant-pollinator interaction.

  16. Development of visual and tactile rod orientation in children.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, J D; Schmitz, P I

    1988-09-15

    Two groups of neurologically normal children (total number 64), aged from 4 to 13 years, were examined with the rod orientation test. In the second group, the line orientation test and finger tapping were also studied in addition to the rod orientation test. On the rod orientation test, the mean error rates decreased with age in both groups, and from the age of 10 the children performed as well as normal adults. In the period (ages 4-7 years) in which the greatest change in performance on the visual part of the rod orientation test had taken place (63%), a much smaller change occurred in the tapping frequency (23%). Thus the development of motor skills does not seem to be directly related to the development of spatial perception. The line orientation test did not show any developmental profile.

  17. Biomechanics of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Peleg, K

    1985-01-01

    The scope of fruit and vegetable biomechanics is reviewed. Sources of mechanical injury to produce in harvesting, processing, storage, packaging and transportation are briefly described. A survey of produce handling and transportation environments was conducted, whereby an envelope model encompassing composite spectra of trucks, railroad, marine and cargo aircraft is presented. The protective quality, i.e. strength of shipping containers is quantified in static and dynamic loading such as encountered in storage, handling and transportation. Mechanical response of fruits and vegetables in quasistatic and dynamic loading are formulated by a nonlinear rheological model, whereby a time and deformation dependent relaxation modulus is defined. A realistic link is established between the model and real fruits and vegetables by test procedures for determination of the parameters in the governing nonlinear equations. Based on the nonlinear relaxation modulus, mechanical damage of fruits and vegetables is quantified for static compression, transients and vibration loading as well as for combined static and dynamic loading, by equations of contact circle diameter, bruise depth and contact pressure. Distribution of loads over a maximal number of contact points per fruit is linked to geometrical patterns of produce packs. The application of Shock Damage Boundary techniques for produce-package testing is described along with a case study comparing the protective qualities of two types of apple packs. Produce damage quantification by direct fruit inspection in terms of a 'Bruise Index' is described, including a practical example, comparing the protective qualities of three types of apple packs in shipping tests. Indirect methods of mechanical injury evaluation, based on weight loss and CO2 emission differences between bruised and wholesome fruits are also briefly discussed.

  18. Environmental and Pathogenic Factors Inducing Brown Apical Necrosis on Fruit of English (Persian) Walnut.

    PubMed

    Scotton, Michele; Bortolin, Enrico; Fiorin, Antonio; Belisario, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Brown apical necrosis (BAN) is a most recently described disease affecting English (Persian) walnut fruit. BAN was only recorded in intensively managed walnut orchards and was found to be a disease complex mainly caused by Fusarium species. All fungi associated with this disease are polyphagous and ubiquitous, not specific to walnut. Consequently, BAN occurrence is more strictly dependent, than generally, on the interaction between pathological features and environmental conditions. Environmental variables identified with regression analysis showed that maximum temperature, angle of main wind direction versus tree row orientation, and orchard distance to the closest river/canal, all representative of climatic conditions occurring in the orchard, were related to fruit drop. The factor displaying the highest influence on severity of BAN fruit drop was maximum temperature and only subordinately factors are associated with relative humidity. BAN symptoms were reproduced with in planta artificial inoculation, and fruit drop of symptomatic fruit was significantly higher than that of the noninoculated trees for each type of inoculum (Fusarium semitectum, F. graminearum, and Alternaria spp.). F. semitectum and F. graminearum were more aggressive than Alternaria species, and the earliest artificial inoculations in mid-May resulted in the highest fruit drop. The extension of walnut fruit susceptibility and the conducive environmental factors to BAN are discussed.

  19. Star fruit intoxication in uraemic patients: case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tse, K-C; Yip, P-S; Lam, M-F; Choy, B-Y; Li, F-K; Lui, S-L; Lo, W-K; Chan, T-M; Lai, K-N

    2003-07-01

    Star fruit, belonging to the Oxalidaceae family, species Averrhoa carambola, is a popular fruit among Orientals. There have been reports of hiccup, confusion, and occasional fatal outcomes in uraemic patients after ingestion of star fruit. An excitatory neurotoxin from star fruit has been implicated although the exact nature of this toxic substance has not been identified. A group of seven patients is described from the dialysis centres at Queen Mary and Tung Wah Hospitals who developed symptoms including hiccup, confusion, vomiting, impaired consciousness, muscle twitching and hyperkalaemia shortly after ingestion of star fruit. Symptoms of most patients resolved after intensified dialysis or spontaneously, and no mortality was observed. The close temporal relationship of ingestion of star fruit and onset of symptoms strongly suggests the existence of a causal relationship between the two. It is recommended that uraemic patients should totally abstain from star fruit due to these rare but potentially fatal complications. The clinical manifestations of other reported series and current evidence for the possible candidate(s) of the neurotoxin are discussed.

