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Sample records for adult owl monkeys

  1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Owl Monkeys (Aotus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly. PMID:23759531

  2. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains. PMID:3914842

  3. Adaptation of the Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum to Panamanian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Baerg, D C

    1987-09-01

    The Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum, acquired at the second passage level in splenectomized Colombian owl monkeys, was adapted to owl monkeys of Panamanian origin. Patent infections were induced in 22 of 27 unaltered and 20 of 21 splenectomized recipients during 19 serial passages. The infections were significantly more virulent in splenectomized than normal Panamanian owl monkeys, however recrudescences in seven normal monkeys achieved peak parasitemias 48 times greater than in the primary attack. These results describe the first reproducible infections of indigenous falciparum malaria in Panamanian owl monkeys. PMID:3310680

  4. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    SciTech Connect

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Montoya, Enrique J.; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-08-16

    Abstract Dyscoria was observed in a female owl monkey and her two offspring. A third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two males paired with the female died, one of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all three animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly, H. simplex or H. saimiri-1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing animals into breeding or research colonies that were previously kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is observed in nonhuman primates.

  5. Vestibular functions and sleep in space experiments. [using rhesus and owl monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Physical indices of sleep were continuously monitored in an owl monkey living in a chamber continuously rotating at a constant angular velocity. The electrophysiological data obtained from chronically implanted electrodes was analyzed to determine the chronic effects of vestibular stimulation on sleep and wakefulness cycles. The interaction of linear and angular acceleration on the vestibulo-ocular reflex was investigated in three rhesus monkeys at various angular accelerations.

  6. Moonstruck Primates: Owl Monkeys (Aotus) Need Moonlight for Nocturnal Activity in Their Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; de la Iglesia, Horacio; Erkert, Hans G.

    2010-01-01

    Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans), nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai) of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6–18 months) 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n = 10 individuals) to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to moonlight

  7. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus) need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; de la Iglesia, Horacio; Erkert, Hans G

    2010-01-01

    Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans), nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai) of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months) 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals) to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to moonlight. Furthermore

  8. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Nicholas R.; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals

  9. Endogenous New World primate type C viruses isolated from owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) kidney cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Todaro, G J; Sherr, C J; Sen, A; King, N; Daniel, M D; Fleckenstein, B

    1978-01-01

    A type C virus (OMC-1) detected in a culture of owl monkey kidney cells resembled typical type C viruses morphologically, but was slightly larger than previously characterized mammalian type C viruses. OMC-1 can be transmitted to bat lung cells and cat embryo fibroblasts. The virions band at a density of 1.16 g/ml in isopycnic sucrose density gradients and contain reverse transcriptase and a 60-65S RNA genome composed of approximately 32S subunits. The reverse transcriptase is immunologically and biochemically distinct from the polymerases of othe retroviruses. Radioimmunoassays directed to the interspecies antigenic determinants of the major structure proteins of other type C viruses do not detect a related antigen in OMC-1. Nucleic acid hybridization experiments using labeled viral genomic RNA or proviral cDNA transcripts to normal cellular DNA of different species show that OMC-1 is an endogenous virus with multiple virogene copies (20-50 per haploid genome) present in normal owl monkey cells and is distinct from previously isolated type C and D viruses. Sequences related to the OMC-1 genome can be detected in other New World monkeys. Thus, similar to the Old World primates (e.g., baboons as a prototype), the New World monkeys contain endogenous type C viral genes that appear to have been transmitted in the primate germ line. Images PMID:76312

  10. Heterochromatin Blocks Constituting the Entire Short Arms of Acrocentric Chromosomes of Azara's Owl Monkey: Formation Processes Inferred From Chromosomal Locations

    PubMed Central

    Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Chaiprasertsri, Nampech; Terada, Shoko; Hirai, Yuriko; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Centromeres and telomeres of higher eukaryotes generally contain repetitive sequences, which often form pericentric or subtelomeric heterochromatin blocks. C-banding analysis of chromosomes of Azara's owl monkey, a primate species, showed that the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes consist mostly or solely of constitutive heterochromatin. The purpose of the present study was to determine which category, pericentric, or subtelomeric is most appropriate for this heterochromatin, and to infer its formation processes. We cloned and sequenced its DNA component, finding it to be a tandem repeat sequence comprising 187-bp repeat units, which we named OwlRep. Subsequent hybridization analyses revealed that OwlRep resides in the pericentric regions of a small number of metacentric chromosomes, in addition to the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes. Further, in the pericentric regions of the acrocentric chromosomes, OwlRep was observed on the short-arm side only. This distribution pattern of OwlRep among chromosomes can be simply and sufficiently explained by assuming (i) OwlRep was transferred from chromosome to chromosome by the interaction of pericentric heterochromatin, and (ii) it was amplified there as subtelomeric heterochromatin. OwlRep carries several direct and inverted repeats within its repeat units. This complex structure may lead to a higher frequency of chromosome scission and may thus be a factor in the unique distribution pattern among chromosomes. Neither OwlRep nor similar sequences were found in the genomes of the other New World monkey species we examined, suggesting that OwlRep underwent rapid amplification after the divergence of the owl monkey lineage from lineages of the other species. PMID:23761219

  11. Tuberculosis-like lesions arising from the use of Freund's complete adjuvant in an owl monkey (Aotus sp)

    SciTech Connect

    Malaga, Carlos A.; Weller, Richard E.; Broderson, J R.; Gozalo, Alfonso S.

    2004-04-01

    An apparently normal, non-tuberculin-reacting, splenectomized owl monkey presented tuberculosis-like lesions of the lung at necropsy. Histological and bacteriological examination failed to demonstrate the presence of acid-fast organisms. Retrospective inquiry showed the animal had been inoculated using complete Freund's Adjuvant during a malaria vaccine trial. Lesions observed were compatible with lipid embolism of the adjuvant in the lungs.

  12. Social monogamy in wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) of Argentina: the potential influences of resource distribution and ranging patterns.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Using published and new data from a population of monogamous owl monkeys in the Argentinean Chaco, I examine the hypothesis that social monogamy is a default social system imposed upon males because the spatial and/or temporal distribution of resources and females makes it difficult for a single male to defend access to more than one mate. First, I examine a set of predictions on ranging patterns, use of space, and population density. This first section is followed by a second one considering predictions related to the abundance and distribution of food. Finally, I conclude with a section attempting to link the ranging and ecological data to demographic and life-history parameters as proxies for reproductive success. In support of the hypothesis, owl monkey species do live at densities (7-64 ind/km(2) ) that are predicted for monogamous species, but groups occupy home ranges and core areas that vary substantially in size, with pronounced overlap of home ranges, but not of core areas. There are strong indications that the availability of food sources in the core areas during the dry season may be of substantial importance for regulating social monogamy in owl monkeys. Finally, none of the proxies for the success of groups were strongly related to the size of the home range or core area. The results I present do not support conclusively any single explanation for the evolution of social monogamy in owl monkeys, but they help us to better understand how it may function. Moreover, the absence of conclusive answers linking ranging, ecology, and reproductive success with the evolution of social monogamy in primates, offer renewed motivation for continuing to explore the evolution of monogamy in owl monkeys. PMID:25931263

  13. Structural Requirements for Recognition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Core during Host Restriction in Owl Monkey Cells

    PubMed Central

    Forshey, Brett M.; Shi, Jiong; Aiken, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of simian cells is restricted at an early postentry step by host factors whose mechanism of action is unclear. These factors target the viral capsid protein (CA) and attenuate reverse transcription, suggesting that they bind to the HIV-1 core and interfere with its uncoating. To identify the relevant binding determinants in the capsid, we tested the capacity of viruses containing Gag cleavage site mutations and amino acid substitutions in CA to inhibit restriction of a wild type HIV-1 reporter virus in owl monkey cells. The results demonstrated that a stable, polymeric capsid and a correctly folded amino-terminal CA subunit interface are essential for saturation of host restriction in target cells by HIV-1 cores. We conclude that the owl monkey cellular restriction machinery recognizes a polymeric array of CA molecules, most likely via direct engagement of the HIV-1 capsid in target cells prior to uncoating. PMID:15613315

  14. Parity Modifies Endocrine Hormones in Urine and Problem-Solving Strategies of Captive Owl Monkeys (Aotus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Eckles, Meredith; Kirk, Emily; Landis, Timothy; Evans, Sian; Lambert, Kelly G

    2014-01-01

    Parental behavior modifies neural, physiologic, and behavioral characteristics of both maternal and paternal mammals. These parenting-induced modifications extend to brain regions not typically associated with parental responses themselves but that enhance ancillary responses, such as foraging efficiency and predator avoidance. Here we hypothesized that male and female owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) with reproductive experience (RE) would demonstrate more adaptive ancillary behavioral and neuroendocrine responses than those of their nonRE counterparts. To assess cognitive skills and coping flexibility, we introduced a foraging strategy task, including a set of novel objects (coin holders) marked with different symbols representing different food rewards, to the animals. To assess endocrine responses, urine samples were assayed for cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels and their ratios to determine physiologic measures of emotional regulation in RE and nonRE owl monkeys. Compared with nonRE monkeys, experienced parents had higher DHEA:cortisol ratios after exposure to habituation training and on the first day of testing in the foraging task. Both hormones play critical roles in the stress response and coping mechanisms, and a high DHEA:cortisol ratio usually indicates increased coping skills. In addition, RE monkeys exhibited more efficient foraging responses (by 4-fold) than did the nonRE mating pairs. We conclude that RE modifies relevant behavioral and hormonal responses of both maternal and paternal owl monkeys exposed to a challenging cognitive paradigm. Corroborating previous research demonstrating adaptive modifications in foraging efficiency and emotional responses in reproductively experienced rodents, the current results extend these findings to a monogamous primate species. PMID:25527030

  15. Oxytocin receptor gene sequences in owl monkeys and other primates show remarkable interspecific regulatory and protein coding variation.

    PubMed

    Babb, Paul L; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Schurr, Theodore G

    2015-10-01

    The oxytocin (OT) hormone pathway is involved in numerous physiological processes, and one of its receptor genes (OXTR) has been implicated in pair bonding behavior in mammalian lineages. This observation is important for understanding social monogamy in primates, which occurs in only a small subset of taxa, including Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). To examine the potential relationship between social monogamy and OXTR variation, we sequenced its 5' regulatory (4936bp) and coding (1167bp) regions in 25 owl monkeys from the Argentinean Gran Chaco, and examined OXTR sequences from 1092 humans from the 1000 Genomes Project. We also assessed interspecific variation of OXTR in 25 primate and rodent species that represent a set of phylogenetically and behaviorally disparate taxa. Our analysis revealed substantial variation in the putative 5' regulatory region of OXTR, with marked structural differences across primate taxa, particularly for humans and chimpanzees, which exhibited unique patterns of large motifs of dinucleotide A+T repeats upstream of the OXTR 5' UTR. In addition, we observed a large number of amino acid substitutions in the OXTR CDS region among New World primate taxa that distinguish them from Old World primates. Furthermore, primate taxa traditionally defined as socially monogamous (e.g., gibbons, owl monkeys, titi monkeys, and saki monkeys) all exhibited different amino acid motifs for their respective OXTR protein coding sequences. These findings support the notion that monogamy has evolved independently in Old World and New World primates, and that it has done so through different molecular mechanisms, not exclusively through the oxytocin pathway. PMID:26025428

  16. Correlates of genetic monogamy in socially monogamous mammals: insights from Azara's owl monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Huck, Maren; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Babb, Paul; Schurr, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of mating systems, a central topic in evolutionary biology for more than 50 years, requires examining the genetic consequences of mating and the relationships between social systems and mating systems. Among pair-living mammals, where genetic monogamy is extremely rare, the extent of extra-group paternity rates has been associated with male participation in infant care, strength of the pair bond and length of the breeding season. This study evaluated the relationship between two of those factors and the genetic mating system of socially monogamous mammals, testing predictions that male care and strength of pair bond would be negatively correlated with rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). Autosomal microsatellite analyses provide evidence for genetic monogamy in a pair-living primate with bi-parental care, the Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). A phylogenetically corrected generalized least square analysis was used to relate male care and strength of the pair bond to their genetic mating system (i.e. proportions of EPP) in 15 socially monogamous mammalian species. The intensity of male care was correlated with EPP rates in mammals, while strength of pair bond failed to reach statistical significance. Our analyses show that, once social monogamy has evolved, paternal care, and potentially also close bonds, may facilitate the evolution of genetic monogamy. PMID:24648230

  17. Density estimates of Panamanian owl monkeys (Aotus zonalis) in three habitat types.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Magdalena S; Samudio, Rafael; Bearder, Simon K; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2010-02-01

    The resolution of the ambiguity surrounding the taxonomy of Aotus means data on newly classified species are urgently needed for conservation efforts. We conducted a study on the Panamanian owl monkey (Aotus zonalis) between May and July 2008 at three localities in Chagres National Park, located east of the Panama Canal, using the line transect method to quantify abundance and distribution. Vegetation surveys were also conducted to provide a baseline quantification of the three habitat types. We observed 33 individuals within 16 groups in two out of the three sites. Population density was highest in Campo Chagres with 19.7 individuals/km(2) and intermediate densities of 14.3 individuals/km(2) were observed at Cerro Azul. In la Llana A. zonalis was not found to be present. The presence of A. zonalis in Chagres National Park, albeit at seemingly low abundance, is encouraging. A longer-term study will be necessary to validate the further abundance estimates gained in this pilot study in order to make conservation policy decisions. PMID:19852005

  18. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    SciTech Connect

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  19. Research and in situ conservation of owl monkeys enhances environmental law enforcement at the Colombian-Peruvian border.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Angela M; Peck, Mika R

    2014-07-01

    This study reports on impacts of illegal trade in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans) for the biomedical research market in the Colombian-Peruvian Amazonian border. Through freedom of information requests and interviews with hunters we found that 912 owl monkeys, including A. nancymaae captured in Peru, were trapped over a 3-month period in 2012 to supply a malaria research facility based in Leticia, Colombia, which had trapping permits for the use of only 800 A. vociferans annually yet experimentation took place using A. nancymaae. High levels of extraction in Peru have had population-level impacts with significantly lower densities of Aotus spp. (3-24 individuals/km(2)) compared to Colombian sites with low hunting pressure (26-44 individuals/km(2)). Post-experimental release of this species in Colombian territory has created a new distribution whose status and impacts on resident populations of A. vociferans remain unknown. The trapping method has also had environmental impact, with loss of over 65,000 trees (including sleeping sites), annually. As Aotus species are registered under the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II, international trade requires official permission and evidence that extraction does not impact wild populations. However, no official records exist and CITES legislation has failed, due principally to a lack of appropriate monitoring by national authorities responsible for compliance. Of further concern is that we had previously documented and reported the illegal trade to the appropriate governmental authorities yet still no action was taken-as demonstrated by the continuing trade in 2013. Enforcement eventually occurred when a non-governmental organization initiated legal action against organizations responsible. A successful second instance ruling by the Colombian State's Council in 2013 revoked trapping permits. Using the trade in owl monkeys as a case study we consider

  20. Retinotopic organization of extrastriate cortex in the owl monkey--dorsal and lateral areas.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Martin I; McDonald, Colin T; Allman, John M

    2015-01-01

    Dense retinotopy data sets were obtained by microelectrode visual receptive field mapping in dorsal and lateral visual cortex of anesthetized owl monkeys. The cortex was then physically flatmounted and stained for myelin or cytochrome oxidase. Retinotopic mapping data were digitized, interpolated to a uniform grid, analyzed using the visual field sign technique-which locally distinguishes mirror image from nonmirror image visual field representations-and correlated with the myelin or cytochrome oxidase patterns. The region between V2 (nonmirror) and MT (nonmirror) contains three areas-DLp (mirror), DLi (nonmirror), and DLa/MTc (mirror). DM (mirror) was thin anteroposteriorly, and its reduced upper field bent somewhat anteriorly away from V2. DI (nonmirror) directly adjoined V2 (nonmirror) and contained only an upper field representation that also adjoined upper field DM (mirror). Retinotopy was used to define area VPP (nonmirror), which adjoins DM anteriorly, area FSTd (mirror), which adjoins MT ventrolaterally, and TP (mirror), which adjoins MT and DLa/MTc dorsoanteriorly. There was additional retinotopic and architectonic evidence for five more subdivisions of dorsal and lateral extrastriate cortex-TA (nonmirror), MSTd (mirror), MSTv (nonmirror), FSTv (nonmirror), and PP (mirror). Our data appear quite similar to data from marmosets, though our field sign-based areal subdivisions are slightly different. The region immediately anterior to the superiorly located central lower visual field V2 varied substantially between individuals, but always contained upper fields immediately touching lower visual field V2. This region appears to vary even more between species. Though we provide a summary diagram, given within- and between-species variation, it should be regarded as a guide to parsing complex retinotopy rather than a literal representation of any individual, or as the only way to agglomerate the complex mosaic of partial upper and lower field, mirror- and

  1. An optimized microsatellite genotyping strategy for assessing genetic identity and kinship in Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai).

    PubMed

    Babb, Paul L; McIntosh, Annick M; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we characterize a panel of 20 microsatellite markers that reproducibly amplify in Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) for use in genetic profiling analyses. A total of 128 individuals from our study site in Formosa, Argentina, were genotyped for 20 markers, 13 of which were found to be polymorphic. The levels of allelic variation at these loci provided paternity exclusion probabilities of 0.852 when neither parent was known, and 0.981 when one parent was known. In addition, our analysis revealed that, although genotypes can be rapidly scored using fluorescence-based fragment analysis, the presence of complex or multiple short tandem repeat (STR) motifs at a microsatellite locus could generate similar fragment patterns from alleles that have different nucleotide sequences and perhaps different evolutionary origins. Even so, this collection of microsatellite loci is suitable for parentage analyses and will allow us to test various hypotheses about the relationship between social behavior and kinship in wild owl monkey populations. Furthermore, given the limited number of platyrrhine-specific microsatellite loci available in the literature, this STR panel represents a valuable tool for population studies of other cebines and callitrichines. PMID:21912137

  2. Owl monkeys (Aotus nigriceps and A. infulatus) follow routes instead of food-related cues during foraging in captivity.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Renata Souza; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2014-01-01

    Foraging at night imposes different challenges from those faced during daylight, including the reliability of sensory cues. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) are ideal models among anthropoids to study the information used during foraging at low light levels because they are unique by having a nocturnal lifestyle. Six Aotus nigriceps and four A. infulatus individuals distributed into five enclosures were studied for testing their ability to rely on olfactory, visual, auditory, or spatial and quantitative information for locating food rewards and for evaluating the use of routes to navigate among five visually similar artificial feeding boxes mounted in each enclosure. During most experiments only a single box was baited with a food reward in each session. The baited box changed randomly throughout the experiment. In the spatial and quantitative information experiment there were two baited boxes varying in the amount of food provided. These baited boxes remained the same throughout the experiment. A total of 45 sessions (three sessions per night during 15 consecutive nights) per enclosure was conducted in each experiment. Only one female showed a performance suggestive of learning of the usefulness of sight to locate the food reward in the visual information experiment. Subjects showed a chance performance in the remaining experiments. All owl monkeys showed a preference for one box or a subset of boxes to inspect upon the beginning of each experimental session and consistently followed individual routes among feeding boxes. PMID:25517894

  3. AVPR1A sequence variation in monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) and its implications for the evolution of platyrrhine social behavior.

    PubMed

    Babb, Paul L; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Schurr, Theodore G

    2010-10-01

    The arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) has been implicated in increased partner preference and pair bonding behavior in mammalian lineages. This observation is of considerable importance for studies of social monogamy, which only appears in a small subset of primate taxa, including the Argentinean owl monkey (Aotus azarai). Thus, to investigate the possible influence of AVPR1A on the evolution of social behavior in owl monkeys, we sequenced this locus in a wild population from the Gran Chaco. We also assessed the interspecific variation of AVPR1A in platyrrhine species that represent a set of phylogenetically and behaviorally disparate taxa. The resulting data revealed A. azarai to have a unique genic structure for AVPR1A that varies in coding sequence and microsatellite repeat content relative to other primate and mammalian species. Specifically, one repetitive region that has been the focus in studies of human AVPR1A diversity, "RS3," is completely absent in A. azarai and all other platyrrhines examined. This finding suggests that, if AVPR1A modulates behavior in owl monkeys and other neotropical primates, it does so independent of this region. These observations have also provided clues about the process by which the range of social behavior in the Order Primates evolved through lineage-specific neurogenetic variation. PMID:20838784

  4. Susceptibility and lack of evidence for a viremic state of rabies in the night owl monkey, Aotus nancymaae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabies causes an acute fatal encephalomyelitis in most mammals following infection with rhabdovirus of the genus Lyssavirus. Little is known about rabies virus infection in species of New World non-human Primates (NHP). To investigate the suitability of the owl monkey Aotus nancymaae asissue sections examined were unremarkable for inflammation or other histologic signs of rabies a viable animal model for rabies virus candidate vaccine testing, we used clinical presentation, serology, viral isolation, and PCR to evaluate the incubation period, immunity, and pathogenesis of infected animals. We tested the hypothesis that no viremic state exists for rabies virus. Methods Eight monkeys divided into two equal groups were inoculated intramuscularly either in the neck or footpad with 105 pfu of rabies virus (Pasteur/V-13R) and observed for >130 days. Oral and blood samples were collected and analyzed. Results Two monkeys inoculated in the neck displayed classic paralytic rabies. The mean incubation period was 11.5 days. The average maximum IgG response (antibody titer >0.200 O.D.) was achieved at day 10.0 and 62.3 in the clinical rabies and non-clinical rabies cases, respectively (p = 0.0429). No difference in IgM or IgG time to seroconversion or average maximum IgM level was observed between neck versus footpad inoculation groups. No viremia or viral shedding was detected by PCR or viral isolation during the observation period, including within the two symptomatic animals three days after disease onset. Tissue sections examined were unremarkable for inflammation or other histologic signs of rabies within the asymptomatic animal. Similarly none of the brain sections exhibited immunoreactivity for rabies virus antibody. Discussion This study demonstrates there is no difference in time to immune response between inoculation sites and distance to the brain; however, immune response tends to be more rapid in cases of clinically apparent disease and

  5. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Grant S.; DeBello, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX), the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults. PMID:25789177

  6. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Woodling, Kellie A.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 is controversial because of the potential for endocrine disruption, particularly during perinatal development, as suggested by in vitro, experimental animal, and epidemiological studies. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys by oral (PND 5, 35, 70) and intravenous injection (PND 77) routes using d6-BPA to avoid sample contamination. The concentration-time profiles observed in adult monkeys following oral administration of 100 {mu}g/kg bw were remarkably similar to those previously reported in human volunteers given a similar dose; moreover, minimal pharmacokinetic differences were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys for the receptor-active aglycone form of BPA. Circulating concentrations of BPA aglycone were quite low following oral administration (< 1% of total), which reflects the redundancy of active UDP-glucuronosyl transferase isoforms in both gut and liver. No age-related changes were seen in internal exposure metrics for aglycone BPA in monkeys, a result clearly different from developing rats where significant inverse age-related changes, based on immaturity of Phase II metabolism and renal excretion, were recently reported. These observations imply that any toxicological effect observed in rats from early postnatal exposures to BPA could over-predict those possible in primates of the same age, based on significantly higher internal exposures and overall immaturity at birth.

  7. Interaction of N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) with owl monkey kidney cells in enhancing the yields of Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) and its antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Faggioni, A.; Ablashi, D.V.; Dahlberg, J.; Armstrong, G.; Sundar, S.K.

    1984-05-01

    Pre- and posttreatment with N-methyl-N'-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) of owl monkey kidney (OMK) cells infected with Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) resulted in one to three logs higher yields of virus, depending upon the dose of MNNG. A higher percentage of cells also showed HVS early antigen (EA) and late antigen (LA) by immunofluorescence when OMK cells infected with HVS were fed with medium containing MNNG. The high yields of HVS were also observed by electron microscopy. MNNG did not induce HVS-EA in HVS nonproducer lymphoblastoid T cells, nor did it enhance TPA-induced EA to LA. The data suggest that MNNG could be useful in obtaining high yields of virus and/or antigen-producing cells for immunofluorescence or other biomedical experiments, especially from those strains of HVS which grow poorly in vitro. The interaction of MNNG and HVS could also be useful for in vitro transformation or in vivo enhancement of the malignant process.

  8. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Farzad; Wang, Xiyue; Rosene, Douglas L.; Rockland, Kathleen S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30 μm thickness), and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16 mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of putative

  9. Input clustering in the normal and learned circuits of adult barn owls

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Thomas J; DeBello, William M

    2015-01-01

    Experience-dependent formation of synaptic input clusters can occur in juvenile brains. Whether this also occurs in adults is largely unknown. We previously reconstructed the normal and learned circuits of prism-adapted barn owls and found that changes in clustering of axo-dendritic contacts (putative synapses) predicted functional circuit strength. Here we asked whether comparable changes occurred in normal and prism-removed adults. Across all anatomical zones, no systematic differences in the primary metrics for within-branch or between-branch clustering were observed: 95–99% of contacts resided within clusters (<10–20 microns from nearest neighbor) regardless of circuit strength. Bouton volumes, a proxy measure of synaptic strength, were on average larger in the functionally strong zones, indicating that changes in synaptic efficacy contributed to the differences in circuit strength. Bootstrap analysis showed that the distribution of inter-contact distances strongly deviated from random not in the functionally strong zones but in those that had been strong during the sensitive period (60d ~ 250d), indicating that clusters formed early in life were preserved regardless of current value. While cluster formation in juveniles appeared to require the production of new synapses, cluster formation in adults did not. In total, these results support a model in which high cluster dynamics in juveniles sculpt a potential connectivity map that is refined in adulthood. We propose that preservation of clusters in functionally weak adult circuits provides a storage mechanism for disused but potentially useful pathways. PMID:25701706

  10. Input clustering in the normal and learned circuits of adult barn owls.

    PubMed

    McBride, Thomas J; DeBello, William M

    2015-05-01

    Experience-dependent formation of synaptic input clusters can occur in juvenile brains. Whether this also occurs in adults is largely unknown. We previously reconstructed the normal and learned circuits of prism-adapted barn owls and found that changes in clustering of axo-dendritic contacts (putative synapses) predicted functional circuit strength. Here we asked whether comparable changes occurred in normal and prism-removed adults. Across all anatomical zones, no systematic differences in the primary metrics for within-branch or between-branch clustering were observed: 95-99% of contacts resided within clusters (<10-20 μm from nearest neighbor) regardless of circuit strength. Bouton volumes, a proxy measure of synaptic strength, were on average larger in the functionally strong zones, indicating that changes in synaptic efficacy contributed to the differences in circuit strength. Bootstrap analysis showed that the distribution of inter-contact distances strongly deviated from random not in the functionally strong zones but in those that had been strong during the sensitive period (60-250 d), indicating that clusters formed early in life were preserved regardless of current value. While cluster formation in juveniles appeared to require the production of new synapses, cluster formation in adults did not. In total, these results support a model in which high cluster dynamics in juveniles sculpt a potential connectivity map that is refined in adulthood. We propose that preservation of clusters in functionally weak adult circuits provides a storage mechanism for disused but potentially useful pathways. PMID:25701706

  11. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

    2014-06-01

    Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

  12. Adrenergic responsiveness is reduced, while baseline cardiac function is preserved in old adult conscious monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, N.; Kiuchi, K.; Shen, Y. T.; Vatner, S. F.; Vatner, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the physiological deficit to adrenergic stimulation with aging, five younger adult (3 +/- 1 yr old) and nine older adult (17 +/- 1 yr old) healthy monkeys were studied after instrumentation with a left ventricular (LV) pressure gauge, aortic and left atrial catheters, and aortic flow probes to measure cardiac output directly. There were no significant changes in baseline hemodynamics in conscious older monkeys. For example, an index of contractility, the first derivative of LV pressure (LV dP/dt) was similar (3,191 +/- 240, young vs. 3,225 +/- 71 mmHg/s, old) as well as in isovolumic relaxation, tau (24.3 +/- 1.7 ms, young vs. 23.0 +/- 1.0 ms, old) was similar. However, inotropic, lusitropic, and chronotropic responses to isoproterenol (Iso; 0.1 micrograms/kg), norepinephrine (NE; 0.4 micrograms/kg), and forskolin (For; 75 nmol/kg) were significantly (P < 0.05) depressed in older monkeys. For example. Iso increased LV dP/dt by by 146 +/- 14% in younger monkeys and by only 70 +/- 5% in older monkeys. Iso also reduced tau more in younger monkeys (-28 +/- 7%) compared with older monkeys (-13 +/- 3%). Furthermore, peripheral vascular responsiveness to Iso, NE, For, and phenylephrine (PE; 5 micrograms/kg) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in older monkeys. For example, phenylephrine (5 micrograms/kg) increased total peripheral resistence by 69 +/- 4% in younger monkeys and by only 45 +/- 3% in older monkeys. Thus in older monkeys without associated cardiovascular disease, baseline hemodynamics are preserved, but adrenergic receptor responsiveness is reduced systemically, not just in the heart.

  13. Sequence and diversity of T-cell receptor alpha V, J, and C genes of the owl monkey Aotus nancymaae.

    PubMed

    Favre, N; Daubenberger, C; Marfurt, J; Moreno, A; Patarroyo, M; Pluschke, G

    1998-09-01

    We cloned and sequenced TcR alpha chain cDNA of three healthy Aotus nancymaae monkeys. Fifteen different TRAJ segments and 9 different TRAV genes were identified in the 29 rearrangements analyzed. As expected from the greater phylogenetic distance, A. nancymaae TRA gene sequences diverged more from the human sequences than those of the chimpanzee or the rhesus macaque. However, no Aotus TRAJ segment or TRAV gene was found which lacked a human counterpart. These counterparts were AJ02, AJ05, AJ09, AJ15, AJ22, AJ23, AJ28, AJ30, AJ32, AJ34, AJ37, AJ40, AJ42, AJ45, AJ52 and AV2S1, AV2S3, AV3S1, AV8S1, AV12S1, AV15S1, ADV21S1/DV5, AV22S1S and AV23S1, respectively. In most cases the identity of amino acid sequences between corresponding Aotus and human genes was greater than 80%. This marked conservation of TRA gene sequences indicates a close structural relationship of Aotus and human TcR and demonstrates that the TcR repertoire in primates is remarkably stable. The results support the concept of using Aotus monkeys, which are susceptible to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, as an animal model for the evaluation of molecularly defined malaria vaccine candidates. PMID:9716644

  14. Effects of radiotransmitter necklaces on behaviors of adult male western burrowing owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipman, E.D.; McIntyre, N.E.; Ray, J.D.; Wallace, M.C.; Boal, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the behavioral effects of necklace-style radiotransmitters on breeding male western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in 2 areas of northwestern Texas, USA, in 2004 and 2005. We tested the hypothesis that transmittered owls would spend time interacting with their necklaces and as a result spend less time in vigilance and resting activities than would nontransmittered owls. Nontransmittered owls (n = 6) spent significantly more time being vigilant (P = 0.007) than did transmittered owls (n = 3) in 2004, who spent significant amounts of time interacting with their necklaces. In 2005, behaviors of transmittered owls (n = 8) were significantly different (P < 0.001) from control individuals (n = 4), but behaviors did not vary consistently by treatment period (prenecklace vs. necklace vs. postnecklace periods). Behavioral activity budgets varied considerably among individuals. Although the owls spent a significant amount of time interacting with their necklaces, they appeared to habituate to the presence of the transmitters within a relatively short period (<1 week), and necklaces did not affect survivorship or fitness in the short-term.

  15. Early life stress affects cerebral glucose metabolism in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A; Boudreau, Matthew; Hecht, Erin; Winslow, James T; Nemeroff, Charles B; Sánchez, Mar M

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for anxiety, mood disorders and alterations in stress responses. Less is known about the long-term neurobiological impact of ELS. We used [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) to assess neural responses to a moderate stress test in adult monkeys that experienced ELS as infants. Both groups of monkeys showed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-induced activations and cardiac arousal in response to the stressor. A whole brain analysis detected significantly greater regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in superior temporal sulcus, putamen, thalamus, and inferotemporal cortex of ELS animals compared to controls. Region of interest (ROI) analyses performed in areas identified as vulnerable to ELS showed greater activity in the orbitofrontal cortex of ELS compared to control monkeys, but greater hippocampal activity in the control compared to ELS monkeys. Together, these results suggest hyperactivity in emotional and sensory processing regions of adult monkeys with ELS, and greater activity in stress-regulatory areas in the controls. Despite these neural responses, no group differences were detected in neuroendocrine, autonomic or behavioral responses, except for a trend towards increased stillness in the ELS monkeys. Together, these data suggest hypervigilance in the ELS monkeys in the absence of immediate danger. PMID:22682736

  16. Adaptive plasticity of the auditory space map in the optic tectum of adult and baby barn owls in response to external ear modification.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, E I; Esterly, S D; Olsen, J F

    1994-01-01

    1. This study demonstrates the influence of experience on the establishment and maintenance of the auditory map of space in the optic tectum of the barn owl. Auditory experience was altered either by preventing the structures of the external ears (the facial ruff and preaural flaps) from appearing in baby barn owls (baby ruff-cut owls) or by removing these structures in adults (adult ruff-cut owls). These structures shape the binaural cues used for localizing sounds in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. 2. The acoustic effects of removing the external ear structures were measured using probe tube microphones placed in the ear canals. In both baby and adult ruff-cut owls, the spatial pattern of binaural localization cues was dramatically different from normal: interaural level difference (ILD) changed with azimuth instead of with elevation, the rate of change of ILD across space was decreased relative to normal, and the rate of change of interaural time difference (ITD) across frontal space was increased relative to normal. 3. The neurophysiological representations of ITD and ILD in the optic tectum were measured before and > or = 3 mo after ruff removal in adults and beginning at 4.5 months of age in baby ruff-cut owls. Multiunit tuning to ITD and to ILD was measured using dichotic stimulation in ketamine-anesthetized owls. The tectal maps of ITD and ILD were reconstructed using visual receptive field location as a marker for recording site location in the optic tectum. 4. Adjustment of the tectal map of ITD to the altered spatial pattern of acoustic ITD was essentially complete in adults as well as in baby ruff-cut owls. This adjustment changed the magnification of ITD across the tectum, with resultant changes in ITD tuning at individual tectal sites of up to approximately 25 microseconds (approximately 5% of the physiological range) relative to normal values. 5. Adaptation of the tectal ILD map to the ruff-cut spatial pattern of acoustic ILD was

  17. No effect of different estrogen receptor ligands on cognition in adult female monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Wilson, Mark E; Herndon, James G

    2009-03-01

    Many studies in women and animal models suggest that estrogens affect cognitive function. Yet, the mechanisms by which estrogens may impact cognition remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of different estrogen receptor (ER) ligands on cognitive function in adult ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were tested for 6 weeks on a battery of memory and attentional tasks administered on a touchscreen: the object, face, and spatial versions of the Delayed Recognition Span Test (DRST) and a Visual Search task. Following a 2-week baseline period with oil vehicle treatment, monkeys were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups: estradiol benzoate (EB), selective ERbeta agonist (diarylpropionitrile DPN) or selective ER modulator tamoxifen (TAM). In each treatment group, monkeys received oil vehicle for 2 weeks and the drug for 2 weeks, in a cross-over design. After a 4-week washout, a subset of monkeys was re-tested on the battery when treated with a selective ERalpha agonist (propyl-pyrazole-triol, PPT) or oil vehicle. Overall, drug treatments had no or negligible effects on cognitive performance. These results support the contention that exogenous estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) do not significantly affect cognition in young adult female macaques. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the cognitive effects of estrogens in monkeys of more advanced age are mediated by ERbeta, ERalpha or complex interactions between the two receptors. PMID:19101578

  18. Cytogenesis in the adult monkey motor cortex: Perivascular NG2 cells are the major adult born cell type

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Gregory B; Kohler, Shawn J; Boklweski, Jennifer; Cameron, Judy L; Greenough, William T

    2015-01-01

    We used confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to look for new cells in the motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys that might form the cellular bases of improved brain function from exercise. Twenty-four female Macaca fascicularis monkeys divided into groups by age (10–12 years, 15–17 years), postexercise survival periods, and controls, received 10 weekly injections of the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to mark new cells. Sixteen monkeys survived 15 weeks (5 weeks postexercise) and 8 monkeys survived 27 weeks (12 weeks postexercise) after initial BrdU injections. Additionally, five Macaca mulatta female monkeys (∼5.5–7 years) received single injections of BrdU and survived 2 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after BrdU injections. Neural and glial antibodies were used to identify new cell phenotypes and to look for changes in proportions of these cells with respect to time and experimental conditions. No BrdU+/DCx+ cells were found but about 7.5% of new cells were calretinin-positive (Cr+). BrdU+/GABA+ (gamma-aminobutyric acid) cells were also found but no new Cr+ or GABA+ cells colabeled with a mature neuron marker, NeuN or chondroitin sulfate antibody, NG2. The proportion of new cells that were NG2+ was about 85% for short and long survival monkeys of which two, newly described perivascular phenotypes (Pldv and Elu) and a small percentage of pericytes (2.5%) comprised 44% and 51% of the new NG2+ cells, respectively. Proportions of NG2+ phenotypes were affected by post-BrdU survival periods, monkey age, and possibly a postexercise sedentary period but no direct effect of exercise was found. PMID:25308320

  19. Outrageous Owls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkup, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The author's encounter with a live owl and her purchase of a Peruvian folk art gourd inspired a new interdisciplinary experience for the author's fourth grade students. In this article, she describes how her students explored owls through clay sculpture. (Contains 2 resources and 1 online resource.)

  20. Owl Pellets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Craig D.

    1987-01-01

    Provides complete Project WILD lesson plans for 20-45-minute experiential science learning activity for grades 3-7 students. Describes how students construct a simple food chain through examination of owl pellets. Includes lesson objective, method, background information, materials, procedure, evaluation, and sources of owl pellets and posters.…

  1. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L.

    2013-12-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  2. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world. PMID:24343659

  3. Asthma in an Adult Female Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Köster, Liza S; Simon, Bradley; Rawlins, Gilda; Beierschmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    A 9-y-old, colony-bred, female vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) presented with a 6-y history of open-mouth breathing, tachypnea, and sibilant wheezing. These symptoms did not significantly affect her activity or quality of life. Thoracic radiographs and results of bronchoalveolar lavage supported the diagnosis of asthma. Treatment comprising intramuscular prednisolone (tapered over 2 mo from twice daily to every other day), inhaled salmeterol-fluticasone (25 μg-250 μg per actuation twice daily) by mask, and a metered dose inhaler was successful in restoring a normal respiratory pattern. Despite the availability of several primate models of human asthma, this case represents the first report of spontaneous asthma in a NHP. PMID:26884413

  4. Asthma in an Adult Female Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Liza S; Simon, Bradley; Rawlins, Gilda; Beierschmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    A 9-y-old, colony-bred, female vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) presented with a 6-y history of open-mouth breathing, tachypnea, and sibilant wheezing. These symptoms did not significantly affect her activity or quality of life. Thoracic radiographs and results of bronchoalveolar lavage supported the diagnosis of asthma. Treatment comprising intramuscular prednisolone (tapered over 2 mo from twice daily to every other day), inhaled salmeterol–fluticasone (25 µg–250 µg per actuation twice daily) by mask, and a metered dose inhaler was successful in restoring a normal respiratory pattern. Despite the availability of several primate models of human asthma, this case represents the first report of spontaneous asthma in a NHP. PMID:26884413

  5. Large-Scale Functional Reorganization in Adult Monkey Cortex after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garraghty, Preston E.; Kaas, Jon H.

    1991-08-01

    In adult monkeys, peripheral nerve injuries induce dramatic examples of neural plasticity in somatosensory cortex. It has been suggested that a cortical distance limit exists and that the amount of plasticity that is possible after injury is constrained by this limit. We have investigated this possibility by depriving a relatively large expanse of cortex by transecting and ligating both the median and the ulnar nerves to the hand. Electrophysiological recording in cortical areas 3b and 1 in three adult squirrel monkeys no less than 2 months after nerve transection has revealed that cutaneous responsiveness is regained throughout the deprived cortex and that a roughly normal topographic order is reestablished for the reorganized cortex.

  6. Snowy owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The snowy owl is a rare to uncommon, irregular winter visitor in the northeastern United States, decreasing southward in abundance except during incursion years, when it is more common and widely distributed. Although snowy owls are recorded in northern New England every winter, major incursions occur at approximately three to four year intervals. Limiting factors include food, habitat and human interference. Research is needed on the population ecology of this species and, perhaps more important, management goals must be directed towards public education emphasizing the value of snowy owls.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of isoflavones from soy infant formula in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Doerge, Daniel R; Woodling, Kellie A; Churchwell, Mona I; Fleck, Stefanie C; Helferich, William G

    2016-06-01

    Consumption of soy infant formula represents a unique exposure scenario in which developing children ingest a mixture of endocrine-active isoflavones along with a substantial portion of daily nutrition. Genistein and daidzein were administered as glucoside conjugates to neonatal rhesus monkeys in a fortified commercial soy formula at 5, 35, and 70 days after birth. A single gavage dosing with 10 mg/kg bw genistein and 6 mg/kg bw daidzein was chosen to represent the upper range of typical daily consumption and to facilitate complete pharmacokinetic measurements for aglycone and total isoflavones and equol. Adult monkeys were also gavaged with the same formula solution at 2.8 and 1.6 mg/kg bw genistein and daidzein, respectively, and by IV injection with isoflavone aglycones (5.2 and 3.2 mg/kg bw, respectively) to determine absolute bioavailability. Significant differences in internal exposure were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys, with higher values for dose-adjusted AUC and Cmax of the active aglycone isoflavones in neonates. The magnitude and frequency of equol production by the gut microbiome were also significantly greater in adults. These findings are consistent with immaturity of metabolic and/or physiological systems in developing non-human primates that reduces total clearance of soy isoflavones from the body. PMID:27084109

  8. Early prenatal androgenization results in diminished ovarian reserve in adult female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, D.A.; Patankar, M.S.; Barnett, D.K.; Lesnick, T.G.; Hutcherson, B.A.; Abbott, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early prenatal androgenization (PA) accelerates follicle differentiation and impairs embryogenesis in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) undergoing FSH therapy for IVF. To determine whether androgen excess in utero affects follicle development over time, this study examines whether PA exposure, beginning at gestational days 40–44 (early treated) or 100–115 (late treated), alters the decline in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels with age in adult female rhesus monkeys and perturbs their ovarian response to recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) therapy for IVF. METHODS Thirteen normal (control), 11 early-treated and 6 late-treated PA adult female monkeys had serum AMH levels measured at random times of the menstrual cycle or anovulatory period. Using some of the same animals, basal serum AMH, gonadotrophins and steroids were also measured in six normal, five early-treated and three late-treated PA female monkeys undergoing FSH therapy for IVF during late-reproductive life (>17 years); serum AMH also was measured on day of HCG administration and at oocyte retrieval. RESULTS Serum AMH levels in early-treated PA females declined with age to levels that were significantly lower than those of normal (P ≤ 0.05) and late-treated PA females (P ≤ 0.025) by late-reproductive life. Serum AMH levels positively predicted numbers of total/mature oocytes retrieved, with early-treated PA females having the lowest serum AMH levels, fewest oocytes retrieved and lowest percentage of females with fertilized oocytes that cleaved. CONCLUSIONS Based on these animals, early PA appears to program an exaggerated decline in ovarian reserve with age, suggesting that epigenetically induced hormonal factors during fetal development may influence the cohort size of ovarian follicles after birth. PMID:19740899

  9. Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    PubMed

    Schön Ybarra, M A

    1986-01-01

    Loud calls of adult male red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) inhabiting a deciduous and semideciduous open woodland site in Venezuela were recorded opportunistically and categorized by ear and sonographically as barks and roars. Five to six different bark syllables were identified as occurring singly or in sequences of doublets and triplets. In barks, spectral energy was concentrated in bands at 350-400 Hz, 900-1,100 Hz, 1,800-2,200 Hz and 3,000-3,500 Hz, but not all higher bands were present in each syllable. Roars appeared sonographically like prolonged barks composed of a pulsated preface, a long legato climax and a brief, fractionated and at times pulsated coda; each part varied internally to the ear and in acoustic structure. All loud calls were of the noisy type (nonharmonic energy over a broad frequency range). Acoustic characteristics of the calls are interpreted in terms of the subserving vocal tract anatomy. I compare loud calls of red howlers with those of mantled (A. palliata) and black (A. caraya) howlers. PMID:3609972

  10. MODERATE LEVEL PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ENHANCES ACOUSTIC STARTLE MAGNITUDE AND DISRUPTS PREPULSE INHIBITION IN ADULT RHESUS MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Mary L.; Larson, Julie A.; Rypstat, Craig W.; Resch, Leslie M.; Roberts, Andrew; Moore, Colleen F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure can contribute to a wide range of neurodevelopmental impairments in children and adults including behavioral and neuropsychiatric disorders. In rhesus monkeys we examined whether moderate level prenatal alcohol exposure would alter acoustic startle responses and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (PPI). PPI is a highly quantifiable measure of inhibitory neural processes or sensorimotor gating associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods Acoustic startle and PPI of the acoustic startle was tested in 37 adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) from four experimental conditions: (a) moderate level prenatal alcohol-exposed, (b) prenatally-stressed, (c) moderate level prenatal alcohol-exposed + prenatally-stressed, and (d) sucrose controls. Results Prenatal alcohol-exposed monkeys showed a higher magnitude of acoustic startle response and disrupted PPI compared with monkeys not exposed to alcohol prenatally. Monkeys in all conditions showed higher HPA-axis responses after undergoing the startle procedure, but HPA responses were unrelated to startle response magnitude, latency, or PPI. Conclusion Finding altered PPI in monkeys prenatally exposed to a moderate dose of alcohol suggests that reduced sensorimotor gating is one effect of prenatal alcohol exposure. Because reduced sensorimotor gating is observed in many neuropsychiatric disorders, sensorimotor gating deficits could be an aspect of the co-morbidity between FASD and mental health conditions. PMID:23763712

  11. Diversity of Retinal Ganglion Cells Identified by Transient GFP Transfection in Organotypic Tissue Culture of Adult Marmoset Monkey Retina

    PubMed Central

    Moritoh, Satoru; Komatsu, Yusuke; Yamamori, Tetsuo; Koizumi, Amane

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian retina has more diversity of neurons than scientists had once believed in order to establish complicated vision processing. In the monkey retina, morphological diversity of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) besides dominant midget and parasol cells has been suggested. However, characteristic subtypes of RGCs in other species such as bistratified direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGC) have not yet been identified. Increasing interest has been shown in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkey as a “super-model” of neuroscientific research. Here, we established organotypic tissue culture of the adult marmoset monkey retina with particle-mediated gene transfer of GFP to survey the morphological diversity of RGCs. We successfully incubated adult marmoset monkey retinas for 2 to 4 days ex vivo for transient expression of GFP. We morphologically examined 121 RGCs out of more than 3240 GFP-transfected cells in 5 retinas. Among them, we identified monostratified or broadly stratified ganglion cells (midget, parasol, sparse, recursive, thorny, and broad thorny ganglion cells), and bistratified ganglion cells (recursive, large, and small bistratified ganglion cells [blue-ON/yellow-OFF-like]). By this survey, we also found a candidate for bistratified DSGC whose dendrites were well cofasciculated with ChAT-positive starburst dendrites, costratified with ON and OFF ChAT bands, and had honeycomb-shaped dendritic arbors morphologically similar to those in rabbits. Our genetic engineering method provides a new approach to future investigation for morphological and functional diversity of RGCs in the monkey retina. PMID:23336011

  12. Characteristics of diffusion-tensor imaging for healthy adult rhesus monkey brains

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinxiang; Pu, Jun; Fan, Yaodong; Niu, Xiaoqun; Yu, Danping; Zhang, Yanglin

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-tensor imaging can be used to observe the microstructure of brain tissue. Fractional sotropy reflects the integrity of white matter fibers. Fractional anisotropy of a young adult brain is low in gray matter, high in white matter, and highest in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Thus, we selected the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, head of the caudate nucleus, semioval center, thalamus, and corpus callosum (splenium and genu) as regions of interest when using diffusion-tensor imaging to observe fractional anisotropy of major white matter fiber tracts and the deep gray matter of healthy rhesus monkeys aged 4–8 years. Results showed no laterality ferences in fractional anisotropy values. Fractional anisotropy values were low in the head of date nucleus and thalamus in gray matter. Fractional anisotropy values were highest in the splenium of corpus callosum in the white matter, followed by genu of the corpus callosum and the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Fractional anisotropy values were lowest in the semioval center and posterior limb of internal capsule. These results suggest that fractional anisotropy values in major white matter fibers and the deep gray matter of 4–8-year-old rhesus monkeys are similar to those of healthy young people. PMID:25206616

  13. Sertraline inhibits increases in body fat and carbohydrate dysregulation in adult female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Silverstein-Metzler, Marnie G; Shively, Carol A; Clarkson, Thomas B; Appt, Susan E; Carr, J Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Jones, Sara R; Register, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed for depression and other disorders. SSRIs have become one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, particularly by women. Acute effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism have been reported, but little is known regarding the effects of chronic SSRI use. We evaluated the effects of chronic administration of a commonly prescribed SSRI, sertraline HCl, on body weight and composition, fat distribution, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as activity, in adult female depressed and nondepressed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; n=42) using a placebo-controlled, longitudinal, randomized study design. Phenotypes were evaluated prior to and after 18 months of oral sertraline (20mg/kg) or placebo. Over the 18 month treatment period, the placebo group experienced increases in body weight, body fat (visceral and subcutaneous) fasting insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR). Sertraline treatment prevented increases in body weight, fat, insulin, and HOMA-IR (all p<0.05), without significantly altering activity levels. Sertraline treatment altered adiponectin in an unusual way - reducing circulating adiponectin in depressed monkeys without affecting fat mass or body weight. Deleterious effects on adiponectin, a potentially insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective protein, may result in adverse effects on cardiovascular health despite otherwise beneficial effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:26939086

  14. Depressive-like behavioral response of adult male rhesus monkeys during routine animal husbandry procedure.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael B; McCowan, Brenda; Jiang, Jing; Capitanio, John P

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors-lying on the substrate and day time sleeping-that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7-14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood. PMID:25249954

  15. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  16. Sex- and melanism-specific variations in the oxidative status of adult tawny owls in response to manipulated reproductive effort.

    PubMed

    Emaresi, Guillaume; Henry, Isabelle; Gonzalez, Esther; Roulin, Alexandre; Bize, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, determined by the balance between the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defences, is hypothesized to play an important role in shaping the cost of reproduction and life history trade-offs. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated reproductive effort in 94 breeding pairs of tawny owls (Strix aluco) to investigate the sex- and melanism-specific effects on markers of oxidative stress in red blood cells (RBCs). This colour polymorphic bird species shows sex-specific division of labour and melanism-specific history strategies. Brood sizes at hatching were experimentally enlarged or reduced to increase or decrease reproductive effort, respectively. We obtained an integrative measure of the oxidative balance by measuring ROS production by RBCs, intracellular antioxidant glutathione levels and membrane resistance to ROS. We found that light melanic males (the sex undertaking offspring food provisioning) produced more ROS than darker conspecifics, but only when rearing an enlarged brood. In both sexes, light melanic individuals had also a larger pool of intracellular antioxidant glutathione than darker owls under relaxed reproductive conditions (i.e. reduced brood), but not when investing substantial effort in current reproduction (enlarged brood). Finally, resistance to oxidative stress was differently affected by the brood size manipulation experiment in males and females independently of their plumage coloration. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that reproductive effort can alter the oxidative balance in a sex- and colour-specific way. This further emphasizes the close link between melanin-based coloration and life history strategies. PMID:26567343

  17. Insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness from three minimal models: effects of energy restriction and body fat in adult male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gresl, Theresa A; Colman, Ricki J; Havighurst, Thomas C; Byerley, Lauri O; Allison, David B; Schoeller, Dale A; Kemnitz, Joseph W

    2003-12-01

    The minimal model of glucose disappearance (MINMOD version 3; MM3) and both the one-compartment (1CMM) and the two-compartment (2CMM) minimal models were used to analyze stable isotope-labeled intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data from year 10 of a study of the effect of dietary restriction (DR) in male rhesus monkeys. Adult monkeys were energy restricted (R; n = 12) on a semipurified diet to approximately 70% of control (C) intake (ad libitum-fed monkeys; n = 12). Under ketamine anesthesia, fasting insulin levels were greater among C monkeys. Insulin sensitivity estimates from all models were greater in R than C monkeys, whereas glucose effectiveness estimates were not consistently greater in R monkeys. Fasting plasma glucose as well as hepatic glucose production and clearance rates did not differ between groups. Body fat, in part, statistically mediated the effect of DR to enhance insulin sensitivity indexes. Precision of estimation and intermodel relationships among insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness estimates were in the ranges of those reported previously for humans and dogs, suggesting that the models may provide valid estimates for rhesus monkeys as well. The observed insulin sensitivity indexes from all models, elevated among R vs. C monkeys, may be explained, at least in part, by the difference in body fat content between these groups after chronic DR. PMID:12842866

  18. The role of gut microbes in satisfying the nutritional demands of adult and juvenile wild, black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Amato, Katherine R; Leigh, Steven R; Kent, Angela; Mackie, Roderick I; Yeoman, Carl J; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A; Garber, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    In all mammals, growth, development, pregnancy, and lactation increase nutritional demands. Although primate field studies tend to focus on shifts in activity and diet as mechanisms to compensate for these demands, differences in digestive efficiency also are likely to be important. Because the gut microbiota can impact host digestive efficiency, we examined differences in activity budget, diet, and the gut microbial community among adult male (N = 4), adult female (N = 4), and juvenile (N = 5) wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) across a ten-month period in Palenque National Park, Mexico to determine how adult females and juveniles compensate for increased nutritional demands. Results indicate that adult females and juveniles consumed more protein and energy than adult males. Adult males, adult females, and juveniles also possessed distinct gut microbial communities, unrelated to diet. Juveniles exhibited a gut microbiota characterized by bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes, such as Roseburia and Ruminococcus, and demonstrated high fecal volatile fatty acid content, suggesting increased microbial contributions to host energy balances. Adult females possessed a higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, also suggesting increased energy production, and their gut microbiota was characterized by Lactococcus, which has been associated with folate biosynthesis. On the basis of these patterns, it appears that the gut microbiota differentially contributes to howler monkey nutrition during reproduction and growth. Determining the nutritional and energetic importance of shifts in activity, diet, and the gut microbiota in other nonhuman primate taxa, as well as humans, will transform our understanding of these life history processes and the role of host-microbe relationships in primate evolution. PMID:25252073

  19. Owls On Silent Wings. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Ann C.

    This curriculum guide is all about owls and provides information on the folklore related to owls, present populations, explanations of physical characteristics, exploring owl pellets, burrowing owls, snowy owls, and great horned owls. Included are eight activities using owl cards, owl pellets, puzzles, and origami. This guide aims to increase…

  20. Possible modulation of N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid induced prolactin release by testicular steroids in the adult male rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, M.; Rizvi, S.S.R.; Jahan, S.; Zaidi, P.; Shahab, M. )

    1991-01-01

    N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMA), an agonist of the neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to acutely stimulate the release of prolactin (PRL) in intact rats and monkeys. To further investigate the role of neuroexcitatory amino acids in PRL secretion, the effects of NMA administration were examined on PRL release in long term orchidectomized adult rhesus monkeys, in both the absence and presence of testosterone. Intact and long term castrated adult male monkeys weighing between 8-13 kg, were implanted with a catheter via the saphenous vein for blood withdrawal and drug infusion. Blood samples were collected at 10 min intervals for 50 min before and 70 min after administration of the drug or vehicle. Plasma PRL concentrations were estimated using radioimmunoassay. Whereas a single iv injection of NMA induced a prompt discharge of PRL in intact monkeys, an identical dose had surprisingly no effect on PRL secretion in orchidectomized animals. On the other hand, plasma PRL increases in response to a challenge dose of thyrotropin releasing hormone were similar in magnitude in the two groups of monkeys. Testosterone replacement in orchidectomized animals by parenteral administration of testosterone enanthate reinitiated the PRL responsiveness to acute NMA stimulation. These results indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) dependent drive to PRL release in the adult male rhesus monkey may be overtly influenced by the sex steroid milieu.

