Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…
Hendy, Helen M.; Burns, Mary K.; Can, S. Hakan; Scherer, Cory R.
The present study provides the first available evaluation of how violence with the mother and siblings during adulthood is associated with the occurrence of partner violence in young adults. Because a pattern of reciprocal partner violence is well documented, the authors hypothesized that reciprocal violence would also be found for adults and…
Menard, Scott; Weiss, Andrea J; Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C
Despite evidence that exposure to violence in adolescence may be more predictive of problem behavior outcomes than exposure to violence in earlier childhood, there is limited research on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence on adult intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization. This study examines the relationship of adolescent physical abuse victimization, witnessing parental violence, and adolescent exposure to violence in the community, to perpetration of and victimization by IPV in middle age. Respondents are drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal sample with data collected from 1976-77 to 2002-03, age 11-17 when first interviewed and 37-43 when last interviewed. Univariate descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations are presented, along with Heckman two-step models calculated separately for females and males. The use of the Heckman two-step model allows prediction not only of adult IPV, but also of selection out of intimate partner relationships (i.e., out of the at-risk population). For males, in the multivariate analysis, only physical abuse remains significant as a predictor. For females, adolescent exposure to violence is not predictive of adult IPV perpetration or victimization, but physical abuse is predictive of not being in the at-risk population (married or cohabiting). The combined index of adolescent exposure to violence is significant for both females and males in predicting selection into marriage or cohabitation, and at least marginally significant in predicting IPV. PMID:24594015
Herrera, Veronica M.; Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington
This study examines individual and partner characteristics associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adult relationships with opposite sex partners. Using data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined 1,275 young adults' heterosexual romantic relationships.…
Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.
Objectives Patient-initiated partner STI notification, i.e., patients informing their sexual partners of diagnosis, is a cornerstone of STI prevention. Growing evidence suggests that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) may fear such notification, or face negative consequences in response to STI disclosure. The current study assessed associations of IPV with fear of partner STI notification, and experiences of partner STI notification, among adolescent and young adult female family planning clinic patients. Methods Females patients ages 16–29 years in five family planning clinics in Northern California (n=1282) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Results History of physical or sexual IPV was associated with fear of partner STI notification. Moreover, participants exposed to IPV were more likely to have partners say it was not from them or otherwise accuse them of cheating in response to STI notification. Such partners were less likely to seek indicated STI treatment or testing. Conclusions Current findings suggest that STI partner notification may be compromised by IPV. Clinical practices and policies to support effective partner STI notification should include IPV assessment, and provide mechanisms to address related fears concerning partner notification. PMID:21680673
Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya
Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with other risk factors) a significant predictor of intimate partner physical and emotional violence perpetration or victimization. In this longitudinal study, 67 abused and 78 nonabused adults (of an original sample of 198 adolescents) completed the Modified Conflict Tactics Scale and the Jealousy and Emotional Control Scales. Nonabused comparison adolescents were matched for age, gender, and community income. As adults, participants with abuse histories had significantly higher rates of intimate partner physical violence and verbal aggression than did comparison participants. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that adults with histories of physical abuse were more than twice as likely to be physically violent and almost six times more likely to be verbally aggressive to their intimate partners than were comparison participants. Having had an alcohol use disorder, being married to or living with a partner, and perceiving one's partner as controlling were also significantly associated with physical violence. Jealousy and feeling controlled by one's partner were also significant predictors of verbal aggression. These findings underscore the importance of preventing adolescent abuse as a means of decreasing the incidence of intimate partner physical violence in adulthood. PMID:21602201
Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F
Intimate partner violence is a serious social problem and public health issue affecting the well-being of the young adults. However, there is very little epidemiological evidence on the incidence and associated health problems in contemporary Chinese society. Using a representative community sample of 1,223 young adults aged 18 to 27 years conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association in 2011, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and possible health consequences of intimate partner violence among young adults in Hong Kong. It is found that the prevalence of lifetime and preceding 1-year intimate partner violence by former or current partners was 8.6% and 4.9% respectively. Male youths who were older were less likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, p < .05) and those who had a university degree or were unemployed were more likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (OR = 8.48, p < .01 and OR = 8.14, p < .05 respectively). Female youths who had a full-time job were less likely to experience the lifetime violence (OR = 0.15, p < .05) and those who were ever pregnant with current partner were more likely to experience both lifetime intimate partner violence (OR = 5.00, p < .05) and past-year violence (OR = 5.63, p < .05). Both female and male victims were more likely to be subjected to mental health problems and only female victims felt fear for the violent partner. PMID:25304670
Ely, Gretchen E.; Otis, Melanie D.
The purpose of this article is to describe an exploratory study examining the relationship between intimate partner violence and psychological stressors in a sample of 188 adult abortion patients. Results indicate the almost 15% of respondents report a history of abuse by the coconceiving partner. In addition, women who reported having had one or…
Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti
This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084
Gass, Jesse D; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya
Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, the authors examine data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis include (a) demographic factors, (b) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders), and (c) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are high among both genders, women are significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence are similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men are more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women are more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration include exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators are more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult-onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators include low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence is witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims are low income and lack of closeness to a primary female
Ferreira, Marcela de Freitas; Moraes, Claudia Leite de; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Verly Junior, Eliseu; Marques, Emanuele Souza; Salles-Costa, Rosana
This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI). This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2). A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2). Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7). The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women. PMID:25715300
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
The prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were studied. One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. They observed that multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of…
Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan
Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…
Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Herrera, Veronica; Fischer, Judith L.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined intimate partner violence (IPV) and drinking partnerships in 741 young adults in male-female dating, cohabitating, and married relationships. Cluster analyses revealed four similar kinds of drinking partnerships: (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b)…
Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico
Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and…
Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O'Rourke, Allison
Objective: To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. Method: 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned…
Renner, Lynette M.; Whitney, Stephen D.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults in relationships. Guided by two models of IPV, the same set of risk factors was used to examine outcomes of unidirectional (perpetration or victimization) and bidirectional (reciprocal) IPV separately for males…
Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Babinski, Dara E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.
Objective Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV (verbal aggression, violence) reported by young adult (18-25 year-old) males with childhood ADHD (n=125) to reports by demographically-similar males without ADHD histories (n=88). Results Males with childhood ADHD, especially those with conduct problems persisting from childhood, were more likely to be verbally aggressive and violent with romantic partners than males without histories of ADHD or conduct problems. Conclusion Research is needed to replicate these findings, to explore potential mechanisms, and to develop effective interventions for romantic relationship discord among young adults with ADHD histories, especially those with persistent conduct problems. PMID:22044962
Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie
We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26541646
Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C
While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention. PMID:26567293
Acevedo, Bianca P.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Botvin, Gilbert J.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate risk and protective factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in a high-risk sample of predominantly minority young adults from low-income urban communities. Participants were 1,130 individuals (57.9% women) ages 21 to 26 who participated in a telephone interview assessing IPV victimization, violence-related behaviors, and sexual behaviors. Results indicated that about 20.9% of participants reported experiencing one or more IPV incidents in their lifetime. Based on previous research, we examined lifetime violence, lifetime number of sexual partners, number of children, education, and religious service attendance as predictors of IPV. Results from a multivariate logistic regression showed that lifetime violence-related behaviors, number of lifetime sexual partners, and number of children were significant risk factors for IPV. The link between children and IPV risk: (a) was moderated by education for women and men and (b) was stronger for women (vs. men). These findings suggest that training for coping with stress and anger, endorsement of safe sex practices, and greater support for education may be effective strategies for preventing and reducing IPV among high-risk populations. PMID:23735905
Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Herrera, Veronica; Fischer, Judith L.
Using data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined intimate partner violence (IPV) and drinking partnerships in 741 young adults in male-female dating, cohabitating, and married relationships. Cluster analyses revealed four similar kinds of drinking partnerships: (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b) discrepant male heavy and frequent, (c) discrepant female heavy and infrequent, and (d) congruent moderate/heavy-frequent drinkers. Overall, there were no significant main effect differences across relationship type and clusters. The type of relationship and the type of drinking partnership interacted with contexts examined (i.e., type of violence severity, gender, and whether the violence was perpetration or victimization). Given the severity of IPV in couple relationships, additional empirical attention to drinking partnerships is warranted. PMID:20532190
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O’Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. Multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of severe or potentially lethal assaults as measured by the Danger Assessment and those who reported having a chronic or disabling illness were more likely to have threatened or attempted suicide. A linear association was found between age and suicide threats/attempts, with younger women having increased odds. Finally, African American IPV victims were less likely to have threatened or attempted suicide as compared to Latina victims. Study implications are discussed. PMID:21535096
Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O’Rourke, Allison
Objective To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. Method 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned to the intervention (MET) or comparison group following a baseline assessment. Participants in the MET condition received a personalized feedback report on their IPV and substance-use behaviors, consequences, and social norms beliefs. Results Results supported the likely effectiveness of MET in short-term reduction of IPV behavior, increasing motivation for treatment seeking, and changing perceived norms for IPV and substance abuse (SA). Conclusions Applications for brief MET interventions to facilitate voluntary treatment entry among substance-using IPV perpetrators are discussed. PMID:22754270
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…
Pibernat, Artur Dalfó
IT IS with great interest that I read the article 'Identifying signs of intimate partner violence' (Art & science) by Ali et al in February's issue of Emergency Nurse. The issue has been widely recognised as one which needs promoting among adolescents in schools and in nurse education. PMID:27165383
Mcdermott, Ryon C.; Lopez, Frederick G.
Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence…
Lang, Ariel J.; Stein, Murray B.; Kennedy, Colleen M.; Foy, David W.
Childhood maltreatment is associated with psychopathology and revictimization in adulthood. Whether different types of childhood maltreatment have different long-term consequences, however, is largely unknown. The participants in this study included 42 female victims of intimate partner violence and 30 women with no history of serious trauma.…
Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence and Subsequent Police Reporting Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adults in Colorado: Comparing Rates of Cisgender and Transgender Victimization.
Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Whitfield, Darren L; Walls, N Eugene; Kattari, Shanna K; Ramos, Daniel
Research indicates that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals are at high risk of victimization by others and that transgender individuals may be at even higher risk than their cisgender LGBQ peers. In examining partner violence in particular, extant literature suggests that LGBTQ individuals are at equal or higher risk of partner violence victimization compared with their heterosexual peers. As opposed to sexual orientation, there is little research on gender identity and partner violence within the LGBTQ literature. In the current study, the authors investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in a large sample of LGBTQ adults (N = 1,139) to determine lifetime prevalence and police reporting in both cisgender and transgender individuals. Results show that more than one fifth of all participants ever experienced partner violence, with transgender participants demonstrating significantly higher rates than their cisgender peers. Implications focus on the use of inclusive language as well as future research and practice with LGBTQ IPV victims. PMID:25392392
Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew
Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…
Murphy, Lisa M
Using a nationally representative sample of participants, this study investigates childhood victimization in the home and adolescent violent victimization in the community on the risk of being a victim of intimate partner violence (IPV), general violence, or both during early adulthood. The study findings indicate being left home alone and being physically abused during childhood, and adolescent violent victimization in the community had strong independent effects on an individual's likelihood of becoming a victim of IPV, general violence, or both in early adulthood. The study findings suggest a consistent pattern of victimization across the life course, and intervention programs need to be developed that address the specific needs of children and adolescents at high risk for home and community violent victimization. PMID:22145539
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
Muyan, Mine; Chang, Edward C; Jilani, Zunaira; Yu, Tina
We examined the relationships between intimate partner violence (IPV), perfectionism, and eating disturbances, namely, excessive dieting and bulimia, in a sample of 149 Turkish female college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that IPV accounted for significant variance in both excessive dieting and bulimic symptoms. The inclusion of perfectionism was found to predict additional variance in eating disturbances, beyond IPV. Specifically, we found parental expectations to be a significant predictor of dieting, and personal standards, doubts about actions, and parental criticism to be significant predictors of bulimia. Some implications for understanding eating disturbances in Turkish women are discussed. PMID:26276707
Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian
We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133
O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Myint-U, Athi; Duran, Richard; Agronick, Gail; Wilson-Simmons, Renee
This study examined the relationship between middle-school aggressive behaviors and young adults' experiences as victims and perpetrators of intimate partner physical violence. As part of the Reach for Health longitudinal study, surveys were conducted with 977 8th graders who were resurveyed as young adults, when lifetime partner violence was…
Koopman, Cheryl; Ismailji, Tasneem; Palesh, Oxana; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Narayanan, Amrita; Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holmes, Danielle; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.
This study investigates whether depression in women who experienced intimate partner violence is associated with having also experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse, psychological abuse by an intimate partner, recent involvement with the abusive partner, and bodily pain. Fifty-seven women who had left a violent relationship with an…
Ehrensaft, Miriam K; Cohen, Patricia; Brown, Jocelyn; Smailes, Elizabeth; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G
An unselected sample of 543 children was followed over 20 years to test the independent effects of parenting, exposure to domestic violence between parents (ETDV), maltreatment, adolescent disruptive behavior disorders, and emerging adult substance abuse disorders (SUDs) on the risk of violence to and from an adult partner. Conduct disorder (CD) was the strongest risk for perpetrating partner violence for both sexes, followed by ETDV, and power assertive punishment. The effect of child abuse was attributable to these 3 risks. ETDV conferred the greatest risk of receiving partner violence; CD increased the odds of receiving partner violence but did not mediate this effect. Child physical abuse and CD in adolescence were strong independent risks for injury to a partner. SUD mediated the effect of adolescent CD on injury to a partner but not on injury by a partner. Prevention implications are highlighted. PMID:12924679
Pham, Huyen Tran; Minh, Tran Hung; Krause, Kathleen H.; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu; VanderEnde, Kristin; Kramer, Michael R.
Purpose We assess the association of men's exposure to violence in childhood--witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative--with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV mediates this relationship and whether men’s attitudes about IPV mediate any relationship of exposure to violence in childhood with perpetration of IPV. Methods 522 married men 18–51 years in Vietnam were interviewed. Multivariate regressions for ordinal and binary responses were estimated to assess these relationships. Results Compared to men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of reporting more reasons to hit a wife (aORs, 95%CIs: 1.43, 1.03–2.00 and 1.66, 1.05–2.64, respectively). Men’s lifetime perpetration of IPV accounted fully for these associations. Compared to men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of ever perpetrating IPV (aORs, 95%CIs: 3.28, 2.15–4.99 and 4.56, 2.90–7.17, respectively). Attitudes about IPV modestly attenuated these associations. Conclusion Addressing violence in childhood is needed to change men’s risk of perpetrating IPV and greater subsequent justification of it. PMID:24630242
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela
This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…
Pollard, Robert Q; Sutter, Erika; Cerulli, Catherine
A computerized sign language survey was administered to two large samples of deaf adults. Six questions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) were included, querying lifetime and past-year experiences of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and forced sex. Comparison data were available from a telephone survey of local households. Deaf respondents reported high rates of emotional abuse and much higher rates of forced sex than general population respondents. Physical abuse rates were comparable between groups. More men than women in both deaf samples reported past-year physical and sexual abuse. Past-year IPV was associated with higher utilization of hospital emergency services. Implications for IPV research, education, and intervention in the Deaf community are discussed. PMID:24142445
Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M
Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV. PMID:19368921
Millett, Lina S.; Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Petra, Megan
This study examined whether young adults with documented histories of child maltreatment had higher records of documented severe intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration than an income-matched control group. It also examined whether this association was mediated by juvenile violent delinquency, problematic substance use, or mental health problems. Study data came from one state's administrative public sector records of child welfare, juvenile court, mental health, income maintenance, and birth records. The study employed a prospective longitudinal design to follow children for 16 years (N = 5,377). The IPV was measured by police arrests and temporary restraining order petitions. Multiple group path analysis was used to examine mediation hypotheses and determine whether they differed by gender. The study found that IPV perpetration rates were higher among maltreated than control participants and higher in maltreated men than in women. For men, maltreatment had both direct and mediated effects on IPV perpetration through violent delinquency. For women, maltreatment did not directly or indirectly predict IPV perpetration, though low power makes these findings tentative. The study highlights the importance of child maltreatment prevention as a way to reduce violence later in life and suggests that the juvenile justice system may also provide a point of intervention for the maltreated youth. PMID:23633678
Millett, Lina S; Kohl, Patricia L; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Petra, Megan
This study examined whether young adults with documented histories of child maltreatment had higher records of documented severe intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration than an income-matched control group. It also examined whether this association was mediated by juvenile violent delinquency, problematic substance use, or mental health problems. Study data came from one state's administrative public sector records of child welfare, juvenile court, mental health, income maintenance, and birth records. The study employed a prospective longitudinal design to follow children for 16 years (N = 5,377). The IPV was measured by police arrests and temporary restraining order petitions. Multiple group path analysis was used to examine mediation hypotheses and determine whether they differed by gender. The study found that IPV perpetration rates were higher among maltreated than control participants and higher in maltreated men than in women. For men, maltreatment had both direct and mediated effects on IPV perpetration through violent delinquency. For women, maltreatment did not directly or indirectly predict IPV perpetration, though low power makes these findings tentative. The study highlights the importance of child maltreatment prevention as a way to reduce violence later in life and suggests that the juvenile justice system may also provide a point of intervention for the maltreated youth. PMID:23633678
Minh, Anita; Matheson, Flora I.; Daoud, Nihaya; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Pedersen, Cheryl; Borenstein, Heidi; O’Campo, Patricia
Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1) patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2) cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed. PMID:24169410
Minh, Anita; Matheson, Flora I; Daoud, Nihaya; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Pedersen, Cheryl; Borenstein, Heidi; O'Campo, Patricia
Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children's life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1) patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2) cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed. PMID:24169410
Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy
Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical,…
Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Bahrami-Vazir, Ellahe; Kamalifard, Mahin; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan
There is uncertain evidence that intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is more common among adolescents. We aimed to compare prevalence and chronicity of IPV during the first pregnancy between adolescents and adults. 136 women aged 15 to 19 and 272 women aged 20-29 years between 24 and 30 weeks gestation (stratified by center) were examined at all 80 public health centers/posts in Tabriz-Iran. IPV was assessed using the revised conflict tactics scales. The adolescents and adults reported roughly the same rate of overall IPV perpetration (72% vs. 71%, p = 0.816). Rate of victimization was slightly higher among the adolescents (69% vs. 62%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.144). The most common types of IPV perpetration and victimization in the both groups were psychological aggression, followed by physical assault and sexual coercion. Using only two physical assault and sexual coercion subscales, rate of IPV perpetration fell to 40% vs. 28%, p = 0.016 and victimization fell to 46% vs. 38%, p = 0.227. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of prevalence and chronicity of various types of IPV, except sexual coercion victimization which was more prevalent among the adolescents (31% vs. 21%, p = 0.034). The high rates of IPV perpetration and victimization during pregnancy among both adolescents and adults in the study area with significant higher risk of sexual coercion victimization among adolescents require health policy makers and care providers to have serious efforts for its reduction. PMID:27450537
Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Sleath, Emma
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international issue that social and criminal justice workers will encounter regularly. It has been identified that men can, and do stop using, or desist from, IPV although it is unclear how this process of change develops. This article introduces a conceptual model to outline how the process of desistance evolves and what it encompasses. Using thematic analysis of interview data from partner-violent men, survivors, and treatment facilitators, the resulting model demonstrates that the process of change is a dynamic one where men’s use of, and cessation from, violence needs to be understood within the context of each individual’s life. Three global themes were developed: (a) lifestyle behaviors (violent): what is happening in the men’s lives when they use violence; (b) catalysts for change: the triggers and transitions required to initiate the process of change; and (c) lifestyle behaviors (non-violent): what is different in the men’s lives when they have desisted from IPV. The purpose of this model is to offer a framework for service providers to assist them to manage the process of change in partner-violent men. PMID:25315483
Brown, Derek S.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mercy, James A.
