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Sample records for adult pallid sturgeon

  1. Habitat use and selection by adult pallid sturgeon in the lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrala, Jason R.; Kroboth, Patrick T.; Kuntz, Nathan M.; Schramm, Harold L.

    2014-01-01

    The Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is an endangered riverine sturgeon with historical distribution restricted to the Yellowstone, Missouri, Mississippi, and Atchafalaya rivers. Although not abundant, Pallid Sturgeon in the lower Mississippi River appear to be naturally recruiting, and information about habitat use is important to conserve this species. Thirty-four adult Pallid Sturgeon (612-1,013-mm FL) were tagged with acoustic transmitters and relocated a total of 272times in a 40-km reach of the lower Mississippi River from April 2009 through December 2012. Pallid Sturgeon strongly selected island tip and natural bank habitats, and, to a lesser degree, revetted bank habitat. Although frequently used, Pallid Sturgeon exhibited negative selection for the expansive main channel habitat. Secondary channel habitat was seasonally available and excluded from habitat selection analysis, but this habitat was frequently used in the spring when available. Fifty percent of Pallid Sturgeon detections were in relatively narrow ranges of depths (6.2-13.6m) and surface current velocities (0.64-1.05m/s). Use of different habitats was related to river stage and water temperature, suggesting use of some habitats was seasonal. Results suggest that maintaining natural bank habitat and secondary channel-island complexes will benefit conservation of this endangered species in the lower Mississippi River. 

  2. An estimate of the historic population size of adult pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri river basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Jordan, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus raised in hatcheries and stocked in the wild are used to augment critically imperiled populations of this federally endangered species in the United States. For pallid sturgeon in recovery priority management area 2 (RPMA 2) of the Missouri River and lower Yellowstone River where natural recruitment has not occurred for decades, restoration programs aim to stock an annual minimum of 9000 juvenile pallid sturgeon for 20 years to re-establish a minimum population of 1700 adults. However, establishment of this target was based on general guidelines for maintaining the genetic integrity of populations rather than pallid sturgeon-specific demographic information because data on the historical population size was lacking. In this study, information from a recent population estimate (158 wild adults in 2004, 95% confidence interval 129-193 adults) and an empirically derived adult mortality rate (5%) was used in a cohort population model to back-estimate the historic abundance of adult pallid sturgeon in RPMA 2. Three back-estimation age models were developed, and assumed that adults alive during 2004 were 30-, 40-, or 50-years old. Based on these age assumptions, population sizes [??95% confidence intervals; (CI)] were back-estimated to 1989, 1979, and 1969 to approximate size of the population when individuals would have been sexually mature (15 years old) and capable of spawning. Back-estimations yielded predictions of 344 adults in 1989 (95% CI 281-420), 577 adults in 1979 (95% CI 471-704), and 968 adults in 1969 (95% CI 790-1182) for the 30-, 40-, and 50-year age models, respectively. Although several assumptions are inherent in the back-estimation models, results suggest the juvenile stocking program for pallid sturgeon will likely re-establish an adult population that equals in the short-term and exceeds in the long-term the predicted population numbers that occurred during past decades in RPMA 2. However, re

  3. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  4. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon.

  5. Novel single-nucleotide polymorphism markers confirm successful spawning of endangered pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eichelberger, Jennifer S.; Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Krampe, Matthew S.; Heist, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Spawning of the federally endangered Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is known to occur in the upper Missouri River basin, but progeny from natural reproductive events have not been observed and recruitment to juvenile or adult life stages has not been documented in recent decades. Identification of Pallid Sturgeon progeny is confounded by the fact that Shovelnose Sturgeon S. platorynchus occurs throughout the entire range of Pallid Sturgeon and the two species are essentially indistinguishable (morphometrically and meristically) during early life stages. Moreover, free embryos of sympatric Paddlefish Polyodon spathula are very similar to the two sturgeon species. In this study, three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays were employed to screen acipenseriform free embryos and larvae collected from the upper Missouri River basin in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A mitochondrial DNA SNP discriminates Paddlefish from sturgeon, and specific multilocus genotypes at two nuclear DNA SNPs occurred in 98.9% of wild adult Pallid Sturgeon but only in 3% of Shovelnose Sturgeon sampled in the upper Missouri River. Individuals identified as potential Pallid Sturgeon based on SNP genotypes were further analyzed at 19 microsatellite loci for species discrimination. Out of 1,423 free embryos collected over 3 years of sampling, 971 Paddlefish, 446 Shovelnose Sturgeon, and 6 Pallid Sturgeon were identified. Additionally, 249 Scaphirhynchus spp. benthic larvae were screened, but no Pallid Sturgeon were detected. These SNP markers provide an efficient method of screening acipenseriform early life stages for the presence of Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River basin. Detection of wild Pallid Sturgeon free embryos in the upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers supports the hypothesis that the failure of wild Pallid Sturgeon to recruit to the juvenile life stage in the upper Missouri River basin is caused by early life stage mortality rather than by lack of successful spawning.

  6. Population viability analysis of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon with initial application to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bajer, P.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Demographic models for the shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid (S. albus) sturgeons in the Lower Missouri River were developed to conduct sensitivity analyses for both populations. Potential effects of increased fishing mortality on the shovelnose sturgeon were also evaluated. Populations of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon were most sensitive to age-0 mortality rates as well as mortality rates of juveniles and young adults. Overall, fecundity was a less sensitive parameter. However, increased fecundity effectively balanced higher mortality among sensitive age classes in both populations. Management that increases population-level fecundity and improves survival of age-0, juveniles, and young adults should most effectively benefit both populations. Evaluation of reproductive values indicated that populations of pallid sturgeon dominated by ages ???35 could rapidly lose their potential for growth, particularly if recruitment remains low. Under the initial parameter values portraying current conditions the population of shovelnose sturgeon was predicted to decline by 1.65% annually, causing the commercial yield to also decline. Modeling indicated that the commercial yield could increase substantially if exploitation of females in ages ???12 was highly restricted. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  7. Population viability analysis of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon with initial application to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bajer, P.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Demographic models for the shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid (S. albus) sturgeons in the Lower Missouri River were developed to conduct sensitivity analyses for both populations. Potential effects of increased fishing mortality on the shovelnose sturgeon were also evaluated. Populations of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon were most sensitive to age-0 mortality rates as well as mortality rates of juveniles and young adults. Overall, fecundity was a less sensitive parameter. However, increased fecundity effectively balanced higher mortality among sensitive age classes in both populations. Management that increases population-level fecundity and improves survival of age-0, juveniles, and young adults should most effectively benefit both populations. Evaluation of reproductive values indicated that populations of pallid sturgeon dominated by ages ≥35 could rapidly lose their potential for growth, particularly if recruitment remains low. Under the initial parameter values portraying current conditions the population of shovelnose sturgeon was predicted to decline by 1.65% annually, causing the commercial yield to also decline. Modeling indicated that the commercial yield could increase substantially if exploitation of females in ages ≤12 was highly restricted.

  8. A conceptual life-history model for pallid and shovelnose sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; DeLonay, Aaron J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Galat, David L.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Braaten, P. J.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers has resulted in dramatic physical changes to these rivers. These changes have been implicated as causative agents in the decline of pallid sturgeon. The pallid sturgeon, federally listed as endangered, is endemic to the turbid waters of the Missouri River and the Lower Mississippi River. The sympatric shovelnose sturgeon historically was more common and widespread than the pallid sturgeon. Habitat alteration, river regulation, pollution, and over-harvest have resulted in the now predictable patterns of decline and localized extirpation of sturgeon across species and geographic areas. Symptomatic of this generalized pattern of decline is poor reproductive success, and low or no recruitment of wild juveniles to the adult population. The purpose of this report is to introduce a conceptual life-history model of the factors that affect reproduction, growth, and survival of shovelnose and pallid sturgeons. The conceptual model provided here was developed to organize the understanding about the complex life history of Scaphirhynchus sturgeons. It was designed to be used for communication, planning, and to provide the structure for a population-forecasting model. These models are intended to be dynamic and responsive to new information and changes in river management, thereby providing scientists, stakeholders, and managers with ways to improve understanding of the effects of management actions on the ecological requirements of Scaphirhynchus sturgeons. As new scientific knowledge becomes available, it could be included in the model in many ways at various integration levels.

  9. Gender identification of shovelnose sturgeon using ultrasonic and endoscopic imagery and the application of the method to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bryan, J.L.; Annis, M.L.; Allert, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Monthly sampling of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, a biological surrogate for the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, was conducted to develop a multiseasonal profile of reproductive stages. Data collected included histological characteristics of gonads from wild caught fish and laboratory and field ultrasonic and endoscopic images. These data were used to compare effectiveness of ultrasonic and endoscopic techniques at identifying gender of adult shovelnose sturgeon at different reproductive stages. The least invasive method (i.e. ultrasound) was least effective while the most invasive (i.e. endoscope through an abdominal incision) was the most effective at identifying shovelnose sturgeon gender. In most cases, success rate for identifying males was greater than females, with success at identifying both genders greater in more advanced reproductive stages. Concomitantly, for most months average reproductive stage was more advanced for males than females. April and May were the months with the most advanced reproductive stage, and were the months when ultrasound was most effective. Methods were also applied in the Upper Missouri River to validate their use on pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Ultrasound was successful at identifying pallid sturgeon gender, however, endoscopic examination through the urogenital duct was only successful at identifying pallid sturgeon gender when the urogenital duct was not opaque. ?? 2005 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Habitat use of juvenile pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon with implications for water-level management in a downstream reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerrity, P.C.; Guy, C.S.; Gardner, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Natural recruitment of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus has not been observed in the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana, for at least 20 years. To augment the population, age-1 hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon were released in 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate the habitat use of these fish and compare it with that of indigenous shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus. Twenty-nine juvenile pallid sturgeon and 21 indigenous shovelnose sturgeon were implanted with radio transmitters in 2003 and 2004. The two species showed no differences in habitat use in terms of mean depth, cross-sectional relative depth, longitudinal relative depth, column velocity, bottom velocity, and channel width. However, there were seasonal differences within both species for cross-sectional relative depth, column velocity, and channel width. Both shovelnose sturgeon and juvenile pallid sturgeon were primarily associated with silt and sand substrate. However, shovelnose sturgeon were associated with gravel and cobble substrate more than juvenile pallid sturgeon. Shovelnose sturgeon and juvenile pallid sturgeon both selected reaches without islands and avoided reaches with islands; the two species also selected main-channel habitat and avoided secondary channels. Mean home range was similar between juvenile pallid sturgeon (15 km; 90% confidence interval, ??5.0 km) and shovelnose sturgeon (16.5 km; ??4.7 km). Spatial distribution differed between the two species, with shovelnose sturgeon using upstream areas more often than juvenile pallid sturgeon. Twenty-eight percent of juvenile pallid sturgeon frequented 60 km of lotie habitat that would be inundated by Fort Peck Reservoir at maximum pool. Stocking juvenile pallid sturgeon can successfully augment the wild pallid sturgeon population in the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir, which is crucial to the long-term recovery of the species. However, water-level management in downstream reservoirs such

  11. The pallid sturgeon: Scientific investigations help understand recovery needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  12. Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, William E.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, S.R.; Bertrand, K.N.; Selch, T.M.; Klumb, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking is a commonly employed conservation strategy for endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. However, decisions about when, where and at what size pallid sturgeon should be stocked are hindered because vulnerability of pallid sturgeon to fish predation is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by two Missouri River predators under different flow regimes, and in combination with alternative prey. To document vulnerability, age-0 pallid sturgeon (<100 mm) were offered to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in laboratory experiments. Selection of pallid sturgeon by both predators was measured by offering pallid sturgeon and an alternative prey, fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, in varying prey densities. Smallmouth bass consumed more age-0 pallid sturgeon (0.95 h-1) than did channel catfish (0.13 h-1), and predation rates did not differ between water velocities supporting sustained (0 m s-1) or prolonged swimming speeds (0.15 m s-1). Neither predator positively selected pallid sturgeon when alternative prey was available. Both predator species consumed more fathead minnows than pallid sturgeon across all prey density combinations. Results indicate that the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by channel catfish and smallmouth bass is low, especially in the presence of an alternative fish prey. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. The Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2016-08-05

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was designed to assess how Missouri River management has affected—and may affect—the endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population. The EA emerged from the recognition that the direction and focus of the Missouri River Recovery Program would benefit from an updated, thorough evaluation of what is known, what is not known, and what needs to be known for effective actions. This fact sheet documents the steps in the EA process and the four core reports, culminating in the 2016 integrative report.

  14. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Faulkner, Jacob D.A.; Candrl, James S.; Fuller, David B.; Backes, Kenneth M.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Rugg, Matthew L.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Eder, Brandon L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2016-03-16

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with collaborating research partners and in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program–Integrated Science Program. The project research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that involve multiple disciplines.The project research tasks in the 2014 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The project research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2014.

  15. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Eder, Brandon L; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-20

    The research tasks in the 2013 scope of work emphasized understanding reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon, and hatch and drift of free embryos and larvae. These tasks were addressed in four study sections located in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam, including downstream reaches of the Milk River, the Lower Yellowstone River, and the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2013.

  16. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River: annual report 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Annis, Mandy L.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Fuller, D. B.; Haas, Justin D.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; McElroy, Brandon J.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2011 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult sturgeon, and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and including downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2011.

  17. Drift dynamics of larval pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in a natural side channel of the Upper Missouri River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Holte, L.D.; Lott, R.D.; Viste, W.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    The drift dynamics of larval shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (1, 2, 6, and 10 d posthatch [dph]) and pallid sturgeon S. albus (1, 2, 5, 9, 11, and 17 dph) were examined in a natural side channel of the Missouri River to quantify the vertical drift location of larvae in the water column, determine the drift velocity of larvae relative to water velocity, and simulate the cumulative distance (km) drifted by larvae during ontogenetic development. Larvae were released at the side-channel inlet and sampled at points 100, 500, 900, and 1,300 m downstream. Larvae drifted primarily near the riverbed, as 58-79% of recaptured shovelnose sturgeon and 63-89% of recaptured pallid sturgeon were sampled in the lower 0.5 m of the water column. The transition from the drifting to the benthic life stage was initiated at 6 dph (mean length, 15.6 mm) for shovelnose sturgeon and at 11-17 dph (mean length, 18.1-20.3 mm) for pallid sturgeon. Across ages, the drift rates of larval shovelnose sturgeon averaged 0.09-0.16 m/s slower than the mean water column velocity. The drift rates of pallid sturgeon were similar to or slightly slower (0.03-0.07 m/s) than the mean water column velocity for 1-11-dph larvae. Conversely, 17-dph larval pallid sturgeon dispersed downstream at a much slower rate (mean, 0.20 m/s slower than the mean water column velocity) owing to their transition to benthic habitats. Drift simulations indicated that the average larval shovelnose sturgeon may drift from 94 to 250 km and the average larval pallid sturgeon may drift from 245 to 530 km, depending on water velocity. Differences in larval drift dynamics between species provide a possible explanation for differences in recruitment between shovelnose sturgeon and pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  19. Development of conceptual ecological models linking management of the Missouri River to pallid sturgeon population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the process of developing and refining conceptual ecological models (CEMs) for linking river management to pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics in the Missouri River. The refined CEMs are being used in the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis to organize, document, and formalize an understanding of pallid sturgeon population responses to past and future management alternatives. The general form of the CEMs, represented by a population-level model and component life-stage models, was determined in workshops held in the summer of 2013. Subsequently, the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team designed a general hierarchical structure for the component models, refined the graphical structure, and reconciled variation among the components and between models developed for the upper river (Upper Missouri & Yellowstone Rivers) and the lower river (Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam). Importance scores attributed to the relations between primary biotic characteristics and survival were used to define a candidate set of working dominant hypotheses about pallid sturgeon population dynamics. These CEMs are intended to guide research and adaptive-management actions to benefit pallid sturgeon populations in the Missouri River.

  20. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  1. Sturgeon Research Update: Confirmed Pallid Sturgeon Spawning in the Missouri River in 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael; Mestl, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission (NGPC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have confirmed spawning of two female pallid sturgeon in the upstream reaches of the lower Missouri River in May 2007. Combined with supporting research in reproductive physiology, identification of spawning habitat, and early life history this result provides new understanding of environmental factors (for example, photoperiod, temperature, water quality, and flow regime) that might affect reproduction of this endangered species. The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide stakeholders, scientists, and managers with some of the preliminary results from the 2007 field assessment of sturgeon reproduction in the lower Missouri River.

  2. Water-quality requirements, tolerances, and preferences of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Additional research could be used to characterize and quantify the requirements, tolerance, and preferences of pallid sturgeon to these water-quality characteristics, especially during the egg and larval life stages. Enhancements to existing water-sampling programs are needed to quantify the exposure of pallid sturgeon to many of these water-quality stressors.

  3. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Bergthold, Casey L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2010-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The general Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project strategy is to integrate field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, habitat requirements, and physiology to produce a predictive understanding of sturgeon population dynamics. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery-Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary research tasks engaging multiple disciplines that primarily address spawning as a probable limiting factor in reproduction and survival of the pallid sturgeon. The research is multifaceted and is designed to provide information needed for management decisions impacting habitat restoration, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research activities and progress towards understanding of the species are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2009.

  4. Identification of plasma glucocorticoids in pallid sturgeon in response to stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, M.A.H.; Allert, J.A.; Kappenman, K.M.; Marcos, J.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Shackleton, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Compared to teleosts, little is known about the stress response in chondrosteans, and the glucocorticoid(s) most responsive to stress have never been definitively determined in sturgeon. In terms of cortisol production, pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) have a low physiological response to stress compared to other sturgeons (Acipenser sp.). Because of this, our null hypothesis was that cortisol is not the predominant glucocorticoid secreted in response to stress in pallid sturgeon. Our objective was to identify the putative glucocorticoids present in the plasma of pallid sturgeon during the stress response. Pallid sturgeon were subjected to a severe confinement stress (12 h) with an additional handling stressor for the first 6 h. Control fish were not subjected to confinement but were handled only to collect blood. Blood plasma was collected at time 0, 6, and 12 h. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to screen the plasma for the spectrum of glucocorticoids and determine the putative steroid secreted during the stress response. Cortisol was the primary glucocorticoid detected in stressed pallid sturgeon. In addition, the cortisol metabolites cortisone, alloTHE (5??-pregnane-3??,17??,21-triol-11,20-dione), allo-??-cortolone (3??,17??,20??,21-tetrahydro-5??-pregnan-11-one), and allo-??-cortolone (3??,17??,20??,21-tetrahydro-5??-pregnan-11-one) were detected. Plasma cortisol increased from a resting concentration of 0.67 ng/ml to 10.66 ng/ml at 6 h followed by a decrease to 6.78 ng/ml by 12 h. Plasma glucose increased significantly by time 6 and 12 h in both stressed and unstressed groups and remained elevated at time 12 h, while resting lactate concentrations were low to non-detectable and did not increase significantly with the stressor over time. Cortisol was the primary glucocorticoid synthesized and secreted in response to a stressor in pallid sturgeon. Though the proportional increase in plasma cortisol in stressed pallid sturgeon was lower than

  5. Effects of Acclimation on Poststocking Dispersal and Physiological Condition of Age-1 Pallid Sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Cureton, Eli S.; Webb, Molly H.; Gardner, William M.

    2011-03-28

    A propagation program for pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the upper Missouri River was implemented by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1997. Preliminary research indicated that many hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon were experiencing significant downstream poststocking dispersal, negatively affecting their recruitment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and traditional treatment had no acclimation (reared under traditional protocol). During both years fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach than traditional treatment. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and fish remaining in the Missouri River reach were similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years may be related to fin curl. Fin curl was present in all fish in 2005 and 27% of the fish in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, habitat at release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments in 2006. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) may reduce liver fat content. Acclimation conditions used in this study may not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies are present

  6. Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis—Integrative report 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; James, Daniel A.; Welker, Timothy L.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2016-07-15

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis was designed to carry out three components of an assessment of how Missouri River management has affected, and will affect, population dynamics of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon): (1) collection of reliable scientific information, (2) critical assessment and synthesis of available data and analyses, and (3) analysis of the effects of actions on listed species and their habitats. This report is a synthesis of the three components emphasizing development of lines of evidence relating potential future management actions to pallid sturgeon population dynamics. We address 21 working management hypotheses that emerged from an expert opinion-based filtering process.The ability to quantify linkages from abiotic changes to pallid sturgeon population dynamics is compromised by fundamental information gaps. Although a substantial foundation of pallid sturgeon science has been developed during the past 20 years, our efforts attempt to push beyond that understanding to provide predictions of how future management actions may affect pallid sturgeon responses. For some of the 21 hypotheses, lines of evidence are limited to theoretical deduction, inference from sparse empirical datasets, or expert opinion. Useful simulation models have been developed to predict the effects of management actions on survival of drifting pallid sturgeon free embryos in the Yellowstone and Upper Missouri River complex (hereafter referred to as the “upper river”), and to assess the effects of flow and channel reconfigurations on habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River, tributaries, and Mississippi River downstream of Gavins Point Dam (hereafter referred to as the “lower river”). A population model also has been developed that can be used to assess sensitivity of the population to survival of specific life stages, assess some hypotheses related to stocking decisions, and explore a limited number of management

  7. Factors Affecting the Reproduction, Recruitment, Habitat, and Population Dynamics of Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  8. Evaluation of Potential Impacts of the Lake Maurepas Diversion Project to Gulf and Pallid Sturgeon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    sturgeon and pallid sturgeon in the free-flowing Mississippi River. Journal of Applied Ichthyology (in press). Hoover, J. J., K. J. Killgore, D. G...Journal of Applied Ichthyology (in press). Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr., ed...Mississippi River. Journal of Applied Ichthyology (in press). Nico, L. G., J. D. Williams, and H. L. Jelks. 2005. Black carp: biological synopsis

  9. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Haas, Justin D.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2010 scope of work primarily address spawning as a probable factor limiting pallid sturgeon survival and recovery, although limited pilot studies also have been initiated to examine the requirements of early life stages. The research is designed to inform management decisions affecting channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2010.

  10. Fish and chips? Implanted transmitters help map the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chojnacki, Kimberly; DeLonay, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    With a flattened snout, long slender tail and rows of bony plates lining its body, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has a unique, almost pre-historic, appearance. This endangered fish is native to the muddy, free-flowing waters of the Missouri River.

  11. Status of knowledge of the Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, G. R.; Heist, E.J.; Braaten, Patrick; Delonay, Aaron J.; Hartfield, P.; Herzog, D.P.; Kappenman, K.M.; Web, M.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Pallid Sturgeon is listed as federally endangered under the Endangered Species Act in the United States. When the species was listed in 1990 it was considered extremely rare and was poorly understood. Habitat alteration, commercial harvest, environmental contaminants, and other factors were identified as threats. Today our scientific understanding of the species and its life history requirements have increased greatly as summarized below.

  12. Effects of acclimation on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldenburg, E.W.; Guy, C.S.; Cureton, E.S.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gardner, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and controls had no acclimation (reared under traditional conservation propagation protocol). During both years, fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach as compared to control fish. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and the number of fish remaining in the Missouri River reach was similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years were related to fin curl which was present in all fish in 2005 and only 26% in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) prevented fat accumulation from rupturing hepatocytes. Acclimation conditions used in this study did not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies were present. Overriding all treatment effects was stocking location; thus, natural resource agencies need to consider stocking location carefully to reduce poststocking dispersal. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  13. Identifying structural elements needed for development of a predictive life-history model for pallid and shovelnose sturgeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Galat, D.L.; Jacobson, R.B.; Simpkins, D.G.; Braaten, P.J.; Korschgen, C.E.; Mac, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers has resulted in dramatic changes to the river systems and their biota. These changes have been implicated in the decline of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), which has been listed as a United States federal endangered species. The sympatric shovelnose sturgeon (S. platorynchus) is more common and widespread but has also been in decline. The decline of pallid sturgeon is considered symptomatic of poor reproductive success and low or no recruitment. In order to organize information about these species and provide a basis for future development of a predictive model to help guide recovery efforts, we present an expert-vetted, conceptual life-history framework that incorporates the factors that affect reproduction, growth, and survival of shovelnose and pallid sturgeons.

  14. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  15. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ± one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle.

  16. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ?? one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  17. Ecological Requirements for Pallid Sturgeon Reproduction and Recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: A Research Synthesis 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Bonnot, Tom W.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of results obtained between 2005 and 2008 from the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program, an interagency collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Missouri River Recovery - Integrated Science Program. The goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program is to improve fundamental understanding of reproductive ecology of the pallid sturgeon with the intent that improved understanding will inform river and species management decisions. Specific objectives include: *Determining movement, habitat-use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; *Understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; *Determining origin, transport, and fate of drifting pallid sturgeon larvae, and evaluating bottlenecks for recruitment of early life stages; *Quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages; and *Managing databases, integrating understanding, and publishing relevant information into the public domain. Management actions to increase reproductive success and survival of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River have been focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. Integration of 2005-08 Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program research provides insight into linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and pallid sturgeon reproduction and survival. The research approach of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program integrates opportunistic field studies, field-based experiments, and controlled laboratory studies. The field study plan is designed to explore the role of flow regime and associated environmental cues using two complementary approaches. An upstream-downstream approach compares sturgeon reproductive behavior between an upstream section of the Lower Missouri River with highly

  18. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—A synthesis of science, 2005 to 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Albers, Janice L.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Bulliner, Edward A.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B; Haas, Justin D.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-20

    Scientific understanding of the ecological requirements of pallid sturgeon has increased almost exponentially in the last two decades, and efforts are now turning from understanding fundamental biology of the species to quantifying how population dynamics relate to potential management actions. Progress in developing the science needed to inform management actions on the Missouri River may benefit from continuation of monitoring of reproductive cycles, reproductive movements, growth, and survival of telemetry tagged adults, increased emphasis on focused, complementary field and laboratory studies of factors influencing early life history, implementation of studies to resolve the role of food limitations in growth, survival, and reproductive condition, and implementation of studies designed specifically to parameterize models linking management to populations.

  19. Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

  20. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jackson A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John; Young, John V.; Hawkins, Anthony D.; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined. PMID:27505029

  1. 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  2. 2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  3. Increasing capture efficiency of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (Forbes and Richardson, 1905) and the reliability of catch rate estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVries, R. J.; Hann, D. A.; Schramm, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of environmental parameters on the probability of capturing endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) using trotlines in the lower Mississippi River. Pallid sturgeon were sampled by trotlines year round from 2008 to 2011. A logistic regression model indicated water temperature (T; P < 0.01) and depth (D; P = 0.03) had significant effects on capture probability (Y = −1.75 − 0.06T + 0.10D). Habitat type, surface current velocity, river stage, stage change and non-sturgeon bycatch were not significant predictors (P = 0.26–0.63). Although pallid sturgeon were caught throughout the year, the model predicted that sampling should focus on times when the water temperature is less than 12°C and in deeper water to maximize capture probability; these water temperature conditions commonly occur during November to March in the lower Mississippi River. Further, the significant effect of water temperature which varies widely over time, as well as water depth indicate that any efforts to use the catch rate to infer population trends will require the consideration of temperature and depth in standardized sampling efforts or adjustment of estimates.

  4. The power to detect trends in Missouri River fish populations within the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, Janice L.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Gladish, Dan; Holan, Scott; Ellerseick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As with all large rivers in the United States, the Missouri River has been altered, with approximately 32.5 percent of the main stem length impounded and 32.5 percent channelized. These physical alterations to the environment have had effects on the fisheries, but studies examining the effects of alterations have been localized and for short periods of time. In response to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biological opinion, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers initiated monitoring of the fish community of the Missouri River in 2003. The goal of the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program is to provide information to detect changes in populations and habitat preferences with time for pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and native target species in the Missouri River Basin. To determine statistical power of the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program, a power analysis was conducted using a normal linear mixed model with variance component estimates based on the first 3 years of data (2003 to 2005). In cases where 3 years of data were unavailable, estimates were obtained using those data. It was determined that at least 20 years of data, sampling 12 bends with 8 subsamples per bend, would be required to detect a 5 percent annual decline in most of the target fish populations. Power varied between Zones. Zone 1 (upstream from Lake Sakakawea) did not have any species/gear type combinations with adequate power, whereas Zone 3 (downstream from Gavins Point Dam) had 19 species/gear type combinations with adequate power. With a slight increase in the sampling effort to 12 subsamples per bend, the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program has adequate power to detect declines in shovelnose sturgeon (S. platorynchus) throughout the entire Missouri River because of large catch rates. The lowest level of non-occurrence (in other words, zero catches) at the bend level for pallid sturgeon was 0.58 using otter trawls in Zone 1. Consequently, the power of the

  5. Remote-sensing of Riverine Environments Utilized by Spawning Pallid Sturgeon Using a Suite of Hydroacoustic Tools and High-resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, C. M.; Jacobson, R. B.; DeLonay, A. J.; Braaten, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirynchus albus) inhabits sandy-bedded rivers in the Mississippi River basin including the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone Rivers and has experienced decline generally associated with the fragmentation and alteration of these river systems. Knowledge gaps in the life history of the pallid sturgeon include lack of an understanding of conditions needed for successful reproduction and recruitment. We employed hydroacoustic tools to investigate habitats utilized by spawning pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River in Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, and Nebraska, and the Yellowstone River in Montana and North Dakota USA from 2008-2013. Reproductive pallid sturgeon were tracked to suspected spawning locations by field crews using either acoustic or radio telemetry, a custom mobile mapping application, and differential global positioning systems (DGPS). Female pallid sturgeon were recaptured soon after spawning events to validate that eggs had been released. Habitats were mapped at presumed spawning and embryo incubation sites using a multibeam echosounder system (MBES), sidescan sonar, acoustic Doppler current profiler, an acoustic camera and either a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) or DGPS. High-resolution DEM's and velocimetric maps were gridded from at a variety of scales from 0.10 to 5 meters for characterization and visualization at spawning and presumed embryo incubation sites. Pallid sturgeon spawning sites on the Missouri River are deep (6-8 meters) and have high current velocities (>1.5 meters per second). These sites are also characterized by high turbidity and high rates of bedload sediment transport in the form of migrating sand dunes. Spawning on the channelized Lower Missouri River occurs on or adjacent to coarse angular bank revetment or bedrock. Collecting biophysical information in these environmental conditions is challenging, and there is a need to characterize the substrate and substrate condition at a scale

  6. Use of laboratory studies to develop a dispersal model for Missouri River pallid sturgeon early life intervals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Parker, E.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the drift dynamics of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life intervals is critical to evaluating damming effects on sturgeons. However, studying dispersal behavior is difficult in rivers. In stream tanks, we studied the effect of velocity on dispersal and holding ability, estimated swimming height, and used the data to estimate drift distance of pallid sturgeon. Dispersal was by days 0-10 embryos until fish developed into larvae on day 11 after 200 CTU (daily cumulative temperature units). Embryos in tanks with a mean channel velocity of 30.1 cm s-1 and a side eddy could not hold position in the eddy, so current controlled dispersal. Late embryos (days 6-10 fish) dispersed more passes per hour than early embryos (days 0-5 fish) and held position in side eddies when channel velocities were 17.3 cm s-1 or 21.1 cm s-1. Day and night swim-up and drift by embryos is an effective adaptation to disperse fish in channel flow and return fish from side eddies to the channel. Early embryos swam <0.50 cm above the bottom and late embryos swam higher (mean, 90 cm). A passive drift model using a near bottom velocity of 32 cm s-1 predicted that embryos dispersing for 11 days in channel flow would travel 304 km. Embryos spawned at Fort Peck Dam, Missouri River, must stop dispersal in <330 km or enter Lake Sakakawea, where survival is likely poor. The model suggests there may be a mismatch between embryo dispersal distance and location of suitable rearing habitat. This situation may be common for pallid sturgeon in dammed rivers. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  7. Test of a foraging-bioenergetics model to evaluate growth dynamics of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deslauriers, David; Heironimus, Laura B.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Factors affecting feeding and growth of early life stages of the federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) are not fully understood, owing to their scarcity in the wild. In this study was we evaluated the performance of a combined foraging-bioenergetics model as a tool for assessing growth of age-0 pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River. In the laboratory, three size classes of sturgeon larvae (18–44 mm; 0.027–0.329 g) were grown for 7 to 14 days under differing temperature (14–24 °C) and prey density (0–9 Chironomidae larvae/d) regimes. After accounting for effects of water temperature and prey density on fish activity, we compared observed final weight, final length, and number of prey consumed to values generated from the foraging-bioenergetics model. When confronted with an independent dataset, the combined model provided reliable estimates (within 13% of observations) of fish growth and prey consumption, underscoring the usefulness of the modeling approach for evaluating growth dynamics of larval fish when empirical data are lacking.

  8. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S; McKee, Michael J; Papoulias, Diana M; Tillitt, Donald E; Galat, David L

    2015-06-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/g egg (188-203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122-199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11-15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10-14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  9. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/ g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  10. An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Ruggles, M.P.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.; Holm, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean = 0.66–0.70 m s−1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m s−1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day−1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

  11. Influence of channel morphology and flow regime on larval drift of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from drifting free embryo to exogenously feeding larvae has been identified as a potential life-stage bottleneck for the endangered Missouri River pallid sturgeon. Previous studies have indicated that river regulation and fragmentation may contribute to the mortality of larval pallid sturgeon by reducing the extent of free-flowing river available to free embryos to complete ontogenetic development. Calculations of total drift distance based on mean velocity, however, do not address the potential for complex channels and flow patterns to increase retention or longitudinal dispersion of free embryos. We use a one-dimensional advection–dispersion model to estimate total drift distance and employ the longitudinal dispersion coefficient as a metric to quantify the tendency towards dispersion or retention of passively drifting larvae. We describe the effects of different styles of channel morphology on larval dispersion and consider the implications of flow regime modifications on retention of free embryos within the Lower Missouri River. The results illustrate the complex interactions of local morphology, engineered structures, and hydraulics that determine patterns of dispersion in riverine environments and inform how changes to channel morphology and flow regime may alter dispersion of drifting organisms.

  12. Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: a comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andvik, R.T.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.; French, William E.; Bertrand, K.N.; Chipps, Steven R.; Klumb, R.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r² ≥ 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both δ15N and δ13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day−1) using stable δ15N and δ13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue δ15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but δ13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species.

  13. Visual Basic, Excel-based fish population modeling tool - The pallid sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Green, Nicholas S.; Albers, Janice L.

    2016-02-10

    The model presented in this report is a spreadsheet-based model using Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7057D0Z) prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It uses the same model structure and, initially, parameters as used by Wildhaber and others (2015) for pallid sturgeon. The difference between the model structure used for this report and that used by Wildhaber and others (2015) is that variance is not partitioned. For the model of this report, all variance is applied at the iteration and time-step levels of the model. Wildhaber and others (2015) partition variance into parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level and temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations with time) applied at the time-step level. They included implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) within the time-step level.The interface developed for the model of this report is designed to allow the user the flexibility to change population model structure and parameter values and uncertainty separately for every component of the model. This flexibility makes the modeling tool potentially applicable to any fish species; however, the flexibility inherent in this modeling tool makes it possible for the user to obtain spurious outputs. The value and reliability of the model outputs are only as good as the model inputs. Using this modeling tool with improper or inaccurate parameter values, or for species for which the structure of the model is inappropriate, could lead to untenable management decisions. By facilitating fish population modeling, this modeling tool allows the user to evaluate a range of management options and implications. The goal of this modeling tool is to be a user-friendly modeling tool for developing fish population models useful to natural resource

  14. Summary of the 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report is a summary of the 2006 synthesis report prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  15. Determining Physical Fish Habitat in Large Rivers with Multibeam Sonar: An Example with Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delonay, A. J.; McElroy, B. J.; Jacobson, R. B.; Thorsby, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Fish in large rivers require a range of fluvial environments to complete their life cycles. Conditions in these environments often preclude the direct observation of physical habitats and how fish use them to perform vital life functions. Multibeam sonar provides excellent capability for the determination of characteristics of physical habitats in order to relate them to their biotic uses and ecological functions. The endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) is a rheophilic benthic fish and one of the dominant predators in the Lower Missouri River. Within its preferred main-channel and channel-border habitats, bed topography (roughness) is a primary determinant of physical habitat for pallid sturgeon. Beyond its importance as the habitat terrain, bed topography is intimately tied to other physical characteristics: existence of flow refugia, migration pathways, magnitude of sediment flux, substrate texture, and turbulence conditions. Development of a detailed understanding of what constitutes effective spawning habitat is critical to management of the species because of concerns that habitat quantity or quality may be limiting reproduction. Here we present data collected from a spring 2010 spawning location over the duration of the spawning event. A reproductive female pallid sturgeon implanted with an acoustic transmitter was tracked 48 km to an upstream apex where the fish is presumed to have spawned. Positional data were combined with data on the fish’s ambient temperature and pressure from data storage tags implanted in the fish. The resulting depth estimates from pressure data allow for three-dimensional assessments of the sturgeon's position co-registered with multibeam bathymetric data. From the bathymetry, we estimated the topographic roughness in the vicinity of the fish by evaluating topographic variability. This roughness approximates the characteristic height of local bed forms. We also compared fish locations and multibeam bathymetry with

  16. A stochastic bioenergetics model based approach to translating large river flow and temperature in to fish population responses: the pallid sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Dey, Rima; Wikle, Christopher K.; Moran, Edward H.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Franz, Kristie J.

    2015-01-01

    In managing fish populations, especially at-risk species, realistic mathematical models are needed to help predict population response to potential management actions in the context of environmental conditions and changing climate while effectively incorporating the stochastic nature of real world conditions. We provide a key component of such a model for the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the form of an individual-based bioenergetics model influenced not only by temperature but also by flow. This component is based on modification of a known individual-based bioenergetics model through incorporation of: the observed ontogenetic shift in pallid sturgeon diet from marcroinvertebrates to fish; the energetic costs of swimming under flowing-water conditions; and stochasticity. We provide an assessment of how differences in environmental conditions could potentially alter pallid sturgeon growth estimates, using observed temperature and velocity from channelized portions of the Lower Missouri River mainstem. We do this using separate relationships between the proportion of maximum consumption and fork length and swimming cost standard error estimates for fish captured above and below the Kansas River in the Lower Missouri River. Critical to our matching observed growth in the field with predicted growth based on observed environmental conditions was a two-step shift in diet from macroinvertebrates to fish.

  17. A fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model for population viability analysis of fish: Lower Missouri River endangered pallid sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Albers, Janice; Green, Nicholas; Moran, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model suitable for population viability analysis (PVA) of fish and demonstrate its use with the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) of the Lower Missouri River as an example. The model incorporates three levels of variance: parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level, temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations over time) applied at the time-step level, and implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) applied within the time-step level. We found that population dynamics were most sensitive to survival rates, particularly age-2+ survival, and to fecundity-at-length. The inclusion of variance (unpartitioned or partitioned), stocking, or both generally decreased the influence of individual parameters on population growth rate. The partitioning of variance into parameter and temporal components had a strong influence on the importance of individual parameters, uncertainty of model predictions, and quasiextinction risk (i.e., pallid sturgeon population size falling below 50 age-1+ individuals). Our findings show that appropriately applying variance in PVA is important when evaluating the relative importance of parameters, and reinforce the need for better and more precise estimates of crucial life-history parameters for pallid sturgeon.

  18. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Physical Aquatic Habitat Availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    -average basis, annual topographic change contributed little to habitat area variation. Net erosion occurred at Yankton (the upstream reach) and because erosion was distributed uniformly, there was little affect on many habitat metrics. Topographic change was spatially nonuniform at Little Sioux and Kenslers Bend reaches. Shallow water habitat units and some reach-scale patch statistics (edge density, patch density, and Simpson's Diversity Index) were affected by these changes. Erosion dominated at the downstream reach but habitat metrics did not vary substantially from 2006 to 2007. Among habitat metrics that were explored, zones of convergent flow were identified as areas that most closely correspond to spawning habitats of other sturgeon species, as identified in the scientific literature, and that are consistent with sparse data on pallid sturgeon spawning locations in the Lower Missouri River. Areas of convergent zone habitat varied little with discharges that would be associated with spring pulsed flows, and relations with discharge changed negligibly between 2006 and 2007. Other habitat measures show how physical habitat varies with discharge and among the four reaches. Wake habitats defined by velocity gradients seem to correspond with migration pathways of adult pallid sturgeon. Habitats with low Froude-number correspond to low energy areas that may accumulate passively transporting particles, organic matter, and larval fish. Among the modeled reaches, Yankton had substantially longer water residence time for equivalent flow exceedances than the other three modeled reaches. Longer residence times result from greater flow resistance in the relatively wide, shallow channel and may be associated with longer residence times of passively transported particulate materials.

  19. Bathymetric and Velocimetric Survey and Assessment of Habitat for Pallid Sturgeon on the Mississippi River in the Vicinity of the Proposed Interstate 70 Bridge at St. Louis, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huizinga, Richard J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    the large dune features in mid-channel and a shift in the channel thalweg from the Illinois bank to the Missouri bank. The near-bottom velocities acquired with the acoustic Doppler current profiler ranged from 0.3 to 7.0 feet per second (0.09 to 2.13 meters per second), and the effects of the large dune features were apparent in the more random scattering of the velocity vectors, the low velocities downstream from the dunes, and higher velocities near the crests of the dunes. Despite the considerable physical complexity of this site because of the arrangement of large sand dunes in the middle of the channel, existing studies do not document persistent use of these deep, fast, main-channel habitats by pallid sturgeon. Narrow channel-margin areas on both banks having relatively low velocity, high depth slope, and high velocity gradients are similar to adult migration habitats as documented on the Missouri River downstream from Kansas City, Missouri. Although the reach generally lacks features associated with sturgeon habitat selection on the Middle Mississippi River, the barge mooring areas on the right descending bank have topographic complexity and contain large woody debris and small patches of probable gravel-cobble substrate that may have positive habitat value for sturgeon or other species. Furthermore, telemetry studies have documented sturgeon migrating upstream and downstream through this reach as adults, and they probably drift downstream through this reach as free-embryo larvae. Successful upstream migration may depend on availability of areas with hydraulic complexity and relatively low velocities, as presently exist on the margins of the site. Additionally, complexity at the channel margin may provide areas where larvae settle out from drifting in the main current or may act to slow bulk drift rates. Construction of bridge piers close to the banks will likely alter hydraulics and sediment transport on the channel margins and may result in substanti

  20. Hierarchical stochastic modeling of large river ecosystems and fish growth across spatio-temporal scales and climate models: the Missouri River endangered pallid sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Wikle, Christopher K.; Moran, Edward H.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Franz, Kristie J.; Dey, Rima

    2017-01-01

    We present a hierarchical series of spatially decreasing and temporally increasing models to evaluate the uncertainty in the atmosphere – ocean global climate model (AOGCM) and the regional climate model (RCM) relative to the uncertainty in the somatic growth of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). For effects on fish populations of riverine ecosystems, cli- mate output simulated by coarse-resolution AOGCMs and RCMs must be downscaled to basins to river hydrology to population response. One needs to transfer the information from these climate simulations down to the individual scale in a way that minimizes extrapolation and can account for spatio-temporal variability in the intervening stages. The goal is a framework to determine whether, given uncertainties in the climate models and the biological response, meaningful inference can still be made. The non-linear downscaling of climate information to the river scale requires that one realistically account for spatial and temporal variability across scale. Our down- scaling procedure includes the use of fixed/calibrated hydrological flow and temperature models coupled with a stochastically parameterized sturgeon bioenergetics model. We show that, although there is a large amount of uncertainty associated with both the climate model output and the fish growth process, one can establish significant differences in fish growth distributions between models, and between future and current climates for a given model.

  1. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods.

  2. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Paul S.; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California’s Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  3. Seasonal movement and mesohabitat usage of adult and juvenile lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Chan, Matthew D.; Bridges, W.C.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term restoration efforts for lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens populations will benefit from better understanding of this species' movements and habitat use in riverine systems. Radio transmitters were implanted in both juvenile and adult lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York, and individuals were relocated over a 2-year period. Adult lake sturgeon demonstrated greater minimum daily distance moved, absolute distance moved, and mean home range size than juvenile lake sturgeon during the spring. During the course of the study, both adult and juvenile lake sturgeon exhibited movements upstream and downstream through a breached low-head weir, and individuals did not necessarily remain resident on an annual basis in the Grasse River. Mesohabitat and substrate use patterns were determined based on comparisons of frequency distributions for relocated lake sturgeon and quantified mesohabitat and substrate over a 15-km river reach. Lake sturgeon used pool mesohabitat and limited their use of run mesohabitat under both low- and mid-flow conditions. During most of the year, adult and juvenile lake sturgeon were detected over silt substrate. This study illustrates behavioral differences and similarities between the movements and habitat use of adult and juvenile lake sturgeon in a riverine system.

  4. Iridovirus infections among Missouri River sturgeon: initial characterization, transmission, and evidence for establishment of a carrier state.

    PubMed

    Kurobe, T; MacConnell, E; Hudson, C; McDowell, T S; Mardones, F O; Hedrick, R P

    2011-03-01

    Iridovirus infections of the integument were associated with disease and mortality among hatchery-reared populations of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus from the Missouri River. Virus-infected cells in the integument of fins and body were greatly enlarged, possessed pleomorphic and eccentric nuclei, and exhibited an amphophilic to eosinophilic staining of the cytoplasm in hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections. Virus particles found in the host cell cytoplasm were composed of an outer hexagonal capsid measuring 254 nm in diameter and surrounding a dense nucleoid. Despite numerous attempts, the virus could not be propagated on routine cell lines used in fish viral diagnostics or from established cell lines from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, pallid sturgeon, or shovelnose sturgeon. Bath exposures of healthy juvenile pallid sturgeon to a crude extract or a 0.45-microm-filtered extract from the fins of infected fish resulted in transmission of the virus and mortality. At water temperatures of 15 degrees C, the first deaths occurred at approximately 1 month; mortality peaked between 50 and 60 d postexposure, after which surviving fish recovered. Presence of the virus was confirmed among dead and moribund pallid sturgeon by both histology and detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction methods. Feeding of infected tissues and cohabitation with virus-infected shovelnose sturgeon also resulted in successful virus transmission to juvenile pallid sturgeon. Virus infections among experimentally exposed pallid sturgeon that recovered from clinical episodes persisted for at least 8.5 months, and these apparently healthy fish transmitted the virus and disease to juvenile pallid sturgeon by cohabitation. The newly described Missouri River sturgeon iridovirus (MRSIV) as found in pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon shares many properties with a group of iridoviruses associated with serious skin and gill

  5. Age estimations of wild pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus, Forbes & Richardson 1905) based on pectoral fin spines, otoliths and bomb radiocarbon: inferences on recruitment in the dam-fragmented Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Campana, S. E.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Bruch, R. M.; Jordan, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    An extant stock of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus persists in the fragmented upper Missouri River basin of Montana and North Dakota. Although successful spawning and hatch of embryos has been verified, long-term catch records suggest that recruitment has not occurred for several decades as the extant stock lacks juvenile size classes and is comprised exclusively of large, presumably old individuals. Ages of 11 deceased (death years 1997–2007) wild S. albus (136–166 cm fork length) were estimated based on pectoral fin spines, sagittal otoliths and bomb radiocarbon (14C) assays of otoliths to test the hypothesis that members of this stock are old and to provide inferences on recruitment years that produced the extant stock. Age estimations based on counts of presumed annuli were about 2 years greater for otoliths (mean = 51 years, range = 43–57 years) than spines (mean = 49 years, range = 37–59 years). Based on 14C assays, confirmed birth years for all individuals occurred prior to 1957, thus establishing known longevity of at least 50 years. Estimated age based on presumed otolith annuli for one S. albus was validated to at least age 49. Although 14C assays confirmed pre-1957 birth years for all S. albus, only 56% of estimated ages from spines and 91% of estimated ages from otoliths depicted pre-1957 birth years. Both ageing structures were subject to under-ageing error (up to 15 years). Lack of or severe curtailment of S. albus recruitment in the upper Missouri River basin since the mid-1950s closely parallels the 1953–1957 timeframe when a mainstem reservoir was constructed and started to fill. This reservoir may function as a system-wide stressor to diminish recruitment success of S. albus in the upper Missouri River basin.

  6. Diet composition and feeding patterns of adult shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.; Shuman, D.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, Steven R.; Peters, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two-hundred and seven adult shovelnose sturgeon ranging from 450 to 718 mm in length were sampled from June to October 2001 and May to July 2002 to determine diet composition and feeding patterns in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon fed primarily upon aquatic insect larvae and nymphs (>99% composition by number). Diptera of the family Chironomidae were the dominant prey items in both years and composed 98.1% of the shovelnose sturgeon diet in 2001 and 96.8% in 2002. Chironomidae were primarily represented by the four genera Paracladopelma, Chernovskiia, Saetheria and Robackia accounting for 90.2% of the ingested prey items in 2001 and 83.6% in 2002. In addition, shovelnose sturgeon showed in both years a generalized feeding pattern towards Ephemeroptera of the families Isonychiidae and Caenidae, as well as Trichoptera of the family Hydropsychidae. Other aquatic insects, terrestrial invertebrates and fishes were found infrequently and in low numbers in shovelnose sturgeon diets. The four most abundant Chironomidae genera are often found on sand and the high abundance of these taxa in the diet suggests that shovelnose sturgeon feed primarily near or on this substrate type. This highlights the importance of habitats that provide sand substrate for shovelnose sturgeon foraging in the lower Platte River.

  7. Assessment of Lower Missouri River physical aquatic habitat and its use by adult sturgeon (Genus Scaphirhynchus), 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an exploratory analysis of habitat availability and use by adult Scaphirhynchus sturgeon on the Lower Missouri River from Gavins Point Dam, South Dakota, to the junction with the Mississippi River. The analysis is based on two main data sources collected from 2005 to 2007: (1) a compilation of 153 reach-scale habitat maps (mean reach length, 2.4 kilometers) derived from boat-collected hydroacoustic data and (2) a sturgeon location dataset from which 378 sturgeon telemetry locations are associated with the maps (within 7 days of the mapping and within 10 percent of the discharge). The report focuses on: (1) longitudinal patterns of geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics revealed by the collection of reach maps; (2) assessment of environmental characteristics at sturgeon locations in the context of the mapped reaches; and (3) consideration of spatial distribution of habitat conditions that sturgeon appear to select. Longitudinal patterns of geomorphology, hydraulics, and associated habitats relate strongly to the engineered state of the river. Reaches within each of the following river sections tended to share similar geomorphic, hydrologic, and hydraulic characteristics: the Minimally Engineered section (Gavins Point Dam to Sioux City, Iowa), the Upstream Channelized section (Sioux City, Iowa, to the junction with the Kansas River), and the Downstream Channelized section (Kansas River to the junction with the Mississippi River). Adult sturgeon occupy nearly the full range of available values for each continuous variable assessed: depth, depth slope, depth-averaged velocity, velocity gradient, and Froude number (a dimensionless number relating velocity to depth). However, in the context of habitat available in a reach, sturgeon tend to select some areas over others. Reproductive female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), in particular, were often found in parts of the reach with one or more of the following characteristics: high

  8. Swimming activity and energetic costs of adult lake sturgeon during fishway passage.

    PubMed

    Thiem, Jason D; Dawson, Jeff W; Hatin, Daniel; Danylchuk, Andy J; Dumont, Pierre; Gleiss, Adrian C; Wilson, Rory P; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-08-15

    Fish migrations through riverine systems can be energetically demanding, and the presence of fishways to facilitate upstream passage can add an additional energetic cost that may directly affect fitness. Successful fishway passage is a function of the ability of fish to select appropriate paths and swimming strategies that do not exceed their swimming capacity. Triaxial accelerometers were used to estimate the energetic expenditure of adult lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) swimming through a vertical slot fishway, to determine whether individual behaviour or path selection, resulting in differences in cumulative energy use, explain fishway passage success. Most individuals attempted to pass the fishway (n=30/44; 68%), although successful passage only occurred for a subset of those attempting (n=7/30; 23%). High-speed swimming was rarely observed during upstream passage through fishway basins, and was of short duration. Two turning basins delayed passage, subsequently resulting in a higher energetic cost. The rate at which energy was expended did not differ among successful and unsuccessful individuals, although successful sturgeon exhibited higher costs of transport (42.75 versus 25.85 J kg(-1) m(-1)). Energy expenditure metrics were not predictive of successful fishway passage, leading us to conclude that other endogenous or exogenous factors influence passage success. In a practical application of field measurements of energy expenditure, we demonstrate that fishway passage through a structure designed to facilitate migration does result in an energetic loss for lake sturgeon (3249-16,331 J kg(-1)), equivalent to individuals travelling 5.8-28.2 km in a lentic system.