  20. [Reduced survival and infestation of coffee borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), on coffee fruits, in response to neem sprays in laboratory].

    PubMed

    Depieri, Rogério A; Martinez, Sueli S

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of neem oil and aqueous extracts of neem seeds and leaves were sprayed on coffee fruits for laboratory evaluation of their efficiency in reducing infestation of the coffee borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), in multi-choice preference assays in laboratory. Neem oil and extracts reduced infestation of fruits in a dose-dependent manner, acting as a repellent. At 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%, the oil reduced fruit infestation by 30.2%, 42.5% (P > 0.05), and 58.6% (P < 0.05), respectively, as compared with the control. Seed extracts at 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v) reduced infestation by 30.9%, 38.3% (P > 0.05) and 70.2% (P < 0.05), respectively; seed extracts at 0.15%, 1.5% and 15% (w/v) reduced fruit infestation by 16.5%, 38.5% (P > 0.05) and 56.9% (P < 0.05), respectively. Spraying the emulsifiable oil at 1% on coffee fruits and adult borers was compared with spraying on fruits or adults only. Adult-only spraying caused low mortality (P > 0.05) and low reduction on the number of damaged fruits (P > 0.05). Fruit-only spraying significantly reduced insect survival rates and the number of damaged fruits (P < 0.05). However, spraying on adults and fruits caused the greatest reduction in adult survival (55.6%; P < 0.05) and in fruit infestation (78.7%; P < 0.05), probably due to insect mortality and neem oil repellence acting together.

  1. Freeze-frame fruit selection by birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The choice of fruits by an avian frugivore is affected by choices it makes at multiple hierarchical levels (e.g., species of fruit, individual tree, individual fruit). Factors that influence those choices vary among levels in the hierarchy and include characteristics of the environment, the tree, and the fruit itself. Feeding experiments with wild-caught birds were conducted at El Tirol, Departamento de Itapua, Paraguay to test whether birds were selecting among individual fruits based on fruit size. Feeding on larger fruits, which have proportionally more pulp, is generally more efficient than feeding on small fruits. In trials (n = 56) with seven species of birds in four families, birds selected larger fruits 86% of the time. However, in only six instances were size differences significant, which is likely a reflection of small sample sizes.

  2. Developing a market orientation.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-03-01

    Developing a market-orientated organization is a complex task. An organization's market orientation is reflected in its ability to fulfil its customer's needs. The organization must look outside itself and adopt a flexible response to changing needs. This paper will examine what is meant by the term marketing and why it is necessary for an organization to incorporate the marketing concept. Analysis of the organization's culture and its relevance to the development of market orientation will also be considered. Reference will be made to health care where appropriate.

  3. Explaining fruit and vegetable intake using a consumer marketing tool.

    PubMed

    Della, Lindsay J; Dejoy, David M; Lance, Charles E

    2009-10-01

    In response to calls to reinvent the 5 A Day fruit and vegetable campaign, this study assesses the utility of VALS, a consumer-based audience segmentation tool that divides the U.S. population into groups leading similar lifestyles. The study examines whether the impact of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs varies across VALS groups in a cross-sectional sample of 1,588 U.S. adults. In a multigroup structural equation model, the VALS audience group variable moderated latent TPB relationships. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained 57% to 70% of the variation in intention to eat fruit and vegetables across 5 different VALS groups. Perceived behavioral control and intention also predicted self-reported consumption behavior (R2 = 20% to 71% across VALS groups). Bivariate z tests were calculated to determine statistical differences in parameter estimates across groups. Nine of the bivariate z tests were statistically significant (p < or = .04), with standardized coefficients ranging from .05 to .70. These findings confirm the efficacy of using the TPB to explain variation in fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the validity of using a consumer-based algorithm to segment audiences for fruit and vegetable consumption messaging.

  4. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  5. Trace elements in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

    2012-05-01

    Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation.