  1. Developmental Origins of Pregnancy Loss in the Adult Female Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p = 0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation. PMID:24871614

  2. Topographic reorganization in the striate cortex of the adult cat and monkey is cortically mediated.

    PubMed

    Darian-Smith, C; Gilbert, C D

    1995-03-01

    In primary sensory and motor cortex of adult animals, alteration of input from the periphery leads to changes in cortical topography. These changes can be attributed to processes that are intrinsic to the cortex, or can be inherited from alterations occurring at stages of sensory processing that are antecedent to the primary sensory cortical areas. In the visual system, focal binocular retinal lesions initially silence an area of cortex that represents the region of retina destroyed, but over a period of months this area recovers visually driven activity. The retinotopic map in the recovered area is altered, shifting its representation to the portion of retina immediately surrounding the lesion. This effectively shrinks the representation of the lesioned area of retina, and expands the representation of the lesion surround. To determine the loci along the visual pathway at which the reorganization takes place, we compared the course of topographic alterations in the primary visual cortex and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of cats and monkeys. At a time when the cortical reorganization is complete, the silent area of LGN persists, indicating that changes in cortical topography are due to alterations that are intrinsic to the cortex. To explore the participation of thalamocortical afferents in the reorganization, we injected a series of retrogradely transported fluorescent tracers into reorganized and surrounding cortex of each animal. Our results show that the thalamocortical arbors do not extend beyond their normal lateral territory and that this physical dimension is insufficient to account for the reorganization. We suggest that the long-range intrinsic horizontal connections are a likely source of visual input into the reorganized cortical area. PMID:7891124

  3. Effects of Quetiapine Treatment on Cocaine Self-Administration and Behavioral Indices of Sleep in Adult Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Brutcher, Robert E.; Nader, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Clinical literature suggests a link between substance abuse and sleep disturbances. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic has shown efficacy in treating sleep disturbances, with clinical studies showing promise for quetiapine as a treatment for cocaine abuse. Objective The goal of this study was to examine the effects of quetiapine on cocaine self-administration and behavioral indices of sleep in monkeys. Methods Seven adult male rhesus monkeys, fitted with Actical® activity monitors, were trained to respond under a choice paradigm of food (1.0-g pellets) and cocaine (0.003–0.3 mg/kg per injection) presentation. First, monkeys received acute pretreatment (45 min) with quetiapine (25–75 mg, p.o.) prior to choice sessions; three cocaine doses were studied in combination with quetiapine. Next, the effect of chronic (14–16 days) quetiapine treatment (25–250 mg, p.o., BID) was examined in combination with the lowest preferred cocaine dose (≥ 80% cocaine choice). Behavioral indices of sleep, based on activity measures obtained during lights-out, were recorded throughout the study. Results Acute quetiapine decreased cocaine choice in four of the seven monkeys. Chronic quetiapine treatment resulted in initial decreases, but tolerance developed to these effects. Acute doses of quetiapine did not improve sleep efficiency the following night, nor did chronic quetiapine. The first night after discontinuing quetiapine treatment resulted in significant decreases in sleep efficiency and increases in nighttime activity. Conclusions These findings do not offer support for the use of quetiapine as a monotherapy for treatment of cocaine abuse nor as an adjunct therapy to treat sleep disturbances associated with stimulant abuse. PMID:25030802

  4. Endovascular ischemic stroke models of adult rhesus monkeys: a comparison of two endovascular methods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Chen, Jian; Wang, Bincheng; Zhang, Mo; Shi, Jingfei; Ma, Yanhui; Zhu, Zixin; Yan, Feng; He, Xiaoduo; Li, Shengli; Dornbos Iii, David; Ding, Yuchuan; Ji, Xunming

    2016-01-01

    To further investigate and improve upon current stroke models in nonhuman primates, infarct size, neurologic function and survival were evaluated in two endovascular ischemic models in sixteen rhesus monkeys. The first method utilized a micro-catheter or an inflatable balloon to occlude the M1 segment in six monkeys. In the second model, an autologous clot was injected via a micro-catheter into the M1 segment in ten monkeys. MRI scanning was performed on all monkeys both at baseline and 3 hours after the onset of ischemia. Spetzler neurologic functions were assessed post-operatively, and selective perfusion deficits were confirmed by DSA and MRI in all monkeys. Animals undergoing micro-catheter or balloon occlusion demonstrated more profound hemiparesis, larger infarct sizes, lower Spetzler neurologic scores and increased mortality compared to the thrombus occlusion group. In animals injected with the clot, there was no evidence of dissolution, and the thrombus was either near the injection site (M1) or flushed into the superior division of the MCA (M2). All animals survived the M2 occlusion. M1 occlusion with thrombus generated 50% mortality. This study highlighted clinically important differences in these two models, providing a platform for further study of a translational thromboembolic model of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27534985

  5. Endovascular ischemic stroke models of adult rhesus monkeys: a comparison of two endovascular methods

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Chen, Jian; Wang, Bincheng; Zhang, Mo; Shi, Jingfei; Ma, Yanhui; Zhu, Zixin; Yan, Feng; He, Xiaoduo; Li, Shengli; Dornbos III, David; Ding, Yuchuan; Ji, Xunming

    2016-01-01

    To further investigate and improve upon current stroke models in nonhuman primates, infarct size, neurologic function and survival were evaluated in two endovascular ischemic models in sixteen rhesus monkeys. The first method utilized a micro-catheter or an inflatable balloon to occlude the M1 segment in six monkeys. In the second model, an autologous clot was injected via a micro-catheter into the M1 segment in ten monkeys. MRI scanning was performed on all monkeys both at baseline and 3 hours after the onset of ischemia. Spetzler neurologic functions were assessed post-operatively, and selective perfusion deficits were confirmed by DSA and MRI in all monkeys. Animals undergoing micro-catheter or balloon occlusion demonstrated more profound hemiparesis, larger infarct sizes, lower Spetzler neurologic scores and increased mortality compared to the thrombus occlusion group. In animals injected with the clot, there was no evidence of dissolution, and the thrombus was either near the injection site (M1) or flushed into the superior division of the MCA (M2). All animals survived the M2 occlusion. M1 occlusion with thrombus generated 50% mortality. This study highlighted clinically important differences in these two models, providing a platform for further study of a translational thromboembolic model of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27534985

  6. Effects of Aroclor 1254 reg sign on hydrocortisone levels in adult Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.C.K.; Tryphonas, H.; Jordan, N.; Brien, R.; Karpinski, K.R.; Arnold, D.L. )

    1989-11-01

    Researchers, using female Sprague Dawley rats, reported the effects of chronic (5-7 months) oral dosing with Aroclor 1254{reg sign} (Polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB) on the serum levels of corticosterone, the principle glucocorticoid in rats. Their findings indicated that corticosterone levels were significantly depressed at dose levels of 479 {mu}g/kg bw/day and above. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of PCB on the hydrocortisone levels in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum. In the monkey the controlling hormone is hydrocortisone which is identical to that of humans.

  7. Rod Photoreceptors Express GPR55 in the Adult Vervet Monkey Retina

    PubMed Central

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Casanova, Christian; Ptito, Maurice; Bouchard, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids exert their actions mainly through two receptors, the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) and cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R). In recent years, the G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was suggested as a cannabinoid receptor based on its activation by anandamide and tetrahydrocannabinol. Yet, its formal classification is still a matter of debate. CB1R and CB2R expression patterns are well described for rodent and monkey retinas. In the monkey retina, CB1R has been localized in its neural (cone photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells) and CB2R in glial components (Müller cells). The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of GPR55 in the monkey retina by using confocal microscopy. Our results show that GPR55 is strictly localized in the photoreceptor layer of the extrafoveal portion of the retina. Co-immunolabeling of GPR55 with rhodopsin, the photosensitive pigment in rods, revealed a clear overlap of expression throughout the rod structure with most prominent staining in the inner segments. Additionally, double-label of GPR55 with calbindin, a specific marker for cone photoreceptors in the primate retina, allowed us to exclude expression of GPR55 in cones. The labeling of GPR55 in rods was further assessed with a 3D visualization in the XZ and YZ planes thus confirming its exclusive expression in rods. These results provide data on the distribution of GPR55 in the monkey retina, different than CB1R and CB2R. The presence of GPR55 in rods suggests a function of this receptor in scotopic vision that needs to be demonstrated. PMID:24244730

  8. “Subpial Fan Cell” — A Class of Calretinin Neuron in Layer 1 of Adult Monkey Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gabbott, Paul L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Layer 1 of the cortex contains populations of neurochemically distinct neurons and afferent fibers which markedly affect neural activity in the apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal cells. Understanding the causal mechanisms requires knowledge of the cellular architecture and synaptic organization of layer 1. This study has identified eight morphological classes of calretinin immunopositive (CRet+) neurons (including Cajal-Retzius cells) in layer 1 of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adult monkey (Macaca fasicularis), with a distinct class — termed “subpial fan (SPF) cell” — described in detail. SPF cells were rare horizontal unipolar CRet+ cells located directly beneath the pia with a single thick primary dendrite that branched into a characteristic fan-like dendritic tree tangential to the pial surface. Dendrites had spines, filamentous processes and thorny branchlets. SPF cells lay millimeters apart with intralaminar axons that ramified widely in upper layer 1. Such cells were GABA immunonegative (-) and occurred in areas beyond PFC. Interspersed amidst SPF cells displaying normal structural integrity were degenerating CRet+ neurons (including SPF cells) and clumps of lipofuscin-rich cellular debris. The number of degenerating SPF cells increased during adulthood. Ultrastructural analyses indicated SPF cell somata received asymmetric (A — presumed excitatory) and symmetric (S — presumed inhibitory) synaptic contacts. Proximal dendritic shafts received mainly S-type and distal shafts mostly A-type input. All dendritic thorns and most dendritic spines received both synapse types. The tangential areal density of SPF cell axonal varicosities varied radially from parent somata — with dense clusters in more distal zones. All boutons formed A-type contacts with CRet- structures. The main post-synaptic targets were dendritic shafts (67%; mostly spine-bearing) and dendritic spines (24%). SPF-SPF cell innervation was not observed. Morphometry of SPF cells

  9. Protein deprivation in primates: VI. Food preferences of adult rhesus monkeys maintained on low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Hill, C W; Riopelle, A J

    1975-08-01

    Three groups of adult female rhesus monkeys, maintained on low-protein diets (.5 gm, 1 gm, and 2 gm protein per kg body weight, were compared with a control group (4 gm protein per kg body weight) on a food-preference task. Food responsiveness was assessed by presenting 8 small pieces of a certain food, equally spaced about the perimeter of a turntable attached to the home cage, and recording number of pieces taken, number of pieces eaten, and elapsed time for taking all 8 pieces. 21 different foods were used in sequence, 3 each from the following 7 categories: cheese, meat, vegetable, nut, cereal, fruit, and candy. Scores on all 3 measures were highly correlated, and the order of preference was generally the same for all groups. The 2 lowest-protein groups accepted more foods at the lower end of the palatability spectrum than did either the 4-gm or the 2-gm group. There was a tendency for the foods least preferred by the protein-deprived monkeys to be themselves high in protein. Thus, although protein deprivation appears to increase the catholicity of food preference, there is no corresponding increase in the relationship between palatability and protein content. PMID:1182038

  10. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  11. Genetic, spatial, and social relationships among adults in a group of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Milton, Katharine; Nolin, David A; Ellis, Kelsey; Lozier, Jeffrey; Sandel, Brody; Lacey, Eileen A

    2016-04-01

    Kinship plays an important role in the social behavior of many primate species, including patterns of intra-group affiliation and cooperation. Within social groups, kinship is strongly affected by dispersal patterns, with the degree of relatedness among group-mates expected to decrease as the tendency to disperse increases. In primate species characterized by bisexual dispersal, relatedness among adult group-mates is predicted to be low, with social interactions shaped largely by factors other than kinship. To date, however, few studies have examined the role of kinship in social interactions in bisexually dispersing species. Accordingly, we collected genetic, spatial and behavioral data on all adult members (three males, six females) in a group of free-ranging mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) - a bisexually dispersing species of atelid primate - from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Analyses of microsatellite variation revealed that relatedness was greater among adult males in this group (mean pairwise relatedness = 0.32 for males versus 0.09 for females). Relatedness among individuals, however, was not associated with either spatial proximity or frequency of social interactions. Instead, sex was a better predictor of both of these aspects of social behavior. While relatedness among adults had no discernible effect on the intra-group social interactions documented in this study, we postulate that kinship may facilitate affiliative and cooperative behaviors among male group-mates when interacting competitively with neighboring howler groups over access to food or potential mates. PMID:26935548

  12. A newly-found pattern of social relationships among adults within one-male units of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxenalla) in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Chengliang; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Zhao, Haitao; Li, Baoguo

    2013-12-01

    Group living provides various advantages to individuals in regards to protection avoidance, intergroup competition, productive success and social information. Stable one-male units (OMUs) consist of relationships between the adult females and the resident male as well as the relationships among adult females. Based on continuous observation of a reproductive group of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, we analyzed the relationships among adult individual dyads within 4 OMUs. The results indicated that in golden snub-nosed monkey societies, females not only had no strong tendency to build a relationship with the resident male in the OMU but also had no strong tendency to build relationships with other females in the OMU. In comparison with hamadryas (Papio hamadryas) and gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada), the relationships within golden snub-nosed monkeys OMUs showed neither the star-shaped pattern observed in hamadryas baboons nor the net-shaped pattern observed in gelada baboons. We concluded that the relationships within golden snub-nosed monkey OMUs indicated a third pattern in nonhuman primate societies. Future research is required to determine the potential mechanisms for such a pattern. PMID:24344964

  13. Effects of hyperandrogenemia and increased adiposity on reproductive and metabolic parameters in young adult female monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C. V.; Pohl, C. R.; Chang, R. J.; Marshall, J. C.; Pau, F. K.; Stouffer, R. L.; Cameron, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with hyperandrogenemia are overweight or obese, which exacerbates morbidities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To examine the ability of testosterone (T) to generate PCOS-like symptoms, monkeys received T or cholesterol (control) implants (n = 6/group) beginning prepubertally. As previously reported, T-treated animals had increased neuroendocrine drive to the reproductive axis [increased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency] at 5 yr, without remarkable changes in ovarian or metabolic features. To examine the combined effects of T and obesity, at 5.5 yr (human equivalent age: 17 yr), monkeys were placed on a high-calorie, high-fat diet typical of Western cultures [Western style diet (WSD)], which increased body fat from <2% (pre-WSD) to 15–19% (14 mo WSD). By 6 mo on WSD, LH pulse frequency in the controls increased to that of T-treated animals, whereas LH pulse amplitude decreased in both groups and remained low. The numbers of antral follicles present during the early follicular phase increased in both groups on the WSD, but maximal follicular size decreased by 50%. During the late follicular phase, T-treated females had greater numbers of small antral follicles than controls. T-treated monkeys also had lower progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although fasting insulin did not vary between groups, T-treated animals had decreased insulin sensitivity after 1 yr on WSD. Thus, while WSD consumption alone led to some features characteristic of PCOS, T + WSD caused a more severe phenotype with regard to insulin insensitivity, increased numbers of antral follicles at midcycle, and decreased circulating luteal phase progesterone levels. PMID:24735887

  14. Mixed-Media Owls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  15. Learning from an Owl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeves, Adrian

    1988-01-01

    Describes one creative writing teacher's use of an owl as a focal point for writing activities and how the writing activities aided the students' personal and creative development. Provides samples of student writing. (ARH)

  16. The vocal repertoire of adult male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stulmanni): a quantitative analysis of acoustic structure.

    PubMed

    Fuller, James Lewis

    2014-03-01

    Vocal signals are key elements in understanding species' behavior, sociality, and evolution. Quantified repertoires serve as foundations for investigating usage and function of particular signals, and also provide a basis for comparative analyses among individuals, populations, and taxa to explore how entire signal systems evolve. This study presents a descriptive catalogue of all vocal signals used by adult male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni). During 12 months in the Kakamega Forest, Kenya, I observed and digitally recorded vocal behavior of 32 adult males across a variety of socioecological contexts. From recordings, I measured 18 temporal-frequency parameters. Undirected ordination and hierarchical cluster analysis identified six distinct call types regularly used by males: ant, boom, ka, katrain, nasal scream, and pyow. Cross-validated discriminant function analysis supported the classifications. The repertoire is best described as discrete, though some gradation occurs between pyows and ants. Summary of acoustic structure and exemplar spectrograms are provided for each call type, along with preliminary examination of socioecological contexts in which they were produced. Discussion addresses repertoire structure, similarity to other taxa, and potential for functional inferences. PMID:24130044

  17. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  18. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  19. Differential Expression Patterns of occ1-Related Genes in Adult Monkey Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Takahata, Toru; Komatsu, Yusuke; Watakabe, Akiya; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Tochitani, Shiro

    2009-01-01

    We have previously revealed that occ1 is preferentially expressed in the primary visual area (V1) of the monkey neocortex. In our attempt to identify more area-selective genes in the macaque neocortex, we found that testican-1, an occ1-related gene, and its family members also exhibit characteristic expression patterns along the visual pathway. The expression levels of testican-1 and testican-2 mRNAs as well as that of occ1 mRNA start of high in V1, progressively decrease along the ventral visual pathway, and end of low in the temporal areas. Complementary to them, the neuronal expression of SPARC mRNA is abundant in the association areas and scarce in V1. Whereas occ1, testican-1, and testican-2 mRNAs are preferentially distributed in thalamorecipient layers including “blobs,” SPARC mRNA expression avoids these layers. Neither SC1 nor testican-3 mRNA expression is selective to particular areas, but SC1 mRNA is abundantly observed in blobs. The expressions of occ1, testican-1, testican-2, and SC1 mRNA were downregulated after monocular tetrodotoxin injection. These results resonate with previous works on chemical and functional gradients along the primate occipitotemporal visual pathway and raise the possibility that these gradients and functional architecture may be related to the visual activity–dependent expression of these extracellular matrix glycoproteins. PMID:19073625

  20. Inhibition of cathepsin K increases modeling-based bone formation, and improves cortical dimension and strength in adult ovariectomized monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pennypacker, Brenda L; Chen, Charles M; Zheng, Helen; Shih, Mei-Shu; Belfast, Mary; Samadfam, Rana; Duong, Le T

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) protects against bone loss and maintains normal biomechanical properties in the spine and hip of ovariectomized (OVX) preclinical models. Here, we characterized the effects of ODN on the dynamics of cortical modeling and remodeling, and dimension and strength of the central femur in adult OVX-rhesus monkeys. Animals were treated with vehicle or ODN (6 or 30 mg/kg, once per day [q.d., p.o.]) in prevention mode for 21 months. Calcein and tetracycline double-labeling were given at 12 and 21 months, and the femoral cross-sections were subjected to dynamic histomorphometric and cement line analyses. ODN treatment significantly increased periosteal and endocortical bone formation (BFR/BS), accompanied with an increase in endocortical mineralizing surface (102%, p < 0.01) with the 6 mg/kg dose. ODN at both doses reduced remodeling hemiosteon numbers by 51% and 66% (p < 0.05), respectively, and ODN 30 mg/kg numerically reduced activation frequency without affecting wall thickness. On the same endocortical surface, ODN increased all modeling-based parameters, while reducing intracortical remodeling, consistent with the observed no treatment effects on cortical porosity. ODN 30 mg/kg markedly increased cortical thickness (CtTh, p < 0.001) and reduced marrow area (p < 0.01). Lastly, ODN treatment increased femoral structural strength (p < 0.001). Peak load was positively correlated with the increases in bone mineral content (BMC) (r(2)  = 0.9057, p < 0.0001) and CtTh (r2  = 0.6866, p < 0.0001). Taken together, by reducing cortical remodeling-based and stimulating modeling-based bone formation, ODN significantly improved cortical dimension and strength in OVX monkeys. This novel mechanism of CatK inhibition in stimulating cortical formation suggests that ODN represents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24591096

  1. Owl Pellet Paleontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lisa K.

    2013-01-01

    In this activity for the beginning of a high school Biology 1 evolution unit, students are challenged to reconstruct organisms found in an owl pellet as a model for fossil reconstruction. They work in groups to develop hypotheses about what animal they have found, what environment it inhabited, and what niche it filled. At the end of the activity,…

  2. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charpes III

    2014-01-01

    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  3. Owl Research that's Good for the Birds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristol, Daniel A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes and illustrates how to build nest boxes to provide city homes for screech owls to reestablish a healthy ecological balance. Outlines how to conduct a pellet analysis of an owl's diet and how to study screech owl territoriality. (NEC)

  4. Moderate Level Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Induces Sex Differences in Dopamine D1 Receptor Binding in Adult Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Alexander K.; Moore, Colleen F.; Holden, James E.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Moirano, Jeffrey M.; Larson, Julie A.; Resch, Leslie M.; DeJesus, Onofre T.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Murali, Dhanabalan; Christian, Bradley T.; Schneider, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined the effects of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and/or prenatal stress exposure on D1 receptor binding in a nonhuman primate model. The dopamine D1 receptor is involved in executive function, and it may play a role in cognitive behavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol and/or stress exposure. Little is known, however, about the effects of prenatal alcohol and/or stress exposure on the D1 receptor. We expected that prenatal insults would lead to alterations in D1 receptor binding in prefrontal cortex and striatum in adulthood. Methods Rhesus macaque females were randomly assigned to moderate alcohol exposure and/or mild prenatal stress as well as a control condition during pregnancy. Thirty eight offspring were raised identically and studied as adults by non-invasive in vivo neuroimaging using positron emission tomography (PET) with the D1 antagonist radiotracer [11C]SCH 23390. Radiotracer binding in prefrontal cortex and striatum was evaluated by 2 (alcohol) × 2 (stress) × 2 (sex) analysis of variance. Results In prefrontal cortex, a significant alcohol × sex interaction was observed with prenatal alcohol exposure leading to increased [11C]SCH 23390 binding in male monkeys. No main effect of prenatal alcohol or prenatal stress exposure was observed. Conclusions These results suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure results in long-term increases in prefrontal dopamine D1 receptor binding in males. This may help explain gender differences in the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders consequent to prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:25581649

  5. Responses towards a dying adult group member in a wild New World monkey.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Bruna Martins; Keasey, Matthew Philip; Schiel, Nicola; da Silva Souto, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Compassionate caretaking behaviour towards dying adult group members has been reported as being unique to humans and chimpanzees. Here we describe in detail the reaction of a wild dominant male common marmoset, a neotropical primate, to the accidental death of the dominant female of its group. The male exhibited behaviours towards the dying female that resembled those of chimpanzees and humans. The long-term relationship between the dominant pair (which lasted at least 3.5 years) and their social status in the group may have contributed to the male's behavioural response. The male prevented young individuals from approaching the dying female, behaviour previously observed in chimpanzees. The data provide an interesting insight into compassionate caretaking behaviours in New World primates as well as the pair-bond systems of common marmosets. These are rare observations, and thus their detailed descriptions are essential if we are to create a comparative and enhanced understanding of human and nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:24566801

  6. All about Owls: Studying Owls, State Birds, and Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivard, Leonard P.

    1991-01-01

    Activities are included that acquaint students with the parts of birds and the structure of feathers; that identify the prey of owls by opening owl pellets; working with information about threatened and endangered species of birds; and follow-up activities for bird study. A list of state and provincial birds of the United States and Canada and…

  7. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  8. Waiting by mistake: symbolic representation of rewards modulates intertemporal choice in capuchin monkeys, preschool children and adult humans.

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa; Bellagamba, Francesca; Delfino, Alexia; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina; Macchitella, Luigi; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Pecora, Giulia; Rossi, Sabrina; Sbaffi, Agnese; Tasselli, Maria Isabella; Paglieri, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    In the Delay choice task subjects choose between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed option. This paradigm, also known as intertemporal choice task, is frequently used to assess delay tolerance, interpreting a preference for the larger delayed option as willingness to wait. However, in the Delay choice task subjects face a dilemma between two preferred responses: "go for more" (i.e., selecting the larger, but delayed, option) vs. "go for sooner" (i.e., selecting the immediate, but smaller, option). When the options consist of visible food amounts, at least some of the choices of the larger delayed option might be due to a failure to inhibit a prepotent response towards the larger option rather than to a sustained delay tolerance. To disentangle this issue, we tested 10 capuchin monkeys, 101 preschool children, and 88 adult humans in a Delay choice task with food, low-symbolic tokens (objects that can be exchanged with food and have a one-to-one correspondence with food items), and high-symbolic tokens (objects that can be exchanged with food and have a one-to-many correspondence with food items). This allows evaluating how different methods of representing rewards modulate the relative contribution of the "go for more" and "go for sooner" responses. Consistently with the idea that choices for the delayed option are sometimes due to a failure at inhibiting the prepotent response for the larger quantity, we expected high-symbolic tokens to decrease the salience of the larger option, thus reducing "go for more" responses. In fact, previous findings have shown that inhibiting prepotent responses for quantity is easier when the problem is framed in a symbolic context. Overall, opting for the larger delayed option in the visible-food version of the Delay choice task seems to partially result from an impulsive preference for quantity, rather than from a sustained delay tolerance. In capuchins and children high-symbolic stimuli decreased the individual

  9. Multi-directional chromosome painting maps homologies between species belonging to three genera of New World monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, R; Bigoni, F; Slaby, T; Muller, S; Stone, G; Bonvicino, C R; Neusser, M; Seuánez, H N

    2004-12-01

    We mapped chromosomal homologies in two species of Chiropotes (Pitheciini, Saki Monkeys) and one species of Aotus (Aotinae, Owl Monkey) by multi-directional chromosome painting. Human chromosome probes were hybridized to Chiropotes utahicki, C. israelita and Aotus nancymae metaphases. Wooly Monkey chromosome paints were also hybridized to Owl Monkey metaphases. We established Owl Monkey chromosome paint probes by flow sorting and reciprocally hybridized them to human chromosomes. The karyotypes of the Bearded Saki Monkeys studied here are close to the hypothesized ancestral platyrrhine karytoype, while that of the Owl Monkey appears to be highly derived. The A. nancymae karyotype is highly shuffled and only three human syntenic groups were found conserved coexisting with 17 derived human homologous associations. A minimum of 14 fissions and 13 fusions would be required to derive the A. nancymae karyotype from that of the ancestral New World primate karyotype. An inversion between homologs to segments of human 10 and 16 suggests a link between Callicebus and Chiropotes, while the syntenic association of 10/11 found in Aotus and Callicebus suggests a link between these two genera. Future molecular cytogenetic work will be needed to determine whether these rearrangements represent synapomorphic chromosomal traits. PMID:15616867

  10. A curious pellet from a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    One of the traditional methods of determining the dietary preferences of owls relies upon the identification of bony remains of prey contained in regurgitated pellets. Discovery of a pellet containing a large, complete primary feather from an adult, male Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) prompted us to examine in detail a small sample of pellets from a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). Our analyses of feather and hair remains in these pellets documented the presence of three species of birds and two species of mammals, whereas bones in the pellets represented only mammals. This finding indicates an important bias that challenges the reliability of owl pellet studies making use of only osteological remains.

  11. Blood Parasites in Owls with Conservation Implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    PubMed Central

    Ishak, Heather D.; Dumbacher, John P.; Anderson, Nancy L.; Keane, John J.; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Haig, Susan M.; Tell, Lisa A.; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis caurina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n = 17) and unique lineages (n = 12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one Leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. PMID:18509541

  12. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  13. Primate adult brain cell autotransplantation produces behavioral and biological recovery in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonian St. Kitts monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jocelyne; Brunet, Jean-François; McEntire, Caleb R S; Redmond, D Eugene

    2014-08-15

    The potential for "replacement cells" to restore function in Parkinson's disease has been widely reported over the past 3 decades, rejuvenating the central nervous system rather than just relieving symptoms. Most such experiments have used fetal or embryonic sources that may induce immunological rejection and generate ethical concerns. Autologous sources, in which the cells to be implanted are derived from recipients' own cells after reprogramming to stem cells, direct genetic modifications, or epigenetic modifications in culture, could eliminate many of these problems. In a previous study on autologous brain cell transplantation, we demonstrated that adult monkey brain cells, obtained from cortical biopsies and kept in culture for 7 weeks, exhibited potential as a method of brain repair after low doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) caused dopaminergic cell death. The present study exposed monkeys to higher MPTP doses to produce significant parkinsonism and behavioral impairments. Cerebral cortical cells were biopsied from the animals, held in culture for 7 weeks to create an autologous neural cell "ecosystem" and reimplanted bilaterally into the striatum of the same six donor monkeys. These cells expressed neuroectodermal and progenitor markers such as nestin, doublecortin, GFAP, neurofilament, and vimentin. Five to six months after reimplantation, histological analysis with the dye PKH67 and unbiased stereology showed that reimplanted cells survived, migrated bilaterally throughout the striatum, and seemed to exert a neurorestorative effect. More tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons and significant behavioral improvement followed reimplantation of cultured autologous neural cells as a result of unknown trophic factors released by the grafts. PMID:24610674

  14. Effects of Odanacatib on bone mineralization density distribution in thoracic spine and femora of ovariectomized adult rhesus monkeys: a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study.

    PubMed

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Fisher, John E; Duong, Le T; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) has been developed as a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, the major cysteine protease in osteoclasts. In adult rhesus monkeys, treatment with ODN prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in lumbar vertebrae and hip. In this study, we evaluate the effects of ODN on bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) by quantitative backscattered electron imaging in vertebral spongiosa, distal femoral metaphyseal and cortical shaft from monkeys (aged 16-23 years), treated with vehicle (n=5) or ODN (6 mg/kg, n=4 or 30 mg/kg, n=4, PO daily) for 21 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was measured in a subset of distal femoral samples. In lumbar vertebrae there was a shift to higher mineralization in samples from ODN-treated groups, compared to vehicle: CaMean (+4%), CaPeak (+3%), CaWidth (-9%), CaLow (-28%) in the 6 mg/kg group and CaMean (+5.1%, p<0.023), CaPeak (+3.4%, p<0.046), CaWidth (-15.7%, p=0.06) and CaLow (-38.2%, p<0.034) in the 30 mg/kg group. In distal femoral metaphyseal cancellous bone, there was a clear tendency toward a dose-dependent increase in matrix mineralization, as in the spine. However, primary and osteonal bone of the distal cortical diaphyses showed no significant change in BMDD, whereas bone mineral density was significantly increased after treatment. In ovariectomized monkeys, this study shows that ODN treatment increased trabecular BMDD, consistent with its previously reported ability to reduce cancellous remodeling. Here, ODN also showed no changes in BMDD in cortical bone sites, consistent with its actions on maintaining endocortical and stimulating periosteal bone formation. PMID:23179105

  15. Low circulating levels of bisphenol-A induce cognitive deficits and loss of asymmetric spine synapses in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of adult male monkeys.

    PubMed

    Elsworth, John D; Jentsch, James D; Groman, Stephanie M; Roth, Robert H; Redmond, Eugene D; Leranth, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is widely used in the manufacture of plastics, epoxy resins, and certain paper products. A majority of the population in the developed world is routinely exposed to BPA from multiple sources and has significant circulating levels of BPA. Although BPA is categorized as an endocrine disruptor with a growing literature on adverse effects, it is uncertain whether cognitive dysfunction is induced in humans by exposure to BPA. The present study examined the impact of BPA in primate brain by exposing adult male vervet monkeys for 4 weeks continuously to circulating levels of BPA that were in the range measured in studies of humans environmentally exposed to BPA. This regimen of exposure to BPA decreased both working memory accuracy and the number of excitatory synaptic inputs on dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in two brain regions that are necessary for working memory (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus). These observed behavioral and synaptic effects were ameliorated following withdrawal from BPA. As Old World monkeys (e.g., vervets) and humans share some uniquely primate morphological, endocrine, and cognitive traits, this study indicates the potential for significant cognitive disruption following exposure of humans to BPA. PMID:25557059

  16. Low circulating levels of bisphenol-A induce cognitive deficits and loss of asymmetric spine synapses in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of adult male monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, John D; Jentsch, James D; Groman, Stephanie M; Roth, Robert H; Redmond, D. Eugene; Leranth, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is widely used in the manufacture of plastics, epoxy resins and certain paper products. A majority of the population in the developed world is routinely exposed to BPA from multiple sources and has significant circulating levels of BPA. Although BPA is categorized as an endocrine disruptor with a growing literature on adverse effects, it is uncertain whether cognitive dysfunction is induced in humans by exposure to BPA. The present study examined the impact of BPA in primate brain by exposing adult male vervet monkeys for 4 weeks continuously to circulating levels of BPA that were in the range measured in studies of humans environmentally exposed to BPA. This regimen of exposure to BPA decreased both working memory accuracy and the number of excitatory synaptic inputs on dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in two brain regions that are necessary for working memory (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus). These observed behavioral and synaptic effects ameliorated following withdrawal from BPA. As Old world monkeys (e.g., vervets) and humans share some uniquely primate morphological, endocrine and cognitive traits, this study indicates the potential for significant cognitive disruption following exposure of humans to BPA. PMID:25557059

  17. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the combination Zidovudine plus Lamivudine in the adult Erythrocebus patas monkey determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Divi, Rao L.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Shockley, Marie E.; St Claire, Marisa C.; Harbaugh, Jeffrey W.; Harbaugh, Steven W.; Poirier, Miriam C.

    2008-01-15

    Because of their similarity to humans, non-human primates constitute useful preclinical models in which to examine potential human drug toxicities. Antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) toxicity is currently under investigation in Erythrocebus patas monkeys, and whereas NRTI pharmacokinetics have been studied in other monkey species, pharmacokinetics for Zidovudine plus Lamivudine (AZT/3TC) dosing have not been reported in the patas. Here we present 24 h serum pharmacokinetic parameters after a single oral exposure to the combination of AZT (40 mg) and 3TC (24 mg), doses equivalent to a human daily dose of Combivir (registered) . The patas (n = 3) AZT/3TC pharmacokinetic profiles were similar to those seen in other primate species. Average maximum serum concentrations (C{sub max}) for AZT and 3TC were 2.35 and 2.65 {mu}g/ml, respectively, and were observed at 0.83 h (T{sub max}). C{sub max} was 13.34 {mu}g/ml for the AZT-glucuronide (AZT-G) and was 0.023 {mu}g/ml for the potentially toxic minor metabolite 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine (AMT), both occurring at about 1 h after dosing. Similar elimination half-times, 0.70 and 0.68 h{sup -1}, were found for AZT and AZT-G, respectively, while 3TC was eliminated about half as fast (0.33 h{sup -1}) resulting in AUC{sub (0-{infinity})} values of 6.97 {mu}g/ml h for 3TC, 2.99 {mu}g/ml h for AZT, 20.5 {mu}g/ml h for AZT-G and 0.002 for AMT 6.97 {mu}g/ml h. This study shows similar metabolism and pharmacokinetics for oral administration of AZT/3TC in the adult patas monkey, other primate species and humans. The data validate the use of the patas monkey for studies of NRTI toxicity.

  18. Burrowing Owls, Pulex irritans, and Plague.

    PubMed

    Belthoff, James R; Bernhardt, Scott A; Ball, Christopher L; Gregg, Michael; Johnson, David H; Ketterling, Rachel; Price, Emily; Tinker, Juliette K

    2015-09-01

    Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls of western North America that frequent prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands. Because they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorial mammals, the owls often harbor fleas. We examined the potential role of fleas found on burrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of Yersinia pestis in fleas collected from burrowing owls and in owl blood. During 2012-2013, fleas and blood were collected from burrowing owls in portions of five states with endemic plague-Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, and South Dakota. Fleas were enumerated, taxonomically identified, pooled by nest, and assayed for Y. pestis using culturing and molecular (PCR) approaches. Owl blood underwent serological analysis for plague antibodies and nested PCR for detection of Y. pestis. Of more than 4750 fleas collected from owls, Pulex irritans, a known plague vector in portions of its range, comprised more than 99.4%. However, diagnostic tests for Y. pestis of flea pools (culturing and PCR) and owl blood (PCR and serology) were negative. Thus, even though fleas were prevalent on burrowing owls and the potential for a relationship with burrowing owls as a phoretic host of infected fleas exists, we found no evidence of Y. pestis in sampled fleas or in owls that harbored them. We suggest that studies similar to those reported here during plague epizootics will be especially useful for confirming these results. PMID:26367482

  19. Documenting Western Burrowing Owl Reproduction and Activity Patterns Using Motion-Activated Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.

    2014-08-01

    We used motion-activated cameras to monitor the reproduction and patterns of activity of the Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) above ground at 45 burrows in south-central Nevada during the breeding seasons of 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2005. The 37 broods, encompassing 180 young, raised over the four years represented an average of 4.9 young per successful breeding pair. Young and adult owls were detected at the burrow entrance at all times of the day and night, but adults were detected more frequently during afternoon/early evening than were young. Motion-activated cameras require less effort to implement than other techniques. Limitations include photographing only a small percentage of owl activity at the burrow; not detecting the actual number of eggs, young, or number fledged; and not being able to track individual owls over time. Further work is also necessary to compare the accuracy of productivity estimates generated from motion-activated cameras with other techniques.

  20. Rodenticides in British barn owls.

    PubMed

    Newton, I; Wyllie, I; Freestone, P

    1990-01-01

    Out of 145 Barn Owls found dead through accidents (66%), starvation (32%), shooting (2%) and poisoning (<1%), 10% contained residues of rodenticides, difenacoum or brodifacoum, in their livers. Difenacoum was in the range 0.005-0.106 microg g(-1) fresh weight, and brodifacoum was in the range 0.019-0.515 microg g(-1). Minimum levels of detection were about 0.005 microg g(-1) for both chemicals. Mice fed for 1 day on food containing difenacoum and brodifacoum died after 2-11 days. Within these mice residues were present at greater concentration in the liver than in the rest of the carcass. The mean mass of residue in a whole 35g mouse was estimated at 10.17 microg (range 4.73-20.65 microg) for difenacoum and 15.36 microg (range 8.07-26.55) for brodifacoum. Such poisoned mice were fed to Barn Owls for successive periods of 1, 3 and 6 days. All six owls fed on difenacoum-dosed mice survived all three treatments, in which up to an estimated 101.7 microg of difenacoum was consumed, and the coagulation times of their blood returned to near normal in less than 5-23 days. Four of the six owls fed on brodifacoum-dosed mice died 6-17 days after the 1-day treatment, but the survivors also survived the 3-day and 6-day treatments. Those that died had each eaten 3 mice, with a combined weight of about 105g and a total brodifacoum content of about 46.07 microg, which was equivalent to a dose of 0.150-0.182 mg kg(-1) of owl body weight. After death these owls had 0.63-1.25 micro g(-1) of brodifacoum in their livers. Blood from the survivors would not coagulate at 9 days post-treatment, but did so at 16 days in one bird and between 38 and 78 days in the other. It is concluded that: (1) Barn Owls in Britain are now widely exposed to second-generation rodenticides; (2) not all owls exposed to these chemicals are likely to receive a lethal dose; (3) brodifacoum is more toxic to owls than difenacoum; and (4) while there is yet no evidence that rodenticides have had any appreciable

  1. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, H A; Reese, R T

    1985-01-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a Mr 95,000 antigen. Images PMID:3898084

  2. Monkey Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  3. Oxytocin enhances gaze-following responses to videos of natural social behavior in adult male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Putnam, P T; Roman, J M; Zimmerman, P E; Gothard, K M

    2016-10-01

    Gaze following is a basic building block of social behavior that has been observed in multiple species, including primates. The absence of gaze following is associated with abnormal development of social cognition, such as in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Some social deficits in ASD, including the failure to look at eyes and the inability to recognize facial expressions, are ameliorated by intranasal administration of oxytocin (IN-OT). Here we tested the hypothesis that IN-OT might enhance social processes that require active engagement with a social partner, such as gaze following. Alternatively, IN-OT may only enhance the perceptual salience of the eyes, and may not modify behavioral responses to social signals. To test this hypothesis, we presented four monkeys with videos of conspecifics displaying natural behaviors. Each video was viewed multiple times before and after the monkeys received intranasally either 50 IU of OT or saline. We found that despite a gradual decrease in attention to the repeated viewing of the same videos (habituation), IN-OT consistently increased the frequency of gaze following saccades. Further analysis confirmed that these behaviors did not occur randomly, but rather predictably in response to the same segments of the videos. These findings suggest that in response to more naturalistic social stimuli IN-OT enhances the propensity to interact with a social partner rather than merely elevating the perceptual salience of the eyes. In light of these findings, gaze following may serve as a metric for pro-social effects of oxytocin that target social action more than social perception. PMID:27343726

  4. Effects of Long-Term Odanacatib Treatment on Bone Gene Expression in Ovariectomized Adult Rhesus Monkeys: Differentiation From Alendronate.

    PubMed

    Muise, Eric S; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Pickarski, Maureen; Loboda, Andrey; Tan, Yejun; Hu, Guanghui; Thomspon, John R; Duong, Le T

    2016-04-01

    Similar efficacy of the cathepsin K inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) and the bisphosphonate alendronate (ALN) in reducing bone turnover markers and increasing bone mineral density in spine and hip were previously demonstrated in ovariectomized (OVX)-monkeys treated for 20 months in prevention mode. Here, we profiled RNA from tibial metaphysis and diaphysis of the same study using Affymetrix microarrays, and selected 204 probe sets (p < 0.001, three-group ANOVA) that were differentially regulated by ODN or ALN versus vehicle. Both drugs produced strikingly different effects on known bone-related genes and pathways at the transcriptional level. Although ALN either reduced or had neutral effects on bone resorption-related genes, ODN significantly increased the expression of osteoclast genes (eg, APC5, TNFRSF11A, CTSK, ITGB3, and CALCR), consistent with previous findings on the effects of this agent in enhancing the number of nonresorbing osteoclasts. Conversely, ALN reduced the expression of known bone formation-related genes (eg, TGFBR1, SPP1, RUNX2, and PTH1R), whereas ODN either increased or had neutral effects on their expression. These differential effects of ODN versus ALN on bone resorption and formation were highly correlative to the changes in bone turnover markers, cathepsin K (Catk) target engagement marker serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (1-CTP) and osteoclast marker tartrate resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) in the same monkeys. Overall, the molecular profiling results are consistent with the known pharmacological actions of these agents on bone remodeling and clearly differentiate the molecular mechanisms of ODN from the bisphosphonates. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26587671

  5. Adult Cleaner Wrasse Outperform Capuchin Monkeys, Chimpanzees and Orang-utans in a Complex Foraging Task Derived from Cleaner – Client Reef Fish Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Darby; Essler, Jennifer; Pinto, Ana I.; Wismer, Sharon; Stoinski, Tara; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    The insight that animals' cognitive abilities are linked to their evolutionary history, and hence their ecology, provides the framework for the comparative approach. Despite primates renowned dietary complexity and social cognition, including cooperative abilities, we here demonstrate that cleaner wrasse outperform three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and orang-utans, in a foraging task involving a choice between two actions, both of which yield identical immediate rewards, but only one of which yields an additional delayed reward. The foraging task decisions involve partner choice in cleaners: they must service visiting client reef fish before resident clients to access both; otherwise the former switch to a different cleaner. Wild caught adult, but not juvenile, cleaners learned to solve the task quickly and relearned the task when it was reversed. The majority of primates failed to perform above chance after 100 trials, which is in sharp contrast to previous studies showing that primates easily learn to choose an action that yields immediate double rewards compared to an alternative action. In conclusion, the adult cleaners' ability to choose a superior action with initially neutral consequences is likely due to repeated exposure in nature, which leads to specific learned optimal foraging decision rules. PMID:23185293

  6. AMPA and GABA(A/B) receptor subunit expression in the cuneate nucleus of adult squirrel monkeys during peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mowery, Todd M; Kostylev, Polina V; Garraghty, Preston E

    2014-01-24

    The primate somatosensory neuroaxis provides an excellent model system with which to investigate adult neural plasticity. Here, we report immunohistochemical staining data for AMPA and GABAA/B receptor subunits in the cuneate nucleus of adult squirrel monkeys 1 and 5 months after median nerve compression. This method of nerve injury allowed the investigation of the way in which patterns of receptor correlates change during peripheral nerve regeneration. These results are compared to cortical data collected within the same animals. As observed in the cortex, the pattern of subunit staining in the brainstem 1 month after nerve compression suggests that the sensory deprived nucleus enters a state of reorganization. That is, the expression of GluR2/3 AMPA receptor subunits is significantly increased, while GABA α1 and GABABR1b receptor subunits are significantly decreased. Five months after nerve injury, the pattern of subunit expression is again very similar to that observed in the infragranular layers of cortex. At this later time we observe a significant increase in GluR2/3 and GABABR1a, with no change in GABAAα1, and a significant decrease in GABABR1b. Together these results suggest that during reorganization and recovery from injury the brainstem and cortex are governed by homogeneous mechanisms of plasticity. PMID:24315976

  7. Comparative ecology of the Flammulated Owl and Northern Saw-whet Owl during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, S.L.; Heglund, P.J.; Kaltenecker, G.S.; Carlisle, J.D.; Leppert, L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared the migration ecology of two owl species that exhibit different migration strategies: the Flammulated Owl (Otus flammeolus) and the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus). During fall 1999-2004, we captured 117 Flammulated Owls and 1433 Northern Saw-whet Owls in the southern Boise Mountains of southwestern Idaho. These owl species exhibited contrasting seasonal timing and body condition. Flammulated Owl captures peaked in mid-September and Northern Saw-whet Owl captures peaked in early to mid-October. Flammulated Owls displayed greater body condition than Northern Saw-whet Owls and increasing condition scores during the season, whereas Northern Saw-whet Owls had no apparent seasonal condition patterns. Based on seasonal timing of captures, both species showed unimodal movement patterns characteristic of fall migrants. However, in 1999 both species' capture rates were at least double those in other years of this study. Flammulated Owls' earlier arrival and departure, coupled with superior body condition, were consistent among years and typical of a long-distance migration strategy. In contrast, the Northern Saw-whet Owls' later arrival, more lengthy passage, and variable body condition were more characteristic of a short-distance migrant strategy. Furthermore, Northern Saw-whet Owls' body condition was significantly lower during the irruptive year than during nonirruptive years, supporting the notion that population density affects their migratory condition. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  8. Barred owls and landscape attributes influence territory occupancy of northern spotted owls

    PubMed Central

    Sovern, Stan G; Forsman, Eric D; Olson, Gail S; Biswell, Brian L; Taylor, Margaret; Anthony, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    We used multi-season occupancy analyses to model 2 fates of northern spotted owl territories in relation to habitat amount, habitat fragmentation, and the presence of barred owls in Washington State, USA, 1989–2005. Local colonization is the probability a territory unoccupied by a spotted owl in year i would be occupied in year i + 1, and local extinction is the probability a territory that was occupied by a spotted owl in year i would be unoccupied in year i + 1. We found a negative relationship between local extinction probability and amount of late-seral forest edge. We found a negative relationship between colonization probability and the number of late-seral forest patches (higher fragmentation), and a negative relationship between colonization probability and the amount of non-habitat within 600 m of a spotted owl territory center (Akaike weight = 0.59). The presence of barred owls was positively related to extinction probability and negatively related to detection probability of spotted owls. The negative relationship between presence of barred owls and detectability of spotted owls indicated that spotted owls could be modifying their calling behavior in the presence of barred owls. The positive relationship between barred owl detections and local extinction probability suggests that because of competition with barred owls, spotted owls are being displaced. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25558093

  9. Breeding-season food habits of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in southwestern Dominican Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Diet data from 20 Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) nests were collected in southwestern Dominican Republic in 1976, 1982, and 1996. Invertebrates (53.3%) comprised the most numerous prey items (N = 396) delivered to nests by adult owls, but vertebrates (46.7%) were much better represented than in other studies of Burrowing Owl diet. Among vertebrates, birds (28.3% of all items) and reptiles (14.9%) were most important, whereas mammals (1.0%) and amphibians (2.5%) were less commonly delivered to nests. Vertebrates, however, comprised more than twice (69.2%) of the total biomass as invertebrates (30.8%), with birds (50.4%) and reptiles (12.8%) the most important of the vertebrate prey classes. A positive relationship was observed between bird species abundance and number of individuals taken as prey by Burrowing Owls.

  10. Decrease in hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r expression: a potential mechanism for fasting-induced suppression of the HPG axis in the adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wahab, F; Ullah, F; Chan, Y-M; Seminara, S B; Shahab, M

    2011-02-01

    Fasting suppresses functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. In 2003, hypothalamic kisspeptin-Kiss1r signaling was discovered to play a significant role in regulating the HPG axis. We have recently shown that in adult male macaques, short-term fasting attenuates the response of the HPG axis to an exogenous kisspeptin challenge. In the present study, we explored the mechanism underlying this attenuated response by examining the modulation of the hypothalamic expression of KISS1 and KISS1R under short-term fasting and normal feeding conditions in the adult male macaques. Hypothalamic mRNA was extracted from normal fed (n=3) and 48-h fasted (n=3) monkeys. KISS1, KISS1R, and GNRH1 mRNA were quantified by reverse transcription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma concentrations of glucose, cortisol, leptin, and testosterone. In contrast to fed animals, plasma glucose, leptin, and testosterone levels decreased and cortisol levels increased in fasted animals. The hypothalamic expression of KISS1 and KISS1R mRNA was significantly lower (p<0.05) in fasted monkeys compared to fed monkeys while hypothalamic GNRH1 mRNA expression was comparable between the 2 groups. Thus, our results demonstrate that expression of hypothalamic KISS1 and KISS1R decrease after a short-term fasting in monkeys. This decrease may contribute to the suppression of the HPG axis during fasting conditions in primates. In addition, our finding of lower expression of KISS1R in fasted monkeys provides an explanation for the attenuation in the HPG axis response to peripheral kisspeptin challenge during short-term fasting. PMID:21154197

  11. Trichomoniasis in great horned owls.

    PubMed

    Jessup, D A

    1980-07-01

    Three cases of Trichomonas gallinae infection of deep tissues of the skull or of unusual tissues in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), refractory to recommended doses but responsive to higher doses of dimetridazole, are discussed. Trichomonads were isolated from the lesions. PMID:7432340

  12. The Dusk Chorus from an Owl Perspective: Eagle Owls Vocalize When Their White Throat Badge Contrasts Most

    PubMed Central

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, Maria del Mar

    2009-01-01

    Background An impressive number of studies have investigated bird vocal displays, and many of them have tried to explain the widespread phenomenon of the so-called dawn and dusk chorus, the sunrise and sunset peaks in bird song output. As many as twelve non-exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why twilight peaks in vocal display might be advantageous; but, even after more than two decades of study, the basis underlying the dusk and dawn chorus is still unclear. Moreover, to date, the majority of studies on this topic have focused on songbirds. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigate here a novel hypothesis on why nocturnal birds with patches of white feathers call at twilight. We propose that white plumage patches and the timing of visual signaling have co-evolved to maximize the effectiveness of social communication such as the dusk chorus. This hypothesis centers on the recent discovery that eagle owls can adopt specific forms of visual signaling and is supported by the observation that adult eagle owls possess a white throat badge that is only visible during vocal displays. By monitoring the calling of eagle owls at dusk, a peak time for bird call output, we found that white throat badges contrasted most with the surrounding background during the owls' twilight chorusing. Conclusions/Significance Crepuscular and nocturnal species appear to have evolved white patches that, shown in association with vocal displays, allow them to communicate in dark surroundings. The evolution of a white badge that operates jointly with call displays at dawn and dusk may be relevant to the eagle owls' social dynamics. Our explanation for the dusk chorus may possibly represent an overlooked but common pattern of signaling among crepuscular and nocturnal birds that combine patches of white feathers with twilight displays. Furthermore, our findings could be relevant to songbirds that breed in dark forest habitats and have contrasting white badges, as well as birds

  13. The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugger, Catherine; Forsman, Eric D.; Franklin, Alan B.; Davis, Raymond J.; White, Gary C.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Doherty, Paul F.; Bailey, Larissa; Clark, Darren A.; Ackers, Steven H.; Andrews, Lawrence S.; Augustine, Benjamin; Biswell, Brian L.; Blakesley, Jennifer; Carlson, Peter C.; Clement, Matthew J.; Diller, Lowell V.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Green, Adam; Gremel, Scott A.; Herter, Dale R.; Higley, J. Mark; Hobson, Jeremy; Horn, Rob B.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; McCafferty, Christopher; McDonald, Trent; McDonnell, Kevin; Olson, Gail S.; Reid, Janice A.; Rockweit, Jeremy; Ruiz, Viviana; Saenz, Jessica; Sovern, Stan G.

    2016-01-01

    minimum winter temperature (−9.5°C) were lowest. Barred Owl presence was associated with increased local extinction rates of Spotted Owl pairs for all 11 study areas. Habitat covariates were related to extinction rates for Spotted Owl pairs in 8 of 11 study areas, and a greater amount of suitable owl habitat was generally associated with decreased extinction rates. We observed negative effects of Barred Owl presence on colonization rates of Spotted Owl pairs in 5 of 11 study areas. The total amount of suitable Spotted Owl habitat was positively associated with colonization rates in 5 areas, and more habitat disturbance was associated with lower colonization rates in 2 areas. We observed strong declines in derived estimates of occupancy in all study areas. Mean fecundity of females was highest for adults (0.309 ± 0.027 SE), intermediate for 2-yr-olds (0.179 ± 0.040 SE), and lowest for 1-yr-olds (0.065 ± 0.022 SE). The presence of Barred Owls and habitat covariates explained little of the temporal variation in fecundity in most study areas. Climate covariates occurred in competitive fecundity models in 8 of 11 study areas, but support for these relationships was generally weak. The fecundity meta-analysis resulted in 6 competitive models, all of which included the additive effects of geographic region and annual time variation. The 2 top-ranked models also weakly supported the additive negative effects of the amount of suitable core area habitat, Barred Owl presence, and the amount of edge habitat on fecundity. We found strong support for a negative effect of Barred Owl presence on apparent survival of Spotted Owls in 10 of 11 study areas, but found few strong effects of habitat on survival at the study area scale. Climate covariates occurred in top or competitive survival models for 10 of 11 study areas, and in most cases the relationships were as predicted; however, there was little consistency among areas regarding the relative importance of specific climate

  14. A comparison of adult body size between captive and wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) on the island of St. Kitts.