  9. Hydraulic and Substrate Maps of Reaches Used by Sturgeon (Genus Scaphirhynchus) in the Lower Missouri River, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Johnson, Harold E.; DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2008-01-01

    This report is a repository of reach-scale maps of hydraulic and substrate characteristics generated for the habitat-use portion of an interdisciplinary sturgeon research project on the Lower Missouri River (from Gavins Point Dam to the junction with the Mississippi River). The maps were derived from hydroacoustic data sets that were collected for the purpose of assessing physical aquatic habitat in the vicinity of locations of adult shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus). Hydroacoustic data sets were collected at the reach scale (mean reach length, 2.4 kilometers) in order to include the immediate vicinity of a targeted sturgeon location as well as the full range of habitat available at the bend and crossover scale. Reaches typically were surveyed on the day following the relocation of a telemetered sturgeon and at a discharge within 10 percent of the discharge on the sturgeon relocation date in order to characterize as closely as possible the channel morphology and flow-field conditions at the time that the sturgeon was present. One hundred fifty-three reaches were mapped during April-September in the years 2005 through 2007, with the majority of data collection occurring in the months of May and June (coinciding with the period of sturgeon migration and spawning in the Lower Missouri River). Interpolated maps (grid cell size, 5 meters) depict depth, generalized substrate, and depth-averaged velocity. Side-scan sonar imagery is also available for a subset of reaches. Collectively, the maps represent more than 20 percent of the length of the Lower Missouri River.

  10. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    PubMed

    Breece, Matthew W; Oliver, Matthew J; Cimino, Megan A; Fox, Dewayne A

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th) century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th) century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species.

  11. Effects of chlorpyrifos on in vitro sex steroid production and thyroid follicular development in adult and larval Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Catherine; Burnett, Duncan C; Arcinas, Liane; Palace, Vince; Gary Anderson, W

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate pesticide that has previously been shown to enter waterways in biologically relevant concentrations and has the potential to disrupt both thyroid hormone and sex steroid biosynthesis in vertebrates. Because gonadal maturation and larval development in Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, potentially coincide with the application of chlorpyrifos we examined the effects of chlorpyrifos on both thyroid follicular development in larval Lake Sturgeon, and sex hormone synthesis in adult Lake Sturgeon. For the first time, the present study reports steroidogenesis from testicular and ovarian tissue in Lake Sturgeon using an established in vitro bioassay. Furthermore, incubating gonad tissue with 5, 500 or 2000ngmL(-1) chlorpyrifos revealed an inhibitory effect on testosterone synthesis in both testicular (control, 40.29pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 21.84pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) and ovarian (control, 33.83pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 15.19pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) tissue. In a second series of experiments, larval Lake Sturgeon were exposed to equivalent concentrations of chlorpyrifos as above for 10days (d) between hatch and the onset of exogenous feeding. Larvae from each treatment group were raised until 67days post hatch (dph) and growth rates were compared alongside key indicators of thyroid follicle growth. Chlorpyrifos treatment had no effect on the measured indicators of thyroid follicular development.

  12. Physical and hormonal examination of Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon reproductive stage: A reference guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bryan, J.L.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    From May 2001 to June 2002 Wildhaber et al. (2005) conducted monthly sampling of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) to develop methods for determination of sex and the reproductive stage of sturgeons in the field. Shovelnose sturgeon were collected from the Missouri River and ultrasonic and endoscopic imagery and blood and gonadal tissue samples were taken. The full set of data was used to develop monthly reproductive stage profiles for S. platorynchus that could be compared to data collected on pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). This paper presents a comprehensive reference set of images, sex steroids, and vitellogenin (VTG, an egg protein precursor) data for assessing shovelnose sturgeon sex and reproductive stage. This reference set includes ultrasonic, endoscopic, histologic, and internal images of male and female gonads of shovelnose sturgeon at each reproductive stage along with complementary data on average 17-?? estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, VTG, gonadosomatic index, and polarization index. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  13. Assessing power of large river fish monitoring programs to detect population changes: the Missouri River sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Bryan, J.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Ellersieck, M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP) to monitor pallid sturgeon and the fish community of the Missouri River. The power analysis of PSPAP presented here was conducted to guide sampling design and effort decisions. The PSPAP sampling design has a nested structure with multiple gear subsamples within a river bend. Power analyses were based on a normal linear mixed model, using a mixed cell means approach, with variance estimates from the original data. It was found that, at current effort levels, at least 20 years for pallid and 10 years for shovelnose sturgeon is needed to detect a 5% annual decline. Modified bootstrap simulations suggest power estimates from the original data are conservative due to excessive zero fish counts. In general, the approach presented is applicable to a wide array of animal monitoring programs.

  14. Gonad histology and serum 11-KT profile during the annual reproductive cycle in sterlet sturgeon adult males, Acipenser ruthenus.

    PubMed

    Golpour, A; Broquard, C; Milla, S; Dadras, H; Baloch, A R; Saito, T; Pšenička, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess monthly testicular development in the cultured breeding stock of sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus, using histological and serum sex steroid changes. Testicular development in the adult male was examined monthly and showed four distinct phases including resting, pre-spawning, spawning and post-spawning. Also, seasonal changes of the testes were described according to its variations in gonadosomatic index (GSI) during different phases of testicular development. Using histology, we identified continuous spermatogenesis and asynchronous gonad development pattern in the testes of male sterlet, which shows that regulation of annual gonadal cycle is influenced by season. Results also showed variation in the GSI value and number of spermatogenic cells according to each season during annual cycle of gonad, as the highest value of GSI was recorded during spawning phase (spring; March-May). Hormonal profiles of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) showed peak, which indicated a seasonal pattern of gonadal development. The 11-KT concentration increased considerably during the spermatogenesis (pre-spawning phase) and remained quite high throughout the pre-spermiation period. In the final phase of testicular development (spawning phase), the 11-KT markedly dropped. This study undertook an examination of complete reproductive development in cultured sterlet sturgeon to provide a valuable guide for the future sterlet studies, and allows comparison of reproductive development between sturgeon species.

  15. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  16. Age-0 Shovelnose Sturgeon prey consumption in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Miller, M.L.; Gemeinhardt, T.R; Starks, T. A.; Civiello, A.P.; Long, James M.; Bonneau, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A lack of nutritious food during the first year of life is a hypothesized factor that may limit survival of endangered pallid sturgeonScaphirhynchus albus in the lower Missouri River (LMOR). Unfortunately, information for age-0 pallid sturgeon diets remains limited, but diet analyses for age-0 Scaphirhynchus spp. (sturgeon hereafter) have occurred. Little information, however, exists on age-0 sturgeon diets in the LMOR; thus, our primary objective was to document age-0 sturgeon diets in this system. We examined guts contents from 30 individuals, which were genetically identified as shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and three stomachs were empty. The remaining age-0 shovelnose sturgeon consumed chironomid larvae almost exclusively (>98% of prey items consumed). Our results were similar to studies conducted in other systems, and it appears unlikely that a lack of nutritious food was a major factor affecting the individuals captured during this study. This effort provides important information to help guide ongoing adaptive management efforts in the LMOR.

  17. Modeling Climate Change and Sturgeon Populations in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), in collaboration with researchers from the University of Missouri and Iowa State University, is conducting research to address effects of climate change on sturgeon populations (Scaphirhynchus spp.) in the Missouri River. The CERC is conducting laboratory, field, and modeling research to identify causative factors for the responses of fish populations to natural and human-induced environmental changes and using this information to understand sensitivity of sturgeon populations to potential climate change in the Missouri River drainage basin. Sturgeon response information is being used to parameterize models predicting future population trends. These models will provide a set of tools for natural resource managers to assess management strategies in the context of global climate change. This research complements and builds on the ongoing Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) at the CERC. The CSRP is designed to provide information critical to restoration of the Missouri River ecosystem and the endangered pallid sturgeon (S. albus). Current research is being funded by USGS through the National Climate Change Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) and the Science Support Partnership (SSP) Program that is held by the USGS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The national mission of the NCCWSC is to improve the capacity of fish and wildlife agencies to respond to climate change and to address high-priority climate change effects on fish and wildlife. Within the national context, the NCCWSC research on the Missouri River focuses on temporal and spatial downscaling and associated uncertainty in modeling climate change effects on sturgeon species in the Missouri River. The SSP research focuses on improving survival and population estimates for pallid sturgeon population models.

  18. Nocturnal and seasonal activities of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Vaughan, Terry A.

    1977-01-01

    Nocturnal and seasonal activities of pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) were observed in central Arizona. The pallid bat night is characterized by two roaming periods with an intervening period of night roosting. Foraging pallid bats have a characteristic style of flight well suited to the taking of relatively large, substrate-roving or slow flying prey. After the initial foraging period pallid bats locate one another through vocal communication and gather in night roosting clusters where they enter torpor. Durations and scheduling of nocturnal activities vary seasonally. Cool months are characterized by smaller colonies of bats, greater fidelity to certain colony sites, slower and later emergence, briefer foraging periods and longer periods of night roosting. Up to 75 percent of the time spent away from diurnal retreats is devoted to night roosting in the autumn. Young are born in June, and during most of the summer adult males do not seem to occur sympatrically with females and young. Females and young appear to forage together in July and August, when little fidelity is shown to roosting sites, large colonies exist, emergence is faster and earlier, and more time is spent in foraging than in cooler months. In mid-August a postbreeding dispersal occurs. These activities and behaviors are discussed in terms of the energetic demands on the bats and the socialization of young.

  19. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  20. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  1. Survival of shovelnose sturgeon after abdominally invasive endoscopic evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Kirk, J.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The development of effective and minimally invasive techniques to determine gender and gonad developmental stage is particularly important in performing accurate fisheries assessments for use in conservation and restoration. The initial and latent survival of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus was assessed after exposure to a modified endoscopic technique designed to collect that biological information. Rather than inserting the endoscope through the urogenital canal or directly into the body cavity, we inserted a threaded trocar through a ventral incision and used a low-pressure air supply attached to the trocar to gently insufflate the body cavity. The initial survival of both experimental and control shovelnose sturgeon was 100%. Latent survival was 100% and 90% for the experimental and control fish, respectively. Our study suggests that incision endoscopy coupled with insufflation of the body cavity through the use of a trocar and an air supply is a safe and effective way to determine gender and examine the gonad developmental stage of shovelnose sturgeon. The short duration of the procedure and the high postprocedure survival suggest that this technique is suitable for shovelnose sturgeon and perhaps for the evaluation of other endangered fish species (e.g., pallid sturgeon S. alba) as well.

  2. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  3. Sturgeon study - specimens needed

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, D.E.; Matthews, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a study to determine morphological criteria and verify those already suggested in the published literature for identifying the larvae of the Atlantic sturgeon and the endangered short nose sturgeon are presented. (ACR)

  4. Gulf Sturgeon Facts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Sturgeon: An ancient type of fish, with 5 rows of armor scutes, a cartilaginous skeleton, long snout, suction mouth, no teeth, and 4 barbels. Photograph of a Gulf sturgeon. The total length of a 5-month old is 313 mm.

  5. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew Douglas; Ohashi, Kyoko; Sheng, Jinyu; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121–302 days). Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3–81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day). All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5–21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments) consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada. PMID:27043209

  6. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew Douglas; Ohashi, Kyoko; Sheng, Jinyu; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121-302 days). Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3-81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day). All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5-21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments) consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada.

  7. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days

  8. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1992-07-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 56 white sturgeon Acioenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1991. Of those sampled, nine were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 382 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through October 1991. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the sample ranged from 88-274 cm. Our data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class. The population was estimated at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon since 1982 is 3.74%. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. Surgical examination of 309 white sturgeon since 1989 indicated that approximately 7% of the female white sturgeon and 30% of the male white sturgeon are reproductive each year. The ratio of males to females was estimated at 1:l. White sturgeon sampled and released with and without surgical examination were recaptured at equal rates. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has documented long distance movements by adults. White sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia - Idaho border. White sturgeon seek out deep holes in the river or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall, During spring and early summer of both 1990 and 1991 reproductively mature white sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 km upriver and congregated within 10 km downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. Developing white sturgeon eggs were recovered from the river near Bonners Ferry on July 3, 1991. Contamination of eggs by organochloride compounds were less in recent samples from the Kootenai River than in a single sample collected in 1982. White sturgeon eggs from the Kootenai River fish contained approximately one tenth the organochloride compounds of white sturgeon eggs

  9. Linking River Morphology to Larval Drift of an Endangered Sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzetta, L.; Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, C. M.; Reuter, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Computational models developed to calculate longitudinal advection and dispersion of contaminants in rivers have potential application in predicting larval drift. A critical component of this family of models is the longitudinal dispersion coefficient which parameterizes the processes that retain and distribute a contaminant along the river. Here we evaluate the potential for longitudinal dispersion coefficients to characterize larval drift of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in various segments of the free-flowing Missouri River ranging from Missouri to Montana. We randomly selected transects of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) flow velocity data from reach-scale datasets that were collected in the Missouri River from 2002-2008 under comparable discharge conditions. We used previously developed equations (Kim and others, 2007) to calculate a one-dimensional longitudinal dispersion coefficient for each ADCP transect. We compared the statistical distributions of these coefficients for 2 to 6 reaches chosen from each of six geomorphic segments of the Missouri. Distributional patterns indicate that dispersion coefficients relate to observed variation in hydrology and geomorphology of the channel at the segment scale. Although one-dimensional dispersion analysis demonstrates potential as a tool for estimating pallid sturgeon larval drift and habitat suitability in unchannelized portions of the Missouri River, the large spatial variation in calculated dispersion coefficients resulting from river-training structures (wing dikes) in the Lower Missouri complicates selection of appropriate values. Recent data indicating that pallid sturgeon larvae occur in greater concentration in the thalweg indicate that the majority of larvae may bypass these structures and their associated retentive eddies. A two-dimensional space-averaged dispersion calculation and analysis may more accurately characterize the potential drift times and distances of larval

  10. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-11-01

    Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus began in March and continued through April 1999. Forty-six adult sturgeon were captured with 4,091 hours of angling and set-lining effort, while an additional three adult sturgeon were captured during gillnetting for juveniles. Flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning were expected to be high because the snow pack in the basin was estimated at 130% of normal, but runoff came very slowly. Discharge from Libby Dam from mid-March through mid-June was maintained at 113 m{sup 3}/s (4,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry during early April, including local inflow, were 227-255 m{sup 3}/s (8,000-9,000 cfs) but increased gradually in late April to a peak of 657 m{sup 3}/s (23,200 cfs). Flows subsided in early May to about 340 m{sup 3}/s (12,000 cfs), but rose to 1,031 m{sup 3}/s (36,370 cfs) by Mary 26 because of local runoff, and white sturgeon began spawning. However, flows subsided again to 373 m{sup 3}/s (13,200 cfs) June 11, 1999 and some female white sturgeon with transmitters began leaving the spawning reach. Water temperature ranged from about 8 C to 10 C (45 F to 50 F) during these two weeks. On June 13 (two weeks after sturgeon began spawning), spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began. The flow was brought up to 1,136 m{sup 3}/s (40,100 cfs) and temperature rose to about 11 C (52 F). They sampled for 3,387 mat days (one mat day is a single 24 h set) with artificial substrate mats and captured 184 white sturgeon eggs. The Middle Shorty's Island reach (river kilometer [rkm] 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (144), with 388 mat days of effort; the Refuge section (rkm 234.8 to 237.5) with 616 mat days of effort produced 23 eggs; and the Lower Shorty's section produced 19 eggs with 548 days of mat effort. No eggs were collected above the Refuge section (> rkm 240.5) with 988 mat days of effort. They do not believe flows for sturgeon spawning in 1999 were very

  11. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction.

    PubMed

    Stokesbury, Michael J W; Logan-Chesney, Laura M; McLean, Montana F; Buhariwalla, Colin F; Redden, Anna M; Beardsall, Jeffrey W; Broome, Jeremy E; Dadswell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010-2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010-2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012-2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines.

  12. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Logan-Chesney, Laura M.; McLean, Montana F.; Buhariwalla, Colin F.; Redden, Anna M.; Beardsall, Jeffrey W.; Broome, Jeremy E.; Dadswell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010–2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010–2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012–2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  13. Discrete choice modeling of shovelnose sturgeon habitat selection in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonnot, T.W.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Millspaugh, J.J.; DeLonay, A.J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Bryan, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Substantive changes to physical habitat in the Lower Missouri River, resulting from intensive management, have been implicated in the decline of pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose (S. platorynchus) sturgeon. To aid in habitat rehabilitation efforts, we evaluated habitat selection of gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon during the spawning season in two sections (lower and upper) of the Lower Missouri River in 2005 and in the upper section in 2007. We fit discrete choice models within an information theoretic framework to identify selection of means and variability in three components of physical habitat. Characterizing habitat within divisions around fish better explained selection than habitat values at the fish locations. In general, female shovelnose sturgeon were negatively associated with mean velocity between them and the bank and positively associated with variability in surrounding depths. For example, in the upper section in 2005, a 0.5 m s-1 decrease in velocity within 10 m in the bank direction increased the relative probability of selection 70%. In the upper section fish also selected sites with surrounding structure in depth (e.g., change in relief). Differences in models between sections and years, which are reinforced by validation rates, suggest that changes in habitat due to geomorphology, hydrology, and their interactions over time need to be addressed when evaluating habitat selection. Because of the importance of variability in surrounding depths, these results support an emphasis on restoring channel complexity as an objective of habitat restoration for shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River.

  14. Discrete choice modeling of shovelnose sturgeon habitat selection in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonnot, T.W.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Millspaugh, J.J.; DeLonay, A.J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Bryan, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Substantive changes to physical habitat in the Lower Missouri River, resulting from intensive management, have been implicated in the decline of pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose (S. platorynchus) sturgeon. To aid in habitat rehabilitation efforts, we evaluated habitat selection of gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon during the spawning season in two sections (lower and upper) of the Lower Missouri River in 2005 and in the upper section in 2007. We fit discrete choice models within an information theoretic framework to identify selection of means and variability in three components of physical habitat. Characterizing habitat within divisions around fish better explained selection than habitat values at the fish locations. In general, female shovelnose sturgeon were negatively associated with mean velocity between them and the bank and positively associated with variability in surrounding depths. For example, in the upper section in 2005, a 0.5ms-1 decrease in velocity within 10m in the bank direction increased the relative probability of selection 70%. In the upper section fish also selected sites with surrounding structure in depth (e.g., change in relief). Differences in models between sections and years, which are reinforced by validation rates, suggest that changes in habitat due to geomorphology, hydrology, and their interactions over time need to be addressed when evaluating habitat selection. Because of the importance of variability in surrounding depths, these results support an emphasis on restoring channel complexity as an objective of habitat restoration for shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  15. Migration and habitats of diadromous Danube River sturgeons in Romania: 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Suciu, R.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Upstream migrant adults of stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus (10 in 1998, 43 in 1999) and Russian sturgeon, A. gueldenstaedtii (three in 1999) were captured at river km (rkm) 58-137, mostly in the spring, and tagged with acoustic tags offering a reward for return. The overharvest was revealed by tag returns (38% in 1998, 28% in 1999) and by harvest within 26 days (and before reaching spawning grounds) of the six stellate sturgeon tracked upstream. A drop-back of > 50% of the tagged sturgeon, some to the Black Sea, shows a high sensitivity to interruption of migration and capture/handling/holding. Harvesting and dropback prevented tracking of sturgeon to spawning sites. Gillnetting and tracking of stellate sturgeon showed that the autumn migration ended in early October (river temperature 16??C) and identified a likely wintering area at river km (rkm) 75-76 (St George Branch). Thus, fishery harvesting after early October captures wintering fish, not migrants. Rare shoreline cliffs in the lower river likely create the only rocky habitat for sturgeon spawning. A survey for potential spawning habitats found five sites with rocky substrate and moderate water velocity, all ???rkm 258. Drift netting caught early life-stages of 17 fish species and one sturgeon, a beluga, Huso huso, larva likely spawned at ???rkm 258. All diadromous Danube sturgeons likely spawn at ???rkm 258.

  16. Spawning by lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caswell, N.M.; Peterson, D.L.; Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    Overfishing and habitat destruction in the early 1900s devastated lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations in the Great Lakes. Although a comprehensive restoration strategy for this species was recently drafted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, a lack of current data on Great Lakes sturgeon stocks has hindered rehabilitation efforts. Historically, the Detroit River supported one of the largest lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes; however, little is known about the current population or its habitat use. The main objective of this study was to determine if lake sturgeon spawns in the Detroit River. As part of a larger study, baited setlines were used to capture lake sturgeon in the Detroit River in the spring and summer of 2000 and 2001. In each year of the study, ultrasonic transmitters were surgically implanted in 10 adult fish to track their movements, evaluate habitat use and identify possible spawning sites. Using telemetry and egg mats to verify spawning activity, one spawning site was located and verified in the Detroit River. Spawning was verified by recovering sturgeon eggs deposited on egg collection mats anchored at the site. Telemetry data suggested that several other possible spawning sites also may exist, however, spawning activity was not verified at these sites.

  17. Multi-scale Hydroacoustic Remote Sensing of Sturgeon and Their Habitats in A Large, Turbid River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Delonay, A.; Vishy, C.; Elliott, C. M.; Reuter, J. M.; Chojnacki, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Restoration and management of the Lower Missouri River (LMOR) to support recovery of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) requires quantifying habitats used during all life stages in order to isolate specific habitats (if any) that present bottlenecks to reproduction and survival. All life stages of the pallid sturgeon take place in deep, turbid rivers where direct observation of habitat selection, movement, and behavior are impossible. Female pallid sturgeon reproduce only once every 3-5 years, but during a reproductive season they may migrate 10’s to 100’s of kilometers to spawn in patches of only several 100’s of square meters over a period of several hours. The broad ranges of spatial and temporal scales involved in understanding how particular life stages relate to their environment, as well as the technical challenges of working in a large river, dictate application of a multi-scale, remote-sensing approach. At the scale of the entire LMOR (1300 km), extensive hydroacoustic mapping using single-beam bathymetry, acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP), and substrate classification has been used to quantify the fundamental biophysical capacity of river segments in terms of frequency distributions of hydraulic variables. Coordinated telemetric tracking of reproductive fish provides an understanding of home range and habitat selection at reach to segment scales, over timeframes commensurate with 3-5 year reproductive cycles. Intensive reach-scale hydroacoustic mapping using multibeam bathymetry, ADCP, and high-resolution sidescan sonar, combined with intensive telemetric tracking, provide coincident measures of habitat availability and selection for upstream-migrating and spawning fish during reproductive seasons. These assessments measure habitat variables at sub-meter to bedform scales, commensurate with the scale at which fish occupy their habitat. For example, dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) imagery indicates that during

  18. Transmission of white sturgeon iridovirus in Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Drennan, John D; LaPatra, Scott E; Siple, Jack T; Ireland, Sue; Cain, Kenneth D

    2006-06-12

    It is thought that white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) is transmitted vertically from adult white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus to progeny, and that wild adults are carriers of this virus. Based on this assumption, egg disinfection trials were initiated using wild Kootenai River white sturgeon. Over 2 consecutive years, post-fertilized eggs were disinfected with iodine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 ppm. Eggs were incubated and progeny were reared on either de-chlorinated municipal or Kootenai River water. Juvenile sturgeon (mean weight 3.0 g) from these treatment groups were then subjected to a density stress (15 or 20 g(-1)) to manifest WSIV disease in individuals harboring the virus. In Year 1, mortality in all groups ranged from 6 to 37% and the use of municipal water was shown to significantly improve survival. However, WSIV infection was not detected in fish from any of the treatment groups or controls, and therefore did not contribute to the observed mortality. In Year 2, all treatment and control groups reared on Kootenai River water tested positive for WSIV infection and exhibited mortality ranging from 59 to 94%, but fish from groups reared on municipal water did not test positive for WSIV infection. This shows that that vertical transmission did not occur in this study. Horizontal transmission played a significant role in WSIV infection, but the lack of infection in Year 1 suggests a cyclic occurrence of the virus in the Kootenai River system. Although survival tended to be better in iodine-treated groups, the effects of iodine treatment in relation to WSIV transmission remain unknown. An important finding is that not all wild white sturgeon broodstock yield WSIV-positive progeny.

  19. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  20. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  1. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  2. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  3. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  4. Gulf sturgeon spawning migration and habitat in the Choctawhatchee River system, Alabama-Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, D.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Parauka, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Information about spawning migration and spawning habitat is essential to maintain and ultimately restore populations of endangered and threatened species of anadromous fish. We used ultrasonic and radiotelemetry to monitor the movements of 35 adult Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (a subspecies of the Atlantic sturgeon A. oxyrinchus) as they moved between Choctawhatchee Bay and the Choctawhatchee River system during the spring of 1996 and 1997. Histological analysis of gonadal biopsies was used to determine the sex and reproductive status of individuals. Telemetry results and egg sampling were used to identify Gulf sturgeon spawning sites and to examine the roles that sex and reproductive status play in migratory behavior. Fertilized Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected in six locations in both the upper Choctawhatchee and Pea rivers. Hard bottom substrate, steep banks, and relatively high flows characterized collection sites. Ripe Gulf sturgeon occupied these spawning areas from late March through early May, which included the interval when Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected. For both sexes, ripe fish entered the Choctawhatchee River significantly earlier and at a lower water temperature and migrated further upstream than did nonripe fish. Males entered the Choctawhatchee River at a lower water temperature than females. Results from histology and telemetry support the hypothesis that male Gulf sturgeon may spawn annually, whereas females require more than 1 year between spawning events. Upper river hard bottom areas appear important for the successful spawning of Gulf sturgeon, and care should be taken to protect against habitat loss or degradation of known spawning habitat.

  5. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1997-09-01

    Test flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning, scheduled for June 1996, were postponed until July. However, an estimated 126% snow pack and unusually heavy precipitation created conditions for sturgeon spawning that were similar to those occurring before construction of Libby Dam. Discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry rose to nearly 1,204 m{sup 3}/s (42,500 cfs) during May and water temperature ranged from 5.8 C to 8.4 C (42 F to 47 F). Migration of adult white sturgeon into spawning areas occurred in late May during a rising hydrograph. Discharge and water temperature were rising and had reached approximately 1,077 m{sup 3}/s (38,000 cfs) and 8 C (46 F). Discharge at Bonners Ferry peaked at about 1,397 m{sup 3}/s (49,300 cfs) on June 5. A total of 348 eggs (and one egg shell) were collected with 106,787 h of mat effort during the flow events. The first white sturgeon eggs were collected on June 8 and continued through June 30. Staging of eggs and back-calculating to spawning dates indicated there were at least 18 spawning episodes between June 6 and June 25. Discharge on June 6 was 1,196 m{sup 3}/s (42,200 cfs) and decreased steadily to 850 m{sup 3}/s (30,000 cfs) by June 26. Although sturgeon spawned in the same reach of river that they had during 1994 and 1995, the majority of eggs were found significantly (P = 0.0001) farther upstream than 1994 and 1995 and this in turn may be related to elevation of Kootenay Lake.

  6. [Behaviors of maricultured hybrid sturgeon].

    PubMed

    Wu, Changwen; Jiang, Chengguo; Chen, Guoye

    2006-02-01

    The study on the behaviors of hybrid sturgeon under mariculture conditions showed that hybrid sturgeon had a stronger endurance to the exposure in air, with 100% and 74.1% of livability after 1 h and 3 h exposure, respectively. The feeding habit of hybrid sturgeon could be domesticated, i.e., all kinds of vegetal proteinic food could be used as feedstuff. Hybrid sturgeon also had a strong hunger resistance. An obvious ingestion rhythm was observed, with two peaks in the morning and evening when breeding in cement pool, and during slack tide and tidal stand when breeding in deep water cage. At the two peaks, the ingestion exceeded 50% of that in the whole day. The hybrid sturgeon in cement pool had the habit of hiding during the day and coming out at night, while that in deep water cage stayed at the base in riptide and swam in slack tide. Hybrid sturgeon had a weaker resistance to riptide and wave than American red snapper, but a stronger resistance than yellow croaker. Hybrid sturgeon could quickly adapt the surroundings, and be a good species to mariculture in deep water cage. The appropriate size of hybrid sturgeon bred in deep water cage should be about 400 g.

  7. 78 FR 16526 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Pallid Sturgeon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Mississippi River basins, threats abatement, population management, research, and monitoring. We emphasize.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Restoring an endangered or threatened animal or plant to the point where... albus), found in the Missouri and Mississippi River basins of the United States, was listed as...

  8. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Wakkinen, Virginia (

    1993-11-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 64 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1992. Of those sampled, 15 were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 429 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through September 1992. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the total sample ranged from 88 to 274 cm. The data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population which was estimated in 1990 at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon from 1982 to 1991 was 0.0374. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. An ongoing sonic telemetry study revealed long distance movements among adults. Sturgeon regularly moved across the British Columbia-Idaho border. Sturgeon used deep holes in the river or migrated to Kootenai Lake during late fall. During spring and early summer, reproductively mature sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 kilometers upriver and congregated within 15 kilometers downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. The authors monitored movements of five reproductively mature female white sturgeon. The fish responded to increasing then decreasing flows by moving upriver then downriver, respectively. All five fish quickly moved to Kootenai Lake when flows dropped suddenly from higher than 20 kcfs to less than 10 kcfs. One fish was recaptured and was reabsorbing eggs. Trawling and sampling with mats of artificial substrate failed to capture white sturgeon eggs or larvae in 1992. One hundred and four age 1 and 14 age 2 hatchery-reared Kootenai white sturgeon were released into the Idaho section of the river in 1992. Telemetry of six of the larger juveniles showed general downriver movement from September into November.

  9. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.

    1994-05-01

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 324.3 m{sup 3}/s (400,000 acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 2 to June 16, 1993. This release of water provided approximately 566.4 m{sup 3}/s (20,000 cfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Nineteen adult white sturgeon equipped with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters were monitored from mid-April to mid-July, 1993. Nine females and one male remained in the Kootenai River near the British Columbia/Idaho border and/or Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. One female was captured by the crew from the Kootenai Hatchery, operated by the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, delivered to the hatchery, tagged, and released seven days later. She retreated to Kootenay Lake immediately after release. Eight sturgeon with transmitters formed the aggregate of unknown numbers of fish in the staging area. The monitored fish were all judged late vitellogenic and were used to characterize what was assumed reproductive behavior of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River. Four late vitellogenic females moved upriver with the lowland spring runoff (May 11), lingered around the ''staging area'' May 11-24, then retreated downriver May 21-24. Two fish retreated all the way to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia; the other two re-advanced upriver May 27-30 concurrent with the initiation of the augmented discharge on May 28. None of the monitored fish were detected beyond the U.S. Highway 95 bridge. By June 4, the remaining females began moving downriver. Male sturgeon tended to move upriver seven days earlier than the females. They arrived in staging waters about May 11. On May 21, three male sturgeon demonstrated a slight downriver run the same time as did the females. The maximum downriver travel was 14.2 km. All four of the monitored males returned upriver just prior to and during the augmented flow period. Crews fished a combined 14

  10. Cortico-pallidal oscillatory connectivity in patients with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Jha, Ashwani; Bock, Antje; Huebl, Julius; Horn, Andreas; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Sander, Tillmann H; Litvak, Vladimir; Kühn, Andrea A

    2015-07-01

    Primary dystonia has been associated with an underlying dysfunction of a wide network of brain regions including the motor cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord. Dystonia can be effectively treated by pallidal deep brain stimulation although the mechanism of this effect is not well understood. Here, we sought to characterize cortico-basal ganglia functional connectivity using a frequency-specific measure of connectivity-coherence. We recorded direct local field potentials from the human pallidum simultaneously with whole head magnetoencephalography to characterize functional connectivity in the cortico-pallidal oscillatory network in nine patients with idiopathic dystonia. Three-dimensional cortico-pallidal coherence images were compared to surrogate images of phase shuffled data across patients to reveal clusters of significant coherence (family-wise error P < 0.01, voxel extent 1000). Three frequency-specific, spatially-distinct cortico-pallidal networks have been identified: a pallido-temporal source of theta band (4-8 Hz) coherence, a pallido-cerebellar source of alpha band (7-13 Hz) coherence and a cortico-pallidal source of beta band (13-30 Hz) coherence over sensorimotor areas. Granger-based directionality analysis revealed directional coupling with the pallidal local field potentials leading in the theta and alpha band and the magnetoencephalographic cortical source leading in the beta band. The degree of pallido-cerebellar coupling showed an inverse correlation with dystonic symptom severity. Our data extend previous findings in patients with Parkinson's disease describing motor cortex-basal ganglia oscillatory connectivity in the beta band to patients with dystonia. Source coherence analysis revealed two additional frequency-specific networks involving the temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Pallido-cerebellar oscillatory connectivity and its association with dystonic symptoms provides further confirmation of cerebellar involvement

  11. 77 FR 21890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal... across the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, at miles 4.17 and 4.3, in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. The establishment... drawbridge schedules for all three drawbridges over Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, including the two bridges...

  12. Snout dimorphism in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the Columbia River at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Crass, D.W.; Gray, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Although differences in snout length and shape between young and adult sturgeon are known, morphological divergence in snout type of similar sized individuals has not been reported. Field observations in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River on 99 white sturgeon ranging from 35 to 205 cm total length showed two snout types based on size and shape. The occurrence of this dimorphism at Hanford may reflect isolating mechanisms, such as physical barriers which block fish movements. (RAF)

  13. Roosting ecology of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, Terry A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Daytime roosting behavior of pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) was studied in central Arizona. Bats were present in the area from March or April until November and roosted in cliffs in colonies generally including 20 or more individuals. Pallid bats were highly selective in their choice of roost sites and minimized diurnal energy output by adaptive hypothermia and behavioral thermo-regulation. In spring and autumn the bats roosted in vertical crevices responsive to changes in ambient temperatures. Here temperatures remained low and the bats were torpid for much of the day, but when the crevices became heated in the late afternoon the bats were passively warmed prior to emergence. Deep, horizontal crevices were preferred in summer; cliffs function as massive heat sinks, and in summer crevice temperatures remained moderate and relatively stable. Throughout most of the day both the deep parts of the crevices and the body temperatures of the bats remained close to 30ºC; at this body temperature pallid bats have unexpectedly low metabolic rates (Trune, 1974). By adjusting their positions and closeness to other bats in the thermal gradient within the crevice, bats dissipate heat early in the day, maintain a low metabolic rate through most of the fat and elevate the body temperature prior to emergence in the evening. Of vital important to pallid bats in the summer are social behaviors that promote communal roosting at "traditional" crevices.

  14. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, Duane H.

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  15. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  16. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon...

  17. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigation, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.; Wakkinen, Virginia; Kruse-Malle, Gretchen

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 1.48 billion cubic meters (1.2 MAF, million acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 1 to June 28, 1994. This release of water provided approximately 566 To/s (20 thousand cubic feet per second, kcfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Between February and early April 1994, 15 adult sturgeon (10 females, 5 males) in late vitellogenic stage were captured and fitted with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters. A total of 31 sturgeon were monitored. Ten hatchery reared juvenile white sturgeon equipped with radio and sonic tags were released in pools down river of Kootenai Falls, Montana. All ten sturgeon had moved between 60 and 97 km (37.3 and 60.3 mi) down river of release sites within one month. Movements coincided with major flow peaking associated with hydropower production at Libby Dam, located upriver of the release site

  18. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Potomac River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Micah

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: a saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population.

  19. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the potomac river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Breece, M.; Atcheson, M.; Kieffer, M.; Mangold, M.

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: A saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  20. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  1. Response of spawning lake sturgeons to change in hydroelectric facility operation

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Spawning of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens was documented from 1987 to 1992 below the Prickett hydroelectric facility on the Sturgeon River, a tributary to Portage Lake, Michigan. Lake sturgeons were captured at the spawning site with dip nets during periods of reduced flow. A change in the spawning characteristics of the population was noted that corresponded to a changed in the operation of the hydroelectric facility. In 1987 and 1988 the facility operated in a peaking mode, which resulted in large daily fluctuations in river flows. The years 1989 and 1990 were years of transition, and in 1991 and 1992 the facility released near run-of-the-river (ROR) flows. Under near-ROR flows, which were more natural, adult lake sturgeons spent 4-6 weeks less at the spawning sites, 74% more fish were observed, weights were greater due to a 68% increase in number of females, and fish had increased reproductive readiness. The change in flow regime was the result of a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing action. The positive response observed in lake sturgeon spawning activity that resulted from the change of facility operation to near-ROR flows should be beneficial to the survival and perpetuation of this population. Similar results may be experienced in other lake sturgeon waters affected by manipulated flow regimes. 28 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Capture locations and growth rates of Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Eyler, S.M.; Mangold, M.F.; Spells, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Little information exists on temporal and spatial distributions of wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus in the Chesapeake Bay. Approximately 3,300 hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon comprised of two size groups were released into the Nanticoke River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, on 8 July 1996. During January 1996-May 2000, 1099 Atlantic sturgeon were captured incidentally (i.e., bycatch) by commercial watermen in the Chesapeake Bay, including 420 hatchery-reared individuals. Wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon were captured primarily in pound nets and gill nets. Biologists tagged each fish and recorded weight, length, and location of capture. Although two adults greater than 2000 mm fork length (FL) were captured in Maryland waters, wild sturgeon were primarily juveniles from Maryland and Virginia waters (415 and 259 individuals below 1000 mm FL, respectively). A growth rate of 0.565 mm/d (N = 15, SE = 0.081) was estimated for wild individuals (487-944 mm TL at release) at liberty from 30 to 622 d. The average growth of the group of hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon raised at 10??C exceeded that of the group raised at 17??C. Our distributional data based on capture locations are biased by fishery dependence and gear selectivity. These data are informative to managers, however, because commercial effort is widely distributed in the Chesapeake Bay, and little distributional data were available before this study.

  3. Muscarinic presynaptic modulation in GABAergic pallidal synapses of the rat.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Ricardo; Aceves, José J; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E; Hernández-Flores, Teresa; Hernández-González, Omar; Tapia, Dagoberto; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2015-02-01

    The external globus pallidus (GPe) is central for basal ganglia processing. It expresses muscarinic cholinergic receptors and receives cholinergic afferents from the pedunculopontine nuclei (PPN) and other regions. The role of these receptors and afferents is unknown. Muscarinic M1-type receptors are expressed by synapses from striatal projection neurons (SPNs). Because axons from SPNs project to the GPe, one hypothesis is that striatopallidal GABAergic terminals may be modulated by M1 receptors. Alternatively, some M1 receptors may be postsynaptic in some pallidal neurons. Evidence of muscarinic modulation in any of these elements would suggest that cholinergic afferents from the PPN, or other sources, could modulate the function of the GPe. In this study, we show this evidence using striatopallidal slice preparations: after field stimulation in the striatum, the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine significantly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from synapses that exhibited short-term synaptic facilitation. This inhibition was associated with significant increases in paired-pulse facilitation, and quantal content was proportional to IPSC amplitude. These actions were blocked by atropine, pirenzepine, and mamba toxin-7, suggesting that receptors involved were M1. In addition, we found that some pallidal neurons have functional postsynaptic M1 receptors. Moreover, some evoked IPSCs exhibited short-term depression and a different kind of modulation: they were indirectly modulated by muscarine via the activation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Thus pallidal synapses presenting distinct forms of short-term plasticity were modulated differently.

  4. Tolerance of early pallidal stimulation in pediatric generalized dystonia.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Yasushi; Koike, Yu

    2013-11-01

    The authors report on 2 cases of pediatric generalized dystonia with a DYT1 mutation; the patients, an 11-year-old girl and a 9-year-old boy, underwent chronic, pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi). The dystonic postures in both cases showed dramatic improvements with pallidal DBS, but each patient's symptoms gradually recurred within a year, irrespective of exhaustive readjustments of the stimulation settings. After the recurrence of the dystonic symptoms, the DBS leads were replaced within the GPi in one patient (Case 1) and additional DBS leads were implanted into the bilateral subthalamic nuclei in the other patient (Case 2). Neither measure produced any further clinical benefit, and the patient in Case 2 died of status dystonicus 2 days after reoperation. These findings suggest that early pallidal DBS for pediatric dystonia is indeed effective, although there are some cases in which its therapeutic effect is lost. One possible reason may be the ability of the preadolescent brain to tolerate chronic electrical stimuli during the active maturation process.

  5. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from the McNary Dam, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1995 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on sub-adult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of sub-adult a nd adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River.

  6. Lake sturgeon population attributes and reproductive structure in the Namakan Reservoir, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, S. L.; Chipps, Steven R.; Windels, S. K.; Webb, M.A.H.; McLeod, D. T.; Willis, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantified were the age, growth, mortality and reproductive structure of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) collected in the US and Canadian waters of the Namakan Reservoir. The hypotheses were tested that (i) age and growth of lake sturgeon in the Namakan Reservoir would differ by sex and reproductive stage of maturity, and (ii) that the relative strength of year-classes of lake sturgeon in the reservoir would be affected by environmental variables. To quantify age, growth and mortality of the population, existing data was used from a multi-agency database containing information on all lake sturgeon sampled in the reservoir from 2004 to 2009. Lake sturgeon were sampled in the Minnesota and Ontario waters of the Namakan Reservoir using multi-filament gillnets 1.8 m high and 30–100 m long and varying in mesh size from 178 to 356 mm stretch. Reproductive structure of the lake sturgeon was assessed only during spring 2008 and 2009 using plasma testosterone and estradiol-17β concentrations. Ages of lake sturgeon >75 cm ranged from 9 to 86 years (n = 533, mean = 36 years). A catch-curve analysis using the 1981–1953 year classes estimated total annual mortality of adults to be 4.8% and annual survival as 95.2%. Using logistic regression analysis, it was found that total annual precipitation was positively associated with lake sturgeon year-class strength in the Namakan Reservoir. A 10 cm increase in total annual precipitation was associated with at least a 39% increase in the odds of occurrence of a strong year class of lake sturgeon in the reservoir. Plasma steroid analysis revealed a sex ratio of 2.4 females: 1 male and, on average, 10% of female and 30% of male lake sturgeon were reproductively mature each year (i.e. potential spawners). Moreover, there was evidence based on re-captured male fish of both periodic and annual spawning, as well as the ability of males to rapidly undergo gonadal maturation prior to spawning. Knowledge of lake sturgeon

  7. Chemical characteristics and antithrombotic effect of chondroitin sulfates from sturgeon skull and sturgeon backbone.

    PubMed

    Gui, Meng; Song, Juyi; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shun; Wu, Ruiyun; Ma, Changwei; Li, Pinglan

    2015-06-05

    Chondroitin sulfates (CSs) were extracted from sturgeon skull and backbone, and their chemical composition, anticoagulant, anti-platelet and thrombolysis activities were evaluated. The average molecular weights of CS from sturgeon skull and backbone were 38.5kDa and 49.2kDa, respectively. Disaccharide analysis indicated that the sturgeon backbone CS was primarily composed of disaccharide monosulfated in position four of the GalNAc (37.8%) and disaccharide monosulfated in position six of the GalNAc (59.6%) while sturgeon skull CS was primarily composed of nonsulfated disaccharide (74.2%). Sturgeon backbone CS showed stronger antithrombotic effect than sturgeon skull CS. Sturgeon backbone CS could significantly prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation and dissolved platelet plasma clots in vitro. The results suggested that sturgeon backbone CS can be explored as a functional food with antithrombotic function.

  8. Observations on the identification of larval and juvenile Scaphirhynchus spp. in the lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartfield, Paul D.; Kuntz, Nathan M.; Schramm, Harold L.

    2013-01-01

    Scaphirhynchus albus (Pallid Sturgeon) and S. platorynchus (Shovelnose Sturgeon) are sympatric and not uncommon in the lower Mississippi River from the confluence of the Ohio River to the Gulf of Mexico, and in its distributary, the Atchafalaya River. Reports of sturgeon larvae have been rare in the Mississippi River but have been increasing with more effective collection methods. A suite of characters identified in hatchery-reared larval Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon from the Yellowstone and upper Missouri rivers has been used to distinguish larval Scaphirhynchus spp. In the Mississippi River; however, a large proportion of wild Scaphirhynchus spp. larvae are intermediate in these characters and have been identified by some as hybridized Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon. We applied three diagnostic characters developed from Missouri River sturgeon larvae to hatchery-reared progeny of Atchafalaya River Pallid Sturgeon and found them inadequate to identify most of the known Pallid sturgeon larvae. Additionally, fewer than 10% of a large sample of wild Scaphirhynchusspp. larvae from the lower Mississippi River conformed to either Pallid Sturgeon or Shovelnose Sturgeon at two or more of the characters. We also found a small mouth width relative to head width and a concave forward barbel position may be useful for the identification of 30% or more Scaphirhynchus spp. larvae and postlarval young-of-year as Shovelnose Sturgeon. Established adult character indices and diagnostic measurement proportionalities also failed to correctly identify any hatchery-reared Pallid Sturgeon juveniles recaptured 6–7 years following their release.

  9. Effects of acoustic tag implantation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens: lack of evidence for changes in behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    An assumption of studies using acoustic telemetry is that surgical implantation of acoustic transmitters or tags does not alter behavior of tagged individuals. Evaluating the validity of this assumption can be difficult for large fish, such as adult sturgeons, not amenable to controlled laboratory experimentation. The purpose of this study was to determine if and when this assumption was valid for adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens tagged with large (34 g) acoustic transmitters and released into the St. Clair River during 2011–2014. The hypothesis that activity and reach-scale distributions of tagged and untagged lake sturgeon did not differ was tested by comparing movement frequencies, movement rates (speed-over-ground), and location-specific detection probabilities between newly-tagged lake sturgeon and presumably fully-recovered conspecifics tagged and released in prior years.

  10. Diet of first-feeding larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, W.D.; McCabe, G.T.; Parsley, M.J.; Hinton, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    In some Snake and Columbia River reservoirs, adult white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are common but few juvenile fish are found, indicating a lack of spawning success or poor survival of larvae. In contrast, recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon to juvenile and adult stages is successful in the unimpounded Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. The availability and size of preferred prey during the period when white sturgeon larvae begin exogenous feeding could be an important determinant of year-class strength. To explore this issue, we examined the diet composition of 352 larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon collected from 1989 through 1991 in the lower Columbia River. Samples were collected downstream from Bonneville Dam and upstream from the dam in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs. Fish that ranged in size from 15 to 290 mm in total length fed primarily on gammarid amphipods (Corophium spp.) during all months. This diet item became increasingly important to all sizes of white sturgeon examined as they grew. The length of Corophium spp. eaten by larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon increased with increasing fish length (r2 = 45.6%, P < 0.0001). Copepods (Cyclopoida), Ceratopogonidae larvae, and Diptera pupae and larvae (primarily chironomids) were also consumed, especially at the onset of exogenous feeding. A small percentage of white sturgeon were found with empty stomachs during June (1.6% downstream from Bonneville Dam) and July (4.5% downstream and 2.6% in the reservoirs). Diets of larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon from both impounded and free-flowing sections of the Columbia River were similar and we found no evidence of larval starvation in the areas investigated, areas currently supporting healthy white sturgeon populations.

  11. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  12. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  13. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  14. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  15. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  16. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal... drawbridge operating schedule for the Maple-Oregon and Michigan Street Bridges across the Sturgeon Bay Ship... drawbridges over Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, including the two previously mentioned bridges as well as...

  17. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual progress report April 2002 - March 2003. Report C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2004-01-01

    During 1 April 2002 through 31 March 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continued work on several tasks, including quantifying habitat suitable for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning, a long-term survey of young-of-the-year (YOY) white sturgeon recruitment in the lower Columbia River, and a laboratory study investigating predation on larval and juvenile white sturgeon. River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2002 provided relatively good conditions for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for approximately three weeks and during a period of relatively high river discharge. Our monthly estimates of the index of spawning habitat showed that the availability of habitat for spawning peaked in June at levels higher than the average of past years. However, indices for the month of May were less than average in all four tailraces. YOY white sturgeon were collected during bottom trawling in Bonneville and The Dalles reservoirs, but none were captured in the John Day Reservoir. In an ongoing comparison of indices of abundance derived from bottom trawls and gill nets, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife also caught YOY white sturgeon in gill nets set in The Dalles Reservoir, but none in the John Day Reservoir. The third year of a three-year laboratory predation study was completed. Adult channel catfish ingested white sturgeon up to a mean total length of about 120 mm, and juvenile walleye ate white sturgeon up to a mean length of 53 mm. When white sturgeon and coho salmon were both available as prey, northern pikeminnow continued to ingest white sturgeon, but in most cases preferred salmon. Conversely, prickly sculpins preferred white sturgeon over goldfish as prey. The presence of cover and also lower light levels reduced predation by sculpins on white sturgeon larvae, but cover did not reduce

  18. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations : White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-03-01

    Flows in the Kootenai River for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning in 1998 were expected to be at a minimum because the snow pack in the basin was only about 79% normal, and local inflow was expected to be very low, <142 m{sup 3}/s (5,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry from late April through early May were at about 425 m{sup 3}/s (15,000 cfs) while water temperature ranged from about 8 to 10 C (45 to 50 F). Spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began on May 18 when flow at the dam was brought up to 765 m{sup 3}/s (27,000 cfs). Unusually frequent rains and several enormous storms brought peak flows at Bonners Ferry to over 1,175 m{sup 3}/s (41,500 cfs) on May 27, temperature ranged between 8 and 10.6 C (45 to 51 F). Flow gradually subsided at Bonners Ferry during June and was steady at 708 to 765 m{sup 3}/s (25,000 to 27,000 cfs) while temperature gradually rose to 14.4 C (58 F). Forty-seven adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,220 hours of angling and setlining effort between March 1 and April 15, 1998 by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Sonic and radio tags were attached to four female and five male sturgeon during this effort. From April 1 through July 31, 1998, a total of 17 fish were monitored specifically for pre-spawn and spawning activities. White sturgeon spawning location, timing, frequency, and habitat were evaluated by sampling for eggs with artificial substrate mats. Four hundred and eighty-four eggs were collected, 393 eggs (81%) were collected on 60 standard mats, and 91 eggs (19%) were collected on seven experimental mats with drift nets. Ten eggs collected with experimental mats were found mixed with sand, suggesting eggs are moving in the lower water column with sand. The middle Shorty's Island reach (rkm 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (173) while the Deep Creek section (rkm 237.6-240.5) produced 112 eggs. No eggs were collected above the Deep Creek section (>rkm 240.5). Four hundred

  19. Integration of cortical and pallidal inputs in the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus of singing birds

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jesse H.; Farries, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The basal ganglia-recipient thalamus receives inhibitory inputs from the pallidum and excitatory inputs from cortex, but it is unclear how these inputs interact during behavior. We recorded simultaneously from thalamic neurons and their putative synaptically connected pallidal inputs in singing zebra finches. We find, first, that each pallidal spike produces an extremely brief (∼5 ms) pulse of inhibition that completely suppresses thalamic spiking. As a result, thalamic spikes are entrained to pallidal spikes with submillisecond precision. Second, we find that the number of thalamic spikes that discharge within a single pallidal interspike interval (ISI) depends linearly on the duration of that interval but does not depend on pallidal activity prior to the interval. In a detailed biophysical model, our results were not easily explained by the postinhibitory “rebound” mechanism previously observed in anesthetized birds and in brain slices, nor could most of our data be characterized as “gating” of excitatory transmission by inhibitory pallidal input. Instead, we propose a novel “entrainment” mechanism of pallidothalamic transmission that highlights the importance of an excitatory conductance that drives spiking, interacting with brief pulses of pallidal inhibition. Building on our recent finding that cortical inputs can drive syllable-locked rate modulations in thalamic neurons during singing, we report here that excitatory inputs affect thalamic spiking in two ways: by shortening the latency of a thalamic spike after a pallidal spike and by increasing thalamic firing rates within individual pallidal ISIs. We present a unifying biophysical model that can reproduce all known modes of pallidothalamic transmission—rebound, gating, and entrainment—depending on the amount of excitation the thalamic neuron receives. PMID:22673333

  20. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of...