This article compares three methods for estimating the medical cost burden of intimate partner violence against U.S. adult women (18 years and older), 1 year postvictimization. To compute the estimates, prevalence data from the National Violence Against Women Survey are combined with cost data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the…
Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Cherie; Stringer, Maurice
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been known to adversely affect the mental health of victims. Research has tended to focus on the mental health impact of physical violence rather than considering other forms of violence. Objective To systematically review the literature in order to identify the impact of all types of IPV victimisation on various mental health outcomes. Method A systematic review of 11 electronic databases (2004–2014) was conducted. Fifty eight papers were identified and later described and reviewed in relation to the main objective. Results Main findings suggest that IPV can have increasing adverse effects on the mental health of victims in comparison with those who have never experienced IPV or those experiencing other traumatic events. The most significant outcomes were associations between IPV experiences with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Findings confirm previous observations that the severity and extent of IPV exposure can increase mental health symptoms. The effect of psychological violence on mental health is more prominent than originally thought. Individual differences such as gender and childhood experience of violence also increase IPV risk and affect mental health outcomes in diverse ways. Conclusions Psychological violence should be considered as a more serious form of IPV which can affect the mental health of victims. Experiencing more than one form of IPV can increase severity of outcomes. Researchers should look at IPV as a multi-dimensional experience. A uniformed definition and measure of IPV could help advance knowledge and understanding of this disparaging global issue. PMID:25279103
Collett, DeShana; Bennett, Tamara
Intimate partner violence is a preventable health problem that affects more than 12 million people in the United States each year. Those affected can be of any sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, education level, or sexual orientation. All clinicians should screen for intimate partner violence as part of the routine history and physical examination. This article describes the dynamics of intimate partner violence and the 2013 screening guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force. PMID:26352870
Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.
Background National population-based studies show that 40%–50% of physical partner violence victims in a 1-year time period are men. However, studies assessing the health concerns related to partner violence victimization tend to focus on women, and none have assessed the health of male physical partner violence victims who sought help for their victimization. Purpose To understand men’s mental and physical health concerns that may be related to partner violence victimization. Methods In 2012–2013, two samples of men—611 physical partner violence victims who sought help and 1,601 men from a population-based sample – completed online questionnaires on their demographics, various types of partner violence victimization, physical health, mental health, and other risks. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, log binomial models, and robust Poisson models in 2013. Results In comparison to the population-based sample of men, male partner violence victims who sought help had significantly poorer health, particularly with regard to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, high blood pressure, sexually transmitted diseases, and asthma. These differences remained after controlling for sample differences in demographics, substance use, previous traumatic exposure, and social support. Conclusions Practitioners should assess for health problems among partner violence victims and for partner violence victimization among men presenting with health problems. PMID:25442232
Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.
Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…
Annan, Sandra L
The purpose of this chapter is to review nursing and other research related to rural intimate partner violence. The author presents a review of research in the area of intimate partner violence in the rural setting. The findings indicate that there is limited nursing research related to intimate partner violence in rural communities. The review describes the prevalence and types of abuse, the rural service issues, and the consequences of battering. The chapter also discusses the health implications of violence in the rural setting. The author concludes with a presentation of a research agenda for nursing research in rural environments. PMID:18709747
Mason, SM; Wright, RJ; Hibert, EN; D, Spiegelman; Forman, JP; Rich-Edwards, JW
Purpose Intimate partner violence, a prevalent stressor for women, may influence cardiovascular disease risk. We estimated the association between intimate partner violence and development of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, using data on intimate partner violence in the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort. Methods Intimate partner violence measures included adult lifetime physical and sexual partner violence and the Women’s Experiences with Battering Scale, which ascertained women’s subjective experience of recent emotional abuse. Physician-diagnosed hypertension was self-reported on biennial questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between report of intimate partner violence in 2001 and incidence of hypertension from 2001 through 2007. Results Of 51,434 included respondents, 22% reported being physically hurt and 10% reported being forced into sexual activities at some point in adulthood by an intimate partner. After adjustment for confounders, physical and sexual abuse were not associated with hypertension. However, women reporting the most severe emotional abuse had a 24% increased rate of hypertension (hazard ratio=1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.53) when compared to women unexposed to emotional abuse. Conclusion Hypertension risk appears to be elevated in the small number of women recently exposed to severe emotional abuse. PMID:22717307
Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M
Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women. PMID:12044219
Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666
Dube, Shanta R; Anda, Robert F; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie J; Williamson, David F
Intimate partner violence (IPV) damages a woman's physical and mental well-being, and indicates that her children are likely to experience abuse, neglect and other traumatic experiences. Adult HMO members completed a questionnaire about adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. We used their responses to retrospectively assess the relationship between witnessing intimate partner violence and experiencing any of the 9 ACEs and multiple ACEs (ACE score). Compared to persons who grew up with no domestic violence, the adjusted odds ratio for any individual ACE was approximately two to six times higher if IPV occurred (p < 0.05). There was a powerful graded increase in the prevalence of every category of ACE as the frequency of witnessing IPV increased. In addition, the total number of ACEs was increased dramatically for persons who had witnessed IPV during childhood. There was a positive graded risk for self-reported alcoholism, illicit drug use, i.v. drug use and depressed affect as the frequency of witnessing IPV increased. Identification of victims of IPV must include screening of their children for abuse, neglect and other types of adverse exposures, as well as recognition that substance abuse and depressed affect are likely consequences of witnessing IPV. Finally, this data strongly suggest that future studies, which focus on the effect of witnessing IPV on long-term health outcomes, may need to take into consideration the co-occurrence of multiple ACEs, which can also affect these outcomes. PMID:11991154
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.
A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606
AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW
Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146
Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.
Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…
Roberts, Andrea L.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Decker, Michele R.; Koenen, Karestan C.
Background At least half a million women are victims of intimate partner violence in the United States annually, resulting in substantial harm. However, the etiology of violence to intimate partners is not well understood. Witnessing such violence in childhood has been proposed as a principal cause of adulthood perpetration, yet it remains unknown whether the association between witnessing intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration is causal. Method We conducted a propensity-score analysis of intimate partner violence perpetration to determine whether childhood witnessing is associated with perpetration in adulthood, independent of a wide range of potential confounding variables, and therefore might be a causal factor. We used data from 14,564 U.S. men ages 20 and older from the 2004–2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results Nearly 4% of men reported violent behavior toward an intimate partner in the past year. In unadjusted models, we found a strong association between childhood witnessing of intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, risk ratio [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval = 2.1–3.2]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 3.0 [2.3–3.9]). In propensity-score models, the association was substantially attenuated (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, adjusted RR = 1.6 [1.2–2.0]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 1.6 [1.2–2.3]). Conclusions Men who witness intimate partner violence in childhood are more likely to commit such acts in adulthood, compared with men who are otherwise similar with respect to a large range of potential confounders. Etiological models of intimate partner violence perpetration should consider a constellation of childhood factors. PMID:20811285
Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M
In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives. PMID:24598776
Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time…
Fidan, Ahmet; Bui, Hoan N
The present study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) reported by a sample of women in Zimbabwe to explore factors associated with the problem. Findings from the study indicate an important role of gender relationships in violence against women. The effects of gender inequalities on the likelihood of IPV vary with types of violence, but husband's patriarchal behaviors increase the likelihood of all forms of violence. The study suggests the importance of improving gender equality through public education on gender relationships, increasing women's education and economic opportunities, and eliminating customary laws that sustain gender inequality as necessary steps to combat IPV against women in Zimbabwe. PMID:26644331
Deshpande, Neha A; Lewis-O’Connor, Annie
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as an actual or threatened abuse by an intimate partner that may be physical, sexual, psychological, or emotional in nature. Each year approximately 1.5 million women in the United States report some form of sexual or physical assault by an intimate partner; it is estimated that approximately 324,000 women are pregnant when violence occurs. Pregnancy may present a unique opportunity to identify and screen for patients experiencing IPV. This article provides health care practitioners and clinicians with the most current valid assessment and screening tools for evaluating pregnant women for IPV. PMID:24920977
Arriaga, Ximena B.; Capezza, Nicole M.
Partner violence causes many negative outcomes for the target of the violence. Preventing negative outcomes in part hinges on altogether preventing the violence from occurring. There have been advances in violence prevention that the authors briefly review. However, some of the most notable advances focus on dealing with partner violence once it…
Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Fisher, Helen L.; York-Smith, Marianna; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
Background Studies indicate that women victims of intimate partner violence are at increased risk for poor mental health. This research disentangled the effect of partner violence on new-onset depression and psychosis spectrum symptoms from effects of child maltreatment and other confounding factors, including substance abuse and antisocial personality. Methods Participants were 1,052 mothers involved in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative cohort of families followed prospectively. To test the directionality of associations between partner violence and depression, only women without a history of depression at the beginning of the study were considered (n = 978). Partner violence and mental health were assessed during face-to-face interviews with women across three time points. Results Four of 10 women reported being the victim of violence from their partner in a 10-year period. They represent 33% of our cohort and they account for 51% of new-onset depression. These women had a twofold increase in their risk of suffering from new-onset depression once the effect of childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic deprivation, antisocial personality, and young motherhood were controlled. Women who were abused both in childhood and adulthood were four to seven times more likely to suffer from depression than never-abused women. We observed similar associations with psychosis spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Women victims of partner violence account for more than their share of depression. Findings strengthen existing evidence that partner violence independently contributes to women’s poor mental health. Psychological difficulties among a considerable number of women could be reduced by stopping partner violence. PMID:25691224
Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T K
Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male intimate partner were interviewed about their health, mental health, substance use, and partner violence victimization. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from February 2001 to November 2003 for data collection in three rural and one urban county representing different jurisdictional settings. Because the current analyses focused on understanding intimate partner victimization in the past year and associations with sleep disturbance, 147 participants were excluded for reporting a relationship with the DVO partner for less than 6 months in the past year. The final sample for this article was 609. The women reported an average of a little above 5.5 hours of sleep per night. For women in the current study, significant predictors of sleep disturbance included race, number of children, number of other symptoms of depression in the past 2 weeks excluding sleep criteria, number of other symptoms of PTSD in the past 2 weeks excluding sleep criteria, number of chronic physical health problems, and severity of physical violence by the DVO partner in the past year. Addressing short sleep duration among partner victims in health care settings might enhance safety planning and prevent the development of health/mental health problems that can arise from victimization. PMID:20587469
Naughton, Catherine M.; Muldoon, Orla T.
Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (Mage = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582
Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T
Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582
Gomez, Anu Manchikanti
Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…
Zosky, Diane L.
Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed information ...
Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M
The purpose of this study was to examine lesbian and gay (LG) young adults' reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) and minority stress research using a mixed methodological design. Participants were 277 U.S. college students currently involved in same-sex relationships and self-identified cisgender LG who completed an online questionnaire that included closed- and open-ended questions. Results suggested that IPV research was well tolerated by the vast majority of participants; close to one in 10 participants reported being upset by the study questions, yet 75% of upset individuals reported some level of personal benefit. Reasons for upset as identified in the open-ended responses included thinking about personal experiences with IPV, as the perpetrator or friend of a victim, as well as thinking about the uncertainty of their future with their current partner. The correlates of emotional reactions and personal benefits to research participation were also examined, and these varied among gay men and lesbian women. Implications of these findings underscore the importance of accurate reflection of risk and benefits in informed consent documents as well as systematic evaluation of sexual minority participants' reactions to research participation in an effort to conduct ethically sound sexual science research. PMID:26421906
Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel
The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…
Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra
This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…
Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.
Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…
Wenger, Marin R
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an issue of serious public concern. However, policy interventions and theoretical development have been complicated by mixed evidence about whether men or women experience higher levels of IPV. Some of this discrepancy arises from measurement and whether abuse and victimization are asked of one or both partners. This study uses matched partner data from 1,393 heterosexual couples collected in Wave IIIof the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to examine partner IIV reporting discrepancies and develop hypotheses for why such discrepancies might exist. Consistent with expectations, the findings suggest that research on the prevalence of IIV should rely on reports from both partners, rather than just one, and that gendered patterns of social desirability create differences in men's and women's IPV reporting. PMID:25929136
Mager, Kenna L.; Bresin, Konrad; Verona, Edelyn
The present study sheds light on relationships between distinct psychopathic traits and perpetration of IPV in women versus men. Men and women with recent drug and/or violence histories (N = 250) were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for their and their partner's use of IPV with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. The first goal was to examine the moderating role of gender in psychopathy factor relationships to IPV. Although both the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were related to higher frequency of IPV perpetration, the relationship between Factor 1 and IPV was stronger in men. Our second goal examined the moderating role of psychopathy traits in the relationship between partner's perpetration of IPV and participant perpetration (mutual violence) in the two genders. Relationships between partner- and self-IPV were similar at both low and high levels of Factor 1 in men, although the partner- and self-IPV relationship was significantly stronger among women at low relative to high levels of Factor 1. The relationship between partner- and self-IPV was stronger at high levels of Factor 2 in men, whereas Factor 2 did not moderate mutual violence in women. These results indicate that relationships between psychopathy factors and IPV differ by gender, with psychopathy generally exacerbating IPV perpetration in men and Factor 1 traits playing a unique role in mutual violence in women. These findings add to the literature on female psychopathy and have important implications for future research on gender and IPV. PMID:25020252
Gustafsson, Hanna C; Coffman, Jennifer L; Harris, Latonya S; Langley, Hillary A; Ornstein, Peter A; Cox, Martha J
The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children's memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children's short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children's sex and race, the families' income-to-needs ratio, the children's expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children's cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children's memory development. PMID:24188084
Cismaru, Magdalena; Lavack, Anne M
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with significant physical, emotional, and economic costs. Persuading IPV perpetrators to change their behavior could play an important role in ending violence. This article reviews and analyzes 16 campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators, created in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Two well-known models, the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) model and Protection Motivation theory (PMT), are combined to create the analytical framework. For each stage of change, the most salient PMT variables are outlined, the people found in that stage are described, and the most effective strategies for persuasion are posited. Together, these two models would suggest that future campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators should place a stronger emphasis on the benefits of changing and place a greater focus on increasing perpetrators' confidence that they can abstain from violence. PMID:21908438
Witte, Tricia H; Mulla, Mazheruddin M
This study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students. Male and female college students were asked to estimate the prevalence of IPV for same-sex "typical students" on their campus. Perpetrators of IPV made higher estimates than nonperpetrators. Both perpetrators and nonperpetrators overestimated the prevalence of IPV when compared to actual prevalence rates. Findings lend support for using social-norms-based prevention programs on college campuses. PMID:24547674
Flisher, Alan J.; Myer, Landon; Merais, Adele; Lombard, Carl; Reddy, Priscilla
Background: Little is known about the prevalence of partner violence among adolescents, nor of the factors with which it is associated. The objectives of this study were to document prevalence rates for partner violence among high school students in Cape Town, and to explore factors that are associated with such violence. Method: The sample…
Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.
Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…
Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth
Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…
Jaquier, Véronique; Sullivan, Tami P.
This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514
Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul
Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship. PMID:24997102
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Mason, W Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D
Analyses investigated several competing hypotheses about developmental pathways from childhood physical abuse and early aggression to intimate partner violence (IPV) for young adult males and females at age 24. Potential intervening variables included: adolescent violence (age 15 to 18), negative emotionality at age 21, and quality of one's relationship with an intimate partner at age 24. At the bivariate level, nearly all variables were associated in the expected directions. However, tests of possible intervening variables revealed only a few significant results. For males, a strong direct effect of abuse on later partner violence was maintained in each model. For females, the quality of one's relationship with an intimate partner did appear to mediate the effect of childhood abuse on later violence to a partner, raising the possibility of gender differences in developmental pathways linking abuse to IPV. Implications with regard to prevention are discussed. PMID:15384450
Ali, Parveen; McGarry, Julie; Dhingra, Katie
Intimate partner violence is a major public health and social problem that affects people everywhere. Nurses can play an important role in identifying victims who present to healthcare settings with domestic abuse-related health issues. Evidence suggests that most women who present to emergency departments have experienced domestic abuse at some point in their lives, but that only 5% are identified by healthcare professionals. To identify and respond to victims effectively, emergency nurses must understand domestic abuse and its associated complexities. This article provides an overview of these issues, including the different types of abuse, and their prevalence, causes and effects on health. The article also explores how emergency nurses can identify and manage the effects of violence at work. PMID:26853673
Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D
Children who are exposed to domestic violence (DV) may experience many short- and long-term negative effects. They are up to 3.8 times more likely to become perpetrators or victims in adulthood than are children not exposed to DV. They also are at high risk of health problems, risky health behaviors, violence, and social functioning problems. Girls who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, and trauma symptoms, and boys exposed to IPV are more likely to exhibit aggression and delinquent behaviors. To prepare the practice to identify and assist children exposed to DV, physicians should undergo training, implement screening protocols, use caution when documenting findings, collaborate with local agencies, and learn about the state's reporting laws. State and local DV service programs or other community resources can provide assessment and intervention assistance. Social workers, mental health professionals, and child and DV advocates can assist in providing treatment for children exposed to violence. Physicians should schedule follow-up appointments for children who need treatment, monitor behavior, and coordinate intervention services. PMID:24053262
MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine
Children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is now recognized as a form of child maltreatment associated with significant mental health impairment. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of children's exposure to IPV, including prevalence, risk, and protective factors and associated impairment, and a summary of assessment and interventions aimed at preventing its occurrence and responding to children and families. Information about evidence-based approaches to responding to children who present with impairment after exposure to IPV, such as posttraumatic-stress disorder symptoms, is discussed. Some of the challenges in understanding children's needs with regard to safety and protection are outlined with recommendations for future directions. PMID:24656581
Pinto, Lavinia A.; Sullivan, Eric L.; Rosenbaum, Alan; Wyngarden, Nicole; Umhau, John C.; Miller, Mark W.; Taft, Casey T.