  6. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of wheezing and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seyedrezazadeh, Ensiyeh; Moghaddam, Masoud Pour; Ansarin, Khalil; Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Sharma, Sangita; Kolahdooz, Fariba

    2014-07-01

    Major bibliographic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of wheezing and asthma. Random-effects models were used to pool study results. Subgroup analyses were conducted by fruit and vegetable categories, study design, and age group. Twelve cohorts, 4 population-based case-control studies, and 26 cross-sectional studies published between January 1990 and July 2013 were identified. For the meta-analysis of adults and children, the relative risk (RR) and confidence intervals (CI) when comparing the highest intake group with the lowest intake group were 0.78 (95%CI, 0.70-0.87) for fruit and 0.86 (95%CI, 0.75-0.98) for vegetables. High intake of fruit and vegetables (RR = 0.76; 95%CI, 0.68-0.86 and RR = 0.83; 95%CI, 0.72-0.96) reduced the risk of childhood wheezing. Total intake of fruit and vegetables had a negative association with risk of asthma in adults and children (RR = 0.54; 95%CI, 0.41-0.69). Consuming fruit and vegetables during pregnancy had no association with the risk of asthma in offspring. High intake of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of asthma and wheezing in adults and children.

  7. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  8. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  9. Passive orientation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

  10. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  11. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  12. UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Girit, I.C.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of an on-line isotope separator and a dilution refrigerator has increased the applicability of the nuclear orientation technique to a wide range of nuclei, especially those very far from stability. The UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility (UNISOR/NOF) is among the two (the other being NICOLE at CERN) that have recently become operational. The following is an overall view of the UNISOR system and recent results. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Molecular regulation of fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed. PMID:23785378

  14. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-04-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and /sup 3/H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate.

  15. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  16. Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

  17. Flowering and Fruiting Patterns of Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowering morphology of the erect, thorny, primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson) cultivars Prime-Jan® and Prime-Jim® were studied in 2005 and 2006 in Aurora, Ore. Primocanes that were "soft-tipped" in early summer to 1 m were compared to un-tipped primocanes. In both ...

  18. Delivering Instruction to Adult Learners. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    This one-stop guide for trainers and educators of adults in industry, business, or the professions details a results-oriented instructional strategy that is based on the following principles for instructing adults effectively: (1) act as a leader, helper, guide, change agent, coordinator, and facilitator of learning; (2) promote active…

  19. Guide for Managers of Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This document is intended to help adult education program managers throughout New York become oriented to the world of adult education, handle their new responsibilities as program managers, and obtain up-to-date information to assist them in making educational and administrative decisions. The following are among the topics discussed in the…

  20. Career Education for Adults: Consumer Economics Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    An outgrowth of State-sponsored institutes conducted by Auburn University, Alabama, to produce career education teaching modules for adults, the consumer economics module is one of five field-tested curriculum guides adopted from findings of the nationally oriented Adult Performance Level Study conducted at the University of Texas. The primary…

  1. Career Education for Adults: Occupational Information Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    An outgrowth of State-sponsored institutes conducted by Auburn University, Alabama, to produce career education teaching modules for adults, the occupational knowledge module is one of five field-tested curriculum guides adopted from findings of the nationally oriented Adult Performance Level Study conducted at the University of Texas. (Basic to…

  2. NEW DIRECTIONS IN ADULT JEWISH EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, SAMUEL I.

    TRADITIONALLY ADULT JEWISH EDUCATION WAS SYNAGOGUE OR INSTITUTION SPONSORED AND ORIENTED. SINCE THE WORLD WAR II, A NUMBER OF NATIONAL JEWISH MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATIONS HAVE EMERGED AS MAJOR SPONSORS OF ADULT JEWISH EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THIS SPONSORSHIP REPRESENTS A NEW DIMENSION IN JEWISH EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE. THIS STUDY EVALUATED THE…

  3. Fruit shape diversity in the Brassicaceae is generated by varying patterns of anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Tilly; Łangowski, Łukasz; Stacey, Nicola; Jantzen, Friederike; Moubayidin, Laila; Sicard, Adrien; Southam, Paul; Kennaway, Richard; Lenhard, Michael; Coen, Enrico S.