  1. Overview of biology and aquaculture of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.; Li, D.

    2002-01-01

    Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii is a large riverine species (max. 3 m length and 190 kg weight) native to the Amur River. In the middle Amur River, males first spawn at 7-8 years of age and females at 9-10 years. Due to overfishing and habitat alteration, the abundance of wild stocks has rapidly declined in recent years. Using wild adults, artificial spawning began in the 1950s in China, and since the early 1990s Amur sturgeon has become the most popular sturgeon for aquaculture. The species is adaptive to many conditions of artificial culture, including traditional Chinese fish culture ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and cages. It will grow well on many types of food, and 1-year-old fish reared on commercial diets weigh 900-1200 g. Based on the examination of females reared for broodstock, first full sexual maturity is expected at 5-6 years of age.

  2. Lake sturgeon response to a spawning reef constructed in the Detroit river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, B.; Boase, J.; Child, M.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.; Drouin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the bi-national Detroit River provided vast areas of functional fish spawning and nursery habitat. However, ongoing conflicting human uses of these waters for activities such as waste disposal, water withdrawals, shoreline development, shipping, recreation, and fishing have altered many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the Detroit River. Of particular interest and concern to resource managers and stakeholders is the significant loss and impairment of fish spawning and nursery habitat that led to the decline in abundance of most fish species using this ecosystem. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations for example, were nearly extirpated by the middle of the 20th century, leaving only a small fraction of their former population. Fisheries managers recognized that the loss of suitable fish spawning habitat is a limiting factor in lake sturgeon population rehabilitation in the Detroit River. In efforts to remediate this beneficial water use impairment, a reef consisting of a mixture of natural rock and limestone was constructed at the upstream end of Fighting Island in 2008. This paper focuses on the response by lake sturgeon to the different replicates of suitable natural materials used to construct the fish spawning habitat at Fighting Island in the Detroit River. Pre-construction fisheries assessment during 2006–2008 showed that along with the presence of adult lake sturgeon, spawning conditions were favorable. However, no eggs were found in assessments conducted prior to reef construction. The 3300 m2 Fighting Island reef was placed at the upstream end of the island in October of 2008. The construction design included 12 spawning beds of three replicates each consisting of either round rock, small or large (shot-rock) diameter limestone or a mixture thereof. An observed response by spawning lake sturgeon occurred the following year when spawning-ready adults (ripe), viable eggs, and larvae were

  3. Using circulating reproductive hormones for sex determination of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) in the Saco River estuary, Maine

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Carolyn R.; Novak, Ashleigh J.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.; Sulikowski, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) is a long-lived, anadromous fish species ranging from Labrador, CA to Florida, USA. In the Saco River, located in the Gulf of Maine, this species was not present during a survey study ending in 1982, but was found inhabiting the estuary in 2007. Although the reason for the return of this sturgeon to this river system remains unknown, research on basic life-history information is necessary to facilitate the conservation of this federally protected species. Given the conservation status of the species, the present study used circulating sex steroid hormones to determine the sex of 288 Atlantic sturgeon captured between 2012 and 2014 in the Saco River estuary located in the Gulf of Maine. Overall, the sex was determined for 93% of Atlantic sturgeon sampled. Mean hormone values were similar to other Atlantic sturgeon reproductive studies. The findings indicate the validity of sex steroid hormones as a singular method for sex determination in wild Atlantic sturgeon. Results also indicated a likely 1:1 (male:female) sex ratio in the system, except in 2014 when a 1:3 ratio was observed. It is not believed that the Saco River estuary is used for spawning, as several impassable dams block access to spawning habitat. However, this area might provide crucial foraging for growth and development of juveniles and a habitat for adults forgoing spawning. PMID:27957335

  4. Using circulating reproductive hormones for sex determination of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) in the Saco River estuary, Maine.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Carolyn R; Novak, Ashleigh J; Wippelhauser, Gail S; Sulikowski, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) is a long-lived, anadromous fish species ranging from Labrador, CA to Florida, USA. In the Saco River, located in the Gulf of Maine, this species was not present during a survey study ending in 1982, but was found inhabiting the estuary in 2007. Although the reason for the return of this sturgeon to this river system remains unknown, research on basic life-history information is necessary to facilitate the conservation of this federally protected species. Given the conservation status of the species, the present study used circulating sex steroid hormones to determine the sex of 288 Atlantic sturgeon captured between 2012 and 2014 in the Saco River estuary located in the Gulf of Maine. Overall, the sex was determined for 93% of Atlantic sturgeon sampled. Mean hormone values were similar to other Atlantic sturgeon reproductive studies. The findings indicate the validity of sex steroid hormones as a singular method for sex determination in wild Atlantic sturgeon. Results also indicated a likely 1:1 (male:female) sex ratio in the system, except in 2014 when a 1:3 ratio was observed. It is not believed that the Saco River estuary is used for spawning, as several impassable dams block access to spawning habitat. However, this area might provide crucial foraging for growth and development of juveniles and a habitat for adults forgoing spawning.

  5. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  6. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  7. Singing-related neural activity distinguishes two putative pallidal cell types in the songbird basal ganglia: comparison to the primate internal and external pallidal segments

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jesse H.; Adler, Avital; Bergman, Hagai; Fee, Michale S.

    2010-01-01

    The songbird area X is a basal ganglia homologue that contains two pallidal cell types—local neurons that project within the basal ganglia and output neurons that project to the thalamus. Based on these projections, it has been proposed that these classes are structurally homologous to the primate external (GPe) and internal (GPi) pallidal segments. To test the hypothesis that the two area X pallidal types are functionally homologous to GPe and GPi neurons, we recorded from neurons in area X of singing juvenile male zebra finches, and directly compare their firing patterns to neurons recorded in the primate pallidus. In area X, we find two cell classes that exhibited high firing (HF) rates (>60Hz) characteristic of pallidal neurons. HF-1 neurons, like most GPe neurons we examined, exhibited large firing rate modulations, including bursts and long pauses. In contrast, HF-2 neurons, like GPi neurons, discharged continuously without bursts or long pauses. To test if HF-2 neurons were the output neurons that project to the thalamus, we next recorded directly from pallidal axon terminals in thalamic nucleus DLM, and found that all terminals exhibited singing-related firing patterns indistinguishable from HF-2 neurons. Our data show that singing-related neural activity distinguishes two putative pallidal cell types in area X: thalamus-projecting neurons that exhibit activity similar to the primate GPi, and non-thalamus-projecting neurons that exhibit activity similar to the primate GPe. These results suggest that song learning in birds and motor learning in mammals employ conserved basal ganglia signaling strategies. PMID:20484651

  8. Reproductive traits of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamel, M. J.; Rugg, M.L.; Pegg, M.A.; Patino, Reynaldo; Hammen, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed reproductive status, fecundity, egg size, and spawning dynamics of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon were captured throughout each year during 2011 and 2012 using a multi-gear approach designed to collect a variety of fish of varying sizes and ages. Fish were collected monthly for a laboratory assessment of reproductive condition. Female shovelnose sturgeon reached fork length at 50% maturity (FL50) at 547 mm and at a minimum length of 449 mm. The average female spawning cycle was 3–5 years. Mean egg count for adult females was 16 098 ± 1103 (SE), and mean egg size was 2.401 ± 0.051 (SE) mm. Total fecundity was positively correlated with length (r2 = 0.728; P < 0.001), mass (r2 = 0.896; P < 0.001), and age (r2 = 0.396; P = 0.029). However, fish size and age did not correlate to egg size (P > 0.05). Male shovelnose sturgeon reached FL50 at 579 mm and at a minimum length of 453 mm. The average male spawning cycle was 1–2 years. Reproductively viable male and female sturgeon occurred during the spring (March–May) and autumn (September–October) in both years, indicating spring and potential autumn spawning events. Shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Platte River are maturing at a shorter length and younger age compared to populations elsewhere. Although it is unknown if the change is plastic or evolutionary, unfavorable environmental conditions or over-harvest may lead to hastened declines compared to other systems.

  9. Development of working hypotheses linking management of the Missouri River to population dynamics of Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-20

    The initial set of candidate hypotheses provides a useful starting point for quantitative modeling and adaptive management of the river and species. We anticipate that hypotheses will change from the set of working management hypotheses as adaptive management progresses. More importantly, hypotheses that have been filtered out of our multistep process are still being considered. These filtered hypotheses are archived and if existing hypotheses are determined to be inadequate to explain observed population dynamics, new hypotheses can be created or filtered hypotheses can be reinstated.

  10. Gonadosomatic index and fecundity of Lower Missouri and Middle Mississippi River endangered pallid sturgeon estimated using minimally invasive techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; DeLonay, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive, non-lethal methods of ultrasonography were used to assess sex, egg diameter, fecundity, gonad volume, and gonadosomatic index, as well as endoscopy to visually assess the reproductive stage of Scaphirhynchus albus. Estimated mean egg diameters of 2.202 ± 0.187 mm and mean fecundity of 44 531 ± 23 940 eggs were similar to previous studies using invasive techniques. Mean S. albus gonadosomatic indices (GSI) for reproductive and nonreproductive females were 16.16 and 1.26%, respectively, while reproductive and non-reproductive male GSI were 2.00 and 0.43%, respectively. There was no relationship between hybrid status or capture location and GSI. Mean fecundity was 48.5% higher than hatchery spawn estimates. Fecundity increased as fork length increased but did so more dramatically in the upper river kilometers of the Missouri River. By examining multiple fish over multiple years, the reproductive cycle periodicity for hatchery female S. albus was found to be 2-4 years and river dwelling males 1-4 years. The use of ultrasonic and endoscopic methods in combination was shown to be helpful in tracking individual gonad characteristics over multi-year reproductive cycles.

  11. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - Atlantic sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1984-07-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus, is an anadromous species that occupies rivers, estuaries, and nearshore waters along the entire Atlantic coast of the United States. The species once supported significant commercial fisheries throughout its range, but stocks have declined because of overfishing, deterioration of water quality, and damming of rivers. Atlantic sturgeon spawn in rivers and the young remain in freshwater for several years prior to emigration to the ocean. Little is known about spawning areas and associated environmental factors. Females typically do not mature until age X and the age at first spawning ranges from 5 to 13 years for males and 7 to 19 years for females. Longevity may frequently exceed 25 years. Immature and adult sturgeons are bottom feeders and consume a variety of mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and other small bottom-dwelling invertebrates and fishes. Little is know about competitors, predators, or effects of environmental factors on recruitment. The long period required to reach maturity, possibly irregular spawning thereafter, and prolonged reliance on river systems make juvenile and adult Atlantic sturgeon highly susceptible to habitat alterations, pollution, and over exploitation. 49 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  12. When the American sea sturgeon swam east.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Arne; Debus, Lutz; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Wirgin, Isaac; Benecke, Norbert; Jenneckens, Ingo; Williot, Patrick; Waldman, John R; Pitra, Christian

    2002-10-03

    The two species of Atlantic sea sturgeon on either shore of the North Atlantic, Acipenser sturio in Europe and A. oxyrinchus in North America, probably diverged with the closure of the Tethys Sea and the onset of the North Atlantic Gyre 15-20 million years ago, and contact between them was then presumably precluded by geographic distance. Here we present genetic, morphological and archaeological evidence indicating that the North American sturgeon colonized the Baltic during the Middle Ages and replaced the native sturgeon there, before recently becoming extinct itself in Europe as a result of human activities. In addition to representing a unique transatlantic colonization event by a fish that swims upriver to spawn, our findings have important implications for projects aimed at restocking Baltic waters with the European sturgeon.

  13. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  14. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  15. Modeling white sturgeon movement in a reservoir: The effect of water quality and sturgeon density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, A.B.; Jager, H.I.; Myers, R.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a movement model to examine the distribution and survival of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in a reservoir subject to large spatial and temporal variation in dissolved oxygen and temperature. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were simulated by a CE-QUAL-W2 model of Brownlee Reservoir, Idaho for a typical wet, normal, and dry hydrologic year. We compared current water quality conditions to scenarios with reduced nutrient inputs to the reservoir. White sturgeon habitat quality was modeled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen and, in some cases, suitability for foraging and depth. We assigned a quality index to each cell along the bottom of the reservoir. The model simulated two aspects of daily movement. Advective movement simulated the tendency for animals to move toward areas with high habitat quality, and diffusion simulated density dependent movement away from areas with high sturgeon density in areas with non-lethal habitat conditions. Mortality resulted when sturgeon were unable to leave areas with lethal temperature or dissolved oxygen conditions. Water quality was highest in winter and early spring and lowest in mid to late summer. Limiting nutrient inputs reduced the area of Brownlee Reservoir with lethal conditions for sturgeon and raised the average habitat suitability throughout the reservoir. Without movement, simulated white sturgeon survival ranged between 45 and 89%. Allowing movement raised the predicted survival of sturgeon under all conditions to above 90% as sturgeon avoided areas with low habitat quality. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical note: Production of tetraploid sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Lebeda, I; Flajshans, M

    2015-08-01

    Studies and practical application of androgenesis and gynogenesis in sturgeon are significantly hindered by strong influence of ploidy restoration treatment on survivability of progeny; therefore, developed method of production of tetraploid broodstock and, consequently, use of their diploid gametes might help to avoid ploidy restoration treatment. In the present study, for the first time was developed a protocol for tetraploidy induction in 2 model sturgeon species, sterlet () and Siberian sturgeon (). A high efficiency of treatment was achieved by optimization of heat shock using a temperature of 37°C for 2 min timed between the end of female pronuclei formation and the beginning of pronuclei migration, that is, 0.8 to 1.0 τ (duration of 1 mitotic cycle during the period of synchronous cleavage division). Fertilized eggs developed in tetraploid larvae, up to 31 (89.6% in control) and 34% (70.9% in control) in sterlet and Siberian sturgeon, respectively. Most of the tetraploid larvae exhibited body malformations; as a result, consequent large scale study revealed high larval mortality, which drastically decreased after 2 mo of age. Consequent comparison of BW, length, and malformation rate and mortality between diploid and tetraploid progeny of sterlet did not reveal significant differences in fitness of diploid and tetraploid juveniles at 9 and 11 mo of age. The present study can be considered the first step towards improving the androgenesis methods of conservation of endangered sturgeons as well as understanding the sturgeon sex determination system through induction of mitotic gynogenesis.

  17. Management and recovery options for Ural river beluga sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Pikitch, Ellen K; Sharov, Alexei R; Baimukhanov, Mirgaly; Erbulekov, Sagiden; Bokova, Yelena; Nimatov, Akhat

    2010-06-01

    Management of declining fisheries of anadromous species sometimes relies heavily on supplementation of populations with captive breeding, despite evidence that captive breeding can have negative consequences and may not address the root cause of decline. The beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), a species threatened by the market for black caviar and reductions in habitat quality, is managed through harvest control and hatchery supplementation, with an emphasis on the latter. We used yield per recruit and elasticity analyses to evaluate the population status and current levels of fishing and to identify the life-history stages that are the best targets for conservation of beluga of the Ural River. Harvest rates in recent years were four to five times higher than rates that would sustain population abundance. Sustainable rates of fishing mortality are similar to those for other long-lived marine species such as sharks and mammals. Yield per recruit, which is maximized if fish are first harvested at age 31 years, would be greatly enhanced by raising minimum size limits or reducing illegal take of subadults. Improving the survival of subadult and adult females would increase population productivity by 10 times that achieved by improving fecundity and survival from egg to age 1 year (i.e., hatchery supplementation). These results suggest that reducing mortality of subadults and adult wild fish is a more effective conservation strategy than hatchery supplementation. Because genetics is not factored into hatchery management practices, supplementation may even reduce the viability of the beluga sturgeon.

  18. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, with notes on body color and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Parker, E.

    2004-01-01

    We observed Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, in the laboratory and found free embryos (first interval after hatching) hid under rocks and did not migrate. Thus, wild embryos should be at the spawning area. Larvae (first interval feeding exogenously) initiated a slow downstream migration, and some juveniles (interval with adult features) continued to migrate slowly for at least 5 months, e.g., a 1-step long larva-juvenile migration. No other population of sturgeon yet studied has this migration style. A conceptual model using this result suggests wild year-0 sturgeon have a variable downstream migration style with short-duration (short distance) migrants and long-duration (long distance) migrants. This migration style should widely disperse wild fish. The model is supported by field studies that found year-0 juveniles are widely dispersed in fresh water to river km 10. Thus, laboratory and field data agree that the entire freshwater reach of river downstream of spawning is nursery habitat. Foraging position of larvae and early juveniles was mostly on the bottom, but fish also spent hours holding position in the water column, an unusual feeding location for sturgeons. The holding position of fish above the bottom suggests benthic forage in the river is scarce and fish have evolved drift feeding. The unusual migration and foraging styles may be adaptations to rear in a river at the southern limit of the species range with poor rearing habitat (low abundance of benthic forage and high summer water temperatures). Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon and Hudson River Atlantic sturgeon, A. o. oxyrinchus, are similar for initiation of migration, early habitat preference, and diel migration. The two subspecies differ greatly for migration and foraging styles, which is likely related to major differences in the quality of rearing habitat. The differences between Atlantic sturgeon populations show the need for geographical studies to represent the behavior

  19. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Enhancement, May 1-December 31, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.

    1984-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine and define the early life history characteristics of Columbia River white sturgeon as a working base from which enhancement measures could be developed. Adult sturgeon were captured and held for spawning at Covert's Landing, the site of the hatchery facilities below Bonneville Dam. Pituitary hormones stimulated ovulation; ripe females were live spawned surgically and the eggs incubated in hatching jars. Larvae were either reared at the hatchery site after incubation to advanced fingerling stages or transferred to the University laboratory for more detailed study. Displacement downstream occurs as a means of distribution and can last several days before a strong substrate preference is manifested. Once bottom contact is sought by the larvae, displacement is abated, and a general preference for sandy surface appears to predominate. Since potentially extensive displacement downstream could result in the distribution of larvae in saltwater, the tolerance of young sturgeon to saltwater was examined. The responsiveness of young sturgeon to artificial feed was positive. With these results, the original concern for identifying an adequate diet and food source that would be readily accepted by fry was greatly attenuated. The readiness of young fry to initiate feeding on the artificial diet made further study on feeding stimulants unnecessary. Examination of the feeding response suggested that as long as the diet used in the present study was initiated at the proper time and with adequate frequency, the fry would feed quite well and survive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Shortnose sturgeon use small coastal rivers: The importance of habitat connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Kinnison, M.T.; Dionne, P.E.; Zydlewski, J.; Wippelhauser, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to conventional wisdom for shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), we document shortnose sturgeon use of habitats beyond large rivers. Telemetry data from 2008 to 2010 in the Gulf of Maine demonstrates that adult shortnose sturgeon (up to 70%) frequently move between Maine's two largest rivers, the Kennebec and Penobscot Rivers. Even more interesting, small rivers located between these watersheds were used by 52% of the coastal migrants. Small river use was not trivial, 80% of observed movements extended more than 10km upstream. However, visits were short in duration. This pattern indicates one of several possibilities: directed use of resources, searching behaviors related to reproduction (i.e. straying) or undirected wandering. Data suggest a relationship between residence time in small rivers and distance to the lowermost barrier. Restoring connectivity to upstream habitats in these rivers could allow opportunities for metapopulation expansion. Regional management of shortnose sturgeon in the Gulf of Maine should incorporate a habitat framework that considers small coastal rivers. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  1. Npas1+ Pallidal Neurons Target Striatal Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Glajch, Kelly E.; Kelver, Daniel A.; Hegeman, Daniel J.; Cui, Qiaoling; Xenias, Harry S.; Augustine, Elizabeth C.; Hernández, Vivian M.; Verma, Neha; Huang, Tina Y.; Luo, Minmin; Justice, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Compelling evidence demonstrates that the external globus pallidus (GPe) plays a key role in processing sensorimotor information. An anatomical projection from the GPe to the dorsal striatum has been described for decades. However, the cellular target and functional impact of this projection remain unknown. Using cell-specific transgenic mice, modern monosynaptic tracing techniques, and optogenetics-based mapping, we discovered that GPe neurons provide inhibitory inputs to direct and indirect pathway striatal projection neurons (SPNs). Our results indicate that the GPe input to SPNs arises primarily from Npas1-expressing neurons and is strengthened in a chronic Parkinson's disease (PD) model. Alterations of the GPe-SPN input in a PD model argue for the critical position of this connection in regulating basal ganglia motor output and PD symptomatology. Finally, chemogenetic activation of Npas1-expressing GPe neurons suppresses motor output, arguing that strengthening of the GPe-SPN connection is maladaptive and may underlie the hypokinetic symptoms in PD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT An anatomical projection from the pallidum to the striatum has been described for decades, but little is known about its connectivity pattern. The authors dissect the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons involved in this projection, and show its cell-specific remodeling and strengthening in parkinsonian mice. Chemogenetic activation of Npas1+ pallidal neurons that give rise to the principal pallidostriatal projection increases the time that the mice spend motionless. This argues that maladaptive strengthening of this connection underlies the paucity of volitional movements, which is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease. PMID:27194328

  2. Habitat use and movements of shovelnose sturgeon in Pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River during extreme low flow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Gary L.; Ramsey, John S.; Scarnecchia, Dennis L.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored habitat use and movement of 27 adult shovelnose sturgeon in Pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River, Iowa-Illinois, by radio-telemetry in April through August 1988. Our objective was to determine the response of this species to unusually low water conditions in the upper Mississippi River in 1988. Most (94%) telemetry contacts were made in 3 habitat types: main channel (50%), main channel border where wing dams were present (29%), and tailwaters of Lock and Dam 12 (15%). Habitat use in spring was affected by the extreme low flows. We often found tagged shovelnose sturgeon in the main channel and tailwaters during the spring period (11 March–20 May) where water velocities were highest. This was in contrast to other studies where shovelnose sturgeon did not occupy those areas during years with normal spring flows. Shovelnose sturgeon were typically found in areas with a sand bottom, mean water depth of 5.8 m, and mean bottom current velocity of 0.23 m sec-1. They occupied areas of swifter current but were not always found in the fastest current in their immediate vicinity. Tagged shovelnose sturgeon tended to remain in the upper, more riverine portion of the pool, and we observed no emigration from the study pool. Linear total range of movement from the tagging site ranged from 1.9 to 54.6 km during the study period.

  3. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  4. Using blood plasma for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the lower Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, D T; Webb, M A H; Fink, A K; Kushner, L R; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B

    2008-09-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in blood plasma samples from 88 juvenile white sturgeon collected from the lower Columbia River were measured and compared to plasma sex steroid and OC tissue levels previously measured in corresponding fish. Significant squared correlation coefficients between summation operator DDT concentrations in sturgeon plasma and gonads and livers were 0.37 and 0.32, respectively. Significant negative correlations between plasma testosterone concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in male fish (r(2)=0.26), plasma 17beta estradiol concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in female fish (r(2)=0.38) and condition factor and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in all fish were found (r(2)=0.17). These results suggest that blood plasma may be a suitable nondestructive method for monitoring adult sturgeon population for persistent OC contaminants.

  5. Genetic effects of habitat restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes: an assessment of lake sturgeon origin and genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamie Marie Marranca,; Amy Welsh,; Roseman, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) have experienced significant habitat loss, resulting in reduced population sizes. Three artificial reefs were built in the Huron-Erie corridor in the Great Lakes to replace lost spawning habitat. Genetic data were collected to determine the source and numbers of adult lake sturgeon spawning on the reefs and to determine if the founder effect resulted in reduced genetic diversity. DNA was extracted from larval tail clips and 12 microsatellite loci were amplified. Larval genotypes were then compared to 22 previously studied spawning lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes to determine the source of the parental population. The effective number of breeders (Nb) was calculated for each reef cohort. The larval genotypes were then compared to the source population to determine if there were any losses in genetic diversity that are indicative of the founder effect. The St. Clair and Detroit River adult populations were found to be the source parental population for the larvae collected on all three artificial reefs. There were large numbers of contributing adults relative to the number of sampled larvae. There was no significant difference between levels of genetic diversity in the source population and larval samples from the artificial reefs; however, there is some evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the reef populations likely due to the founder effect. Habitat restoration in the Huron-Erie corridor is likely resulting in increased habitat for the large lake sturgeon population in the system and in maintenance of the population's genetic diversity.

  6. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, and shortnose sturgeon, A. brevirostrum, with notes on social behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ontogenetic behavior of Hudson River Atlantic sturgeon and Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon early life intervals were similar during laboratory observations. After hatching, free embryos were photonegative and sought cover. When embryos developed into larvae, fish left cover, were photopositive, and initiated downstream migration. Free embryos may remain at the spawning site instead of migrating downstream because the risk of predation at spawning sites is low. The two species are sympatric, but not closely related, so the similarities in innate behaviors suggest common adaptations, not phylogenetlc relationship. Atlantic sturgeon migrated downstream for 12 days (peak, first 6 days), shortnose sturgeon migrated for 3 days, and year-0 juveniles of both species did not resume downstream migration. Short or long migrations of larvae may reflect different styles related to the total migratory distance from spawning sites to juvenile rearing areas. Atlantic sturgeon need to move a short distance to reach rearing areas and they had a long 1-step migration of 6-12 days. In contrast, shortnose sturgeon need to move a long distance to reach all rearing areas. This may be accomplished by a 2-step migration, of which the brief migration of larvae is only the first step. Early migrant Atlantic sturgeon were nocturnal, while late migrants were diurnal, and shortnose sturgeon were diurnal. These diel differences may also be adaptations for long (Atlantic sturgeon) or short (shortnose sturgeon) migrations. Cultured shortnose sturgeon, and possibly Atlantic sturgeon, have a dominance hierarchy with large fish dominant when competing for limited foraging space. Social behavior may be more important in the life history of wild sturgeons than is generally recognized.

  7. ORNL Forges Connections for Sturgeon Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Pracheil, Brenda; Jager, Yetta

    2016-04-18

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are taking a closer look at how sturgeon, a prehistoric — and now imperiled — group of fish species may better be helped to get around the dams that block their migrations.

  8. ORNL Forges Connections for Sturgeon Conservation

    ScienceCinema

    Pracheil, Brenda; Jager, Yetta

    2016-07-12

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are taking a closer look at how sturgeon, a prehistoric — and now imperiled — group of fish species may better be helped to get around the dams that block their migrations.

  9. 50 CFR 223.211 - Atlantic sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Atlantic sturgeon. (a) Prohibitions. The... species apply to the threatened Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment (Gulf of Maine DPS) of...

  10. The history of sturgeon in the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popovic, Danijela; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna; Baca, Mateusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Makowiecki, Daniel; King, Tim L.; Gruchota, Jakub; Weglenski, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the past 2000 years at least, A. o. oxyrinchus has been the dominant sturgeon in the Baltic Sea, indicating a much earlier origin than previously suggested. The most similar extant sturgeon populations to the extinct Baltic stock are those from the St John and St Lawrence rivers in Canada. These populations should be considered the best source of breeding material for the ongoing sturgeon restitution programmes in Poland and Germany.

  11. Toxic effects of PCB126 and TCDD on shortnose sturgeon and Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Chambers, R Christopher; Davis, Dawn D; Habeck, Ehren A; Roy, Nirmal K; Wirgin, Isaac

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to chemical contaminants is often invoked to explain recruitment failures to populations of sturgeon worldwide, but there is little empirical evidence to support the idea that young sturgeon are sensitive at environmentally relevant concentrations. The authors used shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostum) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) as models to investigate the sensitivities of sturgeon to early-life-stage toxicities from embryonic exposures to graded doses of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Survival to hatching of shortnose sturgeon decreased with increasing dose, although the duration of the embryonic period was not significantly altered by exposure in either species. Morphometric features of larvae of both species were affected by dose, including shortening of the body, reduction in head size, reduction in quantity of yolk reserves, and reduction in eye size. Eye development in both species was delayed with increasing dose for both chemicals. The persistence of larvae in a food-free environment decreased inversely with dose in both species, with sharp declines occurring at PCB126 and TCDD doses of ≥1 ppb and ≥0.1 ppb, respectively. Dose-responsive early-life-stage toxicities reported here are among the more sensitive found in fish and occurred at burdens similar to those found in situ in a sympatric bottom-dwelling bony fish in the Hudson River Estuary. The present study is among the first demonstrating the sensitivity of any sturgeon to the hallmark early-life-stage toxicities induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.

  12. TOXIC EFFECTS OF PCB126 AND TCDD ON SHORTNOSE STURGEON AND ATLANTIC STURGEON

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, R. Christopher; Davis, Dawn D.; Habeck, Ehren A.; Roy, Nirmal K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to chemical contaminants is often invoked to explain recruitment failures to populations of sturgeon worldwide, but there is little empirical evidence to support the idea that young sturgeon are sensitive at environmentally relevant concentrations. The authors used shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostum) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) as models to investigate the sensitivities of sturgeon to early-life-stage toxicities from embryonic exposures to graded doses of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Survival to hatching of shortnose sturgeon decreased with increasing dose, although the duration of the embryonic period was not significantly altered by exposure in either species. Morphometric features of larvae of both species were affected by dose, including shortening of the body, reduction in head size, reduction in quantity of yolk reserves, and reduction in eye size. Eye development in both species was delayed with increasing dose for both chemicals. The persistence of larvae in a food-free environment decreased inversely with dose in both species, with sharp declines occurring at PCB126 and TCDD doses of ≥1 ppb and ≥0.1 ppb, respectively. Dose-responsive early-life-stage toxicities reported here are among the more sensitive found in fish and occurred at burdens similar to those found in situ in a sympatric bottom-dwelling bony fish in the Hudson River Estuary. The present study is among the first demonstrating the sensitivity of any sturgeon to the hallmark early-life-stage toxicities induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. PMID:22825886

  13. Physiological stress response, reflex impairment and delayed mortality of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus exposed to simulated fisheries stressors

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Montana F.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Cooke, Steven J.; Hinch, Scott G.; Patterson, David A.; Nettles, Taylor L.; Litvak, Matt K.; Crossin, Glenn T.

    2016-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are the largest freshwater fish in North America and a species exposed to widespread fishing pressure. Despite the growing interest in recreational fishing for white sturgeon, little is known about the sublethal and lethal impacts of angling on released sturgeon. In summer (July 2014, mean water temperature 15.3°C) and winter (February 2015, mean water temperature 6.6°C), captive white sturgeon (n = 48) were exposed to a combination of exercise and air exposure as a method of simulating an angling event. After the stressor, sturgeon were assessed for a physiological stress response, and reflex impairments were quantified to determine overall fish vitality (i.e. capacity for survival). A physiological stress response occurred in all sturgeon exposed to a fishing-related stressor, with the magnitude of the response correlated with the duration of the stressor. Moreover, the stress from exercise was more pronounced in summer, leading to higher reflex impairment scores (mean ± SEM, 0.44 ± 0.07 and 0.25 ± 0.05 in summer and winter, respectively). Reflex impairment was also correlated with lactate concentrations (e.g. physiological stress measures related to exhaustive exercise; r = 0.53) and recovery time (r = 0.76). Two mortalities occurred >24 h after the cessation of treatment in the summer. Given that natural habitats for white sturgeon can reach much higher temperatures than those presented in our study, we caution the use of this mortality estimate for a summer season, because latent mortality could be much higher when temperatures exceed 16°C. This is the first experiment investigating the physiological disturbance and reflex impairment of capture and release at two temperatures on subadult/adult white sturgeon, and the results suggest that future research needs to examine the longer term and fitness consequences of extended play and air exposure times, because these are largely unknown for wild populations

  14. Physiological stress response, reflex impairment and delayed mortality of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus exposed to simulated fisheries stressors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Montana F; Hanson, Kyle C; Cooke, Steven J; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Nettles, Taylor L; Litvak, Matt K; Crossin, Glenn T

    2016-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are the largest freshwater fish in North America and a species exposed to widespread fishing pressure. Despite the growing interest in recreational fishing for white sturgeon, little is known about the sublethal and lethal impacts of angling on released sturgeon. In summer (July 2014, mean water temperature 15.3°C) and winter (February 2015, mean water temperature 6.6°C), captive white sturgeon (n = 48) were exposed to a combination of exercise and air exposure as a method of simulating an angling event. After the stressor, sturgeon were assessed for a physiological stress response, and reflex impairments were quantified to determine overall fish vitality (i.e. capacity for survival). A physiological stress response occurred in all sturgeon exposed to a fishing-related stressor, with the magnitude of the response correlated with the duration of the stressor. Moreover, the stress from exercise was more pronounced in summer, leading to higher reflex impairment scores (mean ± SEM, 0.44 ± 0.07 and 0.25 ± 0.05 in summer and winter, respectively). Reflex impairment was also correlated with lactate concentrations (e.g. physiological stress measures related to exhaustive exercise; r = 0.53) and recovery time (r = 0.76). Two mortalities occurred >24 h after the cessation of treatment in the summer. Given that natural habitats for white sturgeon can reach much higher temperatures than those presented in our study, we caution the use of this mortality estimate for a summer season, because latent mortality could be much higher when temperatures exceed 16°C. This is the first experiment investigating the physiological disturbance and reflex impairment of capture and release at two temperatures on subadult/adult white sturgeon, and the results suggest that future research needs to examine the longer term and fitness consequences of extended play and air exposure times, because these are largely unknown for wild populations.

  15. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  16. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  17. Potential for restoration of the Roanoke River population of Atlantic sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, J.L.; Hightower, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) was historically abundant within Albemarie Sound and the Roanoke River in North Carolina, but declined dramatically in the late 1800s in response to intensive fishing. Recent evidence suggests that the population may be recovering, following a statewide prohibition on harvest in 1991. A recruitment index generally increased from 1992 through 2001. Estuarine habitat for juveniles appears to be suitable, resulting in mean growth rates for age 1 fish ranging from 0.59 to 0.81 mm day-1. A restoration goal of 7000-21 000 subadult and adult Atlantic sturgeon was developed for the Roanoke River, based on historical landings records. Bycatch mortality because of commercial gill-netting in Albermarle Sound could affect recovery. Telemetry and netting data indicate that juvenile Atlantic sturgeon in the sound are most abundant in shallow nearshore areas where commercial gill-netting is concentrated. However, immediate mortality rates from survey and commercial gill-netting in Albemarle Sound were only 0-2%. Additional field studies are needed to refine estimates of immediate- and longer-term mortality associated with gill-net bycatch.

  18. Using a semi-natural stream to produce young sturgeons for conservation stocking: Maintaining natural selection during spawning and rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.; Kieffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Young sturgeons used for conservation stocking are presently produced using the same methods used for commercial culture. To determine if young sturgeons could be produced without relaxing natural selection factors, we developed a semi-natural stream where we annually studied mating of wild shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) observed movement of gametes released freely during spawning, and estimated the number of larvae produced by various densities of spawned eggs. The stream had a bottom area of 18.8m2, a rubble-gravel bottom, and a mean bottom current at 0.6 depth during spawning of 48cms-1 (range, 17-126cms-1). Wild adults successfully spawned in the stream each year for 7years (2002-2008). Some females and males were more successful during spawning than others, suggesting an unequal fitness during spawning among wild individuals, which is different than the controlled spawning fitness of individuals in hatcheries. Male and female gametes spawned naturally must connect quickly in the fast current or fail, a selection factor absent in hatcheries. The number of larvae produced was inversely related to spawned egg densitym-2 (R2=0.65) and the maximum number of larvae produced was 8000-16000 (425-851larvaem-2 of bottom). Artificial spawning streams have the potential to contribute to sturgeon restoration. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  19. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  20. Chemical composition of blood and bile of the shovelnose sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Christenson, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of gallbladder bile and blood from shovelnose sturgeons (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) collected from the Chippewa River, Wisconsin, contained concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-, inorganic phosphate, and total cholesterol closely comparable with those reported for similar samples from other species of freshwater sturgeons.

  1. 78 FR 58507 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... construction, and water pollution. The petition is available at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/petitions... sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Endangered Decreasing China; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russia. Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser Critically Endangered.. Decreasing China. dabryanus). Russian sturgeon (Acipenser...

  2. Assessment of the risk of White Sturgeon to become infected and potential carriers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    LaPatra, Scott E; Mead, Sherry

    2013-12-01

    Little scientific information is available to assess whether White Sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus can become infected and potential carriers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). To assess this risk, monitoring results of adult and progeny White Sturgeon were examined from waters historically stocked with salmonid fish known to be IPNV carriers. From 1999 through 2004 White Sturgeon from a total of 30 separate families whose parentage came from waters historically stocked with IPNV carrier fish were tested. Duplicate groups of 25 juvenile Snake River White Sturgeon were waterborne exposed to 1.0×10(4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/mL of water for 1 h and an additional group was injected intraperitoneally with 1.0×10(5) TCID50/fish. A negative control group was handled similarly but was not exposed to the virus. No morbidity was detected in any of the treatment groups or the negative control. At 34, 40, 47, and 54 d postexposure to IPNV, virus reisolation was attempted on five fish from each group, and an additional five fish from each group were examined for histological changes consistent with an IPNV infection. At 34 and 40 d postinjection with IPNV, 20% (one of five) of the fish tested positive for the virus per sample interval; however, fish from groups that were waterborne-exposed to IPNV were all negative. At 47 and 54 d after exposure or injection with IPNV an additional five fish from each group were tested at each sample interval and all results were negative. Histological analysis of target tissue obtained from five fish per group at 34 and 54 d postinfection also failed to detect any consistent change associated with an IPNV infection. These results suggest that the risk of White Sturgeon to become infected and develop into potential carriers of IPNV is negligible.

  3. Pallid bands in feathers and associated stable isotope signatures reveal effects of severe weather stressors on fledgling sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Bridge, Eli S.; Engel, Michael H.; Reinking, Dan L.; Boyle, W. Alice

    2015-01-01

    In August 2013, we observed a high incidence (44%) of synchronous bands of reduced melanin (a type of fault bar we have termed “pallid bands”) across the rectrices of juvenile Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodrammus savannarum) captured near El Reno, Oklahoma. Earlier that year, on May 31, the site was struck by a severe storm which rained hailstones exceeding 5.5 cm diameter and spawned an historic 4.2 km-wide tornado <8 km to the south of the site. We hypothesized that this stressor had induced the pallid bands. An assessment of Grasshopper Sparrow nesting phenology indicated that a large number of nestlings were likely growing tail feathers when the storm hit. The pallid bands were restricted to the distal half of feathers and their widths significantly increased as a function of distance from the tip (i.e., age at formation). We predicted that if stress had caused these pallid bands, then a spike in circulating δ15N originating from tissue catabolism during the stress response would have been incorporated into the developing feather. From 18 juveniles captured at the site in August we measured δ15N and δ13C stable isotope ratios within four to five 0.25–0.40 mg feather sections taken from the distal end of a tail feather; the pallid band, if present, was contained within only one section. After accounting for individual and across-section variation, we found support for our prediction that feather sections containing or located immediately proximal to pallid bands (i.e., the pallid band region) would show significantly higher δ15N than sections outside this region. In contrast, the feathers of juveniles with pallid bands compared to normal appearing juveniles showed significantly lower δ15N. A likely explanation is that the latter individuals hatched after the May 31 storm and had consumed a trophically-shifted diet relative to juveniles with pallid bands. Considering this, the juveniles of normal appearance were significantly less abundant within our

  4. Pallid bands in feathers and associated stable isotope signatures reveal effects of severe weather stressors on fledgling sparrows.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jeremy D; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Bridge, Eli S; Engel, Michael H; Reinking, Dan L; Boyle, W Alice

    2015-01-01

    In August 2013, we observed a high incidence (44%) of synchronous bands of reduced melanin (a type of fault bar we have termed "pallid bands") across the rectrices of juvenile Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodrammus savannarum) captured near El Reno, Oklahoma. Earlier that year, on May 31, the site was struck by a severe storm which rained hailstones exceeding 5.5 cm diameter and spawned an historic 4.2 km-wide tornado <8 km to the south of the site. We hypothesized that this stressor had induced the pallid bands. An assessment of Grasshopper Sparrow nesting phenology indicated that a large number of nestlings were likely growing tail feathers when the storm hit. The pallid bands were restricted to the distal half of feathers and their widths significantly increased as a function of distance from the tip (i.e., age at formation). We predicted that if stress had caused these pallid bands, then a spike in circulating δ (15)N originating from tissue catabolism during the stress response would have been incorporated into the developing feather. From 18 juveniles captured at the site in August we measured δ (15)N and δ (13)C stable isotope ratios within four to five 0.25-0.40 mg feather sections taken from the distal end of a tail feather; the pallid band, if present, was contained within only one section. After accounting for individual and across-section variation, we found support for our prediction that feather sections containing or located immediately proximal to pallid bands (i.e., the pallid band region) would show significantly higher δ (15)N than sections outside this region. In contrast, the feathers of juveniles with pallid bands compared to normal appearing juveniles showed significantly lower δ (15)N. A likely explanation is that the latter individuals hatched after the May 31 storm and had consumed a trophically-shifted diet relative to juveniles with pallid bands. Considering this, the juveniles of normal appearance were significantly less abundant within

  5. The effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on white sturgeon larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Mesa, M.G.; Parsley, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Spill at dams has caused supersaturation of atmospheric gas in waters of the Columbia and Snake rivers and raised concerns about the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) on white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus. The timing and location of white sturgeon spawning and the dispersal of white sturgeon larvae from incubation areas makes the larval stage potentially vulnerable to the effects of DGS. To assess the effects of DGS on white sturgeon larvae, we exposed larvae to mean total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 118% and 131% saturation in laboratory bioassay tests. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) was manifested as a gas bubble in the buccal cavity, nares, or both and it first occurred at developmental stages characterized by the formation of the mouth and gills. Exposure times of 15 min were sufficient to elicit these signs in larvae in various stages of development. No mortality was observed in larvae exposed to 118% TDG for 10 d, but 50% mortality occurred after a 13-d exposure to 131% TDG. The signs of GBT we observed resulted in positive buoyancy and alterations in behavior that may affect the dispersal and predation vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae. The exact depth distribution of dispersing white sturgeon larvae in the Columbia River currently is unknown. Thus, our results may represent a worst-case scenario if white sturgeon larvae are dispersed at depths with insufficient hydrostatic pressure to compensate for high TDG levels.

  6. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Studies, Annual Report FY 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul J.; Siple, John T.

    1993-12-01

    This report evaluates natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River before, during and after the 1993 augmented discharge period. To determine how altering the operation of Libby Dam may improve conditions for natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River, discharge from Libby Dam (with no power peaking or load following) was increased to produce 20 kcfs ([plus minus] 2 kcfs) discharge at Bonners Ferry, Idaho, for a 14 day period June 2--16. Objectives of this research were to determine if white sturgeon spawned in the Kootenai River during 1993; and collect baseline biological data including timing, location, and habitat requirements of white sturgeon spawning in the Kootenai River in order to formulate and implement future flow regimes as effective recovery measures for white sturgeon. While sampling is not expected to collect a majority of white sturgeon eggs or larvae produced in a river, the fact that over 41,000 hours of sampling (combined gear) collected only 3 white sturgeon eggs and no larvae suggests that spawning conditions during 1993 were inadequate to benefit this population.

  7. Molecular identification of iridoviruses infecting various sturgeon species in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bigarré, L; Lesne, M; Lautraite, A; Chesneau, V; Leroux, A; Jamin, M; Boitard, P M; Toffan, A; Prearo, M; Labrut, S; Daniel, P

    2017-01-01

    Iridoviridae are known to cause disease in sturgeons in North America. Here, histological and molecular methods were used to screen for this family of virus in sturgeons from various European farms with low-to-high morbidity. Some histological samples revealed basophilic cells in the gill and labial epithelia, strongly suggesting the accumulation of iridovirus particles. Newly developed generic PCR tests targeting the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of sturgeon iridoviruses identified in North America, namely the white sturgeon iridovirus and the Namao virus (NV), produced positive signals in most samples from four sturgeon species: Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Siberian (A. baerii), Adriatic (A. naccarii) and beluga (Huso huso). The sequences of the PCR products were generally highly similar one another, with nucleotide identities greater than 98%. They were also related to (74-88%), although distinct from, American sturgeon iridoviruses. These European viruses were thus considered variants of a single new virus, provisionally named Acipenser iridovirus-European (AcIV-E). Moreover, three samples infected with AcIV-E showed genetic heterogeneity, with the co-existence of two sequences differing by five nucleotides. One of our European samples carried a virus distinct from AcIV-E, but closely related to NV identified in Canada (95%). This study demonstrates the presence of two distinct sturgeon iridoviruses in Europe: a new genotype AcIV-E and an NV-related virus.

  8. Seasonal migration of Gulf sturgeon in the Suwannee River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, A.M.; Clugston, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The movements of 67 Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi equipped with radio transmitters were monitored in the Suwannee River, Florida, from March 1989 through August 1992. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the seasonal movement patterns and distribution of Gulf sturgeon while in freshwater, (2) to document relationships between water temperature and Gulf sturgeon movement, and (3) to determine whether springs were used as thermal refugia by these fish. Gulf sturgeon were detected entering the river from mid-February through April; they moved upstream at an average speed of 3.5 km/d to areas where they remained until October or November. Gulf sturgeon moved no more than 0,6 river km (on average) upstream or downstream from their established summer area. Gulf sturgeon began leaving the Suwannee River from mid-September through early November and moved downstream at an average speed of 6.2 km/d; all fish returned to the Gulf of Mexico by early December. Water temperatures associated with spring and fall migrations averaged 22.1 ??C (range, 16.0-28.0??C) and 21.3??C (range, 16.9-26.8??C), respectively. Gulf sturgeon were frequently close to springs throughout the warmest period, but none were located within a spring or the thermal plume emanating from a spring.

  9. Blood chemistry values for shovelnose and lake sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Sutton, Trent M; Patrick, Holly K; Amberg, Jon J

    2012-09-01

    Blood chemistry panels are commonly used for assessing the general health of vertebrate animals. Here, we present novel blood chemistry data for two North American sturgeon species, shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. Measurements were done using a portable chemistry analyzer (VetScan Analyzer; Abaxis). Among the plasma values measured (mean ± SD for shovelnose and lake sturgeon, respectively) were total proteins (3.7 ± 0.9 and 2.8 ± 0.4 g/dL), albumin (2.0 ± 0.5 and 1.1 ± 0.2 g/dL), globulin (1.7 ± 0.7 and 1.7 ± 0.3 g/dL), glucose (107 ± 46 and 62 ± 9.7 mg/dL), sodium (Na(+); 132 ± 3.6 and 150 ± 14 mEq/L), potassium (K(+); 3.5 ± 0.2 and 2.8 ± 1.7 mEq/L), phosphorus (10.4 ± 1.9 and 11.6 ± 3.6 mg/dL), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 676 ± 433 and 634 ± 234 IU/L). Higher values for total proteins, albumin, glucose, and Na(+) in shovelnose sturgeon than in lake sturgeon probably are the result of handling stress. In addition, the plasma of male shovelnose sturgeon had higher concentrations of AST, glucose, and globulin than did that of females, whereas the plasma of females had higher concentrations of albumin and K(+) than that of males. This study is the first to report blood chemistry data for shovelnose sturgeon. Robust blood chemistry databases can be used by aquaculturists and fish managers for monitoring sturgeon health.

  10. A comparative gene index for the white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, Barbara; Mariani, Valentina; Malinverni, Roberto; Caprera, Andrea; Giuffra, Elisabetta

    2008-03-01

    Sturgeons are archaic fishes phylogenetically distinct from Teleosts. They represent an important niche for aquaculture, particularly for the production of caviar and high quality fillets, while many natural populations in various world areas are today threatened by extinction. Knowledge of the sturgeon genome is limited, as it is the case of many other species of interest for fishery, aquaculture and conservation. Sequences from non-normalized libraries of skin and spleen of the American sturgeon (A. transmontanus) produced in our laboratories were analysed via a bioinformatic procedure, and compared to similar resources available for three Teleost species. Data collected during the analyses were stored in a database - the Sturgeon database (db) - that can be queried via a web interface. The Sturgeon db contains a total of 16,404 sequences from Acipenser transmontanus, Ictalurus punctatus, Salmo salar and Takifugu rubripes, each specie being represented by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from skin and spleen. Data contained in the database are the results of a number of analyses that mostly focus on sequence annotation and intra- and inter-species comparison. Putative SNP sites, tandem repeats, and sequences matching known protein patterns and motifs were also identified. The Sturgeon db is by now the only online resource dedicated to the analysis of A. transmontanus EST sequences, and represents a starting point for the investigation of the genome of sturgeons from a physiological perspective; it will be used to identify polymorphic markers to study, for example, fish pathologies or to survey fish disease resistance, and to produce gene expression arrays. Introduction of sequences from other species in the analysis pipeline allowed inter-species comparisons of transcripts distribution in Gene Ontology categories, as well as orthologs identification, despite the high sturgeon phylogenetic distance from other fish species. As a result of the EST analysis procedure

  11. Application of new phenolic antioxidants for cryopreservation of sturgeon sperm.

    PubMed

    Osipova, V P; Berberova, N T; Gazzaeva, R A; Kudryavtsev, K V

    2016-04-01

    Heterocyclic derivatives of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were studied as cryoprotectants of the basic media for cryopreservation of the Russian sturgeon sperm. Rates of lipid peroxidation of sturgeon sperm before and after cryopreservation were reduced in the presence of the studied compounds, exceeding the effects of BHT and water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, trolox. The most efficient antioxidant has the effective concentration of 0.1 mM. Novel antioxidant agents as cryomedium supplements not only reduced the level of lipid peroxidation, but also enhanced the translational motility of the sperm of the Russian sturgeon after defrosting.