    PubMed

    Turner, Trudy R; Cramer, Jennifer Danzy; Nisbett, Alexis; Patrick Gray, J

    2016-04-01

    Weight and 34 morphological measurements were obtained from 103 vervet monkeys living either in the wild or in captive colonies derived from the wild populations on the island of St. Kitts in the Eastern Caribbean. All measures were taken during the same week, eliminating bias that might result from changing seasonal environmental conditions. Vervets on St. Kitts are all descended from a small number of individuals brought to the island approximately 400 years ago from West Africa, thus eliminating bias that might result from subspecific size differences. We conducted a principal components analysis (PCA) and compared individual traits between captive and wild adult animals. Morphological measures such as body, arm, and leg length did not differ significantly between animals living in the wild and animals in captivity. Weight and measures indicating condition-including body mass index (BMI), chest, thigh, and upper arm girth were all higher for animals living in captivity. More consistent available food is probably the cause of differences in measures reflecting condition. PMID:26801341

  15. An anatomical basis for visual calibration of the auditory space map in the barn owl's midbrain.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D E; Knudsen, E I

    1997-09-01

    The map of auditory space in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) of the barn owl is calibrated by visual experience during development. ICX neurons are tuned for interaural time difference (ITD), the owl's primary cue for sound source azimuth, and are arranged into a map of ITD. When vision is altered by rearing owls with prismatic spectacles that shift the visual field in azimuth, ITD tuning in the ICX shifts adaptively. In contrast, ITD tuning remains unchanged in the lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICCls), which provides the principal auditory input to the ICX, suggesting that the projection from the ICCls to the ICX is altered by prism-rearing. In this study, the topography of the ICCls-ICX projection was assessed in normal and prism-reared owls by retrograde labeling using biotinylated dextran amine. In juvenile owls at the age before prism attachment, and in normal adults, labeling patterns were consistent with a topographic projection, with each ICX site receiving input from a restricted region of the ICCls with similar ITD tuning. In prism-reared owls, labeling patterns were systematically altered: each ICX site received additional, abnormal input from a region of the ICCls where ITD tuning matched the shifted ITD tuning of the ICX neurons. These results indicate that anatomical reorganization of the ICCls-ICX projection contributes to the visual calibration of the ICX auditory space map. PMID:9254692

  16. Differences in AMPA and GABAA/B receptor subunit expression between the chronically reorganized cortex and brainstem of adult squirrel monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, Todd M.; Sarin, Rohini M.; Kostylev, Polina V; Garraghty, Preston E.

    2015-01-01

    The primate somatosensory neuraxis provides a highly translational model system with which to investigate adult neural plasticity. Here, we report immunohistochemical staining data for AMPA and GABAA/B receptor subunits of area 3b cortex and cuneate nucleus of adult squirrel monkeys one to five years after median and ulnar nerve transection. In Area 3B cortex, the expression of GluR1 AMPAR subunits in reorganized regions are significantly increased, while the expression of GluR2/3 AMPAR subunits are not. GABAA α1 subunit expression in the reorganized region is not significantly different from control regions. Presynaptic GABABR1a subunit expression was also not significantly different between reorganized and control regions, while postsynaptic GABABR1b subunit expression was significantly decreased. In the cuneate nucleus of the brainstem, the expression of GluR1 AMPAR subunits in reorganized regions was not significantly different, while GluR2/3 AMPAR subunit expression was significantly elevated. GABAA α1 subunit expression in the reorganized region was significantly decreased. Presynaptic GABABR1a subunit expression was not significantly different, while postsynaptic GABABR1b subunit expression was significantly decreased. When subunit expression is compared, brainstem and cortical patterns diverge over longer periods of recovery. Persistent patterns of change in the cortex are stable by 1 year. Alternatively, subunit expression in the cuneate nucleus one to five years after nerve injury is similar to that seen 1 month after a reorganizing injury. This suggests that cortical plasticity continues to change over many months as receptive field reorganization occurs, while brainstem plasticity obtains a level of stable persistence by one month. PMID:25791620

  17. Home range characteristics of great gray owls in Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Charles, III; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.

    2006-01-01

    We studied home range and habitat use of radio-tagged Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa) in Yosemite, California. From 1986–90 we made 5338 relocations on nine adult and three juvenile owls. Home-range size was not correlated with number of locations and was significantly different between breeding and nonbreeding periods. Breeding female summer home range averaged 61.47 ha and during the winter 2457.27 ha, while males average 19.89 and 2112.87 ha, respectively. Juveniles and nonbreeding birds had home-range sizes intermediate between seasonal values of breeding owls. Home ranges for California Great Gray Owls were larger than has been recorded for all studies in North America, but smaller than in Europe. All owls were found to have intensive high-use activity centers (x− = 17.56 ha) in summer, with use patterns influenced primarily by meadows. Over 60% of all relocations occurred within 100 m of a meadow. Great Gray Owls habitat usage during summer was concentrated in fir (Abies spp.) and lodgepole (Pinus contorta) habitat types, while during the winter, birds moved to lower elevations into Sierra mixed conifer habitats. This post-breeding movement was the cause of the large nonbreeding home ranges. During winter, paired birds did not remain together, even though all birds moved to lower elevation habitats below deep snow-pack levels. We suggest that Great Gray Owls in California have responded to the relatively hot and southern habitat with unique adaptations that have allowed several local populations to persist within the upper montane Sierra Nevada forest zone. The protection of meadow foraging habitat, as well as nesting locations, will be important for the continued preservation of this southernmost North American population of Great Gray Owls in Yosemite National Park.

  18. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, shows its fear and resentment of the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  19. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, displays its wings at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  20. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, stares at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

  1. Secondary poisoning of owls by anticoagulant rodenticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, V.M.; Pank, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Anticoagulants-compounds that prevent clotting of the blood-are extensively used for control of small mammal pests. The potential secondary hazards of 6 anticoagulant rodenticides to birds of prey were examined in this study. Whole rats or mice were killed with each anticoagulant and were fed to 1-3 species of owls. Owls died of hemorrhaging after feeding on rats killed with bromadiolone, brodifacoum, or diphacinone; sublethal hemorrhaging occurred in owls fed rats killed with difenacoum. These results demonstrate potential secondary hazards of 4 anticoagulants to avian predators. No abnormalities were observed in owls fed rats killed with fumarin and chlorophacinone

  2. Noninvasive measures of reproductive function and disturbance in the barred owl, great horned owl, and northern spotted owl.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Samuel K; Hunt, Kathleen E

    2005-06-01

    There is an urgent need for noninvasive methods to study reproduction and environmental stress in at-risk species such as the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). Two related owl species (barred owl and great horned owl) were used as surrogates to validate hormone assays for fecal metabolites of progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, testosterone, and corticosterone. Infusions of radiolabeled hormones showed that the owls excreted most hormone within 6 h. Feces and urine contained roughly equal amounts of hormone, and most fecal hormone metabolites were quite polar. The testosterone and corticosterone assays in this study bound to the major excreted metabolites of these hormones, but two progesterone assays did not appreciably bind to the major progesterone metabolites. All assays showed excellent parallelism with hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed samples and with previously dried or undried fecal samples. Thus, samples do not require hydrolysis or prior drying. Samples from a female barred owl had significantly higher fecal estrogen, lower fecal testosterone, and higher fecal estrogen/testosterone ratio than samples from two male barred owls. The fecal estrogen/testosterone ratio was the most accurate predictor of owl gender, particularly if two or more samples are available from the same individual. Fecal corticosterone metabolites also demonstrated considerable utility for wild northern spotted owls. Fecal glucocorticoid levels varied by gender and breeding stage, being highest in male northern spotted owls early in the breeding season and highest in females when nestlings were fledging. Collectively, these studies show that noninvasive fecal hormone measurements show great promise for noninvasive assessment of reproduction and stress in wild owls. PMID:16055847

  3. Sensitive and critical periods for visual calibration of sound localization by barn owls.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, E I; Knudsen, P F

    1990-01-01

    This study describes developmental changes in the capacity of owls to adjust sound localization in response to chronic prismatic displacement of the visual field and to recover accurate sound localization following the restoration of normal vision. Matched, binocular displacing prisms were mounted over the eyes of 19 barn owls (Tyto alba) beginning at ages ranging from 10 to 272 d. In nearly all cases, the visual field was shifted 23 degrees to the right. Sound localization was assessed on the basis of head orientations to sound sources, measured in a darkened sound chamber with a search coil system. Chronic exposure to a displaced visual field caused the owls to alter sound localization in the direction of the visual field displacement, thereby inducing a sound-localization error. The size of the sound-localization error that resulted depended on the age of the animal when prism experience began. Maximal errors of about 20 degrees were induced only when prism experience began by 21 d of age. As prism experience began at later ages, the magnitude of induced errors decreased. A bird that wore prisms beginning at 102 d of age, altered sound localization by only 6 degrees. An adult owl, when exposed chronically to a displaced visual field, altered sound localization by about 3 degrees. We refer to the early period in life when displaced vision induces exceptionally large sound-localization errors (relative to those induced in the adult) as a sensitive period. The capacity to recover accurate sound localization following restoration of normal vision was tested in 7 owls that had been raised wearing prisms. Four owls that had prisms removed by 182 d of age recovered accurate localization rapidly (over a period of weeks), whereas 3 owls that were older when the prisms were removed did not recover accurate localization when tested for up to 7 months after prism removal. Adjustment of sound localization slowed greatly or ceased at about 200 days of age, referred to here as

  4. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J H; Eng, J; Yalow, R S

    1990-01-01

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled pork insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report we describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulin and glucagon. We demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in our immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. Squirrel monkey glucagon is identical with the usual glucagon found in Old World mammals, which predicts that the glucagons of other New World monkeys would not differ from the usual Old World mammalian glucagon. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species. PMID:2263627

  5. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the canyonlands of Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willey, D.W.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2007-01-01

    We studied home-range characteristics of adult Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in southern Utah. Twenty-eight adult owls were radio-tracked using a ground-based telemetry system during 1991-95. Five males and eight females molted tail feathers and dropped transmitters within 4 wk. We estimated cumulative home ranges for 15 Spotted Owls (12 males, 3 females). The mean estimate of cumulative home-range size was not statistically different between the minimum convex polygon and adaptive kernel (AK) 95% isopleth. Both estimators yielded relatively high SD, and male and female range sizes varied widely. For 12 owls tracked during both the breeding and nonbreeding seasons, the mean size of the AK 95% nonbreeding home range was 49% larger than the breeding home-range size. The median AK 75% bome-range isopleth (272 ha) we observed was similar in size to Protected Activity Centers (PACs) recommended by a recovery team. Our results lend support to the PAC concept and we support continued use of PACs to conserve Spotted Owl habitat in Utah. ?? 2007 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  6. What Do Great Horned Owls Eat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandelier, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine the identity of animals that owls ingest. Students dissect and examine the contents of "owl pellets" which are the indigestible parts of animals that are regurgitated after eating. Provides instructions for implementing and extending the activity. (MDH)

  7. Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on owls has been largely understudied. Research primarily has focused on two species, the eastern screech owl (Otus asio) and barn owl (Tyto alba). Most of this work has been conducted with captive populations at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, MD. In the wild, work has been, or is currently being, conducted with great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) at a Superfund site in Colorado and in agricultural croplands in Iowa, and barn owls at a Superfund site in Texas and in metal-contaminated regions of the Netherlands. As higher order consumers, owls bioconcentrate many different environmental contaminants through their prey. Owls have proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of toxic compounds, including PCB`s, metals, and fluoride. Endpoints examined include reproductive effects, eggshell thickness, residue analyses, cholinesterase inhibition, and induction of liver MFO`s. Much more work remains to be done using owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination, particularly with captive populations, salvaged individuals, raptor rehabilitation center birds, and with wild populations in areas around hazardous waste sites, smelters, landfills, agricultural croplands, and other major sources of environmental contamination.

  8. Connect Them Bones! An Interdisciplinary Study of Owl Pellets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a field/laboratory study of the barn owl in which students collect and dissect owl pellets. Interdisciplinary lessons focus on eco-politics, reconstruction of owl prey skeletons, studies of predator-prey relationships, and construction/installation of nest boxes for owls and other birds. The unit begins and ends with an attitude…

  9. Visualization of OWL DL using ORM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Lin; Liu, Da-Xin

    2011-12-01

    The OWL (Web Ontology Language) is the de facto standard ontology description language used by the Semantic Web. Because OWL is mainly designed for use by applications that need to process the content of information, it is difficult to read and understand by domain experts to build or verify domain ontologies expressed by OWL. ORM (Object Role Modeling) is a conceptual modeling language with graphical notations, its models/schemas can be translated into pseudo natural language that make it easier, also for domain experts who is a non-IT specialist, to create, check and adapt the knowledge about the UoD (Universe of Domain). Based on formal logic analysis of OWL DL and ORM and extending ORM notations, mapping rules has been presented to visualize OWL DL ontologies with ORM.

  10. Visualization of OWL DL using ORM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-lin; Liu, Da-xin

    2012-01-01

    The OWL (Web Ontology Language) is the de facto standard ontology description language used by the Semantic Web. Because OWL is mainly designed for use by applications that need to process the content of information, it is difficult to read and understand by domain experts to build or verify domain ontologies expressed by OWL. ORM (Object Role Modeling) is a conceptual modeling language with graphical notations, its models/schemas can be translated into pseudo natural language that make it easier, also for domain experts who is a non-IT specialist, to create, check and adapt the knowledge about the UoD (Universe of Domain). Based on formal logic analysis of OWL DL and ORM and extending ORM notations, mapping rules has been presented to visualize OWL DL ontologies with ORM.

  11. Effects of Kelthane? on reproduction of captive eastern screech-owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Spann, J.W.; Bunck, C.M.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Eastern screech-owls were fed diets containing 10 ppm Kelthane? with 3.4% DDT-related contaminants, 10 ppm Kelthane? with no detectable DDT contaminants, or a control diet. Food consumption, adult weight and date of initiation of egg laying were similar for birds in control and dosed treatment groups.

  12. Contemporary American Indian Life in "The Owl's Song" and "Smoke Signals."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Discusses "Smoke Signals" (a 1998 award-winning film) and "The Owl's Song" (a 1974 novel), both of which feature young adult American Indian protagonists. Suggests instructional strategies for teaching these works in tandem. Argues that teaching these works informs students about relevant literary, historical, social, and cultural topics in ways…

  13. Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R.; Komar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

  14. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  15. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    The federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is the focus of intensive conservation efforts that have led to much forested land being reserved as habitat for the owl and associated wildlife species throughout the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Recently, however, a relatively new threat to spotted owls has emerged in the form of an invasive competitor: the congeneric barred owl (S. varia). As barred owls have rapidly expanded their populations into the entire range of the northern spotted owl, mounting evidence indicates that they are displacing, hybridizing with, and even killing spotted owls. The range expansion by barred owls into western North America has made an already complex conservation issue even more contentious, and a lack of information on the ecological relationships between the 2 species has hampered recovery efforts for northern spotted owls. We investigated spatial relationships, habitat use, diets, survival, and reproduction of sympatric spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon, USA, during 2007–2009. Our overall objective was to determine the potential for and possible consequences of competition for space, habitat, and food between these previously allopatric owl species. Our study included 29 spotted owls and 28 barred owls that were radio-marked in 36 neighboring territories and monitored over a 24-month period. Based on repeated surveys of both species, the number of territories occupied by pairs of barred owls in the 745-km2 study area (82) greatly outnumbered those occupied by pairs of spotted owls (15). Estimates of mean size of home ranges and core-use areas of spotted owls (1,843 ha and 305 ha, respectively) were 2–4 times larger than those of barred owls (581 ha and 188 ha, respectively). Individual spotted and barred owls in adjacent territories often had overlapping home ranges, but interspecific space sharing was largely restricted to broader foraging areas in the home range

  16. Multiple sites of adaptive plasticity in the owl's auditory localization pathway.

    PubMed

    DeBello, William M; Knudsen, Eric I

    2004-08-01

    In the midbrain auditory localization pathway of the barn owl, a map of auditory space is relayed from the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) to the deep and intermediate layers of the optic tectum (OT) and from these layers to the superficial layers. Within the OT, the auditory space map aligns with a visual map of space. Raising young barn owls with a prismatic displacement of the visual field leads to progressive changes in auditory tuning in the OT that tend to realign the auditory space map with the prismatically displaced visual space map. The only known site of this adaptive plasticity is in the ICX, in which the auditory system first creates a map of space. In this study, we identified an additional site of plasticity in the OT. In owls that experienced prisms beginning late in the juvenile period, adaptive shifts in auditory tuning in the superficial layers of the OT exceeded the adaptive shifts that occurred in the deep layers of the OT or in the ICX. Anatomical results from these owls demonstrated that the topography of intrinsic OT connections was systematically altered in the adaptive direction. In juvenile owls, plasticity in the OT increased as plasticity in the ICX decreased. Because plasticity at both sites has been shown to decline substantially in adults, these results suggest that an age-dependent decrease in auditory map plasticity occurs first in the ICX and later at the higher level, in the OT. PMID:15295019

  17. Formal analysis of ORM using OWL DL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-lin; Liu, Da-xin

    2012-01-01

    ORM (Object Role Modeling), current version is 2.0, is a fully communication oriented information modeling method. Currently, ORM has been used in ontology engineering to model domain ontologies. To ensure the semantics of ORM model is consistent, it needs using reasoning engines to check semantic conflicts and redundancy. Furthermore, only publish ORM domain ontologies on the Semantic Web described by OWL can it is shared by different applications. Therefore, it needs to map ORM models into OWL DL. Several methods to transform ORM models have been considered and a series of general OWL DL formalization rules have been proposed.

  18. Formal analysis of ORM using OWL DL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Lin; Liu, Da-Xin

    2011-12-01

    ORM (Object Role Modeling), current version is 2.0, is a fully communication oriented information modeling method. Currently, ORM has been used in ontology engineering to model domain ontologies. To ensure the semantics of ORM model is consistent, it needs using reasoning engines to check semantic conflicts and redundancy. Furthermore, only publish ORM domain ontologies on the Semantic Web described by OWL can it is shared by different applications. Therefore, it needs to map ORM models into OWL DL. Several methods to transform ORM models have been considered and a series of general OWL DL formalization rules have been proposed.

  19. Heavy-metal concentrations in three owl species from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Lee, Hang; Koo, Tae-Hoe

    2008-01-01

    This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (iron, zinc, manganese, copper, lead, and cadmium) in livers of three owl species from Korea. Essential trace elements (iron, zinc, manganese, and copper) did not differ among the owl species. We suggest that the essential elements are within the normal range and are maintained by normal homeostatic mechanisms. Lead and cadmium concentrations in Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) were significantly lower than in Brown Hawk Owls (Nixos scutulata) and Collared Scops Owls (Otus lempiji). Lead and cadmium concentrations in Korean owl species were at background levels; lead concentrations in two Collared Scops Owls were above background concentrations. Lead and cadmium concentrations were similar to concentrations previously reported in owls from other parts of the world. We suggest that lead and cadmium concentrations in Korean owls are below toxic concentrations. PMID:17955366

  20. The vestibular system of the owl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.; Correia, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Five owls were given vestibular examinations, and two of them were sacrificed to provide serial histological sections of the temporal bones. The owls exhibited a curious variability in the postrotatory head nystagmus following abrupt deceleration; sometimes a brisk nystagnus with direction opposite to that appropriate to the stimulus would occur promptly after deceleration. It was found also that owls can exhibit a remarkable head stability during angular movement of the body about any axis passing through the skull. The vestibular apparatus in the owl is larger than in man, and a prominent crista neglecta is present. The tectorial membrane, the cupula, and the otolithic membranes of the utricle, saccule, and lagena are all attached to surfaces in addition to the surfaces hearing hair cells. These attachments are very substantial in the utricular otolithic membrane and in the cupula.

  1. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Susan Small, director of the Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  2. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, remove two great horned owls from the vehicle before releasing them at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release..

  3. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, get ready to release two great horned owls at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  4. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  5. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A great horned owl flies to freedom after its release at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  6. Owl: Next Generation System Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M; White, B S; McKee, S A; Lee, H S; Jeitner, J

    2005-02-16

    As microarchitectural and system complexity grows, comprehending system behavior becomes increasingly difficult, and often requires obtaining and sifting through voluminous event traces or coordinating results from multiple, non-localized sources. Owl is a proposed framework that overcomes limitations faced by traditional performance counters and monitoring facilities in dealing with such complexity by pervasively deploying programmable monitoring elements throughout a system. The design exploits reconfigurable or programmable logic to realize hardware monitors located at event sources, such as memory buses. These monitors run and writeback results autonomously with respect to the CPU, mitigating the system impact of interrupt-driven monitoring or the need to communicate irrelevant events to higher levels of the system. The monitors are designed to snoop any kind of system transaction, e.g., within the core, on a bus, across the wire, or within I/O devices.

  7. Paraconsistent Reasoning for OWL 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yue; Hitzler, Pascal

    A four-valued description logic has been proposed to reason with description logic based inconsistent knowledge bases. This approach has a distinct advantage that it can be implemented by invoking classical reasoners to keep the same complexity as under the classical semantics. However, this approach has so far only been studied for the basic description logic mathcal{ALC}. In this paper, we further study how to extend the four-valued semantics to the more expressive description logic mathcal{SROIQ} which underlies the forthcoming revision of the Web Ontology Language, OWL 2, and also investigate how it fares when adapted to tractable description logics including mathcal{EL++}, DL-Lite, and Horn-DLs. We define the four-valued semantics along the same lines as for mathcal{ALC} and show that we can retain most of the desired properties.

  8. Owls and larks in mice.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Martina; Wicht, Helmut; von Gall, Charlotte; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Humans come in different chronotypes and, particularly, the late chronotype (the so-called owl) has been shown to be associated with several health risks. A number of studies show that laboratory mice also display various chronotypes. In mice as well as in humans, the chronotype shows correlations with the period length and rhythm stability. In addition, some mouse models for human diseases show alterations in their chronotypic behavior, which are comparable to those humans. Thus, analysis of the behavior of mice is a powerful tool to unravel the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. In this review, we summarize the correlation of chronotype with free-running period length and rhythm stability in inbred mouse strains, in mice with a compromised molecular clockwork, and in a mouse model for neurodegeneration. PMID:26029157

  9. Owls and Larks in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, Martina; Wicht, Helmut; von Gall, Charlotte; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Humans come in different chronotypes and, particularly, the late chronotype (the so-called owl) has been shown to be associated with several health risks. A number of studies show that laboratory mice also display various chronotypes. In mice as well as in humans, the chronotype shows correlations with the period length and rhythm stability. In addition, some mouse models for human diseases show alterations in their chronotypic behavior, which are comparable to those humans. Thus, analysis of the behavior of mice is a powerful tool to unravel the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. In this review, we summarize the correlation of chronotype with free-running period length and rhythm stability in inbred mouse strains, in mice with a compromised molecular clockwork, and in a mouse model for neurodegeneration. PMID:26029157

  10. 78 FR 57171 - Experimental Removal of Barred Owls To Benefit Threatened Northern Spotted Owls; Record of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the record of decision (ROD) for the final environmental impact statement (Final EIS) for experimental removal of barred owls to benefit threatened northern spotted owls. We completed a thorough analysis of the environmental, social, and economic considerations and presented it in our Final EIS, which we released to the......

  11. Improving strategies to assess competitive effects of barred owls on northern spotted owls in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiens, J. David; Weekes, Anne

    2011-01-01

    A scientific study has determined that survey methods designed for spotted owls do not always detect barred owls that are actually present in spotted owl habitat. The researchers suggest that strategies to address potential interactions between spotted owls and barred owls will require carefully designed surveys that account for response behaviors and imperfect detection of both species. Species-specific sampling methods, which are proposed, can be used by forest managers to determine the occurrence and distribution of barred owls with high confidence. This fact sheet provides highlights of the research (Wiens and others, 2011).

  12. Natal and breeding dispersal of northern spotted owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forsman, E.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Reid, J.A.; Loschl, P.J.; Sovern, S.G.; Taylor, M.; Biswell, B.L.; Ellingson, A.; Meslow, E.C.; Miller, G.S.; Swindle, K.A.; Thrailkill, J.A.; Wagner, F.F.; Seaman, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    banded females, and 22.9 km for radio-marked females. On average, banded males and females settled within 4.2 and 7.0 territory widths of their natal sites, respectively. Maximum and final dispersal distances were largely independent of the number of days that juveniles were tracked. Although statistical tests of dispersal direction based on all owls indicated that direction of natal dispersal was non-random, the mean angular deviations and 95% CI's associated with the samples were large, and r-values (vector length) were small. This lead us to conclude that significant test results were the result of large sample size and were not biologically meaningful. Our samples were not large enough to test whether dispersal direction from individual territories was random. In the sample of radio-marked owls, 22% of males and 44% of females were paired at 1 year of age, but only 1.5% of males and 1.6% of females were actually breeding at 1 year of age. At 2 years of age, 68% of males and 77% of females were paired, but only 5.4% of males and 2.6% of females were breeding. In contrast to the radio-marked owls, most juveniles that were banded and relocated at 1 or 2 years of age were paired, although few were breeding. Although recruitment into the territorial population typically occurred when owls were 1-5 years old, 9% of banded juveniles were not recaptured until they were > 5 years old. We suspect that our estimates of age at recruitment of banded owls are biased high because of the likelihood that some individuals were not recaptured in the first year that they entered the territorial population. A minimum of 6% of the banded, non-juvenile owls on our demographic study areas changed territories each year (breeding dispersal). The likelihood of breeding dispersal was higher for females, young owls, owls that did not have a mate in the previous year, and owls that lost their mate from the previous year through death or divorce. Mean and median distances dispersed by adults were

  13. Interactive effects of prey and p,p'-DDE on burrowing owl population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Jennifer A; Hunter, Christine M; Anthony, Robert G

    2006-04-01

    We used population models to explore the effects of the organochlorine contaminant p,p'-DDE and fluctuations in vole availability on the population dynamics of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia). Previous work indicated an interaction between low biomass of voles in the diet and moderate levels of p,p'-DDE in Burrowing Owl eggs that led to reproductive impairment. We constructed periodic and stochastic matrix models that incorporated three vole population states observed in the field: average, peak, and crash years. We modeled varying frequencies of vole crash years and a range of impairment of owl demographic rates in vole crash years. Vole availability had a greater impact on owl population growth rate than did reproductive impairment if vole populations peaked and crashed frequently. However, this difference disappeared as the frequency of vole crash years declined to once per decade. Fecundity, the demographic rate most affected by p,p'-DDE, had less impact on population growth rate than adult or juvenile survival. A life table response experiment of time-invariant matrices for average, peak, and crash vole conditions showed that low population growth under vole crash conditions was due to low adult and juvenile survival rates, whereas the extremely high population growth under vole peak conditions was due to increased fecundity. Our results suggest that even simple models can provide useful insights into complex ecological interactions. This is particularly valuable when temporal or spatial scales preclude manipulative experimental work in the field or laboratory. PMID:16711053

  14. Haemosporidian infections in the Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) and potential insect vectors of their transmission.

    PubMed

    Synek, Petr; Popelková, Alena; Koubínová, Darina; Šťastný, Karel; Langrová, Iva; Votýpka, Jan; Munclinger, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary bird species are suitable model hosts for identifying potential vectors of avian blood parasites. We studied haemosporidian infections in the Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) in the Ore Mountains of the Czech Republic using molecular detection methods. Sex of owl nestlings was scored using molecular sexing based on fragment analysis of PCR-amplified CHD1 introns. Observed infection prevalences in nestlings and adult owls were 51 and 86 %, respectively. Five parasite lineages were detected. Most of the infections comprised the Leucocytozoon AEFUN02 and STOCC06 lineages that probably refer to distinct Leucocytozoon species. Other lineages were detected only sporadically. Mixed infections were found in 49 % of samples. The main factor affecting the probability of infection was host age. No effect of individual sex on infection probability was evidenced. The youngest infected nestling was 12 days old. High parasite prevalence in the Tengmalm's Owl nestlings suggests that insect vectors must enter nest boxes to transmit parasites before fledging. Hence, we placed sticky insect traps into modified nest boxes, collected potential insect vectors, and examined them for the presence of haemosporidian parasites using molecular detection. We trapped 201 insects which were determined as biting midges from the Culicoides genus and two black fly species, Simulium (Nevermannia) vernum and Simulium (Eusimulium) angustipes. Six haemosporidian lineages were detected in the potential insect vectors, among which the Leucocytozoon lineage BT2 was common to the Tengmalm's Owl and the trapped insects. However, we have not detected the most frequently encountered Tengmalm's Owl Leucocytozoon lineages AEFUN02 and STOCC06 in insects. PMID:26365667

  15. Development and annotation of shotgun sequence libraries from New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Natalie M; Xu, Ke; Yi, Soojin V; Wildman, Derek E

    2012-09-01

    The draft genome sequences of several primates are available, providing insights into evolutionary and anthropological research. However, genomic resources from New World monkeys are conspicuously lacking. To date, the genomes of only two platyrrhine species, the common marmoset and the Bolivian squirrel monkey, have been fully sequenced. This is especially limiting for comparative genomics research, considering that New World monkeys are the most speciose primate group, and platyrrhine genetic diversity is comparable to that of the catarrhines (i.e. apes and Old World monkeys). Here, we present the generation and annotation of numerous sequence reads from the genomes of Spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth), Owl monkey (Aotus lemurinus) and Uakari (Cacajao calvus), representing the three platyrrhine families, Atelidae, Cebidae and Pitheciidae, respectively. These sequencing reads were developed from gDNA shotgun libraries containing over 3000 individual sequences with an average length of 726 bps. Of these sequences, 1220 contain <20% repeats, and thus are potentially highly useful phylogenetic markers for other platyrrhine species. Among them, a large number of sequencing reads were found to match unique regions within the human (2462 sequences) and the marmoset (2829 sequences) genomes. In particular, the majority of these sequencing reads are from putatively neutrally evolving intergenic regions. Thus, they are likely to be highly informative for inferring neutral evolutionary patterns and genomic evolution for other New World monkeys. PMID:22715851

  16. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jinghua ); Eng, J.; Yalow, R.S. City Univ. of New York, NY )

    1990-12-01

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled park insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report the authors describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulin and glucagon. They demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in their immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species.

  17. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1985-09-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using /sup 125/T-antibodies were done.

  18. Blood oxygen binding properties for the burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia.

    PubMed

    Maginniss, L A; Kilgore, D L

    1989-05-01

    Isocapnic O2 equilibrium curves (O2ECs) were generated for whole blood of 4 adult burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) using thin film techniques. At in vivo pHa (7.49 +/- 0.02; mean +/- 1 SEM) and 41 degrees C, the PO2 at half saturation (P50) was 42.3 +/- 0.8 Torr. CO2 and fixed acid (H+) Bohr slopes (delta log P50/delta pH) were -0.46 +/- 0.01 and -0.42 +/- 0.02, respectively, demonstrating a small specific CO2 effect. CO2 and H+ Bohr slopes were saturation-independent between 0.1 and 0.9 S. Hill plots for Athene blood were non-linear; the Hill coefficient (n) increased from 2.6 below 0.4 S to 3.4 above 0.6 S. Owl equilibrium data were accurately described by the equation: S = [(7.7 x 10(6]/(P4 + 44P3 - 108P2 + 3.5 x 10(4)P) + 1]-1. This complex O2EC shape may result from Hb heterogeneity; isoelectric focusing showed 4 isoHbs with a molar ratio of 9:1:1:1. This study revealed no apparent adaptations of Athene blood for hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. We conclude that the observed blood O2 binding properties promote tissue O2 delivery during periods of surface activity. While occupying its burrow, the owl compensates for moderate alterations in inspired gas composition partly through increased ventilation. PMID:2749025

  19. Owl Pellet Analysis--A Useful Tool in Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a technique by which the density and hunting habits of owls can be inferred from their pellets. Owl pellets--usually small, cylindrical packages of undigested bone, hair, etc.--are regurgitated by a roosting bird. A series of activities based on owl pellets are provided. (CP)

  20. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  1. Monkey Able After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  2. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in the Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus, Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus and Snowy Owl B. scandiacus for use in population genetics, individual identification and parentage studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dial, Cody R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using DNA from blood and feathers, we screened twenty-four microsatellite primer pairs initially developed for six strigid owls, and four primer pairs shown to be polymorphic across avian taxa, for their utility in Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus), and Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus). Eight of these primers reliably amplified polymorphic fragments in Great Horned Owl, eleven in Short-eared owl, and ten in Snowy Owl. Analyses of results from presumably unrelated owls demonstrate the utility of these loci for individual identification, parentage assignment, and population genetics studies.

  3. Moonlight Makes Owls More Chatty

    PubMed Central

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Campioni, Letizia; Lourenço, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Background Lunar cycles seem to affect many of the rhythms, temporal patterns and behaviors of living things on Earth. Ambient light is known to affect visual communication in animals, with the conspicuousness of visual signals being largely determined by the light available for reflection by the sender. Although most previous studies in this context have focused on diurnal light, moonlight should not be neglected from the perspective of visual communication among nocturnal species. We recently discovered that eagle owls Bubo bubo communicate with conspecifics using a patch of white throat plumage that is repeatedly exposed during each call and is only visible during vocal displays. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we provide evidence that this species uses moonlight to increase the conspicuousness of this visual signal during call displays. We found that call displays are directly influenced by the amount of moonlight, with silent nights being more frequent during periods with no-moonlight than moonlight. Furthermore, high numbers of calling bouts were more frequent at moonlight. Finally, call posts were located on higher positions on moonlit nights. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the idea that moon phase affects the visual signaling behavior of this species, and provide a starting point for examination of this method of communication by nocturnal species. PMID:20098700

  4. Reproduction in eastern screech-owls fed selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Raptors are occasionally exposed to excessive selenium from contaminated prey, but the effects of this exposure on reproduction are unknown. Therefore, we fed captive eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) diets containing 0, 4.4, or 13.2 ppm (wet wt) added selenium in the form of seleno-DL-methionine. Adult mass at sacrifice and reproductive success of birds receiving 13.2 ppm selenium were depressed (P < 0.05) relative to controls. Parents given 4.4 ppm selenium produced no malformed nestlings, but femur lengths of young were shorter (P = 0.015) than those of controls. Liver biochemistries indicative of oxidative stress were affected (P < 0.05) in 5-day-old nestlings from parents fed 4.4 ppm selenium and included a 19% increase in glutathione peroxidase activity, a 43% increase in the ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH), and a 17% increase in lipid peroxidation. Based on reproductive effects relative to dietary exposure, sensitivity of eastern screech-owls to selenium was similar to that of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) but less than that of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

  5. Comparative physiology of sound localization in four species of owls.

    PubMed

    Volman, S F; Konishi, M

    1990-01-01

    Bilateral ear asymmetry is found in some, but not all, species of owls. We investigated the neural basis of sound localization in symmetrical and asymmetrical species, to deduce how ear asymmetry might have evolved from the ancestral condition, by comparing the response properties of neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx) of the symmetrical burrowing owl and asymmetrical long-eared owl with previous findings in the symmetrical great horned owl and asymmetrical barn owl. In the ICx of all of these owls, the neurons had spatially restricted receptive fields, and auditory space was topographically mapped. In the symmetrical owls, ICx units were not restricted in elevation, and only azimuth was mapped in ICx. In the barn owl, the space map is two-dimensional, with elevation forming the second dimension. Receptive fields in the long-eared owl were somewhat restricted in elevation, but their tuning was not sharp enough to determine if elevation is mapped. In every species, the primary cue for azimuth was interaural time difference, although ICx units were also tuned for interaural intensity difference (IID). In the barn owl, the IIDs of sounds with frequencies between about 5 and 8 kHz vary systematically with elevation, and the IID selectivity of ICx neurons primarily encodes elevation. In the symmetrical owls, whose ICx neurons do not respond to frequencies above about 5 kHz, IID appears to be a supplementary cue for azimuth. We hypothesize that ear asymmetry can be exploited by owls that have evolved the higher-frequency hearing necessary to generate elevation cues. Thus, the IID selectivity of ICx neurons in symmetrical owls may preadapt them for asymmetry; the neural circuitry that underlies IID selectivity is already present in symmetrical owls, but because IID is not absolutely required to encode azimuth it can come to encode elevation in asymmetrical owls. PMID:2279234

  6. Standardizing Legal Content with OWL and RDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondros, Constantine

    Wolters Kluwer is one of the largest legal publishers in the world. Its various publishing units use a multitude of different formats to mark up what is effectively similar content. We describe a common content architecture based on OWL, RDF and XHTML that is used to build a standard representation of legal content, allowing publishable assets to be integrated across the enterprise. This architecture is governed by an OWL ontology that models the (occasionally complex) behaviour of legal documents and acts as a domain model of common legal metadata. How do OWL and RDF scale up to real-world publishing? We describe practical issues in producing and validating RDF on an industrial scale; in performance management; in handling fragmented ontologies; and the challenge of using RDF in a performant XSLT pipeline.

  7. Mosquito Infection Studies with Aotus Monkeys and Humans Infected with the Chesson Strain of Plasmodiun vivax

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William E.; Sullivan, JoAnn S.; Jeffery, Geoffrey M.; Nace, Douglas; Williams, Tyrone; Galland, G. Gale; Williams, Allison; Barnwell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Oocyst counts were compared between mosquitoes that fed on humans versus mosquitoes that fed on Aotus monkeys, both of which were infected with the Chesson strain of Plasmodium vivax. Oocyst counts obtained from mosquitoes fed on humans were almost 10-fold higher in number. Mosquitoes were more likely to be infected and with a higher rate of infection when they fed on monkeys before the peak in the asexual parasite count. Mosquitoes that fed on humans were more likely to be more heavily infected when fed after the peak in the asexual count. Of several species of owl monkeys, Aotus vociferans was infected at a higher frequency. On the basis of oocyst counts, Anopheles dirus were the most susceptible and An. maculatus were the least susceptible of the mosquito species tested. PMID:22403307

  8. F-OWL: An Inference Engine for Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Youyong; Finin, Tim; Chen, Harry

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and using the data and knowledge encoded in semantic web documents requires an inference engine. F-OWL is an inference engine for the semantic web language OWL language based on F-logic, an approach to defining frame-based systems in logic. F-OWL is implemented using XSB and Flora-2 and takes full advantage of their features. We describe how F-OWL computes ontology entailment and compare it with other description logic based approaches. We also describe TAGA, a trading agent environment that we have used as a test bed for F-OWL and to explore how multiagent systems can use semantic web concepts and technology.

  9. Experimental rabies in a great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, R D; Gough, P M; Graham, D L

    1976-07-01

    A great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was fed the carcass of an experimentally infected rabid skunk. The bird developed antibody titer to rabies, detected by passive haemagglutination, 27 days after oral inoculation by ingestion. The owl suppressed the infection until corticosteroid administration, after which a maximum antibody titer was attained. Evidence of active rabies viral infection was seen by fluorescent antibody staining of oral swabs, corneal impression smears and histologic tissue smears, by suckling mouse inoculation of oral swab washings, and by transmission electron microcopy. No clinical signs of rabies virus infection were observed. PMID:16498892

  10. Population trajectory of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in eastern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Pardieck, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that burrowing owls have declined in Washington. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife is currently conducting a status review for burrowing owls which will help determine whether they should be listed as threatened or endangered in the state. To provide insights into the current status of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), we analyzed data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey using two analytical approaches to determine their current population trajectory in eastern Washington. We used a one-sample t-test to examine whether trend estimates across all BBS routes in Washington differed from zero. We also used a mixed model analysis to estimate the rate of decline in number of burrowing owls detected between 1968 and 2005. The slope in number of burrowing owls detected was negative for 12 of the 16 BBS routes in Washington that have detected burrowing owls. Numbers of breeding burrowing owls detected in eastern Washington declined at a rate of 1.5% annually. We suggest that all BBS routes that have detected burrowing owls in past years in eastern Washington be surveyed annually and additional surveys conducted to track population trends of burrowing owls at finer spatial scales in eastern Washington. In the meantime, land management and regulatory agencies should ensure that publicly managed areas with breeding burrowing owls are not degraded and should implement education and outreach programs to promote protection of privately owned areas with breeding owls.

  11. Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

  12. Owl Nebula (M97, NGC 3587)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A planetary nebula in the constellation Ursa Major, position RA 11 h 14.8 m, dec. +55° 01'. The Owl is 3' across and gets its name from two adjacent dark patches that have the appearance of large eyes. The nebula is eleventh magnitude, and the central star is a faint magnitude 16....

  13. Kenojuak Ashevak: "Young Owl Takes a Ride."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan used to introduce K-3 students to a Canadian Inuit artist, to the personal and cultural context of the artwork, and to a simple printmaking technique. Includes background information on the artist, instructional strategies, and a print of the artist's "Young Owl Takes a Ride." (GEA)

  14. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  15. Assessment of toxicity and potential risk of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone using Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio).

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Horak, Katherine E; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Eisenreich, Karen M; Meteyer, Carol U; Volker, Steven F; Campton, Christopher M; Eisemann, John D; Johnston, John J

    2012-04-01

    In the United States, new regulatory restrictions have been placed on the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. This action may be offset by expanded use of first-generation compounds (e.g., diphacinone; DPN). Single-day acute oral exposure of adult Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) to DPN evoked overt signs of intoxication, coagulopathy, histopathological lesions (e.g., hemorrhage, hepatocellular vacuolation), and/or lethality at doses as low as 130 mg/kg body weight, although there was no dose-response relation. However, this single-day exposure protocol does not mimic the multiple-day field exposures required to cause mortality in rodent pest species and non-target birds and mammals. In 7-day feeding trials, similar toxic effects were observed in owls fed diets containing 2.15, 9.55 or 22.6 ppm DPN, but at a small fraction (<5%) of the acute oral dose. In the dietary trial, the average lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level for prolonged clotting time was 1.68 mg DPN/kg owl/week (0.24 mg/kg owl/day; 0.049 mg/owl/day) and the lowest lethal dose was 5.75 mg DPN/kg owl/week (0.82 mg/kg owl/day). In this feeding trial, DPN concentration in liver ranged from 0.473 to 2.21 μg/g wet weight, and was directly related to the daily and cumulative dose consumed by each owl. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that daily exposure to as little as 3-5 g of liver from DPN-poisoned rodents for 7 days could result in prolonged clotting time in the endangered Hawaiian short-eared owl (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) and Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius), and daily exposure to greater quantities (9-13 g of liver) could result in low-level mortality. These findings can assist natural resource managers in weighing the costs and benefits of anticoagulant rodenticide use in pest control and eradication programs. PMID:22227859

  16. Assessment of toxicity and potential risk of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone using Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Eisenreich, Karen M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Volker, Steven F.; Campton, Christopher M.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, new regulatory restrictions have been placed on the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. This action may be offset by expanded use of first-generation compounds (e.g., diphacinone; DPN). Single-day acute oral exposure of adult Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) to DPN evoked overt signs of intoxication, coagulopathy, histopathological lesions (e.g., hemorrhage, hepatocellular vacuolation), and/ or lethality at doses as low as 130 mg/kg body weight, although there was no dose-response relation. However, this single-day exposure protocol does not mimic the multiple-day field exposures required to cause mortality in rodent pest species and non-target birds and mammals. In 7-day feeding trials, similar toxic effects were observed in owls fed diets containing 2.15, 9.55 or 22.6 ppm DPN, but at a small fraction (<5%) of the acute oral dose. In the dietary trial, the average lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level for prolonged clotting time was 1.68 mg DPN/kg owl/week (0.24 mg/kg owl/day; 0.049 mg/owl/day) and the lowest lethal dose was 5.75 mg DPN/kg owl/week (0.82 mg/kg owl/day). In this feeding trial, DPN concentration in liver ranged from 0.473 to 2.21 μg/g wet weight, and was directly related to the daily and cumulative dose consumed by each owl. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that daily exposure to as little as 3-5 g of liver from DPN-poisoned rodents for 7 days could result in prolonged clotting time in the endangered Hawaiian shorteared owl (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) and Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius), and daily exposure to greater quantities (9-13 g of liver) could result in low-level mortality. These findings can assist natural resource managers in weighing the costs and benefits of anticoagulant rodenticide use in pest control and eradication programs.

  17. Top-down control of multimodal sensitivity in the barn owl optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Winkowski, Daniel E; Knudsen, Eric I

    2007-11-28

    We studied the effects of electrically microstimulating a gaze-control area in the owl's forebrain, the arcopallial gaze fields (AGFs), on the responsiveness of neurons in the optic tectum (OT) to visual and auditory stimuli. Microstimulation of the AGF enhanced the visual and auditory responsiveness and stimulus discriminability of OT neurons representing the same location in space as that represented at the microstimulation site in the AGF. At such OT sites, AGF microstimulation also sharpened auditory receptive fields and shifted them toward the location represented at the AGF stimulation site. At the same time, AGF microstimulation suppressed the responsiveness of OT neurons that represented visual or auditory stimuli at other locations in space. The top-down influences of this forebrain gaze-control area on sensory responsiveness in the owl OT are strikingly similar to the space-specific regulation of visual responsiveness in the monkey visual cortex produced by voluntary attention as well as by microstimulation of the frontal eye fields. This experimental approach provides a means for discovering mechanisms that underlie the top-down regulation of sensory responses. PMID:18045922

  18. Rural culture and the conservation of Mackinders eagle owls (Bubo capensis mackinderi) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2008-06-01

    The author describes her fieldwork studying a population of Mackinders eagle owls that live adjacent to small-scale farms in rural Kenya. Her study investigated the effects of farming practices on the diet and breeding ecology of the owls. She documented local people's attitudes toward owls since owls are taboo throughout Africa. She describes a typical day in the field, the community aspect of her project, her unique experiences studying owls in Kenya, and promotion of owl tourism. PMID:18689078

  19. Causes of owl mortality in Hawaii, 1992-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Hale, J.

    1996-01-01

    Eighty-one barn owls (Tyto alba) and five Hawaiian owls or pueo (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) from Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii (USA) were evaluated for cause of death, November 1992 through August 1994. The most common cause of death in barn owls was trauma (50%) followed by infectious disease (28%) and emaciation (22%). Most traumas apparently resulted from vehicular collisions. Trichomoniasis was the predominant infectious disease and appeared to be a significant cause of death in barn owls in Hawaii. Pasteurellosis and aspergillosis were encountered less commonly. No predisposing cause of emaciation was detected. Stomach contents from 28 barn owls contained mainly insects (64%) of the family Tetigoniidae and Gryllidae, and rodents (18%); the remainder had mixtures of rodents and insects or grass. Three pueo died from trauma and one each died from emaciation and pasteurellosis. We found no evidence of organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides as causes of death in pueo or barn owls.

  20. Penetrating keratoplasty for treatment of corneal protrusion in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Andrew, Stacy E; Clippinger, Tracy L; Brooks, Dennis E; Helmick, Kelly E

    2002-09-01

    A young adult great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was examined following presumed trauma. The owl had soft tissue injury to its left wing as well as corneal protrusion, lens subluxation, and iridodialysis of the right eye. The bird's eye was treated surgically with a large, rectangular penetrating keratoplasty. Following escape from housing, the bird was found with partial wound dehiscence and iris prolapse 12 days post operation. Surgical repair was performed and healing progressed for 14 days, at which time the transplant dehisced and the globe was exenterated. The patient rehabilitated well until escaping from its cage again 4 weeks later, at which time it sustained an open comminuted humeral fracture and was euthanized. PMID:12236872

  1. Rhesus monkey platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Harbury, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to describe the adenine nucleotide metabolism of Rhesus monkey platelets. Nucleotides are labelled with /sup 14/C-adenine and extracted with EDTA-ethanol (EE) and perchlorate (P). Total platelet ATP and ADP (TATP, TADP) is measured in the Holmsen Luciferase assay, and expressed in nanomoles/10/sup 8/ platelets. TR=TATP/TADP. Human platelets release 70% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.7. Rhesus platelets release 82% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.33. Thus, monkey platelets contain more ADP than human platelets. Thin layer chromatography of EE gives a metabolic ratio of 11 in human platelets and 10.5 in monkey platelets. Perchlorate extracts metabolic and actin bound ADP. The human and monkey platelets ratios were 5, indicating they contain the same proportion of actin. Thus, the extra ADP contained in monkey platelets is located in the secretory granules.

  2. Detecting Burrowing Owl Bloodmeals in Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    PubMed

    Graham, Christine B; Eisen, Rebecca J; Belthoff, James R

    2016-03-01

    Pulex irritans L. is a cosmopolitan flea species that infests a wide variety of hosts. In North America it generally parasitizes large wild mammals, but in the Pacific Northwest an association has emerged between P. irritans and the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea). While investigators have recognized this association for decades, it has not been clear if P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls, or if the owls serve exclusively as phoretic hosts. Here we describe using a real-time assay that was originally developed to identify bloodmeals in Ugandan cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis Bouché) to detect burrowing owl DNA in P. irritans collected from burrowing owls in southern Idaho. Of 50 fleas tested, 12 had no detectable vertebrate bloodmeal. The remaining 38 (76%) contained burrowing owl DNA. The assay did not detect vertebrate DNA in unfed fleas exposed to owl or mouse pelts and is therefore unlikely to detect DNA in fleas from vertebrates that have served exclusively as phoretic hosts. We conclude that P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls. We discuss the potential implications of this finding for burrowing owl conservation and enzootic plague dynamics. PMID:26545716

  3. Effects of pesticides on owls in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    A literature review of the effects of pesticides on owls in North America showed that relatively few studies have been undertaken. Owls used in experiments seem as sensitive to organochlorine pesticides (OCs) as other birds of prey, but wild owls experienced few serious problems, primarily because they were exposed to lower residues in their predominately mammalian or invertebrate prey. For example, the great horned owl ( Bubo virginianus ) and the common barn-owl ( Tyto alba ) neither experienced marked changes in mortality or recruitment rates nor was there any evidence of population decreases even during the maximum period of OC pesticide use. Also, eggshell thinning was not a widespread problem. There were adverse effects on individual owls including verified records of 74 owls of six species that died from secondary or tertiary poisoning related to strychnine, organochlorines, anticholinesterases (antiChEs) and anticoagulants in 16 states within the U.S. and one province in Canada. Most of the pesticide-related deaths occurred during the 1980s, although this probably does not represent a true temporal distribution. Verified mortalities of owls probably represent a small fraction of the actual number that died from pesticides. Incidence of mortality seems biased geographically toward areas such as New York that have active ecotoxicological programs. Burrowing owl ( Speotyto cunicularia ) populations currently are decreasing throughout much of the range in the U.S. and Canada. Studies in Canada indicate that antiChE pesticides, particularly carbofuran, were responsible for the declines there.

  4. Pharmacokinetic modeling: Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of bisphenol A in monkeys with extrapolation to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Jeffrey W. Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2011-11-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for bisphenol A (BPA) in adult rhesus monkeys using intravenous (iv) and oral bolus doses of 100 {mu}g d6-BPA/kg (). This calibrated PBPK adult monkey model for BPA was then evaluated against published monkey kinetic studies with BPA. Using two versions of the adult monkey model based on monkey BPA kinetic data from and , the aglycone BPA pharmacokinetics were simulated for human oral ingestion of 5 mg d16-BPA per person (Voelkel et al., 2002). Voelkel et al. were unable to detect the aglycone BPA in plasma, but were able to detect BPA metabolites. These human model predictions of the aglycone BPA in plasma were then compared to previously published PBPK model predictions obtained by simulating the Voelkel et al. kinetic study. Our BPA human model, using two parameter sets reflecting two adult monkey studies, both predicted lower aglycone levels in human serum than the previous human BPA PBPK model predictions. BPA was metabolized at all ages of monkey (PND 5 to adult) by the gut wall and liver. However, the hepatic metabolism of BPA and systemic clearance of its phase II metabolites appear to be slower in younger monkeys than adults. The use of the current non-human primate BPA model parameters provides more confidence in predicting the aglycone BPA in serum levels in humans after oral ingestion of BPA. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A bisphenol A (BPA) PBPK model for the infant and adult monkey was constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hepatic metabolic rate of BPA increased with age of the monkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The systemic clearance rate of metabolites increased with age of the monkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gut wall metabolism of orally administered BPA was substantial across all ages of monkeys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aglycone BPA plasma concentrations were predicted in humans orally given oral doses of deuterated BPA.

  5. Live trapping of hawks and owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, R.E.; Cope, J.B.; Robbins, C.S.

    1945-01-01

    1. Hawks of six species (80 individuals) and owls of five species (37 individuals) were trapped for banding from November 1, 1943, to. May 26,1944. 2. In general, pole traps proved better than hand-operated traps or automatic traps using live bait. 3. Verbail pole traps proved very efficient, and were much more humane than padded steel traps because they rarely injured a captured bird. 4: Unbaited Verbail traps took a variety of raptors, in rough proportion to their local abundance, although slightly more of beneficial species were caught than of harmful types. 5. Hawks and owls were retrapped more readily in Verbail traps than in other types tried. 6. The number of song birds caught in Verbail traps was negligible. 7. Crows and vultures were not taken in Verbail traps, but possibly could be caught with bait.

  6. Efficient Query Answering for OWL 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Urbina, Héctor; Horrocks, Ian; Motik, Boris

    The QL profile of OWL 2 has been designed so that it is possible to use database technology for query answering via query rewriting. We present a comparison of our resolution based rewriting algorithm with the standard algorithm proposed by Calvanese et al., implementing both and conducting an empirical evaluation using ontologies and queries derived from realistic applications. The results indicate that our algorithm produces significantly smaller rewritings in most cases, which could be important for practicality in realistic applications.