    2016-01-01

    Fruits exhibit a vast array of different 3D shapes, from simple spheres and cylinders to more complex curved forms; however, the mechanism by which growth is oriented and coordinated to generate this diversity of forms is unclear. Here, we compare the growth patterns and orientations for two very different fruit shapes in the Brassicaceae: the heart-shaped Capsella rubella silicle and the near-cylindrical Arabidopsis thaliana silique. We show, through a combination of clonal and morphological analyses, that the different shapes involve different patterns of anisotropic growth during three phases. These experimental data can be accounted for by a tissue-level model in which specified growth rates vary in space and time and are oriented by a proximodistal polarity field. The resulting tissue conflicts lead to deformation of the tissue as it grows. The model allows us to identify tissue-specific and temporally specific activities required to obtain the individual shapes. One such activity may be provided by the valve-identity gene FRUITFULL, which we show through comparative mutant analysis to modulate fruit shape during post-fertilisation growth of both species. Simple modulations of the model presented here can also broadly account for the variety of shapes in other Brassicaceae species, thus providing a simplified framework for fruit development and shape diversity. PMID:27624834

  4. Enhancing the Adult Classroom Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darkenwald, Gordon G.

    1989-01-01

    The Adult Classroom Environment Scale measures seven dimensions of teacher behaviors or style: involvement, affiliation, teacher support, task orientation, personal goal attainment, organization and clarity, and student influence. Comparison of profiles of students' actual and ideal environments showed that students most wanted involvement,…

  5. Moral Dilemmas of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rest, James R.

    This study describes moral dilemmas that young adults (ages 18-24) formulate spontaneously and examines the relationship between these dilemmas and the subjects' environment and scores on a standardized test. Fifty-two subjects were tested both in 1976 and 1978, creating 104 subject-oriented dilemmas. Thirty-two were in college, 17 were not, and…

  6. Predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Few young adults meet national recommendations to consume at least 2 c fruit and 2 to 3 c vegetables daily. Effective strategies and messaging are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake during young adulthood has been limited and primarily cross-sectional. This study was conducted to identify 5-year and 10-year longitudinal predictors of F/V intake in young adulthood. The sample included 476 male and 654 female participants enrolled in a population-based cohort study (Projects EAT-I, II, and III [Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults]). Participants completed surveys and food frequency questionnaires in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, high school classrooms in 1998-1999 (mean age=15.8 years, adolescence) and follow-up measures in 2003-2004 (mean age=20.4 years, emerging adulthood) and 2008-2009 (mean age=26.2 years, young adulthood). In young adulthood, average daily intake was 0.9 servings of fruit (excluding juice) and 1.8 servings of vegetables (excluding potatoes). Factors examined in adolescence and in emerging adulthood that were predictive of F/V intake in young adulthood included favorable taste preferences, fewer perceived time barriers to healthy eating, higher home availability of F/V, and limited home availability of unhealthy foods. Analyses also identified additional factors that were specifically relevant to fruit (eg, breakfast patterns) or vegetable intake (eg, home food preparation) and of particular relevance during emerging adulthood (eg, significant other's healthy eating attitudes). Findings suggest individual and socioenvironmental factors, particularly food preferences and home food availability, during adolescence and emerging adulthood may influence F/V intake in young adulthood.

  7. Increasing access to fruits and vegetables: perspectives from the New York City experience.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Rachel; Yi, Stella S; Nonas, Cathy

    2015-05-01

    Broad recognition now exists that price, availability, and other structural factors are meaningful barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly among low-income adults. Beginning in 2005, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene used the social-ecological model to develop a multifaceted effort to increase fruit and vegetable access citywide, with emphasis in low-income neighborhoods. Overall, the percentage of New York City adults who reported consuming no fruits and vegetables in the previous day decreased slightly over a 10-year period (2002: 14.3% [95% confidence interval = 13.4%, 15.2%]; 2012: 12.5% [95% confidence interval = 11.4%, 13.6%]; P for trend < .001). Our approach hypothesizes that complementary initiatives, implemented simultaneously, will create a citywide food environment that fuels changes in social norms and cultural preferences, increases consumer demand, and supports sustainable access to affordable produce.

  8. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  9. Molecular and genetic regulation of fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fleshy fruit undergo a novel developmental program that ends in the irreversible process of ripening and eventual tissue senescence. During these maturation processes, fruit undergo numerous physiological, biochemical and structural alterations, making them more attractive to seed dispersal organism...