An extensive literature documents biological correlates of general aggression, but there has been less focus on biological correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this review is to summarize the research literature to date that has reported on biological factors in IPV perpetration. We review the existing literature on four domains of biological processes that have been examined with respect to IPV perpetration, including: head injury and neuropsychology; psychophysiology; neurochemistry, metabolism and endocrinology; and genetics. We critique the literature, discuss the clinical relevance of research findings, and provide some recommendations for future biologically-oriented IPV research. PMID:23393423
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves 1 through 4 (1995–2008). Marijuana use was measured in the past year at each wave and participants were categorized as “users” or “nonusers.” Partner violence was constructed using six items (three pertaining to victimization and three concerning perpetration) from Wave 4 (2007–2008). Using these six items, participants were categorized as “victims only,” “perpetrators only,” or “victims and perpetrators.” Survey multinomial regression was used to examine the relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence. Consistent use of marijuana during adolescence was most predictive of intimate partner violence (OR = 2.08, p < .001). Consistent marijuana use (OR = 1.85, p < .05) was related to an increased risk of intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming. PMID:22080574
Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay
Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
The present study discusses if pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence using a large, representative sample containing detailed information on partner violence including physical and sexual abuse as well as perpetrator-related risk factors. Data from a representative sample of 2,225 men were analyzed. The self-reported prevalence…
Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander
Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…
Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine
Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner…
Anderson, Kristin L.
M. P. Johnson's (1995) proposal that there are two qualitatively distinct types of intimate partner violence--intimate terrorism and situational couple violence--has been an influential explanation for disparate findings on sex symmetry in domestic violence. This study examines whether this typology increases our ability to explain variations in…
Robertson, Kirsten; Murachver, Tamar
This study examines partner violence within an incarcerated sample of women and men. Specifically, it focused on the relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes to the perpetration and victimization of violence. Findings revealed that violence was bidirectional, with males and females equally likely to report being the perpetrator or…
Sedlak, Andrea J.
Many questions about how couples construe violence between intimate partners remain unanswered. In order to examine the "labeling" of violence, attitudes about intimate violence, and victims' reactions to assault, 125 undergraduate students completed a three-part questionnaire, including a Battering Empathy Scale (BES), a section assessing the…
Lenahan, Patricia M
Intimate partner violence is one of the most pervasive global public health problems affecting women. It results in untold costs to the healthcare system and is positively linked to eight out of ten leading indicators for Healthy People 2010. Intimate partner violence also is one of the factors associated with adverse childhood experiences that result in negative healthcare behaviours. Intimate partner violence has been the subject of film, made for television movies and music videos. The use of film as an innovative tool to teach about common health and mental health disorders is well-documented. Film also has been used as an adjunctive therapeutic tool in counselling. This paper will provide an overview of intimate partner violence, its portrayal in popular film and ways in which educators may use film to teach intimate partner violence-related topics. PMID:19459093
Webermann, Aliya R.; Brand, Bethany L.; Chasson, Gregory S.
Background Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV) and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD. PMID:25279109
Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.
Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072
Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina; Remer, Lillian
This study assessed the extent to which environmental (Census block-group alcohol outlet density, neighborhood demographic characteristics) and partner risk factors (e.g., hazardous drinking, psychosocial characteristics) contribute to the likelihood of intimate partner violence among 1,753 couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the role of alcohol outlets (off-premise outlets, bars/pubs and restaurants), neighborhood demographic characteristics, and partner risk factors in relation to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) risk. Approximately 12% of couples reported past-year partner violence. Results showed that none of the environmental measures were related to MFPV or FMPV. Male partner's impulsivity and each partner's adverse childhood experiences were associated with MFPV risk. Risk factors for FMPV were male partner's impulsivity and frequency of intoxication and female partner's adverse childhood experiences. Individual/couple characteristics appear to be the most salient IPV risk factors. The male partner's heavy drinking may lead to negative partner/spousal interactions that result in FMPV. The male partner's impulsivity, and each partner's adverse childhood experiences, may potentiate couple conflict and result in aggression. Interventions that target prevention of family dysfunction during childhood may help reduce interpersonal violence in adulthood. PMID:24812578
Rodriguez, Michael; Shoultz, Jan; Richardson, Erin
Little is known about factors associated with healthcare screening of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) for Latinas during pregnancy. This study builds on current research examining IPV-associated outcomes among Latinas by analyzing 210 pregnant Latina responses to a patient survey. A multivariate logistic regression model examined factors associated with being screened for IPV. One-third of pregnant women reported being screened for IPV. Factors related to being screened for IPV are reported and did not match those associated with having experienced IPV. While most pregnant Latinas were not screened for IPV, having systematic processes in place for IPV screening and fostering good patient-provider communication may facilitate identification of IPV. Having a greater awareness of the risk factors associated with IPV may also provide cues for clinicians to better address the issue of IPV. PMID:19694355
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem in the United States and a common cause of injury. Prevalence rates of IPV vary by the surveillance methods and definitions used. National data from the 1995 National Violence Against Women Survey indicate that 22.1% of women and 7.4% of men experience IPV during their lifetimes and that 1.3% of women and 0.9% of men experience IPV annually. IPV results in an estimated 4.1 billion dollars each year in direct medical and mental health-care costs, including 159 million dollars in emergency department (ED) treatments for IPV physical assaults. IPV might constitute as much as 17% of all violence-related injuries treated in EDs. To determine the magnitude of the IPV problem in Oklahoma, including IPV-related injuries and medical service utilization, researchers analyzed injury surveillance data from ED medical records and data from the Oklahoma Women's Health Survey (OWHS). This report summarizes the findings, which indicated that, during 2002 in Oklahoma, approximately 16% of all ED visits for assaults were for IPV injuries, including 35% of assault visits among females and 3% of assault visits among males. In addition, results of the OWHS for 2001-2003 indicated that 5.9% of surveyed Oklahoma women aged 18-44 years sustained an IPV injury during the preceding year. Overall, IPV resulted in a substantial number of injuries, particularly to women, many of whom required treatment in EDs. Medical recognition and documentation of IPV are important for identification of persons in need of services. PMID:16237374
Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5), even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2). CONCLUSIONS Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders PMID:24789634
Cogan, Rosemary; Fennell, Tiffanie
In 2 studies of physical violence and sexuality among college students, more than 75% of men and more than 60% of women reported committing physical violence in the past year, including more women to partners and more men to non-partners. More than 90% of men who committed violence to partners were also violent to non-partners. In Study 1, among…
Bekaert, Sarah; SmithBattle, Lee
Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers become increasingly isolated, and live with the physical and psychological consequences of IPV. Trauma-informed nursing practice is needed to support teen mothers in violent intimate relationships to spin a new web. PMID:27490882
Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina
This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use, and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married or cohabiting couples…
Cheung, Denise Shuk Ting; Tiwari, Agnes; Wang, Amy Xiao Min
Intimate partner violence has long been recognized as a serious public health problem. However, relatively little is known about its occurrence in late life (age 60 or above). A better understanding of this complex phenomenon is needed, partly because of aging populations worldwide and partly because of the necessity to protect vulnerable older people from the harm a violent partner might cause. The current case study aims to illustrate the duality of experience and the dynamics of intimate partner violence of two older Chinese women. It is hoped that the women's accounts may stimulate dialogue on how policy, research, and practice can be directed to protecting vulnerable older adults and reducing intimate partner violence in late life. PMID:26383961
Wallace, Cara L.
Nurses in all areas of healthcare are exposed to patients who are suspected or actual victims of intimate partner violence. Many times nurses report a general lack of knowledge in regard to the topic. Therefore, it is paramount for nursing educators to identify effective methods to teach their students about intimate partner violence in an effort…
Raghavan, Chitra; Rajah, Valli; Gentile, Katie; Collado, Lillian; Kavanagh, Ann Marie
The authors examined how witnessing community violence influenced social support networks and how these networks were associated with male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) in ethnically diverse male college students. The authors assessed whether male social support members themselves had perpetrated IPV (male network violence) and whether…
The first survey carried out in Finland specifically to study men's violence against women showed that partner violence is quite common in Finland and it is directed especially toward young women. The statistical findings don't support the idea that violence has become more widespread in Finland. Life situation factors that are usually viewed as…
Israel, Emily; Stover, Carla
The issue of the father-child relationship has been greatly ignored in the domestic violence research literature. This study investigated whether intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by biological fathers resulted in higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and behavior problems than violence perpetrated by nonbiological fathers and…
... Partner Violence in the United States—2010 • An estimated 16.9% of women and 8.0% of ... proportion of the unknowns that are eligible is estimated. The weighted cooperation rate was 81.3%. A ...
Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.
Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…
Lysova, Aleksandra V.; Douglas, Emily M.
This article reports data from three Russian sites of the International Dating Violence Study. Using a sample of 338 university students (54% female) from three Russian university sites, four different types of partner violence are examined: physical assault, physical injury, sexual coercion, and psychological aggression. High prevalence rates…
Peterman, Linda M.; Dixon, Charlotte G.
Discusses the dynamics of domestic violence between partners of the same sex. The social and cultural issues in the gay and lesbian communities play a large part in perpetuating the myths of domestic violence, which keeps the abuse hidden. This article is based on an extensive review of the literature and a clinical consensus among experts in the…
Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo
The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…
Kan, Marni L.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents has been linked to negative parenting and child maladjustment, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Based on a theory that violence among parents disrupts the coparental alliance--which has been linked to parenting quality and child adjustment--the authors examined…
Harville, Emily W.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Tesfai, Helen; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured…
McMahon, Sarah; Armstrong, D'edra Y.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major problem in the United States, with estimates that 3 percent to 17 percent of women experience violence during the perinatal period. Research indicates that IPV during pregnancy is associated with serious, negative health outcomes for the mother and her unborn child. As such, many…
This paper examines the interrelationships between urban young adult women’s experiences of discrimination and community violence and their reports of involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV). We explore whether such experiences are independent risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration, even when accounting for aggressive behaviors and related risk taking, including drinking and sexual initiation, during early adolescence. We use data from the Reach for Health study, in which a sample of 550 urban African American and Latina women was followed from recruitment in economically distressed middle schools into young adulthood, over approximately 7 years. At the last wave, respondents were 19–20 years old; 28% were raising children. More than 40% reported experiencing at least one form of racial/ethnic discrimination sometimes or often over the past year. About 75% heard guns being shot, saw someone being arrested, or witnessed drug deals within this time period; 66% had seen someone beaten up, 26% had seen someone get killed, and 40% knew someone who was killed. Concurrent reports of lifetime IPV were also high: about a third reported being a victim of physical violence; a similar proportion reported perpetration. Results of multivariate regression analyses indicate that discrimination is significantly associated with physical and emotional IPV victimization and perpetration, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, including ethnic identity formation, and early adolescent risk behaviors. Community violence is correlated with victimization, but the relationship remains significant only for emotional IPV victimization once early behaviors are controlled. Implications for violence prevention are discussed, including the importance of addressing community health, as well as individual patterns of behavior, associated with multiple forms of violence victimization and perpetration. PMID:18347993
Iverson, Katherine M.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Adair, Kathryn C.; Monson, Candice M.
Objective Childhood family violence exposure is associated with increased risk for experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain inadequately understood. Difficulties with emotion regulation may be one factor that helps to explain this relationship. Method Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence, as well as subsequent IPV experiences, were assessed in a large sample of young adults (N = 670). Several indicators of anger-related dysregulation were also assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable of anger-related dysregulation, which was examined as a potential mediator of the associations between childhood family violence exposure and IPV. Results Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were associated with greater physical, sexual, and emotional IPV victimization. Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were also associated with anger-related dysregulation, which was positively associated with all three types of IPV experiences. Anger-related dysregulation fully mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and physical IPV. Anger-related dysregulation partially mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and psychological IPV and the associations of childhood physical abuse with all three forms of IPV. These associations were consistent across gender. Conclusions Interventions aimed at reducing IPV risk among survivors of childhood family violence may benefit from including techniques to target anger-related emotion regulation skills. PMID:25199386
Rosenfeld, Elian A; Marx, John; Terry, Martha A; Stall, Ronald; Pallatino, Chelsea; Borrero, Sonya; Miller, Elizabeth
SummaryOver one-third of women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. IPV increases the risk of infection and re-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The extent to which health care providers consider IPV when recommending partner notification and expedited partner therapy is unknown. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand health care providers' views on IPV and STIs when recommending partner treatment to patients with chlamydia. Using a purposive sampling strategy to include health care providers who treat young women at risk for chlamydia, 23 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. While some health care providers expressed concern for their patients' safety and believed assessing for IPV was needed before provision of expedited partner therapy, nearly a third had not considered the links between IPV and STIs. Strategies used by health care providers to assess for IPV did not include inquiry about specific behaviours related to IPV, STI risk, and sexual coercion. Many health care providers understand the risk for IPV in the setting of STI treatment, yet a significant portion of those interviewed failed to recognise the link between IPV and STIs. Provider education is necessary to increase knowledge and implement more effective inquiry and counselling about IPV to more safely recommend expedited partner therapy. PMID:26088259
Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J.
Objectives Initial evidence suggests that individuals with specific psychiatric conditions may perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) at greater frequency than non-diagnosed comparison samples. The present investigation examined the relationship between IPV and specific clinical diagnoses. Method The current investigation utilized data provided by 190 (34% female) adult offenders during court-mandated substance use evaluations to investigate the incidence of past-year IPV among samples of dual diagnosed (bipolar, PTSD, and ADHD) clients relative to 3 comparison samples matched on substance use and sociodemographic variables. Results Bipolar and PTSD diagnosed participants were more likely to perpetrate IPV than matched comparison and ADHD participants. Bipolar and PTSD diagnosed participants were equally likely to perpetrate IPV, as were ADHD and matched comparison samples. Conclusions The frequency of IPV perpetration among bipolar and PTSD diagnosed clients may complicate interpersonal and relationship functioning. The development of integrated treatments for IPV and underlying psychopathology are recommended. PMID:23824500
Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia
The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…
Sorenson, Susan B.; Thomas, Kristie A.
Attitudes toward same-sex intimate relationships and intimate partner violence (IPV) are changing. Little research, however, has examined norms about IPV in same-sex relationships. Using a fractional factorial (experimental vignette) design, we conducted random-digit-dialed interviews in four languages with 3,679 community-residing adults.…
Antle, Becky F.; Karam, Eli; Christensen, Dana N.; Barbee, Anita P.; Sar, Bibhuti K.
This research evaluated the impact of the Within My Reach healthy relationship education program on intimate partner violence for 419 high-risk adults in an urban area. Key outcomes such as relationship knowledge, communication/conflict resolution skills, relationship quality, and physical and emotional abuse were evaluated through survey research…
Wortham, Thomasine T.
Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…
McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.
This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…
Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.
This study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on future intimate partner violence (IPV) in dating relationship in Hong Kong, China. A total of 1,154 Chinese adult respondents engaged in dating relationships were interviewed face-to-face about their CSA histories, childhood witnessing of parental violence, adult…
Allen, Mary; Devitt, Catherine
Intimate partner violence is endemic in parts of the African continent. A small scale survey (n = 229) was conducted in 2009 in Northern Liberia, West Africa, to determine the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence, and the cultural beliefs and gender norms that underpin respondent experiences and views towards intimate partner violence. Results show widespread experience of intimate partner violence among the respondent group, including physical abuse, sexual and verbal, and economic abuse. Acceptance of the situation was identified by most respondents as a way of responding to violence, and arises from the lack of financial and legal supports for women within the community. Despite the range of abuses experienced, beliefs about the power position of men in Liberian society provide evidence to reflect the predominance of certain cultural beliefs in framing respondents' perceptions of gender relations. The article concludes with a discussion on the possible impact of Liberia's recent conflict in contributing to the perpetuation and normalization of intimate partner violence. Further large scale research in this area is required. PMID:22610827
Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Jayaram, Prasad V.; Srivastava, Kalpana; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madhusudan, T.
Objectives: This study assessed intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use in an urban population in Pune, India. The prevalence of IPV and alcohol use was assessed along with the correlation of IPV with alcohol and other variables. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, questionnaire-based. The materials used were the hurt insult threaten scream (HITS) scale, the alcohol use disorders identification test, and a brief psychosocial questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was done on the target population. Regression analysis of various factors in relation to HITS score was done. Results: Sample size (n) was 318 individuals. Prevalence of IPV was found to be 16% and the victims were mostly women. Prevalence of alcohol use was 44%, of which 8.9% were harmful users. No female subjects consumed alcohol, but 94% were aware of their husband's alcohol consumption. No significant correlation was found between IPV and education (P = 0.220) or income of women (P = 0.250). Alcohol consumption by males was a significant risk factor for women experiencing IPV (σ = +0.524; P< 0.001). Regression analysis also revealed that increasing marital age (P = 0.019) and financial support from in-laws (P = 0.040) were significantly protective. Conclusion: IPV prevalence was less than the national average for India, but the majority of victims was women. The most common type of IPV was verbal. Alcohol use prevalence was higher than the national average, but harmful use was lower. Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for IPV. Education and income of women were not significantly protective against IPV but increased age at marriage and support from in-laws were. PMID:27212823
Bauer, Nerissa S.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lozano, Paula; Rivara, Frederick P.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David
OBJECTIVE Our objectives with this study were to describe the prevalence of bullying involvement (ie, bullying and victimization) among children from a multigenerational study and to examine the relationship of these childhood behaviors and exposure to intimate partner violence. METHODS A community-based cohort of 112 children (aged 6 to 13 years) was asked to self-report on physical, verbal, and relational types of bullying and victimization experienced in the past year. Parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors during the previous 6 months using items from Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist. The frequency of parental experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization at 2 time points during the preceding 5 years was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale items. The association of intimate partner violence and parent-reported child behavioral problems was examined, followed by exposure to intimate partner violence and child-reported bullying or victimization. Parental risk factors (eg, race/ethnicity, education, problem drinking) that predispose to intimate partner violence were controlled for using propensity score statistical modeling. RESULTS Eighty-two (73.2%) children reported being victimized by peers, and 38 (33.9%) children reported bullying behaviors in the past year. More reports came from girls than from boys (55% for victimization and 61% for bullying). Almost all (97%) child bullies were also victims themselves. Intimate partner violence was reported by parent respondents in 53 (50.5%) households at any or both of the 2 time points. Exposure to intimate partner violence was not associated with child-reported relational bullying behaviors or victimization by peers, However, intimate partner violence–exposed children were at increased risk for problematic levels of externalizing behavior/physical aggression and internalizing behaviors. CONCLUSIONS In our sample, children who were 6 to 13
Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Crane, Cory A.