  12. Mid Columbia sturgeon incubation and rearing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric; Blubaugh, J

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results from the second year of a three-year investigation on the effects of different thermal regimes on incubation and rearing early life stages of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The Columbia River has been significantly altered by the construction of dams resulting in annual flows and water temperatures that differ from historical levels. White sturgeon have been demonstrated to spawn in two very distinct sections of the Columbia River in British Columbia, Canada, which are both located immediately downstream of hydropower facilities. The thermal regimes differ substantially between these two areas. The general approach of this study was to incubate and rear white sturgeon early life stages under two thermal regimes; one mimicking the current, cool water regime of the Columbia River downstream from Revelstoke Dam, and one mimicking a warmer regime similar to conditions found on the Columbia River at the international border. Second-year results suggest that thermal regimes during incubation influence rate of egg development and size at hatch. Eggs incubated under the warm thermal regime hatched sooner than those incubated under the cool thermal regime. Mean length of free embryos at hatch was significantly different between thermal regimes with free embryos from the warm thermal regime being longer at hatch. However, free embryos from the cool thermal regime had a significantly higher mean weight at hatch. This is in contrast with results obtained during 2009. The rearing trials revealed that growth of fish reared in the cool thermal regime was substantially less than growth of fish reared in the warm thermal regime. The magnitude of mortality was greatest in the warm thermal regime prior to initiation of exogenous feeding, but chronic low levels of mortality in the cool thermal regime were higher throughout the period. The starvation trials showed that the fish in the warm thermal regime exhausted their yolk reserves faster

  13. Assessment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning efforts in the lower St. Clair River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Kennedy, Gregory; Crawford, Eric; Allen, Jeffrey; French, John; Black, Glen; Blouin, Marc; Hickey, James P.; Chernyak, Sergei; Haas, Robert; Thomas, Michael

    2003-01-01

    One of the most threatened remaining populations of lake sturgeon in the Great Lakes is found in the connecting channels between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Only two spawning grounds are presently known to be active in this region, and both are in the St. Clair River. The spawning reef in the St. Clair River delta has been recently colonized by round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) in densities up to 25/m2, raising concerns regarding predation on the benthic-oriented eggs and larvae of the sturgeon. Investigations in 1998–1999 showed that while round goby predation does occur, a number of other factors may be equally affecting sturgeon spawning success, including few spawning adults (< 60), suspected poaching pressure, low retention rate of eggs on the reef, low hatch rate (~0.5%), the presence of organic contaminants, and predation from native and exotic invertebrates and fish. Overall, we estimate that less than 1% of the eggs deposited during a spawning run survive to hatch. We were able to increase the egg hatch rate to 16% by placing eggs in predator-exclusion chambers on the reef. The fate of the larvae is uncertain. Two weeks after hatching, no larvae were found on the reef. We were unable to find them anywhere else in the river, nor was predation on larvae noted in either year. There were factors other than predation affecting larval survival in 1999. There was a higher silt load on the reef than in 1998 and large numbers of dead larvae were found. Recruitment success from this site could be improved by utilizing techniques to increase the number of eggs on the reef, such as reducing the illegal take of adult fish and by placing eggs in predator-exclusion chambers to increase hatch rate.

  14. Deep brain stimulation suppresses pallidal low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonic movements.

    PubMed

    Barow, Ewgenia; Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Brücke, Christof; Huebl, Julius; Horn, Andreas; Brown, Peter; Krauss, Joachim K; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus alleviates involuntary movements in patients with dystonia. However, the mechanism is still not entirely understood. One hypothesis is that deep brain stimulation suppresses abnormally enhanced synchronized oscillatory activity within the motor cortico-basal ganglia network. Here, we explore deep brain stimulation-induced modulation of pathological low frequency (4-12 Hz) pallidal activity that has been described in local field potential recordings in patients with dystonia. Therefore, local field potentials were recorded from 16 hemispheres in 12 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for severe dystonia using a specially designed amplifier allowing simultaneous high frequency stimulation at therapeutic parameter settings and local field potential recordings. For coherence analysis electroencephalographic activity (EEG) over motor areas and electromyographic activity (EMG) from affected neck muscles were recorded before and immediately after cessation of high frequency stimulation. High frequency stimulation led to a significant reduction of mean power in the 4-12 Hz band by 24.8 ± 7.0% in patients with predominantly phasic dystonia. A significant decrease of coherence between cortical EEG and pallidal local field potential activity in the 4-12 Hz range was revealed for the time period of 30 s after switching off high frequency stimulation. Coherence between EMG activity and pallidal activity was mainly found in patients with phasic dystonic movements where it was suppressed after high frequency stimulation. Our findings suggest that high frequency stimulation may suppress pathologically enhanced low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonia. These dystonic features are the quickest to respond to high frequency stimulation and may thus directly relate to modulation of pathological basal ganglia activity, whereas improvement in tonic features may depend on long-term plastic changes within the

  15. Dystonia in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation: outcome of bilateral pallidal stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pauls, K. A. M.; Wieland, K.; Jech, R.; Kurlemann, G.; Sharma, N.; Gill, S. S.; Haenggeli, C. A.; Hayflick, S. J.; Hogarth, P.; Leenders, K. L.; Limousin, P.; Malanga, C. J.; Moro, E.; Ostrem, J. L.; Revilla, F. J.; Santens, P.; Schnitzler, A.; Tisch, S.; Valldeoriola, F.; Vesper, J.; Volkmann, J.; Woitalla,, D.; Peker, S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation encompasses a heterogeneous group of rare neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by iron accumulation in the brain. Severe generalized dystonia is frequently a prominent symptom and can be very disabling, causing gait impairment, difficulty with speech and swallowing, pain and respiratory distress. Several case reports and one case series have been published concerning therapeutic outcome of pallidal deep brain stimulation in dystonia caused by neurodegeneration with brain iron degeneration, reporting mostly favourable outcomes. However, with case studies, there may be a reporting bias towards favourable outcome. Thus, we undertook this multi-centre retrospective study to gather worldwide experiences with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. A total of 16 centres contributed 23 patients with confirmed neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation and bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation. Patient details including gender, age at onset, age at operation, genetic status, magnetic resonance imaging status, history and clinical findings were requested. Data on severity of dystonia (Burke Fahn Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale—Motor Scale, Barry Albright Dystonia Scale), disability (Burke Fahn Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale—Disability Scale), quality of life (subjective global rating from 1 to 10 obtained retrospectively from patient and caregiver) as well as data on supportive therapy, concurrent pharmacotherapy, stimulation settings, adverse events and side effects were collected. Data were collected once preoperatively and at 2–6 and 9–15 months postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was change in severity of dystonia. The mean improvement in severity of dystonia was 28.5% at 2–6 months and 25.7% at 9–15 months. At 9–15 months postoperatively, 66.7% of patients showed an improvement of 20% or more in severity of dystonia

  16. Early emphysema in the tight skin and pallid mice: roles of microfibril-associated glycoproteins, collagen, and mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Ito, Satoru; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Shipley, J Michael; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Majumdar, Arnab; Suki, Bélâ

    2006-06-01

    The nature of the development of emphysema in the tight skin (Tsk) and the pallid (Pa) mice are not well understood. We assessed the mechanical and nonlinear properties of the respiratory system, the alveolar structure, and the levels of microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGP) 1 and 2 in Tsk mice with developmental emphysema; in Pa mice, which are thought to develop adult onset emphysema; and their background, the C57BL/6 mice, at an age of 7 wk. Minor differences between collagen-related elastic properties of the lungs of the Pa and C57BL/6 mice were seen at this early age. The lungs of the Tsk mice were significantly softer yet more nonlinear than those of the Pa and C57BL/6 mice. The MAGP-1 levels were similar in all three groups. However, the level of MAGP-2, which is associated with both fibrillin-1 and collagen, was higher in the Tsk than in the Pa mice, which also had more MAGP-2 than the C57BL/6. Both the mean and the variance of alveolar diameters were larger in the Tsk than in the other two groups, while the variance in the Pa was larger than in the C57BL/6 mice, implying early development of heterogeneity. Using a network model of the parenchyma, we linked the pathophysiologic changes in the Tsk mice to mechanical forces and failure of the alveolar walls. Our findings suggest the possibility that MAGP-2-related abnormal collagen assembly, combined with mechanical forces, is involved in the progression of emphysema in the Tsk mice.

  17. Optimal design of artificial reefs for sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbrough, Cody; Cotel, Aline; Kleinheksel, Abby

    2015-11-01

    The Detroit River, part of a busy corridor between Lakes Huron and Erie, was extensively modified to create deep shipping channels, resulting in a loss of spawning habitat for lake sturgeon and other native fish (Caswell et al. 2004, Bennion and Manny 2011). Under the U.S.- Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, there are remediation plans to construct fish spawning reefs to help with historic habitat losses and degraded fish populations, specifically sturgeon. To determine optimal reef design, experimental work has been undertaken. Different sizes and shapes of reefs are tested for a given set of physical conditions, such as flow depth and flow velocity, matching the relevant dimensionless parameters dominating the flow physics. The physical conditions are matched with the natural conditions encountered in the Detroit River. Using Particle Image Velocimetry, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry and dye studies, flow structures, vorticity and velocity gradients at selected locations have been identified and quantified to allow comparison with field observations and numerical model results. Preliminary results are helping identify the design features to be implemented in the next phase of reef construction. Sponsored by NOAA.

  18. Vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation in the presence of alternative prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted laboratory trials to test the vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation when an alternative prey was available. In trials with two species of predators, we observed two feeding patterns. When equal numbers of white sturgeon and goldfish, Carassius auratus, were available, prickly sculpins, Cottus asper, ingested more white sturgeon. Conversely, northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, ate more juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, than white sturgeon in three out of four sets of trials, but ate more white sturgeon in one set of trials. White sturgeon size and the availability of cover did not affect the proportions of prey species ingested. Our results indicate that predation may be affecting survival of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles in the wild and could be one factor limiting recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon in some locations. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, Henriette; Parsley, Michael J.; Cech, Joseph J. Jr.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Forsythe, Patrick S.; Elliott, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migration is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe “round-trip” passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.

  20. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    DOE PAGES

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; ...

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migrationmore » is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.« less

  1. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Joseph J. Cech, Jr.; Parsley, Michael; Elliott, Robert F.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migration is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.

  2. Identification and response to metals of metallothionein in two ancient fishes: white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Eisner, Bryanna K; Heide, Timon; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Wiseman, Steve B

    2015-05-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are among the most sensitive species of fishes to Cu, Cd, and Zn, but there is no information about sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). To begin to elucidate molecular mechanism(s) of sensitivity of sturgeons to metals a cDNA encoding metallothionein (MT) was amplified from livers of white sturgeon (WS-MT) and lake sturgeon (LS-MT), and expression in response to Cu, Cd, or Zn was characterized in liver explants from each species. The primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 20 cysteine residues, which is the same as MTs of teleost fishes. However, the primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 63 amino acids, which is longer than any MT identified in teleost fishes. Abundance of transcripts of WS-MT in explants exposed to 0.3, 3, 30, or 100 μg/L of Cu was 1.7-, 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.6-fold less than in controls, respectively. In contrast, abundances of transcripts of WS-MT were 3.3- and 2.4-fold greater in explants exposed to 30 μg/L of Cd and 1000 μg/L of Zn, respectively. Abundance of transcripts of LS-MT was not significantly different at any concentration of Cu, Cd, or Zn. MT is hypothesized to represent a critical mechanism for detoxification of metals. Therefore, results of this study suggest that sensitivity of sturgeons to exposure to Cu, Cd, or Zn might be a result of the relatively lesser maximal response of MT to metals. The study also suggestslake sturgeon might be more sensitive than white sturgeon to metals.

  3. Current Occurrence of the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in Northern Spain: A New Prospect for Sturgeon Conservation in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Elvira, Benigno

    2015-01-01

    Acipenser oxyrinchus is considered extirpated in Europe, but numerous breeding populations still exist on the Atlantic coast of North America. An adult female A. oxyrinchus, 2500 mm total length and 120 kg wet weight, was accidentally fished on 24 November 2010 near the coast of Gijón, Asturias, Spain. The fish was identified by its morphological pattern as well as by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses. Because the sturgeon was found far away from any known breeding area, it was considered a stray or vagrant specimen. It certainly has a natural origin, but its eventual birthplace could not be determined. Because its current occurrence was unknown in southwestern Europe until now, the species is not cataloged or protected in this area. Therefore, the residual European stocks of A. oxyrinchus ought to be listed as Critically Endangered (CR) according to the IUCN categories. Likewise, it is imperative for southwestern European countries with an historic or recent occurrence of A. oxyrinchus to protect the species through domestic and international legislation. The present sympatric occurrence of A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus raises new challenges about key questions, such as the species selection for restoration program in European countries. Accurate monitoring is mandatory to obtain appropriate information for an assessment of the current occurrence of A. oxyrinchus in southwestern Europe. PMID:26717564

  4. Current Occurrence of the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in Northern Spain: A New Prospect for Sturgeon Conservation in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Elvira, Benigno; Leal, Sheila; Doadrio, Ignacio; Almodóvar, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Acipenser oxyrinchus is considered extirpated in Europe, but numerous breeding populations still exist on the Atlantic coast of North America. An adult female A. oxyrinchus, 2500 mm total length and 120 kg wet weight, was accidentally fished on 24 November 2010 near the coast of Gijón, Asturias, Spain. The fish was identified by its morphological pattern as well as by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses. Because the sturgeon was found far away from any known breeding area, it was considered a stray or vagrant specimen. It certainly has a natural origin, but its eventual birthplace could not be determined. Because its current occurrence was unknown in southwestern Europe until now, the species is not cataloged or protected in this area. Therefore, the residual European stocks of A. oxyrinchus ought to be listed as Critically Endangered (CR) according to the IUCN categories. Likewise, it is imperative for southwestern European countries with an historic or recent occurrence of A. oxyrinchus to protect the species through domestic and international legislation. The present sympatric occurrence of A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus raises new challenges about key questions, such as the species selection for restoration program in European countries. Accurate monitoring is mandatory to obtain appropriate information for an assessment of the current occurrence of A. oxyrinchus in southwestern Europe.

  5. Comparison of weight gain and energy intake after subthalamic versus pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sauleau, Paul; Leray, Emmanuelle; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Drapier, Sophie; Drapier, Dominique; Blanchard, Sophie; Drillet, Gwenolla; Péron, Julie; Vérin, Marc

    2009-10-30

    To compare body mass index (BMI) and daily energy intake (DEI) after subthalamic versus pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). Weight gain following DBS in Parkinson's disease patients remains largely unexplained and no comparison of subthalamic and pallidal (GPi) stimulation has yet been performed. BMI and DEI, dopaminergic drug administration and motor scores were recorded in 46 patients with PD before STN (n = 32) or GPi (n = 14) DBS and 3 and 6 months after. At M6, BMI had increased by an average of 8.4% in the STN group and 3.2% in the GPi group. BMI increased in 28 STN and 9 GPi patients. This increase was significantly higher in the STN group (P < 0.048) and the difference remained significant after adjustment for reduced dopaminergic medication; 28.6% of GPi patients were overweight at 6 months (14.3% preoperatively) versus 37.5% of STN patients (21.9% preoperatively). Changes in BMI were negatively correlated with changes in dyskinesia in the GPi-DBS group. Food intake did not change in the two groups, either quantitatively or qualitatively. Frequent weight gain, inadequately explained by motor improvement or reduced dopaminergic drug dosage, occurred in subthalamic DBS patients. The difference between groups suggests additional factors in the STN group, such as homeostatic control center involvement.

  6. Oscillatory pallidal local field potential activity inversely correlates with limb dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Paul; Oliviero, Antonio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Insola, Angelo; Mazzone, Paolo; Brown, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Levodopa induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are poorly understood and yet are a major cause of disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). The activity of neurons in the basal ganglia of patients with PD tends to be strongly synchronized at frequencies under 30 Hz, leading to oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs). As dopaminergic therapy acutely suppresses this synchronization, we investigated whether this suppression may contribute to LIDs. Accordingly, we sought an inverse correlation between oscillatory synchronization and dyskinesia activity across time. To this end, we recorded pallidal LFPs in two Parkinsonian subjects exhibiting LIDs following surgery for deep brain stimulation. We correlated LFP power with simultaneously recorded EMG from the dyskinetic contralateral upper limb. We found highly significant inverse correlations between the oscillatory LFP activity under 30 Hz and dyskinetic EMG (maximum r = -0.65, P < 0.001 and r = -0.33, P < 0.001 for activities over 13-30 Hz in each subject). The inverse relationship between oscillatory pallidal LFP activity and dyskinetic EMG was maintained over time periods of a few seconds and was focal. This observation links the suppression of oscillatory synchronization in the pallidum with dyskinetic muscle activity in PD.

  7. Ventral pallidal neurons code incentive motivation: amplification by mesolimbic sensitization and amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Tindell, Amy J; Berridge, Kent C; Zhang, Jun; Peciña, Susana; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2005-11-01

    Neurons in ventral pallidum fire to reward and its predictive cues. We tested mesolimbic activation effects on neural reward coding. Rats learned that a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS+1 tone) predicted a second conditioned stimulus (CS+2 feeder click) followed by an unconditioned stimulus (UCS sucrose reward). Some rats were sensitized to amphetamine after training. Electrophysiological activity of ventral pallidal neurons to stimuli was later recorded under the influence of vehicle or acute amphetamine injection. Both sensitization and acute amphetamine increased ventral pallidum firing at CS+2 (population code and rate code). There were no changes at CS+1 and minimal changes to UCS. With a new 'Profile Analysis', we show that mesolimbic activation by sensitization/amphetamine incrementally shifted neuronal firing profiles away from prediction signal coding (maximal at CS+1) and toward incentive coding (maximal at CS+2), without changing hedonic impact coding (maximal at UCS). This pattern suggests mesolimbic activation specifically amplifies a motivational transform of CS+ predictive information into incentive salience coded by ventral pallidal neurons. Our results support incentive-sensitization predictions and suggest why cues temporally proximal to drug presentation may precipitate cue-triggered relapse in human addicts.

  8. High-throughput SNP-genotyping analysis of the relationships among Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

    PubMed Central

    Rastorguev, Sergey M; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Mazur, Alexander M; Gruzdeva, Natalia M; Volkov, Alexander A; Barmintseva, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Legally certified sturgeon fisheries require population protection and conservation methods, including DNA tests to identify the source of valuable sturgeon roe. However, the available genetic data are insufficient to distinguish between different sturgeon populations, and are even unable to distinguish between some species. We performed high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping analysis on different populations of Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian (A. persicus), and Siberian (A. baerii) sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea region (Volga and Ural Rivers), the Azov Sea, and two Siberian rivers. We found that Russian sturgeons from the Volga and Ural Rivers were essentially indistinguishable, but they differed from Russian sturgeons in the Azov Sea, and from Persian and Siberian sturgeons. We identified eight SNPs that were sufficient to distinguish these sturgeon populations with 80% confidence, and allowed the development of markers to distinguish sturgeon species. Finally, on the basis of our SNP data, we propose that the A. baerii-like mitochondrial DNA found in some Russian sturgeons from the Caspian Sea arose via an introgression event during the Pleistocene glaciation. In the present study, the high-throughput genotyping analysis of several sturgeon populations was performed. SNP markers for species identification were defined. The possible explanation of the baerii-like mitotype presence in some Russian sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was suggested. PMID:24567827

  9. Distribution of lake sturgeon in New York: 11 years of restoration management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Dittman, D.E.; Carlson, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) are native within the Lake Ontario drainage basin and listed as threatened by New York State. In 1995 the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) initiated restoration management of lake sturgeon. This management included both protection of extant populations and stocking of uninhabited historic waters with juvenile sturgeon. A list compiled by NYSDEC of observations of lake sturgeon from New York State waters for the period encompassing 1800-2005 was combined with recent observations through 2008 and formatted (Geographic Information System) to allow mapping of sturgeon geographical distribution. Distributions of pre- and post-restoration sturgeon were examined by occurrence and type of observation. Distribution patterns indicated lakes and rivers with current sturgeon presence have increased from five to eight, which was the first-phase goal of the New York Lake Sturgeon Recovery Plan. Lake sturgeon have started to expand into joining water to include the Indian R., Oneida R., Seneca R. and Oswego R. The protected historic populations in the Niagara R., Grasse R., St. Lawrence R., and Lakes Erie and Ontario continue to have low numbers of sturgeon observations. This summary of mapped lake sturgeon distribution information will help in guiding research assessments to waters containing substantial populations. These accessible reaches provide a generous advantage to the released juveniles as they move toward the next goal of restoration, spawning of sturgeon in targeted waters. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  10. High-throughput SNP-genotyping analysis of the relationships among Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species.

    PubMed

    Rastorguev, Sergey M; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Mazur, Alexander M; Gruzdeva, Natalia M; Volkov, Alexander A; Barmintseva, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2013-08-01

    Legally certified sturgeon fisheries require population protection and conservation methods, including DNA tests to identify the source of valuable sturgeon roe. However, the available genetic data are insufficient to distinguish between different sturgeon populations, and are even unable to distinguish between some species. We performed high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping analysis on different populations of Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian (A. persicus), and Siberian (A. baerii) sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea region (Volga and Ural Rivers), the Azov Sea, and two Siberian rivers. We found that Russian sturgeons from the Volga and Ural Rivers were essentially indistinguishable, but they differed from Russian sturgeons in the Azov Sea, and from Persian and Siberian sturgeons. We identified eight SNPs that were sufficient to distinguish these sturgeon populations with 80% confidence, and allowed the development of markers to distinguish sturgeon species. Finally, on the basis of our SNP data, we propose that the A. baerii-like mitochondrial DNA found in some Russian sturgeons from the Caspian Sea arose via an introgression event during the Pleistocene glaciation. In the present study, the high-throughput genotyping analysis of several sturgeon populations was performed. SNP markers for species identification were defined. The possible explanation of the baerii-like mitotype presence in some Russian sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was suggested.

  11. Motor disorders and impaired electrical power of pallidal EEG improved by gallic acid in animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sameri, Maryam Jafar; Sarkaki, Alireza; Farbood, Yaghoub; Mansouri, Seyed Mohammad Taghi

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was evaluation the effect of Gallic acid on movement disorders and pallidal electrical power in animal model of Parkinson's Disease (PD). PD is clinically characterized by development of motor disturbances, such as bradykinesia, resting tremors, rigidity and a later loss ofpostural reflexes. Oxidative stress is a hallmark factor where the oxidation of dopamine generates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and an unbalanced production ROS induces neuronal damage, therefor leading the neuronal death. Gallic Acid (GA) and its derivatives are present in the plant kingdom and acts as a potent antioxidant. Wistar male rats divided into seven groups randomly with 8 in each. Animals in all groups except control received 8 microg/2 microL 6-hydroxydopamine dissolved in normal saline contains 0.01% ascorbate or vehicle in right Medial Forbrain Bundle (MFB) and a bipolar wire electrode was implanted in the left globus pallidus nucleus of all animals under stereotaxic surgery. Two weeks later PD was approved by contralateral rotation signs induced by apomorphine and then movements and electrical power of pallidal were evaluated. Motor functions and pallidal electrical power were impaired and GA could improve motor dysfunctions and gamma wave power in parkinsonian rats' significantly with higher dose of GA (200 mg kg(-1)). Present result showed that GA may act as a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger to reverse motor disorders and pallidal gamma wave power after 6-OHDA neurotoxicity in brain.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Gulf sturgeon, A. o. desotoi and European sturgeon A. sturio (Acipenseriformes: Acipenseridae) obtained through next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Popović, Danijela; Baca, Mateusz; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of European sturgeon and two subspecies of the North American, Atlantic and Gulf sturgeons were determined using MiSeq Illumina technology. All three genomes show typical vertebrate organization. They possess 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (ribosomal RNA) genes and a non-coding control region. Excluding ND6, all protein-coding genes are on the heavy strand. The whole mitogenome sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KP997216-KP997218.

  13. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species.

  14. Characterization of Gulf sturgeon diel and seasonal activity in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrege, Beth Marie

    2009-12-01

    We assess temporal and spatial distribution and diel variability in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida, using stationary ultrasonic telemetry. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (n = 54) migrated through the bay system in fall to wintering areas in the Gulf of Mexico and Santa Rosa Sound. In spring, sturgeon migrated back through the bay system to summering habitats in rivers. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon use East Bay and Escambia Bay primarily as migration routes between riverine areas used in spring and summer and the Gulf of Mexico used in winter. North Central Pensacola Bay was not routinely frequented. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon used specific areas within the Pensacola Bay system in summer and winter not previously documented as essential sturgeon habitat. Areas in southeastern Pensacola were used heavily during winter by a portion of the population. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon also exhibited long-term winter residency in Santa Rosa Sound. Interestingly, an area in northeastern Escambia Bay supported Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in summer. This observation was unexpected; however, the identification of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in this area at this time has important ecological and management implications. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon exhibited a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon were more active at night than during day in all seasons but summer. The use of prepositioned arrays of acoustic receivers not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but provides insights into nocturnal behavior not previously examined.

  15. Sturgeon Osteocalcin Shares Structural Features with Matrix Gla Protein

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Carla S. B.; Simes, Dina C.; Williamson, Matthew K.; Cavaco, Sofia; Laizé, Vincent; Price, Paul A.; Cancela, M. Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) are considered evolutionarily related because they share key structural features, although they have been described to exert different functions. In this work, we report the identification and characterization of both OC and MGP from the Adriatic sturgeon, a ray-finned fish characterized by a slow evolution and the retention of many ancestral features. Sturgeon MGP shows a primary structure, post-translation modifications, and patterns of mRNA/protein distribution and accumulation typical of known MGPs, and it contains seven possible Gla residues that would make the sturgeon protein the most γ-carboxylated among known MGPs. In contrast, sturgeon OC was found to present a hybrid structure. Indeed, although exhibiting protein domains typical of known OCs, it also contains structural features usually found in MGPs (e.g. a putative phosphorylated propeptide). Moreover, patterns of OC gene expression and protein accumulation overlap with those reported for MGP; OC was detected in bone cells and mineralized structures but also in soft and cartilaginous tissues. We propose that, in a context of a reduced rate of evolution, sturgeon OC has retained structural features of the ancestral protein that emerged millions of years ago from the duplication of an ancient MGP gene and may exhibit intermediate functional features. PMID:23884418

  16. Biological assessment for the shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum Lesueur 1818, the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muska, C.; Matthews, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is listed as an endangered species in the United States. Prior to 1982, the presence of shortnose sturgeon had not been documented in the middle reaches of the Savannah River. However, shortnose sturgeon larvae were collected in 1982-1983 near the Savannah River Plant (SRP), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility, as part of the SRP aquatic ecology program. This biological assessment was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts of present and proposed SRP operations on the shortnose sturgeon. This assessment is based on existing information on the life history and habitat preferences of the shortnose sturgeon, a description of the Savannah River Plant including plant operations which may potentially impact the shortnose sturgeon and consultations with local experts. From this information, it is concluded that the existing and proposed operations (specifically L-Reactor operation) of the Savannah River Plant will not affect the continued existence of the shortnose sturgeon the Savannah River.

  17. New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. II. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Veronaea botryosa.

    PubMed

    Steckler, Natalie K; Yanong, Roy P E; Pouder, Deborah B; Nyaoke, Akinyi; Sutton, Deanna A; Lindner, Jonathan R; Wickes, Brian L; Frasca, Salvatore; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2014-10-16

    A series of fungal cases in hatchery-reared juvenile and young adult Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii and white sturgeon A. transmontanus occurred at production facilities in Florida and California, USA, respectively. Affected fish exhibited abnormal orientation and/or buoyancy, emaciation, coelomic distension, exophthalmos, cutaneous erythema, and ulcerative skin and eye lesions. Necropsies revealed haemorrhage throughout the coelom, serosanguinous coelomic effusion and organomegaly with nodular or cystic lesions in multiple organs. Fungal hyphae were observed in 27 fish (24 A. baerii and 3 A. transmontanus) via microscopic examination of tissue wet mounts and on slides prepared from colonies grown on culture media. Histopathological examination of these infected tissues revealed extensive infiltration by melanised fungal hyphae that were recovered in culture. Phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the fungal isolates with the use of the internal transcribed spacer region and 28S rRNA gene confirmed the aetiological agent as Veronaea botryosa. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of V. botryosa infection in fish, although melanised fungi of the closely related genus Exophiala are well-known pathogens of freshwater and marine fishes.

  18. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff,

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates

  19. Larval green and white sturgeon swimming performance in relation to water-diversion flows.

    PubMed

    Verhille, Christine E; Poletto, Jamilynn B; Cocherell, Dennis E; DeCourten, Bethany; Baird, Sarah; Cech, Joseph J; Fangue, Nann A

    2014-01-01

    Little is known of the swimming capacities of larval sturgeons, despite global population declines in many species due in part to fragmentation of their spawning and rearing habitats by man-made water-diversion structures. Larval green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) inhabit the highly altered Sacramento-San Joaquin watershed, making them logical species to examine vulnerability to entrainment by altered water flows. The risk of larval sturgeon entrainment is influenced by the ontogeny of swimming capacity and dispersal timing and their interactions with water-diversion structure operations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare the ontogeny and allometry of larval green and white sturgeon swimming capacities until completion of metamorphosis into juveniles. Despite the faster growth rates and eventual larger size of larval white sturgeon, green sturgeon critical swimming velocities remained consistently, though modestly, greater than those of white sturgeon throughout the larval life stage. Although behavioural interactions with water-diversion structures are also important considerations, regarding swimming capacity, Sacramento-San Joaquin sturgeons are most vulnerable to entrainment in February-May, when white sturgeon early larvae are in the middle Sacramento River, and April-May, when green sturgeon early larvae are in the upper river. Green sturgeon migrating downstream to the estuary and bays in October-November are also susceptible to entrainment due to their movements combined with seasonal declines in their swimming capacity. An additional inter-species comparison of the allometric relationship between critical swimming velocities and total length with several sturgeon species found throughout the world suggests a similar ontogeny of swimming capacity with growth. Therefore, although dispersal and behaviour differ among river systems and sturgeon species, similar recommendations are applicable

  20. Larval green and white sturgeon swimming performance in relation to water-diversion flows

    PubMed Central

    Verhille, Christine E.; Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; DeCourten, Bethany; Baird, Sarah; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known of the swimming capacities of larval sturgeons, despite global population declines in many species due in part to fragmentation of their spawning and rearing habitats by man-made water-diversion structures. Larval green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) inhabit the highly altered Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed, making them logical species to examine vulnerability to entrainment by altered water flows. The risk of larval sturgeon entrainment is influenced by the ontogeny of swimming capacity and dispersal timing and their interactions with water-diversion structure operations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare the ontogeny and allometry of larval green and white sturgeon swimming capacities until completion of metamorphosis into juveniles. Despite the faster growth rates and eventual larger size of larval white sturgeon, green sturgeon critical swimming velocities remained consistently, though modestly, greater than those of white sturgeon throughout the larval life stage. Although behavioural interactions with water-diversion structures are also important considerations, regarding swimming capacity, Sacramento–San Joaquin sturgeons are most vulnerable to entrainment in February–May, when white sturgeon early larvae are in the middle Sacramento River, and April–May, when green sturgeon early larvae are in the upper river. Green sturgeon migrating downstream to the estuary and bays in October–November are also susceptible to entrainment due to their movements combined with seasonal declines in their swimming capacity. An additional inter-species comparison of the allometric relationship between critical swimming velocities and total length with several sturgeon species found throughout the world suggests a similar ontogeny of swimming capacity with growth. Therefore, although dispersal and behaviour differ among river systems and sturgeon species, similar recommendations are

  1. Striatal Input- and Rate-Dependent Effects of Muscarinic Receptors on Pallidal Firing

    PubMed Central

    Querejeta, Enrique; Alatorre, Alberto; Ríos, Alain; Barrientos, Rafael; Oviedo-Chávez, Aldo; Bobadilla-Lugo, Rosa Amalia; Delgado, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    The globus pallidus (GP) plays a key role in the overall basal ganglia (BG) activity. Despite evidence of cholinergic inputs to GP, their role in the spiking activity of GP neurons has not received attention. We examine the effect of local activation and blockade of muscarinic receptors (MRs) in the spontaneous firing of GP neurons both in normal and ipsilateral striatum-lesioned rats. We found that activation of MRs produces heterogeneous responses in both normal and ipsilateral striatum-lesioned rats: in normal rats the response evoked by MRs depends on the predrug basal firing rate; the inhibition evoked by MRs is higher in normal rats than in striatum-lesioned rats; the number of neurons that undergo inhibition is lower in striatum-lesioned rats than in normal rats. Our data suggest that modulation of MRs in the GP depends on the firing rate before their activation and on the integrity of the striato-pallidal pathway. PMID:22654627

  2. A case of severe dysexecutive syndrome consecutive to chronic bilateral pallidal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, K; Krystkowiak, P; Defebvre, L; Blond, S; Destée, A

    2000-01-01

    In treatment for severe Parkinson's disease (PD), a recent procedure was developed which consists of implanting electrodes in the internal Globus Pallidus (GPi) for chronic electrical stimulation. The consequences on cognitive function of such an intervention are quite variable. Although most group studies observed no significant post-operative change, individual cases of post-operative cognitive impairment were reported. The present study reports the case of a PD patient who underwent bilateral implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes in the GPi and who, after surgery, suffered from a severe dysexecutive syndrome. An extensive neuropsychological examination showed a selective negative effect of pallidal stimulation on tests assessing executive function. When the stimulation was turned off, the impairment was partly reversible. This observation emphasizes the role of the GPi in executive function.

  3. Bilateral pallidal hemorrhage in toxoplasmosis update of acute symmetric lesions of deep nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Wrubel, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    As acute symmetric lesions of deep gray nuclei are often associated with an impaired level of consciousness and neuroimaging by itself cannot distinguish between etiologies, diagnosis may be problematic. Appreciation of the cause of the various neuroimaging patterns in conjunction with the history, examination and laboratory investigations allows for accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of cases. Given the metabolic vulnerability of deep gray nuclei, other than bi-thalamic infarction, it follows that toxic-metabolic and hypoxic-ischemic events account for the majority of cases. Nevertheless, the differential diagnosis is broad and diverse. We here describe two cases of bilateral pallidal hemorrhage in AIDS-associated toxoplasmosis, and review conditions recently described with acute symmetric deep gray nuclei lesions on neuroimaging. PMID:26427898

  4. Outbreak of mortality in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons associated with sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmatic large DNA virus.

    PubMed

    Ciulli, S; Volpe, E; Sirri, R; Passalacqua, P L; Cesa Bianchi, F; Serratore, P; Mandrioli, L

    2016-08-15

    Diseased outbreaks with high mortality in farmed sturgeon are a limiting factor to the success of this emerging aquaculture sector in Europe. Thorough investigations of outbreaks can determine the aetiological agents, identify important pathological and epidemiological pathways of infections and pave the way for effective control strategies. A thorough investigation of a mortality outbreak in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons in Italy, demonstrated the primary involvement of a sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV). While, the taxonomy classification of this new virus is still uncertain, its involvement in sturgeon mortality outbreaks in Europe is, for the first time, fully investigated and described. Furthermore, the coinfection of bacteria such as motile Aeromonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. was reported. Genetic characterisation showed the close relationship between the European sturgeon NCLDV with North American sturgeon NCLDVs. Similarly to the latter, the European sturgeon NCLDV persists in survivors. Furthermore, a systemic distribution of the European sturgeon NCLDV was evident in diseased A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii and in recovered A. gueldenstaedtii. These epidemiological and pathological findings will help in the identification of effective control strategies for sturgeon NCLDV infection, which afflicts an important and emerging European aquaculture sector.

  5. The Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee River - Questions and Answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Sturgeons and paddlefishes are modern descendants of an ancient group of freshwater fishes, the Chondrostei (a group of bony fishes with mostly cartilaginous skeletons). Sturgeons evolved during the Age of the Dinosaurs, and have prospered in the large rivers and lakes of North America, Europe and Asia for 200 million years. Together with alligators and crocodiles, they survived the mass extinction at the end of the Mesozoic Era, when the dinosaurs and many other groups of animals disappeared forever. They originated prior to the creation of the Atlantic Ocean, when the Northern Hemisphere supercontinent Pangea broke into North America and Eurasia. Most sturgeons are highly specialized to feed in the sediment on small invertebrate prey, a radical evolutionary departure from most of their fish-eating ancestors.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaolin; Tian, Hua; Zhu, Bin; Chang, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) was determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The Chinese sturgeon mitochondrial DNA is a circular molecule (16,688 bp in length) with the typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mtDNA, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. Its control region contains 4.5 copies of unit with 82 bp long at 5' end, which has been reported before for this species. Phylogenetic tree based on 13 protein-coding genes confirmed that the complete mtDNA sequence of Chinese sturgeon was reported here for the first time.

  7. Acanthocytosis, retinitis pigmentosa, and pallidal degeneration: a report of three patients, including the second reported case with hypoprebetalipoproteinemia (HARP syndrome).

    PubMed

    Orrell, R W; Amrolia, P J; Heald, A; Cleland, P G; Owen, J S; Morgan-Hughes, J A; Harding, A E; Marsden, C D

    1995-03-01

    We describe an example of a variant of Hallervorden-Spatz disease, characterized by hypoprebeta-lipoproteinemia, acanthocytosis, retinitis pigmentosa, and pallidal degeneration (HARP syndrome), in an 18-year-old woman who presented with longstanding intellectual subnormality, night blindness, and a 2-year history of orobuccolingual dystonia causing dysarthria and dysphagia. Investigation showed acanthocytosis and hypoprebetalipoproteinemia, and electroretinograms were typical of tapetoretinal degeneration. T2-weighted MRI showed decreased signal intensity in the pallidal nuclei with central hyperintensity, constituting the "eye-of-the-tiger" sign. The patient's sister and mother have a similar lipid disorder but no retinal or neurologic disease. We also report two patients with clinical and radiologic features similar to those of the patient with HARP syndrome but who had normal lipid studies. These various combinations of components of HARP syndrome may be caused by several distinct genetic diseases or may represent variable manifestations of a contiguous gene defect.

  8. [The use of microsatellite loci for identification of sturgeon species (Acipenseridae) and hybrid forms].

    PubMed

    Barmintseva, A E; Mugue, N S

    2013-09-01

    The genetic polymorphism often sturgeon species that inhabit the territory of the Russian Federation (Russian sturgeon, Siberian sturgeon, Amur sturgeon, Sakhalin sturgeon, Persian sturgeon, ship sturgeon, starlet, stellate sturgeon, beluga, and kaluga) was examined at five microsatellite loci (Afug41, Afug51, An20, AoxD161, AoxD165) (in total, 3821 individuals). The examined loci were successfully amplified with the same primer set in all species tested and demonstrated a high level of variation. Alleles specific to different species have been identified, which allows them to be used to identify species of sturgeon and their food products. In addition, the possibility of identifying hybrid forms was demonstrated. The assignment test performed in the STRUCTURE software program showed a high probability of correctly assigning each individual to its species based on genotyping with five microsatellite loci examined (96-98%, on average). However, for Russian and Persian sturgeon, the rate of proper species assignment was considerably lower (75 and 84%, respectively).

  9. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2012-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO2, and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC50 values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC50 value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  10. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Little, E E; Calfee, R D; Linder, G

    2012-10-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO(2), and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC(50) values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC(50) value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  11. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  12. Short-term storage of Atlantic sturgeon spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is significant interest to restore the Atlantic sturgeon, a species of concern. Biologists are interested in both the short-term storage and cryopreservation of semen to maximize availability of viable spermatozoa whenever a rare ripe female is found and available for spawning. We conducted sh...

  13. Tracing the first steps of American sturgeon pioneers in Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, A.; Arndt, U.; Lippold, S.; Benecke, N.; Debus, L.; King, T.L.; Matsumura, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A Baltic population of Atlantic sturgeon was founded ???1,200 years ago by migrants from North America, but after centuries of persistence, the population was extirpated in the 1960s, mainly as a result of over-harvest and habitat alterations. As there are four genetically distinct groups of Atlantic sturgeon inhabiting North American rivers today, we investigated the genetic provenance of the historic Baltic population by ancient DNA analyses using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Results. The phylogeographic signal obtained from multilocus microsatellite DNA genotypes and mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes, when compared to existing baseline datasets from extant populations, allowed for the identification of the region-of-origin of the North American Atlantic sturgeon founders. Moreover, statistical and simulation analyses of the multilocus genotypes allowed for the calculation of the effective number of individuals that originally founded the European population of Atlantic sturgeon. Our findings suggest that the Baltic population of A. oxyrinchus descended from a relatively small number of founders originating from the northern extent of the species' range in North America. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that the most northerly distributed North American A. oxyrinchus colonized the Baltic Sea ???1,200 years ago, suggesting that Canadian specimens should be the primary source of broodstock used for restoration in Baltic rivers. This study illustrates the great potential of patterns obtained from ancient DNA to identify population-of-origin to investigate historic genotype structure of extinct populations. ?? 2008 Ludwig et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. Enhancement of lake sturgeon conservation through feeding management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), listed as threatened under the State of Michigan’s Endangered Species Act, has high ecological and economical values as a native benthivore. Many efforts for enhancing stocking have been implemented to restore wild populations. For current stocking programs, lak...

  15. First record predation on white sturgeon eggs by sympatric fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.

    1996-01-01

    We report the occurrence of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus eggs in guts of four species of fish from the Columbia River. Three of the species—northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, largescale sucker Catostomus macrocheilus, and prickly sentpin Cottus asper—are native to the river and one, common carp Cvprinus carpio, is exotic.

  16. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  17. Induction of meiotic gynogenesis in ship sturgeon Acipenser nudiventris using UV-irradiated heterologous sperm.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh Saber, Mohammad; Noveiri, Shahrouz Baradaran; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Yazdani, Mohammadali; Ghoroghi, Ahmad; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Pourdehghani, Mohammad; Chakmehdouz, Fereidoon; Yarmohammadi, Mahtab; Nowruzfashkhami, Mohammadreza

    2014-05-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in ship sturgeon Acipenser nudiventris using UV-irradiated sperm from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. The optimal condition for the retention of the second polar body in ship sturgeon was determined to be 10 min after activation/fertilization in experiments. The temperature of cold shock and its duration were 2.5 °C and 30 min, respectively. A total of 30 gynogens of known parentage from experimental treatments were screened using microsatellite DNA analysis, and uniparental transmission in meiogens was confirmed. The results show that heterologous Siberian sturgeon sperm is applicable as UV-irradiated sperm for the induction of gynogenesis in ship sturgeon. This technique may recover the critically endangered sturgeon species that are becoming extinct.

  18. Distribution and movement of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Mangold, M.F.; Skjeveland, J.E.; Spells, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    During a reward program for Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus), 40 federally endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) were captured and reported by commercial fishers between January 1996 and January 2000 from the Chesapeake Bay. Since this is more than double the number of published records of shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay between 1876 and 1995, little information has been available on distributions and movement. We used fishery dependent data collected during the reward program to determine the distribution of shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay. Sonically-tagged shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware River were tracked to determine if individuals swim through the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Shortnose sturgeon were primarily distributed within the upper Chesapeake Bay. The movements of one individual, tagged within the Chesapeake Bay and later relocated in the canal and Delaware River, indicated that individuals traverse the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

  19. Population status of North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.B.; Grimes, C.; Hightower, J.E.; Lindley, S.T.; Moser, M.L.; Parsley, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The two questions that need to be answered when considering an ESA listing are; (1) Is the entity a species under the ESA and if so (2) is the "species" in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range? Green sturgeon genetic analyses showed strong differentiation between northern and southern populations, and therefore, the species was divided into Northern and Southern Distinct Population Segments (DPSs). The Northern DPS includes populations in the Rogue, Klamath-Trinity, and Eel rivers, while the Southern DPS only includes a single population in the Sacramento River. The principal risk factors for green sturgeon include loss of spawning habitat, harvest, and entrainment. The Northern DPS is not considered to be in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. The loss of spawning habitat is not large enough to threaten this DPS, although the Eel River has been severely impacted by sedimentation due to poor land use practices and floods. The two main spawning populations in the Rogue and Klamath-Trinity rivers occupy separate basins reducing the potential for loss of the DPS through catastrophic events. Harvest has been substantially reduced and green sturgeon in this DPS do not face substantial entrainment loss. However there are significant concerns due to lack of information, flow and temperature issues, and habitat degradation. The Southern DPS is considered likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. Green sturgeon in this DPS are concentrated into one spawning area outside of their natural habitat in the Sacramento River, making them vulnerable to catastrophic extinction. Green sturgeon spawning areas have been lost from the area above Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River and

  20. Fertility of a spontaneous hexaploid male Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evolution of sturgeons and paddlefishes (order Acipenseriformes) is inherently connected with polyploidization events which resulted in differentiation of ploidy levels and chromosome numbers of present acipenseriform species. Moreover, allopolyploidization as well as autopolyploidization seems to be an ongoing process in these fishes and individuals with abnormal ploidy levels were occasionally observed within sturgeon populations. Here, we reported occurrence of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) male with abnormal ploidy level for this species, accessed its ploidy level and chromosome number and investigate its potential sterility or fertility in comparison with normal individuals of sterlet (A. ruthenus), Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian sturgeon (A. baerii). Results Acipenser ruthenus possessed 120 chromosomes, exhibiting recent diploidy (2n), A. gueldenstaedtii and A. baerii had ~245 chromosomes representing recent tetraploidy (4n), and A. baerii male with abnormal ploidy level had ~ 368 chromosomes, indicating recent hexaploidy (6n). Genealogy assessed from the mtDNA control region did not reveal genome markers of other sturgeon species and this individual was supposed to originate from spontaneous 1.5 fold increment in number of chromosome sets with respect to the number most frequently found in nature for this species. Following hormone stimulation, the spontaneous hexaploid male produced normal sperm with ability for fertilization. Fertilization of A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii ova from normal 4n level females with sperm of the hexaploid male produced viable, non-malformed pentaploid (5n) progeny with a ploidy level intermediate to those of the parents. Conclusion This study firstly described occurrence of hexaploid individual of A. baerii and confirmed its autopolyploid origin. In addition to that, the first detailed evidence about fertility of spontaneous hexaploid sturgeon was provided. If 1.5 fold increment in

  1. Effect of dietary selenomethionine on growth performance, tissue burden, and histopathology in green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Nicola; Lee, Jang-Won; Huang, Susie S Y; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2014-03-01

    A comparative examination of potential differences in selenium (Se) sensitivity was conducted on two sturgeon species indigenous to the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris), recently given a federally threatened status, and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were exposed to one of four nominal concentrations of dietary l-selenomethionine (SeMet) (0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 mg SeMet/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Mortality, growth performance, whole body composition, histopathology, and Se burdens of the whole body, liver, kidneys, gills, heart, and white muscle were determined every 2 to 4 weeks. Significant (p<0.05) mortality was observed in green sturgeon fed the highest SeMet diet after 2 weeks, whereas no mortality was observed in white sturgeon. Growth rates were significantly reduced in both species; however, green sturgeon was more adversely affected by the treatment. Dietary SeMet significantly affected whole body composition and most noticeably, in the decline of lipid contents in green sturgeon. Selenium accumulated significantly in all tissues relative to the control groups. After 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, marked abnormalities were observed in the kidneys and liver of both sturgeon species; however, green sturgeon was more susceptible to SeMet than white sturgeon at all dietary SeMet levels. Our results showed that a dietary Se concentration at 19.7 ± 0.6 mg Se/kg, which is in range with the reported Se concentrations of the benthic macro-vertebrate community of the San Francisco Bay, had adverse effects on both sturgeon species. However, the exposure had a more severe pathological effect on green sturgeon, suggesting that when implementing conservation measures, this federally listed threatened species should be monitored and managed independently from white sturgeon.

  2. Differences in activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptors of white sturgeon relative to lake sturgeon are predicted by identities of key amino acids in the ligand binding domain.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Farmahin, Reza; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2015-04-07

    Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are pollutants of global environmental concern. DLCs elicit their adverse outcomes through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in differences in sensitivity to DLCs among different species of fishes. Understanding these mechanisms is critical for protection of the diversity of fishes exposed to DLCs, including endangered species. This study investigated specific mechanisms that drive responses of two endangered fishes, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to DLCs. It determined whether differences in sensitivity to activation of AhRs (AhR1 and AhR2) can be predicted based on identities of key amino acids in the ligand binding domain (LBD). White sturgeon were 3- to 30-fold more sensitive than lake sturgeon to exposure to 5 different DLCs based on activation of AhR2. There were no differences in sensitivity between white sturgeon and lake sturgeon based on activation of AhR1. Adverse outcomes as a result of exposure to DLCs have been shown to be mediated through activation of AhR2, but not AhR1, in all fishes studied to date. This indicates that white sturgeon are likely to have greater sensitivity in vivo relative to lake sturgeon. Homology modeling and in silico mutagenesis suggests that differences in sensitivity to activation of AhR2 result from differences in key amino acids at position 388 in the LBD of AhR2 of white sturgeon (Ala-388) and lake sturgeon (Thr-388). This indicates that identities of key amino acids in the LBD of AhR2 could be predictive of both in vitro activation by DLCs and in vivo sensitivity to DLCs in these, and potentially other, fishes.

  3. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Implementation Plan and Schedule; 2005-2010, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Kootenai River white sturgeon have been declining for at least 50 years and extinction of the wild population is now imminent (Paragamian et al. 2005). Only 630 adults were estimated to remain in 2002 from a population ten times that size just 20 years ago. Significant recruitment of young sturgeon has not been observed since the early 1970s and consistent annual recruitment has not been seen since the 1950s. The remaining wild population consists of a cohort of large, old fish that is declining by about 9% per year as fish die naturally and are not replaced. At this rate, the wild population will disappear around the year 2040. Numbers have already reached critical low levels where genetic and demographic risks are acute. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was convened in 1994, provided a draft Recovery Plan in 1996 and the first complete Recovery Plan for Kootenai River white sturgeon in 1999 (USFWS 1996, 1999). The Plan outlined a four part strategy for recovery, including: (1) measures to restore natural recruitment, (2) use of conservation aquaculture to prevent extinction, (3) monitoring survival and recovery, and (4) updating and revising recovery plan criteria and objectives as new information becomes available. Sturgeon recovery efforts are occurring against a backdrop of a broader ecosystem protection and restoration program for the Kootenai River ecosystem. With abundance halving time of approximately 8 years, the Kootenai River white sturgeon population is rapidly dwindling, leaving managers little time to act. Decades of study consistently indicate that recruitment failure occurs between embryo and larval stages. This assertion is based on four key observations. First, almost no recruitment has occurred during the last 30 years. Second, thousands of naturally produced white sturgeon embryos, most viable, have been collected over the past decade, resulting from an estimated 9 to 20 spawning events each year. Third, Kootenai River white

  4. First documented occurrences of the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Saco River, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, C.E.; Kieffer, M.; Wippelhauser, G.; Zydlewski, G.; Kinnison, M.; Whitefleet-Smith, L. A.; Sulikowski, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    During sampling efforts to study the more abundant Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, between May of 2009 and November of 2011, four shortnose sturgeon were captured in gill nets near the mouth of the Saco River, Maine. Two of these individuals were tagged with acoustic transmitters to monitor their movement within the Saco River. Additionally, six shortnose sturgeon that had been tagged with acoustic transmitters in the Merrimack River, Massachusetts were detected on the acoustic array deployed within the Saco River and its estuary over this time period. These incidences represent the first verified documentation of shortnose sturgeon within this estuary.

  5. Effects of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Jeff D.; Quist, Michael C.; Pierce, Clay L.; Hansen, Kirk A.; Steuck, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have become an increasingly important commercial species in the upper Mississippi River (UMR) because of the collapse of foreign sturgeon (family Acipenseridae) populations and bans on imported caviar. In response to concerns about the sustainability of the commercial shovelnose sturgeon fishery in the UMR, we undertook this study to describe the demographics of the shovelnose sturgeon population and evaluate the influence of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the UMR. A total of 1,682 shovelnose sturgeon were collected from eight study pools in 2006 and 2007 (Pools 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16, and 18). Shovelnose sturgeon from upstream pools generally had greater lengths, weights, and ages than those from downstream pools. Additionally, mortality estimates were lower in upstream pools (Pools 4, 7, 9, and 11) than in downstream pools (Pools 13, 14, 16, and 18). Linear regression suggested that the slower growth of shovelnose sturgeon is a consequence of commercial harvest in the UMR. Modeling of potential management scenarios suggested that a 685-mm minimum length limit is necessary to prevent growth and recruitment overfishing of shovelnose sturgeon in the UMR.