  10. Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body—as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU—do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. PMID:23306190

  11. QTL Mapping of Flowering and Fruiting Traits in Olive

    PubMed Central

    Sadok, Inès Ben; Celton, Jean-Marc; Essalouh, Laila; El Aabidine, Amal Zine; Garcia, Gilbert; Martinez, Sebastien; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed; Costes, Evelyne; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenge fruit growers are facing is to balance between tree production and vegetative growth from year to year. To investigate the existence of genetic determinism for reproductive behaviour in olive tree, we studied an olive segregating population derived from a cross between ‘Olivière’ and ‘Arbequina’ cultivars. Our strategy was based on (i) an annual assessment of individual trees yield, and (ii) a decomposition of adult growth units at the crown periphery into quantitative variables related to both flowering and fruiting process in relation to their growth and branching. Genetic models, including the year, genotype effects and their interactions, were built with variance function and correlation structure of residuals when necessary. Among the progeny, trees were either ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ for a given year and patterns of regular vs. irregular bearing were revealed. Genotype effect was significant on yield but not for flowering traits at growth unit (GU) scale, whereas the interaction between genotype and year was significant for both traits. A strong genetic effect was found for all fruiting traits without interaction with the year. Based on the new constructed genetic map, QTLs with small effects were detected, revealing multigenic control of the studied traits. Many were associated to alleles from ‘Arbequina’. Genetic correlations were found between Yield and Fruit set at GU scale suggesting a common genetic control, even though QTL co-localisations were in spe`cific years only. Most QTL were associated to flowering traits in specific years, even though reproductive traits at GU scale did not capture the bearing status of the trees in a given year. Results were also interpreted with respect to ontogenetic changes of growth and branching, and an alternative sampling strategy was proposed for capturing tree fruiting behaviour. Regular bearing progenies were identified and could constitute innovative material for selection programs

  12. Ovary development in two genetic strains of Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olfactory reception and behavioral responses to semiochemicals are influenced by an insect's physiological state, including sexual maturity. For tephritid fruit flies, reliable methods are needed for assessing maturity status of field-caught adults. Previously, we developed a six-stage system to cla...

  13. Using Education, Exposure, and Environments to Increase Preschool Children's Knowledge about Fruit and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…

  14. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  15. Acylphloroglucinol biosynthesis in strawberry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa, we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native strawberr...

  16. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  17. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  18. Rubus fruit myths vs. reality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This factsheet corrects several popular media inaccuracies about Rubus fruit. Supplying the public with scientific facts is part of our continued efforts to assist consumers in making sound health conscious decisions. This project was partially funded by a Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant fr...

  19. The flavor of citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus is the largest cultivated fruit tree crop in the world, with total production of more than 100 million tons per year. The genus Citrus consists of different species, including several producing economically important crops, such as oranges, mandarins, grapefruit, pummelo, lemons and limes, c...

  20. Overwintering survival of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and two introduced parasitoids in California.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Nadel, Hannah; Johnson, Marshall W; Blanchet, Arnaud; Argov, Yael; Pickett, Charles H; Daane, Kent M

    2013-06-01

    The overwintering survival and development of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and P. lounsburyi (Silvestri), were investigated at sites in California's interior valley and coastal region. In the interior valley, adult flies survived up to 4-6 mo during the winter when food was provided. Adult female flies could oviposit in late fall and early winter on nonharvested fruit and, although egg survival was low (0.23-8.50%), a portion of the overwintered cohort developed into adults the following spring; percentage of survival was negatively correlated to daily minimum temperature. P. humilis and P. lounsburyi successfully oviposited into host larvae in late fall, and their progeny developed into adults the following spring, although with a low percentage (0-11.9%) survivorship. Overwintering survival of puparia of the olive fruit fly and immature larvae of P. humilis and P. lounsburyi (inside host puparia), buried in the soil, were tested at an interior valley and coastal site. Survival of olive fruit fly ranged from 0 to 60% and was affected by the trial date and soil moisture. Overwintering survival of both the fruit fly and tested parasitoids was lower at the colder interior valley than the coastal site; P. humilis immature stages had the highest mortality levels while B. oleae pupae had the lowest mortality levels. The spring emergence pattern of the tested insects was well predicted by a degree-day model. We discuss factors potentially impeding establishment of introduced olive fruit fly parasitoids in California and elsewhere.

  1. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried fruit. 24.202... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.202 Dried fruit. In the production of wine from dried fruit, a quantity of water sufficient to restore the moisture content to that...

  2. Genomics of Tropical Fruit Tree Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic improvement of tropical fruit trees is limited when compared to progress achieved in temperate fruit trees and annual crops. Tropical fruit tree breeding programs require significant resources to develop new cultivars that are adapted to modern shipping and storage requirements. The use...

  3. Fruit ripening: physiology, signalling and genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit development and ripening represent the terminal phase of plant development. It is during this phase that fleshy fruits are enriched with sensory and nutritional quality attributes. Fruits are a dietary source of vitamins, minerals and fibre but, due to their short postharvest life, a large por...

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of morel fruiting.