The present study examined the associations among implicit attitudes toward factors related to intimate partner violence (IPV) and objective, behavioral outcomes of participants legally mandated to attend partner violence interventions. Twenty-six male offenders, adjudicated within the past month on IPV charges, completed three sets of gender and violence themed implicit associations tests (IATs) to evaluate the relationships between implicit evaluations of women and violence and three key outcome measures assessed six months after enrollment in the study: self-reported prior year IPV perpetration, completion of a court-mandated partner abuse program, and criminal reoffending. IAT results indicated that more rapid associations between violence-related words and positive valences, rather than gender evaluations or associations between gender and violence, were associated with greater IPV perpetration during the year prior to involvement in the study as well as with poorer outcomes (i.e., greater treatment non-compliance and criminal recidivism) at the 6-month follow-up. Among explicit measures, only negative partner violence outcome expectancies were marginally associated with treatment compliance. None of the explicit measures predicted previous violence or recidivism. The findings are discussed in the context of reducing violence through promoting implicit cognitive change. PMID:25598562
Madzimbalale, F C; Khoza, L B
Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women's experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14). PMID:21469513
Power, Charmaine; Koch, Tina; Kralik, Debbie; Jackson, Debra
Intimate Partner Violence remains a significant problem globally despite health promotion aimed at raising awareness. In particular, there is a current trend for many young women to view some abusive/violent behaviours as acceptable in their relationships. Intimate Partner Violence has serious implications for its short and long term impacts on the health of women and children. Health workers may find working with women a challenging and sometimes frustrating experience. A way forward is to develop clearer understandings of the complexities of Intimate Partner Violence and to better understand women's investments in romantic relationships. In this paper a secondary analysis of data from a narrative study of women's recovery from IPV relationships is presented in order to illustrate discourses that inform underpinnings of romantic relationships. Transcriptions of audio-taped interviews were analysed using a feminist post-structural approach in order to make visible the ways in which the women negotiated their identities in the discourses of femininity. A critical review of current literature was also undertaken to develop the construct of romantic love. Women revealed that cues for Intimate Partner Violence were present early in the relationship but were not recognised at the time. Two positions within the discourse of romantic love were identified that underpinned their desires to establish and invest in the relationship despite the presence of cues for Intimate Partner Violence. These were 'Desperate for a man' and interpreting jealousy as a sign of love. Romantic love may be desirable for the sharing of warmth, safety and protection, and yet can mask behaviours that are cues for domestic violence. Understanding the complex nature of the ways that women's desires are located in the discourse of romantic love has implications for all nurses working to prevent and reduce the incidence of Intimate Partner Violence. PMID:16696600
Kuhl, Danielle C.; Warner, David F.; Warner, Tara D.
Youth violent victimization (YVV) is a risk factor for precocious exits from adolescence via early coresidential union formation. It remains unclear, however, whether these early unions 1) are associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, 2) interrupt victim continuity or victim–offender overlap through protective and prosocial bonds, or 3) are inconsequential. By using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,928; 18–34 years of age), we examine competing hypotheses for the effect of early union timing among victims of youth violence (n = 2,479)—differentiating across victimization only, perpetration only, and mutually combative relationships and considering variation by gender. The results from multinomial logistic regression models indicate that YVV increases the risk of IPV victimization in first unions, regardless of union timing; the null effect of timing indicates that delaying union formation would not reduce youth victims’ increased risk of continued victimization. Gender-stratified analyses reveal that earlier unions can protect women against IPV perpetration, but this is partly the result of an increased risk of IPV victimization. The findings suggest that YVV has significant transformative consequences, leading to subsequent victimization by coresidential partners, and this association might be exacerbated among female victims who form early unions. We conclude by discussing directions for future research. PMID:26412867
McQuiller Williams, LaVerne; Porter, Judy L
Partner violence is a pervasive public health concern that has received significant attention over the past three decades. Although a number of studies have reported that college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing are at an increased risk of experiencing partner violence compared with their hearing counterparts, little is known about partner violence perpetration among college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing. Furthermore, beyond disability, studies examining partner violence among students with disabilities tend to ignore other potential risk factors that may increase the risk of partner violence as a victim and/or a perpetrator. This exploratory study examines the extent of partner violence among male and female college students by auditory status and the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating partner abuse (i.e., physical abuse and psychological abuse) and child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing abuse and experiencing child physical abuse). The study also examines gender differences in the relationship between child maltreatment and physical and psychological abuse victimization and perpetration. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 680 college students at a northeastern university. Findings indicate that having witnessed interparental abuse as a child was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Having been a child victim of parental abuse was not significant for any of the abuse measures. Gender was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Deaf students were significantly more likely to report all abuse measures. Implications and directions for further research are discussed. PMID:25287415
Messinger, Adam M; Fry, Deborah A; Rickert, Vaughn I; Catallozzi, Marina; Davidson, Leslie L
Johnson's intimate partner violence (IPV) typology-categorizing IPV by both use and receipt of physical violence and controlling behaviors-effectively predicts IPV consequences among adults. His typology has not yet been applied to adolescents, an important population for early IPV intervention. Therefore, in analyzing IPV covariates among 493 female urban high school students, we used as key predictors both Johnson's original typology and, for enhanced clarity, a relationship-level extension. Preliminary evidence suggests that the pattern of adolescent IPV differs substantially from that of adult IPV and that a relationship-level typology provided additional clarity in categorizing this pattern. PMID:25125494
Cordero, M I; Poirier, G L; Marquez, C; Veenit, V; Fontana, X; Salehi, B; Ansermet, F; Sandi, C
Intimate partner violence is a ubiquitous and devastating phenomenon for which effective interventions and a clear etiological understanding are still lacking. A major risk factor for violence perpetration is childhood exposure to violence, prompting the proposal that social learning is a major contributor to the transgenerational transmission of violence. Using an animal model devoid of human cultural factors, we showed that male rats became highly aggressive against their female partners as adults after exposure to non-social stressful experiences in their youth. Their offspring also showed increased aggression toward females in the absence of postnatal father-offspring interaction or any other exposure to violence. Both the females that cohabited with the stressed males and those that cohabited with their male offspring showed behavioral (including anxiety- and depression-like behaviors), physiological (decreased body weight and basal corticosterone levels) and neurobiological symptoms (increased activity in dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons in response to an unfamiliar male) resembling the alterations described in abused and depressed women. With the caution required when translating animal work to humans, our findings extend current psychosocial explanations of the transgenerational transmission of intimate partner violence by strongly suggesting an important role for biological factors. PMID:22832906
Chibber, Karuna S.; Krishnan, Suneeta
Intimate partner violence—physical, psychological, or sexual abuse of women perpetrated by intimate partners—is one of the most common forms of violence against women, and is associated with adverse women’s reproductive and maternal health outcomes. We review the opportunities for addressing intimate partner violence by the health system, examine promising approaches, and outline future challenges for developing effective health systems responses to violence. Evidence shows that women seldom approach support services in response to violence, but do seek health care at some point in their lives. In fact, women’s utilization of reproductive health services in particular has been increasing globally. These services have a broad reach and represent an important opportunity to engage in violence prevention. Although health systems-based responses to intimate partner violence have emerged, rigorous evaluations to guide program planning and policy efforts to reduce violence are limited. US programs have expanded from improving individual provider prevention practices to instituting system-wide changes to ensure sustainability of these practices. Developing country program responses, though limited, have been system-wide and multi-sectoral right from the start. Our review highlights three challenges for developing and expanding health systems responses to violence. First, interventions should focus on creating a supportive environment within the health system and strengthening linkages across health care and allied sectors. Second, rigorous evaluations of health-sector based interventions are needed for a sound evidence-base to guide programmatic and policy decisions. Finally, research is needed to identify the entry points for engaging men on violence prevention, and to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:21598270
Jennings, Wesley G; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela R
The link between child sexual abuse and adult intimate partner violence surfaces throughout prior research. Nonetheless, methodologies investigating this cycle of violence predominantly involve descriptive, correlational, or traditional regression-based analyses that preclude more definitive statements about the empirical relationship between child sexual abuse and adult partner violence. In recognition of these limitations, the current study presents a quasi-experimental investigation into the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and physical partner violence victimization and/or perpetration in young adulthood. Propensity score matching analysis of a national data set sampling over 4,000 young adults suggests that experiencing child sexual abuse influences adult intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration. Study implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26340073
Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Blanco-Prieto, Pilar; Vives-Cases, Carmen
The present study aims to review the problem of intimate partner violence, as well as its causes and consequences. It will also specifically analyze the role of health professionals. In opposition to the classical epidemiological view of risk factors, Heise proposes an ecological framework to study violence against women. This framework analyzes the interplay among the personal, situational and sociocultural factors that combine to cause abuse. Regarding the frequency of intimate partner violence in Spain, in January 2003 there were 2.519 formal complaints and 69 women died between January and November 2003. No geographical patterns in mortality or the incidence of formal complaints of intimate partner violence or among the provinces with the highest incidence of formal complains and those with highest mortality were observed. The only national survey published in Spain was performed by the Women's Institute in 1999, which reported a prevalence of domestic violence of 9.2%. A frequency of 22.8% was found in a primary health care center in Granada. Health services can play a key role in helping victims of domestic violence, since most women contact the health services at some time in their lives. Professionals in administrative or managerial positions can contribute to raising awareness of this health problem, which is one of the main causes of poor health and disability. Evidently, beyond consciousness-raising and early detection campaigns, public health strategies should be designed to prevent this serious health problem the causes of which can be changed. PMID:15171840
Nectoux, Marc; Mugnier, Claude; Baffert, Sandrine; Albagly, Maité; Thélot, Bertrand
This study aims to carry out an economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France. Using published data, institutional sources, field studies and expert opinions, the cost of intimate partner violence is estimated in terms of the overall cost to society. A range of different economic approaches are used (micro-economic, meso-economic and macro-economic approaches). The total cost of intimate partner violence in France is estimated at 2.5 billion Euros per year (between 1.7 and 3.5 billion Euros). The total cost of intimate partner violence includes healthcare costs (483 ? million), social and justice services (355 ? million), production losses as a result of deaths, imprisonments and absenteeism (1099 ? million), and the human costs of rape and prejudice (535 ? million). By increasing the budget allocated to the prevention of domestic violence by one euro, it is estimated that the state, health insurance and local authorities could make savings of up to 87 Euros of social spending, including 30 Euros of direct expenses. PMID:20858339
Ilika, Amobi Linus
Partner violence is a serious public health problem affecting mostly women. This qualitative study assessed the perceptions of rural Igbo women of Nigeria of intimate partner violence. Information was elicited using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Women of childbearing age were selected from the various women age grades in Ozubulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Findings revealed that the women generally condone and are complacent with intimate partner violence, perceiving it as cultural and religious norms. The women felt that reprimands, beating and forced sex affecting their physical, mental and reproductive wellbeing are normal in marriage. They did not support reporting such cases to the police or divorcing the man, they would rather prefer reporting to family members. They felt that exiting the marriage would not gain the support of family members. They also expressed fear for the uncertainty in re-marrying, means of livelihood after re-marriage, social stigmatisation, and concern for their children. Socio-cultural norms and structures favour partner violence in Anambra State of Nigeria. There is a need for advocacy and concerted action that will involve the educational, health, civil and religious sectors of the society to evolve sustainable structures that will empower women and provide support to enable victims to react appropriately to violence. PMID:16623192
Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; O’Rourke, Allison; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Zegree, Joan; Roffman, Roger A.
This research was designed to evaluate the applicability of social norms approaches to interventions with male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants included 124 nonadjudicated IPV perpetrating men recruited from the general population who completed assessment of their own IPV behaviors via telephone interviews and estimated the prevalence of behaviors in other men. Results indicated that IPV perpetrators consistently overestimated the percentage of men who engaged in IPV and that their estimates were associated with violence toward their partner over the past 90 days. Findings provide preliminary support for incorporating social norms approaches into clinical applications. PMID:20200408
Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Betts, Cassandra L; Wiesner, Theodore F; Gold, Katherine J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem estimated to affect 15%-71% of women worldwide. We sought to elicit IPV risks among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana. As part of a broader study on postpartum depression, we conducted semistructured surveys of 153 women in a mother-baby unit, assessing demographics, depression, social support, and IPV with the present partner. Forty-six percent of mothers reported some form of violence, mostly emotional (34%), followed by physical (17%), and sexual (15%). The study highlights the frequency of perinatal IPV and the associated risk factors of depression and poor social support. PMID:25864483
Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic
Piquero, Alex R; Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P
This article investigates the overlap between offending trajectories, criminal violence, and intimate partner violence (IPV) and the factors associated with these behaviors. Knowledge on these questions is relevant to theory and policy. For the former, this article considers the extent to which specific theories are needed for understanding crime, criminal violence, and/or IPV, whereas for the latter, it may suggest specific offense- and offender-based policies. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development that traces the offending, criminal violence, and IPV of males to age 50. Findings show that there is significant overlap between criminal violence and IPV, high-rate offending trajectories have increased odds of criminal violence and IPV, and early childhood risk factors have no additional effect on criminal violence and IPV in adulthood over and above the offending trajectories. PMID:23315428
Moura, Leides Barroso Azevedo; Lefevre, Fernando; Moura, Valter
Research was conducted with women aged 15 to 49 living in an economically vulnerable area of the Brazilian state capital on the experience of victims of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). The study adopted a qualitative technique called Collective Subject Discourse. During the interviews in their homes between February and July, 195 women reported incidents of violence throughout their lives. The discourses were grouped by similar violence using the CSD technique and organized into 7 major categories based on 395 key words; i) IPV Engineering (N = 114; 58.5%); ii) Rape of vulnerable sex (N = 77; 39.5%); iii) Silent or silenced violence (N = 43; 21%); iv) Years of Suffering (N = 43; 21%); v) New time despite the suffering (N = 39; 20%); vi) Talking about violence (N = 35; 18%); Violence is a language (N = 34; 17.4%). Three reports with the highest prevalence, entitled "IPV Engineering," are presented in full in this work. The narratives of violence revealed show the strength of vulnerability and abuse suffered by women and the existence of multiple dynamics of violence in intimate affective relationships. PMID:22534856
Logan, T. K.; Walker, Robert; Hoyt, William
Partner violence affects a significant number of women and their children each year. Estimates of the economic costs of partner violence are substantial. However, most estimates of the costs of partner violence are made at the aggregate level rather than the individual level. Estimating costs at the individual level allows for a wider range of…
Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer
The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…
Gilfus, Mary E.; Trabold, Nicole; O'Brien, Patricia; Fleck-Henderson, Ann
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex social problem that social workers must be trained to address, using the best available evidence. In this article we review divergent theories, research findings, and methods that underpin debates about the role of gender in IPV perpetration and victimization. We examine the literature that…
Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.
Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…
Houry, Debra; Reddy, Sudha; Parramore, Constance
This study evaluated the frequency of coarrest in female victims who utilized 911 for intimate partner violence (IPV) and any patterns or circumstances that increased the likelihood of coarrest. All cases of police-documented IPV where a female IPV victim was arrested in conjunction with the perpetrator were included. Each incident report was…
Kendall, Jayne; Pelucio, Maria Tereza; Casaletto, Jennifer; Thompson, Karen Parker; Barnes, Sherry; Pettit, Erin; Aldrich, Mae
The objective of the study is to assess the impact of emergency department (ED) intimate partner violence (IPV) counseling and resource referrals on patient-perceived safety and safety planning. ED patients with risk factors were offered consultation with trained IPV advocacy counselors who completed safety assessments, provided resource…
Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.
A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…
Houry, Debra; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.
The study was a cross-sectional examination of African American women positive for intimate partner violence (IPV) who presented to the medical or psychiatric emergency department (ED) for treatment. African American women with a recent history of IPV who presented following an attempted suicide (n = 100) were compared to demographically…
Alaggia, Ramona; Regehr, Cheryl; Jenney, Angelique
Objective: A multistage, mixed-methods study using grounded theory with descriptive data was conducted to examine factors in disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were undertaken to collect data from 98 IPV survivors and service providers to identify influential factors.…
Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.
This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…
Cheng, Tyrone C.
This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…
Krugman, Scott D.; Witting, Michael D.; Furuno, Jon P.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Limcangco, Rhona; Perisse, Andre R. S.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes a major public health problem in the United States. This cross-sectional survey of 108 emergency department (ED) care providers and 146 ED visitors at three metropolitan EDs compared the beliefs of ED health care providers with those of community members about the relative benefits of the helpfulness of…
Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.
This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…
Hays, Danica G.; Emelianchik, Kelly
With approximately 30% of individuals of various cultural identities experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetimes, it is imperative that professional counselors engage in effective assessment practices and be aware of the limitations of available IPV assessments. A content analysis of 38 IPV assessments was conducted, yielding…
Tetterton, Summer; Farnsworth, Elizabeth
Women above the age of 60 who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) have specific needs compared with younger victims. More research is emerging that assists counselors and other helping professionals with identification of these needs and aids to promote the mental health and well-being of this population. Professionals must consider…
Anderson, Melissa L.; Kobek Pezzarossi, Caroline M.
Using a sample of Deaf female undergraduate students, the current study sought to investigate the prevalence, correlates, and characteristics of intimate partner violence victimization in hearing-Deaf and Deaf-Deaf relationships. Initial results suggest that similarities in hearing status and communication preference are associated with increased…
Newman, Bernie Sue; Campbell, Caroline
The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and…
Rahman, Mosfequr; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ryota; Tomizawa, Hideki; Makinoda, Satoru
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy using data from women reporting IPV in the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analysis included 4,695 married women, aged 15 to 40 years, who had at least one birth in the last 5 years. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression…
Dutton, Mary Ann; Green, Bonnie L.; Kaltman, Stacey I.; Roesch, Darren M.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Krause, Elizabeth D.
The high prevalence of adverse health outcomes related to intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. Yet we know little about the pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Research concerning the psychological, biological, neurological, behavioral, and physiological alterations following exposure to IPV--many of which are associated…
Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.