  6. Toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Banan, Ashkan; Kalbassi Masjed Shahi, Mohammad Reza; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Yazdani Sadati, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer products mainly due to their antimicrobial action. The rapidly increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) has driven more attention to their possible ecotoxicological effects. In this study, the acute toxicity of colloidal AgNPs was evaluated during the embryonic stage of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L. Fertilized eggs (75 eggs per replicate) were exposed to aforementioned concentrations for 96 h in triplicate. 96-h LC50 values in Persian sturgeon and starry sturgeon were calculated as 0.163 and 0.158 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, in starry sturgeon, the short-term effects of AgNPs on the hatching rate, survival rate, and Ag accumulation during early life stages (before active feeding commences) were also analyzed at concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/L of colloidal AgNPs. The highest silver accumulation occurred in larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L AgNPs; however, the body burden of silver did not alter survival rate, and there were no significant differences among treatments. Based on the obtained results from the acute toxicity exposures, AgNPs induced a concentration-dependent toxicity in both species during early life stages, while complementary studies are suggested for investigating their short-term effects in detail.

  7. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing.

  8. Pallidal stimulation for segmental dystonia: long term follow up of 11 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Sensi, Mariachiara; Cavallo, Michele A; Quatrale, Rocco; Sarubbo, Silvio; Biguzzi, Sara; Lettieri, Cristian; Capone, Jay G; Tugnoli, Valeria; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Eleopra, Roberto

    2009-09-15

    Pallidal stimulation is a convincing and valid alternative for primary generalized dystonia refractory to medical therapy or botulinum toxin. However, the clinical outcome reported in literature is variable most likely because of heterogeneity DBS techniques employed and /or to clinical dystonic pattern of the patients who undergo surgery. In this study, we report the long term follow up of a homogeneous group of eleven subjects affected by segmental dystonia who were treated with bilateral stimulation of the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) from the years 2000 to 2008. All the patients were evaluated, before surgery and at 6-12-24-36 months after the treatment, in accordance with the Burke Fahn Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). Our study indicates that DBS promotes an early and significant improvement at 6 months with an even and a better outcome later on. The analysis of specific sub items of the BFMDRS revealed an earlier and striking benefit not only as far as segmental motor function of the limbs but also for the complex cranial functions like face, (eyes and mouth), speech and swallowing, differently from results reported in primary generalized dystonia. Deep Brain Stimulation of GPi should be considered a valid indication for both generalized and segmental dystonia when other therapies appear ineffective.

  9. Pallidal neuronal apolipoprotein E in pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration recapitulates ischemic injury to the globuspallidus

    PubMed Central

    Woltjer, Randall L.; Reese, Lindsay C.; Richardson, Brian E.; Tran, Huong; Green, Sarah; Pham, Thao; Chalupsky, Megan; Gabriel, Isabella; Light, Tyler; Sanford, Lynn; Jeong, Suh Y.; Hamada, Jeffrey; Schwanemann, Leila K.; Rogers, Caleb; Gregory, Allison; Hogarth, Penelope; Hayflick, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a progressive movement disorder that is due to mutations in PANK2. Pathologically, it is a member of a class of diseases known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) and features increased tissue iron and ubiquitinated protein aceous aggregates in the globuspallidus. We have previously determined that these aggregates represent condensed residue derived from degenerated pallidal neurons. However, the protein content, other than ubiquitin, of these aggregates remains unknown. In the present study, we performed biochemical and immunohistochemical studies to characterize these aggregates and found them to be enriched in apolipoprotein E that is poorly soluble in detergent solutions. However, did not determine a significant association between APOE genotype and the clinical phenotype of disease in our database of 81 cases. Rather, we frequently identified similar ubiquitin- and apolipoprotein E-enriched lesions in these neurons in non-PKAN patients in the penumbrae of remote infarcts that involve the globuspallidus, and occasionally in other brain sites that contain large γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. Our findings, taken together, suggest that tissue or cellular hypoxic/ischemic injury within the globuspallidus may underlie the pathogenesis of PKAN. PMID:26547561

  10. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Khaleel A.; Fuzessery, Zoltan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations, or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. PMID:25142131

  11. Pallidal stimulation in children: comparison between cerebral palsy and DYT1 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Marks, Warren; Bailey, Laurie; Reed, Maryann; Pomykal, Angela; Mercer, Mary; Macomber, David; Acosta, Fernando; Honeycutt, John

    2013-07-01

    The authors compared the outcomes of 17 children aged 7 to 15 years with DYT1 dystonia or cerebral palsy following deep brain stimulation. While patients with cerebral palsy presented with significantly greater motor disability than the DYT1 cohort at baseline, both groups demonstrated improvement at 1 year (cerebral palsy = 24%; DYT1 = 6%). The group as a whole demonstrated significant improvement on the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale across time. Gains in motor function were apparent in both axial and appendicular distributions involving both upper and lower extremities. Gains achieved by 6 months were sustained in the cerebral palsy group, whereas the DYT1 group demonstrated continued improvement with ongoing pallidal stimulation beyond 18 months. Young patients with dystonia due to cerebral palsy responded comparably to patients with DYT1 dystonia. The severity of motor impairment in patients with cerebral palsy at baseline and follow-up raises the issue of even earlier intervention with neuromodulation in this population to limit long-term motor impairments due to dystonia.

  12. Neural targets for relieving parkinsonian rigidity and bradykinesia with pallidal deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D; Zhang, Jianyu; Ghosh, Debabrata; McIntyre, Cameron C; Vitek, Jerrold L

    2012-07-01

    Clinical evidence has suggested that subtle changes in deep brain stimulation (DBS) settings can have differential effects on bradykinesia and rigidity in patients with Parkinson's disease. In this study, we first investigated the degree of improvement in bradykinesia and rigidity during targeted globus pallidus DBS in three 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated rhesus macaques. Behavioral outcomes of DBS were then coupled with detailed, subject-specific computational models of neurons in the globus pallidus internus (GPi), globus pallidus externus (GPe), and internal capsule (IC) to determine which neuronal pathways when modulated with high-frequency electrical stimulation best correlate with improvement in motor symptoms. The modeling results support the hypothesis that multiple neuronal pathways can underlie the therapeutic effect of DBS on parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity. Across all three subjects, improvements in rigidity correlated most strongly with spread of neuronal activation into IC, driving a small percentage of fibers within this tract (<10% on average). The most robust effect on bradykinesia resulted from stimulating a combination of sensorimotor axonal projections within the GP, specifically at the site of the medial medullary lamina. Thus the beneficial effects of pallidal DBS for parkinsonian symptoms may occur from multiple targets within and near the target nucleus.

  13. Neural targets for relieving parkinsonian rigidity and bradykinesia with pallidal deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianyu; Ghosh, Debabrata; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Vitek, Jerrold L.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evidence has suggested that subtle changes in deep brain stimulation (DBS) settings can have differential effects on bradykinesia and rigidity in patients with Parkinson's disease. In this study, we first investigated the degree of improvement in bradykinesia and rigidity during targeted globus pallidus DBS in three 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated rhesus macaques. Behavioral outcomes of DBS were then coupled with detailed, subject-specific computational models of neurons in the globus pallidus internus (GPi), globus pallidus externus (GPe), and internal capsule (IC) to determine which neuronal pathways when modulated with high-frequency electrical stimulation best correlate with improvement in motor symptoms. The modeling results support the hypothesis that multiple neuronal pathways can underlie the therapeutic effect of DBS on parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity. Across all three subjects, improvements in rigidity correlated most strongly with spread of neuronal activation into IC, driving a small percentage of fibers within this tract (<10% on average). The most robust effect on bradykinesia resulted from stimulating a combination of sensorimotor axonal projections within the GP, specifically at the site of the medial medullary lamina. Thus the beneficial effects of pallidal DBS for parkinsonian symptoms may occur from multiple targets within and near the target nucleus. PMID:22514292

  14. Pallidal stimulation for primary generalised dystonia: effect on cognition, mood and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, Marjan; Torkamani, Mariam; Beigi, Mazda; Wilkinson, Leonora; Page, Donna; Madeley, Laura; Bhatia, Kailash; Hariz, Marwan; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Limousin, Patricia; Ruge, Diane; Tisch, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of pallidal deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) in dystonia on cognition, mood, and quality of life and also assessed if DYT1 gene status influenced cognitive outcome following GPi-DBS. Fourteen patients with primary generalized dystonia (PGD) were assessed, measuring their estimated premorbid and current IQ, memory for words and faces, and working memory, language, executive function, and sustained attention, one month before and one year or more after surgery. Changes in mood and behaviour and quality of life were also assessed. There was a significant improvement of dystonia with GPi-DBS (69 % improvement in Burke-Fahn-Marsden score, p < 0.0001). Performance on five cognitive tests either improved or declined at post-surgical follow-up. Calculation of a reliable change index suggested that deterioration in sustained attention on the PASAT was the only reliable change (worse after surgery) in cognition with GPi-DBS. DYT1 gene status did not influence cognitive outcome following GPi-DBS. Depression, anxiety and apathy were not significantly altered, and ratings of health status on the EQ5D remained unchanged. In our sample, GPi-DBS was only associated with an isolated deficit on a test of sustained attention, confirming that GPi-DBS in PGD is clinically effective and safe, without adverse effects on the main domains of cognitive function. The dissociation between GPi-DBS improving dystonia, but not having a significant positive impact on the patients' QoL, warrants further investigation.

  15. 75 FR 2102 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To List the Shovelnose Sturgeon as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...; Proposed Rule To List the Shovelnose Sturgeon as Threatened Due to Similarity of Appearance AGENCY: Fish... reopening of the comment period for our September 22, 2009, proposed rule to treat the shovelnose sturgeon... Sturgeon Recovery Coordinator, Billings Field Office, 2900 4th Avenue North, Room 301, Billings, MT...

  16. Evaluation of liver histopathology and EROD activity in St. Lawrence lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in comparison with a reference population

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseaux, C.G. ||; Branchaud, A.; Spear, P.A.

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the effects of contaminants on the lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, fish were netted from two sites: Riviere des Prairies, confluent with the St. Lawrence River near Montreal, and a reference site on the upper reaches of the Ottawa River in the La Verendrye Park. Livers of fish collected from the Riviere des Prairies were difficult to homogenize, and they left behind strands of what appeared to be connective tissue. Suspecting hepatic fibrosis, the authors decided to evaluate the livers for histopathologic changes. Nineteen adult lake sturgeon (eleven male and eight female) were examined. Following fixation, routine processing, sectioning, and staining with hematoxylin and eosin, microscopic evaluation revealed the following: Sections taken from livers of fish from the Riviere des Prairies site showed excessive fat accumulation and often severe chronic-active cholangiohepatitis. Bile duct proliferation (p < 0.0001), periportal fibrosis (p < 0.0001), inflammation (p < 0.001), and fat accumulation (p < 0.05) were more pronounced in the fish from the Riviere des Prairies site. Melano-macrophage centers appeared to be both paler and gave the appearance of fewer numbers (p < 0.01). Livers from lake sturgeon taken from the reference site had a more normal appearance. The EROD levels were also significantly induced in these fish (reference 3.39 {+-} 0.57; Riviere des Prairies site 8.21 {+-} 0.87 pmol/mg protein/min; p < 0.0005). The EROD levels positively correlated with bile duct proliferation (r{sup 2} = 0.44; p = 0.001) and periportal fibrosis (r{sup 2} = 0.41; p = 0.002). Despite the statistical associations above, the authors cannot categorically state that contaminants are the sole cause of the lesions seen.

  17. Hole-in-the-Rock Backwater Excavation Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Project, Thurston County, Nebraska, Missouri River Mile 706

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    impacted by the proposed project, the pallid sturgeon and the western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara). Supplemental Environmental...Prairie Fringed Orchid The western prairie fringed orchid is a federally threatened prairie species. This plant is often found in mesic to wet...the proposed project. Listed Species Pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus a/bus) Western prairie fringed orchid (WPFO) ( P latanthera praeclara) Pallid

  18. Seasonal Distribution and Movements of Atlantic and Shortnose Sturgeon in the Penobscot River Estuary, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Fernandes, Stephen J.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.; Kinnison, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the distribution and seasonal movement patterns of shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum and Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus occupying rivers in the northern part of their range. During 2006 and 2007, 40 shortnose sturgeon (66–113.4 cm fork length [FL]) and 8 Atlantic sturgeon (76.2–166.2 cm FL) were captured in the Penobscot River, Maine, implanted with acoustic transmitters, and monitored using an array of acoustic receivers in the Penobscot River estuary and Penobscot Bay. Shortnose sturgeon were present year round in the estuary and overwintered from fall (mid-October) to spring (mid-April) in the upper estuary. In early spring, all individuals moved downstream to the middle estuary. Over the course of the summer, many individuals moved upstream to approximately 2 km of the downstream-most dam (46 river kilometers [rkm] from the Penobscot River mouth [rkm 0]) by August. Most aggregated into an overwintering site (rkm 36.5) in mid- to late fall. As many as 50% of the tagged shortnose sturgeon moved into and out of the Penobscot River system during 2007, and 83% were subsequently detected by an acoustic array in the Kennebec River, located 150 km from the Penobscot River estuary. Atlantic sturgeon moved into the estuary from the ocean in the summer and concentrated into a 1.5-km reach. All Atlantic sturgeon moved to the ocean by fall, and two of these were detected in the Kennebec River. Although these behaviors are common for Atlantic sturgeon, regular coastal migrations of shortnose sturgeon have not been documented previously in this region. These results have important implications for future dam removals as well as for rangewide and river-specific shortnose sturgeon management.

  19. Laboratory studies on the vulnerability of young white sturgeon to predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite evidence of annual spawning by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in rivers of the northwestern United States and Canada, in some years and locations little or no recruitment of age-0 white sturgeon has been observed. We examined the vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles to predation to further understand possible causes of mortality. We were particularly interested in the vulnerability of older larvae and juveniles because at about 25 mm total length (TL) white sturgeon develop sharp dorsal and lateral scutes that may act as a morphological defense. In the laboratory, white sturgeon ranging from newly hatched larvae to about 170-mm TL juveniles were exposed to predatory fishes they might encounter in the natural environment. We found that channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (mean TL = 464 mm) and northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis (mean TL = 472 mm) ate white sturgeon up to mean sizes of 121 and 134 mm TL, respectively. Conversely, similarly sized walleyes Sander vitreus ingested almost no white sturgeon, although juvenile walleyes (mean TL = 184 mm) ate white sturgeon up to 59 mm TL. The smallest predator we tested, prickly sculpins Cottus asper (mean TL = 126 mm), ate white sturgeon up to a mean TL of 50 mm. Our study demonstrated that predation is a likely cause of mortality of age-0 white sturgeon and may be contributing to the year-class failures that have been observed. In addition, the results from this study could be used to reduce the predation risk of artificially propagated white sturgeon released to augment declining populations since fish could be reared to sizes where their vulnerability is low.

  20. Use of NARCCAP data to characterize regional climate uncertainty in the impact of global climate change on large river fish population: Missouri River sturgeon example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. J.; Wildhaber, M. L.; Wikle, C. K.; Moran, E. H.; Franz, K. J.; Dey, R.

    2012-12-01

    strategies. The results from hierarchical analysis of uncertainty are used to study the relative change in weights of the endangered Missouri River pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) under a 21st century climate scenario.

  1. Can fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs distinguish between farm-raised versus wild white (Acipenser transmontanus) sturgeon origins in California? Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    DePeters, Edward J; Puschner, Birgit; Taylor, Scott J; Rodzen, Jeff A

    2013-06-10

    The objective was to investigate the potential of using fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs to distinguish their source, either farm-raised or wild fish. Trafficking of illegally obtained wild white sturgeon eggs is a major concern to the California Department of Fish and Game, but there is no forensic method to separate wild and farm-raised white sturgeon eggs. The extension of these findings in future work will be to use the fatty acid and mineral compositions as forensic indicators of caviar produced legally from farm raised sturgeon compared with illegal caviar produced from sturgeon poached from the wild. Samples (10) of sturgeon eggs were collected from a commercial aquaculture facility in the Sacramento Valley. Eggs from wild sturgeon (9) were obtained primarily from confiscations of illegally caught sturgeon by fish and game law enforcement personnel. The total lipid content of sturgeon eggs was analyzed for fatty acid composition. The most notable difference was the higher concentration (P<0.001) of C18:2n6 in farm raised eggs (6.5 mg/100g total lipid) than wild eggs (0.6 mg/100g total lipid) while other differences between fatty acids were smaller. Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3) was higher (P<0.02) in farm-raised (5.56 mg/100g) than wild (4.49 mg/100g). Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3), C18:1 cis 9&10, and C20:4n6 were not different for origin of the eggs. Concentration of selenium was markedly higher (P<0.001) in eggs from wild sturgeon (10.0 mg/kg dry weight) than farm-raised sturgeon (2.7 mg/kg dry weight). Concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, and potassium did not differ between farm-raised and wild eggs. Arsenic concentration in wild eggs was 3.3mg/kg dry weight whereas arsenic was not detected in the farm-raised eggs. Fatty acid and mineral compositions of eggs differed significantly between farm-raised and wild sturgeon and these should be investigated further as biological markers for forensic

  2. Behavior of White Sturgeon near hydroprojects and fishways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Wright, C.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Kofoot, E.E.; Perry, C.A.; Moser, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    During March 2004 through November 2005, white sturgeon movements were monitored at The Dalles Dam to characterize their distribution and movements in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of passage. A combination of radio and acoustic telemetry technologies were used to detect tagged fish within fishways and at strategic locations along the dam, the shorelines, and in the forebay. White sturgeon > 95 cm total length (TL) that were captured on baited setlines fished in the forebay and in the tailrace cul-de-sac received a surgically implanted transmitter that emitted radio and acoustic signals. During the course of this study, a total of 148 fish were tagged; 58 were captured and released in the forebay and 90 in the tailrace.

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  5. Acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 96-h median-lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) to fingerling shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum was 149.8 ?? 55.20 mg/L (mean ?? SD, 17.9 ?? 0.62??C, pH = 6.8-7.3). Calculated 96-h LC50 for un-ionized ammonia-N was 0.58 ?? 0.213 mg/L. The 96-h LC50 of nitrite nitrogen to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings was 11.3 ?? 8.17 mg/L (17.9 ?? 0.31??C, <1.0 mg chloride/L, <1.0 mg magnesium/L, 1.8 mg calcium/L, 7.7 mg sodium/L).

  6. Polycystic lesions in the liver of the white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Smith, Charlie E; Blair, Marilyn J

    2009-03-01

    Polycystic lesions have been reported from the kidney and liver of many different fish species and are attributed to pollution and genetic anomalies. In June 2002, eggs and milt were collected from two female and five male white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Fertilized eggs were hatched at the Abernathy Fish Technology Center in Longview, Washington, and 20,000 juveniles were raised for approximately 1 year before release into the wild. Just before release, 12,000 juveniles were scute-marked, during which it was noticed that about 30 fish had distended abdomens. Gross necropsy revealed a large, jellylike mass in the peritoneal cavity. Histopathological examination of four fish showed that this growth was a polycystic lesion of liver tissue. This is the first report of this type of lesion in white sturgeon and is presumed to be the product of a genetic anomaly.

  7. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation. 207.470 Section 207.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.470 Sturgeon Bay...

  8. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation. 207.470 Section 207.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.470 Sturgeon Bay...

  9. Diel activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in a northwest Florida bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, B.M.; Duncan, M.S.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we assess patterns in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi over a 24-h period in the Pensacola bay system, Florida. Although seasonal migration of sturgeon is well documented, little information is available pertaining to daily variation in activity. We surgically implanted 58 Gulf sturgeon with acoustic transmitters in the Escambia (n=26), Yellow (n=8), Blackwater (n=12) and Choctawhatchee rivers (n=12) in June, July, September and October 2005. Gulf sturgeon location was monitored using an array of 56 fixed-station acoustic receivers. The relationship between frequency of Gulf sturgeon observations recorded on all acoustic receivers and time of day for all seasons combined indicated a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf sturgeon were frequently detected at night in all seasons with the exception of summer. Consecutive hourly observations indicated lateral movement of Gulf sturgeon between independent acoustic receivers on 15% of all observations of individuals. The use of an acoustic receiver array not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but also provides insight into nocturnal behavior of Gulf sturgeon not previously identified. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  10. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule...

  11. Expression Patterns of Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) During Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Kaitetzidou, Elisavet; Ludwig, Arne; Gessner, Jörn; Sarropoulou, Elena

    2016-01-01

    During teleost ontogeny the larval and embryonic stages are key stages, since failure during this period of tissue differentiation may cause malformations, developmental delays, poor growth, and massive mortalities. Despite the rapid advances in sequencing technologies, the molecular backgrounds of the development of economically important but endangered fish species like the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The current study examines the differential expression of transcripts involved in embryonic development of the Atlantic sturgeon. Addressing this goal, a reference transcriptome comprising eight stages was generated using an Illumina HiSequation 2500 platform. The constructed de novo assembly counted to 441,092 unfiltered and 179,564 filtered transcripts. Subsequently, the expression profile of four developmental stages ranging from early (gastrula) to late stages of prelarval development [2 d posthatching (dph)] were investigated applying an Illumina MiSeq platform. Differential expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns among stages, especially between the two early and the two later stages. Transcripts upregulated at the two early stages were mainly enriched in transcripts linked to developmental processes, while transcripts expressed at the last two stages were mainly enriched in transcripts important to muscle contraction. Furthermore, important stage-specific expression has been detected for the hatching stage with transcripts enriched in molecule transport, and for the 2 dph stage with transcripts enriched in visual perception and lipid digestion. Our investigation represents a significant contribution to the understanding of Atlantic sturgeon embryonic development, and transcript characterization along with the differential expression results will significantly contribute to sturgeon research and aquaculture. PMID:27974440

  12. Characterization and inhibition of nitrite uptake in shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts are underway to culture the endangered shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum for possible reintroduction. As part of a larger project to develop culture techniques for this species, the uptake of nitrite was evaluated in fingerlings (16.5 ?? 4.85 g; mean ?? SD). Plasma nitrite concentrations increased significantly with exposure time (0-5 d) and dose (0-4 mg nitrite-N/L). Shortnose sturgeon fingerlings were able to concentrate nitrite in their plasma to more than 63 times the environmental concentration. Chloride, as either sodium chloride or calcium chloride, partially inhibited nitrite uptake. However, calcium chloride was a better inhibitor. After previous exposure (2 d at 2.13 ?? 0.080 mg nitrite-N/L) plasma nitrite-N decreased from 165.5 to 36.7 mg/L during a 3-d simultaneous exposure to 2.13 ?? 0.080 mg nitrite-N/L and treatment with 40 mg chloride/L as calcium chloride. The addition of calcium chloride to the water appeared to be an effective means of preventing nitrite uptake and treating nitrite toxicity in hatchery-reared shortnose sturgeon fingerlings.

  13. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Lepla, Ken B.; Van Winkle, Webb; James, Mr Brad; McAdam, Dr Steve

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  14. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  15. Effects of sound intensity on temporal properties of inhibition in the pallid bat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A

    2013-01-01

    Auditory neurons in bats that use frequency modulated (FM) sweeps for echolocation are selective for the behaviorally-relevant rates and direction of frequency change. Such selectivity arises through spectrotemporal interactions between excitatory and inhibitory components of the receptive field. In the pallid bat auditory system, the relationship between FM sweep direction/rate selectivity and spectral and temporal properties of sideband inhibition have been characterized. Of note is the temporal asymmetry in sideband inhibition, with low-frequency inhibition (LFI) exhibiting faster arrival times compared to high-frequency inhibition (HFI). Using the two-tone inhibition over time (TTI) stimulus paradigm, this study investigated the interactions between two sound parameters in shaping sideband inhibition: intensity and time. Specifically, the impact of changing relative intensities of the excitatory and inhibitory tones on arrival time of inhibition was studied. Using this stimulation paradigm, single unit data from the auditory cortex of pentobarbital-anesthetized cortex show that the threshold for LFI is on average ~8 dB lower than HFI. For equal intensity tones near threshold, LFI is stronger than HFI. When the inhibitory tone intensity is increased further from threshold, the strength asymmetry decreased. The temporal asymmetry in LFI vs. HFI arrival time is strongest when the excitatory and inhibitory tones are of equal intensities or if excitatory tone is louder. As inhibitory tone intensity is increased, temporal asymmetry decreased suggesting that the relative magnitude of excitatory and inhibitory inputs shape arrival time of inhibition and FM sweep rate and direction selectivity. Given that most FM bats use downward sweeps as echolocation calls, a similar asymmetry in threshold and strength of LFI vs. HFI may be a general adaptation to enhance direction selectivity while maintaining sweep-rate selective responses to downward sweeps.

  16. Effects of sound intensity on temporal properties of inhibition in the pallid bat auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Khaleel A.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory neurons in bats that use frequency modulated (FM) sweeps for echolocation are selective for the behaviorally-relevant rates and direction of frequency change. Such selectivity arises through spectrotemporal interactions between excitatory and inhibitory components of the receptive field. In the pallid bat auditory system, the relationship between FM sweep direction/rate selectivity and spectral and temporal properties of sideband inhibition have been characterized. Of note is the temporal asymmetry in sideband inhibition, with low-frequency inhibition (LFI) exhibiting faster arrival times compared to high-frequency inhibition (HFI). Using the two-tone inhibition over time (TTI) stimulus paradigm, this study investigated the interactions between two sound parameters in shaping sideband inhibition: intensity and time. Specifically, the impact of changing relative intensities of the excitatory and inhibitory tones on arrival time of inhibition was studied. Using this stimulation paradigm, single unit data from the auditory cortex of pentobarbital-anesthetized cortex show that the threshold for LFI is on average ~8 dB lower than HFI. For equal intensity tones near threshold, LFI is stronger than HFI. When the inhibitory tone intensity is increased further from threshold, the strength asymmetry decreased. The temporal asymmetry in LFI vs. HFI arrival time is strongest when the excitatory and inhibitory tones are of equal intensities or if excitatory tone is louder. As inhibitory tone intensity is increased, temporal asymmetry decreased suggesting that the relative magnitude of excitatory and inhibitory inputs shape arrival time of inhibition and FM sweep rate and direction selectivity. Given that most FM bats use downward sweeps as echolocation calls, a similar asymmetry in threshold and strength of LFI vs. HFI may be a general adaptation to enhance direction selectivity while maintaining sweep-rate selective responses to downward sweeps. PMID:23761762

  17. Recent advances in life history of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, in the Suwannee River, Florida, USA: A synopsis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, K.J.; Clugston, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Gulf sturgeon spawn on portions of three sites in the upper Suwannee River, which may appropriately be described as spawning reefs. The same areas are utilized from year to year. Habitat factors important in spawning site determination include gravel/cobble substrate, the presence of eddy fields, a neutral to slightly alkaline pH, and an empirically observed range in calcium ion content (6-18 mg/L Ca++, corresponding to a conductivity range of 40-110??S). Eggs are deposited contagiously within a small area ( 3 m) when water temperatures drop in mid-December, but final destinations in mid-winter remain unknown. Age-2 through 6 juveniles remain in the river mouth estuary over winter. In late January through early February YOY migrate downriver for the first time, joining larger juveniles to overwinter and feed. Tag and recapture data yield a Suwannee River population of Gulf sturgeon estimated at 7,650 individuals, with an annual turnover rate of 16%. Based on stability in cumulative recapture rates from 1991-1998, population size is stable with an effective balance between recruitment and mortality. However, population structure is dynamic, controlled by the juxtaposition, conjunction, and summation of successive strong and weak year classes. Length/age frequency distributions for 1995 and 1998 populations censuses are very different. The 1995 distribution is bimodal with a dominant mode of 9-14 year old subadults/adults, and a sub-dominant of mode of 2-4 year old juveniles. The 1998 distribution is trimodal, but overwhelmingly dominated by 6-9 year old subadults. Erosion by 1998 of the major subadult/adult mode from the 1995 census illustrates that large adults encounter the same high mortality as smaller fish. Ultimate adult size in the population has remained constant at 2.2 cm TL over 13 years, indicating a maximum life expectancy of 25 years for Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon.

  18. Passage and behaviour of cultured Lake Sturgeon in a prototype side-baffle fish ladder: I. Ladder hydraulics and fish ascent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research and development of a fish ladder for sturgeons requires understanding ladder hydraulics and sturgeon behaviour in the ladder to insure the ladder is safe and provides effective passage. After years of research and development, we designed and constructed a full-scale prototype side-baffle ladder inside a spiral flume (38.3m long??1m wide??1m high) on a 6% (1:16.5) slope with a 1.92-m rise in elevation (bottom to top) to test use by sturgeons. Twenty-eight triangular side baffles, each extending part way across the flume, alternated from inside wall to outside wall down the ladder creating two major flow habitats: a continuous, sinusoidal flow down the ladder through the vertical openings of side-baffles and an eddy below each side baffle. Ascent and behaviour was observed on 22 cultured Lake Sturgeon=LS (Acipenser fulvescens) repeatedly tested in groups as juveniles (as small as 105.1cm TL, mean) or as adults (mean TL, 118cm) during four periods (fall 2002 and 2003; spring 2003 and 2007). Percent of juveniles entering the ladder that ascended to the top was greater in spring (72.7%) than in fall (40.9-45.5%) and 90.9% of 11 adults, which ascended as juveniles, ascended to the top. Six LS (27.3%) never swam to the top and seven (31.8%) swam to the top in all tests, indicating great variability among individuals for ascent drive. Some LS swam directly to the top in <1min, but most rested in an eddy during ascent. Juveniles swimming through outside wall baffle slots (mean velocity, 1.2ms-1) swam at 1.8-2.2body lengthss-1 and 3.2-3.3tail beatss-1, either at or approaching prolonged swimming speed. The side-baffle ladder was stream-like and provided key factors for a sturgeon ladder: a continuous flow and no full cross-channel walls, abundant eddies for resting, an acceptable water depth, and a water velocity fish could ascend swimming 2bls-1. A side-baffle ladder passes LS and other moderate-swimming fishes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  19. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic Bight): Atlantic and shortnosed sturgeons

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal species. The Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons (especially the former) were commercially important fishes between 1880 and 1900, but stocks have since decreased markedly and the shortnose sturgeon is now classified as federally endangered. Although the two species are anadromous, the shortnose sturgeon tends to spawn farther upstream, and spawning in both species usually occurs over a clean, hard substrate washed by a moderate to strong current. The shortnose sturgeon usually spawn earlier at the same latitude, with spawning of this species in the St. John River, New Brunswick, being completed by mid-May, as opposed to late June or even July for the Atlantic sturgeon. During non-spawning periods, the shortnose is largely confined to estuaries and apparently does not undergo the extensive coastal migrations that are characteristic of the Atlantic sturgeon. Atlantic sturgeon mature more slowly than shortnose sturgeon at comparable latitudes, with male and female Atlantic sturgeon from the Hudson River, New York, requiring at least 11 and 18 years, respectively, to reach maturity, compared with less than half that time for the shortnose sturgeon. Spawning in both sexes may occur thereafter only once every several years. Both species are usually indiscriminate feeders and feed by sucking materials off the bottom with their protrusible mouths. Feeding apparently occurs mostly at night in the shortnose sturgeon. 71 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Seasonal distribution of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in the pensacola bay system, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, M.S.; Wrege, B.M.; Parauka, F.M.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial distributions of Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi were assessed in the Pensacola bay system, Florida, using stationary ultrasonic telemetry. Fifty-eight Gulf sturgeon were tagged within the Escambia (n=26), Yellow (n=8), Blackwater (n=12) and Choctawhatchee Rivers (n=12) in June, July, September and October, 2005. Fifty-four Gulf sturgeon were detected at least once during the study. Migration of sturgeon occurred throughout the bay system in fall, to various winter habitats in the Gulf of Mexico and Santa Rosa Sound. In spring, tagged sturgeon migrated back through the bay system to summer habitats in rivers. Based on the duration and number of detections, Gulf sturgeon primarily used the upper portions of East and Escambia Bays as migration routes in and out of all rivers during spring and summer and inhabited the lower portion of Pensacola Bay for longer durations in fall and winter. Specific areas within the Pensacola bay system were used in summer and winter that were not previously documented as essential sturgeon habitat. Areas in southeastern Pensacola Bay were heavily used during winter by a large portion of the population. Gulf sturgeon also exhibited long-term winter residency in Santa Rosa Sound for two consecutive years. An area in northeastern Escambia Bay supported Gulf sturgeon during the summer, which was unexpected and can not be explained by the data from this study. However, the discovery that Gulf sturgeon remain in the bay during the summer has important ecological and management implications that need further investigation. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  1. Immunophysiology of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus (Mitchill), and the relationship to parasitic copepod, Dichelesthium oblongum (Abilgaard) infection.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, M S; Allam, B A; Dunton, K J; Clark, M A; Kurtz, E B; Fast, M D

    2012-09-01

    The copepod parasite, Dichelesthium oblongum, is known to infect the Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, within the area near New York city, USA, known as the NY Bight. The gross pathology associated with the juvenile and adult copepod stages along with the parasite's link in causing changes in sturgeon osmoregulatory capabilities has led us to investigate the host immunophysiology in relation to this host-parasite system. All the host variables, which included gill Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase activity, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) and white blood cell differential counts, were affected in a non-linear manner by the copepod parasite. The parasites increased the host gill Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase activity and serum AP along with the percentage granulocytes while decreasing the percentage lymphocytes. A new method, developed to sample and preserve white blood cells in the field for future flow cytometry analysis, proved adequate. The effects of fish size, location and time of sampling were accounted for by the use of generalized linear models, and their effects on the host variables are discussed.

  2. Characterization and expression of cytochrome P4501A in Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon experimentally exposed to coplanar PCB 126 and TCDD.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nirmal K; Walker, Nichole; Chambers, R Christopher; Wirgin, Isaac

    2011-07-01

    The AHR pathway activates transcription of CYP1A and mediates most toxic responses from exposure to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants such as PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Therefore, expression of CYP1A is predictive of most higher level toxic responses from these chemicals. To date, no study had developed an assay to quantify CYP1A expression in any sturgeon species. We addressed this deficiency by partially characterizing CYP1A in Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) and then used derived sturgeon sequences to develop reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays to quantify CYP1A mRNA expression in TCDD and PCB126 treated early life-stages of both species. Phylogenetic analysis of CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C and CYP3A deduced amino acid sequences from other fishes and sturgeons revealed that our putative Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon CYP1A sequences most closely clustered with previously derived CYP1A sequences. We then used semi-quantitative and real-time RT-PCR to measure CYP1A mRNA levels in newly hatched Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon larvae that were exposed to graded doses of waterborne PCB126 (0.01-1000 parts per billion (ppb)) and TCDD (0.001-10 ppb). We initially observed significant induction of CYP1A mRNA compared to vehicle control at the lowest doses of PCB126 and TCDD used, 0.01 ppb and 0.001 ppb, respectively. Significant induction was observed at all doses of both chemicals although lower expression was seen at the highest doses. We also compared CYP1A expression among tissues of i.p. injected shortnose sturgeon and found significant inducibility in heart, intestine, and liver, but not in blood, gill, or pectoral fin clips. For the first time, our results indicate that young life-stages of sturgeons are sensitive to AHR ligands at environmentally relevant concentrations, however, it is yet to be determined if induction of CYP1A can be used as a biomarker in environmental

  3. Unscreened Water-Diversion Pipes Pose an Entrainment Risk to the Threatened Green Sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    PubMed Central

    Mussen, Timothy D.; Cocherell, Dennis; Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Reardon, Jon S.; Hockett, Zachary; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2014-01-01

    Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California) watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained) and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length) to entrainment in a large (>500-kl) outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26–61%), likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation. PMID:24454967

  4. A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances represent opportunities to enhance and supplement traditional fisheries sampling approaches. One example with growing importance for fisheries research is hydroacoustic technologies such as side-scan sonar. Advantages of side-scan sonar over traditional techniques include the ability to sample large areas efficiently and the potential to survey fish without physical handling-important for species of conservation concern, such as endangered sturgeons. Our objectives were to design an efficient survey methodology for sampling Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus by using side-scan sonar and to developmethods for analyzing these data. In North Carolina and South Carolina, we surveyed six rivers thought to contain varying abundances of sturgeon by using a combination of side-scan sonar, telemetry, and video cameras (i.e., to sample jumping sturgeon). Lower reaches of each river near the saltwater-freshwater interface were surveyed on three occasions (generally successive days), and we used occupancy modeling to analyze these data.We were able to detect sturgeon in five of six rivers by using these methods. Side-scan sonar was effective in detecting sturgeon, with estimated gear-specific detection probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 and river-specific occupancy estimates (per 2-km river segment) ranging from 0.0 to 0.8. Future extensions of this occupancy modeling framework will involve the use of side-scan sonar data to assess sturgeon habitat and abundance in different river systems.

  5. Unscreened water-diversion pipes pose an entrainment risk to the threatened green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris.

    PubMed

    Mussen, Timothy D; Cocherell, Dennis; Poletto, Jamilynn B; Reardon, Jon S; Hockett, Zachary; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M Levent; Cech, Joseph J; Fangue, Nann A

    2014-01-01

    Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California) watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained) and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length) to entrainment in a large (>500-kl) outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26-61%), likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation.

  6. Seasonal movements among river reaches, migration strategies, and population structure of the divided Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon population: the effects of Holyoke Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, Boyd; Kieffer, Micah; Vinogradov, Phil; Kynard, B.; Bronzi, P.; Rosenthal, H.

    2012-01-01

    Even after 155 years, each population segment seasonally migrates toward the other attempting to maintain the natural connection. Migration timing and style of pre-spawning and post-spawning males and females is discussed, as is homing. The impact of Holyoke Dam on population size and growth is characterized and turbine mortality of adult sturgeon passing through a Kaplan turbine at the dam is estimated. The chapter also identifies a behavioral dysfunction that results when migrations are blocked by a dam and are not completed at the correct stage of life. Many unknown effects of damming on other long-lived riverine fishes are likely captured in this 16-year study.

  7. Shovelnose sturgeon spawning in relation to varying discharge treatments in a Missouri River tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodman, B.J.; Guy, C.S.; Camp, S.L.; Gardner, W.M.; Kappenman, K.M.; Webb, M.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Many lotic fish species use natural patterns of variation in discharge and temperature as spawning cues, and these natural patterns are often altered by river regulation. The effects of spring discharge and water temperature variation on the spawning of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have not been well documented. From 2006 through 2009, we had the opportunity to study the effects of experimental discharge levels on shovelnose sturgeon spawning in the lower Marias River, a regulated tributary to the Missouri River in Montana. In 2006, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in the Marias River in conjunction with the ascending, peak (134 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and water temperatures from 16°C to 19°C. In 2008, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in conjunction with the peak (118 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and during a prolonged period of increased discharge (28–39 m3/s), coupled with water temperatures from 11°C to 23°C in the lower Marias River. No evidence of shovelnose sturgeon spawning was documented in the lower Marias River in 2007 or 2009 when discharge remained low (14 and 20 m3/s) despite water temperatures suitable and optimal (12°C-24°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development. A similar relationship between shovelnose sturgeon spawning and discharge was observed in the Teton River. These data suggest that discharge must reach a threshold level (28 m3/s) and should be coupled with water temperatures suitable (12°C-24°C) or optimal (16°C-20°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development to provide a spawning cue for shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Marias River.

  8. Sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus phylogeny and PCR tests.

    PubMed

    Clouthier, Sharon C; VanWalleghem, Elissa; Anderson, Eric D

    2015-12-09

    Sturgeon epitheliotropic nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) can cause a lethal disease of the integumentary system. These viruses have not been assigned to any currently recognized family or genus. In this study, phylogenetic analyses using the major capsid protein (MCP) showed that the sturgeon NCLDVs formed a cohesive taxonomic group, could be identified to the species or possibly sub-species level and formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the Megavirales. The genetic relatedness of the sturgeon virus MCP allowed design of 3 PCR diagnostic tests with analytical specificity (ASp) inclusive of this group of viruses. The conventional PCR test, C1, had broader ASp than the 2 quantitative PCR tests, Q1 and Q2, and was inclusive of the sturgeon viruses as well as some viruses belonging to the families Mimi-, Phycodna-, or Iridoviridae. Q2 had broader specificity than Q1 but both tests recognized the sturgeon NCLDVs and did not cross-react with co-localizing sturgeon herpesviruses. Analytical test performance characteristics evaluated for Q1 and Q2 revealed sensitive assays with observed 50% limits of detection between 3 and 6.25 plasmid copies and high intra- and inter-assay repeatability. Q1 was used to test for sturgeon viruses in endangered populations of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens within the Winnipeg River or Nelson River drainage systems of Manitoba, Canada. Test results indicated that namao virus is endemic in the Nelson River water basin. These tests meet the analytical requirements for diagnostic testing in Canada and are useful tools for disease management in sturgeon conservation stocking programs in North America.

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  10. Status of scientific knowledge of North American sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haxton, Tim J.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Hildebrand, L.

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon and paddlefish were historically the dominant large fishes in all major Northern American Rivers. All ten species have been affected the past 150 years from anthropogenic stressors such that they are considered imperiled by various jurisdictions. Status papers have been presented for each species as part of a special publication on North American Acipenseriformes. The objective of this paper is to provide a summary of the similarities and differences in life history, habitat requirements, and stressors among the species. Optimistically, this would facilitate better management of the order as a whole if management actions for one species can inform another, especially in situations where populations are too low to obtain pertinent information.

  11. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Principles in Flood Recovery: Incorporating RSM after the 2011 Missouri River Flood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    con- structed to create shallow water habitat for the endangered Pallid Sturgeon . The Upper Chute was constructed in 1994 and has been widening during...areas for the endangered Pallid Sturgeon . The MRRP worked with the design team to set the location, shape, and depth of an area that would meet the...habitat for the en- dangered Pallid Sturgeon . Figure 7. Lower Decatur Bend, Missouri River, revetment erosion. Figure 8. Channel depth in Lower

  12. Upstream migration of two pre-spawning shortnose sturgeon passed upstream of Pinopolis Dam, Cooper River, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finney, S.T.; Isely, J.J.; Cooke, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Two shortnose sturgeon were artificially passed above the Pinopolis Lock and Dam into the Santee-Cooper Lakes in order to simulate the use of a fish-passage mechanism. Movement patterns and spawning behavior were studied to determine the potential success of future shortnose sturgeon migrations if and when a fish-migration bypass structure is installed. In addition to movement patterns, water temperature was monitored in areas that shortnose sturgeons utilized. Shortnose sturgeon migrated through a large static system to a known shortnose sturgeon spawning area more than 160 km upstream where water temperatures were consistent with known shortnose sturgeon spawning temperatures. No specific movement patterns in the reservoir system were recorded during downstream migrations.

  13. Clinical Outcome and Characterization of Local Field Potentials in Holmes Tremor Treated with Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Kaszuba, Brian C.; Gee, Lucy; Prusik, Julia; Danisi, Fabio; Shin, Damian; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-01-01

    Background Holmes tremor (HT) is an irregular, low-frequency rest tremor associated with prominent action and postural tremors. Currently, the most effective stereotactic target and neurophysiologic characterization of HT, specifically local field potentials (LFPs) are uncertain. We present the outcome, intraoperative neurophysiologic analysis with characterization of LFPs in a patient managed with left globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation (Gpi DBS). Case Report A 24-year-old male underwent left Gpi DBS for medically refractory HT. LFPs demonstrated highest powers in the delta range in Gpi. At the 6-month follow-up, a 90% reduction in tremor was observed. Discussion Pallidal DBS should be considered as an alternative target for management of refractory HT. LFP demonstrated neuronal activity associated with higher power in the delta region, similarly seen in patients with generalized dystonia. PMID:27441097

  14. Amygdala Atrophy and Its Functional Disconnection with the Cortico-Striatal-Pallidal-Thalamic Circuit in Major Depressive Disorder in Females

    PubMed Central

    Svob, Connie; Long, Jun; He, Xiaofu; Zhang, Yuqun; Xu, Zhi; Li, Lei; Liu, Jie; Dong, Jian; Zhang, Zuping; Wang, Zhishun; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately twice as common in females than males. Furthermore, female patients with MDD tend to manifest comorbid anxiety. Few studies have explored the potential anatomical and functional brain changes associated with MDD in females. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the anatomical and functional changes underlying MDD in females, especially within the context of comorbid anxiety. Methods In this study, we recruited antidepressant-free females with MDD (N = 35) and healthy female controls (HC; N = 23). The severity of depression and anxiety were evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), respectively. Structural and resting-state functional images were acquired on a Siemens 3.0 Tesla scanner. We compared the structural volumetric differences between patients and HC with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses. Seed-based voxel-wise correlative analyses were used to identify abnormal functional connectivity. Regions with structural deficits showed a significant correlation between gray matter (GM) volume and clinical variables that were selected as seeds. Furthermore, voxel-wise functional connectivity analyses were applied to identify the abnormal connectivity relevant to seed in the MDD group. Results Decreased GM volume in patients was observed in the insula, putamen, amygdala, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum. The right amygdala was selected as a seed to perform connectivity analyses, since its GM volume exhibited a significant correlation with the clinical anxiety scores. We detected regions with disrupted connectivity relevant to seed primarily within the cortico-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuit. Conclusions Amygdaloid atrophy, as well as decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and the cortico-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuit, appears to play a role in female MDD, especially in relation to comorbid anxiety

  15. Effect of chronic pallidal deep brain stimulation on off period dystonia and sensory symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Loher, T; Burgunder, J; Weber, S; Sommerhalder, R; Krauss, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of chronic pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) on off period dystonia, cramps, and sensory symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: 16 patients (6 women, 10 men; mean age at surgery 65 years) suffering from advanced PD were followed up prospectively for one year after implantation of a monopolar electrode in the posteroventral lateral globus pallidus internus. Unilateral DBS was performed in 9 patients. 10 patients had bilateral procedures (contemporaneous bilateral surgery in 7 and staged bilateral surgery in 3 instances). The decision whether to perform unilateral or bilateral surgery depended on the clinical presentation of the patient. Patients were formally assessed preoperatively, at 3–5 days, 3 months, and 12 months after surgery. Results: In patients who underwent unilateral surgery, pain was present in 7 (78%), off dystonia in 5 (56%), cramps in 6 (67%), and dysaesthesia in 4 (44%). In patients who underwent bilateral surgery, pain was present in 7 (70%), off dystonia in 6 (60%), cramps in 7 (70%), and dysaesthesia in 4 (40%). With unilateral DBS, contralateral off period dystonia was improved by 100% at 1 year postoperatively, pain by 74%, cramps by 88%, and dysaesthesia by 100%. There was less pronounced amelioration of ipsilateral off period dystonia and sensory symptoms. With bilateral DBS, total scores for dystonia were improved by 86%, for pain by 90%, for cramps by 90%, and for dysaesthesia by 88%. The benefit appeared early at the first evaluation 3–5 days after surgery and was stable throughout the follow up period. Conclusions: Pallidal DBS yields major improvement of off period dystonia, cramps, and sensory symptoms in patients with advanced PD. PMID:12235307

  16. Food habits of Atlantic sturgeon off the central New Jersey coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Dropkin, D.S.; Warkentine, B.E.; Rachlin, J.W.; Andrews, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Limited information exists on the marine diet of the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We examined the food habits of 275 Atlantic sturgeon (total length, 106-203 cm) caught in the commercial fishery off the coast of New Jersey. Stomachs were provided by fishermen. Significantly more stomachs were empty in the spring than in the fall. Sand and organic debris were a major component in the stomachs (26.3-75.4% by weight). Polycheates were the primary pre group consumed, although the isopod Politolana conchorum was the most important individual prey eaten. Mollusks and fish contributed little to the diet. Some prey taxa (i.e., polychaetes, isopods, amphipods) exhibited seasonal variation in importance in the diet of Atlantic sturgeon. Identification of the offshore diet of Atlantic sturgeon is an important step in developing a better understanding of the life history requirements and marine ecology of this species.

  17. 75 FR 53598 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Shovelnose Sturgeon Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ..., negatively impacting population growth, and ultimately affecting recovery. Much of the domestic sturgeon... reduction in supply resulted in exponential increase in caviar prices subsequent to the 1978 peak (Bardi...

  18. Evaluation of shortnose sturgeon spawning in the Pinopolis Dam tailrace, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, M.S.; Isely, J.J.; Cooke, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fifty egg mats and up to five D-shaped plankton nets were deployed in the tailrace of Pinopolis Dam at river kilometer 77 on the Cooper River, South Carolina, to evaluate the spawning activity of shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum. Spawning times were estimated by back-calculation based on developmental phase. Eggs were collected on 17 of 21 d sampled continuously from March 4 through March 25, 2002, when water temperatures were 10-16??C. A total of 31 shortnose sturgeon eggs were collected from egg mats. An additional 338 shortnose sturgeon eggs and 1 newly hatched yolk sac larva were collected from plankton nets. A minimum of 20 spawning events occurred in the tailrace during the 2002 spawning season. No relationship between mean daily discharge and spawning date was observed. Shortnose sturgeon spawned more often during the night than at any other time of day independent of generation.

  19. Influence of externally attached transmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  20. Influence of externally attached trasmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: Control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  1. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Atlantic and Shortnosed Sturgeons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Figure 11. Dorsal and ventral views of Edisto River moved about 6(X) km northward to 5 cm TL young-of-year shortnose sturgeon Pamlico Sound, North...minimum sturgeon in lower sections of the Edisto and distance traveled by fish that moved more than Waccamaw Rivers , South Carolina, where these 1 km...shortnose sturgeon from St. John River , Canada .................................. 17 14 Transverse sections of marginal ray of pectoral fin of shortnose

  2. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Sturgeon Lake field, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Mederos, S.M.; Moslow, T.F.

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation in the Sturgeon Lake field located in west-central Alberta. The Montney Formation is grouped into two facies associations. Facies Association 1 is a siliciclastic upward-coarsening sequence deposited by storm, current and wave processes and is interpreted as a low energy progradational lower shoreface. Facies Association 2 is a carbonate shallowing upward sequence deposited in a wave dominated progradational shoreface. The contact between Facies Association 1 and 2 is marked by a major change in lithology and is erosive. Palynological analyses reveal two missing palynologic subzones between Facies Association 1 and Facies Association 2 suggesting a period of erosion and/or nondeposition. The boundary between the two facies association is defined as a sequence boundary which stratigraphically divides the Montney Formation into two sequences in the study area. The Lower Montney sequence is composed of eight retrogradational, aggradational and progradational parasequences and represent the Transgressive and the High-stand System Tract. The Upper Montney sequence is composed only of one parasequence and represents the Transgressive System Tract. The Sturgeon Lake Field has two types of reservoir with respect to lithology, porosity, permeability and geometry. The best reservoir facies is a brachiopod wackestone-packstone with permeabilities up to 8 Darcys. Siliciclastic reservoirs consist of very fine grained sandstones with permeabilities of 132 md when fractured.