    PubMed

    Mihail, Jeanne D; Bruhn, Johann N; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2007-03-01

    The biotic and abiotic factors conditioning morel fruit body production are incompletely known. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of Morchella esculenta fruiting over five years in a wooded site in Missouri, USA. Fruiting onset was inversely correlated with spring air and soil temperatures, whereas abundance was positively correlated with rain events (>10mm) during the 30 d preceding fruiting. The two years with the greatest fruiting had the shortest fruiting seasons (6-7d). Fruiting season length was positively correlated with soil warming, suggesting that a narrow range of optimum soil temperatures favour the explosive production of fruit bodies. All woody stems of at least 1cm diam were mapped and stem diameter and crown condition were noted. Morel fruit bodies were significantly closer to stems of Carya spp., Tilia americana and Ulmus americana than predicted by the frequencies of these woody species or their contribution to the total basal area on the site. Although intra-annual clustering of fruit bodies was often observed, inter-annual clustering was not. The spatial pattern of M. esculenta fruiting appears to be associated with vegetation pattern, whereas the onset and abundance of fruiting are determined by the interaction of spring temperatures with availability of supporting precipitation.

  5. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis.

  6. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  7. Molecular Orientation in Quantasomes

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Kenneth

    1965-01-01

    A new apparatus is described for measuring dichroism spectra with very high sensitivity for macromolecular structures oriented in a hydrodynamic gradient. The method has been used to explore the dichroism spectrum of quantasome aggregates isolated from spinach chloroplasts. The quantasome flow dichroism resembles qualitatively that observed previously using electric field orientation, in that a pigment absorbing at wavelengths longer than 680 mμ exhibits appreciably greater dichroism than those absorbing at shorter wavelengths. It is shown that the absorption oscillator for this long wavelength absorption lies parallel to the streamlines of the sheer gradient, which is assumed to be the direction in which the planes of the chloroplast lamellae are oriented. PMID:19431337

  8. Development of anticipatory orienting strategies and trajectory formation in goal-oriented locomotion.

    PubMed

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2013-05-01

    In goal-oriented locomotion, healthy adults generate highly stereotyped trajectories and a consistent anticipatory head orienting behaviour, both evidence of top-down, open-loop control. The aim of this study is to describe the typical development of anticipatory orienting strategies and trajectory formation. Our hypothesis is that full-blown anticipatory control requires advanced navigational skills. Twenty-six healthy subjects (14 children: 4-11 years; 6 adolescents: 13-17 years; 6 adults) were asked to walk freely towards one of the three visual targets, in a randomised order. Movement was captured via an optoelectronic system, with 15 body markers. The whole-body displacement, yaw orientation of head, trunk and pelvis, heading direction and foot placements were extracted. Head-heading anticipation, trajectory curvature, indexes of variability of trajectories, foot placements and kinematic profiles were studied. The mean head-heading anticipation time and trajectory curvature did not significantly differ among age groups. In children, however, head anticipation was more often lacking (χ2 = 9.55, p < 0.01), and there were significant intra- and inter-subject variations. Trajectory curvature was often very high in children, while it became consistently lower in adolescence (χ2 = 78.59, p < 10(-17)). The indexes of spatial and kinematic variability all followed a decreasing developmental trend (R (2) > 0.5, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, children under 11 do not perform curvilinear locomotor trajectories as adolescents and adults do. Anticipatory head orientation and trajectory formation develop in late childhood, well after gait maturation. Navigational skills, such as path planning and shifting from ego- to allocentric spatial reference frames, are proposed as necessary requisites for mature locomotor control.

  9. Orientational order in disordered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, J. )

    1991-05-13

    Orientational order in weakly pinned Abrikosov flux lattices is studied, taking into account two heretofore neglected effects: dislocations and orientational couplings to the underlying lattice. Without orientational couplings, arbitrarily weak pinning destroys long-ranged orientational order for all spatial dimensions {ital d}{lt}4. Orientational couplings stabilize long-ranged orientational order. For fields along an axis of {ital fourfold} symmetry, {ital sixfold} (hexatic) orientational order is described by a random-field Ising model, and so does not occur in {ital d}=2 (thin films) but does in {ital d}=3 (bulk).

  10. Topography and pigeon orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, G.

    1972-01-01

    Two types of homing experiments with pigeons to determine the influence of topographical features on the orientation behavior of the birds are discussed. The releases and following were conducted by ground experiments in which the birds are tracked by visual observation at points of topographical interest and the helicopter method by which the birds are tracked throughout the entire flight. The ground experiments showed a strong influence of topographical features on initial orientation. The helicopter experiments showed that the ground experiments do not provide adequate information on the manner in which homing occurs.