Little is known about the perceived perpetration of female-to-male intimate partner violence by victims of male offenders mandated to treatment. Sixty-eight male perpetrators of partner violence completed measures of dyadic violent and aggressive responding at intake and at a 12 week follow-up. Approximately 20% of male offenders reported partner violence perpetration and 30% reported victimization with bi-directional violence as the most common configuration of couple violence. Maladaptive responses to conflict were prevalent across partners. Significant and highly correlated reductions in aversive behaviors were detected across the assessment period for both males and their female partners. Results are interpreted within the context of motivational models of female-to-male partner violence and current treatment approaches. PMID:25750479
The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering." PMID:22996629
Coker, A L; Smith, P H; McKeown, R E; King, M J
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type (physical, sexual, battering, or emotional abuse) among women seeking primary health care. METHODS: Women aged 18 to 65 years who attended family practice clinics in 1997 and 1998 took part. Participation included a brief in-clinic survey assessing intimate partner violence. Multiple polytomous logistic regression was used to assess correlates of partner violence by type. RESULTS: Of 1401 eligible women surveyed, 772 (55.1%) had experienced some type of intimate partner violence in a current, most recent, or past intimate relationship with a male partner; 20.2% were currently experiencing intimate partner violence. Among those who had experienced partner violence in any relationship, 77.3% experienced physical or sexual violence, and 22.7% experienced nonphysical abuse. Alcohol and/or drug abuse by the male partner was the strongest correlate of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Partner substance abuse and intimate partner violence in the woman's family of origin were strong risk factors for experiencing violence. Efforts to universally screen for partner violence and to effectively intervene to reduce the impact of such violence on women's lives must be a public health priority. PMID:10754969
Brown, Jorielle R.; Hill, Hope M.; Lambert, Sharon F.
Prior research documents increased trauma symptoms associated with exposure to violence, primarily by examining types of violence separately. This study extends prior research by examining traumatic stress symptoms associated with two types of violence exposure, community violence and partner violence. A sample of 90 low-income African American…
Roberto, Karen A; McCann, Brandy Renee; Brossoie, Nancy
Intimate partner violence (IPV) in late life takes various forms including physical harm, sexual assault, and murder. Using national newspaper reports of IPV among elders, we identified the types of violence reported most frequently in media and examined how the abuse was conceptualized by reporters. We found that most cases of IPV reported involved murder, with men as perpetrators and women as victims. Caregiving stress and health problems were frequently cited as contributing factors in the cases. Interpreting these findings from a feminist perspective, we suggest implications for practitioners working with older adults. PMID:23627429
ROBERTO, KAREN A.; McCANN, BRANDY RENEE; BROSSOIE, NANCY
Intimate partner violence (IPV) in late life takes various forms including physical harm, sexual assault, and murder. Using national newspaper reports of IPV among elders, we identified the types of violence reported most frequently in media and examined how the abuse was conceptualized by reporters. We found that most cases of IPV reported involved murder, with men as perpetrators and women as victims. Caregiving stress and health problems were frequently cited as contributing factors in the cases. Interpreting these findings from a feminist perspective, we suggest implications for practitioners working with older adults. PMID:23627429
Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159
Modi, Monica N.; Palmer, Sheallah
Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159
Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric
In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…
Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J. A.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Raghavan, Chitra
Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the "motivator" for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of…
Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy
Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression. PMID:26004379
Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob
Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men. PMID:27109769
Ames, Genevieve M.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael; Todd, Michael; Chen, Meng-Jinn
Objective: A body of research has established that lower socioeconomic populations, including blue-collar workers, are at higher risk for problem drinking and intimate partner violence. This study of married/cohabiting construction workers and their spouses/partners describes how work stressors, hazardous drinking, and couple characteristics interact to influence normative beliefs around partner violence and, thereafter, its occurrence. Method: Our survey respondents from a sample of 502 dual-earner couples were asked about drinking patterns, past-year partner violence, normative beliefs about partner violence, work-related stressors, impulsivity, and childhood exposure to violence and other adverse events. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 81 workers on context of work stress, partner violence, and drinking. Results: Analyses of data revealed that men’s and women’s normative beliefs about partner violence were positively related to male-to-female partner violence; female partner violence normative beliefs were associated with female-to-male partner violence. Both partners’ levels of impulsivity were directly associated with male-to-female and female-to-male partner violence, and male partner’s frequency of intoxication mediated the association between level of impulsivity and male-to-female partner violence. Female partner’s adverse childhood experience was directly associated with male-to-female partner violence. Both survey and qualitative interviews identified individual and work-related factors that influence the occurrence of violence between men and women. Discussion: These findings provide guidelines for prevention of partner violence that can be implemented in the workplace with attention to hazardous drinking, job stress, treatment, education, and work culture. PMID:23384367
Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Mata-Pariente, Nelva; Plazaola-Castano, Juncal
The responses of women to a situation of abuse by their partner has hardly been addressed in the literature. Using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, 400 women attending three practices in a primary health care center in Granada (Spain) were studied. The women's response to abuse was used as a dependent variable. Sociodemographics,…
Zeoli, April M; Malinski, Rebecca; Turchan, Brandon
The use of firearms in intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely recognized as an important public health threat. However, what we know about the risks of firearm access on IPV outcomes is limited. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the state of knowledge on 1) the risks of firearm access and use in IPV and 2) the effectiveness of interventions designed specifically to reduce firearm violence in intimate relationships. Only studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 through 2014 were included. Results of the review suggest that, when violent intimates have access to firearms, IPV increases in severity and deadliness; however, increases in severity may not be due to firearm use. Additionally, statutes prohibiting persons under domestic violence restraining orders from accessing firearms are associated with reductions in intimate partner homicide, but certain provisions of these laws and their enforcement may impact their effectiveness. Future research should focus on elucidating the link between firearm access and increased IPV severity and on investigating whether and which specific provisions of domestic violence restraining order laws impact the laws' effectiveness. Additionally, more evaluations of initiatives designed to improve the enforcement of domestic violence restraining order firearm prohibitions are needed. PMID:26739680
Clark, Hannah M; Galano, Maria M; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew C; Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A
While intimate partner violence (IPV) has been acknowledged as a national public health concern, little research exists that directly assesses differential exposure to IPV for distinct ethnoracial groups. The current study compared the rate, severity, and type of IPV exposure across samples of White, African American, and Latina women (N = 180). Participants reported rates of exposure to violence on measures of physical assault, psychological aggression, injury, and sexual coercion; each subscale contained items denoting both mild and severe levels of violence. Multiple regression analyses indicated that women's frequency of exposure to sexual coercion, and severe and injurious violence significantly differed based on participants' ethnoracial identification, such that Latina women experienced disproportionate levels of violence relative to White and African American peers. Mothers' monthly income, level of education, general health, and relationship status also emerged as significant predictors of violence exposure. Results support the development of culturally sensitive adaptations of IPV interventions, targeting not only Latina populations but also women who are single, low-income, and educationally underserved. PMID:25392382
Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T
Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide. PMID:25031103
Bloom, Tina; Wagman, Jennifer; Hernandez, Rebecca; Yragui, Nan; Hernandez-Valdovinos, Noelia; Dahlstrom, Marie; Glass, Nancy
Latinas experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) often avoid formal resources due to fear, distrust, and cultural and language barriers, yet little research addresses culturally appropriate interventions for abused Latinas. To develop effective interventions, we must include abused Latinas' voices in research and collaborate with the…
Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307
Brownridge, Douglas A
This study examines M. P. Johnson's assertion that violence in marital unions is more likely to be intimate terrorism (IT) and violence in cohabiting unions is more likely to be situational couple violence (SCV). Having overcome limitations of the data on which Johnson based his assertion, the results show that cohabiting and married victims of violence are equally likely to report experiencing SCV and IT. Moreover, cohabitors have higher odds of experiencing SCV and IT compared to their counterparts living in a marital union. These marital status differences are explained by selection and relationship factors theorized to account for them. Although the SCV- IT typology does appear to shed light on gender differences, the results of this study suggest that, where relevant, researchers using this typology should not neglect risk factors derived from theories for understanding intimate partner violence (IPV). PMID:19729674
Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M.; Lila, Marisol
Acceptability of partner violence against women is a risk factor linked to its perpetration, and to public, professionals’ and victims’ responses to this behavior. Research on the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships is, however, limited by reliance solely on self-reports that often provide distorted or socially desirable accounts that may misrepresent respondents’ attitudes. This study presents data on the development and initial validation of a new analog task assessing respondents’ acceptability of physical violence toward women in intimate relationships: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task (PVAM). This new analog task is intended to provide a more implicit measure of the acceptability of partner violence against women. For this analog task, clips were extracted from commercially available films (90-s segments) portraying partner violence. Two independent samples were used to develop and evaluate the PVAM: a sample of 245 undergraduate students and a sample of 94 male intimate partner violence offenders. This new analog task demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Results also indicated adequate construct validity. Both perpetrators and undergraduates scoring high in the PVAM also scored higher in self-reported justifications of partner abuse. Perpetrators of partner violence scored significantly higher in acceptability of partner violence than the undergraduate sample (both male and female students), and male students scored higher than females. These preliminary results suggest that the PVAM may be a promising tool to assess the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships, highlighting the need to consider alternatives to self-report to evaluate potential beliefs about partner violence. PMID:26528220
Freeman, Andrew J; Schumacher, Julie A; Coffey, Scott F
Estimates indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs in approximately 30% of relationships and up to 85% of the relationships of men in substance abuse treatment. However, partners consistently display poor agreement in reporting the presence of IPV. Social desirability is frequently offered as the primary reason for under-reporting of IPV by perpetrators. The goal of the current study was to explicitly test the social desirability hypothesis using both partners' reports of negotiation, psychological aggression, physical aggression, sexual aggression, and injuries in a substance abuse treatment sample. A total of 54 males and their female partners were recruited from a residential adult substance use treatment facility. Consistent with prior literature, partners displayed poor agreement about the presence of different types of IPV. The male partner's social desirability was not associated with his reporting of male-to-female physical aggression, psychological aggression, or injuries. Men who engaged in higher levels of self-deceptive enhancement and lower levels of impression management were more likely to under-report male-to-female sexual coercion. Overall, the findings question the generalized importance of social desirability in IPV reporting in substance abuse treatment populations. PMID:24923888
Breiding, Matthew J.; Armour, Brian S.
Purpose Prior research has shown that people with disabilities are at greater risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. This study seeks to examine the link between disability and IPV in a nationally representative sample of U.S. women and men. Also, by establishing that disability preceded recent IPV victimization, this study allows for a more thorough understanding of whether people with disabilities are at greater risk of victimization subsequent to having a disability. Methods Data were analyzed from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, an ongoing, national random digit dial telephone survey of U.S. adults. Estimates of age-adjusted 12-month IPV prevalence by disability status were calculated. Results Compared to women without a disability, women with a disability were significantly more likely to report experiencing each form of IPV measured, which includes rape, sexual violence other than rape, physical violence, stalking, psychological aggression, and control of reproductive or sexual health. For men, significant associations were found with respect to stalking and psychological aggression by an intimate partner. Conclusions The results suggest that people with a disability are at greater risk of victimization and that primary and secondary prevention efforts might be targeted to those with a disability. PMID:25976023
Yalch, Matthew M; Levendosky, Alytia A
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a common type of violence that is associated with a number of psychological problems among women who experience it. Recent research suggests that interpersonal style may influence the degree to which women exhibit psychological problems following IPV exposure. One possible mechanism through which interpersonal style may exert its effects is by influencing appraisals of the violence they experience, although this has not yet been tested empirically. In this study, we examined the effects of dimensions of interpersonal style (dominance and warmth) on IPV appraisals in a sample of young adult women (N = 219) who reported experiencing physical and/or sexual violence from their romantic partner in the past year using a Bayesian approach to multiple linear regression. Our results indicated that both dominance and warmth were associated with less negative (i.e., less betrayed, self-blaming, fearful, alienated, angry, and shameful) appraisals of IPV, exhibiting small- to medium-sized effects when controlling for severity of violence. However, this effect was more prominent for dominance than for warmth. These findings shed light on the role of interpersonal style in the response to IPV and indicate directions for future research. PMID:25814504
Cerulli, Catherine; Edwardsen, Elizabeth A; Hall, Dale; Chan, Ko Ling; Conner, Kenneth R
New York State law mandates specific intimate partner violence (IPV) documentation under all circumstances meeting the enumerated relationship and crime criteria at the scene of a domestic dispute. Law enforcement compliance with this mandate is unknown. We reviewed law enforcement completion rates of Domestic Violence Incident Reports (DVIRs) and assessed correlations with individual or legal factors. Law enforcement officers filed DVIRs in 54% of the cases (n = 191), more often when injury occurred (p < .01) and the defendant had prior court contact (p < .05). The discussion explores policy implications and potential means to rectify the gap between mandated processes and implementation. PMID:25926052
Stephenson, Rob; Sato, Kimi N.; Finneran, Catherine
Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have sex with men (MSM), the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking. Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (<12 month) experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV. Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration. Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. PMID:23930144
Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob
Examinations of gay and bisexual men’s (GBM) perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV), including their perceptions of events likely to precipitate IPV, are lacking. Focus group discussions with GBM (n = 83) yielded 24 unique antecedents, or triggers, of IPV in male–male relationships. Venue-recruited survey participants (n = 700) identified antecedents that were likely to cause partner violence in male–male relationships, including antecedents GBM-specific currently absent from the literature. Chi-square tests found significant variations in antecedent endorsement when tested against recent receipt of IPV. Linear regression confirmed that men reporting recent IPV endorsed significantly more IPV antecedents than men without recent IPV (β = 1.8155, p < .012). A better understanding of the IPV event itself in male–male couples versus heterosexual couples, including its antecedents, can inform and strengthen IPV prevention efforts. PMID:25069147
Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes De; Gessner, Rafaela; Brancaglioni, Bianca de Cássia Alvarez; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa
OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature on preventing intimate partner violence among adolescents in the field of health based on gender and generational categories. METHOD This was an integrative review. We searched for articles using LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SciELO databases. RESULTS Thirty articles were selected. The results indicate that most studies assessed interventions conducted by programs for intimate partner violence prevention. These studies adopted quantitative methods, and most were in the area of nursing, psychology, and medicine. Furthermore, most research contexts involved schools, followed by households, a hospital, a health center, and an indigenous tribe. CONCLUSION The analyses were not conducted from a gender- and generation-based perspective. Instead, the scientific literature was based on positivist research models, intimately connected to the classic public healthcare model and centered on a singular dimension. PMID:27007431
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Harris, Latonya S.; Langley, Hillary A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Cox, Martha J.
The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children’s memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children’s short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children’s sex and race, the families’ income-to-needs ratio, the children’s expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children’s cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children’s memory development. PMID:24188084
George, Jayashree; Stith, Sandra M
In this article, we explore intimate partner violence (IPV) from an intersectional, feminist perspective. We describe how an updated feminist view guides us to a perspective on IPV that is more strongly grounded in an antioppressive, nonviolent, socially just feminist stance than a second-wave gender-essential feminist stance that suggests that patriarchy is the cause of IPV. At the time we began to work together it seemed that a researcher had to be identified as a "family violence" researcher or a "feminist" researcher of violence against women, and that it wasn't possible to be a feminist researcher who looked beyond patriarchy as the cause of IPV. We advocate critically thinking about essentialist practices in clinical work so that we can maintain an antioppressive, socially just, nonviolent approach to working with clients who experience IPV. PMID:24749960
Fonck, Karoline; Leye, Els; Els, Leye; Kidula, Nancy; Ndinya-Achola, Jeconiah; Temmerman, Marleen
As part of a study on etiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among 520 women presenting at the STI clinic in Nairobi, data on partner violence and its correlates were analyzed. Prevalence of lifetime physical violence was 26%, mainly by an intimate partner (74%). HIV seropositive women had an almost twofold increase in lifetime partner violence. Women with more risky sexual behavior such as early sexual debut, number of sex partners, history of condom use and of STI, experienced more partner violence. Parity and miscarriage were associated with a history of lifetime violence. We found an inverse association between schooling and level of violence. Six percent of the women had been raped. Gender-based violence screening and services should be integrated into voluntary counseling and testing programs as well as in reproductive health programs. Multi-sector approaches are needed to change prevailing attitudes towards violence against women. PMID:16133903
Tharp, Andra Teten; Sherman, Michelle D; Bowling, Ursula; Townsend, Bradford J
The current study has three aims: (1) to describe the frequency, gender differences, and agreement in couples' reports of male-to-female and female-to-male intimate partner violence (IPV) reported by male veterans and their female partners who were seeking couples therapy; (2) to describe the pattern of violence reported by these couples (e.g., one-sided, mutual) and determine if frequency of violence varied based on patterns; and (3) to examine whether frequency of violence or pattern of violence were associated with veteran diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One hundred heterosexual couples (male Iraq/Afghanistan veteran, female civilian) seeking couples therapy at a Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic completed self-report measures of violence in their relationship. Almost all couples reported verbal aggression. Men reported perpetrating more frequent sexual coercion, and women reported perpetrating more frequent physical aggression. Correspondence in partners' reports of violence varied based on type of violence from high correspondence on verbal aggression to low correspondence on sexual coercion. Three patterns of violence were identified: verbally aggressive (n = 45), one-sided physically aggressive (n = 27), and mutually physically aggressive (n = 26). Mutually physically aggressive couples generally reported the most frequent violence. Frequency and pattern of violence were not associated with veteran diagnosis of PTSD. Findings underscore the need for clinicians to assess both partners for violence perpetration and the need for effective prevention strategies and treatments for IPV among veterans. PMID:25538118
Mair, Christina; Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael
Purpose Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased likelihood of intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. This study tests whether psychosocial factors, such as depression, anxiety, and impulsivity, and problem drinking mediate associations between ACEs and IPV. Methods Couple data from a cross-sectional sample of married/cohabiting couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities (n=1,861 couples) were used. Hypothesized relationships among male and female ACE, male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV), frequency of intoxication, depression, impulsivity, and anxiety were tested with structural equation path models, and the significance of both individual direct paths and indirect associations was determined. Results Male and female partners had positive direct associations between ACEs and depression, anxiety, and impulsivity. Males’ anxiety and impulsivity, and females’ depression, were positively related to MFPV. Males’ depression and frequency of intoxication, and females’ depression, were positively related to FMPV. Indirect associations between male ACEs and MPFV via depression; male ACEs and FMPV via anxiety and impulsivity; and female ACEs and MPFV and FMPV via depression were all positive and significant. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences impact IPV partially through psychosocial characteristics. Interventions targeted at reducing ACEs and subsequent psychosocial outcomes may help reduce adult IPV. PMID:23084843
Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.
This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…
Lorvick, Jennifer; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wenger, Lynn D.; Bourgois, Philippe; Cheng, Helen; Kral, Alex H.