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Barred Owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the barred owl (Strix varia). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Spotted Owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laymon, Stephen A.; Salwasser, Hal; Barrett, Reginald H.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. Do monkeys think in metaphors? Representations of space and time in monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Dustin J; Casasanto, Daniel; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Research on the relationship between the representation of space and time has produced two contrasting proposals. ATOM posits that space and time are represented via a common magnitude system, suggesting a symmetrical relationship between space and time. According to metaphor theory, however, representations of time depend on representations of space asymmetrically. Previous findings in humans have supported metaphor theory. Here, we investigate the relationship between time and space in a nonverbal species, by testing whether non-human primates show space-time interactions consistent with metaphor theory or with ATOM. We tested two rhesus monkeys and 16 adult humans in a nonverbal task that assessed the influence of an irrelevant dimension (time or space) on a relevant dimension (space or time). In humans, spatial extent had a large effect on time judgments whereas time had a small effect on spatial judgments. In monkeys, both spatial and temporal manipulations showed large bi-directional effects on judgments. In contrast to humans, spatial manipulations in monkeys did not produce a larger effect on temporal judgments than the reverse. Thus, consistent with previous findings, human adults showed asymmetrical space-time interactions that were predicted by metaphor theory. In contrast, monkeys showed patterns that were more consistent with ATOM. PMID:20846645

  10. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  11. How the owl resolves auditory coding ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Mazer, J A

    1998-09-01

    The barn owl (Tyto alba) uses interaural time difference (ITD) cues to localize sounds in the horizontal plane. Low-order binaural auditory neurons with sharp frequency tuning act as narrow-band coincidence detectors; such neurons respond equally well to sounds with a particular ITD and its phase equivalents and are said to be phase ambiguous. Higher-order neurons with broad frequency tuning are unambiguously selective for single ITDs in response to broad-band sounds and show little or no response to phase equivalents. Selectivity for single ITDs is thought to arise from the convergence of parallel, narrow-band frequency channels that originate in the cochlea. ITD tuning to variable bandwidth stimuli was measured in higher-order neurons of the owl's inferior colliculus to examine the rules that govern the relationship between frequency channel convergence and the resolution of phase ambiguity. Ambiguity decreased as stimulus bandwidth increased, reaching a minimum at 2-3 kHz. Two independent mechanisms appear to contribute to the elimination of ambiguity: one suppressive and one facilitative. The integration of information carried by parallel, distributed processing channels is a common theme of sensory processing that spans both modality and species boundaries. The principles underlying the resolution of phase ambiguity and frequency channel convergence in the owl may have implications for other sensory systems, such as electrolocation in electric fish and the computation of binocular disparity in the avian and mammalian visual systems. PMID:9724807

  12. Genetic identification of spotted owls, barred owls, and their hybrids: Legal implications of hybrid identity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Wennerberg, L.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Forsman, E.D.; Trail, P.

    2004-01-01

    Recent population expansion of Barred Owls ( Strix varia) into western North America has led to concern that they may compete with and further harm the Northern Spotted Owl ( S. occidentalis caurina), which is already listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because they hybridize, there is a legal need under the ESA for forensic identification of both species and their hybrids. We used mitochondrial control-region DNA and amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses to assess maternal and biparental gene flow in this hybridization process. Mitochondrial DNA sequences (524 base pairs) indicated large divergence between Barred and Spotted Owls (13.9%). Further, the species formed two distinct clades with no signs of previous introgression. Fourteen diagnostic AFLP bands also indicated extensive divergence between the species, including markers differentiating them. Principal coordinate analyses and assignment tests clearly supported this differentiation. We found that hybrids had unique genetic combinations, including AFLP markers from both parental species, and identified known hybrids as well as potential hybrids with unclear taxonomic status. Our analyses corroborated the findings of extensive field studies that most hybrids genetically sampled resulted from crosses between female Barred Owls and male Spotted Owls. These genetic markers make it possible to clearly identify these species as well as hybrids and can now be used for research, conservation, and law enforcement. Several legal avenues may facilitate future conservation of Spotted Owls and other ESA-listed species that hybridize, including the ESA similarity-of-appearance clause (section 4[e]) and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act appears to be the most useful route at this time.

  13. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 45 degrees of the visual field, which may reflect the actions of vision-dependent, growth-control mechanisms operating over a wide area of the posterior globe. PMID:18487366

  14. Evaluation of third-party reciprocity by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and the question of mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Social evaluation during third-party interactions emerges early in human ontogeny, and it has been shown in adult capuchin monkeys who witness violations of reciprocity in object exchanges: Monkeys were less inclined to accept food from humans who refused to reciprocate with another human. A recent study reporting similar evidence in marmoset monkeys raised the possibility that such evaluations might be based on species' inherent cooperativeness. We tested a species not renowned for cooperativeness-squirrel monkeys-using the procedure used with marmosets and found a similar result. This finding rules out any crucial role for cooperative tendencies in monkeys' responses to unfair exchanges. We then tested squirrel monkeys using procedures more similar to those used in the original study with capuchins. Squirrel monkeys again accepted food less frequently from non-reciprocators, but unlike capuchins, they also strongly preferred reciprocators. We conclude that neither squirrel monkeys nor marmoset monkeys engaged in emotional bookkeeping of the type that probably underlies social evaluation in capuchin monkeys; instead, they employed one or more simple behavioral rules. Further comparative studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying social evaluation processes across species. PMID:27021433

  15. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus. PMID

  16. Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Dimitrov, Dragan; Carmena, Jose M.; Crist, Roy; Lehew, Gary; Kralik, Jerald D.; Wise, Steven P.

    2003-09-01

    A paradigm is described for recording the activity of single cortical neurons from awake, behaving macaque monkeys. Its unique features include high-density microwire arrays and multichannel instrumentation. Three adult rhesus monkeys received microwire array implants, totaling 96-704 microwires per subject, in up to five cortical areas, sometimes bilaterally. Recordings 3-4 weeks after implantation yielded 421 single neurons with a mean peak-to-peak voltage of 115 ± 3 μV and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 5:1. As many as 247 cortical neurons were recorded in one session, and at least 58 neurons were isolated from one subject 18 months after implantation. This method should benefit neurophysiological investigation of learning, perception, and sensorimotor integration in primates and the development of neuroprosthetic devices.

  17. Predator facilitation or interference: a game of vipers and owls.

    PubMed

    Embar, Keren; Raveh, Ashael; Hoffmann, Ishai; Kotler, Burt P

    2014-04-01

    In predator-prey foraging games, the prey's reaction to one type of predator may either facilitate or hinder the success of another predator. We ask, do different predator species affect each other's patch selection? If the predators facilitate each other, they should prefer to hunt in the same patch; if they interfere, they should prefer to hunt alone. We performed an experiment in a large outdoor vivarium where we presented barn owls (Tyto alba) with a choice of hunting greater Egyptian gerbils (Gerbillus pyramidum) in patches with or without Saharan horned vipers (Cerastes cerastes). Gerbils foraged on feeding trays set under bushes or in the open. We monitored owl location, activity, and hunting attempts, viper activity and ambush site location, and the foraging behavior of the gerbils in bush and open microhabitats. Owls directed more attacks towards patches with vipers, and vipers were more active in the presence of owls. Owls and vipers facilitated each other's hunting through their combined effect on gerbil behavior, especially on full moon nights when vipers are more active. Owls forced gerbils into the bushes where vipers preferred to ambush, while viper presence chased gerbils into the open where they were exposed to owls. Owls and vipers took advantage of their indirect positive effect on each other. In the foraging game context, they improve each other's patch quality and hunting success. PMID:24481981

  18. An Overview of OWL, a Language for Knowledge Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szolovits, Peter; And Others

    This is a description of the motivation and overall organization of the OWL language for knowledge representation. OWL consists of a linguistic memory system (LMS), a memory of concepts in terms of which all English phrases and all knowledge of an application domain are represented; a theory of English grammar which tells how to map English…

  19. Hypopi (Acari:Hypoderatidae) from owls (Aves:Strigiformes:Strigidae).

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; Bergan, J F

    1996-09-01

    Hypopi (deutonymphs) of the family Hypoderatidae were found in a barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli), and a burrowing owl, Speotyto cunicularia (Molina), from Texas. A redescription is provided for mature specimens of the hypopus of Tytodectes (Tytodectes) tyto Fain from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the pelvic region in the barn owl. The hypopus of Tytodectes (Tytodectes) speotyto n. sp. is described from specimens in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the pelvic region and in the adipose tissues of the intermuscular fasciae of the ankle in the burrowing owl. T. (T.) speotyto appears most similar in size and chaetotaxy to T. (T.) glaucidii Cerný described from the Cuban pygmy owl, Glaucidium siju (d'Orbigny), in Cuba, but differs in the presence of a spine on tibia IV, which also occurs in T. (T.) tyto. Both of the former species have the anterior apodemes of coxae I fused in a simple V and lack a sternum. They differ from T. (T.) tyto which has the anterior apodemes of coxae I fused in a Y and there is a well developed sternum. Based on the above 3 described hypopi, the hypoderatids of owls represent an assemblage of small closely related, but easily differentiated, species. The occurrence of a few specimens of Neottialges evansi Fain in the barn owl and Hypodectes (Hypodectoides) propus (Nitzsch) in the burrowing owl probably represent examples of host capture by hypopi that normally occur in cormorants and pigeons, herons or egrets, respectively. PMID:8840691

  20. Use of mammal manure by nesting burrowing owls: a test of four functional hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Animals have evolved an impressive array of behavioural traits to avoid depredation. Olfactory camouflage of conspicuous odours is a strategy to avoid depredation that has been implicated only in a few species of birds. Burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia, routinely collect dried manure from mammals and scatter it in their nest chamber, in the tunnel leading to their nest and at the entrance to their nesting burrow. This unusual behaviour was thought to reduce nest depredation by concealing the scent of adults and juveniles, but a recent study suggests that manure functions to attract arthropod prey. However, burrowing owls routinely scatter other materials in the same way that they scatter manure, and this fact seems to be at odds with both of these hypotheses. Thus, we examined the function of this behaviour by testing four alternative hypotheses. We found no support for the widely cited olfactory-camouflage hypothesis (manure did not lower the probability of depredation), or for the mate-attraction hypothesis (males collected manure after, not before, pair formation). Predictions of the burrow-occupied hypothesis (manure indicates occupancy to conspecifics and thereby reduces agonistic interactions) were supported, but results were not statistically significant. Our results also supported several predictions of the prey-attraction hypothesis. Pitfall traps at sampling sites with manure collected more arthropod biomass (of taxa common in the diet of burrowing owls) than pitfall traps at sampling sites without manure. Scattering behaviour of burrowing owls appears to function to attract arthropod prey, but may also signal occupancy of a burrow to conspecifics. ?? 2006 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  1. Toxicokinetics and coagulopathy threshold of the rodenticide diphacinone in eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, K.E.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Goldade, D.A.; Johnston, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, new regulations on second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides will likely be offset by expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. In the present study, eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) were fed 10 µg diphacinone/g wet weight food for 7 d, and recovery was monitored over a 21-d postexposure period. By day 3 of exposure, diphacinone (DPN) was detected in liver (1.63 µg/g wet wt) and kidney (5.83 µg/g) and coagulopathy was apparent. By day 7, prothrombin time (PT) and Russell's viper venom time (RVVT) were prolonged, and some individuals were anemic. Upon termination of exposure, coagulopathy and anemia were resolved within 4 d, and residues decreased to <0.3 µg/g by day 7. Liver and kidney DPN elimination occurred in 2 phases (initial rapid loss, followed by slower loss rate), with overall half-lives of 11.7 d and 2.1 d, respectively. Prolonged PT and RVVT occurred in 10% of the exposed owls with liver DPN concentrations of 0.122 µg/g and 0.282 µg/g and in 90% of the owls with liver concentrations of 0.638 µg/g and 0.361 µg/g. These liver residue levels associated with coagulopathy fall in the range of values reported in raptor mortality incidents involving DPN. These tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in adult screech-owls have application for interpreting nontarget mortality and assessing the hazard of DPN in rodent-control operations. Diphacinone exposure evokes toxicity in raptors within a matter of days; but once exposure is terminated, recovery of hemostasis occurs rapidly

  2. Toxicokinetics and coagulopathy threshold of the rodenticide diphacinone in eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio).

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Horak, Katherine E; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Goldade, David A; Johnston, John J

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, new regulations on second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides will likely be offset by expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. In the present study, eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) were fed 10 µg diphacinone/g wet weight food for 7 d, and recovery was monitored over a 21-d postexposure period. By day 3 of exposure, diphacinone (DPN) was detected in liver (1.63 µg/g wet wt) and kidney (5.83 µg/g) and coagulopathy was apparent. By day 7, prothrombin time (PT) and Russell's viper venom time (RVVT) were prolonged, and some individuals were anemic. Upon termination of exposure, coagulopathy and anemia were resolved within 4 d, and residues decreased to <0.3 µg/g by day 7. Liver and kidney DPN elimination occurred in 2 phases (initial rapid loss, followed by slower loss rate), with overall half-lives of 11.7 d and 2.1 d, respectively. Prolonged PT and RVVT occurred in 10% of the exposed owls with liver DPN concentrations of 0.122 µg/g and 0.282 µg/g and in 90% of the owls with liver concentrations of 0.638 µg/g and 0.361 µg/g. These liver residue levels associated with coagulopathy fall in the range of values reported in raptor mortality incidents involving DPN. These tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in adult screech-owls have application for interpreting nontarget mortality and assessing the hazard of DPN in rodent-control operations. Diphacinone exposure evokes toxicity in raptors within a matter of days; but once exposure is terminated, recovery of hemostasis occurs rapidly. PMID:24014246

  3. 78 FR 44588 - Experimental Removal of Barred Owls To Benefit Threatened Northern Spotted Owls; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... loss and degradation (55 FR 26114). As a result, conservation efforts for the northern spotted owl have... largely unknown at that time (55 FR 26114, p. 26190). The Recovery Plan summarized information available... Register (74 FR 65546), to solicit participation of: Federal, State, and local agencies; Tribes; and...

  4. Frustrative nonreward and pituitary-adrenal activity in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D M; Fong, K D; Schrieken, N; Levine, S

    2000-12-01

    Little is known about frustration-induced changes in stress physiology in humans and nonhuman primates. Here we assess in two experiments with squirrel monkeys plasma levels of pituitary-adrenal stress hormones in conditions designed to provoke frustrative nonreward. In the first experiment 18 prepubertal monkeys were trained to feed from one of eight sites, and then tested without food at any of the sites. These monkeys responded with significant increases in cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In the second experiment 18 adult monkeys were trained to feed from one of eight sites, and then tested after food was moved to a different foraging site. Nine monkeys found food at the relocated site, discontinued foraging at the previously baited site, and responded with decreases in cortisol. The other nine monkeys failed to find the relocated site, initially increased their visits to the previously baited site, and responded with elevations in cortisol and ACTH. In keeping with comparable findings in rats, our observations indicate that frustrative nonreward elicits ACTH-stimulated secretion of cortisol in primates. PMID:11239675

  5. Functional Delay of Myelination of Auditory Delay Lines in the Nucleus Laminaris of the Barn Owl

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Min; Carr, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    In the barn owl, maps of interaural time difference (ITD) are created in the nucleus laminaris (NL) by interdigitating axons that act as delay lines. Adult delay line axons are myelinated, and this myelination is timely, coinciding with the attainment of adult head size, and stable ITD cues. The proximal portions of the axons become myelinated in late embryonic life, but the delay line portions of the axon in NL remain unmyelinated until the first postnatal week. Myelination of the delay lines peaks at the third week posthatch, and myelinating oligodendrocyte density approaches adult levels by one month, when the head reaches its adult width. Migration of oligodendrocyte progenitors into NL and the subsequent onset of myelination may be restricted by a glial barrier in late embryonic stages and the first posthatch week, since the loss of tenascin-C immunoreactivity in NL is correlated with oligodendrocyte progenitor migration into NL. PMID:17918244

  6. Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs with Their Thoughts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157593.html Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs With Their Thoughts Scientists say technology might ... made it possible for monkeys to operate a robotic wheelchair using only the monkey's thoughts say the ...

  7. Long-term population dynamics of a managed burrowing owl colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, John H.; Korfanta, Nicole M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the population dynamics of a burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) colony at Mineta San Jose International Airport in San Jose, California, USA from 1990-2007. This colony was managed by using artificial burrows to reduce the occurrence of nesting owls along runways and within major airport improvement projects during the study period. We estimated annual reproduction in natural and artificial burrows and age-specific survival rates with mark-recapture techniques, and we estimated the relative contribution of these vital rates to population dynamics using a life table response experiment. The breeding colony showed 2 distinct periods of change: high population growth from 7 nesting pairs in 1991 to 40 pairs in 2002 and population decline to 17 pairs in 2007. Reproduction was highly variable: annual nesting success (pairs that raised =1 young) averaged 79% and ranged from 36% to 100%, whereas fecundity averaged 3.36 juveniles/pair and ranged from 1.43 juveniles/pair to 4.54 juveniles/pair. We estimated annual adult survival at 0.710 during the period of colony increase from 1996 to 2001 and 0.465 during decline from 2002 to 2007, but there was no change in annual survival of juveniles between the 2 time periods. Long-term population growth rate (lambda) estimated from average vital rates was lambdaa=1.072 with lambdai=1.288 during colony increase and lambdad=0.921 (DELTA lambda=0.368) during decline. A life table response experiment showed that change in adult survival rate during increasing and declining phases explained more than twice the variation in growth rate than other vital rates. Our findings suggest that management and conservation of declining burrowing owl populations should address factors that influence adult survival.

  8. Respiratory Pathogens in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Good, Robert C.; May, Bessie D.

    1971-01-01

    Respiratory disease in a dynamic colony of nonhuman primates during a 4-year period was due primarily to infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and Haemophilus influenzae. The principal secondary invaders were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and streptococci. A high fatality rate was associated with infections caused by each of the primary pathogens, and females appeared to be more susceptible than males. Incidence of respiratory disease was greatest in the fall and early winter; however, at all times newly colonized monkeys had a higher infection rate than conditioned monkeys. Infections were occasionally confined only to the lungs and were sometimes present without grossly observable lung lesions. The information given on susceptibility of 10 species of nonhuman primates to respiratory infections provides a basis for developing disease models. PMID:16557951

  9. EVALUATION OF NEONATE SQUIRREL MONKEYS RECEIVING TRITIATED WATER THROUGHOUT GESTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of receiving tritiated water (HTO) throughout gestation on the developing primate was assessed by administering HTO to adult female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) as the only source of drinking water beginning with the day of insemination and continuing throughout...

  10. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  11. Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) hunt green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) were observed hunting green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda. During 2 h 39 min, I observed two cases of successful hunting and one case of unsuccessful hunting in a Ficus saussureana tree. Red-tailed monkeys stalked the pigeons until they were within 2-3 m, and then jumped and caught them. In both successful cases, blue monkeys (C. mitis) ran to the hunting site from adjacent trees in order to poach the prey, and the red-tailed monkeys fled. One of these red-tailed monkeys dropped the pigeon while fleeing, and the blue monkey climbed down from the tree to search for it. This is the first record of cercopithecoid monkeys hunting birds that are outside of the nest and moving freely, and also the first record of red-tailed monkeys hunting vertebrates. However rare it may be, the repeated hunting attempts using similar techniques and the immediate attempt of blue monkeys to poach the prey suggest that this type of hunting was not a one-time event that happened by chance. Blue monkeys and an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in and around the fig tree did not attempt to hunt. The hunting of volant birds may be enabled by the small body size and the quick movements of red-tailed monkeys. PMID:16467957

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

  13. Mapping between the OBO and OWL ontology languages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ontologies are commonly used in biomedicine to organize concepts to describe domains such as anatomies, environments, experiment, taxonomies etc. NCBO BioPortal currently hosts about 180 different biomedical ontologies. These ontologies have been mainly expressed in either the Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) format or the Web Ontology Language (OWL). OBO emerged from the Gene Ontology, and supports most of the biomedical ontology content. In comparison, OWL is a Semantic Web language, and is supported by the World Wide Web consortium together with integral query languages, rule languages and distributed infrastructure for information interchange. These features are highly desirable for the OBO content as well. A convenient method for leveraging these features for OBO ontologies is by transforming OBO ontologies to OWL. Results We have developed a methodology for translating OBO ontologies to OWL using the organization of the Semantic Web itself to guide the work. The approach reveals that the constructs of OBO can be grouped together to form a similar layer cake. Thus we were able to decompose the problem into two parts. Most OBO constructs have easy and obvious equivalence to a construct in OWL. A small subset of OBO constructs requires deeper consideration. We have defined transformations for all constructs in an effort to foster a standard common mapping between OBO and OWL. Our mapping produces OWL-DL, a Description Logics based subset of OWL with desirable computational properties for efficiency and correctness. Our Java implementation of the mapping is part of the official Gene Ontology project source. Conclusions Our transformation system provides a lossless roundtrip mapping for OBO ontologies, i.e. an OBO ontology may be translated to OWL and back without loss of knowledge. In addition, it provides a roadmap for bridging the gap between the two ontology languages in order to enable the use of ontology content in a language independent manner

  14. Geographic variation and genetic structure in Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.; Forsman, E.D.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    We examined genetic variation, population structure, and definition of conservation units in Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis). Spotted Owls are mostly non-migratory, long-lived, socially monogamous birds that have decreased population viability due to their occupation of highly-fragmented late successional forests in western North America. To investigate potential effects of habitat fragmentation on population structure, we used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to examine genetic variation hierarchically among local breeding areas, subregional groups, regional groups, and subspecies via sampling of 21 breeding areas (276 individuals) among the three subspecies of Spotted Owls. Data from 11 variable bands suggest a significant relationship between geographic distance among local breeding groups and genetic distance (Mantel r = 0.53, P < 0.02) although multi-dimensional scaling of three significant axes did not identify significant grouping at any hierarchical level. Similarly, neighbor-joining clustering of Manhattan distances indicated geographic structure at all levels and identified Mexican Spotted Owls as a distinct clade. RAPD analyses did not clearly differentiate Northern Spotted Owls from California Spotted Owls. Among Northern Spotted Owls, estimates of population differentiation (FST) ranged from 0.27 among breeding areas to 0.11 among regions. Concordantly, within-group agreement values estimated via multi-response permutation procedures of Jaccarda??s distances ranged from 0.22 among local sites to 0.11 among regions. Pairwise comparisons of FST and geographic distance within regions suggested only the Klamath region was in equilibrium with respect to gene flow and genetic drift. Merging nuclear data with recent mitochondrial data provides support for designation of an Evolutionary Significant Unit for Mexican Spotted Owls and two overlapping Management Units for Northern and California Spotted Owls.

  15. Inclusion body disease in a great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Sileo, L; Carlson, H C; Crumley, S C

    1975-01-01

    The carcass of a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), which had been found moribund in southern Ontario, was presented for necropsy. Throughout the liver and spleen were numerous white foci 1-2 mm in diameter; also noted were white plaques in the mucosae of the pharyngeal papillae and intestine. Results of light and electron microscopic studies and experimental transmission to two captive great horned owls suggested that this was a herpvirus disease similar and possibly indentical to the owl disease reported by other workers in Wiconsin and Australia. PMID:163384

  16. Demography and Life Histories of Sympatric Patas Monkeys, Erythrocebus patas, and Vervets, Cercopithecus aethiops, in Laikipia, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Young, Truman P.; Jaffe, Karin Enstam; Carlson, Anne A.; Chancellor, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    Mortality patterns are thought to be strong selective forces on life history traits, with high adult mortality and low immature mortality favoring early and rapid reproduction. Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) have the highest potential rates of population increase for their body size of any haplorhine primate because they reproduce both earlier and more often. We report here 10 yr of comparative demographic data on a population of patas monkeys and a sympatric population of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), a closely related species differing in aspects of social system, ecology, and life history. The data reveal that 1) adult female patas monkeys have significantly higher mortality than adult female vervets; 2) infant mortality in patas monkeys is relatively low compared to the norm for mammals because it is not significantly different from that of adult female patas monkeys; and 3) infant mortality is significantly higher than adult female mortality in vervets. For both species, much of the mortality could be attributed to predation. An epidemic illness was also a major contributor to the mortality of adult female patas monkeys whereas chronic exposure to pathogens in a cold and damp microenvironment may have contributed to the mortality of infant vervets. Both populations experienced large fluctuations during the study period. Our results support the prediction from demographic models of life history evolution that high adult mortality relative to immature mortality selects for early maturation. PMID:20976285

  17. Observations on chronic polyarthritis in monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Bywaters, E G L

    1981-01-01

    Erosion and inflammatory changes in the carpus, fingers and toes of a rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, are described; this was one of 152 animals in each of which four fixed limbs were available for examination. The histological changes resembled closely those found in adult human rheumatoid arthritis. The limited literature is reviewed (including cases with amyloid disease). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:7299780

  18. Dynamics of visually guided auditory plasticity in the optic tectum of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Brainard, M S; Knudsen, E I

    1995-02-01

    1. In the optic tectum of normal barn owls, bimodal (auditory-visual) neurons are tuned to the values of interaural time difference (ITD) that are produced by sounds at the locations of their visual receptive fields (VRFs). The auditory tuning of tectal neurons is actively guided by visual experience during development: in the tectum of adult owls reared with an optically displaced visual field, neurons are tuned to abnormal values of ITD that are close to the values produced by sounds at the locations of their optically displaced VRFs. In this study we investigated the dynamics of this experience-dependent plasticity. 2. Owls were raised from shortly after eye-opening (14-22 days of age) with prismatic spectacles that displaced the visual field to the right or left. Starting at approximately 60 days of age, multiunit recordings were made to assess the tuning of tectal neurons to ITD presented via earphones. In the earliest recording sessions (ages 60-80 days), ITD tuning was often close to normal, even though the majority of the owls' previous experience was with an altered correspondence between ITD values and VRF locations. Subsequently, over a period of weeks, responses to the normal range of ITDs were gradually eliminated while responses to values of ITD corresponding with the optically displaced VRF were acquired. 3. At intermediate stages in this process, the ITD tuning at many sites became abnormally broad, so that responses were simultaneously present to both normal values of ITD and to values corresponding with the optically displaced VRF. At this stage the latencies and durations of newly acquired responses systematically exceeded the latencies and durations of the responses to normal values of ITD. 4. Dynamic changes in ITD tuning similar to those recorded in the optic tectum also occurred in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX), which provides the major source of ascending auditory input to the tectum. 5. These results suggest the

  19. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jennifer L; Whittington, Julia K; Wilmes, Christine M; Messick, Joanne B

    2009-03-01

    A free-ranging adult female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was presented to the Wildlife Medical Clinic at the University of Illinois after being observed with anorexia and decreased activity. A severe leukocytosis (212 400 cells/microl), primarily comprised of mature heterophils, was found at presentation. Results of various diagnostic tests including radiographs, Chlamydophila serologic testing, measurement of Aspergillus antibody and antigen titers, plasma protein electrophoresis, fecal culture and acid-fast staining, coelioscopy, endoscopy, tracheoscopy, exploratory coelomotomy, nuclear scintigraphy, tissue cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and histopathology revealed no underlying cause for the persistent leukocytosis. No response to treatment with antibiotics or antifungal agents was observed, although a transient, significant decrease in the leukocyte count (6200 cells/microl) was observed after treatment with fenbendazole. A presumptive diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia was made based on 3 factors: disease duration of greater than 3 months, a lack of identifiable foci of inflammation, and a lack of response to conventional therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed based on postmortem examination and testing 177 days after initial presentation. PMID:19530405

  20. OWL-Orbital Wide-angle Light-collector for the air watch program, and multiple OWL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Mohri, Mamoru; Dimmock, John O.; Hillman, Lloyd W.; Hadaway, James B.; Lamb, David J.; Handa, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will revolutionize scientific experimentation by providing a platform upon which some of the most ambitious projects yet conceived may be constructed, operated, and deployed. The Orbiting Wide-angle Light-collector (OWL-Airwatch) is a proposed space-based extensive air shower observatory which will detect a significant number of cosmic rays with energies above 1020 eV (Takahashi, 1996; Streitmatter, 1998; DeMarzo, 1998). A complete understanding of the origins and propagation of these particles may only be possible by introducing new and exotic physical mechanisms, and OWL-Airwatch may provide the first definitive evidence for the existence and decay of topological defects and other such exotic phenomena. There also exists the possibility of detecting high energy neutrinos as well as observing the effects of quantum gravity with the OWL-Airwatch instrument. Although the first OWL-Airwatch mission is planned as a free-flying observatory, its scientific abilities can be greatly enhanced by moving to a so-called multi-OWL configuration with the resources available on the ISS. The current OWL-Airwatch mission will observe nitrogen fluorescence resulting from cosmic ray induced extensive air showers in the earth's atmosphere. Observing from space enables a large enough portion of the earth to be viewed such that a statistically significant number of the rare highest energy events can be detected within the life span of the mission. A second phase multi-OWL system fabricated and assembled on the ISS would further increase the threshold and statistics of the OWL-Airwatch mission. In this scheme, as many as seven OWL-Airwatch instruments would be assembled and deployed from the ISS. These seven units would cover the entire horizon of the earth's atmosphere at an orbit of 1000 km and would accurately map the cosmic ray spectrum beyond 1021 eV. .

  1. OPHTHALMIC REFERENCE VALUES AND LESIONS IN TWO CAPTIVE POPULATIONS OF NORTHERN OWLS: GREAT GREY OWLS (STRIX NEBULOSA) AND SNOWY OWLS (BUBO SCANDIACUS).

    PubMed

    Wills, Sarah; Pinard, Chantale; Nykamp, Stephanie; Beaufrère, Hugues

    2016-03-01

    This study established ophthalmic reference values and characterized ocular lesions in two captive populations of boreal owls, including 46 eyes of 23 great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) and 38 eyes from 19 snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus). A complete ophthalmologic exam was conducted, including neuro-ophthalmic reflexes, Schirmer tear test I (STT-I), intraocular pressure (IOP) using rebound tonometry, fluorescein staining, horizontal corneal measurements using Jameson calipers, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and ocular ultrasound biometry. Eyes with an STT of <5 mm/min, outliers, and eyes with severe diseases were excluded from reference value analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between right or left eyes in either species or among individuals in different age groups and sexes. Mean intraocular pressures and Schirmer tear tests were also not statistically significantly different between great grey owls and snowy owls (IOP: 9.6 ± 2.6 mm Hg and 9.1 ± 1.9 mm Hg, respectively, and STT-I: 9.8 ± 2.8 mm/min and 9.8 ± 2.4 mm/min, respectively). However, snowy owls overall had a significantly larger eye than did great grey owls, reflected in corneal diameters (23.4 ± 1 vs. 20.0 ± 0.8 mm, respectively) and sonographic biometry. In both species, the most common ocular lesions included keratitis, cataracts, chorioretinal lesions, and abnormal pecten. Establishment of reference ocular parameters will help wildlife veterinarians and rehabilitators determine an appropriate treatment plan and will aid in correctly identifying the presence of ocular disease. PMID:27010284

  2. OWL 2 learn profile: an ontology sublanguage for the learning domain.

    PubMed

    Heiyanthuduwage, Sudath R; Schwitter, Rolf; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2016-01-01

    Many experimental ontologies have been developed for the learning domain for use at different institutions. These ontologies include different OWL/OWL 2 (Web Ontology Language) constructors. However, it is not clear which OWL 2 constructors are the most appropriate ones for designing ontologies for the learning domain. It is possible that the constructors used in these learning domain ontologies match one of the three standard OWL 2 profiles (sublanguages). To investigate whether this is the case, we have analysed a corpus of 14 ontologies designed for the learning domain. We have also compared the constructors used in these ontologies with those of the OWL 2 RL profile, one of the OWL 2 standard profiles. The results of our analysis suggest that the OWL 2 constructors used in these ontologies do not exactly match the standard OWL 2 RL profile, but form a subset of that profile which we call OWL 2 Learn. PMID:27066328

  3. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Larissa L.; Reid, Janice A.; Forsman, Eric D.; Nichols, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Barred owls (Strix varia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could contribute to population declines of northern spotted owls, and (2) possible changes in vocalization behavior and detection probabilities of northern spotted owls induced by presence of barred owls. We used a two-species occupancy model to investigate whether there was evidence of competitive exclusion between the two species at study locations in Oregon, USA. We simultaneously estimated detection probabilities for both species and determined if the presence of one species influenced the detection of the other species. Model selection results and associated parameter estimates provided no evidence that barred owls excluded spotted owls from territories. We found strong evidence that detection probabilities differed for the two species, with higher probabilities for northern spotted owls that are the object of current surveys. Non-detection of barred owls is very common in surveys for northern spotted owls, and detection of both owl species was negatively influenced by the presence of the congeneric species. Our results suggest that analyses directed at hypotheses of barred owl effects on demographic or occupancy vital rates of northern spotted owls need to deal adequately with imperfect and variable detection probabilities for both species.

  4. Pulmonary carcinoma in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rettenmund, Christy; Sladky, Kurt K; Rodriguez, Daniel; Petersen, Michael; Pinkerton, Marie E; Rao, Deepa

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary carcinoma was diagnosed in an 18+-year-old captive female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). The owl presented with a history of progressive weakness and sudden onset of frank blood in the droppings. On physical examination, the owl had multiple white to yellow plaques in the oral cavity, decreased air sac sounds on the right side, dyspnea (during manual restraint), and reduced pectoral musculature. Whole-body radiographs revealed obliteration of the right-sided air sacs, a soft tissue plaque/density in the left caudal thoracic air sac, soft tissue opacity over the coelomic organs, and increased medullary opacity in the distal right humerus. The owl died during anesthetic recovery, and the body was submitted for necropsy. Although the clinical signs, physical examination results, radiographic signs, and gross pathology supported a diagnosis of mycotic infection, such as aspergillosis, histopathology confirmed pulmonary carcinoma with metastases to the air sacs and humerus. PMID:20722257

  5. 29. November 1969 'OWL' CAPITAL BETWEEN WINDOWS ON SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. November 1969 'OWL' CAPITAL BETWEEN WINDOWS ON SOUTH WALL OF RIGGS LIBRARY, SECOND LEVEL - Georgetown University, Healy Building, Thirty-seventh & O Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Top-down gain control of the auditory space map by gaze control circuitry in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Winkowski, Daniel E; Knudsen, Eric I

    2006-01-19

    High-level circuits in the brain that control the direction of gaze are intimately linked with the control of visual spatial attention. Immediately before an animal directs its gaze towards a stimulus, both psychophysical sensitivity to that visual stimulus and the responsiveness of high-order neurons in the cerebral cortex that represent the stimulus increase dramatically. Equivalent effects on behavioural sensitivity and neuronal responsiveness to visual stimuli result from focal electrical microstimulation of gaze control centres in monkeys. Whether the gaze control system modulates neuronal responsiveness in sensory modalities other than vision is unknown. Here we show that electrical microstimulation applied to gaze control circuitry in the forebrain of barn owls regulates the gain of midbrain auditory responses in an attention-like manner. When the forebrain circuit was activated, midbrain responses to auditory stimuli at the location encoded by the forebrain site were enhanced and spatial selectivity was sharpened. The same stimulation suppressed responses to auditory stimuli represented at other locations in the midbrain map. Such space-specific, top-down regulation of auditory responses by gaze control circuitry in the barn owl suggests that the central nervous system uses a common strategy for dynamically regulating sensory gain that applies across modalities, brain areas and classes of vertebrate species. This approach provides a path for discovering mechanisms that underlie top-down gain control in the central nervous system. PMID:16421572

  7. Circadian phase relationships in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Wekstein, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Two adult male pigtail monkeys were placed in an isolated, soundproofed chamber (entered for cleaning only) for a period of six months, during which time their deep body temperatures T sub DB, telemetered from transmitters implanted in the abdominal cavity), fluid intake, urinary output (UV), urinary sodium and potassium were continuously monitored. During the first 3 1/2 months, lights (L) were turned on at 0000 hours, off at 1200 hours. Photoperiod phase was then delayed (light span prolonged) 6 hours to a new schedule: L on at 0600 hours, off at 1800 hours. Six weeks later, photoperiod phase was advanced 6 hours to return to the original schedule. Prior to shift, T sub DB typically began a steep rise 0-5 hours prior to L on, a steep fall 3-4 hours prior to L off, relative plateaus in between. Urinary Na typically peaks 2 hours prior to L off, has a minimum 2-4 hours prior to L on; K tends both to peak and show a minimum 2-8 hours earlier than Na; in contrast, UV peaks at L on, has a minimum 2-6 hours after L off. Upon delaying photoperiod phase, T sub DB shift was completed in 8 days. UV shifted more rapidly but tended to overshoot the new phase. Within 5 days, UV and K completed their shifts, although Na did not fully resynchronize within the 6 week period monitored.

  8. Semantically-Rigorous Systems Engineering Modeling Using Sysml and OWL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. Steven; Rouquette, Nicolas F.

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Modeling Language (SysML) has found wide acceptance as a standard graphical notation for the domain of systems engineering. SysML subsets and extends the Unified Modeling Language (UML) to define conventions for expressing structural, behavioral, and analytical elements, and relationships among them. SysML-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, and have been used for diverse projects in military aerospace, scientific exploration, and civil engineering. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) has found wide acceptance as a standard notation for knowledge representation. OWL-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, as well as auxiliary assets such as reasoners and application programming interface libraries, etc. OWL has been applied to diverse projects in a wide array of fields. While the emphasis in SysML is on notation, SysML inherits (from UML) a semantic foundation that provides for limited reasoning and analysis. UML's partial formalization (FUML), however, does not cover the full semantics of SysML, which is a substantial impediment to developing high confidence in the soundness of any conclusions drawn therefrom. OWL, by contrast, was developed from the beginning on formal logical principles, and consequently provides strong support for verification of consistency and satisfiability, extraction of entailments, conjunctive query answering, etc. This emphasis on formal logic is counterbalanced by the absence of any graphical notation conventions in the OWL standards. Consequently, OWL has had only limited adoption in systems engineering. The complementary strengths and weaknesses of SysML and OWL motivate an interest in combining them in such a way that we can benefit from the attractive graphical notation of SysML and the formal reasoning of OWL. This paper describes an approach to achieving that combination.

  9. Ectoparasites of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) wintering in southern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skoruppa, M.K.; Pearce, B.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) were captured over two winters (2001-2003) in southern Texas and examined for ectoparasites. Four of the 15 owls (27%) harbored feather lice, and the maximum number of lice found on any individual was ??? three. Two species of feather lice were found: Colpocephalum pectinatum occurred on three of the owls, and Strigiphilus speotyti was found on four owls. No fleas or other ectoparasites were found on any of the Burrowing Owls. The low diversity and numbers of ectoparasites suggest that ectoparasites are not threatening the health of wintering Burrowing Owls in southern Texas.

  10. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    PubMed

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years. PMID:27468020

  11. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  12. How do owls localize interaurally phase-ambiguous signals?

    PubMed

    Saberi, K; Farahbod, H; Konishi, M

    1998-05-26

    Owls and other animals, including humans, use the difference in arrival time of sounds between the ears to determine the direction of a sound source in the horizontal plane. When an interaural time difference (ITD) is conveyed by a narrowband signal such as a tone, human beings may fail to derive the direction represented by that ITD. This is because they cannot distinguish the true ITD contained in the signal from its phase equivalents that are ITD +/- nT, where T is the period of the stimulus tone and n is an integer. This uncertainty is called phase-ambiguity. All ITD-sensitive neurons in birds and mammals respond to an ITD and its phase equivalents when the ITD is contained in narrowband signals. It is not known, however, if these animals show phase-ambiguity in the localization of narrowband signals. The present work shows that barn owls (Tyto alba) experience phase-ambiguity in the localization of tones delivered by earphones. We used sound-induced head-turning responses to measure the sound-source directions perceived by two owls. In both owls, head-turning angles varied as a sinusoidal function of ITD. One owl always pointed to the direction represented by the smaller of the two ITDs, whereas a second owl always chose the direction represented by the larger ITD (i.e., ITD - T). PMID:9600989

  13. Moving Objects in the Barn Owl's Auditory World.

    PubMed

    Langemann, Ulrike; Krumm, Bianca; Liebner, Katharina; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2016-01-01

    Barn owls are keen hunters of moving prey. They have evolved an auditory system with impressive anatomical and physiological specializations for localizing their prey. Here we present behavioural data on the owl's sensitivity for discriminating acoustic motion direction in azimuth that, for the first time, allow a direct comparison of neuronal and perceptual sensitivity for acoustic motion in the same model species. We trained two birds to report a change in motion direction within a series of repeating wideband noise stimuli. For any trial the starting point, motion direction, velocity (53-2400°/s), duration (30-225 ms) and angular range (12-72°) of the noise sweeps were randomized. Each test stimulus had a motion direction being opposite to that of the reference stimuli. Stimuli were presented in the frontal or the lateral auditory space. The angular extent of the motion had a large effect on the owl's discrimination sensitivity allowing a better discrimination for a larger angular range of the motion. In contrast, stimulus velocity or stimulus duration had a smaller, although significant effect. Overall there was no difference in the owls' behavioural performance between "inward" noise sweeps (moving from lateral to frontal) compared to "outward" noise sweeps (moving from frontal to lateral). The owls did, however, respond more often to stimuli with changing motion direction in the frontal compared to the lateral space. The results of the behavioural experiments are discussed in relation to the neuronal representation of motion cues in the barn owl auditory midbrain. PMID:27080662

  14. California spotted owls: Chapter 5 in Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Suzanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In mixedconifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California spotted owls typically nest and roost in stands with high canopy closure (≥75 percent) [Note: when citing studies, we use terminology consistent with Jennings et al. (1999), however, not all studies properly distinguish between canopy cover and closure and often use the terms interchangeably (see chapter 14 for clarification)] and an abundance of large trees (>24 in (60 cm) diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]) (Bias and Gutiérrez 1992, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, LaHaye et al. 1997, Moen and Gutiérrez 1997, Verner et al. 1992a). The California spotted owl guidelines (Verner et al. 1992b) effectively summarized much of the information about nesting and roosting habitat. Since that report, research on the California spotted owl has continued with much of the new information concentrated in five areas: population trends, barred owl (Strix varia) invasion, climate effects, foraging habitat, and owl response to fire.

  15. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Shang, Guowei; Chen, Jian; Geng, Xiaokun; Ye, Xin; Xu, Guoxun; Wang, Ju; Zheng, Jiasheng; Li, Hongjun; Akbary, Fauzia; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing; Ling, Feng; Ji, Xunming

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research. PMID:25657726

  16. Increased rodenticide exposure rate and risk of toxicosis in barn owls (Tyto alba) from southwestern Canada and linkage with demographic but not genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Andrew C; Elliott, John E; Hindmarch, Sofi; Lee, Sandi L; Maisonneuve, France; Bowes, Victoria; Cheng, Kimberly M; Martin, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Among many anthropogenic drivers of population decline, continual rapid urbanization and industrialization pose major challenges for the survival of wildlife species. Barn owls (Tyto alba) in southwestern British Columbia (BC) face a multitude of threats ranging from habitat fragmentation to vehicle strikes. They are also at risk from secondary poisoning of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), a suite of toxic compounds which at high doses results in a depletion of blood clotting factors leading to internal bleeding and death. Here, using long-term data (N = 119) for the hepatic residue levels of SGAR, we assessed the risk of toxicosis from SGAR for the BC barn owl population over the past two decades. We also investigated whether sensitivity to SGAR is associated with genetic factors, namely Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls. We found that residue concentration for total SGAR was significantly higher in 2006-2013 (141 ng/g) relative to 1992-2003 (57 ng/g). The proportion of owls exposed to multiple SGAR types was also significantly higher in 2006-2013. Those measures accordingly translate directly into an increase in toxicosis risk level. We also detected demographic differences, where adult females showed on average lower concentration of total SGAR (64 ng/g) when compared to adult males (106 ng/g). Juveniles were overall more likely to show signs of toxicosis than adults (33.3 and 6.9 %, respectively), and those symptoms were positively predicted by SGAR concentrations. We found no evidence that SNPs in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls were associated with intraspecific variation in SGAR sensitivity. We recommend several preventative measures be taken to minimize wildlife exposure to SGAR. PMID:27151403

  17. Photoacoustic detection of functional responses in the motor cortex of awake behaving monkey during forelimb movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Zhang, Hongyu; Cheney, Paul D.; Yang, Xinmai

    2012-11-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging was applied to detect the neuronal activity in the motor cortex of an awake, behaving monkey during forelimb movement. An adult macaque monkey was trained to perform a reach-to-grasp task while PA images were acquired through a 30-mm diameter implanted cranial chamber. Increased PA signal amplitude results from an increase in regional blood volume and is interpreted as increased neuronal activity. Additionally, depth-resolved PA signals enabled the study of functional responses in deep cortical areas. The results demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing PA imaging for studies of functional activation of cerebral cortex in awake monkeys performing behavioral tasks.

  18. Biologic Data of Cynomolgus Monkeys Maintained under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Marilena Caterina; Badino, Paola; Ferrero, Giulio; Costa, Roberto; Cordero, Francesca; Steidler, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is a well-known non-human primate species commonly used in non-clinical research. It is important to know basal clinical pathology parameters in order to have a reference for evaluating any potential treatment-induced effects, maintaining health status among animals and, if needed, evaluating correct substantiative therapies. In this study, data from 238 untreated cynomolgus monkeys (119 males and 119 females of juvenile age, 2.5 to 3.5 years) kept under laboratory conditions were used to build up a reference database of clinical pathology parameters. Twenty-two hematology markers, 24 clinical chemistry markers and two blood coagulation parameters were analyzed. Gender-related differences were evaluated using statistical analyses. To assess the possible effects of stress induced by housing or handling involved in treatment procedures, 78 animals (35 males and 35 females out of 238 juvenile monkeys and four adult males and four adult females) were used to evaluate cortisol, corticosterone and behavioral assessment over time. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric statistical test and machine learning approaches. Reference clinical pathology data obtained from untreated animals may be extremely useful for investigators employing cynomolgus monkeys as a test system for non-clinical safety studies. PMID:27280447

  19. Medical management of acute ocular hypertension in a western screech owl (Megascops kennicottii).

    PubMed

    Jayson, Stephanie; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Petritz, Olivia; Freeman, Kate; Maggs, David J

    2014-03-01

    A wild young adult western screech owl (Megascops kennicottii) of unknown sex was presented for evaluation of an abnormal left eye (OS). Ophthalmic examination OS revealed raised intraocular pressure (37 mm Hg; reference interval 7-16 mm Hg), mydriasis, conjunctival and episcleral hyperemia, shallow anterior chamber due to anterior displacement of the lens and iris, rubeosis iridis, and engorgement of the pecten. The intraocular pressure in the right eye (OD) was 11 mm Hg. Multifocal pale, variably translucent, curvilinear to vermiform opacities were observed in the medial and ventral peripheral regions of the retina OD, consistent with focal retinitis. Mannitol (0.46 g/kg IV) was administered over 10 minutes. Forty minutes later, the intraocular pressure was 27 mm Hg OS and 13 mm Hg OD. Dorzolamide (one drop OS q12h), diclofenac (one drop OU q8-12h), and meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg PO q24h) were administered for 3 days. The intraocular pressure OS was within normal limits 1 day (11 mm Hg), 7 days (13 mm Hg), and 4 weeks (14 mm Hg) after this treatment. Complications arising during hospitalization and rehabilitation included superficial corneal ulceration of both eyes presumed secondary to trauma on being caught and superficial damage to a talon. The owl was released after a period of rehabilitation. Characteristic presenting signs as well as response to therapy suggest aqueous misdirection was the cause of ocular hypertension in this owl. To our knowledge, this is the first report of suspected aqueous misdirection and its medical management in a raptor. PMID:24881152

  20. 3 CFR - Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing Regulatory Burdens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl..., 2012 Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing Regulatory Burdens Memorandum for the...) proposed critical habitat for the northern spotted owl. The proposal is an initial step in...

  1. Habitat selection by owls in a seasonal semi-deciduous forest in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menq, W; Anjos, L

    2015-11-01

    This paper tested the hypothesis that the structural components of vegetation have impact over the distribution of owl species in a fragment of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. This paper also determined which vegetation variables contributed to the spatial distribution of owl species. It was developed in the Perobas Biological Reserve (PBR) between September and December 2011. To conduct the owl census, a playback technique was applied at hearing points distributed to cover different vegetation types in the study area. A total of 56 individual owls of six species were recorded: Tropical Screech-Owl (Megascops choliba), Black-capped Screech-Owl (Megascops atricapilla), Tawny-browed Owl (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana), Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum), Mottled Owl (Strix virgata) and Stygian Owl (Asio stygius). The results suggest that the variables of vegetation structure have impact on the occurrence of owls. The canopy height, the presence of hollow trees, fallen trees and glades are the most important structural components influencing owl distribution in the sampled area. PMID:26602354

  2. The type specimens of Hekstra's owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four new subspecies of New World owls of the genus Otus were named in a paper by Hekstra (1982b) issued 17 December 1982. These same new names also appeared in Hekstra's (1982a) unpublished thesis. The holotypes of the new taxa are in 10 different collections, most of which are in the United States. Incorrect information was published with regard to museum designation, museum number, and collecting locality of many of the holotypes. I here list the holotypes with their correct specimen label data. The species names are here presented in the sequence proposed by Marshall & King (1988). The subspecies are generally arranged from north to south. The type localities given are standardized, and the spellings are corrected where required. Abbreviations for museum designations are given under acknowledgments. The numbers following the names refer to the pages where the descriptions were given (Hekstra 1982b). Several of the scientific names proposed were spelled incorrectly and these have been emended in accord with Article 31c and Appendix D of the International Code (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1985). Taxonomic comments are appended for a small number of Hekstra's proposed taxa. The remaining forms he named require further study.

  3. Otoacoustic interrelationships of the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A.; Köppl, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Significant debate still exists about the biophysical mechanisms at work in otoacoustic emission (OAE) generation and how such may differ between mammals and non-mammals given gross morphological differences (e.g., existence of basilar membrane traveling waves, degree of tectorial membrane coupling). To further elucidate general principles at work, we examined the barn owl for interrelationships between spontaneous emissions (SOAEs) and those evoked using a single tone (SFOAEs). First, most ears exhibited SOAEs as a stable periodic `rippling' whose peak-to-peak spacing was relatively constant (˜0.4 kHz). Some ears showed substantially larger narrowband peaks, although their statistical distributions were highly noisy. Second, significant interactions between a low-level tone and SOAE activity were observed via an interference pattern as the tone frequency was swept. Using a suppression paradigm to extract SFOAEs as the residual, the magnitude exhibited a stable pattern of peaks and valleys unique to each ear. Third, SFOAE phase exhibited significant accumulation as frequency was swept, with a phase-gradient delay of approximately 2 ms that was constant across frequency. The amount of SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peaks tended to cluster about an integral number of cycles, as previously observed for humans. Taken together, our data suggest that the principles underlying how active hair cells work together (e.g., entrainment, phase coherence) are shared between widely different inner ear morphologies, leading to the generation of OAEs with similar properties.

  4. Long-term trends in survival of a declining population: the case of the little owl (Athene noctua) in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Le Gouar, Pascaline J; Schekkerman, Hans; van der Jeugd, Henk P; Boele, Arjan; van Harxen, Ronald; Fuchs, Piet; Stroeken, Pascal; van Noordwijk, Arie J

    2011-06-01

    The little owl (Athene noctua) has declined significantly in many parts of Europe, including the Netherlands. To understand the demographic mechanisms underlying their decline, we analysed all available Dutch little owl ringing data. The data set spanned 35 years, and included more than 24,000 ringed owls, allowing detailed estimation of survival rates through multi-state capture-recapture modelling taking dispersal into account. We investigated geographical and temporal variation in age-specific survival rates and linked annual survival estimates to population growth rate in corresponding years, as well as to environmental covariates. The best model for estimating survival assumed time effects on both juvenile and adult survival rates, with average annual survival estimated at 0.258 (SE = 0.047) and 0.753 (SE = 0.019), respectively. Juvenile survival rates decreased with time whereas adult survival rates fluctuated regularly among years, low survival occurring about every 4 years. Years when the population declined were associated with low juvenile survival. More than 60% of the variation in juvenile survival was explained by the increase in road traffic intensity or in average temperature in spring, but these correlations rather reflect a gradual decrease in juvenile survival coinciding with long-term global change than direct causal effects. Surprisingly, vole dynamics did not explain the cyclic dynamics of adult survival rate. Instead, dry and cold years led to low adult survival rates. Low juvenile survival rates, that limit recruitment of first-year breeders, and the regular occurrence of years with poor adult survival, were the most important determinants of the population decline of the little owl. PMID:21153739

  5. Heptachlor seed treatment contaminates hawks, owls, and eagles of Columbia Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated organochlorine residues in 12 species of hawks. owls, and eagles from the Columbia Basin of Oregon between 1978 and 1981. Companion studies showed that heptachlor epoxide (HE) induced adult mortality and reduced productivity of the Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) and American Kestrel (Falco sparverius).ln this study, brain tissue from raptors found dead and sample eggs from 90 nests were analyzed for organochlorines. The primary concern was HE that entered raptor food chains through the ingestion of heptachlor-treated seed by their prey. HE residues were detected in eggs from 9 of 10 species and ranged as high as 4.75 ppm (wet wt), but no definite effects of HE on productivity were readily apparent from the limited series of nests. However, the hazard of heptachlor seed treatments to birds of prey was demonstrated by the occurrence of lethal residues of HE in brain tissue of 3 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) and 1 Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus). Other organochlorine pesticides were present in the eggs and significant relationships were found between DDE and eggshell thickness for the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) and Western Screech-Owl (Otus kennicotti), although shell thinning (9.6% and 7.4%) was below the generally accepted range where reproductive problems have been known to occur.

  6. Squirrel Monkey Requirements for Chronic Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined: (1) the ability of a small non-human primate to tolerate chronic centrifugation on a centrifuge with a radius of 0.9 m, and (2) the influence of centrifuge radius on the response of primates to hyperdynamic fields. Eight adult male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 1.5 g via centrifugation at two different radii (0.9 m and 3.0 m). Body temperature, activity, feeding and drinking were monitored. These primates did tolerate and adapt to 1.5G via centrifugation on either radius centrifuge. The results show, however, that centrifuge radius does have an effect on the responses of the primate to the hyperdynamic environment. Adaptation to the hyperdynamic environment occurred more quickly on the larger centrifuge. This study demonstrates that a small, non-human primate model, such as the squirrel monkey, could be used on a 0.9 m radius centrifuge such as is being considered by the NASA Space Station Program.