  11. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26083385

  12. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  13. Evaluation of Methyl Eugenol and Cue-Lure Traps with Solid Lure and Insecticide Dispensers for Fruit Fly Monitoring and Male Annihilation in the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii fruit fly A...

  14. Polymyositis - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  15. How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales.

    PubMed

    Stournaras, Kalliope E; Lo, Eugenia; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Cazetta, Eliana; Dehling, D Matthias; Schleuning, Matthias; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Donoghue, Michael J; Prum, Richard O; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-04-01

    The colors of fleshy fruits are considered to be a signal to seed-dispersing animals, but their diversity remains poorly understood. Using an avian color space to derive a sensory morphospace for fruit color, we tested four hypotheses of fruit color diversity: fruit colors occupy a limited area of the color space; they are less diverse than flower colors; fruit colors within localities are similar to each other; and fruit color diversity reflects phylogeny. The global fruit color diversity of 948 primarily bird-dispersed plant species and the color diversity of localities were compared with null models of random, unconstrained evolution of fruit color. Fruit color diversity was further compared with the diversity of 1300 flower colors. Tests of phylogenetic effects on fruit color were used to assess the degree of correspondence with phylogeny. Global and local fruit color diversity was limited compared with null models and fruits have achieved only half the color diversity of flowers. Interestingly, we found little indication of phylogenetic conservatism. Constraints resulting from the chemical properties of pigments probably limit global fruit and flower color diversity. Different types of selection on fruits and flowers may further explain the smaller color diversity of fruits.

  16. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Dumitras, D. C.; Patachia, M.; Banita, S.

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones.

  17. Social Care in Adult Education: Resisting a Marketplace Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a research study about the experiences of adult educators in which the stories of three of the participants were central in exploring the issue of social care in adult education. It proposes that the adult educators with a social care orientation in this study acknowledge the importance of, and work to provide for, human…

  18. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

    2013-10-01

    Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11 degrees C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11 degrees C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C),and irradiation (0 > 30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy. No melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degrees C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments.

  19. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among students in a New Zealand university. Results of focus group interviews.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Hilde; Wadsworth, Daniel P; Penny, Suzi; van Assema, Patricia; Page, Rachel

    2013-06-01

    The '5+ a day' fruit and vegetable servings recommendation was introduced in New Zealand in 1994, but consumption has remained low in young adults ever since. This study aimed to identify psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among New Zealand university students approximately a decade after the guidelines' introduction. Twenty-nine students, aged 18-24 years, took part in focus group interviews. Important determinants included taste and health awareness/knowledge. Flatmates and partners had the greatest social influence. Cost and availability were major barriers to consumption. To improve consumption participants suggested: cooking sessions providing quick/easy recipes; more-varied nutritional information; 'made-to-measure' interventions; increasing awareness of cheap sources of fruit/vegetables; and increasing campus availability of fruit. Determinants including a negative attitude, a lack of self-efficacy and an unawareness of dietary guidelines/health consequences should be considered when developing interventions for this group, whilst a variety of different delivery channels should be used. Participants in the study were not representative of all university students, who generally have a different lifestyle to other young adults and specific determinants for fruit/vegetable consumption. Consequently, additional research is required among other young adults and university students with lower fruit and vegetable intake, so that promotional strategies can be specifically targeted.

  20. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  1. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    PubMed Central

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  2. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention.

  3. New Faculty Orientation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    This report provides an overview of Triton College's (Illinois) New Faculty Orientation Plan, which was developed in light of the large number of retirements and new hires expected by the year 2000. The purpose of the plan is to assist newly hired instructors to move productively into their professional roles and to become actively involved in the…

  4. Geography and Orienteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    Orienteering is a rapidly growing sport, developed in Sweden, which has great possibilities for education in geography. It can be conceived as an organizing device for outdoor work and as a basis for developing map skills and for map construction. (Author)

  5. Control Oriented System Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    The research goals for this grant were to obtain algorithms for control oriented system identification is to construct dynamical models of systems...and measured information. Algorithms for this type of nonlinear system identification have been given that produce models suitable for gain scheduled

  6. A cast orientation index.

    PubMed

    Ivanhoe, J R; Mahanna, G K

    1994-12-01

    This article describes a technique that allows multiple master casts to be precisely oriented to the same path of insertion and withdrawal. This technique is useful in situations where multiple fixed prosthodontic preparations require surveyed restorations and a single master cast is not available.