  3. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in laboratory and field exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boogaard, M.A.; Bills, T.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of the lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) to non-target fishes has been a major point of concern since their use to control larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations began in the early 1960s. The toxicity of TFM to several non-target fish species has been demonstrated in previous studies. However, little information is available on the toxicity of the TFM/1% niclosamide mixture. One species of particular concern is the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Juvenile lake sturgeon of several size ranges were exposed to determine potential effects of the lampricides to individuals present in treatment streams. Sac fry were most resistant to the lampricides followed by fingerlings in the 200 to 225 mm size range. Swim-up fry and fingerlings less than 100 mm were the most sensitive. Concentrations that produced 50% mortality (LC50s) in juvenile lake sturgeon of these smaller size ranges were at or near the minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) required for effective control of larval sea lampreys. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), an amphibian native to several tributaries of the Great Lakes, have also become a species of interest in recent years. Laboratory tests conducted with TFM and a TFM/1% niclosamide mixture on adult mudpuppies indicate that although the amphibian is sensitive to the lampricides, an adequate margin of safety exists for adult mudpuppies to survive when exposed during stream treatments. Fifteen other fish species native to streams treated with lampricides were investigated in the laboratory to determine their sensitivity to the lampricides. Centrarchids, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were the least sensitive to TFM, while ictalurids, black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and tadpole madtom (Notorus gyrinus) were the most sensitive. On-site bioassays conducted before lampricide

  4. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in laboratory and field exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boogaard, M.A.; Bills, T.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of the lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2???,5-dichloro-4???-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) to non-target fishes has been a major point of concern since their use to control larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations began in the early 1960s. The toxicity of TFM to several non-target fish species has been demonstrated in previous studies. However, little information is available on the toxicity of the TFM/1 % niclosamide mixture. One species of particular concern is the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Juvenile lake sturgeon of several size ranges were exposed to determine potential effects of the lampricides to individuals present in treatment streams. Sac fry were most resistant to the lampricides followed by fingerlings in the 200 to 225 mm size range. Swim-up fry and fingerlings less than 100 mm were the most sensitive. Concentrations that produced 50% mortality (LC50s) in juvenile lake sturgeon of these smaller size ranges were at or near the minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) required for effective control of larval sea lampreys. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), an amphibian native to several tributaries of the Great Lakes, have also become a species of interest in recent years. Laboratory tests conducted with TFM and a TFM/1 % niclosamide mixture on adult mudpuppies indicate that although the amphibian is sensitive to the lampricides, an adequate margin of safety exists for adult mudpuppies to survive when exposed during stream treatments. Fifteen other fish species native to streams treated with lampricides were investigated in the laboratory to determine their sensitivity to the lampricides. Centrarchids, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were the least sensitive to TFM, while ictalurids, black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and tadpole madtom (Notorus gyrinus) were the most sensitive. On-site bioassays conducted before lampricide

  5. Green Sturgeon Distribution in the Pacific Ocean Estimated from Modeled Oceanographic Features and Migration Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huff, David D.; Lindley, Steven T.; Wells, Brian K.; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41–51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36–37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information. PMID:23029274

  6. The Relationship Between Acoustic Target Strength and Body Length for Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    sturgeon feeding portray them as opportunistic benthivores, feeding primar- ily on mollusks, polychaete worms, amphipods , isopods, shrimp and small bottom...May-July in Canada (Smith 1985; Bain 1997; Smith and Clugston 1997). Substrate is a key spawning habitat parameter for Atlantic sturgeon, as hard...maturity. Since juveniles are known to congregate at fresh and saltwater interfaces, these areas may serve as juvenile nursery habitat . Important

  7. Malformations of the endangered Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and its causal agent

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianying; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wei, Qiwei; Zhen, Huajun; Zhao, Yanbin; Peng, Hui; Wan, Yi; Giesy, John P.; Li, Luoxin; Zhang, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The anadromous Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is endangered and listed among the first class of protected animals in China. The possible causes for the decline of this species are the effects of synthetic chemicals, and loss of critical habitat. Chinese sturgeon in the Yangtze River have accumulated triphenyltin (TPT) to 31–128 ng/g wet weigh (ww) in liver, which is greater than the concentrations of tributyltin (<1.0 ng/g ww). Maternal transfer of TPT has resulted in concentrations of 25.5 ± 13.0 ng/g ww in eggs of wild Chinese sturgeon, which poses a significant risk to the larvae naturally fertilized or hatched in the Yangtze River. The incidence of deformities in fry was 7.5%, with 1.2% of individuals exhibiting ocular abnormal development, and 6.3% exhibited skeletal/morphological deformations. The incidences of both ocular and skeletal/morphological deformations were directly proportional to the TPT concentration in the eggs of both the Chinese sturgeon and the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) in controlled laboratory studies. The rates of deformities in the controlled studies were consistent with the rates caused at the similar concentrations in eggs collected from the field. Thus, TPT is the causal agent to induce the malformation of larvae of Chinese sturgeon. The incidence of deformed larvae of Chinese sturgeon is an indicator of overall population-level effects of TPT on Chinese sturgeon, because TPT at environmentally relevant concentrations can result in significantly decrease both quality and quantity of eggs and spawning frequency of fish. PMID:19470453

  8. Movements of White Sturgeon in Lake Roosevelt : Final Report 1988-1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Setter, Ann L.

    1992-06-01

    Historically, white sturgeon moved throughout the Columbia River system, ranging freely from the estuary to the headwaters, with the possible exception of limited passage at Cascades, Celilo and Kettle Falls during spring floods. Construction of Rock Island Dam in 1933, followed by Bonneville in 1938 and Grand Coulee in 1941, completely disrupted sturgeon migratory opportunity, and with the 17 successive Columbia and Snake river dams constructed over the next 32 years an entirely different river system was created for the species. Sturgeon caught between dams were essentially isolated populations with severely limited reproduction potential. Some reservoirs ran from dam to dam with no river habitat remaining, while other reaches had various lengths of free running river, but drastically reduced from historical situations. However, if reservoirs provide habitat for sturgeon use, and therefore compensate to some degree for river loss, the major limiting factors associated with population viability may be reduced spawning success, either from lack of suitable area or poor incubation environments. The most upstream impoundment of the Columbia River in the United States is Lake Roosevelt, behind Grand Coulee Dam. If sturgeon don`t use Lake Roosevelt the capacity of the system to sustain a large sturgeon population would be understandably limited, and much reduced from the pre-dam era. In general this study found that sturgeon spawner aggregations from early spring to mid- summer depend most heavily on the timing of increasing water temperature. In the spring the water temperatures seem to stimulate the fish to start feeding and leave deep pools. The summer provides access to broader and shallower areas for food. The study on sturgeon movement was an attempt to define habitat use in such a reservoir/river system.

  9. Diel and seasonal movements of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the mid-Columbia river

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.M.; Gray, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    To evaluate seasonal movements in the free-flowing Hanford reach of the Columbia River, white sturgeon with radio transmitters in spring and early summer 1977 were monitored along with fish that had been tagged in 1975 and 1976. Daily environmental temperature records indicated sturgeon did not consistently engage in a diel movement pattern. It was concluded that although temperature is a major influence stimulating seasonal movements, light cycle and feeding probably influence diel movements. (JMT)

  10. Green sturgeon distribution in the Pacific Ocean estimated from modeled oceanographic features and migration behavior.

    PubMed

    Huff, David D; Lindley, Steven T; Wells, Brian K; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41-51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36-37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information.

  11. Documentation of a Gulf sturgeon spawning site on the Yellow River, Alabama, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreiser, Brian R.; Berg, J.; Randall, M.; Parauka, F.; Floyd, S.; Young, B.; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Parauka and Giorgianni (2002) reported that potential Gulf sturgeon spawning habitat is present in the Yellow River; however, efforts to document spawning by the collection of eggs or larvae have been unsuccessful in the past. Herein, we report on the first successful collection of eggs from a potential spawning site on the Yellow River and the verification of their identity as Gulf sturgeon by using molecular methods.

  12. Diet composition of larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; McClenning, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining food following the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the first year of life is a critical event that strongly influences growth and survival of young-of-year fishes. For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, limited information is available on food habits during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to quantify diet components of shovelnose sturgeon during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the young-of-year life stage in the North Dakota and Montana portions of the Missouri River. Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon were sampled between early August and early September 2003. Shovelnose sturgeon initiated exogenous feeding by 16 mm, and individuals 16-140 mm fed exclusively on two macroinvertebrate orders (Diptera and Ephemeroptera). Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon exhibited an apparently high feeding success as 99 of 100 individuals contained food in the gut. The number of organisms in the gut increased exponentially with fish length for larval Diptera (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.0001) and linearly (r2 = 0.12, P = 0.0006) for larval Ephemeroptera, but the number of Diptera pupae in the gut was not significantly related (P = 0.55) to length of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon. The length of ingested prey was linearly related to fish length for Diptera larvae (r2 = 0.20, P = 0.002), whereas the relationship between lengths of ingested Ephemeroptera larvae and lengths of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon was best described by a power function (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.0001). These results provide the first quantification of feeding dynamics for young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in a natural river environment. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  13. Diet composition of larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.; McClenning, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining food following the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the first year of life is a critical event that strongly influences growth and survival of young-of-year fishes. For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, limited information is available on food habits during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to quantify diet components of shovelnose sturgeon during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the young-of-year life stage in the North Dakota and Montana portions of the Missouri River. Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon were sampled between early August and early September 2003. Shovelnose sturgeon initiated exogenous feeding by 16 mm, and individuals 16–140 mm fed exclusively on two macroinvertebrate orders (Diptera and Ephemeroptera). Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon exhibited an apparently high feeding success as 99 of 100 individuals contained food in the gut. The number of organisms in the gut increased exponentially with fish length for larval Diptera (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.0001) and linearly (r2 = 0.12, P = 0.0006) for larval Ephemeroptera, but the number of Diptera pupae in the gut was not significantly related (P = 0.55) to length of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon. The length of ingested prey was linearly related to fish length for Diptera larvae (r2 = 0.20, P = 0.002), whereas the relationship between lengths of ingested Ephemeroptera larvae and lengths of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon was best described by a power function (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.0001). These results provide the first quantification of feeding dynamics for young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in a natural river environment.

  14. Evaluation of Reconnection Options for White Sturgeon in the Snake River Using a Population Viability Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Chandler, James A.; Lepla, Ken B.; Van Winkle, Webb

    2007-01-01

    Abstract.- This paper describes a simulation study of reconnection options for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus subpopulations in adjacent river segments above and below CJ Strike Dam on the Snake River, Idaho, USA. In contrast to the downstream river segment, the upstream river segment is long and has areas that are suitable for spawning during normal and wet hydrologic conditions. We evaluated demographic and genetic consequences of upstream and downstream passage using different model assumptions about trashrack spacing and density dependent effects on the spawning interval. Our genetic results predict that, although reconnection would introduce new alleles to the upstream subpopulation, it would also preserve alleles from the downstream subpopulation by propagating them in the larger subpopulation above the dam. Our demographic results predict that halving the space between trashracks would have large and unequivocal benefits, whereas the effects of reconnection would be smaller and more sensitive to model assumptions. Simulated upstream passage tended to benefit both subpopulations only in the absence of density dependent limitation. In the presence of density dependence, the combination of halved trashrack spacing and upstream and downstream passage produced the best results. Narrower trashracks kept spawning adults in the upstream segment with spawning habitat, while allowing their progeny to migrate downstream. Screening appears to be the best option for such a species in this configuration of a long river segment acting as a demographic source above a short one acting as a demographic sink.

  15. Comparison of fin ray sampling methods on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus growth and swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P L; Jackson, Z J; Peterson, D L

    2016-02-01

    Effects of two fin-ray sampling methods on swimming performance, growth and survival were evaluated for hatchery-reared sub-adult white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Fish were subjected to either a notch removal treatment in which a small section was removed from an anterior marginal pectoral-fin ray, or a full removal treatment in which an entire marginal pectoral-fin ray was removed. Control fish did not have fin rays removed, but they were subjected to a sham operation. A modified 3230 l Brett-type swim tunnel was used to evaluate 10 min critical station-holding speeds (SCSH ) of A. transmontanus, immediately after the fin ray biopsies were obtained with each method. Survival and growth were evaluated over a 6 month period for a separate group of fish subjected to the same biopsy methods. Mean ± S.E. 10 min SCSH were 108·0 ± 2·3, 110·0 ± 2·6 and 115·0 ± 3·5 cm s(-1) for the notch removal group, full removal group and control group, respectively, and were not significantly different among treatments. Behavioural characteristics including tail-beat frequency and time spent hunkering were also not significantly different among treatment groups swimming at the same speeds. There were no mortalities and relative growth was similar among treatment groups. Average biopsy time for the notch removal method was lower and the wounds appeared to heal more quickly compared with the full removal method.

  16. Effects of dietary methylmercury on growth performance and tissue burden in juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (A. transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Won; De Riu, Nicola; Lee, Seunghyung; Bai, Sungchul C; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2011-10-01

    Triplicate groups of juvenile green and white sturgeon (30 ± 2 g) were exposed to one of the four nominal concentrations of dietary methylmercury (MeHg, 0 (control), 25, 50, and 100mg MeHg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to determine and compare the effects on growth performance and mercury (Hg) tissue burden in the two sturgeon species. Mortality, growth performance as measured by percent body weight increase per day, hepatosomatic index, proximate composition of whole body, and Hg burden in the whole body, gill, heart, liver, kidney, and white muscle were determined to assess the adverse growth effects and bioaccumulation of dietary MeHg in sturgeon. Significantly higher mortality and lower growth rate (p<0.05) were noted in green and white sturgeon fed the MeHg diets compared to the controls. Green sturgeon fed the MeHg diets exhibited earlier and more severe adverse effects compared to white sturgeon. Mercury accumulated in all tissues in a dose-dependent manner regardless of species, and the highest Hg concentrations were found in the kidneys of both species. Dietary MeHg had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the whole body proximate compositions of either sturgeon species. In conclusion, green sturgeon was more susceptible to dietary MeHg toxicity than white sturgeon in our 8-week growth experiment based on the higher mortality and lower growth rate and body energy contents.

  17. Age, growth, mortality, and abundance of lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    An increased understanding of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) population dynamics is a key requirement for successful management efforts. Little is known regarding the Grasse River population of lake sturgeon except that it is one of a few populations in New York State where spawning has been documented. Thus our purpose was to assess the current status of lake sturgeon in the Grasse River system, including age, growth, mortality, and abundance. Age was determined for 196 of 211 lake sturgeon by examination of sectioned pectoral fin rays. Ages ranged from 0 to 32 years and the annual mortality rate for fish between ages 7 and 14 was 16.8%. The weight (W, g) to total length (TL, mm) relationship was W = 1.281 x 10-6TL3.202. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was TL = 1913(1-e-0.0294(t+9.5691)). While the range of observed ages was similar to that of nearby St. Lawrence River populations, mean weight at age for an individual at 1000 mm TL was lower than that observed for lake sturgeon within Lake St. Francis of the St. Lawrence River. Predicted growth based on von Bertalanffy parameters was similar to that observed for the nearby Lake St. Francis. An open population estimator using the POPAN sub-module in the Program MARK produced an abundance estimate of 793 lake sturgeon (95% CI = 337-1249).

  18. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  19. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1991-10-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 332 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989 and 1990. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 880 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 638 to 1,211. Culture of one pair of sturgeon in 1990 was of limited success. Less than 5% of eggs hatched with 50% initial mortality of fry. The contribution of contaminants found in eggs (aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, and organochlorides) toward this poor survival is unknown. Handling problems with the eggs at the time of spawning complicated our results. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements. Sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia-Idaho border and seek out deep holes or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall. Seasonal differences in use of depth and velocity parameters were found between sexes and among seasons. No relationships were found between sturgeon movement and month, water temperature, flow, and flow change. However, multiple regression analysis indicated that up to 30% of the variance in individual sturgeon movement was explained by the combination of the four variables.

  20. Estimating sturgeon abundance in the Carolinas using side-scan sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one of the most threatened taxa worldwide, including species in North Carolina and South Carolina. Populations of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in the Carolinas have been significantly reduced from historical levels by a combination of intense fishing and habitat loss. There is a need for estimates of current abundance, to describe status, and for estimates of historical abundance in order to provide realistic recovery goals. In this study we used N-mixture and distance models with data acquired from side-scan sonar surveys to estimate abundance of sturgeon in six major sturgeon rivers in North Carolina and South Carolina. Estimated abundances of sturgeon greater than 1 m TL in the Carolina distinct population segment (DPS) were 2,031 using the count model and 1,912 via the distance model. The Pee Dee River had the highest overall abundance of any river at 1,944 (count model) or 1,823 (distance model). These estimates do not account for sturgeon less than 1 m TL or occurring in riverine reaches not surveyed or in marine waters. Comparing the two models, the N-mixture model produced similar estimates using less data than the distance model with only a slight reduction of estimated precision.

  1. Pericardial and pericardioperitoneal canal relationships to cardiac function in the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Gregory, Joshua A; Graham, Jeffrey B; Cech, Joseph J; Dalton, Nancy; Michaels, Jim; Chin Lai, N

    2004-06-01

    Sturgeons are primitive bony fishes and their hearts have structural features found in other primitive fishes. Sturgeons have a pericardioperitoneal canal (PPC), a one-way conduit into the peritoneum. A PPC also occurs in elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) and studies with that group demonstrate that pericardial pressure and pericardial fluid loss via the PPC affect stroke volume. A study of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) heart function was conducted to test for a comparable PPC and pericardial effects. White sturgeon-elasmobranch heart-function similarities include biphasic ventricular filling, a comparable operational pericardial pressure (-0.03 kPa), and a strongly negative pressure (-0.2 to -0.6 kPa) with complete pericardial fluid withdrawal. Differences include the white sturgeon's relatively smaller atrium and ventricle but a larger conus arteriosus. Although white sturgeon heart size is also smaller, its pericardial volume is disproportionately less (2.4 to 2.7 vs. 3.5 to 5.4 ml kg(-1) in elasmobranchs), meaning it has less scope for increasing stroke volume upon PPC fluid release. These differences may reflect the phylogenetic progression from the less complex operation of the elasmobranch heart, which lacks sympathetic innervation and has a mechanically mediated (PPC) stroke volume, to the condition in the more derived bony fishes which have sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of both stroke volume and heart rate.

  2. Atlantic sturgeons (Acipenser sturio, Acipenser oxyrinchus): American females successful in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiedemann, Ralph; Moll, Katja; Paulus, Kirsten B.; Scheer, Michael; Williot, Patrick; Bartel, Ryszard; Gessner, Jörn; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Recent molecular data on the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) DNA have challenged the traditional view that the now extinct Baltic sturgeon population belonged to the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. Instead, there is evidence that American sea sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus historically immigrated into the Baltic Sea. In this study, we test the hypothesis that A. oxyrinchus introgressed into, rather than replaced, the A. sturio population in the Baltic. We established four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nuclear MHC II antigen gene with a species-specific SNP pattern. Using an ancient DNA approach and two independent lines of molecular evidence (sequencing of allele-specific clones, SNaPshot), we detected both A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus alleles in the available museum material of the now extinct Baltic sturgeon population. The hybrid nature of the Baltic population was further confirmed by very high levels of heterozygosity. It had been previously postulated that the immigration of the cold-adapted A. oxyrinchus into the Baltic occurred during the Medieval Little Ice Age, when temperature likely dropped below the degree inducing spawning in A. sturio. Under this scenario, our new findings suggest that the genetic mosaic pattern in the Baltic sturgeon population (oxyrinchus mtDNA, sturio and oxyrinchus MHC alleles) is possibly caused by sex-biased introgression where spawning was largely restricted to immigrating American females, while fertilization was predominantly achieved by abundant local European males. The hybrid nature of the former Baltic sturgeon population should be taken into account in the current reintroduction measures.

  3. Reconsidering residency: Characterization and conservation implications of complex migratory patterns of shortnose sturgeon (Acispenser brevirostrum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dionne, Phillip E.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Wippelhauser, Gail S.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve endangered species usually involve attempts to define and manage threats at the appropriate scale of population processes. In some species that scale is localized; in others, dispersal and migration link demic units within larger metapopulations. Current conservation strategies for endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) assume the species is river resident, with little to no movement between rivers. However we have found that shortnose sturgeon travel more than 130 km through coastal waters between the largest rivers in Maine. Indeed, acoustic telemetry shows that shortnose sturgeon enter six out of the seven acoustically monitored rivers we have monitored, with over 70% of tagged individuals undertaking coastal migrations between river systems. Four migration patterns were identified for shortnose sturgeon inhabiting the Penobscot River, Maine: river resident (28%), spring coastal emigrant (24%), fall coastal emigrant (33%), and summer coastal emigrant (15%). No shortnose sturgeon classified as maturing female exhibited a resident pattern, indicating differential migration. Traditional river-specific assessment and management of shortnose sturgeon could be better characterized using a broader metapopulation scale, at least in the Gulf of Maine, that accounts for diverse migratory strategies and the importance of migratory corridors as critical habitat.

  4. Use of behavioral and physiological indicators to evaluate Scaphirhynchus sturgeon spawning success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Annis, M.L.; Bryan, J.L.; Griffith, S.A.; Holan, S.H.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) were captured in the Lower Missouri River in March 2004 to evaluate the effectiveness of physiology, telemetry and remote sensor technology coupled with change point analysis in identifying when and where Scaphirhynchus sturgeon spawn. Captured sturgeons were instrumented with ultrasonic transmitters and with archival data storage tags (DST) that recorded temperature and pressure. Female sturgeon were tracked through the suspected spawning period. Thereafter, attempts were made to recapture fish to evaluate spawning success. At the time of transmitter implantation, blood and an ovarian biopsy were taken. Reproductive hormones and cortisol were measured in blood. Polarization indices and germinal vesicle breakdown were assessed on the biopsied oocytes to determine readiness to spawn. Behavioral data collected using telemetry and DST sensors were used to determine the direction and magnitude of possible spawning-related movements and to identify the timing of potential spawning events. Upon recapture observations of the ovaries and blood chemistry provided measures of spawning success and comparative indicators to explain differences in observed behavior. Behavioral and physiological indicators of spawning interpreted along with environmental measures may assist in the determination of variables that may cue sturgeon reproduction and the conditions under which sturgeon successfully spawn.

  5. Effect of exposure of sturgeon roe to low-intensity laser radiation on the hardiness of juvenile sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavskiia, V. Yu.; Barulin, N. V.

    2008-03-01

    We present data on the effect of polarized laser radiation in the near IR region of the spectrum with wavelength 808 nm on the resistance of juvenile sturgeon to oxygen deficiency in the habitat when the fertilized roe are briefly exposed to radiation in the organogenesis stage. The magnitude of the stimulating effect depends on the exposure time (t) and power density (P) of the radiation and also on its modulation frequency (F). For optimal irradiation parameters (cw mode, P = 2.9 mW/cm2, t = 60 sec), the hardiness of the juveniles increases by a factor of ˜1.5 compared with the control group. The maximum differences in the sensitivity of embryos to cw and pulsed radiation are observed for F = 1 Hz; as the modulation frequency increases up to F = 50 Hz, the magnitude of the photobiological effect approaches a level typical for cw exposure. We show that the duration of the dark period (pause time) between pulses is the critical parameter determining the dependence of the stimulating effect on the modulation frequency. We discuss questions concerning use of the indicated physical factor in the technology for raising sturgeon under industrial fish farming conditions.

  6. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1989 through March 1990 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from McNary Dam, to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam, to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams, and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights from this work is also included. 47 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  7. Defining winter trophic habitat of juvenile Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee and Apalachicola rivermouth estuaries, acoustic telemetry investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, K.J.; Randall, M.T.; Edwards, R.E.; Summers, T.M.; Luke, K.E.; Smith, W.T.; Norem, A.D.; Harden, William M.; Lukens, R.H.; Parauka, F.; Bolden, S.; Lehnert, R.

    2009-01-01

    Three automated listening post-telemetry studies were undertaken in the Suwannee and Apalachicola estuaries to gain knowledge of habitats use by juvenile Gulf Sturgeons (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) on winter feeding grounds. A simple and reliable method for external attachment of small acoustic tags to the dorsal fin base was developed using shrink-tubing. Suspending receivers on masts below anchored buoys improved reception and facilitated downloading; a detection range of 500–2500 m was realized. In the Apalachicola estuary, juvenile GS stayed in shallow water (< 2 m) within the estuarine transition zone all winter in the vicinity of the Apalachicola River mouth. Juvenile GS high-use areas did not coincide with high density benthic macrofauna areas from the most recent (1999) benthos survey. In the Suwannee estuary, juveniles ranged widely and individually throughout oligohaline to mesohaline subareas of the estuary, preferentially using mesohaline subareas seaward of Suwannee Reef (52% of acoustic detections). The river mouth subarea was important only in early and late winter, during the times of adult Gulf Sturgeon migrations (41% of detections). Preferred winter feeding subareas coincided spatially with known areas of dense macrofaunal benthos concentrations. Following a dramatic drop in air and water temperatures, juvenile GS left the river mouth and estuary, subsequently being detected 8 km offshore in polyhaline open Gulf of Mexico waters, before returning to the estuary. Cold-event offshore excursions demonstrate that they can tolerate full-salinity polyhaline waters in the open Gulf of Mexico, for at least several days at a time. For juvenile sturgeons, the stress and metabolic cost of enduring high salinity (Jarvis et al., 2001; McKenzie et al., 2001; Singer and Ballantyne, 2002) for short periods in deep offshore waters seems adaptively advantageous relative to the risk of cold-event mortality in shallow inshore waters of lower salinity. Thus

  8. Similarities and differences in 13C and 15N stable isotope ratios in two non-lethal tissue types from shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVries, R. J.; Schramm, Harold L.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that δ13C and δ15N signatures of pectoral spines would provide measures of δ13C and δ15N similar to those obtained from fin clips for adult shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus. Thirty-two shovelnose sturgeon (fork length [FL] = 500–724 mm) were sampled from the lower Mississippi River, USA on 23 February 2013. Isotopic relationships between the two tissue types were analyzed using mixed model analysis of covariance. Tissue types differed significantly for both δ13C (P < 0.01; spine: mean = −23.83, SD = 0.62; fin clip: mean = −25.74, SD = 0.97) and δ15N (P = 0.01; spine: mean = 17.01, SD = 0.51; fin clip: mean = 17.19, SD = 0.62). Neither FL nor the FL × tissue type interaction had significant (P > 0.05) effects on δ13C. Fin clip δ13C values were highly variable and weakly correlated (r = 0.16, P = 0.40) with those from pectoral spines. We found a significant FL-tissue type interaction for δ15N, reflecting increasing δ15N with FL for spines and decreasing δ15N with FL for fin clips. These results indicate that spines are not a substitute for fin clip tissue for measuring δ13C and δ15N for shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Mississippi River, but the two tissues have different turnover rates they may provide complementary information for assessing trophic position at different time scales.

  9. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Peterson, Douglas L.

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  10. Kootenai river velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - A mystery unraveled?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0-246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a 'short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam

  11. A simulation study of factors controlling white sturgeon recruitment in the Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, H.I.; Van Winkle, W.; Chandler, James Angus; Lepla, K.B.; Bates, P.; Counihan, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the nine populations of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, located between dams on the Middle Snake River, have declined from historical levels and are now at risk of extinction. One step towards more effectively protecting and managing these nine populations is ranking factors that influence recruitment in each of these river segments. We developed a model to suggest which of seven mechanistic factors contribute most to lost recruitment in each river segment: (1) temperature-related mortality during incubation, (2) flow-related mortality during incubation, (3) downstream export of larvae, (4) limitation of juvenile and adult habitat, (5) mortality of all ages during summer episodes of poor water quality in reservoirs, (6) entrainment mortality of juveniles and adults, and (7) angling mortality. We simulated recruitment with, and without, each of the seven factors, over a typical series of hydrologic years. We found a hierarchical pattern of limitation. In the first tier, river segments with severe water quality problems grouped together. Poor water quality during summer had a strong negative effect on recruitment in the river segments between Swan Falls Dam and Hell's Canyon Dam. In the second tier, river segments with better water quality divided into short river segments and longer river segments. Populations in short river segments were limited by larval export. Populations in longer river segments tended to be less strongly limited by any one factor. We also found that downstream effects could be important, suggesting that linked populations cannot be viewed in isolation. In two cases, the effects of a factor on an upstream population had a significant influence on its downstream neighbors. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  12. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  13. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Conservation Aquaculture Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    1997-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responding to the need to prevent the extinction of the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) between Libby Dam in Montana and Corra Linn Dam in British Columbia. Construction and operation of Libby Dam altered the natural flow of the Kootenai River, especially the normal May-to-July flows needed for natural reproduction and recruitment. It also affected the river`s biological productivity and the quality of spawning and rearing habitat. As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), BPA must mitigate for losses of fish and wildlife (including related spawning grounds and habitat) that are attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries.

  14. Dietary calcein marking of shovelnose sturgeon and the effect of sunlight on mark retention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kindschi, G.A.; Bell, T.A.; Mohler, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcein, a fluorochrome dye, is a potential fish-marking agent that has not been evaluated in sturgeon. Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (average weight, 9.7 g) were fed calcein, immersed in a calcein bath, or left unmarked to determine calcein mark intensity. In the first study, six treatments were evaluated in a two-by-three factorial arrangement. Feed was formulated with 2.0 g of SE-MARK/kg either as powder or in an encapsulated form. Sturgeon were fed the test diets for 5, 10, or 15 d. They readily ate feed containing powdered or encapsulated calcein. Sturgeon fed powdered calcein had more brilliant marks than those fed encapsulated calcein (8.27 versus 4.66 lm; P < 0.03) 6 months postexposure. Fish fed calcein for 15 d (11.26 lm) were more brilliant (P < 0.002) than fish fed for either 5 d (3.02 lm) or 10 d (5.11 lm). Post hoc comparison of the three treatment groups showed that sturgeon fed powdered calcein for 15 d (14.06 lm) were brighter (P < 0.01) than fish fed encapsulated calcein (8.46 lm) or fish immersed in calcein (9.68 lm). In the second study, previouslymarked sturgeon were exposed to sunlight for 14months to determine their retention of calcein marks. Dorsal marks were no longer visible on fish exposed to 100% sunlight after 8 weeks. Most but not all fish exposed to 20% sunlight had no discernable dorsalmarks after 8 weeks, but ventral marks at the pectoral fin girdle were present on all fish in the 0% and 20% sunlight exposure treatments. Feeding calcein for 15 d appears to have excellent potential for practical application, such as distinguishing hatchery-reared from wild fish. Ventral calcein marks remained visible after 14 months of exposure to 20% sunlight when sturgeon were reared in clear water. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  15. Developmental transcription of genes putatively associated with growth in two sturgeon species of different growth rate.

    PubMed

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farahmand, Hamid; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Ramezanpour, Sanaz; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Rytkönen, Kalle T; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, we surveyed developmental changes in the transcription of growth hormone (gh), insulin-like growth factor-I (igf-I), ghrelin (ghrl) and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) genes in the largest freshwater fish, European sturgeon (Beluga, Huso huso) and compared the same parameters to that of its phylogenically close moderate-sized species, Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). The transcripts of gh, igf-I, ghrl and vegf were detected at all developmental time-points of Persian sturgeon and Beluga from embryos to juvenile fish. Changes in normalized gh, igf-I, ghrl and vegf transcription by using the geometric average of genes encoding ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6) and elongation factor (EF1A) over the time of development of Persian sturgeon and Beluga were statistically significant (P<0.05). Our results showed that the mRNA expression levels of both igf-I and ghrl were low during early larval development and then increased significantly to the late larval time-points when larvae started exogenous feeding. In both Beluga and Persian sturgeon, after a low mRNA expression during the embryonic stage, the transcript levels of vegf displayed an increasing trend during yolk-sac fry, consistent with organogenesis. The vegf level remained constantly high in the time of exogenous feeding. The highest detection of gh transcripts coincided with the end of the embryonic stage (hatching time) in Persian sturgeon and 3 days-post-hatching (dph) in Beluga. In Persian sturgeon, the gh transcript started to decrease to the rest of the developmental time-points, whereas in Beluga gh transcript had a marked second increase from the time of exogenous feeding (20-dph). This Beluga specific increase in gh transcription may be associated with the marked growth rate and extraordinary size of this fish species.

  16. Bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity of dietary L-selenomethionine in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Diran H; Teh, Swee J; Sogomonyan, Arutyun; Hung, Silas S O

    2006-10-12

    An 8-week growth trial was conducted to determine the sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to the toxicological effects of elevated dietary selenium (Se). Juvenile white sturgeon were fed diets supplemented with Se in the form of L-selenomethionine (SeMet), resulting in dietary concentrations of 0.4, 9.6, 20.5, 41.7, 89.8, and 191.1 microg Se/g diet on a dry weight basis. Effects of dietary SeMet on survival, swimming activity, growth, whole-body proximate composition, tissue Se concentrations, and histopathology were determined. Sturgeon survival among treatment groups did not differ significantly with a mean survival rate of 99+/-0.43% across all groups. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in swimming activity and growth rate was observed in sturgeon fed at or above 41.7 microg Se/g diet. Dietary SeMet concentrations were negatively correlated with whole-body protein and lipid content, but positively correlated with ash and moisture content. Selenium accumulated in the kidney, muscle, liver, gill, and plasma tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney were observed in sturgeon fed above 20.5 microg Se/g diet. The threshold dietary Se toxicity concentration for white sturgeon was estimated to lie between 10 and 20 microg Se/g diet based on the histopathological alterations in the kidney. Research examining the consequences of elevated dietary Se concentrations on more sensitive life stages and the interactive effects of Se with other chemical or physical stressors are needed in order to determine if dietary threshold should be lowered to minimize the potential impacts of Se on white sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay-Delta.

  17. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  18. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  19. 77 FR 21539 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB094 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... of marine mammals incidental to conducting sturgeon research in the Gulf of Mexico, over the...

  20. Evaluation of lethal and non-lethal sampling methods for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus infection in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson).

    PubMed

    Drennan, J D; Lapatra, S E; Samson, C A; Ireland, S; Eversman, K F; Cain, K D

    2007-06-01

    Pectoral fin tissue of white sturgeon was investigated as a potential non-lethal sample source for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) infection. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results using fin tissue were compared with the standard lethal histopathology sampling method that utilizes head tissue. Tissues for each of the three sampling methods were collected weekly for 8 weeks from individual sturgeon undergoing an experimental cohabitation challenge with fish infected with the Abernathy isolate of WSIV. Non-lethal fin histopathological evaluation did not reveal infection during the first 3 weeks of sampling, while non-lethal PCR and the lethal method were variable. However, all three sampling methods were equally capable of identifying infection from 4 to 8 weeks post-exposure. Of the survivors tested, all were negative by PCR and the lethal method, and only one fish was identified as being positive by non-lethal fin histopathology. In another experiment, all three sampling methods were applied to asymptomatic WSIV carriers in a case study conducted at the Kootenai Tribal Sturgeon Conservation Hatchery. Results showed that both lethal and non-lethal fin histopathology were equally effective in detecting infection, but PCR was unable to identify this strain of WSIV. Depending on the virus isolate, these results suggest that non-lethal sampling of fin tissue (histopathology or PCR) is comparable with the lethal sampling method at identifying WSIV infection once infection is established, and under certain circumstances may provide an alternative to lethal sampling.

  1. Avoidance of Pile-Driving Noise by Hudson River Sturgeon During Construction of the New NY Bridge at Tappan Zee.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon movements were monitored during a pile-driving operation. Fewer sturgeon were detected during pile driving and remained for a shorter time than during silent control periods. Moreover, the short time spent by sturgeon near pile driving suggests that they were unlikely to have reached the criterion of 187 dB re 1 μPa(2)·s cumulative sound exposure level. These results suggest that sturgeon are likely to avoid impact pile driving and not remain long enough to experience physiological effects, thus providing empirical evidence that the 206 dB re 1 μPa peak sound pressure level is the appropriate criterion for assessing the impacts of pile-driving noise on sturgeon.

  2. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    PubMed

    DiVincenti, Louis; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-12-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians.

  3. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiVincenti, Louis; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J.; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians.

  4. Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, movements in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake, Minnesota-Ontario, contains a native population of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) that has gone largely unstudied. The objective of this descriptive study was to summarize generalized Lake Sturgeon movement patterns through the use of biotelemetry. Telemetry data reinforced the high utilization of the Squirrel Falls geographic location by Lake Sturgeon, with 37% of the re-locations occurring in that area. Other spring aggregations occurred in areas associated with Kettle Falls, the Pipestone River, and the Rat River, which could indicate spawning activity. Movement of Lake Sturgeon between the Seine River and the South Arm of Rainy Lake indicates the likelihood of one integrated population on the east end of the South Arm. The lack of re-locations in the Seine River during the months of September and October may have been due to Lake Sturgeon moving into deeper water areas of the Seine River and out of the range of radio telemetry gear or simply moving back into the South Arm. Due to the movements between Minnesota and Ontario, coordination of management efforts among provincial, state, and federal agencies will be important.

  5. Effects of turbidity, light level, and cover on predation of white sturgeon larvae by prickly sculpins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    White sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus occur in rivers of the western United States and southwestern Canada, but some populations are in decline because of recruitment failure. Many river systems in this area have been altered as a result of development that has caused major environmental changes. Our goal was to examine how three changes - lower turbidity levels, higher light levels, and altered substrates - might affect predation by prickly sculpin Cottus asper on white sturgeon larvae. We experimentally investigated predation at various turbidity levels and found that significantly more white sturgeon yolk sac larvae were eaten at lower turbidity levels. The effects of light level (1-4 and 7-15 1x), the presence or absence of rocks as cover, and prey size (14-17 mm and 20-24 mm total length) on the outcome of predator-prey interactions were also examined. Significantly fewer white sturgeon were eaten during trials that combined the lowest light level, cover, and the smallest larvae. Our results suggest that altered river conditions caused by impoundment and other factors have increased predation on white sturgeon larvae. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  6. Seasonal and diel movements of white sturgeon in the lower columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Popoff, N.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Wright, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of the movements and depths used by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus with acoustic telemetry technologies in the lower Columbia River provided information on diel and seasonal migrations, local movements, and site fidelity. White sturgeon moved to shallower water at night and showed greater activity, inferred from rates of movement, than during daytime. The extent of local movement within a season was variable among fish; some fish readily moved among habitats while the movements of others were more constrained. White sturgeon were absent from the study area (river kilometers 45-52) during winter and returned from upstream during the spring, confirming an upstream seasonal migration in the fall and downstream migration in spring. The return of individual fish and reoccupation of areas previously inhabited showed that some white sturgeon exhibit site fidelity. This work shows that studies seeking to characterize habitat for white sturgeon need to be cognizant of diel migrations and site fidelity. We urge caution in the use of limited fish location data to describe habitats if diel activities and fine-scale movements are not known.

  7. Age estimation for shovelnose sturgeon: A cautionary note based on annulus formation in pectoral fin rays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whiteman, K.W.; Travnichek, V.H.; Wildhaber, M.L.; DeLonay, A.; Papoulias, D.; Tillett, D.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the age and growth of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, but only one study attempted to validate age estimation techniques. Therefore, our objective was to use marginal increment analysis to validate annulus formation in pectoral fin rays of shovelnose sturgeon collected from the Missouri River. We also compared the precision of age estimates between two different readers. Marginal increment distance indicated that for most of the populations an opaque band was laid down in pectoral fin rays during the summer. However, opaque bands were formed throughout the year in some individuals, which could be problematic when using fin rays for age estimation. The agreement of age estimates by two readers for shovelnose sturgeon was only 18%, and differences in ages between the two readers increased for older fish. The presence of split annuli, false annuli, spawning bands, imbedded rays, and deteriorating sections made individual growth rings difficult to separate. Our findings verified that opaque bands are formed annually during the summer in the pectoral fin rays of most shovelnose sturgeon, but some individuals form opaque bands during other times. Pectoral fin rays will probably continue to be the most practical method of age estimation in shovelnose sturgeon, but ages estimated by this method should be used with caution.

  8. Sturgeon osteocalcin shares structural features with matrix Gla protein: evolutionary relationship and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Carla S B; Simes, Dina C; Williamson, Matthew K; Cavaco, Sofia; Laizé, Vincent; Price, Paul A; Cancela, M Leonor

    2013-09-27

    Osteocalcin (OC) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) are considered evolutionarily related because they share key structural features, although they have been described to exert different functions. In this work, we report the identification and characterization of both OC and MGP from the Adriatic sturgeon, a ray-finned fish characterized by a slow evolution and the retention of many ancestral features. Sturgeon MGP shows a primary structure, post-translation modifications, and patterns of mRNA/protein distribution and accumulation typical of known MGPs, and it contains seven possible Gla residues that would make the sturgeon protein the most γ-carboxylated among known MGPs. In contrast, sturgeon OC was found to present a hybrid structure. Indeed, although exhibiting protein domains typical of known OCs, it also contains structural features usually found in MGPs (e.g. a putative phosphorylated propeptide). Moreover, patterns of OC gene expression and protein accumulation overlap with those reported for MGP; OC was detected in bone cells and mineralized structures but also in soft and cartilaginous tissues. We propose that, in a context of a reduced rate of evolution, sturgeon OC has retained structural features of the ancestral protein that emerged millions of years ago from the duplication of an ancient MGP gene and may exhibit intermediate functional features.

  9. Evidence of autumn spawning in Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (Vladykov, 1955)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, M.T.; Sulak, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of autumn spawning of Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Suwannee River, Florida, was compiled from multiple investigations between 1986 and 2008. Gulf sturgeon are known from egg collections to spawn in the springtime months following immigration into rivers. Evidence of autumn spawning includes multiple captures of sturgeon in September through early November that were ripe (late-development ova; motile sperm) or exhibited just-spawned characteristics, telemetry of fish that made >175 river kilometer upstream excursions to the spawning grounds in September–October, and the capture of a 9.3 cm TL age-0 Gulf sturgeon on 29 November 2000 (which would have been spawned in late September 2000). Analysis of age-at-length data indicates that ca. 20% of the Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon population may be attributable to autumn spawning. However, with the very low sampling effort expended, eggs or early life stages have not yet been captured in the autumn, which would be the conclusive proof of autumn spawning. More sampling, and sampling at previously unknown sites frequented by acoustic telemetry fish, would be required to find eggs.

  10. Heteroplasmy in the mtDNA control region of sturgeon (Acipenser, Huso and Scaphirhynchus).

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, A; May, B; Debus, L; Jenneckens, I

    2000-01-01

    Data from 1238 fishes from 19 sturgeon species and 1 paddlefish were used to analyze heteroplasmy in sturgeon. Lengths of central repeat units ranged from 74 to 83 bp among sturgeon species. No repeat sequence was found in the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. A general feature of the repeat units was the presence of termination associated sequence (TAS) motifs. About 50% of 138 interspecific mutations observed among the D-loop sequences are located 10 bp down- and upstream from these TAS motifs. Interestingly, most homoplasmic species showed deletions upstream to the TAS motifs, whereas deletions downstream to the TAS motifs observed in two species do not seem to preclude heteroplasmy. Calculations of secondary structures and thermal stabilities of repeat units showed DeltaG values for all heteroplasmic species to be <-8 and for most homoplasmic species DeltaG value to be >-8. Most heteroplasmic fishes had two and/or three repeat units. No homoplasmic sturgeon with >2 repeat units were observed. Molecular phylogeny based on the entire cytochrome b showed that heteroplasmy probably resulted from a single evolutionary event. Our data demonstrate that heteroplasmy is present in most sturgeon species and suggest that the thermal stability of the secondary structure of the repeat unit in combination with mutations downstream of the TAS sequences influences heteroplasmy. PMID:11102385

  11. EST dataset of pituitary and identification of somatolactin and novel genes in Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong; Leng, Xiaoqian; Li, Chuangju; Wei, Qiwei; Gui, Jianfang; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2012-04-01

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is a rare and endangered species and also an important resource for the sturgeon aquaculture industry, however, a few genes have been identified in this species. We report here construction of a pituitary cDNA library from a 24 years old female Chinese sturgeon just after its spawning, and obtained 2,025 ESTs from the library. 885 unique sequences were identified, which were categorized into 12 functional groups. More than half of the unique sequences (57%) do not match with annotated sequences in the public databases. Three of these novel genes were further identified. Notably, a full-length of cDNA (1,143 bp) encoding somatolactin of 232 amino acids was identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed 97% amino acid identity with White sturgeon somatolactin. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the somatolactin mRNA was only detected in pituitary. Pituitary-specific expression of the somatolactin suggested that the protein may play important physiological functions in pituitary-endocrine system of the Chinese sturgeon.

  12. The metabolic effects of prolonged starvation and refeeding in sturgeon and rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Furné, Miriam; Morales, Amalia E; Trenzado, Cristina E; García-Gallego, Manuel; Carmen Hidalgo, M; Domezain, Alberto; Sanz Rus, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the particular metabolic strategies of the sturgeon Acipenser naccarii in facing a period of prolonged starvation (72 days) and subsequent refeeding (60 days) compared to the trout Oncorhynchus mykiss response under similar conditions. Plasma metabolites, endogenous reserves, and the activity of intermediate enzymes in liver and white muscle were evaluated. This study shows the mobilization of tissue reserves during a starvation period in both species with an associated enzymatic response. The sturgeon displayed an early increase in hepatic glycolysis during starvation. The trout preferentially used lactate for gluconeogenesis in liver and white muscle. The sturgeon had higher lipid-degradation capacity and greater synthesis of hepatic ketone bodies than the trout, although this latter species also showed strong synthesis of ketone bodies during starvation. During refeeding, the metabolic activity present before starvation was recovered in both fish, with a reestablishment of tissue reserves, plasmatic parameters (glucemia and cholesterol), and enzymatic activities in the liver and muscle. A compensatory effect in enzymes regarding lipids, ketone bodies, and oxidative metabolism was displayed in the liver of both species. There are metabolic differences between sturgeon and trout that support the contention that the sturgeon has common characteristics with elasmobranchs and teleosts.

  13. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in the edible and inedible tissues of three sturgeon species in the Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Rasouli, Sana

    2013-01-01

    The accumulations of Cd, Pb and Zn were determined in edible and inedible tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=27), stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=5) and beluga (Huso huso; n=4) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March to April 2011. Concentrations of metals evaluated in the caviar, muscle, liver, kidney, gills, ovary and heart of the three species of sturgeons have been assessed using the flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the edible and inedible tissues were apparently different among the three species of sturgeons. Especially, beluga heart showed the highest concentrations of Zn and Pb and Cd in Persian sturgeon liver. The analyzed metals were found in the caviar and muscle samples of Persian sturgeon and likewise muscle samples two other sturgeon species at mean concentrations under the permissible limits proposed by MAFF (2000).

  14. Histopathological alterations of juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to graded levels of dietary methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; De Riu, Nicola; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-03-01

    Triplicate groups of juvenile green and white sturgeon (average weight of 30 ± 2 g) were exposed to one of four concentrations of dietary methylmercury (MeHg; 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg MeHg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to determine and compare the sensitivity of the two sturgeon species from a histopathological perspective. After 4- and 8-week exposure, histological changes were examined in the kidney, liver, gill, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle of both species using light microscopy. Marked abnormalities were observed in the kidney and liver of both sturgeon species after each exposure period; the abnormalities showed progressive histological alterations in severity with increasing doses and duration of exposure. Renal lesions included tubular epithelium degeneration and necrosis, renal corpuscular disintegration, and interstitial tissue degeneration. The changes observed in the livers of both sturgeon species were glycogen depletion and vacuolar degeneration. In the gill and skeletal and heart muscle of green and white sturgeon fed MeHg-added diets, mild histological changes were observed but did not show pronounced difference between the two species. Although the lowest observed effect concentration in both species was the 25 mg MeHg/kg diet, the histological changes in the kidney and liver were more pronounced at all treatments groups of green sturgeon than those of white sturgeon. The current results on structural changes of kidney and liver (i.e., more severe glycogen depletion and tubular epithelium degeneration in green sturgeon) confirmed our previous results, in that green sturgeon exhibited a higher mortality, lower growth rate, and lower protein, lipid, and energy contents in their whole body than white sturgeon under the same MeHg exposures.

  15. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Hung, Silas S O; Fangue, Nann A; Haller, Liran; Verhille, Christine E; Zhao, Juan; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12.5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of optimum feeding rate (100% OFR were 1.6% and 1.8% body weight/day, respectively) for four weeks. Following the trials, the critical thermal maximum (CTMax, 0.3°C/min) of sturgeon (N=12/treatment/species) was assessed as an indicator of whole-organism upper thermal tolerance. To assess temperature sensitivity, sturgeon (N=9/treatment/species) were acutely transferred to two temperature treatments (28°C and 18°C as a handling control) for 2h followed by 2h of recovery at 18°C before being sacrificed, and gill, brain, and mucus sampled for measurements of 70-kDa heat shock protein levels (Hsc/Hsp70). Feeding rate had species-specific effects on CTMax in green and white sturgeon such that CTMax of green sturgeon decreased as the magnitude of feed restriction increased; whereas, CTMax of white sturgeon did not change with feed restriction. Elevated temperature (28°C) and feed restriction increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the gill tissue of green sturgeon, while heat shock increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the mucus of white sturgeon. Our results suggest that green sturgeon may be more susceptible to temperature stress under food-limited conditions.

  16. White sturgeon spawning and rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Beckman, Lance G.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of spawning habitat for white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus in the tailraces of the four dams on the lower 470 km of the Columbia River were obtained by using the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology to identify areas with suitable water depths, water velocities, and substrates. Rearing habitat throughout the lower Columbia River was assessed by using a geographic information system to identify areas with suitable water depths and substrates. The lowering of spring and summer river discharges from hydropower system operation reduces the availability of spawning habitat for white sturgeons. The four dam tailraces in the study area differ in the amount and quality of spawning habitat available at various discharges; the differences are due to channel morphology. The three impoundments and the free-flowing Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam provide extensive areas that are physically suitable for rearing young-of-the-year and juvenile white sturgeons.

  17. Expression of growth hormone gene during early development of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    PubMed Central

    Abdolahnejad, Zeinab; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Khoshkholgh, Majid Reza; Yarmohammadi, Mahtab

    2015-01-01

    The mRNA expression of growth hormone (GH) gene in early development stages of Siberian sturgeon was investigated using RT-PCR method. Samples were collected from unfertilized eggs up to 50 days post hatched (dph) larvae in 11 different times. Ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6) transcripts were used as the internal standard during quantification of GH mRNA expression. The results showed that the GH mRNA could be observed in the eyed eggs and even at unfertilized eggs of Siberian sturgeon. The highest amounts of GH mRNA were found at 25 and 50 dph larvae, while the lowest levels were detected at 1 and 3 dph larvae stage. These findings suggest that, the GH mRNA play a key role during developmental stages of Siberian sturgeon. PMID:27844010

  18. Expression of growth hormone gene during early development of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenserbaerii).

    PubMed

    Abdolahnejad, Zeinab; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Khoshkholgh, Majid Reza; Yarmohammadi, Mahtab

    2015-12-01

    The mRNA expression of growth hormone (GH) gene in early development stages of Siberian sturgeon was investigated using RT-PCR method. Samples were collected from unfertilized eggs up to 50 days post hatched (dph) larvae in 11 different times. Ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6) transcripts were used as the internal standard during quantification of GH mRNA expression. The results showed that the GH mRNA could be observed in the eyed eggs and even at unfertilized eggs of Siberian sturgeon. The highest amounts of GH mRNA were found at 25 and 50 dph larvae, while the lowest levels were detected at 1 and 3 dph larvae stage. These findings suggest that, the GH mRNA play a key role during developmental stages of Siberian sturgeon.

  19. Hematology of great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) juvenile exposed to brackish water environment.

    PubMed

    Zarejabad, Asad Mohammadi; Jalali, Mohammad Ali; Sudagar, Mohammad; Pouralimotlagh, Somayeh

    2010-09-01

    The effect of environmental salinity on hematological parameters of great sturgeon Huso huso juveniles was studied. Five-month-old juveniles (mean body weight 28.3 +/- 2.1 g) were subjected to 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 ppt salinities. The hematological parameters were assessed after a period of 20 days rearing at these salinities. After transfer from fresh water to brackish water, red blood cells, hematocrit, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin decreased, but mean corpuscular volume increased. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, monocyte counts, and eosinophil counts showed no significant variations with increase in environmental salinity. An increase was found in lymphocyte counts according to the increase of salinity from 0 to 12 ppt, while the fresh water control group maintained basal levels. Decrease in neutrophil counts was observed in great sturgeon with increase in environmental salinity. These data show significant effect of salinity on the blood parameters of great sturgeon.