  7. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  8. Population density-dependent hair cortisol concentrations in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, A M; Novak, M A; Meyer, J S; Suomi, S J

    2014-04-01

    Population density is known to influence acute measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in a variety of species, including fish, deer, birds, and humans. However, the effects of population density on levels of chronic stress are unknown. Given the fact that exposure to chronically elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoids results in a host of health disparities in animals and humans alike, it is important to understand how population density may impact chronic stress. We assessed hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), which are reliable indicators of chronic HPA axis activity, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to determine the influence of population density on these values. In Experiment 1, we compared HCCs of monkeys living in high-density (HD; 1 monkey/0.87m(2)) and low-density (LD; 1 monkey/63.37m(2)) environments (N=236 hair samples) and found that HD monkeys exhibited higher hair cortisol across all age categories (infant, juvenile, young adult, adult, and aged) except infancy and aged (F(5)=4.240, p=0.001), for which differences were nearly significant. HD monkeys also received more severe fight wounds than LD monkeys (χ(2)=26.053, p<0.001), though no effects of dominance status emerged. In Experiment 2, we examined how HCCs change with fluctuating population levels across 5 years in the adult LD monkeys (N=155 hair samples) and found that increased population density was significantly positively correlated with HCCs in this semi-naturalistic population (r(s)=0.975, p=0.005). These are the first findings to demonstrate that increased population density is associated with increased chronic, endogenous glucocorticoid exposure in a nonhuman primate species. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to laboratory research, population ecology, and human epidemiology. PMID:24636502

  9. Population density-dependent hair cortisol concentrations in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, A.M.; Novak, M.A.; Meyer, J.S.; Suomi, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Population density is known to influence acute measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in a variety of species, including fish, deer, birds, and humans. However, the effects of population density on levels of chronic stress are unknown. Given the fact that exposure to chronically elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoids results in a host of health disparities in animals and humans alike, it is important to understand how population density may impact chronic stress. We assessed hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), which are reliable indicators of chronic HPA axis activity, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to determine the influence of population density on these values. In Experiment 1, we compared HCCs of monkeys living in high-density (HD; 1 monkey/0.87m2) and low-density (LD; 1 monkey/63.37m2) environments (N=236 hair samples) and found that HD monkeys exhibited higher hair cortisol across all age categories (infant, juvenile, young adult, adult, and aged) except infancy and aged (F(5)=4.240, p=0.001), for which differences were nearly significant. HD monkeys also received more severe fight wounds than LD monkeys (χ2=26.053, p<0.001), though no effects of dominance status emerged. In Experiment 2, we examined how HCCs change with fluctuating population levels across five years in the adult LD monkeys (N=155 hair samples) and found that increased population density was significantly positively correlated with HCCs in this semi-naturalistic population (r(s)=0.975, p=0.005). These are the first findings to demonstrate that increased population density is associated with increased chronic, endogenous glucocorticoid exposure in a nonhuman primate species. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to laboratory research, population ecology, and human epidemiology. PMID:24636502

  10. Traffic noise reduces foraging efficiency in wild owls.

    PubMed

    Senzaki, Masayuki; Yamaura, Yuichi; Francis, Clinton D; Nakamura, Futoshi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise has been increasing globally. Laboratory experiments suggest that noise disrupts foraging behavior across a range of species, but to reveal the full impacts of noise, we must examine the impacts of noise on foraging behavior among species in the wild. Owls are widespread nocturnal top predators and use prey rustling sounds for localizing prey when hunting. We conducted field experiments to examine the effect of traffic noise on owls' ability to detect prey. Results suggest that foraging efficiency declines with increasing traffic noise levels due to acoustic masking and/or distraction and aversion to traffic noise. Moreover, we estimate that effects of traffic noise on owls' ability to detect prey reach >120 m from a road, which is larger than the distance estimated from captive studies with bats. Our study provides the first evidence that noise reduces foraging efficiency in wild animals, and highlights the possible pervasive impacts of noise. PMID:27537709

  11. A high absorption coefficient DL-MPP imitating owl skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lijun; Zhao, Zhan; Kong, Deyi; Wu, Shaohua; Du, Lidong; Fang, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a high absorption coefficient micro-perforated panel (MPP) imitating owl skin structure for acoustic noise reduction. Compared to the traditional micro-perforated panel, this device has two unique characteristics-simulating the owl skin structure, its radius of perforated apertures even can be as small as 55μ, and its material is silicon and fabricated by micro-electrical mechanical system (MEMS) technology; So that its absorption coefficients of acoustic noise for normal incidence sound wave whose frequencies arrange from 1.5 kHz to 6.0 kHz are all above 0.8 which is the owl's hunts sensitivity frequency band. Double leaf MPP fabricated by MEMS technology is an absolutely bionic success in functional-imitation.

  12. Representing lexical components of medical terminologies in OWL.

    PubMed

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Chute, Christopher G; Solbrig, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Medical Terminologies play a vital role in clinical data capture, reporting, information integration, indexing and retrieval. The Web Ontology language (OWL) provides an opportunity for the medical community to leverage the capabilities of OWL semantics and tools to build formal, sound and consistent medical terminologies, and to provide a standard web accessible medium for inter-operability,access and reuse. One of the tasks facing the medical community today is to represent the extensive terminology content that already exists into this new medium. This paper addresses one aspect of this challenge - how to incorporate multilingual, structured lexical information such as definitions, synonyms, usage notes, etc. into the OWL ontology model in a standardized, consistent and useful fashion. PMID:16779134

  13. First observed instance of polygyny in Flammulated Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linkhart, B.D.; Evers, E.M.; Megler, J.D.; Palm, E.C.; Salipante, C.M.; Yanco, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    We document the first observed instance of polygyny in Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) and the first among insectivorous raptors. Chronologies of the male's two nests, which were 510 m apart, were separated by nearly 2 weeks. Each brood initially consisted of three owlets, similar to the mean brood size in monogamous pairs. The male delivered considerably fewer prey to the secondary nest, compared with prey-delivery rates at nests of monogamous males during the nestling period. Evidence suggested that all owlets fledged from the primary brood, but only one fledged from the secondary brood. We were uncertain of the cause of polygyny, but a possible explanation is the Hayman Fire shifted the operational sex ratio of the owls in favor of females. The extent of polygyny in Flammulated Owls may be limited by costs to the reproductive success of secondary females.

  14. Morphological Variations of Leading-Edge Serrations in Owls (Strigiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Weger, Matthias; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Background Owls have developed serrations, comb-like structures, along the leading edge of their wings. Serrations were investigated from a morphological and a mechanical point of view, but were not yet quantitatively compared for different species. Such a comparative investigation of serrations from species of different sizes and activity patterns may provide new information about the function of the serrations. Results Serrations on complete wings and on tenth primary remiges of seven owl species were investigated. Small, middle-sized, and large owl species were investigated as well as species being more active during the day and owls being more active during the night. Serrations occurred at the outer parts of the wings, predominantly at tenth primary remiges, but also on further wing feathers in most species. Serration tips were oriented away from the feather rachis so that they faced into the air stream during flight. The serrations of nocturnal owl species were higher developed as demonstrated by a larger inclination angle (the angle between the base of the barb and the rachis), a larger tip displacement angle (the angle between the tip of the serration and the base of the serration) and a longer length. Putting the measured data into a clustering algorithm yielded dendrograms that suggested a strong influence of activity pattern, but only a weak influence of size on the development of the serrations. Conclusions Serrations are supposed to be involved in noise reduction during flight and also depend on the aerodynamic properties that in turn depend on body size. Since especially nocturnal owls have to rely on hearing during prey capture, the more pronounced serrations of nocturnal species lend further support to the notion that serrations have an important function in noise reduction. The differences in shape of the serrations investigated indicate that a silent flight requires well-developed serrations. PMID:26934104

  15. Efficacy of Niclosamide as a potential topical antipenetrant (TAP) against cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bruce, J I; Miller, R; Lightner, L; Yoganathan, S

    1992-01-01

    A 1% (W/V) formulation of Niclosamide (2', 5-Dichloro-4-nitrosalicylanilide) (TAP) was tested on Cebus apella monkeys as a topical prophylactic against schistosomiasis mansoni. Two experiments were conducted using the same formulation. In the first experiment, the TAP provided complete protection against schistosomiasis for 3 days. Of the 4 monkeys treated with TAP 7 days before exposure to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, 2 were completely protected. The remaining 2 monkeys of the 7 day treatment group had a 78% or greater reduction in adult worm burdens when compared to the placebo treated monkeys. The second experiment was designed to determine the time between day 3 and 7 when the TAP no longer provided complete protection. However, all of the TAP treated monkeys in this experiment were completely protected, even the monkeys treated 7 days earlier. In both experiments, all monkeys used as infection controls and those receiving only the placebo became infected and showed typical experimental schistosomiasis. These results demonstrate that the TAP could provide fast acting, short-term protection to people who must enter cercariae infested water. PMID:1343909

  16. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  17. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  18. Monkey Able Being Ready for preflight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Able, is being ready for placement into a capsule for a preflight test of Jupiter, AM-18 mission. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959 and also carried a rhesus monkey, Baker, into suborbit.

  19. Nanostructures Enabled by On-Wire Lithography (OWL)

    PubMed Central

    Braunschweig, Adam B.; Schmucker, Abrin L.; Wei, Wei David; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructures fabricated by a novel technique, termed On-Wire-Lithography (OWL), can be combined with organic and biological molecules to create systems with emergent and highly functional properties. OWL is a template-based, electrochemical process for forming gapped cylindrical structures on a solid support, with feature sizes (both gap and segment length) that can be controlled on the sub-100 nm length scale. Structures prepared by this method have provided valuable insight into the plasmonic properties of noble metal nanomaterials and have formed the basis for novel molecular electronic, encoding, and biological detection devices. PMID:20396668

  20. Cross: An OWL Wrapper for Reasoning on Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champin, Pierre-Antoine; Houben, Geert-Jan; Thiran, Philippe

    One of the challenges of the Semantic Web is to integrate the huge amount of information already available on the standard Web, usually stored in relational databases. In this paper, we propose a formalization of a logic model of relational databases, and a transformation of that model into OWL, a Semantic Web language. This transformation is implemented in Cross, as an open-source prototype. We prove a relation between the notion of legal database state and the consistency of the corresponding OWL knowledge base. We then show how that transformation can prove useful to enhance databases, and integrate them in the Semantic Web.

  1. Eye shape and retinal topography in owls (Aves: Strigiformes).

    PubMed

    Lisney, Thomas J; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Bandet, Mischa V; Wylie, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    The eyes of vertebrates show adaptations to the visual environments in which they evolve. For example, eye shape is associated with activity pattern, while retinal topography is related to the symmetry or 'openness' of the habitat of a species. Although these relationships are well documented in many vertebrates including birds, the extent to which they hold true for species within the same avian order is not well understood. Owls (Strigiformes) represent an ideal group for the study of interspecific variation in the avian visual system because they are one of very few avian orders to contain species that vary in both activity pattern and habitat preference. Here, we examined interspecific variation in eye shape and retinal topography in nine species of owl. Eye shape (the ratio of corneal diameter to eye axial length) differed among species, with nocturnal species having relatively larger corneal diameters than diurnal species. All the owl species have an area of high retinal ganglion cell (RGC) density in the temporal retina and a visual streak of increased cell density extending across the central retina from temporal to nasal. However, the organization and degree of elongation of the visual streak varied considerably among species and this variation was quantified using H:V ratios. Species that live in open habitats and/or that are more diurnally active have well-defined, elongated visual streaks and high H:V ratios (3.88-2.33). In contrast, most nocturnal and/or forest-dwelling owls have a poorly defined visual streak, a more radially symmetrical arrangement of RGCs and lower H:V ratios (1.77-1.27). The results of a hierarchical cluster analysis indicate that the apparent interspecific variation is associated with activity pattern and habitat as opposed to the phylogenetic relationships among species. In seven species, the presence of a fovea was confirmed and it is suggested that all strigid owls may possess a fovea, whereas the tytonid barn owl (Tyto alba

  2. Axonal delay lines for time measurement in the owl's brainstem.

    PubMed

    Carr, C E; Konishi, M

    1988-11-01

    Interaural time difference is an important cue for sound localization. In the barn owl (Tyto alba) neuronal sensitivity to this disparity originates in the brainstem nucleus laminaris. Afferents from the ipsilateral and contralateral magnocellular cochlear nuclei enter the nucleus laminaris through its dorsal and ventral surfaces, respectively, and interdigitate in the nucleus. Intracellular recordings from these afferents show orderly changes in conduction delay with depth in the nucleus. These changes are comparable to the range of interaural time differences available to the owl. Thus, these afferent axons act as delay lines and provide anatomical and physiological bases for a neuronal map of interaural time differences in the nucleus laminaris. PMID:3186725

  3. Complete OWL-DL Reasoning Using Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Mar Roldan-Garcia, Maria; Aldana-Montes, Jose F.

    Real Semantic Web applications, such as biological tools, use large ontologies, that is, ontologies with a large number (millions) of instances. Due to the increasing development of such applications, it is necessary to provide scalable and efficient ontology querying and reasoning systems. DBOWL is a Persistent and Scalable OWL reasoner which stores ontologies and implements reasoning using a relational database. In this paper we present an extension of DBOWL that implements all inference rules for OWL-DL. Furthermore, we describe briefly the reasoning algorithms and their completeness proofs.

  4. Anticoagulant rodenticides in three owl species from Western Canada, 1988-2003.

    PubMed

    Albert, Courtney A; Wilson, Laurie K; Mineau, Pierre; Trudeau, Suzanne; Elliott, John E

    2010-02-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used to control rodent infestations. Previous studies have shown that nontarget organisms, such as birds, are at risk for both primary and secondary poisoning. This paper presents rodenticide residue information on the livers from 164 strigiformes which included barn owls (Tyto alba), barred owls (Strix varia), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), collected from 1988 to 2003 in the province of British Columbia and the Yukon Territory, Canada. Livers were analyzed for brodifacoum, bromadiolone, chlorophacinone, diphacinone, difethialone, and warfarin. Our results show that, of the 164 owl livers analyzed, 70% had residues of at least one rodenticide, and of these 41% had more than one rodenticide detected. Of the three species of owls examined, barred owls were most frequently exposed (92%, n = 23); brodifacoum and bromadiolone were most often detected, with liver concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.927 mg/kg brodifacoum, and 0.002 to 1.012 mg/kg bromadiolone. Six of the owls (three barred owls, two barn owls, and one great horned owl) were diagnosed as having died from anticoagulant poisoning; all six owls had brodifacoum residues in the liver. PMID:19826750

  5. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. PMID:27388917

  6. Effects of experimental removal of barred owls on population demography of northern spotted owls in Washington and Oregon—2015 progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiens, J. David; Dugger, Katie M.; Lewicki, Krista E.; Simon, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that competition with newly established barred owls (Strix varia) is causing rapid declines in populations of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), and that the longterm persistence of spotted owls may be in question without additional management intervention. A pilot study in California showed that lethal removal of barred owls in combination with habitat conservation may be able to slow or even reverse population declines of spotted owls at local scales, but it remains unknown whether similar results can be obtained in larger areas with different forest conditions and where barred owls are more abundant. In 2015, we implemented a before-after-controlimpact (BACI) experimental design on two study areas in Oregon and Washington with at least 20 years of pre-treatment demographic data on spotted owls to determine if removal of barred owls can improve population trends of spatially associated spotted owls. Here we provide an overview of our research accomplishments and preliminary results in Oregon and Washington in 2015.

  7. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  8. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  9. Monkey Baker in bio-pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Baker, in bio-pack couch being readied for Jupiter (AM-18 flight). Jupiter, AM-18 mission, also carried an American-born rhesus monkey, Able into suborbit. The flight was successful and both monkeys were recovered in good condition. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959.

  10. Capture techniques and morphological measurements of the mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona) on the island of Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Glenn, M E; Bensen, K J

    1998-04-01

    Morphological measurements were collected from 12 wild and 12 captive mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona) on the Caribbean island of Grenada. Mona monkeys were introduced to Grenada from Africa approximately 200 to 300 years ago during the slave trade era. Wild monkeys were captured using either 1) a baited treadle-door trap and anesthetic-filled darts fired from a blowpipe, or 2) rifle-fired anesthetic-filled darts. All wild monkeys were released back into the forest after capture and were seen with their original groups within 24 hours of release. Captive monkeys were anesthetized using blowpipe-fired darts. A Ketaset/Rompun mixture was the most effective anesthetic for wild monkeys while Ketaset alone was suitable for captive monkeys. Responses to and recovery times from both drugs varied among individuals. Data on eight linear body measurements, canine length, testicle size, and weight were collected from all monkeys. Adult monkeys were significantly sexually dimorphic across all measurements. Mean adult male weight (mean = 4.7, SD = 0.9, n = 13) was almost twice that of adult females (mean = 2.8, SD = 0.8, n = 7). No significant differences in weight or measurements were found between adult wild and captive males. Preliminary comparisons with morphometrics for African C. mona from the literature showed the upper limit of Grenada mona body length and weight to be smaller than that of African monas for both sexes. These differences may be due to genetic divergence, ecological adaptation, inter-African geographic variation, and/or small sample sizes. PMID:9584890

  11. Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma and Juxtacortical Chondrosarcoma in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Schmelting, Barthel; Zöller, Martina; Kaspareit, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Literature on spontaneous primary bone tumors in nonhuman primates is sparse. This case report describes 2 different neoplastic bone lesions in 2 adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), including macroscopic, radiographic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings. In one monkey, a firm mass located at the palatogingival junction of the left rostral maxilla was confirmed to be a peripheral ossifying fibroma in light of its histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics. In another monkey, a lobulated tumor at the right distal femur that radiographically showed moderate radiopacity with splotchy areas of mineralization was confirmed to be a juxtacortical chondrosarcoma on histologic examination. The 2 neoplastic bone lesions revealed rare histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics and contribute to the known tumor spectrum of cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:21333171

  12. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G.; Khare, Shweta P.; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  13. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  14. Breeding success of barn owls (Tyto alba) fed low levels of DDE and dieldrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, V.M.; Klaas, E.E.; McLane, M.A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The relative importance of two organochlorine pesticides in the recent reproductive failure of raptors was investigated. Captive barn owls were fed 3.0 ppm DDE and 0.5 ppm dieldrin; doses were given separately and in combination for two years. Breeding success was followed from the laying of eggs through natural incubation and rearing of young. DDE was associated with significant eggshell thinning, egg breakage, embryo mortality, and reduced production per pair. Dieldrin alone was associated with slight but significant eggshell thinning, but not with reduction of breeding success. Ecological implications of the results are discussed; it is suggested that DDE had a much more severe effect on reproduction in wild raptors than dieldrin, which contributed to their decline primarily through adult mortality.

  15. Mapping ORM 2.0 into OWL 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-lin; Liu, Da-xin

    2011-12-01

    ORM (Object Role Modeling) has been used as an ontology modeling language to model domain ontologies. In order to publish domain ontologies modeled in ORM on the Semantic Web, it needs to translate ORM models into OWL 2, the latest standard Web Ontology Language. Several equivalent transformation methods for ORM model have been considered and a series of mapping rules have been presented.

  16. The "Owl Trail"--A Sensory Awareness Rope Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Constructed and experienced by students engaged in an outdoor education class at East Stroudsburg State College in Pennsylvania, the "Owl Trail" is a self guided rope trail (600 yards in length) employing such devices as sensory corrals, bridges, and "go to" ropes (ropes attached to the main rope which provide side trip experiences). (JC)

  17. Online Writing Labs (OWLs): A Taxonomy of Options and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Muriel; Pemberton, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Offers an overview and schema for understanding frequently used network technologies available for Online Writing Labs (OWLs)--electronic mail, gopher, World Wide Web, newsgroups, synchronous chat systems, and automated file retrieval systems. Considers ways writing centers' choices among these technologies are impacted by user access, network…

  18. Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

  19. Diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littles, C.J.; Williford, D.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Winter diets of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are little known. We determined the diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas by analyzing the contents of 182 pellets collected over four winters (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004) in three habitat types (agricultural, mainland grassland, and barrier island). Remains of a total of 7476 prey items were recovered, 98% of which were arthropods. Gryllidae (crickets) formed the largest component (50%) of the prey, followed by lepidopteran larvae (13%), beetles (8%), spiders (7%), and earwigs (6%). Although vertebrates, primarily small mammals and birds, represented only 2% of prey items by number, they represented most (71%) of the biomass. Northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori) and fulvous harvest mice (Reithrodontomys fulveccens) were the two most frequently consumed vertebrate species. In all habitats, arthropods, especially orthopterans, were the primary prey item by number, whereas vertebrates, primarily small mammals, were the most important by biomass. Greater consumption of arthropods by Burrowing Owls in agricultural areas may be a factor contributing to owl use of these highly altered environments. ?? 2007 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  20. Spatiotemporal frequency and speed tuning in the owl visual wulst.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lucas; Baron, Jerome

    2009-10-01

    The avian visual wulst is hodologically equivalent to the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1). In contrast to most birds, owls have a massive visual wulst, which shares striking functional similarities with V1. To provide a better understanding of how motion is processed within this area, we used sinusoidal gratings to characterize the spatiotemporal frequency and speed tuning profiles of 131 neurones recorded from awake burrowing owls. Cells were found to be clearly tuned to both spatial and temporal frequencies, and in a way that is similar to what has been reported in the striate cortex of primates and carnivores. Our results also suggest the presence of spatial frequency tuning domains in the wulst. Speed tuning was assessed by several methods devised to measure the degree of dependence between spatial and temporal frequency tuning. Although many neurones were found to be independently tuned, a significant proportion of cells showed at least some degree of dependence, compatible with the idea that some kind of initial transformation towards an explicit representation of speed is being carried out by the owl wulst. Interestingly, under certain constraints, a higher incidence of spatial frequency-invariant speed tuned profiles was obtained by combining our experimentally measured responses using a recent cortical model of speed tuning. Overall, our findings reinforce the notion that, like V1, the owl wulst is an important initial stage for motion processing, a function that is usually attributed to areas of the tectofugal pathway in lateral-eyed birds. PMID:19788573

  1. Status and trends in demography of northern spotted owls, 1985-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Forsman, E.D.; Franklin, A.B.; Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; White, Gary C.; Schwarz, C.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Olson, G.S.; Ackers, S.H.; Andrews, L.S.; Biswell, B.L.; Carlson, P.C.; Diller, L.V.; Dugger, K.M.; Fehring, K.E.; Fleming, T.L.; Gerhardt, R.P.; Gremel, S.A.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Happe, P.J.; Herter, D.R.; Higley, J.M.; Horn, R.B.; Irwin, L.L.; Loschl, P.J.; Reid, J.A.; Sovern, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed demographic data from northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) from 14 study areas in Washington, Oregon, and California for 1985-2003. The purpose of our analyses was to provide an assessment of the status and trends of northern spotted owl populations throughout most of their geographic range. The 14 study areas made up approximately 12% of the range of the subspecies and included federal, tribal, private, and mixed federal and private lands. The study areas also included all the major forest types that the subspecies inhabits. The analyses followed rigorous protocols that were developed a priori and were the result of extensive discussions and consensus among the authors. Our primary objectives were to estimate fecundity, apparent survival (??), and annual rate of population change (??) and to determine if there were any temporal trends in these population parameters. In addition to analyses of data from individual study areas, we conducted 2 meta-analyses on each demographic parameter. One meta-analysis was conducted on all 14 areas, and the other was restricted to the 8 areas that constituted the Effectiveness Monitoring Plan for northern spotted owls under the Northwest Forest Plan. The average number of years of reproductive data per study area was 14 (range = 5-19), and the average number of recapture occasions per study area was 13 (range = 4-18). Only 1 study area had 1 year old. We found no differences in apparent survival rates between sexes except for 1 area (Marin), which had only 6 years of data. Estimates of apparent survival from individual study areas indicated that there were differences among age classes with adults generally having higher survival than 1- and 2-year-olds. Apparent survival rates ranged from 0.750 (SE=0.026) to 0.886 (SE=0.010) for adults, 0.626 (SE=0.073) to 0.886 (SE=0.010) for 2-year-olds, and 0.415 (SE=0.111) to 0.860 (SE=0.017) for 1-year-olds. These estimates were comparable to survival rates from

  2. Systems Biology of the Vervet Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, Anna J.; Schmitt, Christopher A.; Service, Susan K.; Cantor, Rita M.; Dewar, Ken; Jentsch, James D.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Turner, Trudy R.; Warren, Wesley C.; Weinstock, George M.; Woods, Roger P.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) provide crucial biomedical model systems intermediate between rodents and humans. The vervet monkey (also called the African green monkey) is a widely used NHP model that has unique value for genetic and genomic investigations of traits relevant to human diseases. This article describes the phylogeny and population history of the vervet monkey and summarizes the use of both captive and wild vervet monkeys in biomedical research. It also discusses the effort of an international collaboration to develop the vervet monkey as the most comprehensively phenotypically and genomically characterized NHP, a process that will enable the scientific community to employ this model for systems biology investigations. PMID:24174437

  3. Comparative study of visual pathways in owls (Aves: Strigiformes).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Lisney, Thomas J; Wylie, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Although they are usually regarded as nocturnal, owls exhibit a wide range of activity patterns, from strictly nocturnal, to crepuscular or cathemeral, to diurnal. Several studies have shown that these differences in the activity pattern are reflected in differences in eye morphology and retinal organization. Despite the evidence that differences in activity pattern among owl species are reflected in the peripheral visual system, there has been no attempt to correlate these differences with changes in the visual regions in the brain. In this study, we compare the relative size of nuclei in the main visual pathways in nine species of owl that exhibit a wide range of activity patterns. We found marked differences in the relative size of all visual structures among the species studied, both in the tectofugal and the thalamofugal pathway, as well in other retinorecipient nuclei, including the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, the nucleus of the basal optic root and the nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis. We show that the barn owl (Tyto alba), a species widely used in the study of the integration of visual and auditory processing, has reduced visual pathways compared to strigid owls. Our results also suggest there could be a trade-off between the relative size of visual pathways and auditory pathways, similar to that reported in mammals. Finally, our results show that although there is no relationship between activity pattern and the relative size of either the tectofugal or the thalamofugal pathway, there is a positive correlation between the relative size of both visual pathways and the relative number of cells in the retinal ganglion layer. PMID:23296024

  4. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  5. Physiologic manifestations of stress from capture and restraint of free-ranging male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Suleman, Mbaruk A; Wango, Emmanuel; Sapolsky, Robert M; Odongo, Hesbon; Hau, Jann

    2004-03-01

    Adrenal gland weights, stomach mucosal lesions, and morning serum cortisol and prolactin levels were measured in 15 juvenile and adult male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) that were shot by a hunter, euthanized after 24 hr of captivity, or euthanized after 45 days of captivity and intermittent blood sampling. Hormone levels were measured in seven additional males that had been in captivity for 7 mo. Mean serum cortisol concentrations were significantly lower in free-ranging wild monkeys at the time they were shot than in the monkeys after 1 day in captivity. Cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in wild-caught monkeys on the day after capture than they were in the same animals after 18 and 26 days of captivity. Cortisol concentrations were also significantly higher in the wild-caught monkeys 18 days after capture than in the laboratory-habituated monkeys in captivity for 7 mo. Mean prolactin concentration was significantly lower in the wild-caught monkeys on day 2 after capture, and the levels increased gradually to 45 days in captivity and was highest in monkeys that had been captive for 7 mo. PMID:15193069

  6. Binaural tuning of auditory units in the forebrain archistriatal gaze fields of the barn owl: local organization but no space map.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Y E; Knudsen, E I

    1995-07-01

    We identified a region in the archistriatum of the barn owl forebrain that contains neurons sensitive to auditory stimuli. Nearly all of these neurons are tuned for binaural localization cues. The archistriatum is known to be the primary source of motor-related output from the avian forebrain and, in barn owls, contributes to the control of gaze, much like the frontal eye fields in monkeys. The auditory region is located in the medial portion of the archistriatum, at the level of the anterior commissure, and is within the region of the archistriatum from which head saccades can be elicited by electrical microstimulation (see preceding companion article, Knudsen et al., 1995). Free-field measurements revealed that auditory sites have large, spatial receptive fields. However, within these large receptive fields, responses are tuned sharply for sound source location. Dichotic measurements showed that auditory sites are tuned broadly for frequency and that the majority are tuned to particular values of interaural time differences and interaural level differences, the principal cues used by barn owls for sound localization. The tuning of sites to these binaural cues is essentially independent of sound level. The auditory properties of units in the medial archistriatum are similar to those of units in the optic tectum, a structure that also contributes to gaze control. Unlike the optic tectum, however, the auditory region of the archistriatum does not contain a single, continuous auditory map of space. Instead, it is organized into dorsoventral clusters of sites with similar binaural (spatial) tuning. The different representations of auditory space in closely related structures in the forebrain (archistriatum) and midbrain (optic tectum) probably reflect the fact that the forebrain contributes to a wide variety of sensorimotor tasks more complicated than gaze control. PMID:7623142

  7. A monkey metabolism pod for space-flight weightlessness studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    The system described will permit quantitative physiological studies in adult monkeys, weighing from 8 to 14 kg, during future space flights. The system comprises a fiberglass pod containing a comfortable restraint couch for the animal. The pod is divided into upper and lower halves. When the monkey occupies the couch, a rubber belly-band forms a gas seal between the upper and lower portions of the animal. The upper-pod ventilating air stream is monitored for the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water to permit continuous metabolic gas-exchange measurements for computation of metabolic energy expediture. The lower pod is lined with ashless filter paper for excreta collection.

  8. Hematological changes in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) during eight months' adaptation to captivity.

    PubMed

    Kagira, J M; Ngotho, M; Thuita, J K; Maina, N W; Hau, J

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated fluctuations in hematological values of 50 wild-caught vervet monkeys (African green monkeys, grivets, Chlorocebus aethiops) during habituation to captivity. The monkeys were categorized into four groups according to age and sex viz adult males, adult females, juvenile males, and juvenile females. The erythrocyte values were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the adult males than in the other animals. There was an increase in most of the erythrocyte parameters studied during the monitoring period with the most significant being hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume. However, the red cell distribution widths, which were higher in adult females, declined. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts, which were higher in adult females than in the other animals, were closely correlated with granulocytes counts. The WBC levels decreased in all the animals throughout the 8 months study, indicating gradually decreasing stress, but they were relatively stable in males. The platelet counts declined significantly (P<0.05) and at 8 months post capture the counts were higher in females than in males. The juvenile female platelet counts were relatively stable during the monitoring period. The maintenance of the monkeys on an improved stable diet and in environment-controlled housing combined with progressing psycho-physiological adaptation may be important factors for the gradual improvements of the hematological values recorded. There were wide variations in these between individual animals emphasizing the need for long adaptation combined with establishment of individual baseline values before experimental studies. PMID:17294427

  9. A Process for the Representation of openEHR ADL Archetypes in OWL Ontologies.

    PubMed

    Porn, Alex Mateus; Peres, Leticia Mara; Didonet Del Fabro, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    ADL is a formal language to express archetypes, independent of standards or domain. However, its specification is not precise enough in relation to the specialization and semantic of archetypes, presenting difficulties in implementation and a few available tools. Archetypes may be implemented using other languages such as XML or OWL, increasing integration with Semantic Web tools. Exchanging and transforming data can be better implemented with semantics oriented models, for example using OWL which is a language to define and instantiate Web ontologies defined by W3C. OWL permits defining significant, detailed, precise and consistent distinctions among classes, properties and relations by the user, ensuring the consistency of knowledge than using ADL techniques. This paper presents a process of an openEHR ADL archetypes representation in OWL ontologies. This process consists of ADL archetypes conversion in OWL ontologies and validation of OWL resultant ontologies using the mutation test. PMID:26262167

  10. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia

    PubMed Central

    Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

    2014-01-01

    Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of ‘lower’ primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

  11. Cystoidosoma hermaphroditus sp. n., the first representative of the quill mite family Ascouracaridae (Acari: Astigmata: Pterolichoidea) from an owl (Aves: Strigiformes).

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; OConnor, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    The mite family Ascouracaridae Gaud et Atyeo, 1976 contains large-sized mites (mostly > 1 mm) which live inside the quills of birds of several orders. To date, no representative of this family has been found associated with the order Strigiformes (owls). In this paper, a new species of this family, Cystoidosoma hermaphroditus sp. n., is described from the tropical screech owl, Megascops choliba (Vieillot) (Aves: Strigiformes) from Brazil. This species is unique in having an external spermaduct, a primary duct and a rudimentary bursa copulatrix present in males. This is the first astigmatan feather mite described from the order Strigiformes in this country. A key to adults of the genus Cystoidosoma Gaud et Atyeo, 1976 of the world is presented. PMID:26277919

  12. Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Douglas G.; Barker, Ian K.; Lindsay, Robbin; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated a rapid antigen-capture assay (VecTest) for detection of West Nile virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, collected at necropsy from owls (N = 93) and raptors (N = 27). Sensitivity was 93.5%–95.2% for northern owl species but <42.9% for all other species. Specificity was 100% for owls and 85.7% for raptors. PMID:15663862

  13. Burrowing owl nesting productivity: A comparison between artificial and natural burrows on and off golf courses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.; Ellis, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations are declining in many portions of their range, and lack of suitable nesting burrows is thought to be one reason for observed declines. Burrowing owls are attracted to golf courses because the birds generally nest and forage in short-grass, open areas, yet golf courses seldom have suitable nesting burrows. We examined the efficacy of installing artificial nesting burrows on golf courses as a way to help restore local burrowing owl populations. From 2001-2004 we monitored over 175 natural burrows off golf courses, 14 natural burrows on golf courses, 86 artificial burrows off golf courses, and 130 artificial burrows on golf courses. Owls located and used 8 of the 130 artificial burrows installed on golf courses (4 were used as nests). Owls selected burrows that were closer to existing natural burrows, farther from maintained areas (areas receiving turf maintenance by golf course staff), and farther from sprinkler heads. All 4 of the artificial burrows used as nests successfully fledged young, and annual site fidelity for owls nesting on golf courses was higher than for owls nesting off golf courses. However, annual fecundity of owls nesting on golf courses was lower than that of owls nesting off golf courses. If golf courses have sufficiently large nonmaintained areas and there are nesting owls nearby, course managers potentially can help in restoring local burrowing owl populations by installing artificial nesting burrows on the periphery of the course. However, the low fecundity on golf courses reported here should be more thoroughly examined before artificial burrows are used to attract owls to golf courses.

  14. Multiscale habitat selection by burrowing owls in black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantz, S.J.; Conway, C.J.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Some populations of western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) have declined in recent decades. To design and implement effective recovery efforts, we need a better understanding of how distribution and demographic traits are influenced by habitat quality. To this end, we measured spatial patterns of burrowing owl breeding habitat selection within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in northeastern Wyoming, USA. We compared burrow-, site-, colony-, and landscape-scale habitat parameters between burrowing owl nest burrows (n = 105) and unoccupied burrows (n = 85). We sampled 4 types of prairie dog colonies: 1) owl-occupied, active with prairie dogs (n = 16); 2) owl-occupied, inactive (n = 13); 3) owl-unoccupied, active (n = 14); and 4) owl-unoccupied, inactive (n = 14). We used an information-theoretic approach to examine a set of candidate models of burrowing owl nest-site selection. The model with the most support included variables at all 4 spatial scales, and results were consistent among the 4 types of prairie dog colonies. Nest burrows had longer tunnels, more available burrows within 30 m, and less shrub cover within 30 m, more prairie dog activity within 100 m, and were closer to water than unoccupied burrows. The model correctly classified 76% of cases, all model coefficients were stable, and the model had high predictive ability. Based on our results, we recommend actions to ensure persistence of the remaining prairie dog colonies as an important management strategy for burrowing owl conservation in the Great Plains of North America.

  15. Disseminated lymphoma of presumptive T-cell origin in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Malka, Shachar; Crabbs, Torrie; Mitchell, Elizabeth B; Zehnder, Ashley; Kent, Michael S; Lowenstine, Linda J; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2008-09-01

    A geriatric male great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) that was a resident at a raptor center was presented for examination because of stridor and weight loss. Results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging, and biopsy were consistent with disseminated lymphoma involving the oropharynx, neck region (including thyroid and parathyroid glands), keel, spleen, and liver. Attempts to treat the owl with chlorambucil failed, and the owl was euthanatized 5 months later. Neoplastic cells from this owl were immunoreactive to CD-3 antibody, suggesting the lymphoma was of T-cell origin. PMID:19014096

  16. Acoustic surveys for Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida): An analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Ann E.; Martindell, Chris; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Ikelheimer, Bruce; Lavallee, Tim

    2002-05-01

    During acoustic surveys for Mexican spotted owls, the effective detection range is presumed to be 0.25 mi (433 m). However, variations within and between surveys are observed, leading to a variance in owl density estimates. While owl behavior may explain some variation, topography and ambient noise are also likely to be important. To determine the influence of these factors, data from acoustic surveys for Mexican spotted owls in the Gila National Forest (April-July, 2000-2001) were examined. Measurements of owl and human call levels were made with a Sony TCD-10 Pro II DAT equipped with an ACO 7013 microphone. Ambient noise was collected using 40 Larson-Davis 820 and 824 sound level meters in owl activity centers. Wyle Laboratories NMSIM software was used to model propagation of owl and human calls. Owls produced calls with estimated maximum source levels of 92-98-dB SPL. Human callers produced maximum source levels of 88-95-dB SPL. Detection was possible out to more than 2 km under ideal conditions, but topography and ambient noise had a large effect. Corrections for these factors would greatly improve estimates of area surveyed, and thus owl density estimates. [Work supported by the U.S. Air Force, Air Combat Command.

  17. Density and habitat associations of Barred Owls at the edge of their range in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, Brian R.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed breeding-pair density and habitat associations of Barred Owls (Strix varia) at the edge of their range in north-central Oklahoma in 1995-1996. We played taped calls of Barred Owls to solicit and record responses (visual and auditory) and thereby determine density in our 1155-ha study area. Numbers of owls ranged from 7 pairs in 1995 to 11 pairs in 1996, or 1 Barred Owl pair/105-165 ha in a relatively contiguous bottomland forest. To assess habitat associations, we overlaid core areas of owl activity, as inferred from the locations of Barred Owl responses, on aerial photographs and quantified habitats in a 0.65-km2 cell surrounding owl core areas. Barred owl pairs were associated with closed-canopy forest (62.8%), fallow agricultural fields (10.6%), water (8.1%), and treeless (open) areas (6.2%), which differed from single owls (presumed nonbreeders) that showed a greater affinity for open-canopy forest and agricultural fields.

  18. Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Jennifer; Friedman, Fran

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Oral and Written Language Scales, an assessment of receptive and expressive language for children and young adults aged 3 to 21. The test assesses overall language skills and specific performance in oral expression, listening comprehension, and written expression. Its administration, standardization, reliability, and…

  19. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food. PMID:23280312

  20. Airborne ocean water lidar (OWL) real time processor (RTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryszko, M.

    1995-03-01

    The Hyperflo Real Time Processor (RTP) was developed by Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation as a part of the Naval Air Warfare Center's Ocean Water Lidar (OWL) system. The RTP was used for real time support of open ocean field tests at Barbers Point, Hawaii, in March 1993 (EMERALD I field test), and Jacksonville, Florida, in July 1994 (EMERALD I field test). This report describes the system configuration, and accomplishments associated with the preparation and execution of these exercises. This document is intended to supplement the overall test reports and provide insight into the development and use of the PTP. A secondary objective is to provide basic information on the capabilities, versatility and expandability of the Hyperflo RTP for possible future projects. It is assumed herein that the reader has knowledge of the OWL system, field test operations, general lidar processing methods, and basic computer architecture.

  1. Nanoscale Bio-Molecular Control Using EC-OWLS

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J P; Voros, J; Hubbell, J A; Textor, M

    2002-11-20

    A recently developed technique termed ''Electrochemical Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy'' (EC-OWLS) [1] combines evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. Initial EC-OWLS investigations efficiently monitored molecular surface adsorption and layer thickness changes of an adsorbed polymer layer examined in situ as a function of potential applied to a waveguide1. A layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high refractive index waveguide for optical sensing, and a conductive electrode; an electrochemical flow-through fluid cell incorporated working, reference and counter electrodes. Poly(L-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) served as a model, polycation adsorbate. Results indicate that adsorption and desorption of PLL-g-PEG from aqueous buffer are a function of applied potential, and that binding events subsequent to PLL-g-PEG functionalization are dependent on reorganization in the molecular adlayer.

  2. Perception of place-of-articulation information by monkeys versus humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, Joan M.; Gilmore, Casey S.

    2003-04-01

    Four monkeys and six humans representing five different native languages were compared in the ability to categorize natural CV tokens of /b/ vs /d/ produced by four talkers of American-English (two male; two female) in four vowel contexts /i,e,a,u/. A two-choice left/right procedure was used in which percent correct and response time data were compared between species. Both measures indicated striking vowel context effects for monkeys, but none for humans. Specifically, monkeys performed better for back vowels /a,u/ than front vowels /i,e/. Since back vowels have more distinctive F2 onset transitions differentiating /b/ vs /d/, these results imply that monkey perception is more dependent than human perception on the actual acoustic structure of the syllables. We conclude that humans do not use general mechanisms in place perception, rather they use some sort of special mechanism to eliminate vowel context effects. While monkeys do not provide accurate models of adult humans, they may be able to provide a model of the preverbal human infant before it learns a more speech-specific adult strategy of place information extraction. [Work supported by NIH.

  3. The elusive illusion: Do children (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) see the Solitaire illusion?

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Agrillo, Christian; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    One approach to gaining a better understanding of how we perceive the world is to assess the errors that human and nonhuman animals make in perceptual processing. Developmental and comparative perspectives can contribute to identifying the mechanisms that underlie systematic perceptual errors often referred to as perceptual illusions. In the visual domain, some illusions appear to remain constant across the lifespan, whereas others change with age. From a comparative perspective, many of the illusions observed in humans appear to be shared with nonhuman primates. Numerosity illusions are a subset of visual illusions and occur when the spatial arrangement of stimuli within a set influences the perception of quantity. Previous research has found one such illusion that readily occurs in human adults, the Solitaire illusion. This illusion appears to be less robust in two monkey species, rhesus macaques and capuchin monkeys. We attempted to clarify the ontogeny of this illusion from a developmental and comparative perspective by testing human children and task-naïve capuchin monkeys in a computerized quantity judgment task. The overall performance of the monkeys suggested that they perceived the numerosity illusion, although there were large differences among individuals. Younger children performed similarly to the monkeys, whereas older children more consistently perceived the illusion. These findings suggest that human-unique perceptual experiences with the world might play an important role in the emergence of the Solitaire illusion in human adults, although other factors also may contribute. PMID:26513327

  4. Mutational changes in S-cone opsin genes common to both nocturnal and cathemeral Aotus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Levenson, David H; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Evans, Sian; Jacobs, Gerald H

    2007-07-01

    Aotus is a platyrrhine primate that has been classically considered to be nocturnal. Earlier research revealed that this animal lacks a color vision capacity because, unlike all other platyrrhine monkeys, Aotus has a defect in the opsin gene that is required to produce short-wavelength sensitive (S) cone photopigment. Consequently, Aotus retains only a single type of cone photopigment. Other mammals have since been found to show similar losses and it has often been speculated that such change is in some fashion tied to nocturnality. Although most species of Aotus are indeed nocturnal, recent observations show that Aotus azarai, an owl monkey species native to portions of Argentina and Paraguay, displays a cathemeral activity pattern being active during daylight hours as frequently as during nighttime hours. We have sequenced portions of the S-cone opsin gene in A. azarai and Aotus nancymaae, the latter a typically nocturnal species. The S-cone opsin genes in both species contain the same fatal defects earlier detected for Aotus trivirgatus. On the basis of the phylogenetic relationships of these three species these results imply that Aotus must have lost a capacity for color vision early in its history and they also suggest that the absence of color vision is not compulsively linked to a nocturnal lifestyle. PMID:17253622

  5. Miniature Optical Wide-Angle-Lens Startracker (Mini-OWLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Rick; Coulter, Joe E.; Levine, Seymour

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the design considerations and the current status of the Miniature Optical Wide-Angle Lens Startracker Program. Mini-OWLS offers a revolutionary alternative to the conventional startracker. It is a small, lightweight, low cost, high performance startracker that can be used in a variety of applications including calibration and alignment of Inertial Measurement Units (IMU's) Mini-OWLS makes use of a strap down design incorporating Holographic Optical Elements (HOES) in place of conventional optics. HOES can be multiplexed so that the same aperture can be used for multiple separate optical paths looking in several directions simultaneously without startracker rotation. Additionally, separate Schmidt corrector plates are not required to compensate for spherical aberration. The optical assembly, or what would normally be considered as the telescope, is less than 20 cc in volume, weighs less than 55 grams, and contains the equivalent of three individual telescopes. Each one has a 4 deg Field of View (FOV) with a field of regard of 48 square degrees. Mini-OWLS has a bandwidth of approximately 300 nm in or near the visible wavelength. The projected resolution of the startracker is 5 to 10 arcseconds, depending on the centroiding algorithm used. The Mini-OWLS program was initiated last year and represents a miniaturized version of a similar design for aeronautical applications. The contract is managed by Wright Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, with funding from the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization through Eglin AFB. The initial phase of the program is to build and test a development unit. The second phase is to integrate the startracker with the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Micromechanical Inertial Guidance System (MIGS) and the Signal Processing Packaging Design (SPPD) being developed by Texas Instruments. The preliminary design review was conducted in November 1991. Three-axes prototype

  6. Diets and foraging behavior of northern Spotted Owls in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forsman, E.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Meslow, E.C.; Zabel, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe local, regional, and annual variation in diets of northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Oregon based on 24 497 prey collected at 1118 owl territories in 1970-2003. The sample included 91.5% mammals, 4.3% birds, 4.1% insects, and 0.1% other prey. The diet included ???131 species, including 49 mammals, 41 birds, 3 reptiles, 1 frog, 1 crayfish, 1 scorpion, 2 snails, and 33 species of insects. On average, 91.9 ?? 0.3% (SE) of prey in the diet were nocturnal animals, 3.3 ?? 0.2% were diurnal, and 4.8 ?? 0.2% were active both day and night. Of the prey captured, 50.5 ?? 0.8% were arboreal, 18.7 ?? 0.7% were scansorial, 4.8 ?? 0.2% were aerial, and 26.0 = 0.7% were terrestrial. Mean mass of prey was 116.6 ?? 6.5 g. Diets varied among owl territories, geographic regions, and years; but were generally dominated by four to six species of nocturnal mammals, including northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and N. cinerea), red tree voles (Arborimus longicaudus), western red-backed voles (Clethrionomys californicus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), or gophers (Thomomys spp.). Estimates of dietary evenness were low, indicating diets dominated by a few species of mammals. Forest management practices that produce healthy populations of arboreal and scansorial mammals such as flying squirrels, woodrats, and red tree voles should benefit northern Spotted Owls in Oregon and Washington. ?? 2004 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  7. Observing the Ultrahigh Energy Universe with OWL Eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Barbier, L. M.; Loh, E.; Mitchell, J. W.; Sokolsky, P.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Orbiting Wide-field Light-collectors (0WL) mission is to study the origin and physics of the highest energy particles known in nature, the ultra- high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The OWL mission consists of telescopes with UV sensitive cameras on two satellites operating in tandem to view in stereo the development of the giant particle showers induced in the Earth s atmosphere by UHECRs. This paper discusses the characteristics of the 0WL mission.

  8. Barn Owl Productivity Response to Variability of Vole Populations.

    PubMed

    Pavluvčík, Petr; Poprach, Karel; Machar, Ivo; Losík, Jan; Gouveia, Ana; Tkadlec, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We studied the response of the barn owl annual productivity to the common vole population numbers and variability to test the effects of environmental stochasticity on their life histories. Current theory predicts that temporal environmental variability can affect long-term nonlinear responses (e.g., production of young) both positively and negatively, depending on the shape of the relationship between the response and environmental variables. At the level of the Czech Republic, we examined the shape of the relationship between the annual sum of fledglings (annual productivity) and vole numbers in both non-detrended and detrended data. At the districts' level, we explored whether the degree of synchrony (measured by the correlation coefficient) and the strength of the productivity response increase (measured by the regression coefficient) in areas with higher vole population variability measured by the s-index. We found that the owls' annual productivity increased linearly with vole numbers in the Czech Republic. Furthermore, based on district data, we also found that synchrony between dynamics in owls' reproductive output and vole numbers increased with vole population variability. However, the strength of the response was not affected by the vole population variability. Additionally, we have shown that detrending remarkably increases the Taylor's exponent b relating variance to mean in vole time series, thereby reversing the relationship between the coefficient of variation and the mean. This shift was not responsible for the increased synchrony with vole population variability. Instead, we suggest that higher synchrony could result from high food specialization of owls on the common vole in areas with highly fluctuating vole populations. PMID:26709518

  9. Evidence for Motor Planning in Monkeys: Rhesus Macaques Select Efficient Grips when Transporting Spoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eliza L.; Berthier, Neil E.; Metevier, Christina M.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    McCarty and colleagues (1999) developed the elevated spoon task to measure motor planning in human infants. In this task, a spoon containing food was placed on an elevated apparatus that supported both ends of the spoon. The handle was oriented to the left or right on different trials. We presented naive adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with…

  10. Physiological studies in space with nonhuman primates using the monkey pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    A completely enclosed module was constructed for continuously maintaining an unanesthetized adult 10-12 kg monkey in a physiologically stable state of comfortable restraint for periods of at least 10 days, either on the ground or in an orbiting spacecraft. Energy balance determinations made during three different tests using a giant rhesus (malaca nemestrina) are presented in charts and graphs.

  11. Auditory spatial discrimination by barn owls in simulated echoic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Matthew W.; Bala, Avinash D. S.; Takahashi, Terry T.

    2003-03-01

    In humans, directional hearing in reverberant conditions is characterized by a ``precedence effect,'' whereby directional information conveyed by leading sounds dominates perceived location, and listeners are relatively insensitive to directional information conveyed by lagging sounds. Behavioral studies provide evidence of precedence phenomena in a wide range of species. The present study employs a discrimination paradigm, based on habituation and recovery of the pupillary dilation response, to provide quantitative measures of precedence phenomena in the barn owl. As in humans, the owl's ability to discriminate changes in the location of lagging sources is impaired relative to that for single sources. Spatial discrimination of lead sources is also impaired, but to a lesser extent than discrimination of lagging sources. Results of a control experiment indicate that sensitivity to monaural cues cannot account for discrimination of lag source location. Thus, impairment of discrimination ability in the two-source conditions most likely reflects a reduction in sensitivity to binaural directional information. These results demonstrate a similarity of precedence effect phenomena in barn owls and humans, and provide a basis for quantitative comparison with neuronal data from the same species.

  12. Intraspecific variation in reproductive traits of burrowing owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, Meaghan; Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews of hatching asynchrony in birds recommended more studies on intraspecific variation in the extent of hatching asynchrony. We examined intraspecific variation in clutch size, laying chronology, onset of incubation, incubation period, and hatching asynchrony in burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in the Imperial Valley of California. Mean clutch size was 7.4 eggs and owls averaged 0.5 eggs laid per day. Females varied considerably in laying interval and onset of incubation (range = 1st to 9th egg in the clutch). The mean incubation period was 21.9 days. Hatching interval also varied greatly among females (x = 0.8, range 0.1-2.0 days between successively hatched eggs). Past burrowing owl studies have largely overlooked the substantial intraspecific variation in these traits or have reported estimates that differ from ours. Future studies designed to identify the environmental factors that explain the large intraspecific variation in these traits will likely provide insights into the constraints on local abundance.

  13. The Structure and Noise Reduction Capacity of Owl Down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Justin; Clark, Ian; Alexander, Nathan; Devenport, William; Daly, Conor; Peake, Nigel; Glegg, Stewart

    2014-11-01

    Many species of owl rely on specialized plumage to reduce their self-noise levels and enable hunting in acoustic stealth. In contrast to the leading-edge comb and compliant trailing-edge fringe attributes of owls, the aeroacoustic impact of the fluffy down material on the upper wing surface remains largely speculative as a means to eliminate aerodynamic noise across a broad range of frequencies. Photographic analysis of the owl down reveals a unique forest-like structure, whereby the down fibers rise straight up from the wing surface and then bend into the flow direction to form a porous canopy, with an open area fraction of approximately 70%. Experimental measurements demonstrate that the canopy feature reduces dramatically the turbulent pressure levels on the wing surface by up to 30dB, which affects the roughness noise characteristic of the down in a manner consistent with the theory of flows over and through vegetation. Mathematical models developed for the turbulence noise generation by the down fibers and for the mixing-layer instability above the porous canopy furnish a theoretical basis to understand the influence of the down geometric structure on its self-noise signature and noise suppression characteristics.

  14. Distribution of burrowing owls in east-central South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Jill A; Thiele, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) populations have declined across much of western North America, particularly at the northern and eastern edges of the species’ breeding range (Martell et al. 2001, Murphy et al. 2001, Shyry et al. 2001, Skeel et al. 2001, Klute et al. 2003). In South Dakota, the burrowing owl is a summer resident that historically was relatively common throughout the state, but its range has decreased in recent decades, especially in the eastern half of the state (Whitney et al. 1978, South Dakota Ornithologists’ Union [SDOU] 1991, Peterson 1995). Tallman et al. (2002) described the species as uncommon to locally common in western South Dakota, uncommon in the north-central part of the state, and casual (i.e., not within the species’ normal range, but with 3–10 records in the past 10 years) elsewhere in the eastern half. The burrowing owl is a Species of Greatest Conservation Need (South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks [SDGFP] 2006) and a Level I Priority Species in South Dakota (Bakker 2005).

  15. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

  16. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Erin A.; Olson, Carl R.