This article examines non-partner violence among women who use methamphetamine (N = 322), recruited in an inner-city neighborhood of San Francisco. The combined prevalence of non-partner physical or sexual violence in the past 6 months was 28%, roughly equal to the prevalence of partner violence (26%). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with non-partner violence included frequent subsistence difficulty (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.3, 4.6]) and sex trade (AOR = 2.27, 95% CI = [1.4, 4.1]). Having a steady male partner was not protective against non-partner violence. Violence perpetrated by non-partners should be considered when assessing social and structural factors that influence women’s health. PMID:25288597
Lorvick, Jennifer; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Cheng, Helen; Kral, Alex H
This article examines non-partner violence among women who use methamphetamine (N = 322), recruited in an inner-city neighborhood of San Francisco. The combined prevalence of non-partner physical or sexual violence in the past 6 months was 28%, roughly equal to the prevalence of partner violence (26%). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with non-partner violence included frequent subsistence difficulty (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.3, 4.6]) and sex trade (AOR = 2.27, 95% CI = [1.4, 4.1]). Having a steady male partner was not protective against non-partner violence. Violence perpetrated by non-partners should be considered when assessing social and structural factors that influence women's health. PMID:25288597
Howell, Kathryn H.; Barnes, Sarah E.; Miller, Laura E.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
Abstract: Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive problem impacting individuals around the globe. The consequences of IPV extend beyond the adults in the relationship, as children witness a significant proportion of such violence. Exposure to IPV during childhood has devastating effects across multiple domains of functioning. Methods: This article reviews empirical studies of the effects of exposure to IPV by developmental stage. Results: The psychological, social, physical, and cognitive consequences of witnessing IPV are examined across development; from the impact of prenatal exposure to effects in infancy and toddlerhood, the preschool years, school-aged children, and adolescence. Conclusions: The review concludes by providing suggestions for future research based on the identified developmental variations, recommendations for developmentally-sensitive interventions for children who have witnessed IPV, and directions for policy to address the issue of violence exposure early in the lives of children. PMID:26804945
Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara
In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship. PMID:27003136
Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.
This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…
Miller, Elizabeth; Levenson, Rebecca; Herrera, Lili; Kurek, Laura; Stofflet, Marney; Marin, Leni
While teen pregnancy rates appear to be declining in the U.S.A. overall, the rate of decline among young Latinas has been less than other ethnic groups. Among the myriad factors associated with elevated pregnancy rates, for Latina girls living in the inner city, exposure to gang and community violence may be a critical context for increased pregnancy risk. This study explores the relationship between gang involvement and reproductive health, and the pathways through which childhood, family, and relationship violence exposure may lead to unintended pregnancy. Interviews of 20 young adult Latinas with known gang involvement in Los Angeles County were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded for key themes related to violence exposure and reproductive health. Limited access to reproductive health care compounded by male partner sexual and pregnancy coercion, as well as physical and sexual violence, emerged in the interviews. Exposures to interparental domestic violence, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and gang violence were prominent and closely associated with unhealthy and abusive intimate relationships. Adverse childhood experiences and exposure to partner, family, and community violence impact the reproductive lives and choices of young Latina women in gangs. These findings may guide targeted pregnancy prevention efforts among urban gang-affiliated Latinas as well as encourage the integration of sexual violence prevention and reproductive health promotion within gang violence intervention programs. PMID:22160445
Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Samper, Rita; Suhr, Laura; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy
Whereas cognitive variables are hypothesized to play an important role in intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology and intervention, cognitive assessment methods have largely targeted offenders' explicit, controlled cognitive processing using paper-and-pencil questionnaires prone to social desirability biases. Using an implicit measure of…
Eckhardt, Christopher I; Samper, Rita; Suhr, Laura; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy
Whereas cognitive variables are hypothesized to play an important role in intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology and intervention, cognitive assessment methods have largely targeted offenders' explicit, controlled cognitive processing using paper-and-pencil questionnaires prone to social desirability biases. Using an implicit measure of attitudes (the Implicit Association Test [IAT]), we assessed attitudes toward gender, violence, and the association between gender and violence among 50 men enrolled in an IPV treatment program and a comparison sample of 40 nonviolent (NV) men. Although no group differences were noted on explicit attitudinal measures, men in the IPV group showed more positive implicit attitudes regarding violence, and a more rapid association between women and violence. Among men in treatment for IPV, the attitudes toward violence IAT was significantly correlated with self/partner-reported IPV frequency. In accordance with social information processing models of aggression, these results suggest that aggressogenic attitudes are likely to operate automatically and with little conscious deliberation. As a result, clinicians and researchers must adapt assessment and intervention strategies to capture both implicit and explicit aspects of cognitive processing. PMID:22333320
Fehringer, Jessica A.; Hindin, Michelle J.
Purpose This study investigates the prevalence of partner violence perpetration and receipt among a sample of young men and women in the Philippines, as well as the relationship between witnessing inter-parental violence during childhood and current violence in partnerships. Methods We used 1994, 2002, and 2005 data from 472 married or cohabiting young adults from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey in Cebu, Philippines. This is a longitudinal data set following over 2,000 Filipino women and their index children since the child’s birth in 1983–1984. Results Prevalence of partner violence perpetration was 55.8% for female and 25.1% for male respondents. Prevalence of victimization was 27.7% for females and 30.5% for males. Forty-five percent of females and 50% of males reported having witnessed their parents/caretakers physically hurt one another during childhood. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that witnessing inter-parental violence significantly predicted report of violent act victimization and reciprocal violent acts. Greater parental joint decision-making and being male were independently associated with a lower risk of report of both reciprocal violent acts and violent act victimization. Duration of marriage or cohabitation was associated with report of violent act victimization and reciprocal violent acts. There were gender interaction effects for several factors, including mother’s church attendance and household purchase of alcohol at age 11. Conclusions Implications for further research and violence prevention programs include early intervention with adolescents and focus on gender differences in violence determinants. PMID:19306795
Houry, Debra; Rhodes, Karin V.; Kemball, Robin S.; Click, Lorie; Cerulli, Catherine; McNutt, Louise Anne; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Measurements of intimate partner violence (IPV) based on acts of violence have repeatedly found substantial bilateral violence between intimates. However, the context of this violence is not well defined by acts alone. The objective of this research was to compare differences in women and men within each IPV status category (victim, perpetrator,…
Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé
Background Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries. PMID:26679146
Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Martin, Sandra L.; Kupper, Lawrence
Purpose To determine the prevalence of patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization from adolescence to young adulthood, and document associations with selected sociodemographic and experiential factors. Methods We used prospective data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to group 4,134 respondents reporting only opposite-sex romantic or sexual relationships in adolescence and young adulthood into four victimization patterns: no IPV victimization, adolescent-limited IPV victimization, young adult onset IPV victimization, and adolescent-young adult persistent IPV victimization. Results Forty percent of respondents reported physical or sexual victimization by young adulthood. Eight percent experienced IPV only in adolescence, 25% only in young adulthood, and 7% showed persistent victimization. Female sex, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, an atypical family structure (something other than two biologic parents, step family, single parent), more romantic partners, experiencing childhood abuse, and early sexual debut (before age 16) were each associated with one or more patterns of victimization versus none. Number of romantic partners and early sexual debut were the most consistent predictors of violence, its timing of onset, and whether victimization persisted across developmental periods. These associations did not vary by biological sex. Conclusions Substantial numbers of young adults have experienced physical or sexual IPV victimization. More research is needed to understand the developmental and experiential mechanisms underlying timing of onset of victimization, whether victimization persists across time and relationships, and whether etiology and temporal patterns vary by type of violence. These additional distinctions would inform the timing, content, and targeting of violence prevention efforts. PMID:19837358
Shuman, Robert D; McCauley, Jeanne; Waltermaurer, Eve; Roche, W Patrick; Hollis, Helen; Gibbons, Anne Kilgannon; Dever, Alan; Jones, Solita; McNutt, Louise-Anne
Most U.S. intimate partner violence (IPV) research to date has been limited to women residing in urban areas, with the small body of research focusing on rural populations being primarily qualitative. In this case-control study of Southern rural women, while many factors are consistent with those found in urban settings, unlike findings elsewhere, IPV risk appears to increase with age, and race showed no increased risk. Furthermore, in rural areas where guns are more acceptable than in other parts of the United States, partners of IPV victims are considerably more likely to carry weapons than partners of nonabused women. Given the geographic limitations to police and medical response to severe IPV in a rural setting, an improved understanding of IPV risk among this population can aid health care providers in ascertaining risk before it escalates further. PMID:18624102
Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K; Jewkes, Rachel K; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon
This study aimed to describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in nine public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. The majority of students (78.5 %) had had a partner in the past 3 months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10 % of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39 % of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI = .966; RMSEA = .051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p < .001), whereas the frequency of using negative conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p < .001) and mediated the impact of heavy alcohol drinking on IPV (Sobel test, z = 3.16; p < .001). The model fit both girls and boys, but heavy drinking influenced negative styles of resolving conflict more strongly among girls than boys. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls. PMID:23743796
Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon
GOAL To describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. METHOD Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in 9 public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. RESULTS The majority of students (78.5%) had had a partner in the past three months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10% of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39% of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI =.966; RMSEA=.051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p<.001), whereas the frequency of using negative conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p<.001) and mediated the impact of heavy alcohol drinking on IPV (Sobel test, z=3.16; p<.001). The model fit both girls and boys, but heavy drinking influenced negative styles of resolving conflict more strongly among girls than boys. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls. PMID:23743796
Katerndahl, David; Ferrer, Robert; Burge, Sandra; Becho, Johanna; Wood, Robert
Although predictors of violent relationships have been identified, we are only beginning to understand the day-to-day dynamics of domestic violence. The objective of this study was to identify commonly seen patterns and strings of consecutive days involving verbal or physical abuse, and their preceding and subsequent events. Adult women (n=20) seen in a primary care clinic who experienced violence within the past month were enrolled. Subjects completed a daily telephone assessment of household environment and marital relationship for two months using Interactive Verbal Response (IVR). Results were analyzed using orbital decomposition, an analytic technique based on symbolic dynamics, in which categorical time series data are used to identify recurrent patterns of strings and quantify their complexity. While days without abuse had varied patterns involving arguments, stress levels, daily hassles, husband's alcohol intake, and sense of closeness (27 unique patterns), days involving verbal or physical abuse included a narrower range of patterns (15 patterns for verbal and 16 patterns for physical abuse). Daily patterns appear to cluster in triplets (3 consecutive days) of activity and show nonlinearity with triplets involving verbal abuse and triplets involving physical violence. Triplets involving either verbal or physical abuse were associated with arguments and high stress, but differed in the consistency of association with hassles, alcohol intake, and closeness. Finally, physical and verbal abuse tended to self-propagate. However, days involving verbal abuse did not precede days involving physical violence. In conclusions, while patterns of violence and household environments followed a nonlinear trajectory, only a limited set of patterns were observed. Although violence led to more violence, verbal abuse did not necessarily lead to physical aggression. In fact, verbal abuse and physical violence differed in the consistency of their relationships to hassles
Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hoyt, William
Partner violence affects a significant number of women and their children each year. Estimates of the economic costs of partner violence are substantial. However, most estimates of the costs of partner violence are made at the aggregate level rather than the individual level. Estimating costs at the individual level allows for a wider range of costs of partner violence to be considered. This study is one of the first to examine a wide range of economic costs of partner violence and to examine the economic costs and cost-benefits of civil protective orders. Overall, including changes in quality of life, protective orders were estimated to have saved taxpayers in one small state US$85 million in a 1-year period. More generally, this study provides a framework to address more specific complexities associated with cost-benefit analyses of partner violence and the impact of justice system interventions. PMID:22203629
Stöckl, Heidi; Gardner, Frances
Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is receiving increased attention because of its high prevalence and health effects. Still, little is known about women's perceptions on how their pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs. We conducted 19 in-depth interviews with women who had experienced intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy. Women clearly perceived pregnancy as a turning point, because it created new expectations and a feeling of being overwhelmed. This led to violence by reducing women's acceptance of their partner's unemployment, alcohol abuse and lack of relationship commitment, or by increasing women's vulnerability because they felt too young to raise a child alone. Pregnancy also led to violence by bringing back childhood memories or by taking attention away from their partners. Understanding how pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs is important to provide abused, pregnant women with the services they need. PMID:23905872
Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Hemenway, David; Decker, Michele R.; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.
Objectives. We examined associations between premigration political violence exposure and past-year intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among immigrant men attending community health centers in Boston. Methods. A convenience sample of immigrant men (N = 379; aged 18–35 years), largely from the Caribbean and Cape Verde, who attend community health centers, completed an anonymous, cross-sectional survey on risk and protective factors for male-perpetrated IPV and respondents’ exposure to political violence. Results. One in 5 (20.1%) immigrant men reported that they were exposed to political violence before arrival in the United States. Men reporting political violence exposure were significantly more likely to report IPV perpetration than were men not reporting such exposure (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41, 5.74). Significant associations with political violence exposure were observed for both physical (AOR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.11, 6.54) and sexual (AOR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.04, 5.44) IPV perpetration. Conclusions. To our knowledge, our findings document for the first time the significant association between premigration political violence exposure and recent IPV perpetration among immigrant men. Additional work is needed to examine underlying mechanisms to inform culturally appropriate programs. PMID:18703450
Lopez, Marcella J; Mintle, Rachel A; Smith, Sylvia; Garcia, Alicia; Torres, Vanessa N; Keough, Allie; Salgado, Hugo
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the most common forms of violence against women worldwide. Among Mexican women, it is estimated that 15 to 71% have experienced physical or sexual abuse by an intimate male partner in their lifetime. This study examined the prevalence of four leading risk factors associated with IPV (alcohol consumption, education, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender roles) in adult women (n = 68) in a migrant farmworker community in México. Alcohol consumption among women was higher than the national average, and partner consumption was lower. Education level and SES were low, and women identified with a feminist ideology more than a traditional gender role. Results also revealed that 86.4% (n = 57) of participants identified violence against women as a common problem in the community, and the majority (94.0%, n = 62) of participants believe that IPV specifically is a problem within the community. PMID:24519259
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet
Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. PMID:24641108
MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine; Varcoe, Colleen M
Children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasingly recognized as a type of child maltreatment that has a level of impairment similar to other types of abuse and neglect. Despite advances in the area of IPV, the safety planning strategies recommended as part of the overall response to IPV need to be examined in terms of their implications for children. This article discusses these strategies within the context of child safety, comparing IPV safety planning with approaches aimed at reducing exposure to other types of violence such as child sexual abuse, as well as general child safety strategies. Despite the emphasis on safety planning in information available on responding to IPV, the actual effectiveness of such planning in improving safety and reducing violence is unknown. Safety planning provided to children by a parent experiencing IPV, especially when IPV is ongoing and not recognized by anyone outside the home, may lead to confusing messages for children, particularly if there is an emphasis on secrecy. While awaiting evidence about the effectiveness of specific safety planning strategies for children, we suggest basic principles and general strategies that emphasize universality in terms of education about any type of violence or abuse in the home being unacceptable, as well as the need to focus on safety in general. PMID:23830555
Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela
In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect. PMID:22468147
Klostermann, Keith C
Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these cases to some form of batterers' treatment, three fundamental concerns make this strategy problematic: (1) most of the agencies that provide batterers' treatment only accept individuals who are legally mandated to complete their programs; (2) among programs that do accept nonmandated patients, most substance-abusing patients do not accept such referrals or drop out early in the treatment process; and (3) available evidence suggests these programs may not be effective in reducing intimate partner violence. Given these very significant concerns with the current referral approach, coupled with the high incidence of IPV among individuals entering substance abuse treatment, providers need to develop strategies for addressing IPV that can be incorporated and integrated into their base intervention packages. PMID:16925813
Enosh, Guy; Eisikovits, Zvi; Gross, Chen
The goal of this article was to examine the worldviews of cohabiting or married men and women who experienced domestic violence in their relationships. The study was based on content analysis of in-depth interviews with 48 men and women (24 couples), who were living together after experiencing at least one violent event in their relationships over the previous 12 months. Using constructivist grounded theory, the authors examined the deep structure of the ways by which partners living with intimate partner violence constructed their world. The men and women under study constructed heuristic models in two major life domains-psychological processes and how the world works overall. The analysis has revealed two axes resulting in four worldviews. The two axes were the construction of the world and the construction of the mind. Constructions of the mind ranged from chaotic to deterministic. Constructions of external reality ranged from static to fluid and uncontrollable. The theoretical model developed suggested four different types of basic worldviews. The suggested typology was examined in relation to existing typologies in the field of intimate partner violence and in relation to future research and interventions. PMID:23479434
Hardesty, Jennifer L; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Khaw, Lyndal; Fonseca, Carol; Chung, Grace H
Twenty-four lesbian mothers (12 African American, 9 White, and 3 Latina) who had experienced physical abuse by a same-sex partner were interviewed. Three types of IPV were found: intimate terrorism, situational violence, and mutual violent control. Further, relationships between mothers/abusers, mothers/children, and abusers/children were examined. Regarding relationships with abusers, 71% of mothers reported lengthy sagas, 17% had worked it out, and 13% made a clean break from the abuser. Regarding relationships with their children, 48% of mothers hid the violence, 26% minimized it, and 26% openly communicated about the situation. Relationships between abusers and the mothers' children were found to be either co-parental (29%), playmate (21%), abusive (21%), or non-parental (21%). Correlations among relational and demographic variables were also examined. PMID:19042732
Schaffer, Bradley J
The prominence and incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) with male military veterans vary, but generally there is consensus that screening and intervention does help reduce IPV. Intervention is generally provided in the community via Batterer Intervention Programs. However, at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) intervention is provided via the Domestic Relations Clinic. Nationally the VA has limited treatment for male IPV. An aggregate sample (n = 178) of participants was assessed using the Domestic Violence/Abuse Screen to measure covariate pre-test and post-test outcomes, program failure, and recidivism. The treatment approach is psycho-educationally based to meet the challenging and unique needs of the military veteran population. The results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of IPV and highlight the need for more intervention and prevention approaches. PMID:25941874
Swan, Holly; O'Connell, Daniel J.