  20. Tana1, a new putatively active Tc1-like transposable element in the genome of sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, José Martin; Astolfi, Laura; Boscari, Elisa; Vidotto, Michele; Barbisan, Federica; Bruson, Alice; Congiu, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new putatively active Tc1-like transposable element (Tana1) in the genome of sturgeons, an ancient group of fish considered as living fossils. The complete sequence of Tana1 was first characterized in the 454-sequenced transcriptome of the Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and then isolated from the genome of the same species and from 12 additional sturgeons including three genera of the Acipenseridae (Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus). The element has a total length of 1588bp and presents inverted repeats of 210bp, one of which partially overlapping the 3' region of the transposase gene. The spacing of the DDE motif within the catalytic domain in Tana1 is unique (DD38E) and indicates that Tana1 can be considered as the first representative of a new Tc1 subfamily. The integrity of the native form (with no premature termination codons within the transposase), the presence of all expected functional domains and its occurrence in the sturgeon transcriptome suggest a current or recent activity of Tana1. The presence of Tana1 in the genome of the 13 sturgeon species in our study points to an ancient origin of the element that existed before the split of the group 170 million years ago. The dissemination of Tana1 across sturgeon genomes could be interpreted by postulating vertical transmission from an ancestral Tana1 with a particularly slow evolutionary rate Horizontal transmission might have also played a role in the dissemination of Tana1 as evidenced by the presence of a complete copy in the genome of Atlantic salmon. Vertical and horizontal transmission are not mutually exclusive and may have concurred in shaping the evolution of Tana1.

  1. Corticosteroid and progesterone transactivation of mineralocorticoid receptors from Amur sturgeon and tropical gar.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Akira; Oka, Kaori; Sato, Rui; Adachi, Shinji; Baker, Michael E; Katsu, Yoshinao

    2016-10-15

    The response to a panel of steroids by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) from Amur sturgeon and tropical gar, two basal ray-finned fish, expressed in HEK293 cells was investigated. Half-maximal responses (EC50s) for transcriptional activation of sturgeon MR by 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol and aldosterone, and progesterone (Prog) were between 13 and 150 pM. For gar MR, EC50s were between 8 and 55 pM. Such low EC50s support physiological regulation by these steroids of the MR in sturgeon and gar. Companion studies with human and zebrafish MRs found higher EC50s compared with EC50s for sturgeon and gar MRs, with EC50s for zebrafish MR closer to gar and sturgeon MRs than was human MR. For zebrafish MR, EC50s were between 75 and 740 pM; for human MR, EC50s were between 65 pM and 2 nM. In addition to Prog, spironolactone (spiron) and 19nor-progesterone (19norP) were agonists for all three fish MRs, in contrast with their antagonist activity for human MR, which is hypothesized to involve serine-810 in human MR because all three steroids are agonists for a mutant human Ser810Leu-MR. Paradoxically, sturgeon, gar, and zebrafish MRs contain a serine corresponding to serine-810 in human MR. Our data suggest alternative mechanism(s) for Prog, spiron, and 19norP as MR agonists in these three ray-finned fishes and the need for caution in applying data for Prog signaling in zebrafish to human physiology.

  2. [Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation, demographic history, and population structure of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869].

    PubMed

    Shedko, S V; Miroshnichenko, I L; Nemkova, G A; Koshelev, V N; Shedko, M B

    2015-02-01

    The variability of the mtDNA control region (D-loop) was examined in Amur sturgeon endemic to the Amur River. This species is also classified as critically endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened species. Sequencing of 796- to 812-bp fragments of the D-loop in 112 sturgeon collected in the Lower Amur revealed 73 different genotypes. The sample was characterized by a high level of haplotypic (0.976) and nucleotide (0.0194) diversity. The identified haplotypes split into two well-defined monophyletic groups, BG (n = 39) and SM (n = 34), differing (HKY distance) on average by 3.41% of nucleotide positions upon an average level of intragroup differences of 0.54 and 1.23%, respectively. Moreover, the haplotypes of the SM groups differed by the presence of a 13-14 bp deletion. Most ofthe samples (66 out of 112) carried BG haplotypes. Overall, the pattern of pairwise nucleotide differences and the results of neutrality tests, as well as the results of tests for compliance with the model of sudden demographic expansion or with the model of exponential growth pointed to a past significant increase in the number of Amur sturgeon, which was most clearly manifested in the analysis of data on the BG haplogroup. The constructed Bayesian skyline plots showed that this growth began about 18 to 16 thousand years ago. At present, the effective size of the strongly reduced (due to overharvesting) population of Amur sturgeon may be equal to or even lower than it was before the beginning of this growth during the Last Glacial Maximum. The presence in the mitochondrial gene pool ofAmur sturgeon of two haplogroups, their unequal evolutionary dynamics, and, judging by scanty data, their unequal representation in the Russian and Chinese parts of the Amur River basin point to the possible existence of at least two distinct populations of Amur sturgeon in the past.

  3. Exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium results in biochemical, histological and transcriptional alterations.

    PubMed

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Niknejad, Mahtab; Shabani, Ali; Safari, Roghieh

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon is one of the endangered families of fish in the Caspian Sea region, where there is up to 80% of their global caching. Unfortunately, in recent years, increase of pollutants has been resulted in their total population reduction. Due to their benthic nature, sturgeons are at great risk of exposing to contaminants such as cadmium. Despite their endangered status in the Caspian Sea, there are only a few studies on characterizing the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to cadmium. Adverse effects associated with pollution on angiogenesis are mediated by hypoxia inducing factor-1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this investigation, gene expression of two distinct HIFs-1, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and VEGF was investigated at the mRNA transcript levels after exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium. VEGF, HIF-1α and HIF-2α expressions in treated Persian sturgeon were greater than controls. Significant increases (P<0.05) were also observed in cortisol and glucose levels compared to the control group especially in the fish exposed to higher cadmium concentration (800 μg/L). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were increased in the cadmium-exposed fish, although the observed increases were not significant between the control and 200 μg/L cadmium treatment at some sampling time points. Gill tissues also showed histopathological changes in the cadmium treatments. Overall, results indicated that cadmium resulted in some alterations in biochemical parameters, mRNA transcript level expression of two important angiogenesis related genes as well as histological alterations in Persian sturgeon.

  4. The physiological responses of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) to potential global climate change stressors.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Brian A; Kültz, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is an anadromous species with a distinct population segment in the San Francisco Bay-Sacramento River Delta that is currently listed as threatened. Although this species is able to tolerate salinity challenges as soon as 6 mo posthatch, its ability to deal with unpredictable salinity fluctuations remains unknown. Global climate change is predicted to result in large freshwater (FW) flushes through the estuary during winter and greater tidal influence during the summer. We exposed green sturgeon acclimated to 15 (EST) or 24 (BAY) g/L salinity to a rapid FW influx, where salinity was reduced to 0 g/L in 3 h in order to simulate the effect of the "winter" scenario. Both groups survived, enduring a 10% plasma osmolality reduction after 3 h. BAY-acclimated sturgeon upregulated both Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and caspase 3/7 activity, but no changes were observed in the EST-acclimated fish. In addition, we exposed FW-acclimated sturgeon to a dual 12-h salinity fluctuation cycle (0-24-0 g/L) in order to simulate the effect of greater tidal influence. At 6 h, the sturgeon showed a significant increase in plasma osmolality, and branchial NKA and caspase 3/7 activities were increased, indicating an acclimation response. There was no acclimation at 18 h, and plasma osmolality was higher than the peak observed at 6 h. The second fluctuation elicited an upregulation of the stress proteins ubiquitin and heat shock 70-kDa protein (HSP 70). Sturgeon can acclimate to changes in salinity; however, salinity fluctuations resulted in substantial cellular stress.

  5. Impact of Nutrition and Salinity Changes on Biological Performances of Green and White Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S. O.; Fadel, James G.; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  6. Impact of nutrition and salinity changes on biological performances of green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Pedro G; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S O; Fadel, James G; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  7. A proteomic analysis of green and white sturgeon larvae exposed to heat stress and selenium.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Frédéric; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge I; Kültz, Dietmar

    2010-07-15

    Temperature and selenium are two environmental parameters that potentially affect reproduction and stock recruitment of sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay/Delta Estuary. To identify proteins whose expression is modified by these environmental stressors, we performed a proteomic analysis on larval green and white sturgeons exposed to 18 or 26 degrees C and micro-injected with Seleno-L-Methionine to reach 8microgg(-)(1) selenium body burden, with L-Methionine as a control. Selenium and high temperature induced mortalities and abnormal morphologies in both species, with a higher mortality in green sturgeon. Larval proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differential abundances were detected following spot quantitation and hierarchical cluster analysis. In green sturgeon, 34 of 551 protein spots detected on gels showed a variation in abundance whereas in white sturgeon only 9 of 580 protein spots were differentially expressed (P<0.01). Gel replicates were first grouped according to heat treatment. Fifteen of these spots were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in protein folding, protein synthesis, protein degradation, ATP supply and structural proteins changed in abundance in response to heat and/or selenium. 40S ribosomal protein SA, FK506-binding protein 10, 65kDa regulatory subunit A of protein phosphatase 2, protein disulfide isomerase, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1, suppression of tumorigenicity 13 and collagen type II alpha 1, were differentially expressed in high temperature treatment only. Serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1, creatine kinase, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 5 and HSP90 were sensitive to combined temperature and selenium exposure. Valosin-containing protein, a protein involved in aggresome formation and in protein quality control decreased more than 50% in response to selenium treatment. Potential use of such proteins as biomarkers of environmental stressors in larval

  8. Capacity for intracellular pH compensation during hypercapnia in white sturgeon primary liver cells.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Khuong Tuyen; Baker, Daniel W; Harris, Robert; Church, John; Brauner, Colin J

    2011-10-01

    Fish, exposed to elevated water CO(2), experience a rapid elevation in blood CO(2) (hypercapnia), resulting in acidification of both intra- and extra-cellular compartments. White sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, are exceptionally CO(2) tolerant and can regulate tissue intracellular pH (pH(i)) in the presence of a pronounced hypercapnic acidosis (preferential pH(i) regulation). In this study, pH(i) regulatory capacity of sturgeon liver cells in primary culture was examined to assess the suitability of employing this in vitro system to understand in vivo CO(2) tolerance in sturgeon. Using the pH-sensitive fluoroprobe BCECF, real-time changes in resting pH(i) and rates of pH(i) recovery were investigated during exposure to hypercapnia (3 and 6% CO(2)) in the absence and presence of additional acid loads induced by (20 mM) ammonium prepulse. During short-term (10 min) exposure to hypercapnia (3 and 6% CO(2)), sturgeon cells were acidified and no pH(i) compensation was observed. However, when exposure to 6% CO(2) was extended to over 19 h, the CO(2)-induced intracellular acidosis was partially compensated by a pH(i) increase of over 0.2 pH unit despite the sustained extracellular acidosis, indicative of a capacity for preferential pH(i) regulation in vitro. Since this capacity in sturgeon liver is present both in vivo and in vitro, the transmembrane transporters involved may be the same. Therefore, cell culture may be a suitable tool to identify the transporters (i.e., the cellular mechanisms underlying in vivo CO(2) tolerance) in white sturgeon and possibly in other hypercapnia-tolerant species.

  9. Potential for electropositive metal to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Bouyoucos, Ian; Bushnell, Peter; Brill, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus) populations have been declared either endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Effective measures to repel sturgeon from fishing gear would be beneficial to both fish and fishers because they could reduce both fishery-associated mortality and the need for seasonal and area closures of specific fisheries. Some chondrostean fishes (e.g., sturgeons and paddlefishes) can detect weak electric field gradients (possibly as low as 5 Μv/cm) due to arrays of electroreceptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) on their snout and gill covers. Weak electric fields, such as those produced by electropositive metals (typically mixtures of the lanthanide elements), could therefore potentially be used as a deterrent. To test this idea, we recorded the behavioral responses of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon (31-43 cm fork length) to electropositive metal (primarily a mixture of the lanthanide elements neodymium and praseodymium) both in the presence and absence of food stimuli. Trials were conducted in an approximately 2.5 m diameter × 0.3 m deep tank, and fish behaviors were recorded with an overhead digital video camera. Video records were subsequently digitized (x, y coordinate system), the distance between the fish and the electropositive metal calculated, and data summarized by compiling frequency distributions with 5-cm bins. Juvenile sturgeon showed clear avoidance of electropositive metal but only when food was present. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the electropositive metals, or other sources of weak electric fields, may eventually be used to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear, but further investigation is needed.

  10. Growth rates of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Information on growth during the larval and young-of-year life stages in natural river environments is generally lacking for most sturgeon species. In this study, methods for estimating ages and quantifying growth were developed for field-sampled larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the upper Missouri River. First, growth was assessed by partitioning samples of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon into cohorts, and regressing weekly increases in cohort mean length on sampling date. This method quantified relative growth because ages of the cohorts were unknown. Cohort increases in mean length among sampling dates were positively related (P 0.59 for all cohorts) to sampling date, and yielded growth rate estimates of 0.80-2.95 mm day-1 (2003) and 0.44-2.28 mm day-1 (2004). Highest growth rates occurred in the largest (and earliest spawned) cohorts. Second, a method was developed to estimate cohort hatch dates, thus age on date of sampling could be determined. This method included quantification of post-hatch length increases as a function of water temperature (growth capacity; mm per thermal unit, mm TU-1), and summation of mean daily water temperatures to achieve the required number of thermal units that corresponded to post-hatch lengths of shovelnose sturgeon on sampling dates. For six of seven cohorts of shovelnose sturgeon analyzed, linear growth models (r2 ??? 0.65, P < 0.0001) or Gompertz growth models (r2 ??? 0.83, P < 0.0001) quantified length-at-age from hatch through 55 days post-hatch (98-100 mm). Comparisons of length-at-age derived from the growth models indicated that length-at-age was greater for the earlier-hatched cohorts than later-hatched cohorts. Estimated hatch dates for different cohorts were corroborated based on the dates that newly-hatched larval shovelnose sturgeon were sampled in the drift. These results provide the first quantification of growth dynamics for field-sampled age-0 shovelnose sturgeon in a

  11. Growth rates of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Information on growth during the larval and young-of-year life stages in natural river environments is generally lacking for most sturgeon species. In this study, methods for estimating ages and quantifying growth were developed for field-sampled larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the upper Missouri River. First, growth was assessed by partitioning samples of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon into cohorts, and regressing weekly increases in cohort mean length on sampling date. This method quantified relative growth because ages of the cohorts were unknown. Cohort increases in mean length among sampling dates were positively related (P < 0.05, r2 > 0.59 for all cohorts) to sampling date, and yielded growth rate estimates of 0.80–2.95 mm day−1 (2003) and 0.44–2.28 mm day−1 (2004). Highest growth rates occurred in the largest (and earliest spawned) cohorts. Second, a method was developed to estimate cohort hatch dates, thus age on date of sampling could be determined. This method included quantification of post-hatch length increases as a function of water temperature (growth capacity; mm per thermal unit, mm TU−1), and summation of mean daily water temperatures to achieve the required number of thermal units that corresponded to post-hatch lengths of shovelnose sturgeon on sampling dates. For six of seven cohorts of shovelnose sturgeon analyzed, linear growth models (r2 ≥ 0.65, P < 0.0001) or Gompertz growth models (r2 ≥ 0.83, P < 0.0001) quantified length-at-age from hatch through 55 days post-hatch (98–100 mm). Comparisons of length-at-age derived from the growth models indicated that length-at-age was greater for the earlier-hatched cohorts than later-hatched cohorts. Estimated hatch dates for different cohorts were corroborated based on the dates that newly-hatched larval shovelnose sturgeon were sampled in the drift. These results provide the first quantification of growth dynamics

  12. Length changes in white sturgeon larvae preserved in ethanol or formaldehyde

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayer, J.M.; Counihan, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of two preservatives on the notochord and total lengths of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae. White sturgeon larvae that were one, seven, and 14 days old were measured live and then preserved in 95% ethanol or 10% formaldehyde. Length changes were then determined at 20 and 95 days after preservation. We found mean length changes ranging from 0.4% to 3.4% shrinkage. Length changes varied with preservative, age of larvae, and length of time preserved. Constant length correction factors are provided for 10% formaldehyde or 95% ethanol valid for larvae between 1 and 14 days old preserved for less than 100 days.

  13. Is hepatic oxidative stress a main driver of dietary selenium toxicity in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)?

    PubMed

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Wiseman, Steve; Hecker, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Most species of sturgeon have experienced significant population declines and poor recruitment over the past decades, leading many, including white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), to be listed as endangered. Reasons for these declines are not yet fully understood but benthic lifestyle, longevity, and delayed sexual maturation likely render sturgeon particularly susceptible to factors such as habitat alteration and contaminant exposures. One contaminant of particular concern to white sturgeon is selenium (Se), especially in its more bioavailable form selenomethionine (SeMet), as it is known to efficiently bioaccumulate in prey items of this species. Studies have shown white sturgeon to be among the most sensitive species of fish to dietary SeMet as well as other pollutants such as metals, dioxin-like chemicals and endocrine disrupters. One of the primary hypothesized mechanisms of toxicity of SeMet in fish is oxidative stress; however, little is know about the specific mode by which SeMet affects the health of white sturgeon. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize oxidative stress and associated antioxidant responses as a molecular event of toxicity, and to link it with the pathological effects observed previously. Specifically, three-year-old white sturgeon were exposed for 72 days via their diet to 1.4, 5.6, 22.4 or 104.4µg Se per g feed (dm). Doses were chosen to range over a necessary Se intake level, current environmentally relevant intakes and an intake representing predicted increases of Se release. Lipid hydroperoxides, which are end products of lipid oxidation, were quantified as a marker of oxidative stress. Changes in gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, apoptosis inducing factor and caspase 3 were quantified as markers of the response to oxidative stress. Concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides were highly variable within dose groups and no dose response was observed

  14. Identification of the origin and localization of chorion (egg envelope) proteins in an ancient fish, the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kenji; Conte, Fred S; McInnis, Elizabeth; Fong, Tak Hou; Cherr, Gary N

    2014-06-01

    In many modern teleost fish, chorion (egg envelope) glycoproteins are synthesized in the liver of females, and the expression of those genes is controlled by endogenous estrogen released from the ovary during maturation. However, among the classical teleosts, such as salmonid, carp, and zebrafish, the chorion glycoproteins are synthesized in the oocyte, as in higher vertebrates. Sturgeon, which are members of the subclass Chondrostei, represent an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes that differ from other teleosts in that their sperm possess acrosomes, their eggs have numerous micropyles, and early embryo development is similar to that of amphibians. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of chorion formation and the phylogenetic relationship between sturgeon and other teleosts, we used specific antibodies directed against the primary components of sturgeon chorion glycoproteins, using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry approaches. The origin of each chorion glycoprotein was determined through analyses of both liver and ovary, and their localization during ovarian development was investigated. Our data indicate that the origin of the major chorion glycoproteins of sturgeon, ChG1, ChG2, and ChG4, derive not only from the oocyte itself but also from follicle cells in the ovary, as well as from hepatocytes. In the follicle cell layer, granulosa cells were found to be the primary source of ChGs during oogenesis in white sturgeon. The unique origins of chorion glycoproteins in sturgeon suggest that sturgeons are an intermediate form in the evolution of the teleost lineage.

  15. High-throughput sequencing of microRNA transcriptome and expression assay in the sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lihong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Li, Linmiao; Jiang, Haiying; Chen, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Sturgeons are considered as living fossils and have very high evolutionary, economical and conservation values. The multiploidy of sturgeon that has been caused by chromosome duplication may lead to the emergence of new microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the ploidy and physiological processes. In the present study, we performed the first sturgeon miRNAs analysis by RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing combined with expression assay of microarray and real-time PCR, and aimed to discover the sturgeon-specific miRNAs, confirm the expressed pattern of miRNAs and illustrate the potential role of miRNAs-targets on sturgeon biological processes. A total of 103 miRNAs were identified, including 58 miRNAs with strongly detected signals (signal >500 and P≤0.01), which were detected by microarray. Real-time PCR assay supported the expression pattern obtained by microarray. Moreover, co-expression of 21 miRNAs in all five tissues and tissue-specific expression of 16 miRNAs implied the crucial and particular function of them in sturgeon physiological processes. Target gene prediction, especially the enriched functional gene groups (369 GO terms) and pathways (37 KEGG) regulated by 58 miRNAs (P<0.05), illustrated the interaction of miRNAs and putative mRNAs, and also the potential mechanism involved in these biological processes. Our new findings of sturgeon miRNAs expand the public database of transcriptome information for this species, contribute to our understanding of sturgeon biology, and also provide invaluable data that may be applied in sturgeon breeding.

  16. Lake Roosevelt White Sturgeon Recovery Project : Annual Progress Report, January 2003 – March 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Matthew D.; McLellan, Jason G.

    2009-07-15

    This report summarizes catch data collected from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in Lake Roosevelt during limited setlining and gill netting activities in the fall of 2003, and documents progress toward development of a U.S. white sturgeon conservation aquaculture program for Lake Roosevelt. From 27-30 October, 42 overnight small mesh gill net sets were made between Marcus and Northport, WA for a total catch of 15 juvenile white sturgeon (275-488 mm FL). All sturgeon captured were of Canadian hatchery origin. These fish had been previously released as sub-yearlings into the Canadian portion (Keenleyside Reach) of the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River during 2002 and 2003. Most sturgeon (n=14) were caught in the most upstream area sampled (Northport) in low velocity eddy areas. Five fish exhibited pectoral fin deformities (curled or stunted). Growth rates were less than for juvenile sturgeon captured in the Keenleyside Reach but condition factor was similar. Condition factor was also similar to that observed in juvenile sturgeon (ages 1-8) captured in the unimpounded Columbia River below Bonneville Dam between 1987-92. From 10-14 November, 28 overnight setline sets were made in the Roosevelt Reach between the confluence of the Spokane River and Marcus Island for a total catch of 17 white sturgeon (94-213 cm FL). Catch was greatest in the most upstream areas sampled, a distribution similar to that observed during a WDFW setline survey in Lake Roosevelt in 1998. The mean W{sub r} index of 110% for fish captured this year was higher than the mean W{sub r} of 91% for fish captured in 1998. Excellent fish condition hindered surgical examination of gonads as lipid deposits made the ventral body wall very thick and difficult to penetrate with available otoscope specula. Acoustic tags (Vemco model V16 coded pingers, 69 kHz, 48-month life expectancy) were internally applied to 15 fish for subsequent telemetry investigations of seasonal and reproductively

  17. Accumbal and pallidal dopamine, glutamate and GABA overflow during cocaine self-administration and its extinction in rats.

    PubMed

    Wydra, Karolina; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Zaniewska, Magdalena; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Ferraro, Luca; Fuxe, Kjell; Filip, Małgorzata

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the changes in dopamine (DA), glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during cocaine self-administration in rats implanted with guide cannulae into the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. After stabilized cocaine self-administration, separate groups of rats underwent extinction (10 days) procedure in which cocaine infusion was replaced by saline injections. With using a 'yoked' procedure, the effects of cocaine or its withdrawal on the level of neurotransmitters were evaluated by dual-probe microdialysis. Repeated cocaine administration reduced basal glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum, whereas it did not affect basal accumbal DA levels. Only rats that self-administered cocaine had increased basal GABA overflow in both examined brain structures. Active or passive cocaine administration elevated extracellular accumbal DA, however, the extent of cocaine-evoked DA level was significantly higher in rats that self-administered cocaine while both groups of animals showed also an attenuation of GABA level in the nucleus accumbens. On day 10 of extinction training, rats previously given cocaine revealed decreases in the basal accumbal concentration of glutamate while the basal GABA levels were significantly enhanced as compared with baseline of saline-yoked controls. Potassium depolarization delayed the reduction of the accumbal and pallidal extracellular glutamate levels in the active and passive cocaine groups. The present data indicate that changes in DA and GABA neurotransmission during maintenance phase mirror the motivational aspects of cocaine intake. Depending on acute (24 hours) or late (10 days) cocaine withdrawal, different neurotransmitter systems (i.e. glutamate or GABA) seem to be involved.

  18. Lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens and shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus environmental life history revealed using pectoral fin-ray microchemistry: implications for interjurisdictional conservation through fishery closure zones.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Q E; Hupfeld, R N; Whitledge, G W

    2017-02-01

    This study inferred that the majority of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus captured in the upper Mississippi River probably originated from locations outside the upper Mississippi River (Missouri River, middle Mississippi River); whereas, lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens exhibit infrequent movement outside of the upper Mississippi River, but may move throughout these interconnected large rivers at various life stages. By using pectoral fin-ray microchemistry (a non-lethal alternative to using otoliths), it is suggest that interjurisdictional cooperation will probably be needed to ensure sustainability of the S. platorynchus commercial fishery and the success of A. fulvescens reintroduction in the upper Mississippi River. Additionally, fin-ray microchemistry can provide invaluable data to make informed management decisions regarding large river fishes, that cross jurisdictional boundaries or that move outside of closure zones, without causing further mortality to compromised fish populations (e.g. threatened and endangered species).

  19. ACUTE SENSITIVITY OF JUVENILE SHORTNOSE STURGEON TO LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Campbell, Jed G. and Larry R. Goodman. 2004. Acute Sensitivity of Juvenile Shortnose Sturgeon to Low Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations. EPA/600/J-04/175. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(3):772-776. (ERL,GB 1155).

    There is considerable concern that factors such as eutrophication, ...

  20. A PROTOCOL FOR THE SHORT-TERM STORAGE OF ATLANTIC STURGEON SEMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term, liquid-phase storage trials were conducted in 2009 on Atlantic sturgeon semen obtained from captive males, held at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Fish Technology Center and wild males, collected ripe on the spawning grounds from the Hudson River. Semen samples collected, c...

  1. Identification of sturgeon IgD bridges the evolutionary gap between elasmobranchs and teleosts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Yan, Zhenxin; Feng, Mengyang; Peng, Dezhi; Guo, Ying; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Ren, Liming; Sun, Yi

    2014-02-01

    IgD has been found in almost all jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous and teleost fish. However, IgD is missing in acipenseriformes, a branch that is evolutionarily positioned between elasmobranchs and teleost fish. Here, by analyzing transcriptome data, we identified a transcriptionally active IgD-encoding gene in the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is orthologous to mammalian IgD and closely related to the IgD of other fish. The lengths of sturgeon membrane-bound IgD transcripts ranged from 1.2kb to 6.2kb, encoding 3-19 CH domains. As in teleosts, the first CH domain of the sturgeon IgD transcript is also derived from μCH1 by RNA splicing. However, the variable region of the expressed sturgeon IgD shows limited V(D)J usage. In addition to IgD, three IgM variants were also identified in this species, whereas no IgT/Z-encoding genes were observed. This study bridges the gap in Ig evolution between elasmobranchs and teleosts and provides significant insight into the early evolution of immunoglobulins.

  2. EFFECT OF CRYOPRESERVATION AND THEOPHYLLINE ON MOTILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKE STURGEON (ACIPENSER FULVESCENS) SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted motility analysis (CASA) was used to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation and theophylline treatment on sperm motility of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).Motility was recorded at 0 and 5 min postactivation.The effect of cryopreservation on sperm acrosin-...

  3. OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SPERM MOTILITY IN THE LAKE STURGEON, ACIPENSER FULVESCENS: ACTIVATION AND INHIBITION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An objective analysis of the duration of motility of sperm from the lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, has been performed using computer-assisted sperm motion analysis at 200 frames/s. Motility was measured in both 1993 and 1994. The percentage of activated motile sperm and the...

  4. Control of sturgeon sperm motility: Antagonism between K+ ions concentration and osmolality.

    PubMed

    Prokopchuk, Galina; Dzyuba, Borys; Rodina, Marek; Cosson, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa are stored in a quiescent state in the male reproductive tract and motility is induced in response to various environmental stimuli, such as change of osmolality (general case) and a decrease of extracellular K+ in fish from Acipenseridae family. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between osmolality and extracellular K+ concentration in controlling sperm motility in sturgeon. Pre-incubation of sturgeon sperm for 5s in hypertonic solutions of glycerol, NaCl, or sucrose (each of 335 mOsm/kg osmolality) prepares sturgeon spermatozoa to become fully motile in presence of high concentration of K+ ions (15 mM), which has previously been demonstrated to fully repress motility. Furthermore, presence of 0.5mM KCl during the high osmolality pre-incubation exposure completely prevented subsequent spermatozoa activation in a K+-rich media. Manipulating the transport of K+ ions by the presence of K+ ionophore (valinomycin), it was concluded that once an efflux of K+ ions, the precursor of sturgeon sperm motility activation, is taking place, spermatozoa then become insensitive to a large extracellular K+ concentration.

  5. Diagnosis of an unidentified sturgeon species using the complete mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Kwak, Myounghai; Kweon, Seon-Man; Kwon, O-Nam

    2015-01-01

    A sturgeon of unknown species of 11 kg body weight was caught in Gosung-gun, Gangwon Province, Korea (38°17'10.67″N, 128°33'20.28″E). The morphological characteristics were similar to species of the genus Acipenser such as Acipenser medirostris, A. schrenckii and A. baerii, but it was not an obvious match. To identify the species using genetic tools, we analysed the complete mitogenome of this unidentified sturgeon, and found it to comprise 16,526 bp. The genome encoded 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region. The nucleotide divergence between the complete mitogenome of the unidentified sturgeon and those of four Acipenser spp. (A. transmontanus, A. dabryanus, A. schrenckii and A. baerii) was 0.736%, 3.875%, 0.085% and 5.580%, respectively. This study suggests that the unidentified sturgeon is able to predict the least maternal lines with A. schrenckii.

  6. Movement and habitat use of green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris in the Rogue River, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, D.L.; North, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Weber, J.; Lauck, L.

    2002-01-01

    Green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) movement patterns and habitat use within the Rogue River, Oregon were evaluated using radio telemetry. Nineteen specimens ranging from 154 to 225 cm total length were caught by gill netting and tagged with radio transmitters during May-July 2000. One tagged green sturgeon was verified as a female near spawning condition. Individual green sturgeons spent more than 6 months in fresh water and traveled as far as river kilometer (rkm) 39.5. Green sturgeon preferred specific holding sites within the Rogue River during summer and autumn months. These sites were typically deep (> 5 m) low-gradient reaches or off-channel coves. Home ranges within holding sites were restricted. All tagged individuals emigrated from the system to the sea during the autumn and winter, when water temperatures dropped below 10??C and flows increased. This species is extremely vulnerable to habitat alterations and overfishing because it spawns in only a few North American rivers and individuals reside within extremely small areas for extended periods of time.

  7. Lake sturgeon spawning on artificial habitat in the St Lawrence River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; LaPan, S.R.; Klindt, R.M.; Schiavone, A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1996, lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning was documented for the third consecutive year on an artificially placed gravel bed in the St Lawrence River. Two distinct spawning periods were observed in 1996. Spawning initially commenced on 17 June, when water temperature reached 15°C. A second spawning event was documented from 28 June to 1 July (16°C). Sturgeon egg densities were monitored in three transects on egg trays, on the gravel surface, and within interstitial spaces in the gravel. Counts of developing eggs in the gravel bed during both spawning periods were used to estimate a total of 275 000 eggs on the study area (0.075 ha). Average egg density was highest in the transect with the highest water velocities. Lake sturgeon fry were first observed in the gravel on 24 June (15.5°C), and first emergence from the gravel was documented on 28 June. Hatching following the second spawning event commenced on 3 July. Based on assessment of average embryo viability (61.6%) and egg-to-emergent fry survival (17.6%) an estimate of about 171 000 sturgeon eggs hatched, producing over 49 000 emergent fry. Current velocity, substrate particle size, depth of substrate, and maintenance of sediment-free interstitial spaces are important considerations in planning future spawning habitat enhancement projects.

  8. Development of Genetic Markers for Environmental DNA (eDNA) Monitoring of Sturgeon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    endangered species of amphibians (Goldberg et al. 2011), and to determine the presence of a broad range of other aquatic and semi-aquatic species (Thomsen...fish and amphibian community composition (Minamoto et al. 2012, Thomsen et al. 2012) and biomass estimation (Takahara et al. 2012). Sturgeon are taxa

  9. Determination of cortisol in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) eggs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Ugo; Wassink, Lydia; Scribner, Kim T; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying cortisol concentrations in fish eggs is important to understand the effects of environmental conditions on maternal physiological condition and on egg provisioning and quality. Data are particularly relevant to studies of the ecology of threatened species such as lake sturgeon (Aciperser fulvescens) as well as assessments of larval physical and behavioral phenotypes, fish health and caviar quality in sturgeon aquaculture. This study focuses on development of bioanalytical methods for high sensitivity and robust determination of cortisol in sturgeon eggs. Sample preparation was optimized after investigating protein precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction techniques. Ethyl acetate was found to be the most efficient solvent (recovery parameter) and also provided the best sample clean up (matrix effect parameter). The method was determined to be linear for cortisol concentrations between 0.025 and 100ng/mL. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.025 and 0.1ng/mL respectively. Intra- and inter-day performances of the method were validated at three concentrations (0.25; 10 and 100ng/mL). The method was applied to field-collected samples for the determination of endogenous cortisol in lake sturgeon eggs. Cortisol was detected in all egg samples and statistical analysis showed significant differences between fertilized and non-fertilized eggs.

  10. Differential expression of fertility genes boule and dazl in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), a basal fish.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huan; Li, Chuang-Ju; Yue, Hua-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Ge; Wei, Qi-Wei

    2015-05-01

    The gene family DAZ (deleted in Azoospermia), including boule, dazl and DAZ, performs highly conserved functions in germ cell development and fertility across animal phyla. Differential expression patterns have been demonstrated for the family members in invertebrates and vertebrates including fish. Here, we report the identification of boule and dazl and their expression at both RNA and protein levels in developing and mature gonads of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis). Firstly, the isolation of the boule and dazl genes in Chinese sturgeon and the observation of the two genes in coelacanth suggest that dazl originated after the divergence of bony fish from cartilaginous fish but before the emergence of the Actinistia. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses reveal that boule and dazl RNA and proteins are restricted to the testis and ovary. In situ hybridization and fluorescent immunohistochemistry show that the bisexual mitotic and meiotic germ cell expression of dazl RNA and protein is conserved in vertebrates, while Chinese sturgeon boule RNA and protein exhibit mitotic and meiotic expression in the testis, and also likely display mitotic and meiotic expression in female. Moreover, we directly demonstrate for the first time that sturgeon Balbiani body/mitochondrial cloud disperses in the cytoplasm of early developing oocytes and co-localizes with Dazl to some extent. Finally, urbilaterian boule may also have an ancestral function in oogenesis. Taken together, these results provide useful information on the evolution of DAZ family genes, expression patterns and functions in animal reproduction.

  11. Genome duplication events and functional reduction of ploidy levels in sturgeon (Acipenser, Huso and Scaphirhynchus).

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, A; Belfiore, N M; Pitra, C; Svirsky, V; Jenneckens, I

    2001-01-01

    Sturgeon (order Acipenserformes) provide an ideal taxonomic context for examination of genome duplication events. Multiple levels of ploidy exist among these fish. In a novel microsatellite approach, data from 962 fish from 20 sturgeon species were used for analysis of ploidy in sturgeon. Allele numbers in a sample of individuals were assessed at six microsatellite loci. Species with approximately 120 chromosomes are classified as functional diploid species, species with approximately 250 chromosomes as functional tetraploid species, and with approximately 500 chromosomes as functional octaploids. A molecular phylogeny of the sturgeon was determined on the basis of sequences of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. By mapping the estimated levels of ploidy on this proposed phylogeny we demonstrate that (I) polyploidization events independently occurred in the acipenseriform radiation; (II) the process of functional genome reduction is nearly finished in species with approximately 120 chromosomes and more active in species with approximately 250 chromosomes and approximately 500 chromosomes; and (III) species with approximately 250 and approximately 500 chromosomes arose more recently than those with approximately 120 chromosomes. These results suggest that gene silencing, chromosomal rearrangements, and transposition events played an important role in the acipenseriform genome formation. Furthermore, this phylogeny is broadly consistent with previous hypotheses but reveals a highly supported oceanic (Atlantic-Pacific) subdivision within the Acipenser/Huso complex. PMID:11454768

  12. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae.

  13. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Lei; Johnson, David; Gao, Yong; Mandal, Prashant; Fang, Min; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1) critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2) active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption) decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4) with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism) began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species.

  14. Adverse health effects and histological changes in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to dietary selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Gagnon, Danielle; Hecker, Markus

    2016-07-01

    It has been shown that selenium (Se) released to the aquatic environment can have devastating effects on local wildlife. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have a life history particularly susceptible to contaminants, and their protection is of interest as they are culturally and economically important, and many populations are classified as endangered. During the present 72-d dietary study, multiple signs of decreased health and Se lethality were observed. Juvenile white sturgeon were given diets containing 1.4 μg, 5.6 μg, 22.4 μg, or 104.4 μg selenomethionine/g food (dry mass). Selenium accumulated in muscle and liver tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Edema causing exophthalmos developed within 15 d and 23 d, and lethal effects occurred in 54% and 22% of fish in the high- and medium-dose groups, respectively. Growth and hepatosomatic index were significantly lower in the high-dose group, which also had a high incidence of food avoidance. Histology of the liver revealed a dose-dependent increase in melanomacrophage aggregates and decrease of energy stores, which indicated toxicity. These results indicate that white sturgeon are susceptible to the effects of Se accumulation over relatively short time periods. This stresses the need for continued sturgeon research and studies looking into the environmental fate and regulation of released Se. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1741-1750. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  16. The optimal pallidal target in deep brain stimulation for dystonia: a study using a functional atlas based on non-linear image registration

    PubMed Central

    Tolleson, Christopher; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Li, Chen; Fang, John; Phibbs, Fenna; Konrad, Peter; Hedera, Peter; Francois-D'Haese, Pierre; Dawant, Benoit M.; Davis, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is established as efficacious for dystonia yet the optimal target within this structure is not well defined. Published evidence suggests that spatial normalization provides a better estimate of DBS lead location than traditional methods based on standard stereotactic coordinates. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our pallidal implanted dystonia population. Patient imaging scans were morphed into an MRI atlas using a non-linear image registration algorithm. Active contact locations were projected onto the atlas and clusters analyzed for the degree of variance in two groups: 1) good and poor responders and 2) cervical (CD) and generalized dystonia (GD). Results Average active contact location between CD and GD good responders was distinct but not significantly different. Mean active contact for CD poor responders was significantly different from CD responders and GD poor responders in the dorsoventral direction. Conclusions A normalized imaging space is arguably more accurate in visualizing postoperative leads. Despite some separation between groups, this data suggests there was not an optimal pallidal target for common dystonia patients. Degrees of variance overlapped due to a large degree of individual target variation. Patient selection may ultimately be the key to maximizing patient outcomes. PMID:25502118

  17. Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence for Reduced Feeding of Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon during Their Prolonged River Residence Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, B.; Schell, D. M.; Frazer, T.; Hoyer, M.; Chapman, F. A.

    2001-09-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios were used to delineate food sources for Gulf of Mexico sturgeon ( Acipenser oxyrinchus de sotoi), an anadromous fish that migrates between Gulf of Mexico and the coastal rivers in south-east U.S.A. The large difference in isotope ratios (˜11‰) between freshwater food sources and fish muscle tissue suggests that the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon do not feed significantly in fresh waters. Isotope ratio data from this study and also from the literature indicate that the growth of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon is almost entirely supported by coastal marine food sources. It is likely that Gulf of Mexico sturgeon use the cool springs that seep into the river as a thermal refuge during their river residence in summer and that thermal barriers may prevent the fish from exploiting the rich food sources available in the warmer portions of the Suwannee River.

  18. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2006 - March 2007. Report C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2008-01-01

    Describe reproduction and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Progress updates on young-of-the-year recruitment in Bonneville Reservoir and indices of white sturgeon spawning habitat for 2006 for McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville dam tailrace spawning areas.

  19. Modeling spatial and temporal variation of suitable nursery habitats for Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklitschek, Edwin J.; Secor, David H.

    2005-07-01

    For rare and endangered species, bioenergetics modeling can represent a valuable approach for understanding issues of habitat value and connectivity among potential habitats within nurseries in restoration programs. We used multivariable bioenergetics and survival models for Atlantic sturgeon to generate spatially explicit maps of potential production in the Chesapeake Bay. For the period 1993-2002, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality effects (temperature, dissolved oxygen [DO] and salinity) on potential production were evaluated. In addition, two forecasted scenarios were modeled: one implementing newly revised U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DO-criteria for the Chesapeake Bay, and the other assuming a bay-wide increase of 1 °C due to an underlying trend in regional climate. Atlantic sturgeon's low (survival/growth) tolerance to temperatures >28 °C was a critical constraint during their first 1-2 summers of life. Hatched in freshwater (spring to mid-summer), young-of-the-year were predicted to occupy cooler (deeper) areas as temperature approached sub-lethal levels. While most thermal refuges were located down-estuary, a large fraction of potential refuges were unsuitable due to persistent hypoxia and/or salinity levels beyond the limited osmoregulatory capabilities of early juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. As a result, suitable summer habitats for juvenile Atlantic sturgeons in the Chesapeake Bay were predicted to be spatially restricted and variable between years, ranging from 0 to 35% of the modeled bay surface area. In critical (drought) years, almost no summer habitat was predicted to be available for juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. Value and size of nursery habitat was highly sensitive to climatic oscillations and anthropogenic interventions affecting freshwater inflow, water temperature and/or DO. Achieving EPA DO-criteria for the Chesapeake Bay was predicted to increase total suitable habitat by 13% for an average year, while increasing

  20. Intraperitoneal injection urocortin-3 reduces the food intake of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Yuanbing; Hao, Jin; Zhu, Jieyao; Tang, Ni; Qi, Jinwen; Wang, Shuyao; Wang, Hong; Peng, Shuang; Liu, Ju; Gao, Yundi; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2016-11-01

    Urocortin-3 (UCN3), one of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family peptides, which was discovered in 2001, has a variety of biological functions. However, the researches of UCN3 in fish were scarce. In order to understand whether UCN3 play a role in regulating food intake in fish, we first cloned the ucn3 cDNAs sequence of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt), and investigated the ucn3 mRNA levels in 11 tissues. The Siberian sturgeon ucn3 cDNA sequence was 1044bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 447bp that encoded 148 amino acids with a mature peptide of 40 amino acids, a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 162bp and a 3'-terminal untranslated region (3'-UTR) of 435bp. The result of tissue distribution showed that ucn3 widely distributed in 11 tissues with highest expression in brain. We also assessed the effects of periprandial (pre- and post-feeding), fasting and re-feeding on ucn3 mRNAs abundance in brain. The results showed the expression of ucn3 mRNA in brain was significantly elevated after feeding, decreased after fasting 17 days and increased after re-feeding. To further investigate the food intake role of UCN3 in Siberian sturgeon, we performed intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Siberian sturgeon UCN3 (SsUCN3) with three doses (60, 120 or 240ng/g) and recorded the food intake. Acute and chronic i.p. injection SsUCN3 reduced the food intake in a dose-dependent pattern. In conclusion, this study indicates that SsUCN3 acts as a satiety factor to inhibit the food intake of Siberian sturgeon.

  1. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  2. Functional C1q is present in the skin mucus of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuguang; Song, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    The skin mucus of fish acts as the first line of self-protection against pathogens in the aquatic environment and comprises a number of innate immune components. However, the presence of the critical classical complement component C1q, which links the innate and adaptive immune systems of mammalians, has not been explored in a primitive actinopterygian fish. In this study, we report that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). The skin mucus was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The bacteriostatic activity of the skin mucus was reduced by heating and by pre-incubation with EDTA or mouse anti-human C1q antibody. We also detected C1q protein in skin mucus using the western blot procedure and isolated a cDNA that encodes the Siberian sturgeon C1qC, which had 44.7-51.4% identity with C1qCs in teleosts and tetrapods. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Siberian sturgeon C1qC lies at the root of the actinopterygian branch and is separate from the tetrapod branch. The C1qC transcript was expressed in many tissues as well as in skin. Our data indicate that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon to protect against water-borne bacteria, and the C1qC found in the sturgeon may represent the primitive form of teleost and tetrapod C1qCs.

  3. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt.

  4. Olfactory projections in the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, R Glenn

    2011-07-01

    Telencephalic evolution in ray-finned fishes shows increasing complexity from polypteriform fishes through sturgeons to teleosts. Telencephalic organization in sturgeons is thus critical to our understanding of ray-finned fish evolution, but it is poorly understood, particularly as regards the roof or pallium. Two major hypotheses exist regarding the medial part of area dorsalis (Dm): that Dm is extended; and that Dm is restricted. The extent and topography of secondary olfactory projections to the pallium are critical in evaluating these hypotheses, but there is little agreement regarding these projections. Olfactory projections in the white sturgeon were therefore examined by using the carbocyanine probe DiI, biocytin, and biotinylated dextrin amine (BDA). Both DiI and BDA revealed primary olfactory projections to the olfactory bulb and primary extrabulbar projections widely in the telencephalon and to more restricted regions of the diencephalon. Myelinated secondary olfactory fibers caused DiI to be less effective in labeling secondary olfactory projections, which terminate in all subpallial nuclei and in the pallium: sparsely in the medial pallial division (Dm); heavily in the posterior pallial division (Dp); and more lightly in the lateral pallial division (Dl). In the diencephalon, substantial secondary olfactory projections were seen to the habenular nuclei, the rostral pole of the inferior lobe, and several nuclei of the posterior tubercle. All secondary olfactory projections were bilateral but heavier ipsilaterally. Bulbopetal neurons were located in both pallial and subpallial centers and were more numerous ipsilaterally. These results corroborate an earlier experimental study on the shovelnose sturgeon and indicate a restricted Dm in sturgeons.

  5. Brain ventricle development in H. huso (Beluga sturgeon) larvae.

    PubMed

    Tavighi, S H; Saadatfar, Z; Shojaei, B; Rassouli, M Behnam

    2016-09-01

    The development of ventricles in the brain of H. huso (Beluga sturgeon) from 1 to 54 days old is presented in this study. The components observed in the 1-day-old ventricular system were the telencephalic, tectal, and cerebellar ventricles. These ventricles were not observed to have any recess or sulcus. They were surrounded by copious ependymal and embryonic cells. Two different parts were detected in the 6-day-old telencephalic ventricle: the olfactory and lateral ventricle. The olfactory ventricle was observed as a cranial extension of the telencephalic ventricle from 6 days old, as was the inner cell layer of the olfactory bulb (ic) adjacent to this extension. In the preoptic region, the lateral ventricle was connected to the preoptic recess from 15 days old, and this recess was connected by the interventricular foramen to the third ventricle in the diencephalon. At 6 days old, the third ventricle in the diencephalon was visible at the caudal part of the lateral ventricle, and the third ventricle had a recess near to the inferior lobe of the hypothalamus. At 6 days old, the tectal ventricle was observed to have bilateral extensions which proceeded to grow with age. The cerebellar ventricle, situated between the two lobes of the cerebellum, was observed from 1 day old. The cerebellar ventricle grew with age, extending laterally from 6 days old. The connection of the cerebellar ventricle to the fourth ventricle in the medulla oblongata was visible from 6 days old. Upon dividing the ventricular system into three regions (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), stereological studies performed utiizing Cavalieri's principle indicated that the forebrain ventricular region had the smallest volume while the hindbrain ventricular region had the largest.

  6. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

  7. Ancient fish and recent invaders: white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus diet response to invasive-species-mediated changes in a benthic prey assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeug, Steven C; Brodsky, Annie; Kogut, Nina; Stewart, Robin; Merz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Invasive organisms can have significant impacts on native species, and the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California, USA, is one of the world's most invaded estuaries. Decline of native white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus abundance in the SFE has been acknowledged, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Invasion by the overbite clam Potamocorbula amurensis has drastically altered the SFE benthic prey community, yet little is known about how this change has affected sturgeon diets. We investigated changes in the diet of white sturgeon following the overbite clam invasion and subsequent shift in the SFE benthic prey assemblage. Gut content analysis was used to compare white sturgeon prey composition and importance between the pre- and post-invasion periods. Additionally, stable isotope analysis was employed to estimate the assimilation of prey items to sturgeon biomass. Overbite clams dominated diets in the post-invasion period, accounting for 82 to 93% of total volume. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the importance of this prey item, although their assimilated contribution to sturgeon biomass was estimated to be less (70 to 83%) than gut contents indicated. The frequency of fish in white sturgeon guts increased in the post-invasion period, and isotope analysis indicated relatively large contributions of fish to sturgeon biomass (3.7 to 19%). The trophic adaptability of white sturgeon has allowed them to exploit this new prey source (overbite clam). Future conservation and restoration efforts must consider a potentially destabilized food web given the large importance of a single prey item.

  8. [Comparative studies on the characteristics of the Fourier-transform infrared spectra between sturgeon and shark chondroitin sulfates].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiang; Guan, Rui-Zhang; Huang, Shi-Yu

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of sturgeon and shark chondroitin sulfates (CHSs) were comparatively studied. The results show that sturgeon CHS exhibits special vibrations at the wavenumbers of 1 376, 1 344, 1 310, 1 157, 883 and 856 cm(-1). Further analysis shows that shark CHS contains 6-sulfated-CHS, while sturgeon CHS contains 4, 6-disulfated CHS, indicating that sturgeon CHS could have higher biological activities in decreasing the toxicity of medicine and in killing cancer cells. In general, the two kinds of CHSs have similar infrared spectra and groups of acylamino, carboxyl, sulfate, and saccharide ring. But the N-H variable-angle vibration of acylamino group of sturgeon CHS occurs at the higher wavenumber, and the vibration intensity of carboxyl group at 1 415 cm(-1) is also stronger than that of shark CHS. Chemical analysis shows that sturgeon CHS has a higher content of glucuronic acid, suggesting that it probably could be a better kind of medical materials for the bone mineralization.

  9. Partial genome analysis of Siberian sturgeon alloherpesvirus suggests its close relation to AciHV-2 - short communication.

    PubMed

    Doszpoly, Andor; Shchelkunov, Igor S

    2010-06-01

    Partial genome sequence of a herpes-like virus, isolated from Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri), was determined and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The virus (SbSHV) has been shown to be the causative agent of an acute disease with high mortality in farmed juvenile sturgeons in Russia. Two fragments (of 7000 and 300 base pairs in length) encompassing 3 complete and 3 partial ORFs were amplified by PCR. Sturgeon herpesvirus strains, classified into species Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2), have been isolated and partially sequenced from several regions (California, Idaho, Oregon and Canada) of North America from white (A. transmontanus) and shortnose sturgeons (A. brevirostrum). The sequence of the SbSHV strain shared highest identity with that of the Canadian strain originating from shortnose sturgeon. The phylogenetic analysis also confirmed that SbSHV is closely related to AciHV-2 and could also be classified into this virus species. This is the first report on the occurrence of AciHV-2 in Europe. Previously, only another virus species, AciHV-1 has been detected in farmed white sturgeons in Italy. The size and position of ORFs in the examined gene block confirmed that this genomic region is highly conserved in members of the genus Ictalurivirus.

  10. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring.

  12. Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  13. Development of the skull and pectoral girdle in Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, and Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (Acipenseriformes: Acipenseridae).