  7. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  8. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  9. Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico (26.5N, 102.0W) west of Monclova, shows a mining region of northern Mexico. Mine tailings can be seen on the mountain slopes and in the valley floor. In addition to mining activity, several irrigated agricultural areas supporting the local communities can be seen in the area.

  10. An orientable search coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, P. J.; Poblocki, M.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a design for a low cost orientable search coil that can be used to investigate the variation of magnetic flux with angle. This experiment is one of the required practical activities in the current A level physics specification for the AQA examination board in the UK. We demonstrate its performance and suggest other suitable investigations that can be undertaken.

  11. The Climacteric in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, David J.; Rowan, Kingsley S.

    1971-01-01

    Phosphofructokinase is identified as the regulator reaction activated at the onset of the climacteric rise in respiration of the ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The concentration of ATP in the fruit increases to a maximum value after the climacteric peak of respiration is past. Orthophosphate is proposed as the most probable activator of phosphofructokinase in the ripening fruit. Fifteen hours after infiltrating tomato fruit with orthophosphate, the rate of respiration increased and remained high until the end of the experiment, 45 hours after infiltration. In experiments where tomato plants were grown at various nutrient levels of P, the rate of respiration when fruit harvested at the mature-green stage reached the respiratory climacteric was correlated with the concentration of orthophosphate in the fruit at the end of the experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of phosphofructokinase through increasing concentration of orthophosphate in the cytoplasm of the fruit contributes to the climacteric rise in respiration. PMID:16657771

  12. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree.

  13. Relative longevity of adult Nezara viridula in field cages of cotton, peanut, and soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evidence shows that southern green stink bugs use peanut as a reproductive host and adults colonize and feed in peanut, sometimes extensively. Stink bugs prefer the seeds/fruit of host plants and the fruiting structures in peanut are underground and unavailable. Therefore, it is not clear th...

  14. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-08

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  15. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  16. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    PubMed

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  17. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  18. Carbohydrate control over carotenoid build-up is conditional on fruit ontogeny in clementine fruits.

    PubMed

    Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Poggi, Isabelle; Urban, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The final contents of primary and secondary metabolites of the ripe fruit depend on metabolic processes that are tightly regulated during fruit ontogeny. Carbohydrate supply during fruit development is known to influence these processes but, with respect to secondary metabolites, we do not really know whether this influence is direct or indirect. Here, we hypothesized that the sensitivity of clementine fruit metabolism to carbohydrate supply was conditional on fruit developmental stage. We applied treatments increasing fruit load reversibly or irreversibly at three key stages of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) fruit development: early after cell division, at the onset of fruit coloration (color break) and near maturity. The highest fruit load obtained by early defoliation (irreversible) had the highest impact on fruit growth, maturity and metabolism, followed by the highest fruit load obtained by early shading (reversible). Final fruit size decreased by 21 and 18% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Soluble sugars decreased by 18% in the early irreversible treatment, whereas organic acids increased by 46 and 29% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Interestingly, total carotenoids increased by 50 and 18%, respectively. Changes in leaf starch content and photosynthesis supported that these early treatments triggered a carbon starvation in the young fruits, with irreversible effects. Furthermore, our observations on the early treatments challenge the common view that carbohydrate supply influences positively carotenoid accumulation in fruits. We propose that early carbon starvation irreversibly promotes carotenoid accumulation.

  19. Acephate affects migratory orientation of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Sauer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Migratory white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were exposed to acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), an organophosphorus pesticide, to determine its effects on migratory orientation and behavior. Birds were also exposed to polarizer sheets to determine the mechanism by which acephate may affect migratory orientation. Adult birds exposed to 256 ppm acephate a.i. were not able to establish a preferred migratory orientation and exhibited random activity. All juvenile treatment groups displayed a seasonally correct southward migratory orientation. We hypothesize that acephate may have produced aberrant migratory behavior by affecting the memory of the migratory route and wintering ground. This experiment reveals that an environmentally relevant concentration of a common organophosphorus pesticide can alter migratory orientation, but its effect is markedly different between adult and juvenile sparrows. Results suggest that the survival of free-flying adult passerine migrants may be compromised following organophosphorus pesticide exposure.

  20. Unemployed Native Americans in a Work Orientation Program in Phoenix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Billie Jane

    The unemployment rate for Native Americans is 49% nationwide and 54% in Arizona. The Job Training Partnership Act (JPTA) program at the Phoenix Indian Center trains Native American adults to enter the urban work force. The Center offers work orientation programs, individual counseling, and work experience programs. The majority of the participants…