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system. PMID:26067532

  17. Patterns of cognitive decline in aged rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Herndon, J G; Moss, M B; Rosene, D L; Killiany, R J

    1997-08-01

    Although cognitive decline has been well established as a consequence of aging in non-human primate models, the prevalence or frequency of impairment for specific age ranges has not been described. The first aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of cognitive impairment on each of the six tests of cognitive performance by comparing the performance of early-aged (19-23 years old), advanced-aged (24-28 years old), and oldest-aged (29+ years old) monkeys to that of young adults (< 15 years old). The second aim was to derive a single overall measure of cognitive performance to help classify behavioral function in our aged monkeys. Accordingly, we obtained performance measures for these age groups on six behavioral measures: (1) acquisition of the delayed non-matching-to-sample task (DNMS); (2) performance of the DNMS with a delay of 120 sec; (3) the spatial condition of the delayed recognition span test (DRST); (4) the color condition of the DRST; (5) spatial reversal learning; and (6) object reversal learning. Early-aged monkeys displayed prevalence rates of impairment significantly greater than zero on all tasks except the DRST-color. The highest prevalence of impairment was observed in this age group in a task measuring spatial memory (DRST). Significant trends toward progressively higher impairment rates in advanced-aged and oldest-aged monkeys were observed for DNMS-acquisition, DRST-color and spatial reversal learning tasks. A linear transformation of standardized scores on the six cognitive tests was derived by means of principal components analysis (PCA). The first PCA (PCA1) included data from 30 monkeys with available data on all six measures, and yielded a composite measure which declined linearly with increasing age (r = -0.74). A second PCA (PCA2) was performed on data from 53 monkeys for which three test scores (DNMS-acquisition, DNMS-120s delay, and DRST-spatial condition) were available. The composite score derived from this analysis was highly

  18. Vocal-Tract Resonances as Indexical Cues in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.; Turesson, Hjalmar K.; Maier, Joost X.; van Dinther, Ralph; Patterson, Roy D.; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Vocal-tract resonances (or formants) are acoustic signatures in the voice and are related to the shape and length of the vocal tract. Formants play an important role in human communication, helping us not only to distinguish several different speech sounds [1], but also to extract important information related to the physical characteristics of the speaker, so-called indexical cues. How did formants come to play such an important role in human vocal communication? One hypothesis suggests that the ancestral role of formant perception—a role that might be present in extant nonhuman primates—was to provide indexical cues [2–5]. Although formants are present in the acoustic structure of vowel-like calls of monkeys [3–8] and implicated in the discrimination of call types [8–10], it is not known whether they use this feature to extract indexical cues. Here, we investigate whether rhesus monkeys can use the formant structure in their “coo” calls to assess the age-related body size of conspecifics. Using a preferential-looking paradigm [11, 12] and synthetic coo calls in which formant structure simulated an adult/large- or juvenile/small-sounding individual, we demonstrate that untrained monkeys attend to formant cues and link large-sounding coos to large faces and small-sounding coos to small faces—in essence, they can, like humans [13], use formants as indicators of age-related body size. PMID:17320389

  19. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24762923

  20. Estimates of density, detection probability, and factors influencing detection of burrowing owls in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowe, D.E.; Longshore, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    We estimated relative abundance and density of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at two sites in the Mojave Desert (200304). We made modifications to previously established Burrowing Owl survey techniques for use in desert shrublands and evaluated several factors that might influence the detection of owls. We tested the effectiveness of the call-broadcast technique for surveying this species, the efficiency of this technique at early and late breeding stages, and the effectiveness of various numbers of vocalization intervals during broadcasting sessions. Only 1 (3) of 31 initial (new) owl responses was detected during passive-listening sessions. We found that surveying early in the nesting season was more likely to produce new owl detections compared to surveying later in the nesting season. New owls detected during each of the three vocalization intervals (each consisting of 30 sec of vocalizations followed by 30 sec of silence) of our broadcasting session were similar (37, 40, and 23; n 30). We used a combination of detection trials (sighting probability) and double-observer method to estimate the components of detection probability, i.e., availability and perception. Availability for all sites and years, as determined by detection trials, ranged from 46.158.2. Relative abundance, measured as frequency of occurrence and defined as the proportion of surveys with at least one owl, ranged from 19.232.0 for both sites and years. Density at our eastern Mojave Desert site was estimated at 0.09 ?? 0.01 (SE) owl territories/km2 and 0.16 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km2 during 2003 and 2004, respectively. In our southern Mojave Desert site, density estimates were 0.09 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km2 and 0.08 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km 2 during 2004 and 2005, respectively. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  1. Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive illusory motion?

    PubMed Central

    Agrillo, Christian; Gori, Simone; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, visual illusions have been used repeatedly to understand similarities and differences of visual perception of human and non-human animals. However, nearly all studies have focused only on illusions not related to motion perception and, to date, it is unknown whether non-human primates perceive any kind of motion illusion. In the present study we investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceived one of the most popular motion illusions in humans, the Rotating Snake illusion (RSI). To this purpose, we set up four experiments. In Experiment 1 subjects initially were trained to discriminate static vs. dynamic arrays. Once reaching the learning criterion, they underwent probe trials in which we presented the RSI and a control stimulus identical in overall configuration with the exception that the order of the luminance sequence was changed in a way that no apparent motion is perceived by humans. The overall performance of monkeys indicated that they spontaneously classified RSI as a dynamic array. Subsequently, we tested adult humans in the same task with the aim of directly comparing the performance of human and non-human primates (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 we found that monkeys can be successfully trained to discriminate between the RSI and a control stimulus. Experiment 4 showed that a simple change in luminance sequence in the two arrays could not explain the performance reported in Exp. 3. These results suggest that some rhesus monkeys display a human-like perception of this motion illusion, raising the possibility that the neurocognitive systems underlying motion perception may be similar between human and non-human primates. PMID:25812828

  2. Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource: Banking Tissues for Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Daunais, JB; Davenport, AT; Helms, CM; Gonzales, SW; Hemby, SE; Friedman, DP; Farro, JP; Baker, EJ; Grant, KA

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is co-morbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of EtOH and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. Methods The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates (NHPs), specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent/day) over long periods of time (12–30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the ethanol-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. Results The MATRR is a unique post-mortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer ethanol using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. Conclusions This resource provides a translational

  3. Radiation response of the monkey kidney following contralateral nephrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, M.E.C.; Stephens, L.C.; Gray, K.N.

    1994-09-30

    The long-term functional and morphologic responses of the hypertrophied monkey kidney after unilateral nephrectomy to fractionated irradiation were assessed. The right kidney of 13 adult female rhesus monkeys was removed. Twelve weeks after unilateral nephrectomy (UN) the remaining kidney received fractionated doses of {gamma}-rays ranging from 35.2 Gy/16 fractions (F) up to 44 Gy/20 F. Glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and hematocrit values were measured up to 107 weeks postirradiation (PI). The monkeys were killed and the remaining kidneys were removed 107 weeks PI or earlier when end-stage renal failure was exhibited. Glomeruli were scored for the presence/absence of several pathologic features including increased intercapillary eosinophilic material (ICE), ecstatic capillaries, and thrombi. The relative proportion of renal cortex occupied by glomeruli, interstitium, normal tubules or abnormal tubules was determined using a Chalkley point grid. These quantal dose response data were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Irradiation of the remaining kidney in UN monkeys resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in renal function and anemia. Glomerular dysfunction preceded tubular dysfunction. Animals receiving 44 Gy all manifested progressive clinical renal failure. Conversely, those receiving {le} 39.6 Gy showed stable, albeit impaired, renal function for the duration of the observation period of 107 weeks. Morphologically, the incidence of ICE, ecstatic glomerular capillaries, thrombi, and periglomerular fibrosis was significantly dose-related (p < 0.005). A significant (p < 0.001) dose-related increase in the relative proportion of renal cortex occupied by abnormal tubules was indicative of tubular injury. A highly significant (p < 0.001) dose-dependent increase in the proportion of abnormal to normal tubules was also seen. 27 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Taphonomic aspects of crowned hawk-eagle predation on monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sanders, William J; Trapani, Josh; Mitani, John C

    2003-01-01

    This study provides a taphonomic analysis of prey accumulations of crowned hawk-eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) from Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, collected over 37 months from below nests of two eagle pairs. Crowned hawk-eagles are powerful predators capable of killing animals much larger than themselves, and are significant predators of cercopithecoid monkeys in forest habitats throughout sub-Saharan Africa. At Ngogo, 81% of the individuals in the kill sample are monkeys. Redtail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) are particularly well represented in the sample, making up 66% of monkeys identified to species. Despite an impressive killing apparatus, crowned hawk-eagles are fastidious eaters that inflict far less damage to bone than mammalian predators. Examination of skeletal material from the Ngogo kill sample reveals that crania, hindlimb elements, and scapulae survive predation better than do other bones. Crania of adults are typically complete and accompanied by mandibles, while crania of young individuals are usually dissociated from mandibles and lack basicrania and faces. Long bones are often whole or show minimal damage. Thin bones, such as crania and innominates, are marked by numerous nicks, punctures, and "can-opener" perforations. Scapular blades are heavily raked and shattered. Along with the strong preference for cercopithecoids, these distinct patterns of bone survival and damage indicate the feasibility of recognizing specific taphonomic signatures of large raptors in fossil assemblages. Berger and Clarke (1995) hypothesized that crowned hawk-eagles or similar large raptors were principally responsible for the accumulation of the late Pliocene fossil fauna from Taung, South Africa, including the type infant skull of Australopithecus africanus. The results of our study suggest that the faunal composition and type of damage to the hominid skull and other bone from Taung are consistent with the predatory activities of large raptors. More

  5. OWL (On-Lie Webstories for Learning): A Unique Web-based Literacy Resource for Primary/Elementary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliebo, Moira; Durnford, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes Online Webstories for Learning (OWL), a Web-based resource for elementary school literacy education that was initially developed for use in the United Kingdom. Discusses the importance of including narrative, how OWL is being adapted for use in other countries, and off-line class activities suggested as part of OWL. (Contains 8…

  6. A Korean Space Situational Awareness Program : OWL Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Choi, Y.; Jo, J.; Moon, H.; Im, H.; Park, J.

    2012-09-01

    We are going to present a brief introduction to the OWL (Optical Wide-field patroL) network, one of Korean space situational awareness facilities. Primary objectives of the OWL network are 1) to obtain orbital information of Korean domestic LEOs using optical method, 2) to monitor GEO-belt over territory of Korea, and 3) to alleviate collisional risks posed to Korean satellites from space debris. For these purposes, we are planning to build a global network of telescopes which consists of five small wide-field telescopes and one 2m class telescope. The network of small telescopes will be dedicated mainly to the observation of domestic LEOs, but many slots will be open to other scientific programs such as GRB follow-up observations. Main targets of 2m telescope not only include artificial objects such as GEO debris and LEO debris with low inclination and high eccentricity, but also natural objects such as near Earth asteroids. We expect to monitor space objects down to 10cm in size in GEO using the 2m telescope system. Main research topics include size distribution and evolution of space debris. We also expect to utilize this facility for physical characterization and population study of near Earth asteroids. The aperture size of the small telescope system is 0.5m with Rechey-Cretian configuration and its field of view is 1.75 deg x 1.75 deg. It is equipped with 4K CCD with 9um pixel size, and its plate scale is 1.3 arcsec/pixel. A chopper wheel is employed to maximize astrometric solutions in a single CCD frame, and a de-rotator is used to compensate field rotation of the alt-az type mount. We have designed a compact end unit in which three rotating parts (chopper wheel, filter wheel, de-rotator) and a CCD camera are integrated, and dedicated telescope/site control boards for the OWL network. The design of 2m class telescope is still under discussion yet is expected to be fixed in the first half of 2013 at the latest. The OWL network will be operated in a fully

  7. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  8. Summer Professional Development in Chemistry for Inservice Teachers Using OWL Quick Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Pamplin, Kim L.; Blake, Robert E.; Mason, Diana S.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary teachers participating in summer professional development chemistry workshops in Texas used an online chemistry tutoring program, OWL Quick Prep (Day et al. in OWL: Online Web-based Learning, Brooks-Cole Cengage Learning, Florence, KY, 1997) as a part of the inservice training. Self-reported demographic data were used to identify factors…

  9. Clinical and pathologic features of West Nile virus infection in native North American owls (Family strigidae).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, S D; Patterson, J S; Kiupel, M; Simmons, H A; Grimes, S D; Sarver, C F; Fulton, R M; Steficek, B A; Cooley, T M; Massey, J P; Sikarskie, J G

    2003-01-01

    Since the initial report of West Nile virus in the northeastern United States in 1999, the virus has spread rapidly westward and southward across the country. In the summer of 2002, several midwestern states reported increased cases of neurologic disease and mortality associated with West Nile virus infection in various native North American owl species. This report summarizes the clinical and pathologic findings for 13 captive and free-ranging owls. Affected species were all in the family Strigidae and included seven snowy owls (Nyctea scandiaca), four great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), a barred owl (Strix varia), and a short-eared owl (Asio flammeus). Neurologic signs identified included head tilt, uncoordinated flight, paralysis, tremors, and seizures. Owls that died were screened for flaviviral proteins by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed tissues, followed by specific polymerase chain reaction assay to confirm West Nile virus with fresh tissues when available. Microscopic lesions were widespread, involving brain, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen, and were typically nonsuppurative with infiltration by predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells. Lesions in owls were much more severe than those previously reported in corvids such as crows, which are considered highly susceptible to infection and are routinely used as sentinel species for monitoring for the presence and spread of West Nile virus. This report is the first detailed description of the pathology of West Nile virus infection in Strigiformes and indicates that this bird family is susceptible to natural infection with West Nile virus. PMID:14562887

  10. 77 FR 12985 - Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing Regulatory Burdens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... 28, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-5369 Filed 3-2-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 4310-10-P ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of February 28, 2012 Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing... Department of the Interior (Department) proposed critical habitat for the northern spotted owl. The...

  11. Emaciation and larval filarioid nematode infection in boreal owls (Aegolius funereus).

    PubMed

    Larrat, Sylvain; Dallaire, André D; Lair, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Microfilariae are considered non-pathogenic in wild birds. The objective of the current communication is to report host reactions to microfilarial infection of unusual intensity in emaciated boreal owls (Aegolius funereus). An unusually large number of boreal owls (n = 21) were submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Center-Quebec Region for post-mortem examination during the winter of 2009. Nineteen out of 21 birds were considered emaciated based on atrophy of adipose tissue and pectoral muscles and suboptimal weight. A microscopic examination of a subset of nine owls revealed the presence of microfilariae in six owls. Three of the birds with a heavy parasite burden had masses of larval nematodes obstructing large vessels of the lungs. The emaciated owls are believed to have died from starvation due to a cyclic decrease in prey abundance in the boreal forest. This cycle also drives winter movements of boreal owls to urbanized areas of southern Quebec, presumably accounting for the large number of birds submitted in 2009. In the most severely infected owls, the extreme microfilarial burden might have caused an alteration in circulatory dynamics, gaseous exchanges and also probably some metabolic cost. Consequently, microfilariae could have significantly contributed to the death of some of these owls. PMID:22834547

  12. "Not in the Middle Ages"?: Alan Garner's "The Owl Service" and the Literature of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses connecting with the Middle Ages in adolescent fiction. Discusses how, in "The Owl Service," Garner addresses a relationship between adolescence in the late twentieth century and an aspect of the past--specifically the Middle Ages. Considers how "The Owl Service" is a story energized by myth, concerning the participation of successive…

  13. Development of a rhesus monkey lung geometry model and application to particle deposition in comparison to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; McClellan, Gene; Corley, Rick; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Richard E.; Harkema, Jack; Carey, Stephan A.; Schelegle, Edward; Hyde, Dallas; Kimbell, Julia S.; Miller, Frederick J.

    2012-11-01

    The exposure-dose-response characterization of an inhalation hazard established in an animal species needs to be translated to an equivalent characterization in humans relative to comparable doses or exposure scenarios. Here, the first geometry model of the conducting airways for rhesus monkeys is developed based upon CT images of the conducting airways of a 6-month-old male, rhesus monkey. An algorithm was developed for adding the alveolar region airways using published rhesus morphometric data. The resultant lung geometry model can be used in mechanistic particle or gaseous dosimetry models. Such dosimetry models require estimates of the upper respiratory tract volume of the animal and the functional residual capacity, as well as of the tidal volume and breathing frequency of the animal. The relationship of these variables to rhesus monkeys of differing body weights was established by synthesizing and modeling published data as well as modeling pulmonary function measurements on 121 rhesus control animals. Deposition patterns of particles up to 10 µm in size were examined for endotracheal and and up to 5 µm for spontaneous breathing in infant and young adult monkeys and compared to those for humans. Deposition fraction of respirable size particles was found to be higher in the conducting airways of infant and young adult rhesus monkeys compared to humans. Due to the filtering effect of the conducting airways, pulmonary deposition in rhesus monkeys was lower than that in humans. Finally, future research areas are identified that would either allow replacing assumptions or improving the newly developed lung model.

  14. Test monkeys anesthetized by routine procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Test monkeys are safely anesthetized for five minutes by confining them for less than six minutes in enclosures containing a controlled volume of ether. Thus the monkeys can be properly and safely positioned on test couches and fitted with electrodes or other devices prior to physiological tests.

  15. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  16. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  17. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  18. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  19. The influence of hunger on meal to pellet intervals in barred owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duke, G.E.; Fuller, M.R.; Huberty, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. Barred owls fed at a sub-maintenance (SM) level had significantly (P < 0.01) longer meal to pellet intervals (MPI)/g eaten/kg body weight (BW) than those fed at an above maintenance (AM) level; MPI/g per kg for owls fed at a maintenance (M) level was intermediate but significantly (P < 0.01) different from both SM and AM. 2. 2. During SM feeding, MPI/g per kg gradually increased. 3. 3. The proportion of a meal occurring in a pellet was less in ?hungry? owls whether losing weight (SM) or gaining (AM) as compared to owls maintaining their normal body weight (M). 4. 4. SM fed owls appear to be able to increase digestion time as well as thoroughness of digestion.

  20. Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl ( Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often covaries with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively.

  1. Using Detection Dogs to Conduct Simultaneous Surveys of Northern Spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina) and Barred Owls (Strix varia)

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Samuel K.; Hayward, Lisa S.; Hartman, Jennifer; Booth, Rebecca K.; Broms, Kristin; Berg, Jodi; Seely, Elizabeth; Lewis, Lyle; Smith, Heath

    2012-01-01

    State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia)–a significant threat to northern spotted owls–can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris) located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km ×2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted

  2. Electroencephalographic and convulsant effects of the delta opioid agonist SNC80 in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Ingela; Gasior, Maciej; Stevenson, Glenn W.; Folk, John E.; Rice, Kenner C.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2007-01-01

    Non-peptidic delta opioid receptor agonists are being evaluated for a wide range of clinical applications; however, the clinical utility of piperazinyl benzamide delta agonists such as SNC80 may be limited by convulsant activity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the electroencephalographic and convulsant activity produced by a high dose of 10 mg/kg SNC80 IM in rhesus monkeys. EEG and behavioral activity were examined in four adult male rhesus monkeys after IM administration of SNC80. Monkeys were seated in a standard primate restraint chair, and EEG activity was recorded using an array of 16 needle electrodes implanted subcutaneously in the scalp in a bipolar (scalp-to scalp) montage in a longitudinal direction, with bilateral frontal, central, temporal, and occipital leads. Behavior was recorded using video monitoring equipment. Initially, all monkeys were tested with 10 mg/kg SNC80, which is a relatively high dose 3–10 fold greater than doses necessary to produce a variety of other behavioral effects. Behavioral convulsions and EEG seizures were observed in one of the four monkeys. In this monkey, neither behavioral convulsions nor EEG seizures were observed when a lower dose of 3.2 mg/kg was administered nine weeks later or when the same dose of 10 mg/kg SNC80 was administered one year later. These results suggest that IM administration of SNC80 is less potent in producing convulsant effects than in producing other, potentially useful behavioral effects (e.g. antinociception) in rhesus monkeys. PMID:17112570

  3. Thyroid status of female rhesus monkeys and preliminary information on impact of perchlorate administration.

    PubMed

    Ozpinar, Aysel; Golub, Mari S; Poppenga, Robert H; Blount, Benjamin C; Gillespie, Jerry R

    2011-07-01

    Thyroid status was assessed in adult female rhesus monkey breeders at the California National Primate Research Center at the beginning of the breeding season. The 95% confidence intervals for thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) (n = 66-80) were similar to those previously reported in smaller samples of macaque monkeys. Based on human criteria, 10 of 80 monkeys (12%) were hypothyroid (TSH > 2.0 µIU/mL). Because hypothyroxinaemia can be a risk factor in pregnancy, T(4) status was compared with past breeding history, breeding outcome for that season and general health records in a subset of 42 breeders. Age, weight and parity did not differ between monkeys in the lowest T(4) quartile as compared with those in the upper three quartiles. However, T(4) concentrations were significantly associated with the number of missed menstrual cycles during the previous breeding season. In additional work, three healthy lactating rhesus monkeys were given three different doses of environmental contaminant and thyroid iodine uptake inhibitor, ammonium perchlorate (0.006, 0.34, 12.8 mg/kg/day, respectively) in food for two weeks. Thyroid status variables (TSH, T(4), T(3), thyroid radioactive iodine uptake) were then measured. In the monkey receiving the highest perchlorate dose, iodine uptake was suppressed relative to baseline. The study shows the availability of tools to study thyroid status in rhesus monkeys, the variability of thyroid status in the breeder colony and the potential ability of environmental factors to influence thyroid status. PMID:21669905

  4. Winter Ecology of the Western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in Southern Texas 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary K.; Hickman, Graham C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the winter ecology of the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in five Texas counties surrounding Corpus Christi, in southern Texas. There is a substantial gap in information on the owl's life cycle during migration and non-breeding winter months; almost all previous research on western burrowing owls has been conducted during the breeding season. The western burrowing owl currently is federally threatened in Mexico, federally endangered in Canada, and in the United States is considered a National Bird of Conservation Concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Topics investigated included status, effectiveness of public outreach, roost sites and use of culverts and artificial burrows, roost site fidelity, diet, contaminant burdens, body mass, and ectoparasites. Early ornithological reports and a museum egg set revealed that burrowing owls once bred in southern Texas and were common in winter; however, since the 1950's they have been reported in relatively low numbers and only during winter. In this study, public outreach increased western burrowing owl detections by 68 percent. Owls selected winter roost sites with small-diameter openings, including culverts less than or equal to 16 centimeters and artificial burrows of 15 centimeters, probably because the small diameters deterred mammalian predators. Owls showed strong roost site fidelity; 15 banded birds stayed at the same roost sites within a winter, and 8 returned to the same site the following winter. The winter diet was over 90 percent insects, with crickets the primary prey. Analyses of invertebrate prey and regurgitated pellets showed that residues of all but 3 of 28 carbamate and organophosphate pesticides were detected at least once, but all were below known lethal concentrations. Mean body mass of western burrowing owls was 168 grams and was highest in midwinter. Feather lice were detected in low numbers on a few owls, but no fleas or other ectoparasites were found.

  5. Distribution of Cones in Human and Monkey Retina: Individual Variability and Radial Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcio, Christine A.; Sloan, Kenneth R.; Packer, Orin; Hendrickson, Anita E.; Kalina, Robert E.

    1987-05-01

    The distribution of photoreceptors is known for only one complete human retina and for the cardinal meridians only in the macaque monkey retina. Cones can be mapped in computer-reconstructed whole mounts of human and monkey retina. A 2.9-fold range in maximum cone density in the foveas of young adult human eyes may contribute to individual differences in acuity. Cone distribution is radially asymmetrical about the fovea in both species, as previously described for the distribution of retinal ganglion cells and for lines of visual isosensitivity. Cone density was greater in the nasal than in the temporal peripheral retina, and this nasotemporal asymmetry was more pronounced in monkey than in human retina.

  6. Age-related changes in dentate gyrus cell numbers, neurogenesis, and associations with cognitive impairments in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Laura B; Heyworth, Nadine C; Shwe, Yamin; Moore, Tara L; Rosene, Douglas L

    2015-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain is well-established for the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, the role of neurogenesis in hippocampal function and cognition, how it changes in aging, and the mechanisms underlying this are yet to be elucidated in the monkey brain. To address this, we investigated adult neurogenesis in the DG of 42 rhesus monkeys (39 cognitively tested) ranging in age from young adult to the elderly. We report here that there is an age-related decline in proliferation and a delayed development of adult neuronal phenotype. Additionally, we show that many of the new neurons survive throughout the lifetime of the animal and may contribute to a modest increase in total neuron number in the granule cell layer of the DG over the adult life span. Lastly, we find that measures of decreased adult neurogenesis are only modestly predictive of age-related cognitive impairment. PMID:26236203

  7. Age-related changes in dentate gyrus cell numbers, neurogenesis, and associations with cognitive impairments in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Ngwenya, Laura B.; Heyworth, Nadine C.; Shwe, Yamin; Moore, Tara L.; Rosene, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain is well-established for the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, the role of neurogenesis in hippocampal function and cognition, how it changes in aging, and the mechanisms underlying this are yet to be elucidated in the monkey brain. To address this, we investigated adult neurogenesis in the DG of 42 rhesus monkeys (39 cognitively tested) ranging in age from young adult to the elderly. We report here that there is an age-related decline in proliferation and a delayed development of adult neuronal phenotype. Additionally, we show that many of the new neurons survive throughout the lifetime of the animal and may contribute to a modest increase in total neuron number in the granule cell layer of the DG over the adult life span. Lastly, we find that measures of decreased adult neurogenesis are only modestly predictive of age-related cognitive impairment. PMID:26236203

  8. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence

    PubMed Central

    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy. PMID:26668551

  9. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence.

    PubMed

    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy. PMID:26668551

  10. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences

  11. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans. PMID:27170712

  12. Comparative and functional myology of the prehensile tail in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lemelin, P

    1995-06-01

    The caudal myology of prehensile-tailed monkeys (Cebus apella, Alouatta palliata, Alouatta seniculus, Lagothrix lagotricha, and Ateles paniscus) and nonprehensile-tailed primates (Eulemur fulvus, Aotus trivirgatus, Callithrix jacchus, Pithecia pithecia, Saimiri sciureus, Macaca fascicularis, and Cercopithecus aethiops) was examined and compared in order to identify muscular differences that correlate with osteological features diagnostic of tail prehensility. In addition, electrophysiological stimulation was carried out on different segments of the intertransversarii caudae muscle of an adult spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) to assess their action on the prehensile tail. Several important muscular differences characterize the prehensile tail of New World monkeys compared to the nonprehensile tail of other primates. In atelines and Cebus, the mass of extensor caudae lateralis and flexor caudae longus muscles is more uniform along the tail, and their long tendons cross a small number of vertebrae before insertion. Also, prehensile-tailed monkeys, especially atelines, are characterized by well-developed flexor and intertransversarii caudae muscles compared to nonprehensile-tailed primates. Finally, Ateles possesses a bulkier abductor caudae medialis and a more cranial origin for the first segment of intertransversarii caudae than do other prehensile-tailed platyrrhines. These myological differences between nonprehensile-tailed and prehensile-tailed primates, and among prehensile-tailed monkeys, agree with published osteological and behavioral data. Caudal myological similarities and differences found in Cebus and atelines, combined with tail-use data from the literature, support the hypothesis that prehensile tails evolved in parallel in Cebus and atelines. PMID:7595958

  13. Physical Structure of Planetary Nebulae. I. The Owl Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Martín A.; Chu, You-Hua; Manchado, Arturo; Kwitter, Karen B.

    2003-06-01

    The Owl Nebula is a triple-shell planetary nebula with the outermost shell being a faint bow-shaped halo. We have obtained deep narrowband images and high-dispersion echelle spectra in the Hα, [O III], and [N II] emission lines to determine the physical structure of each shell in the nebula. These spatiokinematic data allow us to rule out hydrodynamic models that can reproduce only the nebular morphology. Our analysis shows that the inner shell of the main nebula is slightly elongated with a bipolar cavity along its major axis, the outer nebula is a filled envelope coexpanding with the inner shell at 40 km s-1, and the halo has been braked by the interstellar medium as the Owl Nebula moves through it. To explain the morphology and kinematics of the Owl Nebula, we suggest the following scenario for its formation and evolution. The early mass loss at the TP-AGB phase forms the halo, and the superwind at the end of the AGB phase forms the main nebula. The subsequent fast stellar wind compressed the superwind to form the inner shell and excavated an elongated cavity at the center, but this has ceased in the past. At the current old age the inner shell is backfilling the central cavity. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and with the Burrell Schmidt telescope of the Warner and Swasey Observatory, Case Western Reserve University.

  14. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  15. Temporal Map Formation in the Barn Owl's Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibold, Christian; Kempter, Richard; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2001-12-01

    Barn owls provide an experimentally well-specified example of a temporal map, a neuronal representation of the outside world in the brain by means of time. Their laminar nucleus exhibits a place code of interaural time differences, a cue which is used to determine the azimuthal location of a sound stimulus, e.g., prey. We analyze a model of synaptic plasticity that explains the formation of such a representation in the young bird and show how in a large parameter regime a combination of local and nonlocal synaptic plasticity yields the temporal map as found experimentally. Our analysis includes the effect of nonlinearities as well as the influence of neuronal noise.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis of great horned owls (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Biederman, B M; Florence, D; Lin, C C

    1980-01-01

    A chromosome analysis of seven great honored owls (Bubo virginianus, Gmelin) has been performed on peripheral lymphocytes. The modal chromosome number was found to be 2n = 82. Measurements of relative lengths and arm ratios of the macrochromosomes were made. All chromosomes contain a region of constitutive heterochromatin in a centromeric location, with the W chromosome being composed almost entirely of this material. Chromosome replication, as demonstrated by the BudR-acridine orange method, showed synchronous replication of the two Z chromosomes of the male and late replication of the W chromosome of the female. In this species, functional regions of nucleolar organization appear to be localized to the microchromosomes. PMID:7449439

  17. Surveying woodland hawks with broadcasts of great horned owl vocalization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, James A.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Pre-recorded vocalizations of great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) broadcast into predominantly wooded habitat along roadside survey routes resulted in as many detections of resident red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) as broadcasts of each conspecific calls. Survey results for 3 species, expressed as average number of contacts/route, were directly related to the number of resident pairs located during systematic searches conducted on foot across the study area. Regression models based on road-transect counts were significant for predicting abundance of red-shouldered hawks, broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), and Cooper's hawks from our study areas.

  18. Chemical residue content and hatchability of screech owl eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaas, E.E.; Swineford, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs of wild Screech Owls were collected from nests in northwestern Ohio in 1973. One egg was taken from each of 19 nests near the start of incubation. Mean shell thickness in these 19 eggs and mean thickness of 16 unhatched eggs did not differ from 49 archival eggs collected in Ohio and Pennsylvania prior to the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides. Residues were generally low although all eggs contained DDE and PCB?s. No relationship was found between hatching failures and the presence of organochlorine residues. Low residues are consistent with a long history of good nesting success and a stable population.

  19. Focal plane detectors possible detector technologies for OWL/AIRWATCH

    SciTech Connect

    Flyckt, Esso

    1998-06-15

    New satellite-born projects OWL and AIRWATCH will need single-photon focal-plane detectors of a million pixels in a design which is optimized to the focusing optics and electronics at acceptable cost. We discuss different phototube possibilities and their pros and cons with crude cost estimates. We conclude that a multichannel-photomultiplier solution is safe. A better compromise may be to adapt a 6 or 9 inch X-ray image intensifier tube or develop a 12 inch image intensifier for detecting individual photons, and adapt the optics to have many mirror modules. The possibility of developing super-large-area phototubes is also discussed.

  20. Pre-Columbian monkey tools.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Staff, Richard A; Bradshaw, Fiona; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Falótico, Tiago

    2016-07-11

    Stone tools reveal worldwide innovations in human behaviour over the past three million years [1]. However, the only archaeological report of pre-modern non-human animal tool use comes from three Western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) sites in Côte d'Ivoire, aged between 4.3 and 1.3 thousand years ago (kya) [2]. This anthropocentrism limits our comparative insight into the emergence and development of technology, weakening our evolutionary models [3]. Here, we apply archaeological techniques to a distinctive stone tool assemblage created by a non-human animal in the New World, the Brazilian bearded capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus). Wild capuchins at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) use stones to pound open defended food, including locally indigenous cashew nuts [4], and we demonstrate that this activity dates back at least 600 to 700 years. Capuchin stone hammers and anvils are therefore the oldest non-human tools known outside of Africa, opening up to scientific scrutiny questions on the origins and spread of tool use in New World monkeys, and the mechanisms - social, ecological and cognitive - that support primate technological evolution. PMID:27404235

  1. Epigenetic Mechanism Underlying the Development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)-Like Phenotypes in Prenatally Androgenized Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ning; Kwon, Soonil; Abbott, David H.; Geller, David H.; Dumesic, Daniel A.; Azziz, Ricardo; Guo, Xiuqing; Goodarzi, Mark O.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is poorly understood. PCOS-like phenotypes are produced by prenatal androgenization (PA) of female rhesus monkeys. We hypothesize that perturbation of the epigenome, through altered DNA methylation, is one of the mechanisms whereby PA reprograms monkeys to develop PCOS. Infant and adult visceral adipose tissues (VAT) harvested from 15 PA and 10 control monkeys were studied. Bisulfite treated samples were subjected to genome-wide CpG methylation analysis, designed to simultaneously measure methylation levels at 27,578 CpG sites. Analysis was carried out using Bayesian Classification with Singular Value Decomposition (BCSVD), testing all probes simultaneously in a single test. Stringent criteria were then applied to filter out invalid probes due to sequence dissimilarities between human probes and monkey DNA, and then mapped to the rhesus genome. This yielded differentially methylated loci between PA and control monkeys, 163 in infant VAT, and 325 in adult VAT (BCSVD P<0.05). Among these two sets of genes, we identified several significant pathways, including the antiproliferative role of TOB in T cell signaling and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Our results suggest PA may modify DNA methylation patterns in both infant and adult VAT. This pilot study suggests that excess fetal androgen exposure in female nonhuman primates may predispose to PCOS via alteration of the epigenome, providing a novel avenue to understand PCOS in humans. PMID:22076147

  2. [Squirrel monkey--an ideal primate (correction of prmate) model of space physiology].

    PubMed

    Matsunami, K

    1997-06-01

    Investigation of the vestibulo-ocular system of the squirrel monkey was reviewed in consideration of space motion sickness (SMS), or which is recently more often termed as space adaptation syndrome (SAS). Since the first launching of the space satellite, Sputnik [correction of Sputonik] in October 1957, many experiments were carried out in biological and medical fields. A various kind of creatures were used as experimental models from protozoa to human beings. Rats and monkeys are most favorite animals, particularly the non-human primate seems to be the one, because of its phylogenetic relatives akin to the human beings. Chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, pig tailed-monkeys, red-faced monkeys and squirrel monkeys have been used mostly in American space experiments. Russian used rhesus monkeys. Among these, however, the squirrel monkey has an advantage of the small size of the body, ranging from 600- l000g in adult. This small size as a primate is very advantageous in experiments conducted in a narrow room of the space satellite or shuttle because of its space-saving. The squirrel monkey has another advantage to rear easily as is demonstrated to keep it as a pet. Accordingly, this petit animal provides us a good animal model in biological and medical experiments in space craft. The size of the brain of the squirrel monkey is extraordinary large relative to the body size, which is even superior to that of the human beings. This is partly owed to enlargement of the occipito-temporal cortices, which are forced to well develop for processing a huge amount of audio-visual information indispensable to the arboreal habitant to survive in tropical forest. The vestibular system of the squirrel monkey seems to be the most superior as well, when judged from it relative size of the vestibular nuclear complex. Balancing on swinging twigs or jumping from tree to tree developed the capability of this equilibrium system. Fernandez, Goldberg and his collaborators used the squirrel monkey

  3. A new owl species of the genus Otus (aves: strigidae) from Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sangster, George; King, Ben F; Verbelen, Philippe; Trainor, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    The avifauna of Indonesia is one of the richest in the world but the taxonomic status of many species remains poorly documented. The sole species of scops owl known from Lombok has long been assigned to the widespread Moluccan Scops Owl Otus magicus on the basis of superficial similarities in morphology. Field work in 2003 has shown that the territorial song of the scops owls inhabiting the foothills of Gunung Rinjani differs dramatically from that of O. magicus and is more similar to those of Rufescent Scops Owl O. rufescens and Singapore Scops Owl O. cnephaeus. Detailed comparisons of sound recordings and museum specimens with those of other scops owls in Wallacea and the Indo-Malayan region have confirmed the distinctiveness of the Lombok population. We describe Otus jolandae as a new species, the Rinjani Scops Owl. It is locally common at elevations from 25-1350 m. and occurs within Gunung Rinjani National Park. The new species is known from seven specimens collected by Alfred Everett in 1896. Otus jolandae represents the first endemic bird species from Lombok. PMID:23418422

  4. Differential risk perception of rural and urban Burrowing Owls exposed to humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Matilde; Baladrón, Alejandro V; Isacch, Juan Pablo; Biondi, Laura M; Bó, María Susana

    2016-03-01

    Urban areas expose wildlife to an array of novel predators, amongst which, humans and dogs are highly frequent. Thus, wild animals living in urban areas are forced to invest more time and energy in defence behaviours, which depend on how the risk is perceived and assessed. We experimentally tested whether Burrowing owls coming from rural and urban habitats showed differences in behavioural responses when facing humans and domestic dogs. We measured flight initiation distances (FIDs), nest returning, and aggressiveness level when owls faced a human and a human with a dog walking towards them. Our results showed that urban owls recognise a human with a dog as a greater threat than a human alone, thus indicating that fear of domestic animals should be considered as affecting owls' settlement in cities and towns. On the other hand, rural owls perceived human and dogs as similar threats, but showed higher FIDs, less aggressiveness, and lower tendency to return to the nest than urban owls in both treatments. These findings emphasize the importance of modified habitats in modelling the response of urban and rural owls to predators and represent another step in the explanation of how wild animals assess and respond to threats associated with living in urbanized environments. PMID:26718884

  5. Collection of mammal manure and other Debris by nesting Burrowing Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) routinely collect and scatter dry manure of mammals around their nesting burrows. Recent studies have suggested this behavior attracts insect prey to the nesting burrow. However, some Burrowing Owls do not use manure, but instead, collect and scatter other materials (e.g., grass, moss, paper, plastic) around their nesting burrow in a similar fashion. Use of these materials seemingly contradicts the prey-attraction hypothesis. Using observational and experimental methods, we tested whether Burrowing Owls preferred manure to other materials commonly found at nesting burrows in eastern Washington. We found a wide variety of materials at nests, but grass and manure were the most common materials. The amount of manure present at nests was negatively correlated with the amount of other materials, and with the distance to the nearest source of manure. Burrowing Owls showed no preference between horse manure and grass divots at experimental supply stations that we placed near nesting burrows. They did prefer these two materials to carpet pieces and aluminum foil (both materials that are often found at Burrowing Owl nests). Our results did not support the premise that Burrowing Owls specifically seek out manure when lining their nesting burrows. The unusual behavior of collecting and scattering mammal manure and other debris at Burrowing Owl nests may serve functions other than (or in addition to) prey attraction and alternative hypotheses need further testing before the function of this behavior is certain. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  6. Aerodynamics of a freely flying owl from PIV measurements in the wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Gurka, Roi; Weihs, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of the silent flight of owls have been the subject of scientific interest for many decades and a source of inspiration in the context of reducing flight noise. Over millions of years of evolution, owls have produced many specialized configurations to reduce the aerodynamic noise, which is found to be essential for successful hunting of potential prey. Here, we study how the three-dimensional flow field formed over the wing affect the vortical structures develop in the wake of a freely flying owl. We study the unique flight patterns of the Boobook owl; a mid-sized owl, which has the feature of stealth flight during both gliding and flapping flight. The owl was flown in a hypobaric avian wind tunnel at its comfort speed for various flight modes. The wake velocity field was sampled using long duration high speed PIV whilst the wing's kinematics were imaged using high speed video simultaneously with the PIV. The time series velocity maps acquired during few consecutive wingbeat cycles enabled to describe the various flow features as formed at the owl's wake by reconstructing the wake patterns and associate them with the various phases of the wingbeat cycle. The stealthy flight mode, which is a result of noise reduction mechanisms, formed over the wings (presumably by the leading-edge serrations) results in a unique signature in the wake flow field, which is characterized using the present data.

  7. A New Owl Species of the Genus Otus (Aves: Strigidae) from Lombok, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sangster, George; King, Ben F.; Verbelen, Philippe; Trainor, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    The avifauna of Indonesia is one of the richest in the world but the taxonomic status of many species remains poorly documented. The sole species of scops owl known from Lombok has long been assigned to the widespread Moluccan Scops Owl Otus magicus on the basis of superficial similarities in morphology. Field work in 2003 has shown that the territorial song of the scops owls inhabiting the foothills of Gunung Rinjani differs dramatically from that of O. magicus and is more similar to those of Rufescent Scops Owl O. rufescens and Singapore Scops Owl O. cnephaeus. Detailed comparisons of sound recordings and museum specimens with those of other scops owls in Wallacea and the Indo-Malayan region have confirmed the distinctiveness of the Lombok population. We describe Otus jolandae as a new species, the Rinjani Scops Owl. It is locally common at elevations from 25–1350 m. and occurs within Gunung Rinjani National Park. The new species is known from seven specimens collected by Alfred Everett in 1896. Otus jolandae represents the first endemic bird species from Lombok. PMID:23418422

  8. Endemic Viruses of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Donna L; McClure, Gloria B; Ruiz, Julio C; Abee, Christian R; Vanchiere, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are the experimental animals of choice for the study of many human diseases. As such, it is important to understand that endemic viruses of primates can potentially affect the design, methods, and results of biomedical studies designed to model human disease. Here we review the viruses known to be endemic in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). The pathogenic potential of these viruses in squirrel monkeys that undergo experimental manipulation remains largely unexplored but may have implications regarding the use of squirrel monkeys in biomedical research. PMID:26141448

  9. Prey composition modulates exposure risk to anticoagulant rodenticides in a sentinel predator, the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Geduhn, Anke; Esther, Alexandra; Schenke, Detlef; Gabriel, Doreen; Jacob, Jens

    2016-02-15

    Worldwide, small rodents are main prey items for many mammalian and avian predators. Some rodent species have pest potential and are managed with anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). ARs are consumed by target and non-target small mammals and can lead to secondary exposure of predators. The development of appropriate risk mitigation strategies is important and requires detailed knowledge of AR residue pathways. From July 2011 to October 2013 we collected 2397 regurgitated barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets to analyze diet composition of owls on livestock farms in western Germany. 256 of them were fresh pellets that were collected during brodifacoum baiting. Fresh pellets and 742 liver samples of small mammals that were trapped during baiting in the same area were analyzed for residues of ARs. We calculated exposure risk of barn owls to ARs by comparing seasonal diet composition of owls with AR residue patterns in prey species. Risk was highest in autumn, when barn owls increasingly preyed on Apodemus that regularly showed AR residues, sometimes at high concentrations. The major prey species (Microtus spp.) that was consumed most frequently in summer had less potential to contribute to secondary poisoning of owls. There was no effect of AR application on prey composition. We rarely detected ARs in pellets (2 of 256 samples) but 13% of 38 prey individuals in barn owl nests were AR positive and substantiated the expected pathway. AR residues were present in 55% of 11 barn owl carcasses. Fluctuation in non-target small mammal abundance and differences in AR residue exposure patterns in prey species drives exposure risk for barn owls and probably other predators of small mammals. Exposure risk could be minimized through spatial and temporal adaption of AR applications (avoiding long baiting and non-target hot spots at farms) and through selective bait access for target animals. PMID:26657360

  10. Exploiting Semantic Web Technologies to Develop OWL-Based Clinical Practice Guideline Execution Engines.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, Borna; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2016-01-01

    Computerizing paper-based CPG and then executing them can provide evidence-informed decision support to physicians at the point of care. Semantic web technologies especially web ontology language (OWL) ontologies have been profusely used to represent computerized CPG. Using semantic web reasoning capabilities to execute OWL-based computerized CPG unties them from a specific custom-built CPG execution engine and increases their shareability as any OWL reasoner and triple store can be utilized for CPG execution. However, existing semantic web reasoning-based CPG execution engines suffer from lack of ability to execute CPG with high levels of expressivity, high cognitive load of computerization of paper-based CPG and updating their computerized versions. In order to address these limitations, we have developed three CPG execution engines based on OWL 1 DL, OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + semantic web rule language (SWRL). OWL 1 DL serves as the base execution engine capable of executing a wide range of CPG constructs, however for executing highly complex CPG the OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + SWRL offer additional executional capabilities. We evaluated the technical performance and medical correctness of our execution engines using a range of CPG. Technical evaluations show the efficiency of our CPG execution engines in terms of CPU time and validity of the generated recommendation in comparison to existing CPG execution engines. Medical evaluations by domain experts show the validity of the CPG-mediated therapy plans in terms of relevance, safety, and ordering for a wide range of patient scenarios. PMID:25532198

  11. Reasoning about Resources and Hierarchical Tasks Using OWL and SWRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elenius, Daniel; Martin, David; Ford, Reginald; Denker, Grit

    Military training and testing events are highly complex affairs, potentially involving dozens of legacy systems that need to interoperate in a meaningful way. There are superficial interoperability concerns (such as two systems not sharing the same messaging formats), but also substantive problems such as different systems not sharing the same understanding of the terrain, positions of entities, and so forth. We describe our approach to facilitating such events: describe the systems and requirements in great detail using ontologies, and use automated reasoning to automatically find and help resolve problems. The complexity of our problem took us to the limits of what one can do with OWL, and we needed to introduce some innovative techniques of using and extending it. We describe our novel ways of using SWRL and discuss its limitations as well as extensions to it that we found necessary or desirable. Another innovation is our representation of hierarchical tasks in OWL, and an engine that reasons about them. Our task ontology has proved to be a very flexible and expressive framework to describe requirements on resources and their capabilities in order to achieve some purpose.

  12. Optimal Prediction of Moving Sound Source Direction in the Owl.

    PubMed

    Cox, Weston; Fischer, Brian J

    2015-07-01

    Capturing nature's statistical structure in behavioral responses is at the core of the ability to function adaptively in the environment. Bayesian statistical inference describes how sensory and prior information can be combined optimally to guide behavior. An outstanding open question of how neural coding supports Bayesian inference includes how sensory cues are optimally integrated over time. Here we address what neural response properties allow a neural system to perform Bayesian prediction, i.e., predicting where a source will be in the near future given sensory information and prior assumptions. The work here shows that the population vector decoder will perform Bayesian prediction when the receptive fields of the neurons encode the target dynamics with shifting receptive fields. We test the model using the system that underlies sound localization in barn owls. Neurons in the owl's midbrain show shifting receptive fields for moving sources that are consistent with the predictions of the model. We predict that neural populations can be specialized to represent the statistics of dynamic stimuli to allow for a vector read-out of Bayes-optimal predictions. PMID:26226048

  13. Cross-correlation in the auditory coincidence detectors of owls.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Brian J; Christianson, G Björn; Peña, José Luis

    2008-08-01

    Interaural time difference (ITD) plays a central role in many auditory functions, most importantly in sound localization. The classic model for how ITD is computed was put forth by Jeffress (1948). One of the predictions of the Jeffress model is that the neurons that compute ITD should behave as cross-correlators. Whereas cross-correlation-like properties of the ITD-computing neurons have been reported, attempts to show that the shape of the ITD response function is determined by the spectral tuning of the neuron, a core prediction of cross-correlation, have been unsuccessful. Using reverse correlation analysis, we demonstrate in the barn owl that the relationship between the spectral tuning and the ITD response of the ITD-computing neurons is that predicted by cross-correlation. Moreover, we show that a model of coincidence detector responses derived from responses to binaurally uncorrelated noise is consistent with binaural interaction based on cross-correlation. These results are thus consistent with one of the key tenets of the Jeffress model. Our work sets forth both the methodology to answer whether cross-correlation describes coincidence detector responses and a demonstration that in the barn owl, the result is that expected by theory. PMID:18685035

  14. West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Ian K.; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; McKeever, Katherine; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9 %) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8 %) of 91 were seropositive for WNV. PMID:15663850

  15. Landscape Features Shape Genetic Structure in Threatened Northern Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that landscape features can strongly affect spatial patterns of gene flow and genetic variation. Understanding landscape effects on genetic variation is important in conservation for defining management units and understanding movement patterns. The landscape may have little effect on gene flow, however, in highly mobile species such as birds. We tested for genetic breaks associated with landscape features in the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), a threatened subspecies associated with old forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and extreme southwestern Canada. We found little evidence for distinct genetic breaks in northern spotted owls using a large microsatellite dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range genotyped at 10 loci). Nonetheless, dry low-elevation valleys and the Cascade and Olympic Mountains restrict gene flow, while the Oregon Coast Range facilitates it. The wide Columbia River is not a barrier to gene flow. In addition, inter-individual genetic distance and latitude were negatively related, likely reflecting northward colonization following Pleistocene glacial recession. Our study shows that landscape features may play an important role in shaping patterns of genetic variation in highly vagile taxa such as birds.

  16. Surveys of Puerto Rican screech-owl populations in large-tract and fragmented forest habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Pagan, M.

    1996-01-01

    We conducted road surveys of Puerto Rican Screech-Owls (Otus nudipes) by playing conspecific vocalizations in secondary wet forest and fragmented secondary moist forest in rural areas of eastern Puerto Rico. Six paired surveys were conducted bi-weekly beginning in April. We recorded number of owl responses, cloud cover, wind speed, moon phase, and number of passing cars during 5-min stops at 60 locations. Owls responded in similar numbers (P > 0.05) in both habitat types. Also, we detected no association with cloud cover, wind speed, moon phase, or passing cars.

  17. Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family Receptor Homologs in New World Monkey Cytomegaloviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Carmona, Natàlia; Farré, Domènec; Martínez-Vicente, Pablo; Terhorst, Cox; Engel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Throughout evolution, large DNA viruses have been usurping genes from their hosts to equip themselves with proteins that restrain host immune defenses. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family (SLAMF) receptors are involved in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity, which occurs upon engagement with their ligands via homotypic or heterotypic interactions. Here we report a total of seven SLAMF genes encoded by the genomes of two cytomegalovirus (CMV) species, squirrel monkey CMV (SMCMV) and owl monkey CMV (OMCMV), that infect New World monkeys. Our results indicate that host genes were captured by retrotranscription at different stages of the CMV-host coevolution. The most recent acquisition led to S1 in SMCMV. S1 is a SLAMF6 homolog with an amino acid sequence identity of 97% to SLAMF6 in its ligand-binding N-terminal Ig domain. We demonstrate that S1 is a cell surface glycoprotein capable of binding to host SLAMF6. Furthermore, the OMCMV genome encodes A33, an LY9 (SLAMF3) homolog, and A43, a CD48 (SLAMF2) homolog, two soluble glycoproteins which recognize their respective cellular counterreceptors and thus are likely to be viral SLAMF decoy receptors. In addition, distinct copies of further divergent CD48 homologs were found to be encoded by both CMV genomes. Remarkably, all these molecules display a number of unique features, including cytoplasmic tails lacking characteristic SLAMF signaling motifs. Taken together, our findings indicate a novel immune evasion mechanism in which incorporation of host SLAMF receptors that retain their ligand-binding properties enables viruses to interfere with SLAMF functions and to supply themselves with convenient structural molds for expanding their immunomodulatory repertoires. IMPORTANCE The way in which viruses shape their genomes under the continual selective pressure exerted by the host immune system is central for their survival. Here, we report that New World monkey cytomegaloviruses

  18. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-03-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E{sub 2}) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E{sub 2} dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E{sub 2} increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Generation of Chimeric Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2011-01-01

    Summary Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the 4-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible. PMID:22225614

  20. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  1. Simian varicella virus reactivation in cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Mahalingam, Ravi Traina-Dorge, Vicki Wellish, Mary Lorino, Rebecca Sanford, Robert Ribka, Erin P. Alleman, Scott J. Brazeau, Elizabeth Gilden, Donald H.

    2007-11-10

    SVV infection of primates closely resembles VZV infection of humans. Like VZV, SVV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons. We used this model to study the effect of immunosuppression on varicella reactivation. Cynomolgus monkeys latently infected with SVV were irradiated and treated with tacrolimus and prednisone. Of four latently infected monkeys that were immunosuppressed and subjected to the stress of transportation and isolation, one developed zoster, and three others developed features of subclinical reactivation. Another non-immunosuppressed latently infected monkey that was subjected to the same stress of travel and isolation showed features of subclinical reactivation. Virus reactivation was confirmed not only by the occurrence of zoster in one monkey, but also by the presence of late SVV RNA in ganglia, and the detection of SVV DNA in non-ganglionic tissue, and SVV antigens in skin, ganglia and lung.

  2. Chromosome evolution in new world monkeys (Platyrrhini).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, E H C; Neusser, M; Müller, S

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, New World monkey (NWM, Platyrrhini, Anthropoideae) comparative cytogenetics has shed light on many fundamental aspects of genome organisation and evolution in this fascinating, but also highly endangered group of neotropical primates. In this review, we first provide an overview about the evolutionary origin of the inferred ancestral NWM karyotype of 2n = 54 chromosomes and about the lineage-specific chromosome rearrangements resulting in the highly divergent karyotypes of extant NWM species, ranging from 2n = 16 in a titi monkey to 2n = 62 in a woolly monkey. Next, we discuss the available data on the chromosome phylogeny of NWM in the context of recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. In the last part, we highlight some recent research on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the large-scale evolutionary genomic changes in platyrrhine monkeys. PMID:22699158

  3. Tuning Neuronal Hardware with Microsecond Precision: Sound Localization in the Barn Owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    1998-03-01

    In auditory and electrosensory neuronal systems, there seems to exist an unresolved paradox: They encode behaviorally relevant signals in the range of a few microseconds with neurons that are at least one order of magnitude slower. The barn owl's auditory system is a prominent example that may serve to provide a solution(W. Gerstner, R. Kempter, J.L. van Hemmen, and H. Wagner, Nature 383) (1996) 76--78 to the above paradox. First, neuronal output is much more accurate than the input, phprovided the presynaptic spikes arrive coherently on the average -- as they do in the adult animal. Second, this coherence in signal arrival times can be attained through unsupervised Hebbian learning (`tuning') during ontogenetic development. The learning rule governing the strength of a synapse is based on the precise timing of input as compared to output spikes. Third, the learning rule also selects the correct delays from two independent groups of input, for example, from the left and right ear and, thus, can explain the tuning to interaural time differences in the microsecond range that underlies sound localization. The relation to stochastic resonance is indicated.

  4. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  5. Cytogenesis in the monkey retina

    SciTech Connect

    La Vail, M.M.; Rapaport, D.H.; Rakic, P. )

    1991-07-01

    Time of cell origin in the retina of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) was studied by plotting the number of heavily radiolabeled nuclei in autoradiograms prepared from 2- to 6-month-old animals, each of which was exposed to a pulse of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) on a single embryonic (E) or postnatal (P) day. Cell birth in the monkey retina begins just after E27, and approximately 96% of cells are generated by E120. The remaining cells are produced during the last (approximately 45) prenatal days and into the first several weeks after birth. Cell genesis begins near the fovea, and proceeds towards the periphery. Cell division largely ceases in the foveal and perifoveal regions by E56. Despite extensive overlap, a class-specific sequence of cell birth was observed. Ganglion and horizontal cells, which are born first, have largely congruent periods of cell genesis with the peak between E38 and E43, and termination around E70. The first labeled cones were apparent by E33, and their highest density was achieved between E43 and E56, tapering to low values at E70, although some cones are generated in the far periphery as late as E110. Amacrine cells are next in the cell birth sequence and begin genesis at E43, reach a peak production between E56 and E85, and cease by E110. Bipolar cell birth begins at the same time as amacrines, but appears to be separate from them temporally since their production reaches a peak between E56 and E102, and persists beyond the day of birth. Mueller cells and rod photoreceptors, which begin to be generated at E45, achieve a peak, and decrease in density at the same time as bipolar cells, but continue genesis at low density on the day of birth. Thus, bipolar, Mueller, and rod cells have a similar time of origin.

  6. The susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Meryl L.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness was investigated using test conditions that are provocative for eliciting motion sickness in squirrel monkeys. Ten male rhesus monkeys and ten male Bolivian squirrel monkeys were rotated in the vertical axis at 150 deg/s for a maximum duration of 45 min. Each animal was tested in two conditions, continuous rotation and intermittent rotation. None of the rhesus monkeys vomited during the motion tests but all of the squirrel monkeys did. Differences were observed between the species in the amount of activity that occurred during motion test, with the squirrel monkeys being significantly more active than the rhesus monkeys. These results, while substantiating anecdotal reports of the resistance of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness, should be interpreted with caution because of the documented differences that exist between various species with regard to stimuli that are provocative for eliciting motion sickness.