    PubMed

    Warth, Peter; Hilton, Eric J; Naumann, Benjamin; Olsson, Lennart; Konstantinidis, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The head is considered the major novelty of the vertebrates and directly linked to their evolutionary success. Its form and development as well as its function, for example in feeding, is of major interest for evolutionary biologists. In this study, we describe the skeletal development of the cranium and pectoral girdle in Siberian (Acipenser baerii) and Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii), two species that are commonly farmed in aquaculture and increasingly important in developmental studies. This study comprises the development of the neuro-, viscero- and dermatocranium and the dermal and chondral components of the pectoral girdle, from first condensation of chondrocytes in prehatchlings to the early juvenile stage and reveals a clear pattern in formation. The otic capsules, the parachordal cartilages, and the trabeculae cranii are the first centers of chondrification, at 8.4mm TL. These are followed by the mandibular, then the hyoid, and later the branchial arches. Teeth form early on the dentary, dermopalatine, and palatopterygoid, and then appear later in the buccal cavity as dorsal and ventral toothplates. With ongoing chondrification in the neurocranium a capsule around the brain and a strong rostrum are formed. Dermal ossifications start to form before closure of the dorsal neurocranial fenestrae. Perichondral ossification of cartilage bones occurs much later in ontogeny. Our results contribute data bearing on the homology of elements such as the lateral rostral canal bone that we regard homologous to the antorbital of other actinopterygians based on its sequence of formation, position and form. We further raise doubts on the homology of the posterior ceratobranchial among Actinopteri based on the formation of the hyoid arch elements. We also investigate the basibranchials and the closely associated unidentified gill-arch elements and show that they are not homologous. J. Morphol. 278:418-442, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1990-06-01

    The population of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River has continued to decline since 1983, in spite of a closure to harvest in the U.S. section of the river. Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 228 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 850 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 574 to 1,463. At present, we do not understand what mechanisms are limiting recruitment. Over the past 70 years, the lower Kootenai River has been extensively diked for flood control, effectively eliminating backwater and slough areas that may have provided juvenile rearing habitat: Contaminants have entered the river system via mining operations and agricultural practices. In 1972, Libby Dam began operation, reversing the natural flow regime of the river, and releasing frequent power peaking flows. Of 179 fish that were surgically sexed, 37% were female and 35% were male. Thirty-four percent of the females held developing oocytes. All oocyte samples from nine females contained copper (1.18 to 2.50 {micro}g/g) and zinc (15.6 to 32.8 {micro}g/g). Most samples also contained organochloride residues such as DDT, DDD, DDE, and PCBs (0.215 to 1.080 {micro}g/g, combined). River sediment samples contained 1.62 to 12.8 {micro}g/g copper and 22.4 to 70.6 {micro}g/g zinc, but no organochloride residues. Electrophoretic analysis of muscle samples indicated reduced heterogeneity compared with lower basin white sturgeon and showed a significantly different degree of variation between the two stocks in seven enzyme systems. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements in response to water flow

  15. Selenocompounds in juvenile white sturgeon: estimating absorption, disposition, and elimination of selenium using Bayesian hierarchical modeling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Hung, Silas S O; Boston, Raymond C; Fadel, James G

    2012-03-01

    The biological function of selenium (Se) is determined by its form and concentration. Selenium is an essential micronutrient for all vertebrates, however, at environmental levels, it is a potent toxin. In the San Francisco Bay-Delta, Se pollution threatens top predatory fish, including white sturgeon. A multi-compartmental Bayesian hierarchical model was developed to estimate the fractional rates of absorption, disposition, and elimination of selenocompounds, in white sturgeon, from tissue measurements obtained in a previous study (Huang et al., 2012). This modeling methodology allows for a population based approach to estimate kinetic physiological parameters in white sturgeon. Briefly, thirty juvenile white sturgeon (five per treatment) were orally intubated with a control (no selenium) or a single dose of Se (500 μg Se/kg body weight) in the form of one inorganic (Selenite) or four organic selenocompounds: selenocystine (SeCys), l-selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine (MSeCys), or selenoyeast (SeYeast). Blood and urine Se were measured at intervals throughout the 48h post intubation period and eight tissues were sampled at 48 h. The model is composed of four state variables, conceptually the gut (Q1), blood (Q2), and tissue (Q3); and urine (Q0), all in units of μg Se. Six kinetics parameters were estimated: the fractional rates [1/h] of absorption, tissue disposition, tissue release, and urinary elimination (k12, k23, k32, and k20), the proportion of the absorbed dose eliminated through the urine (f20), and the distribution blood volume (V; percent body weight, BW). The parameter k12 was higher in sturgeon given the organic Se forms, in the descending order of MSeCys > SeMet > SeCys > Selenite > SeYeast. The parameters k23 and k32 followed similar patterns, and f20 was lowest in fish given MSeCys. Selenium form did not affect k20 or V. The parameter differences observed can be attributed to the different mechanisms of transmucosal transport

  16. Distribution and composition pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different tissues of sturgeons collected from Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=16), and Stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=7) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March and April 2011. The distribution and composition pattern of PAHs in the different tissues of sturgeons, and the effects of lipid content in sturgeon tissues and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of PAHs congeners on them were analyzed. The levels of total PAHs in the various tissues of Persian sturgeon and Stellate sturgeon ranged from 2.095 to 6.587 and 1.942 to 6.206 μg g(-1)dw, respectively. Stellate sturgeon showed significantly higher levels of heavy PAHs (⩾ 4-rings) than Persian sturgeon. The analysis has revealed a high degree of differential accumulation of the studied PAHs in the tissues of the both species. Low molecular weight PAHs predominated in the sturgeons, accounting for 81.89% of the total PAHs. Among the sixteen tested PAHs, naphthalene was the most dominant congener, followed by phenanthrene and fluorene. The PAHs levels and distribution in the tissues of sturgeons are dependent on both the Kow of PAH congeners and the lipid content in these tissues. There was a significant positive relationship (r=0.868, p<0.005) between lipid content and PAHs levels. The statistically significant negative relationships (p<0.01) were found between log Kow and log-transformed PAHs levels for muscle tissues of both sturgeon species.

  17. Comparative ontogenetic behavior and migration of kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, from the Amur River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Cao, W.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments with kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed embryos (first life phase after hatching) and larvae (period initiating exogenous feeding) to day-30 (late larvae) for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and downstream movement, and diel activity. Day-0 embryos of both species strongly preferred bright, open habitat and initiated a strong, downstream migration that lasted 4 days (3 day peak) for kaluga and 3 days (2 day peak) for Amur sturgeon. Kaluga migrants swam far above the bottom (150 cm) on only 1 day and moved day and night; Amur sturgeon migrants swam far above the bottom (median 130 cm) during 3 days and were more nocturnal than kaluga. Post-migrant embryos of both species moved day and night, but Amur sturgeon used dark, cover habitat and swam closer to the bottom than kaluga. The larva period of both species began on day 7 (cumulative temperature degree-days, 192.0 for kaluga and 171.5 for Amur sturgeon). Larvae of both species preferred open habitat. Kaluga larvae strongly preferred bright habitat, initially swam far above the bottom (median 50-105 cm), and migrated downstream at night during days 10-16 (7-day migration). Amur sturgeon larvae strongly avoided illumination, had a mixed response to white substrate, swam 20-30 cm above the bottom during most days, and during days 12-34 (most of the larva period) moved downstream mostly at night (23-day migration). The embryo-larva migration style of the two species likely shows convergence of non-related species for a common style in response to environmental selection in the Amur River. The embryo-larva migration style of Amur sturgeon is unique among Acipenser yet studied.

  18. Effects of subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper, cadmium, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Tompsett, Amber R; Sigurdson, Jacinda L; Doering, Jon A; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) are declining in many places in the world because of several potential factors, including overharvesting, habitat alteration, and pollution. In North America, populations of the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have been experiencing poor annual recruitment in major river systems for more than three decades. Metal pollution has been hypothesized as a potential contributing factor to the poor recruitment in some of the water bodies. In general, little is known about the toxicity of metals such as Cu, Cd, and Zn to white sturgeon and their potential influence on survival of embryos and juveniles. The present study was conducted to establish baseline toxicity data for the subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon to Cu, Cd, and Zn that can be used in metal-related risk assessments. Embryos, larvae, and fry were exposed to increasing concentrations of dissolved Cu, Cd, or Zn for 66 d using laboratory-based flow-through exposure systems. Hatching success was greater than 79% for all controls, and no significant differences were observed among treatment groups or between treatments and controls. Chronic lethal concentrations at which 20% mortality occurred (LC20s) for Cd (1.5 µg/L), Cu (5.5 µg/L), and Zn (112 µg/L) obtained for white sturgeon in the present study were comparable to those of sensitive salmonid species. Based on LC20 values for 19 or 58 d posthatch white sturgeon, the United States national ambient water quality criteria and the Canadian water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life that have been established for Cd, Cu, and Zn protect white sturgeon early life stages.

  19. Population Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Bycaught in U.S. Atlantic Coast Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Wirgin, I.; Maceda, L.; Grunwald, C.; King, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA control region sequence analyses were used to determine the population and Distinct Population Segment (DPS) origin of 173 Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus encountered from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Observer Program. It was found that the Hudson River was by far the greatest contributor to this coastal bycatch, with 42.2-46.3% of specimens originating there. Generally, specimens respected the geographic province of the river in which they were spawned, but some specimens, particularly those originating in the South Atlantic DPS, moved great distances. Genetic mixed stock analyses provides an accurate approach to determine the DPS and population origin of Atlantic sturgeon bycaught in coastal waters but most informative management requires that these results be partitioned by locale, season, target fishery, and gear type. PMID:25727098

  20. Changes in age composition and growth characteristics of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) over 400 years.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Garman, Greg C; Fine, Michael L; Hager, Christian H; McIninch, Stephen P

    2010-10-23

    Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) have experienced global declines, and in some cases extirpation, during the past century. In the current era of climate change and over-harvesting of fishery resources, climate models, based on uncertain boundary conditions, are being used to predict future effects on the Earth's biota. A collection of approximately 400-year-old Atlantic sturgeon spines from a midden in colonial Jamestown, VA, USA, allowed us to compare the age structure and growth rate for a pre-industrial population during a 'mini-ice age' with samples collected from the modern population in the same reach of the James River. Compared with modern fish, the colonial population was characterized by larger and older individuals and exhibited significantly slower growth rates, which were comparable with modern populations at higher latitudes of North America. These results may relate to higher population densities and/or colder water temperatures during colonial times.

  1. Surgical removal of cataracts due to Diplostomum species in Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi).

    PubMed

    Bakal, Robert S; Hickson, Brian H; Gilger, Brian C; Levy, Michael G; Flowers, James R; Khoo, Lester

    2005-09-01

    Twenty 6-yr-old (1995-yr-class) Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) were diagnosed as having bilateral cataracts. Histopathologic assessment of the lenses of two of the fish revealed the presence of a diplostomid trematode. Pharmacological treatment of the trematodes may be effective for killing the parasites, but the damage to the lenses and resulting cataracts are nonreversible. Because these animals were to be used in a subsequent study as sentinels in the natural environment, it was necessary to return the animals' vision to as close to normal as possible. Electroretinograms were performed on each fish's eyes to ensure that retinal function was present. Cataracts then were surgically removed by phacoemulsification and aspiration. The animals tolerated the surgical procedures well. This report is the first known report of surgical correction of cataracts in sturgeon species. It also is the first known attempt to correct vision problems in fish being returned to the wild.

  2. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    TenBrook, P L; Kendall, S M; Tjeerdema, R S

    2006-07-01

    White sturgeon (Acipencer transmontanus) were exposed to 7.2 microM (1.0 ppm) 14C-labeled p-nitrophenol (PNP) in brackish water for 24 h and then allowed to depurate in clean brackish water for another 24h. Absorption, conditional uptake clearance, and conditional elimination rate constants were 0.08+/-0.04 h(-1), 8.1+/-3.6 mL g(-1) h(-1), and 0.46+/-0.21 h(-1), respectively. A whole-organism total concentration factor of 18.7+/-2.6 was determined from equilibrium tissue and water concentrations. Sturgeon depurated 89.4% of absorbed PNP within 24h, of which 53.0+/-8.3% was unmetabolized parent compound, 9.6+/-3.6% was p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucuronide, and 39.1+/-8.3% was p-nitrophenylsulfate.

  3. Histopathological effects of silver and copper nanoparticles on the epidermis, gills, and liver of Siberian sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Ostaszewska, Teresa; Chojnacki, Maciej; Kamaszewski, Maciej; Sawosz-Chwalibóg, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The influence of nanoparticles (NPs) on aquatic environments is still poorly documented. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of silver (AgNPs) and copper (CuNPs) nanoparticles on larval Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) after 21 days of exposure. Acute toxicity of AgNPs on Siberian sturgeon was investigated in a 96-h static renewal study and compared with the toxicity of CuNPs. The AgNPs and CuNPs 96 h mean lethal concentrations (96 h LC50) were 15.03 ± 2.91 and 1.41 ± 0.24 mg L(-1), respectively. Toxicity tests were done in triplicates for each concentration of AgNPs 0.1, 0.5, 1.5 mg L(-1) and CuNPs 0.01, 0.05, 0.15 mg L(-1). The control group was exposed in freshwater. The results indicate that AgNPs and CuNPs exposure negatively influenced survival; body length and mass; and morphology and physiology of the epidermis, gills, and liver of Siberian sturgeon larvae. Fish exposed to AgNPs and CuNPs showed similar pathological changes: irregular structure and pyknotic nuclei of epidermis, aplasia and/or fusion of lamellae, telangiectasis, epithelial necrosis and lifting of the gills, dilation of sinusoidal space, overfilled blood vessels, and pyknotic nuclei of the liver. Fish exposed to CuNPs only demonstrated hyaline degeneration in the gills epithelium and liver. The study shows that CuNPs were more toxic to Siberian sturgeon larvae than AgNPs.

  4. A habitat suitability model for Chinese sturgeon determined using the generalized additive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese sturgeon is a type of large anadromous fish that migrates between the ocean and rivers. Because of the construction of dams, this sturgeon's migration path has been cut off, and this species currently is on the verge of extinction. Simulating suitable environmental conditions for spawning followed by repairing or rebuilding its spawning grounds are effective ways to protect this species. Various habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge have been used to evaluate the suitability of spawning habitat. In this study, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation is used to inform a habitat suitability model based on the generalized additive method (GAM). The GAM is based on real data. The values of water depth and velocity are calculated first via the hydrodynamic model and later applied in the GAM. The final habitat suitability model is validated using the catch per unit effort (CPUEd) data of 1999 and 2003. The model results show that a velocity of 1.06-1.56 m/s and a depth of 13.33-20.33 m are highly suitable ranges for the Chinese sturgeon to spawn. The hydraulic habitat suitability indexes (HHSI) for seven discharges (4000; 9000; 12,000; 16,000; 20,000; 30,000; and 40,000 m3/s) are calculated to evaluate integrated habitat suitability. The results show that the integrated habitat suitability reaches its highest value at a discharge of 16,000 m3/s. This study is the first to apply a GAM to evaluate the suitability of spawning grounds for the Chinese sturgeon. The study provides a reference for the identification of potential spawning grounds in the entire basin.

  5. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Sturgeon Lake, Goodhue County, Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Sanocki, Christopher A.; Montz, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Prairie Island Indian Community and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study of Sturgeon Lake (a backwater lake in Navigation Pool 3 of the Mississippi River) during 2003-04 to describe the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lake. Riparian and shoreline areas surrounding Sturgeon Lake consist primarily of deciduous tree and shrub cover with minimal amounts of commercial or residential land use. Woody debris and aquatic vegetation are the major types of physical habitat suitable for fish and invertebrates. Among 10 bottom-sediment sampling sites, 24 organic wastewater compounds, 1 organochlorine pesticide metabolite (p,p’DDE), and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in the bottom sediments of Sturgeon Lake. The most prevalent class of compounds detected were polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Other classes of compounds detected include sterols, disinfectants, plastic components, alkylphenols, and fragrances. Three compounds detected (bisphenol A, benzo[a]pyrene, and triclosan) are considered endocrine disrupting compounds. Twenty-one and 49 invertebrate taxa were identified from 10 bottom-sediment and 6 woody-debris/vegetation samples, respectively. Most of the taxa were Diptera in the family Chironomidae. The most common invertebrate in terms of density in bottom-sediment samples was the burrowing mayfly (Hexagenia sp.). Trichoptera in the families Hydropsychidae or Polycentropodidae were common in most of the woody-debris samples. The presence of the Hexagenia larvae in samples indicates that the bottom sediments are stable and that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lake do not drop to acute or sub-lethal anoxic conditions. Backwater lakes such as Sturgeon Lake are important areas of habitat for aquatic organisms along the Mississippi River, and this report provides baseline physical, chemical, and biological information that resource managers can

  6. Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during spring months

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirgin, Isaac; Breece, Matthew W.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Maceda, Lorraine; Wark, Kevin W.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus was federally listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five distinct population segments (DPS). Currently, at least 18 estuaries coastwide host spawning populations and the viability of these vary, requiring differing levels of protection. Subadults emigrate from their natal estuaries to marine waters where they are vulnerable to bycatch; one of the major threats to the rebuilding of populations. As a result, identifying the population origin of Atlantic Sturgeon in coastal waters is critical to development of management plans intended to minimize interactions of the most imperiled populations with damaging fisheries. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequencing and microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the origin of 261 Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during the spring months. Using individual-based assignment (IBA) testing and mixed stock analysis, we found that specimens originated from all nine of our reference populations and the five DPSs used in the listing determination. Using IBA, we found that the Hudson River population was the largest contributor (38.3%) to our coastal collection. The James (19.9%) and Delaware (13.8%) river populations, at one time thought to be extirpated or nearly so, were the next largest contributors. The three populations combined in the South Atlantic DPS contributed 21% of specimens; the Altamaha River, the largest population in the South Atlantic DPS, only contributed a single specimen to the collection. While the origin of specimens collected on the Delaware coast was most likely within rivers of the New York Bight DPS (52.1%), specimens that originated elsewhere were also well represented. Genetic analyses provide a robust tool to identify the population origin of individual sturgeon outside of their natal estuaries and to determine the quantitative contributions of individual populations to coastal aggregations that are vulnerable to

  7. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) passage at the Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Wright, C.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Kofoot, E.E.; Peery, C.A.; Moser, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) ???95 cm TL were monitored using acoustic and radio telemetry at a large hydroelectric dam (the Dalles Dam) on the Columbia River, during March 2004 through November 2005 to determine timing and routes of passage and to characterize general movements. Transmitters were surgically implanted into 148 fish during the study; 90 were released into the tailrace and 58 into the forebay. We documented 26 passage events by 19 tagged fish: eight upstream via fish ladders and 18 downstream, mostly through open spill gates. During the study 17 fish entered the two ladders one or more times; 11 entered only the east ladder, three entered only the north ladder, and three entered both ladders at sometime. Residence time within the ladders by individual fish was variable, ranging from about 1 min to nearly 6 months (median = 7.7 h). Only six fish successfully ascended the east ladder, one fish twice. We could not unequivocally determine which fish ladder one fish used to pass upstream. Differences in construction between the north and east fish ladders may account for the greater success of the east fish ladder in passing sturgeon upstream. Changes to operations at hydroelectric dams to benefit migrating anadromous salmonids may influence upstream or downstream passage by white sturgeon. Altering patterns and timing of spill discharge, altering fish ladder entrance attraction flows, and the use of lights, sound, and partial barriers to direct other species of fish to preferred passage routes have unknown effects on sturgeon passage. A better understanding of the consequences to the metapopulation of increasing or precluding upstream or downstream passage is needed. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  8. The acute temperature tolerance of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) and the effect of environmental salinity.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Brian A; Sanmarti, Enio; Kültz, Dietmar

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the effect of environmental salinity on the upper thermal tolerance of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), a threatened species whose natural habitat is vulnerable to temperature and salinity variation as a result of global climate change. Freshwater (FW)-reared sturgeon were gradually acclimated to salinities representing FW, estuary water (EST), or San Francisco Bay water (BAY) at 18 degrees C, and their critical thermal maximum (CTMax) was measured by increasing temperature 0.3 degrees C/min until branchial ventilation ceased. CTMax was 34.2+/-0.09 degrees C in EST-acclimated fish, with FW- and BAY-acclimated fish CTMax at 33.7+/-0.08 and 33.7+/-0.1 degrees C, respectively. Despite the higher CTMax in EST-acclimated fish, FW-acclimated sturgeon ventilation rate reached a peak that was 2 degrees C higher than EST- and BAY-acclimated groups and had a greater range of temperatures within which they exhibited normal ventilatory function as assessed by Q10 calculation. The osmoregulatory consequences of exposure to near-lethal temperatures were assessed by measuring plasma osmolality and hematocrit, as well as white muscle, brain, and heart tissue water contents. Hematocrit was increased following CTMax exposure, most likely owing to the elevated metabolic demands of temperature increase, and plasma osmolality was significantly increased in EST- and BAY-acclimated fish, which was likely the result of a greater osmotic gradient across the gill as metabolism increased. To our knowledge, this represents the first evidence for an effect of salinity on the upper thermal tolerance of sturgeon, as well as the first investigation of the osmoregulatory consequences of exposure to near-lethal temperatures.

  9. Persian sturgeon insulin-like growth factor I: molecular cloning and expression during various nutritional conditions.

    PubMed

    Yarmohammadi, Mahtab; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Kazemi, Rezvanollah; Hallajian, Ali; Soltanloo, Hassan; Hassanzadeh Saber, Mohammad; Abbasalizadeh, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    The effects of different periods of starvation (1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks) and subsequent re-feeding (over a 4 week) on the compensatory growth performance and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA expression in liver and white muscle were investigated in juvenile Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). First, a fragment of 617 nucleotides coding for IGF-I was cloned from liver, which included an open reading frame of 486 nucleotides, encoding a 162 amino acid preproIGF-I. This is composed of a 45 aa for signal peptide, a 117 aa for the mature peptide comprising the B, C, A, and D domains, and a 47 aa for E domain. The mature Persian sturgeon IGF-I exhibits high sequence identities with other sturgeon species and teleost, ranging between 68 and 95 %. The pattern of IGF-I mRNA expression in the liver and white muscle was measured in response to different periods of starvation and subsequent re-feeding. Nutritional status influenced IGF-I mRNA expression pattern in both liver and muscle. IGF-I mRNA expression in the liver increased during starvation, before decreasing after re-feeding. Furthermore, white muscle IGF-I mRNA expression showed better responses to nutritional status and decreased following starvation and increased by re-feeding. However, changes in the expression of IGF-I mRNA were not significantly different between any of the treatments in both tissues. These data suggest that muscle and liver IGF-I mRNA expression do not have a regulatory role for somatic growth induced by compensatory growth in Persain sturgeon.

  10. Genetic comparison of lake sturgeon populations: Differentiation based on allelic frequencies at seven microsatellite loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McQuown, E.; Krueger, C.C.; Kincaid, H.L.; Gall, G.A.E.; May, B.

    2003-01-01

    The lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) has recently become a high priority for restoration management because of the near extinction of the species from many areas of North America. The identification of the level of population differentiation that naturally exists among lake sturgeon populations will be useful in the development of management plans to conserve and restore diversity, and in the choice of donor populations to use for re-introduction. Genetic variation among and within 210 lake sturgeon collected from seven locations (St. Lawrence River, Des Prairies River (tributary to the St. Lawrence River), Mattagami River (Hudson Bay drainage), Menominee River (Lake Michigan drainage), Wolf River (Lake Michigan drainage), Niagara River, and Lake Erie) was examined based on allelic variation at seven microsatellite loci (four disomic and three putative tetrasomic). High levels of variability were detected at these loci. Analyses revealed an average of 8.6 alleles per locus (range 5 to 12 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity values at the four disomic loci ranging from 0.46 to 0.66. Multivariate factor analysis of Nei's genetic distance values produced three distinct population groups that were organized by geography: 1) Mattagami (northern Quebec), 2) Menominee/ Wolf (Lake Michigan - Wisconsin), and 3) St. Lawrence/ Des Prairies/ Niagara/ Erie (lower Great Lakes). Differences based on G-tests summed over all loci occurred between all possible paired comparisons of the collections (P < 0.01). These analyses indicated that lake sturgeon populations are differentiated within the Great Lakes basin. Managers of this species will need to identify individual populations in their jurisdictions and provide separate consideration for their conservation and rehabilitation.

  11. Physiological and molecular responses of juvenile shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueyang; Loughery, Jennifer R; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kieffer, James D

    2017-01-01

    The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur, 1818) is a vulnerable species that is found along the eastern coast of North America. Little is known about temperature tolerance in this species and with a rapidly changing global climate, it becomes increasingly important to define the thermal tolerance of this species to better predict population distribution. Using a modified critical thermal maximum test (CTMax), the objectives of this study were to determine the impact of heating rate (0.1, 0.2 and 0.25°Cmin(-1)) on the thermal tolerance, associated hematological responses, and oxygen consumption in juvenile sturgeon. In addition, transcripts associated with physiological stress and heat shock (i.e., heat shock proteins) were also measured. Heating rate did not alter the CTMax values of shortnose sturgeon. Neither heating rate nor thermal stress affected plasma sodium and chloride levels, nor the expression of transcripts that included catalase, glucocorticoid receptor, heat shock protein70 (hsp70), heat shock protein 90α (hsp90α) and cytochrome P450 1a (cyp1a). However, regardless of heating rate, thermal stress increased both plasma potassium and lactate concentrations. Glucose levels were increased at heating rates of 0.2 and 0.25°Cmin(-1), but not at 0.1°Cmin(-1). Overall, oxygen consumption rates increased with thermal stress, but the response patterns were not affected by heating rate. These data support the hypothesis that shortnose sturgeon can tolerate acute heat stress, as many physiological and molecular parameters measured here were non-responsive to the thermal stress.

  12. Effects of incubation substrates on hatch timing and success of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1994 because several decades of failed spawning had put the population at risk of extinction. Natural spawning is known to occur at several locations in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but there is little natural recruitment. Microhabitat where embryo incubation occurs is known to be an important factor in white sturgeon reproductive success. This study was conducted to address questions regarding the suitability of different substrates as egg attachment and incubation sites for these fish. A comparative laboratory study using six types of incubation substrates—clean river rocks, periphyton- and algae-covered rocks, waterlogged wood, sand, riparian vegetation, and clean glass plates—tested the hypothesis that survival to hatch of white sturgeon eggs differs among incubation substrates. The results showed that sand was unsuitable as an incubation substrate, as the adhesive embryos were easily dislodged. Periphyton- and algae-covered rocks had the lowest hatch success, and all other substrates had similar hatch success.

  13. Molecular analysis of phylogeographic subspecies in three Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

    PubMed Central

    Dudu, Andreea; Georgescu, Sergiu Emil; Costache, Marieta

    2014-01-01

    Sturgeons (Order Acipenseriformes) represent an extremely valuable natural resource that is now facing depletion. In the current study we evaluate if the traditional classification in subspecies of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Acipenser stellatus and Huso huso, endemic to Ponto-Caspian region is sustained by molecular analysis and if these represent Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) that should be managed separately in conservation programs. To examine the classification of taxonomic entities we sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial control region in case of three sturgeon species that inhabit the North-western of Black Sea and migrate for reproduction in the Lower Danube. Beside these sequences, we used previously published sequences from sturgeon individuals sampled in the Black Sea, Azov Sea and Caspian Sea. We determined the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation, conducted a Population Aggregation Analysis (PAA) and inferred an intraspecific molecular phylogeny and haplotype network. The results indicated a low level of genetic differentiation between the geographically designated subspecies and did not support a significant divergence or reciprocal monophyly between them. Our results confirm previous genetic studies with smaller samples sizes, but additional analyses including nuclear markers should be conducted for proper recommendations aiming at the development of conservation programs. PMID:25249783

  14. Short-term response of subadult white sturgeon to hopper dredge disposal operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Popoff, Nicholas D.; Romine, Jason G.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dredged-material disposal operations on the behavior of seven white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (50–101 cm fork length) was examined by analysis of the movements and depth use of these fish before, during, and after a series of hopper dredge disposal operations in the lower Columbia River. Analyses of fish locations showed that 12 flow-lane disposal operations within a 24-h period had minimal effect on subadult white sturgeon behavior; six of the seven fish showed slight attraction to the disposal area during disposals, and one fish increased its distance from the disposal area. The core area for all fish combined shifted toward the disposal area during disposals. In the 24 h after completion of the disposal operations the fish core areas shifted back toward those areas occupied before the disposals. The rates of movement, depths used, and diel movement patterns of the white sturgeon showed little change over all periods, suggesting that natural behaviors were not altered during and immediately after hopper dredge disposal operations.

  15. Evaluation of four suture materials for surgical incision closure in Siberian sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, S. Shaun; Hernandez, Sonia M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Peterson, Douglas C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Shelton, James L.; Divers, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The visual and microscopic tissue reactions to the absorbable monofilament Monocryl, absorbable monofilament triclosan-coated Monocryl-Plus, absorbable multifilament Vicryl, and nonabsorbable monofilament Prolene were evaluated for their use of surgical closure in Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Postoperative assessments were conducted at 1, 2, 8, 12, and 26 and 55 weeks to visually evaluate the surgical incision for suture retention, incision healing, erythema, and swelling. Incisions were also assessed microscopically at 1, 2, and 8 weeks for necrosis, inflammation, hemorrhage, and fibroplasia. The results indicated that incisions closed with either Vicryl or Prolene suture materials were more likely to exhibit more erythema or incomplete healing compared with those closed with Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus. The surgical implantation of a transmitter in the coelomic cavity did not significantly affect the response variables among the four suture materials. Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus were equally effective and superior to other suture materials used for closing surgical incisions in Siberian Sturgeon or closely related species of sturgeon. Furthermore, Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus may decrease the risk of transmitter expulsion through the incision, as surgical wounds appear to heal faster and exhibit less erythema compared with those closed with Vicryl.

  16. Intersex gonad differentiation in cultured Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Rzepkowska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Gibala, Monika; Roszko, Marek Lukasz

    2014-02-01

    Among sturgeons, the occurrence of individuals with gonads containing both testis and ovary components is considered pathological, and such fish are described as intersex individuals or intersexes. Intersexes are observed in both wild and cultured populations of sturgeon, usually at low frequencies. In the present study, intersex Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons constituted 30% of the studied populations. Macroscopically, intersex gonads were recognizable from 500 days posthatching (dph). Initially, gonads with predominantly male characteristics (testis-ova) were observed, but in older fish gonads with predominantly female traits (ova-testis) were more frequent. Using microscopic analysis, intersex gonads were discernible by 130-200 dph. Observations of intersex germinal epithelium development and analysis of sex distribution in the study populations indicated that feminization was occurring. Histological analysis revealed that differentiation of the germinal epithelium in such gonads was accompanied by various morphological alterations (transformations) that were described using quantitative and localization criteria. The most common type of transformations, massive subepithelial transformations, was manifested by the presence of abundant female germinal tissue located under the gonad surface epithelium in the developing testis. These transformations were identified in the early development stage (100-200 dph). In this type of transformation, differentiation of female germinal tissue at the gonad surface and male tissue at the mesorchium/mesovarium resulted in complete formation of both male and female germinal epithelia within the same gonad.

  17. Turnover of hydrogen isotopes in lake sturgeon blood: implications for tracking movements of wild populations.

    PubMed

    Kreitals, Natasha M; Hobson, Keith A; Hoemsen, Brittney M; Crane, Adam L; Wishingrad, Van; Sloychuk, Janelle; Pollock, Michael S; Chivers, Douglas P; Phillips, Iain D

    2016-12-01

    Naturally occurring deuterium ((2)H) in biota can be used to trace movement, migration and geographic origin of a range of organisms. However, to evaluate movements of animals using δ(2)H measurements of tissues, it is necessary to establish the turnover time of (2)H in the tissues and the extent of isotopic discrimination from different environmental (2)H sources to those tissues. We investigated the turnover of (2)H in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) blood by manipulating both environmental water δ(2)H and diet δ(2)H over a four-month period. The half-life of deuterium in lake sturgeon blood was 37.9 days after an increase in the environmental water δ(2)H of +714 ‰. However, no clear turnover in blood (2)H occurred over the same period in a separate trial following a change of -63.8 ‰ or +94.2 ‰ in diet. These findings suggest that environmental water (2)H exchanges much faster with blood than diets and that blood δ(2)H values can be used to trace movements of sturgeon and other fish moving among isotopically distinct waters.

  18. Summer habitat use by Gulf sturgeon in the Choctawhatchee River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hightower, J.E.; Zehfuss, K.P.; Fox, D.A.; Parauka, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) was listed as a threatened species in 1991 because of declines in abundance throughout the Gulf of Mexico. One recommendation of the recovery plan for Gulf sturgeon was to characterize critical habitats. In this study, radio telemetry was used to determine summer (June-August) distribution and habitat use of Gulf sturgeon in the Choctawhatchee River, Florida-Alabama. Ranging from 74 to 222 cm total length, 63 radio-tagged fish were located 398 times during weekly or biweekly searches in June-August of 1994-1997. A 10-km section of the lower Choctawhatchee River (river km 40-49.9) accounted for 38% of the summer locations of immature fish (less than 1.3 m fork length) and 73% for mature fish. Fish were typically located at sites that were 2-5 m in depth, with water temperatures of 25-28??C and a sand substrate. Spring discharges account for up to one-third of the mainstem river flow in this reach, but water temperatures at fish locations were similar to temperatures at fish locations in all other sections of the river. Efforts to monitor and improve habitat quality should be focussed on this river reach, given that a high percentage of the total Choctawhatchee River population occurs there during summer.

  19. Effects of propofol and carbon dioxide on acid-base balance in Siberian sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Gomułka, P; Czerniak, E; Dągowski, J; Łuczyński, M; Szczerbowski, A; Szkudlarek, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare physiological responses in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri) induced by propofol and CO2 anaesthesia. Two procedures were applied during the experiment. In procedure I, blood samples were collected immediately after exposure (1, 2, 5, 10 min) to the anaesthetic. In procedure II, fish were exposed to the anaesthetic for 10 minutes and then were moved to anaesthetic free water. Blood was sampled after 5, 10, 20 or 30 min of recovery time. Gasometrical and biochemical analyses were performed on collected blood. In CO2 anaesthetized fish strong hypercapnic acidosis was revealed. The drop of the HCO3-/CO2 ratio, from 28:1 in control fish up to 4:1 in CO2 anaesthetized ones, proved that the compensation mechanism is not capable of preventing acidosis during CO2 anaesthesia in Siberian sturgeon. In contrast, only moderate, respiratory acidosis occurred in sturgeons anaesthetised with propofol. Hypercapnic acidosis during CO2 anaesthesia was followed by a fourfold increase of ammonia level in the blood. Glucose level, increasing only during recovery time, indicates that a secondary stress response occurred when awareness of anaesthetized fish had been restored.

  20. Spawning related movement of shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Ryan R.; Guy, Christopher S.; Webb, Molly A.; Gardner, William M.; Jensen, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    The hypotheses of this study were (i) that shovelnose sturgeon would make upstream movements to spawn, (ii) movement of spawning fish would be greater in a year with higher discharge, and (iii) that spawning fish would have greater movements than reproductively inactive fish. Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820) in five reproductive categories (e.g. males, confirmed spawning females, potentially spawning females, atretic females, and reproductively inactive females) were tracked in 2008 and 2009. All reproductive categories, except reproductively inactive females, exhibited large-scale movements and had omnidirectional movements. No differences in movement rates were observed in confirmed spawning females between years despite a 45% higher peak discharge in 2008 (839 m3 s−1) than in 2009 (578 m3 s−1). A peak discharge was obtained at a faster rate in 2008 (165 m3 s−1 day−1) than in 2009 (39 m3 s−1 day−1), and high discharge was of greater duration in 2008. Reproductively inactive females did not exhibit large-scale movements and their movement rate differed from other reproductive categories. Shovelnose sturgeon spawned in both years, despite highly varying hydrographs between years.

  1. Efficacy of iodine for disinfection of Lake Sturgeon eggs from the St. Lawrence River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.; Starliper, Clifford E.; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Optimal fish husbandry to reduce the risk of disease is particularly important when using wild fish as the source for gametes. The propagation and reestablishment of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in New York waters to become a viable self-sustaining population is considered a high priority by managers. While standard hatchery egg disinfection practices have been used to prevent the transmission of diseases, data on the bacterial loads present on egg surfaces following iodine disinfection is lacking. Our study investigated the bacteria present on the outer surface of Lake Sturgeon eggs and the effectiveness of an iodine disinfection treatment in eliminating bacteria that could pose a threat to egg survival and cause hatchery disease outbreaks. During the springs of 2011–2013, 12 to 41 different species of bacteria were recovered from the outer egg surfaces prior to an iodine treatment; Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, and Chryseobacterium were the most common genera identified. Cohort eggs treated using the standard protocol of a single treatment of 50 mg/L iodine for 30 min resulted in an average of 57.8% reduction in bacterial CFU/g. While this is a significant reduction, bacteria were not completely eliminated and hatchery managers should be aware that pathogens could remain on Lake Sturgeon eggs following the standard iodine disinfection treatment.

  2. Genetic diversity, kinship analysis, and broodstock management of captive Atlantic sturgeon for population restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, A.P.; Spidle, A.P.; King, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    Captive Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus considered for use as broodstock in a restoration program were genotyped using nuclear DNA microsatellites and compared to wild collections from the Hudson River, New York (source of parents of the captive sturgeon) and from Albemarle Sound, North Carolina. Because the potential broodfish were the progeny of a small number of parents, maintaining genetic diversity and minimizing inbreeding is essential to a successful breeding and supplementation program. The microsatellite loci used in this analysis generated unique multilocus genotypes for each of 136 Atlantic sturgeon. Analyses indicated significant genetic separation between the New York and North Carolina collections and correctly identified the potential broodstock as a subset of the Hudson River population. Pairwise genetic distance (-In proportion of shared alleles) between half and full siblings in the potential broodfish was as great as 1.386, a value exceeded by only 36% of the sampled broodfish pairs available for mating. Because the current broodstock population does not seem to have deviated far from their ancestral population in the Hudson River, progeny from that broodstock, or the parents themselves, would seem to be genetically suitable for release back into the Hudson River.

  3. Accelerometer-derived activity correlates with volitional swimming speed in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiem, J.D.; Dawson, J.W.; Gleiss, A.C.; Martins, E.G.; Haro, Alexander J.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Danylchuk, A.J.; Wilson, R.P.; Cooke, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying fine-scale locomotor behaviours associated with different activities is challenging for free-swimming fish.Biologging and biotelemetry tools can help address this problem. An open channel flume was used to generate volitionalswimming speed (Us) estimates of cultured lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817) and these were paired withsimultaneously recorded accelerometer-derived metrics of activity obtained from three types of data-storage tags. This studyexamined whether a predictive relationship could be established between four different activity metrics (tail-beat frequency(TBF), tail-beat acceleration amplitude (TBAA), overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), and vectorial dynamic body acceleration(VeDBA)) and the swimming speed of A. fulvescens. Volitional Us of sturgeon ranged from 0.48 to 2.70 m·s−1 (0.51–3.18 bodylengths (BL) · s−1). Swimming speed increased linearly with all accelerometer-derived metrics, and when all tag types werecombined, Us increased 0.46 BL·s−1 for every 1 Hz increase in TBF, and 0.94, 0.61, and 0.94 BL·s−1 for every 1g increase in TBAA,ODBA, and VeDBA, respectively. Predictive relationships varied among tag types and tag-specific parameter estimates of Us arepresented for all metrics. This use of acceleration data-storage tags demonstrated their applicability for the field quantificationof sturgeon swimming speed.

  4. Exogenous recombinant bovine growth hormone stimulates growth and hepatic IGF expression in shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Carlin M; Small, Brian C

    2015-02-01

    Sturgeon are a unique fish for physiological research as they are long-lived, slow-growing, and late-maturing. Furthermore, sturgeon growth hormones appear to share greater structural and molecular similarity with mammalian somatotropins than teleostean somatotropins. In this study, changes in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II mRNA expression and corresponding whole-body growth and composition following 6 weeks of bi-weekly recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) administration in shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus were evaluated. Fish were injected intraperitoneally with 240 μg rbGH/g body weight or a sesame oil sham. Hepatic IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA abundance was significantly higher (P≤0.02) in rbGH-treated fish, as were length (P<0.001) and weight gain (P<0.001). In addition, proximate whole-body analysis demonstrated a significant (P<0.05) increase in protein composition of rbGH-treated fish versus sham-treated fish. There were no significant differences in whole-body moisture, lipid, or ash between the two treatments. These results demonstrate functional roles for GH and IGFs in the promotion of lean growth within this ancient fish species and support the view that the functional effects of GH on hepatic IGF-I expression and somatic growth are conserved from chondostrean to teleostean fishes.

  5. Selenium absorption, distribution, and excretion in white sturgeon orally dosed with l-selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Diran H; Hung, Silas S O

    2006-10-01

    The usefulness of a newly developed, combined technique consisting of esophageal intubation, dorsal aortic cannulation, and urinary catheterization to deliver Se orally and to monitor Se uptake, accumulation, and excretion in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was explored. Groups of five yearling sturgeon (1-2 kg) each were intubated with 0 (sham), 250, 500, or 1,000 microg Se/kg body weight in the form of L-selenomethionine, an ecologically relevant organic form of Se. Selenium concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and red blood cells did not change in the sham group but began to rise within 2 h postintubation in the other groups, and levels remained near maximum concentrations throughout the 48-h sampling period. Average urinary Se excretion rates over the entire 48-h period were 0.05, 0.46, 0.61, and 2.15 microg Se/kg/h in sturgeon intubated with 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 microg Se/kg, respectively. Selenium excretion rates were highest within the first 6 h in all treatment groups except the sham group. Selenium concentrations in the liver were positively correlated with the intubated Se dosage.

  6. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride in early life stages of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Teh, Swee Joo; Wong, Cecilia; Furtula, Vesna; Teh, Foo-Ching

    2003-09-01

    This study was conducted to describe the acute lethality and latent toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) on early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Fish responses to 0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 microg/L concentrations of DDAC were determined using a 96-h standard static renewal method for acute toxicity testing, with three replicates per concentration. Twenty fish per replicate were tested for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae, and 7 fish per replicate were tested for 78-d-old juveniles. Following exposure, survival and growth were evaluated in exposed fish raised in clean water for 2 weeks. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values for DDAC were 10.0 to 50.0, 58.5, and 99.7 microg/L for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae and 100 to 250 microg/L for 78-d-old juveniles. Significant decreases in larval growth and survival were noted at all tested concentrations and in all sturgeon age groups. Results of this study reveal age- and concentration-dependent responses to DDAC. Among the age groups tested, the 3-d-old larvae were the most sensitive group. Results also revealed that 96-h lethality testing alone is not adequate for determining the toxicity of DDAC to white sturgeon.

  7. Sturgeons, sharks, and rays have multifocal crystalline lenses and similar lens suspension apparatuses.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ola S E; Ekström, Peter; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2012-07-01

    Crystalline lenses with multiple focal lengths in monochromatic light (multifocal lenses) are present in many vertebrate groups. These lenses compensate for chromatic aberration and create well-focused color images. Stabilization of the lens within the eye and the ability to adjust focus are further requirements for vision in high detail. We investigated the occurrence of multifocal lenses by photorefractometry and lens suspension structures by light and electron microscopy in sturgeons (Acipenseriformes, Chondrostei) as well as sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii, Chondrichthyes). Multifocal lenses were found in two more major vertebrate groups, the Chondrostei represented by Acipenseriformes and Chondrichthyes represented by Elasmobranchii. The lens suspension structures of sturgeons, sharks, and rays are more complex than described previously. The lens is suspended by many delicate suspensory fibers in association with a ventral papilla in all groups studied. The arrangements of the suspensory fibers are most similar between sturgeons and sharks. In rays, the lens is suspended by a smaller ventral papilla and the suspensory fibers are arranged more concentrically to the lens.

  8. Fall spawning of Atlantic sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Flowers, H. Jared

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) declared Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus to be threatened or endangered throughout its range in U.S. waters. Restoration of the subspecies will require much new information, particularly on the location and timing of spawning. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and sampling with anchored artificial substrates (spawning pads) to detect fall (September–November) spawning in the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This population is included in the Carolina Distinct Population Segment, which was classified by NOAA as endangered. Sampling was done immediately below the first shoals encountered by anadromous fishes, near Weldon. Our collection of 38 eggs during the 21 d that spawning pads were deployed appears to be the first such collection (spring or fall) for wild-spawned Atlantic Sturgeon eggs. Based on egg development stages, estimated spawning dates were September 17–18 and 18–19 at water temperatures from 25.3°C to 24.3°C and river discharge from 55 to 297 m3/s. These observations about fall spawning and habitat use should aid in protecting critical habitats and planning research on Atlantic Sturgeon spawning in other rivers.

  9. Phylogeography of the pallid kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops pallidus: a sand-obligate endemic of the Great Basin, western North America

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, John C; Upham, Nathan S; Reddington, Emily; Torres, Candice W

    2008-01-01

    Aim Kangaroo mice, genus Microdipodops Merriam, are endemic to the Great Basin and include two species: M. pallidus Merriam and M. megacephalus Merriam. The pallid kangaroo mouse, M. pallidus, is a sand-obligate desert rodent. Our principal intent is to identify its current geographical distribution and to formulate a phylogeographical hypothesis for this taxon. In addition, we test for orientation patterns in haplotype sharing for evidence of past episodes of movement and gene flow. Location The Great Basin Desert region of western North America, especially the sandy habitats of the Lahontan Trough and those in south-central Nevada. Methods Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from portions of three genes (16S ribosomal RNA, cytochrome b, and transfer RNA for glutamic acid) were obtained from 98 individuals of M. pallidus representing 27 general localities sampled throughout its geographical range. Molecular sequence data were analysed using neighbour-joining, maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic inference. Directional analysis of phylogeographical patterns, a novel method, was used to examine angular measurements of haplotype sharing between pairs of localities to detect and quantify historical events pertaining to movement patterns and gene flow. Results Collecting activities showed that M. pallidus is a rather rare rodent (mean trapping success was 2.88%), and its distribution has changed little from that determined three-quarters of a century ago. Two principal phylogroups, distributed as eastern and western moieties, are evident from the phylogenetic analyses (mean sequence divergence for cytochrome b is c. 8%). The western clade shows little phylogenetic structure and seems to represent a large polytomy. In the eastern clade, however, three subgroups are recognized. Nine of the 42 unique composite haplotypes are present at two or more localities and are used for the orientation analyses. Axial data from haplotype sharing

  10. Assessing water quality suitability for shortnose sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, USA with an in situ bioassay approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Oakley, N.C.; Lazaro, P.R.; Shea, D.; Augspurger, T.; Law, J.M.; Henne, J.P.; Ware, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of water quality in the Roanoke River of North Carolina for supporting shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, an endangered species in the United States. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were also evaluated alongside the sturgeon as a comparative species to measure potential differences in fish survival, growth, contaminant accumulation, and histopathology in a 28-day in situ toxicity test. Captively propagated juvenile shortnose sturgeon (total length 49??8mm, mean??SD) and fathead minnows (total length 39??3mm, mean??SD) were used in the test and their outcomes were compared to simultaneous measurements of water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total ammonia nitrogen, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity) and contaminant chemistry (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, current use pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) in river water and sediment. In the in situ test, there were three non-riverine control sites and eight riverine test sites with three replicate cages (25??15-cm (OD) clear plexiglass with 200-??m tear-resistant Nitex?? screen over each end) of 20 shortnose sturgeon per cage at each site. There was a single cage of fathead minnows also deployed at each site alongside the sturgeon cages. Survival of caged shortnose sturgeon among the riverine sites averaged 9% (range 1.7-25%) on day 22 of the 28-day study, whereas sturgeon survival at the non-riverine control sites averaged 64% (range 33-98%). In contrast to sturgeon, only one riverine deployed fathead minnow died (average 99.4% survival) over the 28-day test period and none of the control fathead minnows died. Although chemical analyses revealed the presence of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a pulp and paper mill derived compound with known dioxin-like toxicity to early life stages of fish, in significant quantities in the water (251-603ngL-1) and sediment (up to 5000ngg-1

  11. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Ye; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Bai, Shiqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box–Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid–liquid ratio) on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid–liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4%) of the RSM (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of α-chain and β-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure. PMID:24143042

  12. Salinity effects on activity and expression of glutathione S-transferases in white sturgeon and Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Donham, Rachel T; Morin, Dexter; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the activity and expression of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) detoxification isoenzymes in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during acclimation from freshwater (2 per thousand) to estuarine (15 per thousand) salinity conditions. In white sturgeon, GST activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) increased significantly (P = 0.005; n = 5) with elevated salinity, but not for the Chinook salmon (P = 0.174; n = 10). GST activity of both sturgeon and salmon toward ethacrynic acid (ETHA) did not significantly change with elevated salinity (P = 0.516 with n = 3, and P = 0.125 with n = 3, respectively). Expression of the GST classes, and hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentration, as determined by HPLC, also did not significantly change with increased salinity. In conclusion, overall GST activity in white sturgeon, but not Chinook salmon, is stimulated by elevated water salinity, thus electrophilic chemicals such as pesticides may be more effectively detoxified by sturgeon as they undergo seaward migration.

  13. Mercury concentrations in gonad, liver, and muscle of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in the lower Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Webb, M A H; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B; Plumlee, M; Wong, C; Gundersen, D T

    2006-04-01

    This study determined the partitioning of total mercury in liver, gonad, and cheek muscle of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmonatus) in the lower Columbia River. The relationship between tissue mercury concentrations and various physiologic parameters was assessed. White sturgeon were captured in commercial fisheries in the estuary and Bonneville, The Dalles, and John Day Reservoirs. Condition factor (CF), relative weight (Wr), and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were determined for each fish (n = 57). Gonadal tissue was examined histologically to determine sex and stage of maturity. Liver (n = 49), gonad (n = 49), and cheek muscle (n = 57) were analyzed for total mercury using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. Tissue protein concentrations were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Plasma was analyzed for testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (KT), and 17ss-estradiol (E2) using radioimmunoassay. Mean tissue mercury concentrations were higher in muscle compared with liver and gonad at all sampling locations, except Bonneville Reservoir where mean liver mercury content was the highest tissue concentration observed in the study. Significant negative correlations between plasma androgens (T and KT) and muscle mercury content and plasma E2 and liver mercury content were found. A significant positive linear relationship between white sturgeon age and liver mercury concentrations was evident. Significant negative correlations between CF and relative weight and gonad and liver mercury content were found. In addition, immature male sturgeon with increased gonad mercury content had decreased GSIs. These results suggest that mercury, in the form of methylmercury, may have an effect on the reproductive potential of white sturgeon.

  14. Flow and sediment-transport modeling of Kootenai River White Sturgeon Spawning Habitat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J.; Barton, G.; Paragamian, V.

    2004-12-01

    The population of White Sturgeon in the Kootenai River downstream of Libby Dam in Montana and Idaho has declined since the construction of the dam in 1972. The White Sturgeon was listed as endangered in 1994 and an 11.2 mile reach of the river, downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was designated as Critical Habitat in 2001. It is hypothesized that hydro-electric and flood control operations have contributed to poor spawning habitat and recruitment of juvenile fish. The successful incubation of eggs requires a stable and coarse bed material. Currently the sturgeon are spawning in a reach of poor substrate consisting of dunes up to 2 meters in amplitude and composed of fine sand while a short distance upstream there is suitable substrate of coarse gravel. We present here the preliminary results of a flow and sediment-transport modeling effort to aid in an understanding of both the current spawning habitat of the White Sturgeon and the potential to artificially enhance the current spawning habitat or to influence the sturgeon to move upstream to more suitable habitat. A 2.5 dimensional flow model was constructed for an 8-kilometer reach of the designated Critical Habitat. The modeled reach consists of several broad meanders and a mid channel island. The substrate is composed of fine sand with a median grain size of 0.22mm and has large dunes up to 2m in amplitude at relatively lows flows of 200 cms that wash out to a plane bed at around 600 cms. The model has been calibrated to a range of historical flow conditions from 170 cms to 1709 cms and verified against 16 ADCP velocity cross-section profiles collected during a period of steady flow at 554 cms. The model predicts well most of the salient features of the velocity field including the magnitude and location of the secondary flow, using a simple constant value for roughness. However for a few reaches of the river the bed forms and their spatial variability in size are shown to significantly affect the flow and the

  15. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based