  7. On loss aversion in capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G; Huntsberry, Mary E; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-03-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that attributes their results not to loss aversion, but to differences between choice alternatives in delay of reinforcement. PMID:18422015

  8. Sequential planning in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Danly, Erin; Morgan, Gin; Colombo, Michael; Terrace, Herbert S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the planning abilities of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by training them on a five-item list composed of coloured photographs and then testing them on switch and mask trials. In contrast to previous studies where monkeys made responses using a joystick, in the current study, monkeys made responses directly to a touch screen. On switch trials, after a response to the first list item, the on-screen positions of two list items were exchanged. Performance on trials in which the second and third list items were exchanged was poorer compared to normal (non-switch) trials for all subjects. When the third and fourth items were exchanged, however, only one subject continued to show performance deficits. On mask trials, following a response to the first item, the remaining items were covered by opaque white squares. When two items were masked, all four subjects responded to each masked item at a level significantly above chance. When three items were masked, however, only one subjected was able to respond to all three masked items at a level significantly above chance. The results of the present study indicate that three of our four monkeys planned one response ahead while a single monkey planned two responses ahead. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to previous studies on planning in chimpanzees and monkeys. PMID:21184125

  9. Cystic urolithiasis in captive waxy monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sauvagii).

    PubMed

    Archibald, Kate E; Minter, Larry J; Dombrowski, Daniel S; O'Brien, Jodi L; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2015-03-01

    The waxy monkey frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) is an arboreal amphibian native to arid regions of South America, and it has developed behavioral and physiologic adaptations to permit survival in dry environments. These adaptations include a uricotelic nitrogen metabolism and unique cutaneous lipid excretions to prevent evaporative water loss. Uroliths are a rare finding in amphibians. Six adult, presumed wild-caught waxy monkey frogs housed in a museum animal collection were diagnosed with cystic urolithiasis over a 7-yr period, and a single animal was diagnosed with four recurrent cases. Six cases were identified incidentally at routine physical or postmortem examination and four cases were identified during veterinary evaluation for coelomic distension, lethargy, anorexia, and increased soaking behavior. Calculi were surgically removed from three frogs via cystotomy, and a single frog underwent three cystotomies and two cloacotomies for recurrent urolithiasis. Two frogs died within the 24-hr postoperative period. Two representative calculi from a single frog were submitted for component analysis and found to consist of 100% ammonium urate. In the present report, cystic calculi are proposed to be the result of a high-protein diet based on a single invertebrate source, coupled with uricotelism, dehydration, increased cutaneous water loss, body temperature fluctuations facilitating supersaturation of urine, and subsequent accumulation and precipitation of urogenous wastes within the urinary bladder. Surgical cystotomy represents a short-term treatment strategy for this condition. Preventative measures, such as supplying a diversified and balanced diet in addition to environmental manipulation aimed at promoting adequate hydration, are anticipated to be more-rewarding management tools for cystic urolithiasis in the waxy monkey frog. PMID:25831582

  10. Longitudinal analysis of the developing rhesus monkey brain using magnetic resonance imaging: birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Scott, Julia A; Grayson, David; Fletcher, Evan; Lee, Aaron; Bauman, Melissa D; Schumann, Cynthia Mills; Buonocore, Michael H; Amaral, David G

    2016-06-01

    We have longitudinally assessed normative brain growth patterns in naturalistically reared Macaca mulatta monkeys. Postnatal to early adulthood brain development in two cohorts of rhesus monkeys was analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging. Cohort A consisted of 24 rhesus monkeys (12 male, 12 female) and cohort B of 21 monkeys (11 male, 10 female). All subjects were scanned at 1, 4, 8, 13, 26, 39, and 52 weeks; cohort A had additional scans at 156 weeks (3 years) and 260 weeks (5 years). Age-specific segmentation templates were developed for automated volumetric analyses of the T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Trajectories of total brain size as well as cerebral and subcortical subdivisions were evaluated over this period. Total brain volume was about 64 % of adult estimates in the 1-week-old monkey. Brain volume of the male subjects was always, on average, larger than the female subjects. While brain volume generally increased between any two imaging time points, there was a transient plateau of brain growth between 26 and 39 weeks in both cohorts of monkeys. The trajectory of enlargement differed across cortical regions with the occipital cortex demonstrating the most idiosyncratic pattern of maturation and the frontal and temporal lobes showing the greatest and most protracted growth. A variety of allometric measurements were also acquired and body weight gain was most closely associated with the rate of brain growth. These findings provide a valuable baseline for the effects of fetal and early postnatal manipulations on the pattern of abnormal brain growth related to neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26159774

  11. Large-Scale Reorganization in the Somatosensory Cortex and Thalamus after Sensory Loss in Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Neeraj; Qi, Hui-Xin; Collins, Christine E.; Kaas, Jon H.

    2008-01-01

    Adult brains undergo large-scale plastic changes following peripheral and central injuries. Although it has been shown that both the cortical and thalamic representations can reorganize, uncertainties exist regarding the extent, nature, and time course of changes at each level. We have determined how cortical representations in the somatosensory area 3b and the ventroposterior (VP) nucleus of thalamus are affected by long standing unilateral dorsal column lesions at cervical levels in macaque monkeys. In monkeys with recovery periods of 22-23 months, the intact face inputs expanded into the deafferented hand region of area 3b following complete or partial lesions of the dorsal columns. The expansion of the face region could extend all the way medially into the leg and foot representations. In the same monkeys, similar expansions of the face representation take place in the VP nucleus of the thalamus, indicating that both these processing levels undergo similar reorganizations. The receptive fields of the expanded representations were similar in somatosensory cortex and thalamus. In two monkeys, we determined the extent of the brain reorganization immediately after dorsal column lesions. In these monkeys, the deafferented regions of area 3b and the VP nucleus became unresponsive to the peripheral touch immediately after the lesion. No reorganization was seen in the cortex or the VP nucleus. A comparison of the extents of deafferentation across the monkeys shows that even if the dorsal column lesion is partial, preserving most of the hand representation, it is sufficient to induce an expansion of the face representation. PMID:18945912

  12. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference in rhesus monkeys: Resistance to inactivation of insula and extinction.

    PubMed

    Wu, XuJun; Zhao, Ning; Bai, Fan; Li, ChuanYu; Liu, CiRong; Wei, JingKuan; Zong, Wei; Yang, LiXin; Ryabinin, Andrey E; Ma, YuanYe; Wang, JianHong

    2016-05-01

    Drug addicts experience strong craving episodes in response to drug-associated cues. Attenuating these responses using pharmacological or behavioral approaches could aid recovery from addiction. Cue-induced drug seeking can be modeled using the conditioned place preference procedure (CPP). Our previous work showed that conditioned place preference (CPP) can be induced by administration of increasing doses of morphine in rhesus monkeys. Here, we investigated whether expression of morphine-induced CPP can be attenuated by inhibiting activity of insular cortex or by repeated unreinforced exposures to the CPP test. The insula has been demonstrated to be involved in addiction to several drugs of abuse. To test its role in morphine CPP, bilateral cannulae were implanted into the insula in seven adult monkeys. The CPP was established using a biased apparatus by intramuscular injections of morphine at increasing doses (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5mg/kg) for each monkey. After the monkeys established morphine CPP, their insulae were reversibly inactivated by bilateral microinjection with 5% lidocaine (40μl) prior to the post-conditioning test (expression) of CPP using a within-subject design. The microinjections of lidocaine failed to affect CPP expression when compared to saline injections. We subsequently investigated morphine-associated memory during six episodes of CPP tests performed in these monkeys over the following 75.0±0.2months. While the preference score showed a declining trend with repeated testing, morphine-induced CPP was maintained even on the last test performed at 75months post-conditioning. This observation indicated strong resistance of morphine-induced memories to extinction in rhesus monkeys. Although these data do not confirm involvement of insula in morphine-induced CPP, our observation that drug-associated memories can be maintained over six drug-free years following initial experience with morphine has important implications for treatment of drug addiction

  13. Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions. The data indicate that the volumetric features of distractors are internally represented, implying that the basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection have deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24503774

  14. Rodents new to the diet of the western burrowing owl(athene CUNICULARIA HYPUGAEA )

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiluford, D.L.; Woodin, M.C.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Hickman, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The northern pygmy mouse (Baiomys taylori), fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), and Merriam's pocket mouse (Pemgnathus merriami) are new to the diet of the western burrowing owl (Athene cuniculana hypugaed). All three species were identified from remains in regurgitated pellets collected from roost sites of burrowing owls in southern Texas over a period of 4 winters. Together, northern pygmy mice and fulvous harvest mice represented 58% of mammals identified in 182 pellets regurgitated by western burrowing owls. Merriam's pocket mouse accounted for only 4% of identified mammalian prey. Frequency of occurrence in pellets was 16% for northern pygmv mice, 11% for fulvous harvest mice, and 3% for Merriam's pocket mice. The primary reason for absence of these species in previous studies of foods of western burrowing owls is that most were conducted in latitudes north of these southern-distributed species of mammals.

  15. Estimating inbreeding rates in Northern Spotted Owls: insights from pedigrees and spatio-demographic models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The federally-threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has a substantial influence on management of federal lands. Despite decades of investigation, important details about its status and habits remain unknown. In particular, determining the frequency of inbre...

  16. An Analysis of Spatial Clustering and Implications for Wildlife Management: A Burrowing Owl Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Trulio, Lynne A.; Biging, Gregory S.; Chromczak, Debra

    2007-03-01

    Analysis tools that combine large spatial and temporal scales are necessary for efficient management of wildlife species, such as the burrowing owl ( Athene cunicularia). We assessed the ability of Ripley’s K-function analysis integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) to determine changes in burrowing owl nest clustering over two years at NASA Ames Research Center. Specifically, we used these tools to detect changes in spatial and temporal nest clustering before, during, and after conducting management by mowing to maintain low vegetation height at nest burrows. We found that the scale and timing of owl nest clustering matched the scale and timing of our conservation management actions over a short time frame. While this study could not determine a causal link between mowing and nest clustering, we did find that Ripley’s K and GIS were effective in detecting owl nest clustering and show promise for future conservation uses.

  17. Blood characteristics, tracheal volume and heart mass of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Birchard, G F; Kilgore, D L

    1983-01-01

    1. Measurements of certain hematological and morphological characteristics were made in burrowing owls and bobwhite in search of features that could be associated with the previously described ventilatory adaptations of the burrowing owl to hypoxia and hypercarbia. 2. Values for burrowing owls and bobwhite, respectively, were: P50 = 44.9, 46.0 torr; Hct = 36.6, 38.8 vol%, Hb = 12, 12.3 (g/100 ml); RBC = 2.72 X 10(6), 3.02 X 10(6); log P50/pH = -0.412, -0.485; delta log PCO2/delta pH = -1.39, -1.585. 3. The owls had greater heart weights and smaller tracheal volumes than the bobwhite or the predicted value. 4. No hematological characteristics of the burrowing bird distinguish it from the non-burrowing bird. PMID:6132713

  18. An analysis of spatial clustering and implications for wildlife management: a burrowing owl example.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Joshua B; Trulio, Lynne A; Biging, Gregory S; Chromczak, Debra

    2007-03-01

    Analysis tools that combine large spatial and temporal scales are necessary for efficient management of wildlife species, such as the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia). We assessed the ability of Ripley's K-function analysis integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) to determine changes in burrowing owl nest clustering over two years at NASA Ames Research Center. Specifically, we used these tools to detect changes in spatial and temporal nest clustering before, during, and after conducting management by mowing to maintain low vegetation height at nest burrows. We found that the scale and timing of owl nest clustering matched the scale and timing of our conservation management actions over a short time frame. While this study could not determine a causal link between mowing and nest clustering, we did find that Ripley's K and GIS were effective in detecting owl nest clustering and show promise for future conservation uses. PMID:17253092

  19. Effect of high dose isoflurane on cerebral blood flow in macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Xia; Patel, Sudeep; Wang, Danny JJ; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of high dose isoflurane on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was investigated in adult macaque monkeys receiving 1% to 2% isoflurane with the pseudo continuous arterial-spin-labeling (pCASL) MRI technique. High concentration (2%) of isoflurane resulted in significant increase in the mean CBF of the global, cortical, subcortical regions and the regional CBF in all subcortical structures and most cortical structures (such as motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, but not media prefrontal cortex). In addition, the changes of regional CBF in the affected regions correlated linearly with increasing isoflurane concentrations. The study demonstrates region specific CBF abnormal increase in adult macaque monkeys under high dose (2%) isoflurane and suggests the brain functionality in corresponding structures may be affected and need to be taken consideration in either human or non-human primate neuroimaging studies. PMID:24890304

  20. Clinical pathological findings in an owl (Athene noctua) with microfilaraemia in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bedin, M; Petterino, C; Gallo, E; Selleri, P; Morgante, M

    2007-04-01

    We report the first case of microfilaria infection in a free-flying owl Athene noctua in Italy. A macroparasite, about 10.1-mm long, was observed in the right chamber of the heart. On microscopic examination microfilariae were seen in liver, kidney, myocardium and lungs, although no cellular reaction was present in association with the parasites in any of these tissues. Because of the low pathogenicity of this parasite, infection with microfilaria may be not harmful in wild owls. PMID:17381675

  1. Pharmaceutical validation of medication orders using an OWL Ontology and Business Rules.

    PubMed

    Chniti, Amina; Boussadi, Abdelali; Degoulet, Patrice; Albert, Patrick; Charlet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of pharmaceutical validation of medication based on an OWL ontology and business rules or more specifically clinical decision rules. This application has been developed based on a prototype that enables business users to author, execute and manage their Business Rules over OWL Ontology. This prototype is based on the Business Rule Management System (BRMS) IBM WebSphere ILOG JRules. PMID:22874408

  2. Mortality in fledgling great horned owls from black fly hematophaga and leucocytozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D B; Rohner, C; Currie, D C

    1997-07-01

    Black fly feeding alone and in concert with Leucocytozoon spp. infection caused mortality in fledgling great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) in the Yukon, Canada 1990 to 1991. These mortalities occurred during a year of food shortage corresponding with a decline in the population of snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), the main prey for great horned owls. We hypothesize an interaction between food availability and the consequences of host-parasite interactions. PMID:9249694

  3. Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Restani, M.; Davies, J.M.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Effects of fire on spotted owl site occupancy in a late-successional forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Susan L.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Kelt, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a late-successional forest dependent species that is sensitive to forest management practices throughout its range. An increase in the frequency and spatial extent of standreplacing fires in western North America has prompted concern for the persistence of spotted owls and other sensitive late-successional forest associated species. However, there is sparse information on the effects of fire on spotted owls to guide conservation policies. In 2004-2005, we surveyed for California spotted owls during the breeding season at 32 random sites (16 burned, 16 unburned) throughout late-successional montane forest in Yosemite National Park, California. Our burned areas burned at all severities, but predominately involved low to moderate fire severity. Based on an information theoretic approach, spotted owl detection and occupancy rates were similar between burned and unburned sites. Nest and roost site occupancy was best explained by a model that combined total tree basal area (positive effect) with cover by coarse woody debris (negative effect). The density estimates of California spotted owl pairs were similar in burned and unburned forests, and the overall mean density estimate for Yosemite was higher than previously reported for montane forests. Our results indicate that low to moderate severity fires, historically common within montane forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, maintain habitat characteristics essential for spotted owl site occupancy. These results suggest that managed fires that emulate the historic fire regime of these forests may maintain spotted owl habitat and protect this species from the effects of future catastrophic fires.

  5. Nocturnal activity by diurnal lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi, S. virgatus) eaten by small owls (Glaucidium gnoma, Otus trichopsis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, W.W.; Gehlbach, F.R.; Middendorf, G. A., III

    2003-01-01

    Whiskered screech-owls (Otus trichopsis) and northern pygmy-owls (Glaucidium gnoma) delivered freshly caught Yarrow's spiny lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi) and striped plateau lizards (S. virgatus) to nestlings from dusk to dark in southeastern Arizona. This observation stimulated studies of the prey deliveries by the owls and lizard activity patterns, because the lizards are not known to be nocturnal. Lizards were more frequent prey of both owls than endothermic vertebrates but infrequent compared to arthropods, a pattern in the pygmy-owl that differs from its northern populations. Yarrow's spiny lizard, the most abundant and frequently captured lizard, was most active in the morning but also active in the evening. Striped plateau lizard, the second most abundant and depredated species, had morning and evening peaks of activity. Few lizards, including S. clarki and Urosaurus ornatus, but not Cnemidophorus exsanguis and C. sonorae, were active at or after dark, when relatively few were captured by the owls.

  6. Comment on 'Are survival rates for northern spotted owls biased?'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, A.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Burnham, K.P.; White, Gary C.; Forsman, E.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Loehle et al. recently estimated survival rates from radio-telemetered northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina (Merriam, 1898)) and suggested that survival rates estimated for this species from capture-recapture studies were negatively biased, which subsequently resulted in the negatively biased estimates of rates of population change (lambda) reported by Anthony et al. (Wildl. Monogr. No. 163, pp. 1-47 (2006)). We argue that their survival estimates were inappropriate for comparison with capture-recapture estimates because (i) the manner in which they censored radio-telemetered individuals had the potential to positively bias their survival estimates, (ii) their estimates of survival were not valid for evaluating bias, and (iii) the size and distribution of their radiotelemetry study areas were sufficiently different from capture-recapture study areas to preclude comparisons. In addition, their inferences of negative bias in rates of population change estimated by Anthony et al. were incorrect and reflected a misunderstanding about those estimators.

  7. Maps of interaural delay in the owl's nucleus laminaris.

    PubMed

    Carr, Catherine E; Shah, Sahil; McColgan, Thomas; Ashida, Go; Kuokkanen, Paula T; Brill, Sandra; Kempter, Richard; Wagner, Hermann

    2015-09-01

    Axons from the nucleus magnocellularis form a presynaptic map of interaural time differences (ITDs) in the nucleus laminaris (NL). These inputs generate a field potential that varies systematically with recording position and can be used to measure the map of ITDs. In the barn owl, the representation of best ITD shifts with mediolateral position in NL, so as to form continuous, smoothly overlapping maps of ITD with iso-ITD contours that are not parallel to the NL border. Frontal space (0°) is, however, represented throughout and thus overrepresented with respect to the periphery. Measurements of presynaptic conduction delay, combined with a model of delay line conduction velocity, reveal that conduction delays can account for the mediolateral shifts in the map of ITD. PMID:26224776

  8. Signaling of the strongest stimulus in the owl optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Mysore, Shreesh P; Asadollahi, Ali; Knudsen, Eric I

    2011-04-01

    Essential to the selection of the next target for gaze or attention is the ability to compare the strengths of multiple competing stimuli (bottom-up information) and to signal the strongest one. Although the optic tectum (OT) has been causally implicated in stimulus selection, how it computes the strongest stimulus is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that OT neurons in the barn owl systematically encode the relative strengths of simultaneously occurring stimuli independently of sensory modality. Moreover, special "switch-like" responses of a subset of neurons abruptly increase when the stimulus inside their receptive field becomes the strongest one. Such responses are not predicted by responses to single stimuli and, indeed, are eliminated in the absence of competitive interactions. We demonstrate that this sensory transformation substantially boosts the representation of the strongest stimulus by creating a binary discrimination signal, thereby setting the stage for potential winner-take-all target selection for gaze and attention. PMID:21471353

  9. Maps of interaural delay in the owl's nucleus laminaris

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sahil; McColgan, Thomas; Ashida, Go; Kuokkanen, Paula T.; Brill, Sandra; Kempter, Richard; Wagner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Axons from the nucleus magnocellularis form a presynaptic map of interaural time differences (ITDs) in the nucleus laminaris (NL). These inputs generate a field potential that varies systematically with recording position and can be used to measure the map of ITDs. In the barn owl, the representation of best ITD shifts with mediolateral position in NL, so as to form continuous, smoothly overlapping maps of ITD with iso-ITD contours that are not parallel to the NL border. Frontal space (0°) is, however, represented throughout and thus overrepresented with respect to the periphery. Measurements of presynaptic conduction delay, combined with a model of delay line conduction velocity, reveal that conduction delays can account for the mediolateral shifts in the map of ITD. PMID:26224776

  10. Presumptive electric cataracts in a Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Dees, D Dustin; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes suspected electrocution in a juvenile female Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus) with subsequent bilateral cataract formation. The bird flew into a high-voltage power line and was immediately rescued. Burn wounds of the head and ataxia with apparent blindness were noted. Initial ophthalmic examination 5 days after the incident revealed bilaterally symmetrical anterior subcapsular vacuolar cataracts with absence of intraocular inflammation and a predominantly clear view to the normal appearing fundus. The bird appeared to be nonvisual. No ophthalmic medications were prescribed at initial examination. Subsequent recheck examination at 8 weeks revealed moderate resolution of the cataracts and improved vision. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of suspected electric cataracts in an avian species. PMID:22432797

  11. Traffic noise reduces foraging efficiency in wild owls

    PubMed Central

    Senzaki, Masayuki; Yamaura, Yuichi; Francis, Clinton D.; Nakamura, Futoshi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise has been increasing globally. Laboratory experiments suggest that noise disrupts foraging behavior across a range of species, but to reveal the full impacts of noise, we must examine the impacts of noise on foraging behavior among species in the wild. Owls are widespread nocturnal top predators and use prey rustling sounds for localizing prey when hunting. We conducted field experiments to examine the effect of traffic noise on owls’ ability to detect prey. Results suggest that foraging efficiency declines with increasing traffic noise levels due to acoustic masking and/or distraction and aversion to traffic noise. Moreover, we estimate that effects of traffic noise on owls’ ability to detect prey reach >120 m from a road, which is larger than the distance estimated from captive studies with bats. Our study provides the first evidence that noise reduces foraging efficiency in wild animals, and highlights the possible pervasive impacts of noise. PMID:27537709

  12. Factors influencing nesting success of burrowing owls in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, R.S.; Johnson, D.R.

    1985-01-31

    A burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) population nesting on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho utilized burrows excavated by badgers (Taxidea taxus) or natural cavities in lava flows as nesting sites. The size of the population was small (N = 13-14 pairs) in relation to the number of available nesting sites, suggesting that factors other than burrow availability limited this population. Rodents and Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatus fuscus) represented the primary prey utilized during the nesting season. This population demonstrated both a numerical (brood size) and functional (dietary) response to a decrease in the density of three species of rodents on the INEL during a drought in 1977. 11 references, 1 figure, 2 table.

  13. Data Reduction Algorithm for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Park, Y.; Yim, H.; Jo, J.; Moon, H.; Bae, Y.; Lim, Y.; Choi, J.; Choi, Y.; Park, J.; Son, J.

    2014-09-01

    OWL (Optical Wide-field Patrol) has a detector system which has the chopper which consists of 4 blades in front of the CCD camera to acquire efficiently the position and time information of moving objects such as artificial satellites. Using this system, it is possible to get more position data by splitting the streaks of the moving object into many pieces with fast rotating blades during tracking. At the same time, the time data of the rotating chopper can be acquired by the time tagger connected to the photo diode. In order to derive the orbits of the targets, we need a sequential data reduction procedure including the calculation of WCS (World Coordinate System) solution to transform the positions into equatorial coordinate systems, and the combination of the time data from the time tagger and the position data. We present such a data reduction procedure and the preliminary results after applying this procedure to the observation images.

  14. Automated Transformation of openEHR Data Instances to OWL.

    PubMed

    Haarbrandt, Birger; Jack, Thomas; Marschollek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Standard-based integration and semantic enrichment of clinical data originating from electronic medical records has shown to be critical to enable secondary use. To facilitate the utilization of semantic technologies on clinical data, we introduce a methodology to enable automated transformation of openEHR-based data to Web Ontology Language (OWL) individuals. To test the correctness of the implementation, de-identified data of 229 patients of the pediatric intensive care unit of Hannover Medical School has been transformed into 2.983.436 individuals. Querying of the resulting ontology for symptoms of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) yielded the same result set as a SQL query on an openEHR-based clinical data repository. PMID:27139386

  15. Hearing in the crepuscular owl butterfly (Caligo eurilochus, Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Kathleen M; Mongrain, Jennifer K; Windmill, James F C; Robert, Daniel; Yack, Jayne E

    2014-10-01

    Tympanal organs are widespread in Nymphalidae butterflies, with a great deal of variability in the morphology of these ears. How this variation reflects differences in hearing physiology is not currently understood. This study provides the first examination of hearing organs in the crepuscular owl butterfly, Caligo eurilochus. We examined the tuning and sensitivity of the C. eurilochus hearing organ, called Vogel's organ, using laser Doppler vibrometry and extracellular neurophysiology. We show that the C. eurilochus ear responds to sound and is most sensitive to frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz, as confirmed by both the vibration of the tympanal membrane and the physiological response of the associated nerve branches. In comparison to the hearing of its diurnally active relative, Morpho peleides, C. eurilochus has a narrower frequency range with higher auditory thresholds. Hypotheses explaining the function of hearing in this crepuscular butterfly are discussed. PMID:25173833

  16. Auditory brainstem responses in the Eastern Screech Owl: An estimate of auditory thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F.; Lohr, Bernard; Hahn, D. Caldwell; Dooling, Robert J.

    2005-07-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR), a measure of neural synchrony, was used to estimate auditory sensitivity in the eastern screech owl (Megascops asio). The typical screech owl ABR waveform showed two to three prominent peaks occurring within 5 ms of stimulus onset. As sound pressure levels increased, the ABR peak amplitude increased and latency decreased. With an increasing stimulus presentation rate, ABR peak amplitude decreased and latency increased. Generally, changes in the ABR waveform to stimulus intensity and repetition rate are consistent with the pattern found in several avian families. The ABR audiogram shows that screech owls hear best between 1.5 and 6.4 kHz with the most acute sensitivity between 4-5.7 kHz. The shape of the average screech owl ABR audiogram is similar to the shape of the behaviorally measured audiogram of the barn owl, except at the highest frequencies. Our data also show differences in overall auditory sensitivity between the color morphs of screech owls.

  17. The barn owl wing: an inspiration for silent flight in the aviation industry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Thomas; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Wagner, Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Barn owls are specialists in prey detection using acoustic information. The flight apparatus of this bird of prey is most efficiently adapted to the hunting behavior by reducing flight noise. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms owls make use of could help minimize the noise disturbances in airport or wind power plant neighborhood. Here, we characterize wings of barn owls in terms of an airfoil as a role model for studying silent flight. This characterization includes surface and edge specialization (serrations, fringes) evolved by the owl. Furthermore, we point towards possible adaptations of either noise suppression or air flow control that might be an inspiration for the construction of modern aircraft. Three-dimensional imaging techniques such as surface digitizing, computed tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to investigate the wings and feathers in high spatial resolution. We show that wings of barn owls are huge in relation to their body mass resulting in a very low wing loading which in turn enables a slow flight and an increased maneuverability. Profiles of the wing are highly cambered and anteriorly thickened, especially at the proximal wing, leading to high lift production during flight. However, wind tunnel experiments showed that the air flow tends to separate at such wing configurations, especially at low-speed flight. Barn owls compensated this problem by evolving surface and edge modifications that stabilize the air flow. A quantitative three-dimensionally characterization of some of these structures is presented.

  18. Auditory brainstem responses in the Eastern Screech Owl: An estimate of auditory thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brittan-Powell, E.F.; Lohr, B.; Hahn, D.C.; Dooling, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR), a measure of neural synchrony, was used to estimate auditory sensitivity in the eastern screech owl (Megascops asio). The typical screech owl ABR waveform showed two to three prominent peaks occurring within 5 ms of stimulus onset. As sound pressure levels increased, the ABR peak amplitude increased and latency decreased. With an increasing stimulus presentation rate, ABR peak amplitude decreased and latency increased. Generally, changes in the ABR waveform to stimulus intensity and repetition rate are consistent with the pattern found in several avian families. The ABR audiogram shows that screech owls hear best between 1.5 and 6.4 kHz with the most acute sensitivity between 4?5.7 kHz. The shape of the average screech owl ABR audiogram is similar to the shape of the behaviorally measured audiogram of the barn owl, except at the highest frequencies. Our data also show differences in overall auditory sensitivity between the color morphs of screech owls.

  19. Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in tawny owls (Strix aluco) from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lee A; Turk, Anthony; Long, Sara M; Wienburg, Claire L; Best, Jennifer; Shore, Richard F

    2008-03-15

    Secondary exposure of vertebrate predators to second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) is widespread in Britain. Tawny owl (Strix aluco) populations in the UK are thought to have declined since the 1970s, when SGARs were first introduced, and these compounds may have contributed to any decline in owl numbers. Our aims were to conduct the first systematic survey of SGAR exposure in tawny owls and ascertain whether there had been a change in the proportion of exposed birds that was concurrent with the decline in the population. Liver difenacoum, bromadiolone, flocoumafen and brodifacoum concentrations in British tawny owls from two periods (1990-1993 and 2003-2005) were quantified. In total, some 20% of birds contained detectable residues of one or more SGAR. The extent of exposure (% of birds exposed, magnitude of residues) to different SGARs did not change consistently between time periods. Of the raptors analysed to date in Britain, tawny owls had the lowest proportion of individuals that contained detectable liver residues and so appear to be the least vulnerable to exposure and/or assimilation of SGARs. We found no clear evidence to implicate SGARs as a major factor affecting tawny owl numbers in Britain between 1990 and 2005. PMID:18082246

  20. Through a barn owl's eyes: interactions between scene content and visual attention.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, Shay; Harmening, Wolf; Wagner, Hermann; Rivlin, Ehud

    2008-02-01

    In this study we investigated visual attention properties of freely behaving barn owls, using a miniature wireless camera attached to their heads. The tubular eye structure of barn owls makes them ideal subjects for this research since it limits their eye movements. Video sequences recorded from the owl's point of view capture part of the visual scene as seen by the owl. Automated analysis of video sequences revealed that during an active search task, owls repeatedly and consistently direct their gaze in a way that brings objects of interest to a specific retinal location (retinal fixation area). Using a projective model that captures the geometry between the eye and the camera, we recovered the corresponding location in the recorded images (image fixation area). Recording in various types of environments (aviary, office, outdoors) revealed significant statistical differences of low level image properties at the image fixation area compared to values extracted at random image patches. These differences are in agreement with results obtained in primates in similar studies. To investigate the role of saliency and its contribution to drawing the owl's attention, we used a popular bottom-up computational model. Saliency values at the image fixation area were typically greater than at random patches, yet were only 20% out of the maximal saliency value, suggesting a top-down modulation of gaze control. PMID:18066583

  1. Alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community

    PubMed Central

    Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M.; Rodríguez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. Alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. Hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. Here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl Athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current reproduction in conspecifics and heterospecifics. Little owls preferred to settle in territories where calls of conspecifics, irrespective of their type (i.e. alarm versus contact calls), were broadcasted, indicating that either conspecific attraction exists or calls are interpreted as foreign calls, eliciting settlement as a mode of defence against competitors. Also, we found that little owls seemed to invest more in current reproduction in safe territories as revealed by conspecific calls. Innovatively, we reported that a second owl species, the migratory scops owl Otus scops, preferred to breed in safe territories as indicated by little owls' calls. These results evidence that the emission of alarm calls may have, apart from well-known behavioural effects, ecological consequences in natural communities by inducing species-specific biases in breeding habitat selection. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected informative role of avian alarm calls which may modulate the spatial structure of species within communities. PMID:22279165

  2. Ventilatory and intrapulmonary chemoreceptor sensitivity to CO2 in the burrowing owl.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, D L; Faraci, F M; Fedde, M R

    1985-12-01

    We measured the ventilatory response of anesthetized, unidirectionally ventilated pigeons and burrowing owls to changes in intrapulmonary CO2 concentration and the static CO2 sensitivity of intrapulmonary chemoreceptors (IPC) in these species and the domestic goose. Compared with pigeons, burrowing owls showed a significantly reduced respiratory frequency and amplitude response to increases in FICO2 from 0.05 to 0.10, which corroborates similar findings in intact, awake individuals of the same species. The average static CO2 sensitivity of IPC in geese, pigeons, and burrowing owls, as reflected by the average slope of the linear regressions of receptor discharge frequency on ln(PICO2), was -7.96, -11.1 and -6.87 imp/sec . ln(PICO2), respectively. The sensitivities of individual receptors were normally distributed in geese and pigeons, but skewed in burrowing owls. Therefore, the median CO2 sensitivity [-5.50 imp/sec . ln(PICO2)] is a more appropriate measure of the typical CO2 sensitivity of IPC in burrowing owls. The static CO2 sensitivity of IPC in burrowing owls is the lowest reported for euthermic birds with a normal acid-base balance and may materially contribute to the blunted ventilatory response of these birds to the elevated CO2 levels they encounter in nature. PMID:3937191

  3. Conversion of monkey fibroblasts to transplantable telencephalic neuroepithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zongyong; Xiang, Zheng; Li, Yuemin; Liu, Guoku; Wang, Hong; Zheng, Yun; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Shumei; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yanhua; Ji, Weizhi; Li, Tianqing

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates provide optimal models for the development of stem cell therapies. Although somatic cells have been converted into neural stem/progenitor cells, it is unclear whether telencephalic neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs) with stable properties can be generated from fibroblasts in primate. Here we report that a combination of transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4) with a new culture medium induces rhesus monkey fibroblasts into NESCs, which can develop into miniature neural tube (NT)-like structures at a cell level. Furthermore, single induced NESCs (iNESCs) can generate later-stage 3D-NTs after grown on matrigel in suspension culture. iNESCs express NT cell markers, have a unique gene expression pattern biasing towards telencephalic patterning, and give rise to cortical neurons. Via transplantation, single iNESCs can extensively survive, regenerate myelinated neuron axons and synapse structures in adult monkey striatum and cortex, and differentiate into cortical neurons. Successful transplantation is closely associated with graft regions and grafted cell identities. The ability to generate defined and transplantable iNESCs from primate fibroblasts under a defined condition with predictable fate choices will facilitate disease modeling and cell therapy. PMID:26584346

  4. Campbell's monkeys concatenate vocalizations into context-specific call sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Primate vocal behavior is often considered irrelevant in modeling human language evolution, mainly because of the caller's limited vocal control and apparent lack of intentional signaling. Here, we present the results of a long-term study on Campbell's monkeys, which has revealed an unrivaled degree of vocal complexity. Adult males produced six different loud call types, which they combined into various sequences in highly context-specific ways. We found stereotyped sequences that were strongly associated with cohesion and travel, falling trees, neighboring groups, nonpredatory animals, unspecific predatory threat, and specific predator classes. Within the responses to predators, we found that crowned eagles triggered four and leopards three different sequences, depending on how the caller learned about their presence. Callers followed a number of principles when concatenating sequences, such as nonrandom transition probabilities of call types, addition of specific calls into an existing sequence to form a different one, or recombination of two sequences to form a third one. We conclude that these primates have overcome some of the constraints of limited vocal control by combinatorial organization. As the different sequences were so tightly linked to specific external events, the Campbell's monkey call system may be the most complex example of ‘proto-syntax’ in animal communication known to date. PMID:20007377

  5. Movement Limitation and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-alpha (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CDB+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  6. Effects of lesions to area V6A in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Battaglini, Piero Paolo; Muzur, Amir; Galletti, Claudio; Skrap, Miran; Brovelli, Andrea; Fattori, Patrizia

    2002-06-01

    In order to assess the role played by area V6A in visuomotor control, two adult green monkeys ( Cercopithecus aethiops) were subjected to small, bilateral lesions in the anterior bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus. Before and after the lesions, monkeys were tested for naturally designed reaching, grasping and picking-up pieces of food from various positions on a plate and from a differently oriented narrow slit. All movements were recorded with closed circuit TV and analysed offline on a single-photogram basis for defective reaching and wrist orientation. V6A lesions provoked parietal weakness, reluctance to move, and specific deficits in reaching, wrist orientation and grasping. Recovery from the observed deficits was rapid, even after a second, contralateral lesion was given, creating a bilateral lesion. Thus, together with previous anatomical and electrophysiological data, these results directly support the hypothesis that area V6A is part of the network involved in the control of reaching movements and wrist orientation. PMID:12021823

  7. Uterine Leiomyoma in a Guyanese Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus sciureus)

    PubMed Central

    Long, C Tyler; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Albertelli, Megan A

    2010-01-01

    An adult female squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) presented with a 3.0 × 2.5 cm firm mass palpable within the caudal abdomen. Differentiation of the organs or structures involved with the mass could not be achieved with radiography or ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass within the lumen of the uterus; the mass was removed by partial hysterectomy. On gross examination, the mass was a focally extensive, unencapsulated, firm, solitary tumor. Histologic examination revealed that the mass was composed of interlacing bundles of smooth muscle cells with little fibrous stroma. The cells were elongated with poorly delineated borders and cigar-shaped nuclei, each containing a single, small nucleolus. Fewer than 1 mitosis per 20 high-power (magnification, × 400) fields were present. These gross and histologic findings supported a diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma. Although leiomyomas are the most common tumor of the reproductive tract in nonhuman primates, to our knowledge the current lesion is the first uterine leiomyoma reported to occur in a squirrel monkey. PMID:20353700

  8. Adaptation in the auditory space map of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Knudsen, Eric I

    2006-08-01

    Auditory neurons in the owl's external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) integrate information across frequency channels to create a map of auditory space. This study describes a powerful, sound-driven adaptation of unit responsiveness in the ICX and explores the implications of this adaptation for sensory processing. Adaptation in the ICX was analyzed by presenting lightly anesthetized owls with sequential pairs of dichotic noise bursts. Adaptation occurred in response even to weak, threshold-level sounds and remained strong for more than 100 ms after stimulus offset. Stimulation by one range of sound frequencies caused adaptation that generalized across the entire broad range of frequencies to which these units responded. Identical stimuli were used to test adaptation in the lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICCls), which provides input directly to the ICX. Compared with ICX adaptation, adaptation in the ICCls was substantially weaker, shorter lasting, and far more frequency specific, suggesting that part of the adaptation observed in the ICX was attributable to processes resident to the ICX. The sharp tuning of ICX neurons to space, along with their broad tuning to frequency, allows ICX adaptation to preserve a representation of stimulus location, regardless of the frequency content of the sound. The ICX is known to be a site of visually guided auditory map plasticity. ICX adaptation could play a role in this cross-modal plasticity by providing a short-term memory of the representation of auditory localization cues that could be compared with later-arriving, visual-spatial information from bimodal stimuli. PMID:16707713

  9. Barn Owl Productivity Response to Variability of Vole Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pavluvčík, Petr; Poprach, Karel; Machar, Ivo; Losík, Jan; Gouveia, Ana; Tkadlec, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We studied the response of the barn owl annual productivity to the common vole population numbers and variability to test the effects of environmental stochasticity on their life histories. Current theory predicts that temporal environmental variability can affect long-term nonlinear responses (e.g., production of young) both positively and negatively, depending on the shape of the relationship between the response and environmental variables. At the level of the Czech Republic, we examined the shape of the relationship between the annual sum of fledglings (annual productivity) and vole numbers in both non-detrended and detrended data. At the districts’ level, we explored whether the degree of synchrony (measured by the correlation coefficient) and the strength of the productivity response increase (measured by the regression coefficient) in areas with higher vole population variability measured by the s-index. We found that the owls’ annual productivity increased linearly with vole numbers in the Czech Republic. Furthermore, based on district data, we also found that synchrony between dynamics in owls’ reproductive output and vole numbers increased with vole population variability. However, the strength of the response was not affected by the vole population variability. Additionally, we have shown that detrending remarkably increases the Taylor’s exponent b relating variance to mean in vole time series, thereby reversing the relationship between the coefficient of variation and the mean. This shift was not responsible for the increased synchrony with vole population variability. Instead, we suggest that higher synchrony could result from high food specialization of owls on the common vole in areas with highly fluctuating vole populations. PMID:26709518

  10. OWL-based reasoning methods for validating archetypes.

    PubMed

    Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2013-04-01

    Some modern Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR) architectures and standards are based on the dual model-based architecture, which defines two conceptual levels: reference model and archetype model. Such architectures represent EHR domain knowledge by means of archetypes, which are considered by many researchers to play a fundamental role for the achievement of semantic interoperability in healthcare. Consequently, formal methods for validating archetypes are necessary. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in exploring how semantic web technologies in general, and ontologies in particular, can facilitate the representation and management of archetypes, including binding to terminologies, but no solution based on such technologies has been provided to date to validate archetypes. Our approach represents archetypes by means of OWL ontologies. This permits to combine the two levels of the dual model-based architecture in one modeling framework which can also integrate terminologies available in OWL format. The validation method consists of reasoning on those ontologies to find modeling errors in archetypes: incorrect restrictions over the reference model, non-conformant archetype specializations and inconsistent terminological bindings. The archetypes available in the repositories supported by the openEHR Foundation and the NHS Connecting for Health Program, which are the two largest publicly available ones, have been analyzed with our validation method. For such purpose, we have implemented a software tool called Archeck. Our results show that around 1/5 of archetype specializations contain modeling errors, the most common mistakes being related to coded terms and terminological bindings. The analysis of each repository reveals that different patterns of errors are found in both repositories. This result reinforces the need for making serious efforts in improving archetype design processes. PMID:23246613

  11. Body composition changes in monkeys during long-term exposure to high acceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male pig-tailed monkeys, weighing 10-14 kg, were subjected to continuous centrifuging stress for 7 months in acceleration fields up to 2.5 g. In vivo analytical techniques were used to evaluate parameters of body composition, body-fluid distribution, and hematology. Statistically significant losses in total body mass, lean body mass, total body water, extracellular water content and interstitial water content proportional to the level of high g were demonstrated.

  12. Susceptibility of the squirrel monkey to different motion conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Coleman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The exact stimulus eliciting vomiting in animal studies of motion sickness is difficult to specify because the vestibular stimulation produced by many motion conditions is confounded by voluntary movements with animals. This is an important problem because experiments with animal models of motion sickness can provide useful information about antimotion sickness drugs or the role of neural mechanisms, only when animals are exposed to the same motion stimuli in each experimental session. A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of 15 adult squirrel monkeys to motion sickness in freely moving and restrained test conditions. Canal stimulation was varied by exposing the monkey in freely moving conditions to varying degrees of angular velocity (60, 90, 120, 150 deg/sec), and in restrained conditions to one angular velocity (150 deg/sec) and to cross-coupling effects of whole-body roll movements during rotation. Otolith stimulation was investigated by using sinusoidal vertical linear acceleration during free movement conditions, and off-vertical rotation and earth-horizontal (BBQ) rotation while restrained. The percentage of freely moving animal vomiting during vertical axis rotation was 27, 93, 86, and 92 for the angular velocities of 60, 90, 120, and 150 deg/sec respectively. None of the monkeys vomited during vertical axis rotation or cross-coupled rotation when restrained. Otolith stimulation appears to be a less provocative stimulus for the squirrel monkey as the percentage of animals vomiting were 13, 0, and 7 for the conditions of free movement during oscillation, restraint during off-vertical, and BBQ rotation respectively. Motion sickness to the point of vomiting occurred regularly only in conditions where self-motion was possible. Such effects could occur because voluntary movement during motion augments vestibular effects by producing self-inflicted cross-coupling, but the failure to elicit vomiting with experimenter-coupling cross

  13. Eye preferences in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Duncan A; Tomonaga, Masaki; Vick, Sarah-Jane

    2016-07-01

    This study explored whether capuchin monkey eye preferences differ systematically in response to stimuli of positive and negative valence. The 'valence hypothesis' proposes that the right hemisphere is more dominant for negative emotional processing and the left hemisphere is more dominant for positive emotional processing. Visual information from each eye is thought to be transferred faster to and primarily processed by the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Therefore, it was predicted capuchin monkeys would show greater left eye use for looking at negative stimuli and greater right eye use for looking at positive stimuli. Eleven captive capuchin monkeys were presented with four images of different emotional valence (an egg and capuchin monkey raised eyebrow face were categorised as positive, and a harpy eagle face and capuchin monkey threat face were categorised as negative) and social relevance (consisting of capuchin monkey faces or not), and eye preferences for viewing the stimuli through a monocular viewing hole were recorded. While strong preferences for using either the left or right eye were found for most individuals, there was no consensus at the population level. Furthermore, the direction of looking, number of looks and duration of looks did not differ significantly with the emotional valence of the stimuli. These results are inconsistent with the main hypotheses about the relationship between eye preferences and processing of emotional stimuli. However, the monkeys did show significantly more arousal behaviours (vocalisation, door-touching, self-scratching and hand-rubbing) when viewing the negatively valenced stimuli than the positively valenced stimuli, indicating that the stimuli were emotionally salient. These findings do not provide evidence for a relationship between eye preferences and functional hemispheric specialisations, as often proposed in humans. Additional comparative studies are required to better understand the phylogeny of lateral

  14. Lack of greater seroconversion of rhesus monkeys after subcutaneous inoculation of dengue type 2 live-virus vaccine combined with infection-enhancing antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kraiselburd, E N; Lavergne, J A; Woodall, J P; Kessler, M J; Meier, G; Chiriboga, J; Moore, C G; Sather, G E; Pomales, A; Maldonado, E; Rivera, R

    1981-01-01

    Four groups of six nonimmune male rhesus monkeys were inoculated subcutaneously with formulations of dengue type 2 vaccine virus DEN-2/S-1. Group A received 1.9 x 10(4) plaque-forming units of vaccine in normal human serum albumin diluent. Group B received the same dose combined with a dengue type 2-immune human serum diluted 1:1,600, beyond its neutralization endpoint of 1:300, but having an immune enhancement titer of 250,000. Groups C and D received 10-fold dilutions of these respective formulations. No migration-inhibitory factor was found when peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes obtained on day 68 post-immunization from monkeys of all experimental groups were tested. No viremia was detected in any of the monkeys when sera taken on postvaccination days 1 through 12 were inoculated into adult Toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes and LLC-MK2 cells. By day 89, four of the six monkeys had seroconverted by the neutralization test in each of groups A, B, and C, and three of five monkeys in group D (one monkey died from cardiac collapse after anesthesia) had seroconverted. Immune enhancement of dengue virus infection is known to occur in humans and monkeys circulating heterologous flavivirus antibodies. In this study, there was no enhancing effect when antibody was mixed with dengue type 2 vaccine virus and injected subcutaneously. PMID:7024129

  15. Intestinal structural changes in African green monkeys after long term psyllium or cellulose feeding.

    PubMed

    Paulini, I; Mehta, T; Hargis, A

    1987-02-01

    Intestinal structure of male adult African Green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops ssp vervets) was studied after 3 1/2 yr of consuming diets containing 10% psyllium husk or cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified mild damage (cellular swelling and disarray, and microvillar denudation and disarray) at villous tips throughout the small intestine in the psyllium-fed monkeys. The cellulose group had similar duodenal damage. Differences were not found in colons by SEM. By light microscopy, jejunum had shorter villi with psyllium feeding, based upon villous height (P less than 0.05), and length around a sectioned villus (P less than 0.1), but not based upon the number of enterocytes per villus. Jejunal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layer thicknesses were increased in psyllium-fed monkeys. Colonic mucosal height was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced and muscle layer thickness was mildly reduced in the psyllium-fed monkeys. Group differences were not found in intestinal weight or length or in the weight of small intestinal mucosal scrapings. Psyllium husk may cause epithelial cell loss and muscle layer hypertrophy in the jejunum and ileum and thinning of the colonic wall after prolonged feeding. PMID:3031252

  16. Standardized Full-Field Electroretinography in the Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Palmour, Roberta M.; Bouchard, Jean-François; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Full-field electroretinography is an objective measure of retinal function, serving as an important diagnostic clinical tool in ophthalmology for evaluating the integrity of the retina. Given the similarity between the anatomy and physiology of the human and Green Monkey eyes, this species has increasingly become a favorable non-human primate model for assessing ocular defects in humans. To test this model, we obtained full-field electroretinographic recordings (ERG) and normal values for standard responses required by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). Photopic and scotopic ERG recordings were obtained by full-field stimulation over a range of 6 log units of intensity in dark-adapted or light-adapted eyes of adult Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Intensity, duration, and interval of light stimuli were varied separately. Reproducible values of amplitude and latency were obtained for the a- and b-waves, under well-controlled adaptation and stimulus conditions; the i-wave was also easily identifiable and separated from the a-b-wave complex in the photopic ERG. The recordings obtained in the healthy Green Monkey matched very well with those in humans and other non-human primate species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis). These results validate the Green Monkey as an excellent non-human primate model, with potential to serve for testing retinal function following various manipulations such as visual deprivation or drug evaluation. PMID:25360686

  17. Somatosensory deficits in monkeys treated with misonidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Maurissen, J.P.J.; Conroy, P.J.; Passalacqua, W.; Von Burg, R.; Weiss, B.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Misonidazole, a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, can produce peripheral sensory disorders in humans. It has been studied in monkeys with a computer-controlled system for evaluating vibration sensitivity. Monkeys were trained to report when vibration was stimulating the finger tip. Sinusoidal vibrations of several frequencies were presented. Two monkeys were dosed with misonidazole and their vibration sensitivity tested. They received a dose of 3 g/m/sup 2/ (about 180 mg/kg) twice weekly over a period of 6 to 10 weeks. An amplitude-frequency detection function was determined for each monkey before and after drug treatment. An analysis of covariance comparing polynomial regressions was performed. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between control and experimental curves in both monkeys. Pharmacokinetic data indicated a half-life of the drug in blood of about 4 to 5 hr. The overall half-life for elimination did not increase throughout prolonged treatment with msonidazole. Neither motor nor sensory nerve conduction velocity was reduced after treatment.

  18. Visual-auditory integration for visual search: a behavioral study in barn owls.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Yael; Kra, Yonatan; Yarin, Inna; Wagner, Hermann; Gutfreund, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Barn owls are nocturnal predators that rely on both vision and hearing for survival. The optic tectum of barn owls, a midbrain structure involved in selective attention, has been used as a model for studying visual-auditory integration at the neuronal level. However, behavioral data on visual-auditory integration in barn owls are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine if the integration of visual and auditory signals contributes to the process of guiding attention toward salient stimuli. We attached miniature wireless video cameras on barn owls' heads (OwlCam) to track their target of gaze. We first provide evidence that the area centralis (a retinal area with a maximal density of photoreceptors) is used as a functional fovea in barn owls. Thus, by mapping the projection of the area centralis on the OwlCam's video frame, it is possible to extract the target of gaze. For the experiment, owls were positioned on a high perch and four food items were scattered in a large arena on the floor. In addition, a hidden loudspeaker was positioned in the arena. The positions of the food items and speaker were changed every session. Video sequences from the OwlCam were saved for offline analysis while the owls spontaneously scanned the room and the food items with abrupt gaze shifts (head saccades). From time to time during the experiment, a brief sound was emitted from the speaker. The fixation points immediately following the sounds were extracted and the distances between the gaze position and the nearest items and loudspeaker were measured. The head saccades were rarely toward the location of the sound source but to salient visual features in the room, such as the door knob or the food items. However, among the food items, the one closest to the loudspeaker had the highest probability of attracting a gaze shift. This result supports the notion that auditory signals are integrated with visual information for the selection of the next visual search target. PMID

  19. Lead in hawks, falcons and owls downstream from a mining site on the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho.

    PubMed

    Henny, C J; Blus, L J; Hoffman, D J; Grove, R A

    1994-02-01

    Mining and smelting at Kellogg-Smelterville, Idaho, resulted in high concentrations of lead in Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River sediments and the floodplain downstream, where American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus), and Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicotti) nested. Nestling American Kestrels contained significantly higher (P=0.0012) blood lead concentrations along the CDA River (0.24 µg/g, wet wt) than the nearby reference area (0.087 µg/g). A 35% inhibition of blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in nestling Northern Harriers (P=0.0001), 55% in nestling American Kestrels (P=0.0001) and 81% in adult American Kestrels (P=0.0004) provided additional evidence of lead exposure in the CDA River population. In nestling American Kestrels and Northern Harriers, ALAD activity was negatively correlated with lead in blood. An earlier report on Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) showed slightly less inhibition of ALAD than in American Kestrels, but no significant reduction in hemoglobin or hematocrit and no negative influence on production rates. The adult and nestling American Kestrels along the CDA River contained about twice as much blood lead as Ospreys during the same years (adult 0.46 vs. 0.20 µg/g, and nestling 0.24 vs. 0.09 µg/g), but adults showed a 7.5% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0356) and nestlings an 8.2% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0353) and a 5.8% reduction in hematocrit (P=0.0482). We did not observe raptor deaths related to lead, and although the production rate for American Kestrels was slightly lower along the CDA River, we found no significant negative relation between productivity and lead. Limited data on the other raptors provide evidence of exposure to lead along the CDA River. Several traits of raptors apparently reduce their potential for accumulating critical levels of lead which is primarily stored in bones of prey species. PMID:24221348

  20. Lead in hawks, falcons and owls downstream from a mining site on the Coeur D'Alene river, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Mining and smelting at Kellogg-Smelterville, Idaho, resulted in high concentrations of lead in Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River sediments and the floodplain downstream, where American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus), and Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicotti) nested. Nestling American Kestrels contained significantly higher (P=0.0012) blood lead concentrations along the CDA River (0.24 ?g/g, wet wt) than the nearby reference area (0.087 ?g/g). A 35% inhibition of blood *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in nestling Northern Harriers (P=0.0001), 55% in nestling American Kestrels (P=0.0001) and 81% in adult American Kestrels (P=0.0004) provided additional evidence of lead exposure in the CDA River population. In nestling American Kestrels and Northern Harriers, ALAD activity was negatively correlated with lead in blood. An earlier report on Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) showed slightly less inhibition of ALAD than in American Kestrels, but no significant reduction in hemoglobin or hematocrit and no negative influence on production rates. The adult and nestling American Kestrels along the CDA River contained about twice as much blood lead as Ospreys during the same years (adult 0.46 vs. 0.20 ?g/g, and nestling 0.24 vs. 0.09 ?g/g), but adults showed a 7.5% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0356) and nestlings an 8.2% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0353) and a 5.8% reduction in hematocrit (P=0.0482). We did not observe raptor deaths related to lead, and although the production rate for American Kestrels was slightly lower along the CDA River, we found no significant negative relation between productivity and lead. Limited data on the other raptors provide evidence of exposure to lead along the CDA River. Several traits of raptors apparently reduce their potential for accumulating critical levels of lead which is primarily stored in bones of prey species.

  1. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  2. Titi monkey call sequences vary with predator location and type

    PubMed Central

    Cäsar, Cristiane; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Young, Robert J.; Byrne, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Animal alarm calls can encode information about a predator's category, size, distance or threat level. In non-human primates, alarm calls typically refer to broad classes of disturbances, in some instances to specific predators. Here, we present the results of a field experiment with a New World primate, the black-fronted titi monkey (Callicebus nigrifrons), designed to explore the information conveyed by their alarm call system. Adults produced sequences consisting of two main alarm call types that conveyed, in different parts of the utterance, information about a predator's type and location. In particular, sequence compositions differed depending on whether the predator was a mammalian carnivore or a raptor, and whether it was detected in a tree or on the ground. This is the first demonstration of a sequence-based alarm call system in a non-human animal that has the capacity to encode both location and type of predatory threat. PMID:24004492

  3. Campbell's Monkeys Use Affixation to Alter Call Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Human language has evolved on a biological substrate with phylogenetic roots deep in the primate lineage. Here, we describe a functional analogy to a common morphological process in human speech, affixation, in the alarm calls of free-ranging adult Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli). We found that male alarm calls are composed of an acoustically variable stem, which can be followed by an acoustically invariable suffix. Using long-term observations and predator simulation experiments, we show that suffixation in this species functions to broaden the calls' meaning by transforming a highly specific eagle alarm to a general arboreal disturbance call or by transforming a highly specific leopard alarm call to a general alert call. We concluded that, when referring to specific external events, non-human primates can generate meaningful acoustic variation during call production that is functionally equivalent to suffixation in human language. PMID:19915663

  4. Cross-Species Transmission of a Novel Adenovirus Associated with a Fulminant Pneumonia Outbreak in a New World Monkey Colony

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eunice C.; Yagi, Shigeo; Kelly, Kristi R.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Maninger, Nicole; Rosenthal, Ann; Spinner, Abigail; Bales, Karen L.; Schnurr, David P.; Lerche, Nicholas W.; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that naturally infect many vertebrates, including humans and monkeys, and cause a wide range of clinical illnesses in humans. Infection from individual strains has conventionally been thought to be species-specific. Here we applied the Virochip, a pan-viral microarray, to identify a novel adenovirus (TMAdV, titi monkey adenovirus) as the cause of a deadly outbreak in a closed colony of New World monkeys (titi monkeys; Callicebus cupreus) at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC). Among 65 titi monkeys housed in a building, 23 (34%) developed upper respiratory symptoms that progressed to fulminant pneumonia and hepatitis, and 19 of 23 monkeys, or 83% of those infected, died or were humanely euthanized. Whole-genome sequencing of TMAdV revealed that this adenovirus is a new species and highly divergent, sharing <57% pairwise nucleotide identity with other adenoviruses. Cultivation of TMAdV was successful in a human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line, but not in primary or established monkey kidney cells. At the onset of the outbreak, the researcher in closest contact with the monkeys developed an acute respiratory illness, with symptoms persisting for 4 weeks, and had a convalescent serum sample seropositive for TMAdV. A clinically ill family member, despite having no contact with the CNPRC, also tested positive, and screening of a set of 81 random adult blood donors from the Western United States detected TMAdV-specific neutralizing antibodies in 2 individuals (2/81, or 2.5%). These findings raise the possibility of zoonotic infection by TMAdV and human-to-human transmission of the virus in the population. Given the unusually high case fatality rate from the outbreak (83%), it is unlikely that titi monkeys are the native host species for TMAdV, and the natural reservoir of the virus is still unknown. The discovery of TMAdV, a novel adenovirus with the capacity to infect both monkeys and humans, suggests that adenoviruses

  5. Bone Formation Rate in Experimental Disuse Osteoporosis in Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher; Young, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    Specific mechanisms underlying weightless and hypodynamic bone loss are obscure. A principal relationship which must be affected is the balance between bone formation and bone resorption rates. In order to better define the influence of those parameters on bone loss, and also to develop measurements in other species as a useful adjunct to human research, studies were undertaken with experimental monkeys. Tests were conducted with a total of 6 adult male monkeys, weighing 10-13 kg, and approximately 10-12 yrs. of age to evaluate specifically bone formation rate during the development of disuse osteoporosis and osteopenia. Three animals were restrained in a semi-recumbent position for six months; three animals served as normal caged controls. Food intake (Purina) was held relatively constant at 200g/day for each animal. Using a Norland Bone Mineral Analyzer, bone mineral losses of 3.5 to 6% were seen in the mid-shaft of the tibia and in the distal radius. Bone loss was confirmed radiographically, with observation of thinning of the proximal tibial cortex and trabeculae in the calcaneus. Bone formation rate was determined using standard Ca-47 kinetics under metabolic balance conditions. After six months of restraint, accretion was 7.2-13.2 mg Ca/kg/day, compared to 3.2-4.1 mg Ca/kg/day in caged controls and 3-8 mg Ca/kg/day in normal adult humans. Fecal and urine calcium was 25-40% higher in restrained animals than in controls. Dietary calcium absorption decreases during restraint, and calcium turnover increases, implying a rise in bone resorption rate concommitant with the observed rise in bone accretion rate. Further studies dealing specifically with bone resorption are underway to define this more fully.

  6. Ethanol drinking in socially housed squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mandillo, S; Titchen, K; Miczek, K A

    1998-07-01

    This study proposes a method to assess voluntary alcohol drinking in socially living squirrel monkeys. Group-housed squirrel monkeys were induced to drink a sucrose solution and subsequently an ethanol/sucrose solution in an experimental chamber attached to the home colony room, allowing the daily intake to be monitored for each individual without disrupting the social context. Sucrose concentration (0.03-0.6 M, corresponding to 1-20%) and ethanol concentration (0-4%) were gradually increased in tap water and in a 0.6 M (ca. 20%) sucrose solution during daily 30-min and 10-min sessions, respectively. Blood ethanol levels ranged from 10-50 mg/dl and remained below intoxication level. These experiments demonstrate that it is feasible to arrange conditions under which individual socially housed squirrel monkeys voluntarily drink a sweetened ethanol solution. PMID:10065925

  7. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  8. Spaceflight and immune responses of Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies indicates that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys. The expected significance of the work is a determination of the range of immunological functions of the Rhesus monkey, a primate similar in many ways to man, affected by space flight. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection may be determined as well as the duration of alterations in immune responses. Additional information on the nature of cellular interactions for the generation of immune responses may also be obtained.

  9. Larks and owls and health, wealth, and wisdom

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine; Martyn, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Objective To test the validity of Benjamin Franklin’s maxim “early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.” Design Cross sectional analysis of sleeping patterns in a nationally representative group of elderly people, and longitudinal investigation of mortality. Setting Eight areas in Britain (five in England, two in Scotland, and one in Wales). Subjects 1229 men and women aged 65 and over who in 1973-4 had taken part in a survey funded by the Department of Health and Social Security and for whom data on sleeping patterns, health, socioeconomic circumstances, and cognitive function had been recorded. Main outcome measures Self reported income, access to a car, standard of accommodation, performance on a test of cognitive function, state of health and mortality during 23 years of follow up. Results 356 people (29%) were defined as larks (to bed before 11 pm and up before 8 am) and 318 (26%) were defined as owls (to bed at or after 11 pm and up at or after 8 am). There was no indication that larks were richer than those with other sleeping patterns. On the contrary, owls had the largest mean income and were more likely to have access to a car. There was also no evidence that larks were superior to those with other sleeping patterns with regard to their cognitive performance or their state of health. Both larks and owls had a slightly reduced risk of death compared with the rest of the study sample, but this was accounted for by the fact that they spent less time in bed at night. In the study sample as a whole, longer periods of time in bed were associated with increased mortality. After adjustment for age, sex, the presence of illness, and other risk factors, people who spent 12 or more hours in bed had a relative risk of death of 1.7 (1.2 to 2.5) compared with those who were in bed for 9 hours. The lowest risk occurred in people who spent 8 hours in bed (adjusted relative risk 0.8; 0.7 to 1.0). Conclusion These findings do not

  10. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) treat small and large numbers of items similarly during a relative quantity judgment task.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E

    2016-08-01

    A key issue in understanding the evolutionary and developmental emergence of numerical cognition is to learn what mechanism(s) support perception and representation of quantitative information. Two such systems have been proposed, one for dealing with approximate representation of sets of items across an extended numerical range and another for highly precise representation of only small numbers of items. Evidence for the first system is abundant across species and in many tests with human adults and children, whereas the second system is primarily evident in research with children and in some tests with non-human animals. A recent paper (Choo & Franconeri, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 93-99, 2014) with adult humans also reported "superprecise" representation of small sets of items in comparison to large sets of items, which would provide more support for the presence of a second system in human adults. We first presented capuchin monkeys with a test similar to that of Choo and Franconeri in which small or large sets with the same ratios had to be discriminated. We then presented the same monkeys with an expanded range of comparisons in the small number range (all comparisons of 1-9 items) and the large number range (all comparisons of 10-90 items in 10-item increments). Capuchin monkeys showed no increased precision for small over large sets in making these discriminations in either experiment. These data indicate a difference in the performance of monkeys to that of adult humans, and specifically that monkeys do not show improved discrimination performance for small sets relative to large sets when the relative numerical differences are held constant. PMID:26689808

  11. Cortical Neuron Response Properties Are Related to Lesion Extent and Behavioral Recovery after Sensory Loss from Spinal Cord Injury in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Jamie L.; Gharbawie, Omar A.; Burish, Mark J.; Kaas, Jon H.

    2014-01-01

    Lesions of the dorsal columns at a mid-cervical level render the hand representation of the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b) unresponsive. Over weeks of recovery, most of this cortex becomes responsive to touch on the hand. Determining functional properties of neurons within the hand representation is critical to understanding the neural basis of this adaptive plasticity. Here, we recorded neural activity across the hand representation of area 3b with a 100-electrode array and compared results from owl monkeys and squirrel monkeys 5–10 weeks after lesions with controls. Even after extensive lesions, performance on reach-to-grasp tasks returned to prelesion levels, and hand touches activated territories mainly within expected cortical locations. However, some digit representations were abnormal, such that receptive fields of presumably reactivated neurons were larger and more often involved discontinuous parts of the hand compared with controls. Hand stimulation evoked similar neuronal firing rates in lesion and control monkeys. By assessing the same monkeys with multiple measures, we determined that properties of neurons in area 3b were highly correlated with both the lesion severity and the impairment of hand use. We propose that the reactivation of neurons with near-normal response properties and the recovery of near-normal somatotopy likely supported the recovery of hand use. Given the near-completeness of the more extensive dorsal column lesions we studied, we suggest that alternate spinal afferents, in addition to the few spared primary axon afferents in the dorsal columns, likely have a major role in the reactivation pattern and return of function. PMID:24647955

  12. Interspecific infanticide and infant-directed aggression by spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a fragmented forest in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pardo-Martinez, Alejandra; Montes-Rojas, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Link, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Interspecific aggression amongst nonhuman primates is rarely observed and has been mostly related to scenarios of resource competition. Interspecific infanticide is even rarer, and both the ultimate and proximate socio-ecological factors explaining this behavior are still unclear. We report two cases of interspecific infanticide and five cases of interspecific infant-directed aggression occurring in a well-habituated primate community living in a fragmented landscape in Colombia. All cases were initiated by male brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and were directed toward infants of either red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus: n = 6 cases) or white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons: n = 1 case). One individual, a subadult spider monkey male, was involved in all but one case of interspecific infanticide or aggression. Other adult spider monkeys participated in interspecific aggression that did not escalate into potentially lethal encounters. We suggest that competition for food resources and space in a primate community living in high population densities and restricted to a forest fragment of ca. 65 ha might partly be driving the observed patterns of interspecific aggression. On the other hand, the fact that all but one case of interspecific infanticide and aggression involved the only subadult male spider monkey suggests this behavior might either be pathological or constitute a particular case of redirected aggression. Even if the underlying principles behind interspecific aggression and infanticide are poorly understood, they represent an important factor influencing the demographic trends of the primate community at this study site. PMID:22767357

  13. Automating generation of textual class definitions from OWL to English

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Text definitions for entities within bio-ontologies are a cornerstone of the effort to gain a consensus in understanding and usage of those ontologies. Writing these definitions is, however, a considerable effort and there is often a lag between specification of the main part of an ontology (logical descriptions and definitions of entities) and the development of the text-based definitions. The goal of natural language generation (NLG) from ontologies is to take the logical description of entities and generate fluent natural language. The application described here uses NLG to automatically provide text-based definitions from an ontology that has logical descriptions of its entities, so avoiding the bottleneck of authoring these definitions by hand. Results To produce the descriptions, the program collects all the axioms relating to a given entity, groups them according to common structure, realises each group through an English sentence, and assembles the resulting sentences into a paragraph, to form as ‘coherent’ a text as possible without human intervention. Sentence generation is accomplished using a generic grammar based on logical patterns in OWL, together with a lexicon for realising atomic entities. We have tested our output for the Experimental Factor Ontology (EFO) using a simple survey strategy to explore the fluency of the generated text and how well it conveys the underlying axiomatisation. Two rounds of survey and improvement show that overall the generated English definitions are found to convey the intended meaning of the axiomatisation in a satisfactory manner. The surveys also suggested that one form of generated English will not be universally liked; that intrusion of too much ‘formal ontology’ was not liked; and that too much explicit exposure of OWL semantics was also not liked. Conclusions Our prototype tools can generate reasonable paragraphs of English text that can act as definitions. The definitions were found acceptable

  14. OWL representation of the geologic timescale implementing stratigraphic best practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The geologic timescale is a cornerstone of the earth sciences. Versions are available from many sources, with the following being of particular interest: (i) The official International Stratigraphic Chart (ISC) is maintained by the International Commission for Stratigraphy (ICS), following principles developed over the last 40 years. ICS provides the data underlying the chart as part of a specialized software package, and the chart itself as a PDF using the standard colours; (ii) ITC Enschede has developed a representation of the timescale as a thesaurus in SKOS, used in a Web Map Service delivery system; (iii) JPL's SWEET ontology includes a geologic timescale. This takes full advantage of the capabilities of OWL. However, each of these has limitations - The ISC falls down because of incompatibility with web technologies; - While SKOS supports multilingual labelling, SKOS does not adequately support timescale semantics, in particular since it does not include ordering relationships; - The SWEET version (as of version 2) is not fully aligned to the model used by ICS, in particular not recognizing the role of the Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Point (GSSP). Furthermore, it is distributed as static documents, rather than through a dynamic API using SPARQL. The representation presented in this paper overcomes all of these limitations as follows: - the timescale model is formulated as an OWL ontology - the ontology is directly derived from the UML representation of the ICS best practice proposed by Cox & Richard [2005], and subsequently included as the Geologic Timescale package in GeoSciML (http://www.geosciml.org); this includes links to GSSPs as per the ICS process - key properties in the ontology are also asserted to be subProperties of SKOS properties (topConcept and broader/narrower relations) in order to support SKOS-based queries; SKOS labelling is used to support multi-lingual naming and synonyms - the International Stratigraphic Chart is implemented

  15. Spatial selectivity and binaural responses in the inferior colliculus of the great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Volman, S F; Konishi, M

    1989-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the processing of auditory cues for sound localization in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Previous studies have shown that the barn owl, whose ears are asymmetrically oriented in the vertical plane, has a 2-dimensional, topographic representation of auditory space in the external division of the inferior colliculus (ICx). As in the barn owl, the great horned owl's ICx is anatomically distinct and projects to the optic tectum. Neurons in ICx respond over only a small range of azimuths (mean = 32 degrees), and azimuth is topographically mapped. In contrast to the barn owl, the great horned owl has bilaterally symmetrical ears and its receptive fields are not restricted in elevation. The binaural cues available for sound localization were measured both with cochlear microphonic recordings and with a microphone attached to a probe tube in the auditory canal. Interaural time disparity (ITD) varied monotonically with azimuth. Interaural intensity differences (IID) also changed with azimuth, but the largest IIDs were less than 15 dB, and the variation was not monotonic. Neither ITD nor IID varied systematically with changes in the vertical position of a sound source. We used dichotic stimulation to determine the sensitivity of ICx neurons to these binaural cues. Best ITD of ICx units was topographically mapped and strongly correlated with receptive-field azimuth. The width of ITD tuning curves, measured at 50% of the maximum response, averaged 72 microseconds. All ICx neurons responded only to binaural stimulation and had nonmonotonic IID tuning curves. Best IID was weakly, but significantly, correlated with best ITD (r = 0.39, p less than 0.05). The IID tuning curves, however, were broad (mean 50% width = 24 dB), and 67% of the units had best IIDs within 5 dB of 0 dB IID. ITD tuning was sensitive to variations in IID in the direction opposite to that expected for time-intensity trading, but the magnitude of this effect was only

  16. Gustatory responsiveness to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids in the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jenny; Maitz, Anna; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Laska, Matthias

    2014-03-29

    The gustatory responsiveness of four adult spider monkeys to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids was assessed in two-bottle preference tests of brief duration (1min). We found that Ateles geoffroyi responded with significant preferences for seven amino acids (glycine, l-proline, l-alanine, l-serine, l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, and l-lysine) when presented at a concentration of 100mM and/or 200mM and tested against water. At the same concentrations, the animals significantly rejected five amino acids (l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, l-valine, l-cysteine, and l-isoleucine) and were indifferent to the remaining tastants. Further, the results show that the spider monkeys discriminated concentrations as low as 0.2mM l-lysine, 2mM l-glutamic acid, 10mM l-proline, 20mM l-valine, 40mM glycine, l-serine, and l-aspartic acid, and 80mM l-alanine from the alternative stimulus, with individual animals even scoring lower threshold values. A comparison between the taste qualities of the proteinogenic amino acids as described by humans and the preferences and aversions observed in the spider monkeys suggests a fairly high degree of agreement in the taste quality perception of these tastants between the two species. A comparison between the taste preference thresholds obtained with the spider monkeys and taste detection thresholds reported in human subjects suggests that the taste sensitivity of A. geoffroyi for the amino acids tested here might match that of Homo sapiens. The results support the assumption that the taste responses of spider monkeys to proteinogenic amino acids might reflect an evolutionary adaptation to their frugivorous and thus protein-poor diet. PMID:24480073

  17. Noninvasive scalp recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the alert macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nejime, Masafumi; Konoike, Naho; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2015-09-01

    Scalp-recorded evoked potentials (EP) provide researchers and clinicians with irreplaceable means for recording stimulus-related neural activities in the human brain, due to its high temporal resolution, handiness, and, perhaps more importantly, non-invasiveness. This work recorded the scalp cortical auditory EP (CAEP) in unanesthetized monkeys by using methods that are essentially identical to those applied to humans. Young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, 5-7 years old) were seated in a monkey chair, and their head movements were partially restricted by polystyrene blocks and tension poles placed around their head. Individual electrodes were fixated on their scalp using collodion according to the 10-20 system. Pure tone stimuli were presented while electroencephalograms were recorded from up to nineteen channels, including an electrooculogram channel. In all monkeys (n = 3), the recorded CAEP comprised a series of positive and negative deflections, labeled here as macaque P1 (mP1), macaque N1 (mN1), macaque P2 (mP2), and macaque N2 (mN2), and these transient responses to sound onset were followed by a sustained potential that continued for the duration of the sound, labeled the macaque sustained potential (mSP). mP1, mN2 and mSP were the prominent responses, and they had maximal amplitudes over frontal/central midline electrode sites, consistent with generators in auditory cortices. The study represents the first noninvasive scalp recording of CAEP in alert rhesus monkeys, to our knowledge. PMID:26031378

  18. Gray and white matter changes associated with tool-use learning in macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Quallo, M. M.; Price, C. J.; Ueno, K.; Asamizuya, T.; Cheng, K.; Lemon, R. N.; Iriki, A.

    2009-01-01

    We used noninvasive MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect changes in brain structure in three adult Japanese macaques trained to use a rake to retrieve food rewards. Monkeys, who were naive to any previous tool use, were scanned repeatedly in a 4-T scanner over 6 weeks, comprising 2 weeks of habituation followed by 2 weeks of intensive daily training and a 2-week posttraining period. VBM analysis revealed significant increases in gray matter with rake performance across the three monkeys. The effects were most significant (P < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons across the whole brain) in the right superior temporal sulcus, right second somatosensory area, and right intraparietal sulcus, with less significant effects (P < 0.001 uncorrected) in these same regions of the left hemisphere. Bilateral increases were also observed in the white matter of the cerebellar hemisphere in lobule 5. In two of the monkeys who exhibited rapid learning of the rake task, gray matter volume in peak voxels increased by up to 17% during the intensive training period; the earliest changes were seen after 1 week of intensive training, and they generally peaked when performance on the task plateaued. In the third monkey, who was slower to learn the task, peak voxels showed no systematic changes. Thus, VBM can detect significant brain changes in individual trained monkeys exposed to tool-use training for the first time. This approach could open up a means of investigating the underlying neurobiology of motor learning and other higher brain functions in individual animals. PMID:19820167

  19. Metabolic and vasomotor responses of rhesus monkeys exposed to 225-MHz radiofrequency energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A previous study showed a substantial increase in the colonic temperature of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to radio-frequency (RF) fields at a frequency near whole-body resonance and specific absorption rates (SAR) of 2 to 3 W/kg. The present experiments were conducted to determine the metabolic and vasomotor responses during exposures to similar RF fields. Five adult male rhesus monkeys were exposed to 225-MHz radiation (E orientation) in an anechoic chamber. The monkeys were irradiated at two carefully-controlled ambient temperatures, either cool (20 C) or thermoneutral (26 C). Power densities ranged from 0 (sham) to 10.0 mW/sq cm with an average whole-body SAR of 0.285 (W/kg)/(mW/sq cm). Two experimental protocols were used, each of which began with a 120-min preexposure equilibration period. Then, one protocol involved repetitive 10-min RF exposures at successively higher power densities with a recovery period between exposures. In the second protocol, a 120-min RF exposure permitted the measurement of steady-state thermoregulatory responses. Metabolic and vasomotor adjustments in the rhesus monkey exposed to 225 MHz occurred during brief or sustained exposures at SARs at or above 1.4 W/kg. Metabolic and vasomotor responses were coordinated effectively to produce a stable deep-body temperature. The results show that the thermoregulatory response of the rhesus monkey to an RF exposure at a resonant frequency limits storage of heat in the body. However, substantial increases in colonic temperature were not prevented by such responses, even in a cool environment.

  20. Metabolic and vasomotor responses of rhesus monkeys exposed to 225-MHz radiofrequency energy. [Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A previous study showed a substantial increase in the colonic temperature of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to radiofrequency (RF) fields at a frequency near whole-body resonance and specific absorption rates (SAR) of 2-3 W/kg. The present experiments were conducted to determine the metabolic and vasomotor responses during exposures to similar RF fields. We exposed five adult male rhesus monkeys to 225 MHz radiation (E orientation) in an anechoic chamber. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured before, during, and after RF exposure. Colonic, tail and leg skin temperatures were continuously monitored with RF-nonperturbing probes. The monkeys were irradiated at two carefully-controlled ambient temperatures, either cool (20 degrees C) or thermoneutral (26 degrees C). Power densities ranged from 0 (sham) to 10.0 mW/cm2 with an average whole-body SAR of 0.285 (W/kg)/(mW/cm2). We used two experimental protocols, each of which began with a 120-min pre-exposure equilibration period. One protocol involved repetitive 10-min RF exposures at successively higher power densities with a recovery period between exposures. In the second protocol, a 120-min RF exposure permitted the measurement of steady-state thermoregulatory responses. Metabolic and vasomotor adjustments in the rhesus monkey exposed to 225 MHz occurred during brief or sustained exposures at SARs at or above 1.4 W/kg. The SAR required to produce a given response varied with ambient temperature. Metabolic and vasomotor responses were coordinated effectively to produce a stable deep body temperature. The results show that the thermoregulatory response of the rhesus monkey to an RF exposure at a resonant frequency limits storage of heat in the body. However, substantial increases in colonic temperature were not prevented by such responses, even in a cool environment.

  1. Long-term effects of neonatal medial temporal ablations on socioemotional behavior in monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Malkova, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer; Suomi, Stephen J; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2010-12-01

    Socioemotional abnormalities, including decreased social interactions and increased self-directed activity, were reported when rhesus monkeys with neonatal ablations of either the medial temporal lobe (AH) or the inferior temporal cortex (TE) were paired with unoperated peers at two and six months of age, though these abnormalities were more severe in Group AH (Bachevalier et al., 2001). As adults (Experiment 1), the monkeys were re-evaluated in the same dyads and their reactivity to novel toys, social status, and reactions to separation were also assessed. Group TE now showed only few if any of the abnormal behaviors observed in infancy. In contrast, Group AH continued to display decreased social interactions and increased self-directed activity and showed also increased submission and reduced responses to separation, but normal reactivity to novel toys. To determine whether this degree of socioemotional impairment was less severe than that produced by the same damage in adulthood, we assessed dyadic social interactions of monkeys raised until adulthood in laboratory conditions similar to those in Experiment 1 and then given the AH ablations (Experiment 2). Two months postoperatively these monkeys showed a small reduction in social interactions that became more pronounced six months postoperatively, yet remained less severe than that seen in the infant-lesioned monkeys. No other socioemotional effects, except for an increase in food/water consumption, were observed. The finding that neonatal AH lesions produce more severe socioemotional disturbances than the same lesion in adulthood is the reverse of the effect commonly reported for other cognitive functions after cerebral damage. PMID:21133531

  2. Ecological factors predictive of wild spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) foraging decisions in Yasuní, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    Because fruiting trees are uncommon in tropical forests, frugivorous primates experience selective pressure to incorporate knowledge of where to find feeding trees, what to expect when they arrive there, and when they can return after depleting a tree. I investigated these abilities in wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) in Yasuní, Ecuador, by analyzing the characteristics of feeding trees that drive foraging decisions. Foraging data were derived from four 2-week follows of focal adult females, conducted between May and December 1999, during which I measured and mapped all trees in which the focal subject fed, feeding bout duration, and the number of conspecifics feeding simultaneously with the focal. Taking into account the order in which feeding trees were visited across each follow, I analyzed each foraging decision from the second week of a follow, treating all previously visited trees as options for visits. I scored each option tree in terms of nine ecological variables, including the distance from the decision to each location tree, DBH, recent feeding time and mean feeding times for the focal and other monkeys present, and the interval in hours between the foraging decision and the most recent visit to each option tree. I then examined the predictive strength of the model using logistic regression analysis, comparing characteristics of selected trees to those not selected. The overall model successfully predicted trees selected by focal monkeys (r(2)  = 0.27). Monkeys preferentially moved to nearby, large canopy trees, in which previous feeding success was high, and which were visited after an interval of 3.5 days. Interval mattered most for medium and large trees, but did not predict selection for trees <10 cm DBH. Despite the large home range and large numbers of trees, Yasuní spider monkeys appeared to integrate spatial, value, and temporal information when deciding where to feed. PMID:24865445

  3. Long-term effects of neonatal medial temporal ablations on socioemotional behavior in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Málková, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer; Suomi, Stephen J.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    Socioemotional abnormalities, including low levels of social interaction and high levels of self-directed activity, were reported when rhesus monkeys with neonatal ablations of either the medial temporal lobe (AH) or the inferior temporal cortex (TE) were paired with unoperated peers at two and six months of age, though these abnormalities were more severe in the AH group (Bachevalier et al., 2001). As they reached adulthood (Experiment 1), the same monkeys were re-evaluated in the same dyads and their reactivity to novel toys, social status, and reactions to separation from age-matched peers were also assessed. Group TE now showed few if any of the abnormal behaviors observed when they were infants. By contrast, Group AH continued to display low levels of social interaction, high levels of self-directed activity and submissive behavior, and reduced responses to separation, although they reacted normally to novel toys. To determine whether this degree of socioemotional impairment was less severe than that produced by the same damage in adulthood, we assessed dyadic social interactions of monkeys raised until adulthood in laboratory conditions similar to those of the earlier groups and then given the AH ablation (Experiment 2). Two months postoperatively these adult-lesioned monkeys showed a small reduction in social interactions that became more pronounced six months postoperatively, yet remained less severe than that seen in the infant-lesioned monkeys. Also, except for an increase in food and water consumption throughout this 6-month period, they showed no other socioemotional effects. The finding that neonatal AH lesions produce more severe socioemotional disturbances than the same lesion in adulthood is the reverse of the effect commonly reported for other cognitive functions after cerebral damage. PMID:21133531

  4. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    PubMed

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm). PMID:23251509

  5. Home range and habitat use by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.R.; Bloom, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) are a common, widespread species that can be found in a variety of habitats across most of North America, but little is known about their space and habitat requirements. Using radiotelemetry, location data were collected on nine male and five female Great Horned Owls to determine home range and habitat use in southern California. Owls were tracked between January 1997 and September 1998 for periods ranging from 5-17 mo. Seven owls were also followed during 13 all-night observation periods. The mean 95% adaptive kernel home-range size for females was 180 ha (range = 88-282, SE = 36) and that for males was 425 ha (range = 147-1115 ha, SE = 105). Core areas estimated by the 50% adaptive kernel averaged 27 ha (range = 7-44, SE = 7) for females and 61 ha (range = 15-187, SE = 18) for males. Owls were located in areas with varying degrees of human disturbance ranging from almost entirely urban to native oak (Quercus agrifolia) woodland. Oak/sycamore (Quercus agrifolia/Platanus racemosa) woodland and ruderal grassland (Bromus spp., Avena spp., and various other non-native invasives), were used more often than expected based on availability, but we found no correlation between home-range size and any single habitat type or habitat groups. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  6. Developmental changes in serum androgen levels of Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, Corinne P.; Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2010-01-01

    We studied androgen production during development in nestling Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) and hypothesized that gender and hatch order might influence serum levels of testosterone and androstenedione. Testosterone levels were highest immediately after hatching and declined significantly in the 4 weeks leading to fledging. The average level of testosterone for 1-7 day-old owls was 3.99 - 0.68 ng/ml. At 22-28 days of age, the average testosterone level for nestling owls was 0.83 - 0.18 ng/ml. Testosterone levels did not differ between males or females. The average testosterone level for male nestlings was 2.23 - 0.29 ng/ml and 2.39 - 0.56 ng/ml for female nestlings. The average level of androstenedione for nestling owls was 1.92 - 0.11 ng/ml and levels remained constant throughout development. Levels were significantly higher in males than females. The average androstenedione level was 1.77 - 0.16 ng/ml for male nestlings and 1.05 - 0.24 ng/ml for female nestlings. Hatching order did not affect levels of either androgen. Our results provide a foundation for future studies of androgen production by nestling owls.

  7. Genetics Show Current Decline and Pleistocene Expansion in Northern Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of the most controversial threatened subspecies ever listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Because of concern for persistence of the subspecies, logging on Federal lands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest was dramatically reduced under the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994. Despite protection of its remaining forest habitat, recent field studies show continued demographic declines of northern spotted owls. One potential threat to northern spotted owls that has not yet been shown is loss of genetic variation from population bottlenecks that can increase inbreeding depression and decrease adaptive potential. Here, we show recent genetic bottlenecks in northern spotted owls using a large genetic dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range and 11 microsatellite loci). The signature of bottlenecks was strongest in Washington State, in agreement with field data. Interestingly, we also found a genetic signature of Pleistocene expansion in the same study areas where recent bottlenecks were shown. Our results provide independent evidence that northern spotted owls have recently declined, and suggest that loss of genetic variation is an emerging threat to the subspecies' persistence. Reduced effective population size (Ne), shown here in addition to field evidence for demographic decline, highlights the increasing vulnerability of this bird to extinction.

  8. Owls May Use Faeces and Prey Feathers to Signal Current Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; del Mar Delgado, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background Many animals communicate by marking focal elements of their home range with different kinds of materials. Visual signaling has been demonstrated to play a previously unrecognized role in the intraspecific communication of eagle owls (Bubo bubo), in both territorial and parent-offspring contexts. Visual signals may play a role in a variety of circumstances in this crepuscular and nocturnal species. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report that a large amount of extremely visible white faeces and prey feathers appear during the breeding season on posts and plucking sites in proximity to the nest, potentially representing a way for eagle owls to mark their territory. We present descriptive and experimental evidence showing that faeces and prey remains could act as previously unrecognized visual signals in a nocturnal avian predator. This novel signaling behavior could indicate the owls' current reproductive status to potential intruders, such as other territorial owls or non-breeding floaters. Faeces and prey feather markings may also advertise an owl's reproductive status or function in mate-mate communication. Conclusions/Significance We speculate that faeces marks and plucking may represent an overlooked but widespread method for communicating current reproduction to conspecifics. Such marking behavior may be common in birds, and we may now be exploring other questions and mechanisms in territoriality. PMID:18714382

  9. Early adaptation to altered gravitational environments in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The feeding behavior of two squirrel monkeys flown in Spacelab 3 is compared to that of six monkeys exposed to 1.5 G through centrifugation. The monkeys in the centrifugation study were housed unrestrained in cages, maintained at 25 C + or - 1 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle, and had unrestrained access to food and water. The Spacelab monkeys were maintained at 26 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle and had unlimited food and water. It is observed that the centrifuge rats displayed a change in feeding behavior for 4 days prior to resuming a normal pattern; one Spacelab monkey exhibited a 6 day depression before recover to control levels, and the feeding pattern of the second monkey was not influenced by the environment. It is noted that the effect of an altered dynamic environment is variable on the feeding behavior of individual monkeys.

  10. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 1.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  11. Altered Expression of Glial and Synaptic Markers in the Anterior Hippocampus of Behaviorally Depressed Female Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Willard, Stephanie L.; Hemby, Scott E.; Register, Thomas C.; McIntosh, Scot; Shively, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    The anterior hippocampus is associated with emotional functioning and hippocampal volume is reduced in depression. We reported reduced neuropil volume and number of glia in the dentate gyrus (DG) and cornu ammonis (CA)1 of the anterior hippocampus in behaviorally depressed adult female cynomolgus macaques. To determine the biochemical correlates of morphometric and behavioral differences between behaviorally depressed and nondepressed adult female monkeys, glial and synaptic transcripts and protein levels were assessed in the DG, CA3 and CA1 of the anterior hippocampus. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was increased whereas spinophilin and postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 protein were decreased in the CA1 of depressed monkeys. GFAP was reciprocally related to spinophilin and PSD-95 protein in the CA1. Gene expression of GFAP paralleled the protein changes observed in the CA1 and was inversely related to serum estradiol levels in depressed monkeys. These results suggest that behavioral depression in female primates is accompanied by astrocytic and synaptic protein alterations in the CA1. Moreover, these findings indicate a potential role for estrogen in modulating astrocyte-mediated impairments in synaptic plasticity. PMID:24440617

  12. Optimal Prediction of Moving Sound Source Direction in the Owl

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Weston; Fischer, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Capturing nature’s statistical structure in behavioral responses is at the core of the ability to function adaptively in the environment. Bayesian statistical inference describes how sensory and prior information can be combined optimally to guide behavior. An outstanding open question of how neural coding supports Bayesian inference includes how sensory cues are optimally integrated over time. Here we address what neural response properties allow a neural system to perform Bayesian prediction, i.e., predicting where a source will be in the near future given sensory information and prior assumptions. The work here shows that the population vector decoder will perform Bayesian prediction when the receptive fields of the neurons encode the target dynamics with shifting receptive fields. We test the model using the system that underlies sound localization in barn owls. Neurons in the owl’s midbrain show shifting receptive fields for moving sources that are consistent with the predictions of the model. We predict that neural populations can be specialized to represent the statistics of dynamic stimuli to allow for a vector read-out of Bayes-optimal predictions. PMID:26226048

  13. OWL site survey: first seeing measurement with ADIMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Abahamid, Abdelouahed; El Azhari, Youssef; Siher, El Arbi

    2004-10-01

    The ESO OWL site survey plan includes the analysis of the astronomical quality of the Atlas mountains in Morocco. In this paper we are presenting the first long time measurement of optical turbulence at Oukaimeden site. For this work we built an instrument called ADIMM for an Automated Differencial Image Motion Monitor, and we use it to the measure the optical turbulence at the Oukaimeden Site. We are describing the instrument and reporting the first results obtained after six month of working on this project. The results of night-time seeing measurements carried out during the period from Jun 14 up to October 01 2003 are presented. The median and mean values of the seeing for the entire period of observations are respectively 0.75" and 0.84". This work was organized in the framework of contract Num.69651/ODG/02/9005/GWI between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Astrophysics and Physics of High Energy Laboratory of the Faculty of Sciences, Cadi Ayyad University (LPHEA).

  14. Global inhibition and stimulus competition in the owl optic tectum

    PubMed Central

    Mysore, Shreesh P.; Asadollahi, Ali; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Stimulus selection for gaze and spatial attention involves competition among stimuli across sensory modalities and across all of space. We demonstrate that such cross-modal, global competition takes place in the intermediate and deep layers of the optic tectum, a structure known to be involved in gaze control and attention. A variety of either visual or auditory stimuli located anywhere outside of a neuron's receptive field (RF) were shown to suppress or completely eliminate responses to a visual stimulus located inside the RF in nitrous oxide sedated owls. The essential mechanism underlying this stimulus competition is global, divisive inhibition. Unlike the effect of the classical inhibitory surround, which decreases with distance from the RF center and shapes neuronal responses to individual stimuli, global inhibition acts across the entirety of space and modulates responses primarily in the context of multiple stimuli. Whereas the source of this global inhibition is as yet unknown, our data indicate that different networks mediate the classical surround and global inhibition. We hypothesize that this global, cross-modal inhibition, which acts automatically in a bottom-up fashion even in sedated animals, is critical to the creation of a map of stimulus salience in the optic tectum. PMID:20130182

  15. Sleep and vigilance linked to melanism in wild barn owls.

    PubMed

    Scriba, M F; Rattenborg, N C; Dreiss, A N; Vyssotski, A L; Roulin, A

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the function of variation in sleep requires studies in the natural ecological conditions in which sleep evolved. Sleep has an impact on individual performance and hence may integrate the costs and benefits of investing in processes that are sensitive to sleep, such as immunity or coping with stress. Because dark and pale melanic animals differentially regulate energy homeostasis, immunity and stress hormone levels, the amount and/or organization of sleep may covary with melanin-based colour. We show here that wild, cross-fostered nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) born from mothers displaying more black spots had shorter non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep bouts, a shorter latency until the occurrence of REM sleep after a bout of wakefulness and more wakefulness bouts. In male nestlings, the same sleep traits also correlated with their own level of spotting. Because heavily spotted male nestlings and the offspring of heavily spotted biological mothers switched sleep-wakefulness states more frequently, we propose the hypothesis that they could be also behaviourally more vigilant. Accordingly, nestlings from mothers displaying many black spots looked more often towards the nest entrance where their parents bring food and towards their sibling against whom they compete. Owlets from heavily spotted mothers might invest more in vigilance, thereby possibly increasing associated costs due to sleep fragmentation. We conclude that different strategies of the regulation of brain activity have evolved and are correlated with melanin-based coloration. PMID:25056556

  16. Visual modulation of auditory responses in the owl inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Joseph F; Knudsen, Eric I

    2009-06-01

    The barn owl's central auditory system creates a map of auditory space in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX). Although the crucial role visual experience plays in the formation and maintenance of this auditory space map is well established, the mechanism by which vision influences ICX responses remains unclear. Surprisingly, previous experiments have found that in the absence of extensive pharmacological manipulation, visual stimuli do not drive neural responses in the ICX. Here we investigated the influence of dynamic visual stimuli on auditory responses in the ICX. We show that a salient visual stimulus, when coincident with an auditory stimulus, can modulate auditory responses in the ICX even though the same visual stimulus may elicit no neural responses when presented alone. For each ICX neuron, the most effective auditory and visual stimuli were located in the same region of space. In addition, the magnitude of the visual modulation of auditory responses was dependent on the context of the stimulus presentation with novel visual stimuli eliciting consistently larger response modulations than frequently presented visual stimuli. Thus the visual modulation of ICX responses is dependent on the characteristics of the visual stimulus as well as on the spatial and temporal correspondence of the auditory and visual stimuli. These results demonstrate moment-to-moment visual enhancements of auditory responsiveness that, in the short-term, increase auditory responses to salient bimodal stimuli and in the long-term could serve to instruct the adaptive auditory plasticity necessary to maintain accurate auditory orienting behavior. PMID:19321633

  17. Direction Selectivity Mediated by Adaptation in the Owl's Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Motion direction is a crucial cue for predicting future states in natural scenes. In the auditory system, the mechanisms that confer direction selectivity to neurons are not well understood. Neither is it known whether sound motion is encoded independently of stationary sound location. Here we investigated these questions in neurons of the owl's external nucleus of the inferior colliculus, where auditory space is represented in a map. Using a high-density speaker array, we show that the preferred direction and the degree of direction selectivity can be predicted by response adaptation to sounds moving over asymmetric spatial receptive fields. At the population level, we found that preference for sounds moving toward frontal space increased with eccentricity in spatial tuning. This distribution was consistent with larger receptive-field asymmetry in neurons tuned to more peripheral auditory space. A model of suppression based on spatiotemporal summation predicted the observations. Thus, response adaptation and receptive-field shape can explain direction selectivity to acoustic motion and an orderly distribution of preferred direction. PMID:24305813

  18. Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

  19. Neuropeptides and alcohol addiction in monkeys.

    PubMed

    van Ree, J M; Kornet, M; Goosen, C

    1994-01-01

    Neuropeptides have been implicated in experimental drug addiction. Desglycinamide (Arg8) vasopressin (DGAVP) attenuates heroin and cocaine intake during initiation of drug self-administration in rats. beta-Endorphin is self-administered in rats and a role of endogenous opioids in cocaine reward has been proposed. The present studies deal with voluntary alcohol consumption in monkeys under free choice conditions. Monkeys initiated alcohol drinking within a few days and after a stable drinking pattern was acquired increased their ethanol consumption during a short period following interruption of the alcohol supply (relapse). The alcohol drinking behavior seems under the control of reinforcement principles. DGAVP reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking in the majority of treated monkeys. Initiation of alcohol drinking induced modifications in neuroendocrine homeostasis e.g. an increased plasma beta-endorphin. Both the opioid antagonist naltrexone and the opioid agonist morphine dose-dependently decreased alcohol intake during continuous supply and after imposed abstinence. The monkeys were more sensitive to both drugs after imposed abstinence. The effects are interpreted in the context of the endorphin compensation hypothesis of addictive behavior. It is suggested that endorphins may be particularly implicated in craving for addictive drugs and in relapse of addictive behavior. PMID:8032147

  20. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J.; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Woo Byun, Yoon; Zhuang, Katie Z.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal. PMID:26158523

  1. Aging: Lessons for Elderly People from Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Crockford, Catherine

    2016-07-11

    As life expectancy increases, health in the elderly is a growing issue. Health is linked to remaining socially active, but the elderly typically narrow their social networks. The social life of aging monkeys shows interesting parallels, indicating social patterns may be rooted in evolution. PMID:27404240

  2. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  3. The myth of the aggressive monkey.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Captive rhesus macaques are not naturally aggressive, but poor husbandry and handling practices can trigger their aggression toward conspecifics and toward the human handler. The myth of the aggressive monkey probably is based on often not taking into account basic ethological principles when managing rhesus macaques in the research laboratory setting. PMID:16221082

  4. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  5. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-01

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys. PMID:27610562

  6. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    PubMed

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys. PMID:11144600

  7. The pattern of the arterial supply of the pancreas in anthropoid apes, catarrhine monkeys and platyrrhine monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shawuti, Alimujiang; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-11-01

    To get the full understanding of the arterial distribution to the pancreas, the analysis of the distribution of the variety of monkey species would be helpful. In this study, we studied the layout of the pancreatic artery in anthropoids (1 gorilla, 3 chimpanzees and 2 white-handed gibbons), in catarrhine monkeys (1 hamadryas baboon, 2 anubid baboons, 10 savannah monkeys) and in platyrrhine monkeys (6 squirrel monkeys). The pancreas of the monkeys was supplied by the arteries originating from the celiac trunk and/or superior mesenteric artery. There were three patterns in the arterial distribution; (1) the celiac artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (2) the superior mesenteric artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (3) the celiac artery supplied the whole pancreas. The pattern of the arterial distribution to the monkey pancreas had a wide variety. The result would be helpful for the elucidation of the development of the vascular distribution in the pancreas. PMID:20166548

  8. What Are My Chances? Closing the Gap in Uncertainty Monitoring between Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Smith, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) but not capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) respond to difficult or ambiguous situations by choosing not to respond or by seeking more information. Here we assessed whether a task with very low chance accuracy could diminish this species difference, presumably indicating that capuchins—compared to macaques—are less risk averse as opposed to less sensitive to signals of uncertainty. Monkeys searched for the largest of six stimuli on a computer screen. Trial difficulty was varied, and monkeys could choose to opt out of any trial. All rhesus monkeys, including some with no prior use of the uncertainty response, selectively avoided the most difficult trials. The majority of capuchins sometimes made uncertainty responses, but at lower rates than rhesus monkeys. Nonetheless, the presence of some adaptive uncertainty responding suggests that capuchins also experience uncertainty and can respond to it, though with less proficiency than macaque monkeys. PMID:25368870

  9. Helminth Communities of Owls (Strigiformes) Indicate Strong Biological and Ecological Differences from Birds of Prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Kinsella, John M.; Di Prisco, Francesca; Troisi, Sabatino; D’Alessio, Nicola; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Aznar, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy) and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain). A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops) and little owls (Athene noctua) and tawny owls (Strix aluco). It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of ‘owl generalist’ helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of ‘owl specialist’ species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness. PMID:23300921

  10. Effects of maternal mobility, partner, and endocrine state on social responsiveness of adolescent rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C O; Kenney, A M; Mason, W A

    1977-09-01

    The social behavior of rhesus monkeys raised for the 1st year of life with mobile (MS) or stationary (SS) cloth surrogate mothers was investigated when the animals reached 4-5 yr of age. The MS males generally refrained from social interaction during initial pairings with females, whereas SS males interacted frequently, but were more often the targets of attacks and chases from adult females than were MS males. The MS males were more likely to vary their social behavior according to the behavior of the social partner and seemed to benefit more from extended social exposure than their SS counterparts. The MS females were more similar to wild-born females than were SS females in nearly every behavior category and dimension tested. These results suggest that rearing with mobile artificial mothers improves the chances of later adaptive social adjustments in socially restricted monkeys. PMID:410688

  11. Adaptive response of slow and fast skeletal muscle in the monkey to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on hindlimb muscles of the monkey: an ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA), two ankle extensors (medical gastrocnemius, MG and soleus, SOL), and a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL). These experiments will be performed as part of the BION mission. The original project proposed to assess the effects of weightlessness in adult Rhesus monkeys which were to be flown on the Space Shuttle as part of SLS-3. Feasibility studies were carried out and a series of experiments were performed at NASA/Ames Research Center to assess the effects of a 21-day restraint period in the ESOP on muscle properties. The results of these studies are summarized.

  12. Continuous 30-day measurements utilizing the monkey metabolism pod. [study of weightlessness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    A fiberglass system was previously described, using which quantitative physiological measurements could be made to study the effects of weightlessness on 10 to 14 kg adult monkeys maintained in comfortable restraint under space flight conditions. Recent improvements in the system have made it possible to obtain continuous measurements of respiratory gas exchange, cardiovascular function, and mineral balance for periods of up to 30 days on pig-tailed monkeys. It has also been possible to operate two pods which share one set of instrumentation, thereby permitting simultaneous measurements to be made on two animals by commutating signal outputs from the pods. In principle, more than two pods could be operated in this fashion. The system is compatible with Spacelab design. Representative physiological data from ground tests of the system are presented.

  13. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

    PubMed

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  14. Low glucokinase activity and high rates of gluconeogenesis contribute to hyperglycemia in barn owls (Tyto alba) after a glucose challenge.

    PubMed

    Myers, M R; Klasing, K C

    1999-10-01

    Barn owls (Tyto alba) and leghorn chickens were fed a low protein high glucose (33.44% protein, 23.67% glucose) or a high protein low glucose (55.35% protein, 1.5% glucose) diet. After an intravenous glucose infusion, the peak in plasma glucose was not affected by diet in either species and was 22.6 and 39.4 mmol/L in chickens and barn owls, respectively. Glucose levels returned to normal within 30 min in chickens, but remained elevated for 3.5 h in barn owls. An oral glucose challenge also resulted in greater and longer hyperglycemia in barn owls than in chickens. The activities of hepatic glucokinase, malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of barn owls were 16, 35, and 333% of the levels in chickens. Malic enzyme (P = 0.024) was less affected by dietary glucose level in barn owls than in chickens. Cultured hepatocytes from chickens produced 43% more glucose from lactate than hepatocytes from barn owls and, conversely, barn owl hepatocytes produced 87% more glucose from threonine than chickens (P = 0.001). Gluconeogenesis from lactate was greatly suppressed by high media glucose in chicken hepatocytes but not in those of barn owls (P = 0.0001 for species by glucose level interaction). When threonine was the substrate, gluconeogenesis was suppressed by increased glucose in both species but to a greater relative extent in chickens (P = 0.007 for species by glucose level interaction). Owls were glucose intolerant at least in part because of low hepatic glucokinase activity and an inadequate suppression of gluconeogenesis in the presence of exogenous glucose, apparently because they evolved with large excesses of amino acids and limited glucose in their normal diet. PMID:10498765

  15. An OWL Meta-Ontology for Representing the Clinical Element Model

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Cui; Parker, Craig G.; Oniki, Thomas A.; Pathak, Jyotishman; Huff, Stanley M.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    The Clinical Element Model (CEM) is a strategy designed to represent logical models for clinical data elements to ensure unambiguous data representation, interpretation, and exchange within and across heterogeneous sources and applications. The current representations of CEMs have limitations on expressing semantics and formal definitions of the structure and the semantics. Here we introduce our initial efforts on representing the CEM in OWL, so that the enrichment with OWL semantics and further semantic processing can be achieved in CEM. The focus of this paper is the CEM meta-ontology where the basic structures, the properties and their relationships, and the constraints are defined. These OWL representation specifications have been reviewed by CEM experts to ensure they capture the intended meaning of the model faithfully. PMID:22195200

  16. Spatial cue reliability drives frequency tuning in the barn Owl's midbrain.

    PubMed

    Cazettes, Fanny; Fischer, Brian J; Pena, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    The robust representation of the environment from unreliable sensory cues is vital for the efficient function of the brain. However, how the neural processing captures the most reliable cues is unknown. The interaural time difference (ITD) is the primary cue to localize sound in horizontal space. ITD is encoded in the firing rate of neurons that detect interaural phase difference (IPD). Due to the filtering effect of the head, IPD for a given location varies depending on the environmental context. We found that, in barn owls, at each location there is a frequency range where the head filtering yields the most reliable IPDs across contexts. Remarkably, the frequency tuning of space-specific neurons in the owl's midbrain varies with their preferred sound location, matching the range that carries the most reliable IPD. Thus, frequency tuning in the owl's space-specific neurons reflects a higher-order feature of the code that captures cue reliability. PMID:25531067

  17. Mechanism of pellet egestion in great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Duke, G E; Evanson, O A; Redig, P T; Rhoades, D D

    1976-12-01

    To study the mechanism of oral pellet egestion in great-horned owls, bipolar electrodes and strain-gauge transducers were chronically implanted in the esophagus, muscular stomach, and duodenum of six owls. Recordings from conscious owls plus simultaneous radiographic observations revealed characteristic gastrointestinal motility patterns associated with egestion. Beginning at about 12 min before egestion, gastric contractions formed the final shape of the pellet and pushed it into the lower esophagus. The pellet was moved out of the esophagus by antiperistalsis during the last 8--10 s before egestion. During pellet egestion, contractions of abdominal muscles were not detected. Pellet egestion appears to be unlike either emesis in mammals with a simple stomach or regurgitation in ruminants. PMID:1052819

  18. Overt attention toward oriented objects in free-viewing barn owls

    PubMed Central

    Harmening, Wolf Maximilian; Orlowski, Julius; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Wagner, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Visual saliency based on orientation contrast is a perceptual product attributed to the functional organization of the mammalian brain. We examined this visual phenomenon in barn owls by mounting a wireless video microcamera on the owls’ heads and confronting them with visual scenes that contained one differently oriented target among similarly oriented distracters. Without being confined by any particular task, the owls looked significantly longer, more often, and earlier at the target, thus exhibiting visual search strategies so far demonstrated in similar conditions only in primates. Given the considerable differences in phylogeny and the structure of visual pathways between owls and humans, these findings suggest that orientation saliency has computational optimality in a wide variety of ecological contexts, and thus constitutes a universal building block for efficient visual information processing in general. PMID:21536886

  19. μ and κ Opioid receptor distribution in the monogamous titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus): Implications for social behavior and endocrine functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ragen, Benjamin J.; Freeman, Sara M.; Laredo, Sarah A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Bales, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The opioid system is involved in infant-mother bonds and adult-adult bonds in many species. We have previously shown that μ opioid receptors (MOR) and κ opioid receptors (KOR) are involved in regulating the adult attachment of the monogamous titi monkey. The present study sought to determine the distribution of MOR and KOR in the titi monkey brain using receptor autoradiography. We used [3H]DAMGO to label MORs and [3H]U69,593 to label KORs. MOR binding was heterogeneous throughout the titi monkey brain. Specifically, MOR binding was observed in the cingulate gyrus, striatum, septal regions, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and thalamus. Binding was particularly dense in the septum, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, mediodorsal thalamus with moderate binding in the nucleus accumbens. Consistent with other primate species, MOR were also observed in “neurochemically unique domains of the accumbens and putamen” (NUDAPs). In general KOR binding was more homogenous. KORs were primarily found in the cingulate gyrus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus. Dense KOR binding was observed in the claustrum. Relative MOR and KOR binding in the titi monkey striatum was similar to other humans and primates, but was much lower compared to rodents. Relative MOR binding in the titi monkey hypothalamus was much greater than that found in rodents. This study was the first to examine MOR and KOR binding in a monogamous primate. The location of these receptors gives insight into where ligands may be acting to regulate social behavior and endocrine function. PMID:25637809

  20. Stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) subjected to long-distance transport and simulated transport housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Fernström, A L; Sutian, W; Royo, F; Westlund, K; Nilsson, T; Carlsson, H-E; Paramastri, Y; Pamungkas, J; Sajuthi, D; Schapiro, S J; Hau, J

    2008-11-01

    The stress associated with transportation of non-human primates used in scientific research is an important but almost unexplored part of laboratory animal husbandry. The procedures and routines concerning transport are not only important for the animals' physical health but also for their mental health as well. The transport stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was studied in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 25 adult female cynomolgus monkeys were divided into five groups of five animals each that received different diets during the transport phase of the experiment. All animals were transported in conventional single animal transport cages with no visual or tactile contact with conspecifics. The animals were transported by lorry for 24 h at ambient temperatures ranging between 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Urine produced before, during and after transport was collected and analysed for cortisol by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All monkeys exhibited a significant increase in cortisol excretion per time unit during the transport and on the first day following transport.Although anecdotal reports concerning diet during transport, including the provision of fruits and/or a tranquiliser, was thought likely to influence stress responses, these were not corrobated by the present study. In Experiment 2, behavioural data were collected from 18 cynomolgus macaques before and after transfer from group cages to either single or pair housing, and also before and after a simulated transport, in which the animals were housed in transport cages. The single housed monkeys were confined to single transport cages and the pair housed monkeys were kept in their pairs in double size cages. Both pair housed and singly housed monkeys showed clear behavioural signs of stress soon after their transfer out of their group cages.However, stress-associated behaviours were more prevalent in singly housed animals than in pair housed animals, and these behaviours