HIV prevention efforts promote the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV and other STDs. Thus, a woman's agency to practice healthy sexual behaviors necessarily involves negotiation with another person. This poses unique challenges for women who have limited power in relationships. The current study explores how the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) impacts a woman's confidence in her ability to negotiate condom use with a sexual partner (i.e., condom use self-efficacy), using data from incarcerated females in three states, who were interviewed just prior to release back into the community. The direct effect of experiencing IPV as an adult, controlling for other risk factors, on condom use self-efficacy has not previously been empirically tested. Results show that IPV experiences among women significantly decreases their confidence in negotiating condom use with a partner, putting them at a higher risk of HIV infection than women who do not report having recently experienced IPV. PMID:21987514
Regueira-Diéguez, Antía; Pérez-Rivas, Natalia; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio; Vázquez-Portomeñe, Fernando; Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant worldwide problem whose magnitude and risk factors vary across different settings and cultures. Nowadays, it is a priority to improve the knowledge on this issue in order to formulate better evidence-based policy responses. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of non-fatal IPV against women in Spain. A retrospective analysis of IPV cases with a final judicial decision was carried out. The period under study extended from January 2005 to December 2012, with a total of 582 files included in the investigation. Most IPV victims were young adult women of Spanish origin, either married or single, with children, unemployed and with a low family income level. The majority of alleged perpetrators were young adults, employed, with a middle-low income level, a history of alcohol consumption/abuse, but no criminal records. Most victims had previous history of IPV, were engaged in a long-term relationship with their abuser and lived with him at the time of assault. The combination of psychological and physical abuse was the most frequent form of violence. The most common mechanisms of assault consisted in minor acts of physical violence, which resulted in mild injuries, most of them in the upper limbs and face. Nearly half of women sought medical care, but physician's injury report was only made in about a quarter of these cases, even though it is mandatory for health professionals. The majority of criminal proceedings were initiated by the victim's report and ended in conviction, most of them being considered occasional mistreatment. This study confirms the heterogeneity of the phenomenon of intimate partner violence. The importance of adopting standard IPV concepts and promoting the recognition and assessment of this form of violence amongst health care professionals, criminal investigators and forensic personnel is emphasized. PMID:26165670
Brzank, P; Blättner, B
Domestic violence and partner violence against women is a serious problem in many countries, including Germany. This type of violence has far-reaching social, economic, and health consequences for victims. The health sector can play a decisive role within intervention and prevention, if healthcare providers discover at an early stage that violence is the cause for injuries and disorders. Screenings can identify victims of domestic and partner violence. In several other countries, recommendations or agreements about screening for domestic and partner violence in the health sector are already in place. In Germany, however, the discussion about this kind of screening is just beginning. This article introduces the debate by referring to a Health Technology Assessment from the UK and giving an overview. The present findings also justify screening for partner violence against women in Germany. However, further research on the screening instruments used with women as well as other victims, such as men or elderly, is recommended. PMID:20119664
Davidson, M Meghan; Lozano, Nicole M; Cole, Brian P; Gervais, Sarah J
The purpose of the current investigation was to examine forgiveness and intimate partner violence (IPV) among college women. Undergraduate women (N = 502) participated in an online study in which overall experiences of IPV, as well as experiences of psychological and physical IPV, were investigated with respect to transgression-specific and dispositional forgiveness. Simultaneous multivariate regressions revealed that (a) the experience of IPV was associated with higher levels of avoidance and revenge, and lower levels of benevolence, forgiveness of self, forgiveness of others, and forgiveness of uncontrollable situations; (b) types of IPV demonstrated differing impacts on forgiveness; and (c) the mere experience of IPV is more salient than its frequency. PMID:25392378
Dagher, Rada K.; Garza, Mary A.; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue affecting around 3 million U.S. women during their lifetimes; this paper provides guidance to policymakers on addressing IPV. In 2011, an Institute of Medicine panel recommended routine IPV screening for women and adolescents as part of comprehensive preventive care services, which is in conflict with the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations. The current evidence base for policymaking suffers weaknesses related to study design which should be addressed in future research. Meanwhile, policymakers should consider available evidence in their settings, assess local needs, and make recommendations where appropriate. PMID:25011677
Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Sprunger, Joel G.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health problem that requires clear and testable etiological models that may translate into effective interventions. While alcohol intoxication and a pattern of heavy alcohol consumption are robust correlates of IPV perpetration, there has been limited research that examines the mediating mechanisms of how alcohol potentiates IPV. We provide a theoretical and methodological framework for researchers to conceptualize how alcohol intoxication causes IPV, and propose innovative laboratory methods that directly test mediational mechanisms. We conclude by discussing how these innovations may lead to the development of interventions to prevent or reduce alcohol-related IPV. PMID:26059921
Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.
This study investigated intimate partner violence in interracial and monoracial relationships. Using a nationally representative sample, regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial white couples but a level similar to monoracial black couples. There were significant gender differences in IPV, with women reporting lower levels of victimization than men. Regarding relationship status, cohabiting couples demonstrated the highest levels of IPV and dating couples reported the lowest levels. Regarding interactions among couple racial composition, relationship status, and respondents’ gender, an interaction between racial composition and relationship status was found. Implications for practitioners and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23554541
Intimate partner violence (IPV) can be defined in many ways and encompasses many different types of physical and emotional abuse. IPV affects the health, safety, and quality of life for women, men, and children worldwide, regardless of race, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status. The health effects include acute trauma; a wide range of physical and mental sequelae; and, for some, death. Because of the serious consequences of IPV, both the Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization identify IPV as a significant public health issue. PMID:25841604
Stöckl, Heidi; Gardner, Frances
Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is receiving increased attention because of its high prevalence and health effects. Still, little is known about women’s perceptions on how their pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs. We conducted 19 in-depth interviews with women who experienced intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy. Women clearly perceived pregnancy as a turning point, because it created new expectations and a feeling of being overwhelmed. This led to violence by reducing women’s acceptance of their partner’s unemployment, alcohol abuse and lack of relationship commitment or by increasing women’s vulnerability because they felt too young to raise a child alone. Pregnancy also led to violence by bringing up repressed childhood memories or by taking attention away from their partners. Understanding how pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs is important to provide abused, pregnant women with the services they need. PMID:23905872
Novak, Jamie; Furman, Wyndol
Violence within romantic relationships is a significant public health concern. Previous research largely explores partner violence at one or two time points, and often examines a limited set of risk factors. The present study explored both individual and relationship-level risk factors and their associations with physical victimization and perpetration across more than 10 years using a community sample of 200 participants (50 % female; M age Wave 1 = 15.8). Additionally, we explored the effects of previous partner violence on the likelihood of future partner violence. Survival analysis indicated that externalizing symptoms and negative interactions (e.g., relationship conflict) were associated with both perpetration and victimization. Reporting an experience of partner violence did not significantly alter an individual's risk of future partner violence. Overall, men were significantly more likely to report victimization; perpetration rates did not vary by gender. The results highlight the importance of examining multiple levels of risk. PMID:27099201
Meekers, Dominique; Pallin, Sarah C; Hutchinson, Paul
Despite increasing awareness that domestic violence is a major public health problem, existing studies focus on physical and sexual violence and give little attention to psychological violence. This study uses data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) to examine the prevalence and correlates of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner violence in Bolivia. The results show that psychological intimate partner violence is extremely common (affecting nearly one in two women) and often occurs in addition to physical violence. While physical, psychological and sexual intimate partner violence have several common predictors, there are factors that only affect some types of violence. Common risk factors include urban residence, respondent's employment status and having witnessed interparental violence in childhood. Although marital status is not a risk factor for physical violence, unmarried cohabitation is a strong risk factor for psychological intimate partner violence. Our findings highlight the need for research to assess the potential consequences of psychological intimate partner violence, particularly for women's mental health. PMID:23534436
Romero-Martínez, A; Lila, M; Vitoria-Estruch; Moya-Albiol, L
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) perpetrators use physical and/or psychological abuse to control their partners and achieve a dominant status. As dominance is associated with low disease risk and fast quick illness recovery from an illness, such behaviors may contribute to improving their health at the expense of that of the battered women. Studies with immunological and hormonal parameters have recently revealed that IPV perpetrators present higher general immunocompetence (salivary IgA levels) in response to acute stress, especially during the preparation/anticipation period and when externalizing their anger. Salivary IgA levels have been proved to be increased by hormones, specifically by high testosterone and low cortisol characteristic in IPV perpetrators. Moreover, a high proneness to express anger (defined by high T/C ratio) supposes an increase in self-esteem and mental health. Thus, the use of violence against partners could reinforce their dominant status and, consequently, may serve to indirectly promote IPV perpetrators' immunity. PMID:25585489
Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions
Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer
This article has two overall goals. First, to examine the current state of sexual violence research to highlight several shortcomings in the knowledge on partner sexual violence. Second, to describe several factors to consider in future research to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual violence. Shortcomings of the research on partner sexual violence include (1) overreliance on dichotomous yes/no representations of sexual violence experiences; (2) lack of, or inadequate documentation of the scope and nature of partner sexual violence; (3) inadequate ways to account for impairment of consent under different circumstances; (4) difficulties in discriminating unwanted from nonconsensual sexual activities; and (5) limited information about the role sexual violence plays in the larger context of coercive control. In order to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual assault, there is a need (1) to better understand the scope and nature of partner sexual assault and (2) to better understand the role partner sexual violence plays in coercive control. By improving the measurement of this phenomenon, victims, researchers, practitioners, and those involved in the justice system might be better equipped to respond to sexual violence among intimate partners. PMID:24379191
Background The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been undergoing collective violence for over 25 years, which has constituted a major public health problem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the predictors of women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence in the Niger Delta in comparison to that of women in other parts of Nigeria. Methods The 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used for this study. Respondents were selected using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling procedure through which 3725 women were selected and interviewed. These women contributed 6029 live born children born to the survey. Internal consistency of the measure of the women's attitudes towards intimate partner violence against a woman was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α). Percentage distributions of the relevant characteristics of the respondents were carried out, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to measure the magnitude and direction of the relationship between the outcome and predictor variables were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and statistical significance was determined at the 95 percent confident interval level (CI). Results Tolerance for intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger delta (47 percent) was higher than that of women from the rest of the country (42 percent). Rural residence, lower household wealth, lower status occupations, and media access (newspaper and radio) were associated with higher risk of justifying IPV among the women in the Niger Delta. In contrast full or partial autonomy in household decisions regarding food to be cooked, and access to television were associated with a lower risk of justifying violence. Conclusion The increased justification of intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger Delta could be explained by a combination of factors, among which are cognitive dissonance theory (attitudes that do not fit with other opinions they hold as a means of coping with their situation
Pack, Allison P; L'engle, Kelly; Mwarogo, Peter; Kingola, Nzioki
Female sex workers are known to be at risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) from numerous sources including clients, pimps, boyfriends and husbands. Better understanding the factors associated with IPV in this population will enhance prevention efforts. This work examines baseline survey data collected as part of a randomised controlled trial for an alcohol-harm reduction intervention. The study sample included 619 sex workers. IPV was common in this sample, with 78.7% of women reporting any IPV in the last 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that supporting one to two other people, experiencing child abuse, witnessing mother abuse, and greater alcohol consumption were risk factors for IPV in our sample. Women who frequented Population, Health and Integrated Assistance (APHIA) II drop-in centres located along transport corridors were also at greater risk of recent IPV, as compared with those who frequented other drop-in centres. Only one protective effect was identified in this study: condom use at last sex with a non-paying partner was associated with less recent IPV. Health programmes for women sex workers in Mombasa and elsewhere need to expand beyond HIV prevention - they need to incorporate information on violence prevention and treatment referrals, as well as information on alcohol harm reduction. PMID:24329103
Leonard, Kenneth E.; Winters, Jamie J.; Kearns-Bodkin, Jill N.; Homish, Gregory G.; Kubiak, Audrey J.
Objective Research examining dyadic patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) often focuses on static conceptions based on whether either the husband or wife has exhibited any violence. This study examined the dyadic patterns of IPV empirically and traced how these groups change over time. Method Couples (N=634) were assessed with respect to IPV and relationship satisfaction at the time of marriage, and at their first and second anniversaries. Cluster analysis was conducted on Total Aggression, Differential Aggression, and the Aggression Ratio prior to marriage for couples with any violence. Results This analysis revealed 5 clusters; Very High-Husband to Wife, (High:H>W); Very High-Wife to Husband (High-W>H); Low to Moderate, Husband to Wife (Low:H>W); Low to Moderate, Wife to Husband (Low-W>H); Low to Moderate, Both Aggressive (Low:H=W). The majority (57%) of the aggressive couples were classified in the gender asymmetric groups. Most asymmetric clusters became symmetric over time, but the High:H>W cluster became more asymmetric. By the 2nd anniversary, all clusters were characterized by higher injuries experienced by wives than by husbands. Conclusion These results demonstrate that a considerable amount of IPV that is typically classified as “bidirectional” is gender asymmetric and that these asymmetric patterns tend to converge into more symmetric patterns over time. PMID:25506502
McCabe, Brian E; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B
The objective of this study was to test whether partner communication about HIV and/or alcohol intoxication mediated reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) in SEPA (Salud [health], Educación [education], Promoción [promotion], y [and] Autocuidado [self-care]), a culturally specific, theoretically based group HIV-risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women. SEPA had five sessions covering sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention, partner communication, condom negotiation and use, and IPV. SEPA reduced IPV and alcohol intoxication, and improved partner communication compared with controls in a randomized trial with adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA, n = 274; delayed intervention control, n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that partner communication about HIV mediated the reduction in male-to-female IPV in SEPA, B = -0.78, SE = 0.14, p< .001, but alcohol intoxication did not, B = -0.15, SE = 0.19, p = .431. Male-to-female IPV mediated the intervention effect on female-to-male IPV, B = -1.21, SE = 0.24, p< .001. Skills building strategies originally designed to enhance women's communication with their partners about sexual risk behaviors also worked to reduce male-to-female IPV, which in turn reduced female-to-male IPV. These strategies could be integrated into other types of health promotion interventions. PMID:25805845
Miller, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G
Unintended pregnancy is common, disproportionately affects younger women and is associated with intimate partner violence. Forced sex, fear of negotiating condom and contraceptive use, inconsistent condom use and partner interference with access to healthcare all contribute to this association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence. A growing body of literature on male partner influences on contraception and pregnancy decision-making has identified a range of male partner pregnancy-controlling behaviors which we have termed reproductive coercion, defined as male partners' attempts to promote pregnancy in their female partners through verbal pressure and threats to become pregnant (pregnancy coercion), direct interference with contraception (birth-control sabotage), and threats and coercion related to pregnancy continuation or termination (control of pregnancy outcomes). This article examines recent studies on male partner reproductive coercion, underscores the link between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence and highlights future directions for research as well as implications for clinical practice. PMID:22355296
Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective. PMID:27000155
Klostermann, Keith; Kelley, Michelle L.
It is widely recognized that alcoholism and relationship violence often have serious consequences for adults; however, children living with alcoholic parents are susceptible to the deleterious familial environments these caregivers frequently create. Given the prevalence of IPV among patients entering substance abuse treatment, coupled with the negative familial consequences associated with these types of behavior, this review explores what have been, to this point, two divergent lines of research: (a) the effects of parental alcoholism on children, and (b) the effects of children’s exposure to intimate partner violence. In this article, the interrelationship between alcoholism and IPV is examined, with an emphasis on the developmental impact of these behaviors (individually and together) on children living in the home and offers recommendations for future research directions. PMID:20049253
Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.
This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…
Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko
Survey research in the field of intimate partner violence is notably lacking in its attention to contextual factors. Early measures of intimate partner violence focused on simple counts of behaviors, yet attention to broader contextual factors remains limited. Contextual factors not only shape what behaviors are defined as intimate partner…
Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Kruttschnitt, Candace
Research indicates that female offenders are far more likely to have experienced intimate partner violence than women in the general population. Despite extensive research on women's pathways into offending, very little is known about why these women are at increased risk for partner violence. The authors use data from a sample of incarcerated…
Chronister, Krista M.; Davidson, M. Meghan
Advancing Career Counseling and Employment Support for Survivors (ACCESS; Chronister, 2006) is a group intervention designed to foster the career development of women who have experienced intimate partner violence. The ACCESS curriculum is based on theory and research from multiple disciplines including intimate partner violence, counseling, and…
Xu, Xiao; Zhu, Fengchuan; O’Campo, Patricia; Koenig, Michael A.; Mock, Victoria; Campbell, Jacquelyn
Objectives. We estimated the prevalence of and risk factors for intimate partner violence in China. Methods. Our cross-sectional, comparative prevalence study used a face-to-face survey of randomly selected women attending an urban outpatient gynecological clinic at a major teaching hospital in Fuzhou, China. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for intimate partner violence. Results. Of the 600 women interviewed, the prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence and violence taking place within the year before the interview was 43% and 26%, respectively. For lifetime intimate partner violence, partners who had extramarital affairs and who refused to give respondents money were the strongest independent predictors. For intimate partner violence taking place within the year before the interview, frequent quarreling was the strongest predictor. Conclusions. Intimate partner violence is prevalent in China, with strong associations with male patriarchal values and conflict resolutions. Efforts to reduce intimate partner violence should be given high priority in health care settings where women can be reached. PMID:15623864
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Nabors, Erin L.
College students experience an extremely high level of violence among intimate partners during their college careers, with prevalence rates ranging between 20% and 50%. Because intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students is such a widespread problem, it is important to understand the factors that contribute to this type of abuse.…
Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit
Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…
Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol
This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…
Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…
Filson, Jennifer; Ulloa, Emilio; Runfola, Cristin; Hokoda, Audrey
The current study aimed to test whether relationship power could act as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power and on previous research of intimate partner violence and depression. Survey results from a sample of 327 single…
Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection,…
Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond
The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence,…
Echeburua, Enrique; Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; de Corral, Paz; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.
The aim of this study is to develop a scale to predict intimate partner femicide and severe violence. The sample consists of 1,081 batterer men who were reported to the police station. First, the most significant differences between the severe violence group (n = 269) and the less severe violence group (n = 812) in sociodemographic variables are…
Knous-Westfall, Heather M.; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; MacDonell, Kathleen Watson; Cohen, Patricia
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a major public health concern, with millions of children exposed to parental violence each year. Childhood exposure to parental violence has been linked to both maladaptive parenting practices and a host of adjustment difficulties in the exposed children. The Children in the Community Study…
Muftic, Lisa; Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Bouffard, Leana Allen
With the advent of mandatory and pro-arrest laws for incidents of intimate partner violence, there has been an increase in the number of women arrested for domestic violence. Several explanations are posed in the literature that attempt to explain such a rise, including the hypothesis that women are being arrested not for offensive violence but…
Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela R; Jennings, Wesley G
Using a cycle of violence framework, we investigated experiences with physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, perpetration, and both IPV victimization and perpetration (IPV overlap). Data included the U.S. subsample of college students in the International Dating Violence Study (n = 4,162). Findings indicated that 40% of participants reported lifetime IPV, with 28% reporting membership in the overlap group. Cycle of violence variables including child sexual abuse, witnessing violence inside the home during childhood, and witnessing violence outside the home during childhood were uniquely related to membership in the overlap group. No relationship between cycle of violence variables and IPV victimization only or IPV perpetration only was identified. Results suggested the cycle of violence might predominantly operate among individuals who are both IPV victims and offenders, rather than among individuals experiencing IPV victimization or perpetrate IPV exclusively. PMID:27302305
Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko
Survey research in the field of intimate partner violence is notably lacking in its attention to contextual factors. Early measures of intimate partner violence focused on simple counts of behaviors, yet attention to broader contextual factors remains limited. Contextual factors not only shape what behaviors are defined as intimate partner violence but also influence the ways women respond to victimization, the resources available to them, and the environments in which they cope with abuse. This article advances methods for reconceptualizing and operationalizing contextual factors salient to the measurement of intimate partner violence. The analytic focus of the discussion is on five dimensions of the social context: the situational context, the social construction of meaning by the survivor, cultural and historical contexts, and the context of systemic oppression. The authors consider how each dimension matters in the measurement of intimate partner violence and offer recommendations for systematically assessing these contextual factors in future research. PMID:18245573
Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…
Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.
Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to intimate partner violence in the home on adolescent violence and drug use and gender differences in these relationships. Although the general relationship between exposure to IPV and negative outcomes for youth has been demonstrated in past research, gender differences in the…
Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina
This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married/cohabiting couples residing in 50 California cities, logistic regression analyses were conducted using dyadic data on past-year partner violence, binge drinking and frequency of intoxication, marijuana use, and smoking. When all substance use patterns were included simultaneously, wife-only heavy drinking couples were at elevated risk for MFPV, as were concordant marijuana-using couples. Husband-only marijuana discrepant couples were at increased risk for FMPV. Further research is needed to explore the processes by which discrepant and concordant substance use patterns may contribute to partner aggression. PMID:26464462
Crane, Cory A; Schlauch, Robert C; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J
While previous studies find mixed evidence of an association between opioid use and intimate partner violence perpetration among community samples, initial evidence has detected increased rates of partner violence among individuals receiving pharmacological intervention for opioid dependence. The current study evaluated the role of current comorbid substance use diagnoses, a robust risk factor for violent behavior, on the likelihood of perpetrating partner violence among a high risk sample of offenders receiving pharmacological intervention for opioid dependence. The authors analyzed self-report data provided by 81 (55 male) opioid dependent offenders during a court-ordered substance use interview. Approximately one-third of the sample evidenced the recent use of intimate partner violence. Findings indicated that cocaine and benzodiazepine use were independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting physical partner violence. Alcohol and cannabis use were not associated with partner violence. The current results offer further support for the ongoing need to conduct routine partner violence screenings among substance involved offenders and highlight the importance of developing individualized treatment plans that address comorbid substance use and partner-violent behaviors among individuals in treatment for opioid dependence. PMID:26901289
Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Squires, Erica C.; Snodgrass, J. Josh
Summary This study examined whether physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization was associated with diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol in a community sample of 122 couples in their 30s from predominantly lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. Findings indicate that women with higher levels of victimization exhibited flatter patterns of diurnal cortisol characterized by both higher midday levels and more attenuated decreases in cortisol levels across the day, compared to women with lower levels of victimization. However, men's victimization was not associated with their diurnal cortisol levels. This study advances our understanding of the association between physical IPV victimization and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in women, which is likely to have further implications for their subsequent mental and physical health. PMID:25286224
Wygant, Carmella; Bruera, Eduardo; Hui, David
Although a few studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) in the oncology setting, to our knowledge no studies exist of IPV among palliative care patients. IPV may be exacerbated at the end of life because patients and their caregivers often experience significant stressors associated with physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. We discuss IPV in the palliative care setting using the example of a patient with advanced cancer who experienced IPV. A better understanding and awareness of IPV at the end of life could help clinicians support and counsel patients and ameliorate the suffering caused by this “unspoken” trauma. We further discuss 1) the prevalence and indicators of IPV, 2) how to initiate conversations about IPV, 3) the resources available to clinicians, and 4) various management strategies. PMID:23948161
Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee
Coercive control is a relationship dynamic that is theorized to be key for understanding physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research examines how coercive control in the context of physical IPV may influence child adjustment. Participants were 107 mothers and their children, aged 7 to 10 years. In each family, mothers reported the occurrence of at least one act of physical IPV in the past 6 months. Mothers reported on physical IPV and coercive control, and mothers and children reported on children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Coercive control in the context of physical IPV related positively with both mothers' and children's reports of child externalizing and internalizing problems, after accounting for the frequency of physical IPV, psychological abuse, and mothers' education. This research suggests that couple relationship dynamics underlying physical IPV are potentially important for understanding how physical IPV leads to child adjustment problems. PMID:24923886
Bailey, Beth A
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Pregnancy IPV is a significant problem worldwide, with rates varying significantly by country and maternal risk factors. Pregnancy IPV is associated with adverse newborn outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm birth. Many mechanisms for how IPV may impact birth outcomes have been proposed and include direct health, mental health, and behavioral effects, which all may interact. Screening for IPV during pregnancy is essential, yet due to time constraints and few clear recommendations for assessment, many prenatal providers do not routinely inquire about IPV, or even believe they should. More training is needed to assist health care providers in identifying and managing pregnancy IPV, with additional research needed to inform effective interventions to reduce the rates of pregnancy IPV and resultant outcomes. PMID:21072311
Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan
Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way. PMID:27058634
The incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Native Americans is high, and a full understanding of how to prevent it is unclear. Based on this qualitative systematic review of 13 research reports, a model of IPV among Native Americans was developed. IPV appears to be grounded within a history of upheaval and loss, and is entrenched and repressed within families. Victims are reluctant to seek assistance, and when they do, they often experience barriers within the service system. To prevent and resolve IPV, service providers are urged to establish trust with individuals who seek assistance and to leverage cultural strengths. They also are encouraged to adapt theoretical models to optimize care. PMID:26514253
Pells, Kirrily; Wilson, Emma; Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen
Understandings of women's agency in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been dominated by an individualistic focus on help-seeking behaviour. The role of children in influencing, enabling and restricting the decision-making processes of their mothers has been largely ignored. We adopt biographical analytical approaches to qualitative longitudinal data collected as part of the Young Lives study to highlight the interdependency of women's and children's agency in contexts of IPV in Vietnam. We illustrate how women's agency is both enabled and constrained by their relationships with their children, as well as by wider structural processes, and examine how gender and generation intersect. In marginalised settings where few formal services exist or strong social norms preclude women from accessing support, understanding these informal coping strategies and the processes by which these are negotiated is essential for developing more effective policy responses. PMID:25849151
Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra
Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador. Methods: Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S.) currency rate. Results: Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events. Conclusion: The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV prevention. PMID
Van Parys, An-Sofie; Verhamme, Annelien; Temmerman, Marleen; Verstraelen, Hans
Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) around the time of pregnancy is a widespread global health problem with many negative consequences. Nevertheless, a lot remains unclear about which interventions are effective and might be adopted in the perinatal care context. Objective The objective is to provide a clear overview of the existing evidence on effectiveness of interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Methods Following databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. The search was limited to English peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to 2013. This review includes all types of interventions aiming to reduce IPV around the time of pregnancy as a primary outcome, and as secondary outcomes to enhance physical and/or mental health, quality of life, safety behavior, help seeking behavior, and/or social support. Results We found few randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Moreover, the nine studies identified did not produce strong evidence that certain interventions are effective. Nonetheless, home visitation programs and some multifaceted counseling interventions did produce promising results. Five studies reported a statistically significant decrease in physical, sexual and/or psychological partner violence (odds ratios from 0.47 to 0.92). Limited evidence was found for improved mental health, less postnatal depression, improved quality of life, fewer subsequent miscarriages, and less low birth weight/prematurity. None of the studies reported any evidence of a negative or harmful effect of the interventions. Conclusions and implications Strong evidence of effective interventions for IPV during the perinatal period is lacking, but some interventions show promising results. Additional large-scale, high-quality research is essential to provide further evidence about the effect of certain
Meyer, Jaimie P.; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Fu, Jeannia J.; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Sullivan, Tami P.; Springer, Sandra A.; Altice, Frederick L.
Purpose Little is known about the association of intimate partner violence (IPV) with specific HIV treatment outcomes, especially among criminal justice (CJ) populations who are disproportionately affected by IPV, HIV, mental and substance use disorders (SUDs) and are at high risk of poor post-release continuity of care. Design/Methodology/Approach Mixed methods were used to describe the prevalence, severity, and correlates of lifetime IPV exposure among HIV-infected jail detainees enrolled in a novel jail-release demonstration project in Connecticut. Additionally, the effect of IPV on HIV treatment outcomes and longitudinal healthcare utilization was examined. Findings Structured baseline surveys defined 49% of 84 participants as having significant IPV-exposure, which was associated with female gender, longer duration since HIV diagnosis, suicidal ideation, having higher alcohol use severity, having experienced other forms of childhood and adulthood abuse, and homo/bisexual orientation. IPV was not directly correlated with HIV healthcare utilization or treatment outcomes. In-depth qualitative interviews with 20 surveyed participants, however, confirmed that IPV was associated with disengagement from HIV care especially in the context of overlapping vulnerabilities, including transitioning from CJ to community settings, having untreated mental disorders, and actively using drugs or alcohol at the time of incarceration. Value Post-release interventions for HIV-infected CJ populations should minimally integrate HIV secondary prevention with violence reduction and treatment for SUDs. PMID:24376468
Rahman, Mosfequr; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ryota; Tomizawa, Hideki; Makinoda, Satoru
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy using data from women reporting IPV in the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analysis included 4,695 married women, aged 15 to 40 years, who had at least one birth in the last 5 years. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between IPV and pregnancy. About one third (30.4%) of women were abused physically and/or sexually and about one third (30.9%) of their births in the last 5 years were unintended. Compared with women who suffered no IPV, women who were abused sexually had a 1.64-fold increased risk of unintended pregnancy, which is higher than those who suffered physical abuse only (odds ratio: 1.35). The prevalence of unintended pregnancy among those who experienced severe physical violence was 1.60 times higher than those who reported no abuse. The findings indicate a significant relationship between IPV and unintended pregnancy among Bangladeshi women. PMID:22550152
Guruge, S; Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, V; Gunawardena, N; Perera, J
South Asia is considered to have a high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Therefore the World Health Organisation has called for context-specific information about IPV from different regions. A scoping review of published and gray literature over the last 35 years was conducted using Arksey and O'Malley's framework. Reported prevalence of IPV in Sri Lanka ranged from 20-72%, with recent reports of rates ranging from 25- 35%. Most research about IPV has been conducted in a few provinces and is based on the experience of legally married women. Individual, family, and societal risk factors for IPV have been studied, but their complex relationships have not been comprehensively investigated. Health consequences of IPV have been reported, with particular attention to physical health, but women are likely to underreport sexual violence. Women seek support mainly from informal networks, with only a few visiting agencies to obtain help. Little research has focused on health sector responses to IPV and their effectiveness. More research is needed on how to challenge gendered perceptions about IPV. Researchers should capture the experience of women in dating/cohabiting relationships and women in vulnerable sectors (post-conflict areas and rural areas), and assess how to effectively provide services to them. A critical evaluation of existing services and programmes is also needed to advance evidence informed programme and policy changes in Sri Lanka. PMID:26778392
Martin, Caitlin Eileen; Houston, Avril Melissa; Mmari, Kristin N; Decker, Michele R
Adolescent dating violence is increasingly recognized as a public health problem. Our qualitative investigation sought input from urban, African-American adolescents at risk for dating violence concerning (Tjaden and Thoennes in Full report of the prevelance, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the national violence against women survey. US Department of Justice, Washington, DC, 2000) dating violence descriptions, (WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women: Summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2005) preferences for help-seeking for dating violence, and (Intimate partner violence in the United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Washington, DC, 2007) recommendations for a teen dating violence resource center. Four focus groups were conducted with urban, African American adolescents (n = 32) aged 13-24 recruited from an urban adolescent clinic's community outreach partners. Qualitative analysis was conducted. Participants assigned a wide range of meanings for the term "relationship drama", and used dating violence using language not typically heard among adults, e.g., "disrespect". Participants described preferences for turning to family or friends before seeking formal services for dating violence, but reported barriers to their ability to rely on these informal sources. When asked to consider formal services, they described their preferred resource center as confidential and safe, with empathetic, non-judgmental staff. Teens also gave insight into preferred ways to outreach and publicize dating violence resources. Findings inform recommendations for youth-specific tailoring of violence screening and intervention efforts. Current evidence that slang terms, i.e., "drama", lack specificity suggests that they should not be integrated within screening protocols
Background Violence against women is a worldwide problem and serious human rights abuse that occurs among all social, cultural, economic and religious groups. There is a paucity of research on intimate partner violence against women in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan region. This study assessed the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women and the impact of physical violence in Erbil, the main city of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenience sample of 800 Kurdish ever married women. Women (aged 16 to 65 years) attending two public hospitals in Erbil city for reproductive health problems were included in the study. The study was conducted between 1st of October 2009 and 30th of March 2011. Each woman was seen only once. Intimate partner violence was assessed by administering a modified version of the World Health Organization’s domestic violence questionnaire through direct interview by a female doctor. Prevalence of intimate partner violence was assessed by timing (lifetime or past year), frequency (once, 2–5 times, > 5 times), and type (emotional, physical, and sexual violence). Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted with calculation of frequencies and percentages of women who reported different types, severities and impact of intimate partner violence. Results The prevalence of the overall lifetime and the overall past year intimate partner violence against women was 58.6% and 45.3%, respectively. The proportions of women experienced at least one form of lifetime intimate partner violence were: 52.6% for emotional abuse; 38.9% for physical violence; and 21.1% for sexual violence, while 43.3%, 15.1%, and 12.1% of women experienced at least one form of past year emotional, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Among those with lifetime physical violence, 11.6% were subjected to more serious injuries like stab wound, broken teeth or broken bones
Owens, David J.; Straus, Murray A.
This paper tests the idea that the experience of violence in childhood constitutes a factor leading to the approval of adult violence for achieving socially desirable goals. Using the data from a national survey conducted in 1968, the study constructs indexes on Interpersonal Violence Approval, National Violence Approval, and Political Violence…
Cogan, Rosemary; Ballinger, Bud C
To explore the relationship between alcohol problems and physical violence with partners and strangers, 457 college men and 958 college women with low, intermediate, or high scores on the Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test reported conflict tactics on the Conflict Tactics Scale in the past year to and by partners and strangers. More men than women had high alcohol problems scores. Men with alcohol problems were more likely than other men to commit violence toward strangers or to partners and strangers. However, men with alcohol problems were not more likely than other men to commit violence toward partners only. Among women, alcohol problems had little relationship to committing violence or being the victim of violence. PMID:16731992
Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P; Cavanagh, Kate; Medina-Ariza, Juanjo
Men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner are compared. Various risk factors are examined to compare men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate woman partner. Relative to abusers, men who kill are generally more conventional with respect to childhood backgrounds, education, employment, and criminal careers, are more likely to be possessive and jealous, and are more likely to be separated from their partner at the time of the event. Men who kill are more likely to have used violence against a previous partner, to have sexually assaulted and strangled the victim, and to have used a weapon or instrument. However, they were less likely to have been drunk at the time of the event and/or to have previously used violence against the woman they killed. Overall, the findings do not support the notion of a simple progression from nonlethal to lethal violence and raise some dilemmas for the growing area of risk assessment. PMID:17420514
Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
Introduction Intimate partner violence has been linked to increased and repeated injuries, as well as negative long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of injury in women of African descent who reported recent intimate partner violence and never abused controls. Methods African American and African Caribbean women aged 18–55 were recruited from clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and the US Virgin Islands. Self-reported demographics, partner violence history and injury outcomes were collected. Associations between violence and injury outcomes were examined with logistic regression. Results All injury outcomes were significantly more frequently reported in women who also reported recent partner violence than those never abused. Multiple injuries were nearly three times more likely to be reported in women who had experienced recent abuse (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.98–3.81). Reported injury outcomes were similar between the sites except that women in Baltimore were 66% more likely than their US Virgin Islands counterparts to report past year emergency department use (p=0.001). In combined site multivariable models, partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Discussion Injuries related to intimate partner violence may be part of the explanation for the negative long-term health outcomes. In this study partner violence was associated with past year emergency department use, hospitalization and multiple injuries. Emergency nurses need to assess for intimate partner violence when women report with injury to make sure the violence is addressed in order to prevent repeated injuries and negative long-term health outcomes. PMID:24768096
Fink, Günther; Kaaya, Sylvia; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie; Ezzati, Majid; Lienert, Jeffrey; Smith Fawzi, Mary C
Abstract Objective To determine the impact of intimate partner violence against women on children’s growth and nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We pooled records from 42 demographic and health surveys in 29 countries. Data on maternal lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were collected. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between intimate partner violence and child stunting and wasting. Findings Prior exposure to intimate partner violence was reported by 69 652 (34.1%) of the 204 159 ever-married women included in our analysis. After adjusting for a range of characteristics, stunting in children was found to be positively associated with maternal lifetime exposure to only physical (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09–1.14) or sexual intimate partner violence (aOR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05–1.13) and to both forms of such violence (aOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05–1.14). The associations between stunting and intimate partner violence were stronger in urban areas than in rural ones, for mothers who had low levels of education than for women with higher levels of education, and in middle-income countries than in low-income countries. We also found a small negative association between wasting and intimate partner violence (aOR: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.90–0.98). Conclusion Intimate partner violence against women remains common in low- and middle-income countries and is highly detrimental to women and to the growth of the affected women’s children. Policy and programme efforts are needed to reduce the prevalence and impact of such violence. PMID:27147763
Swan, Suzanne C; Gambone, Laura J; Caldwell, Jennifer E; Sullivan, Tami P; Snow, David L
This article provides a review of research literature on women who use violence with intimate partners. The central purpose is to inform service providers in the military and civilian communities who work with domestically violent women. The major points of this review are as follows: (a) women's violence usually occurs in the context of violence against them by their male partners; (b) in general, women and men perpetrate equivalent levels of physical and psychological aggression, but evidence suggests that men perpetrate sexual abuse, coercive control, and stalking more frequently than women and that women also are much more frequently injured during domestic violence incidents; (c) women and men are equally likely to initiate physical violence in relationships involving less serious "situational couple violence," and in relationships in which serious and very violent "intimate terrorism" occurs, men are much more likely to be perpetrators and women victims; (d) women's physical violence is more likely than men's violence to be motivated by self-defense and fear, whereas men's physical violence is more likely than women's to be driven by control motives; (e) studies of couples in mutually violent relationships find more negative effects for women than for men; and (f) because of the many differences in behaviors and motivations between women's and men's violence, interventions based on male models of partner violence are likely not effective for many women. PMID:18624096
Swan, Suzanne C.; Gambone, Laura J.; Caldwell, Jennifer E.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Snow, David L.
This article provides a review of research literature on women who use violence with intimate partners. The central purpose is to inform service providers in the military and civilian communities who work with domestically violent women. The major points of this review are as follows: (a) women’s violence usually occurs in the context of violence against them by their male partners; (b) in general, women and men perpetrate equivalent levels of physical and psychological aggression, but evidence suggests that men perpetrate sexual abuse, coercive control, and stalking more frequently than women and that women also are much more frequently injured during domestic violence incidents; (c) women and men are equally likely to initiate physical violence in relationships involving less serious “situational couple violence,” and in relationships in which serious and very violent “intimate terrorism” occurs, men are much more likely to be perpetrators and women victims; (d) women’s physical violence is more likely than men’s violence to be motivated by self-defense and fear, whereas men’s physical violence is more likely than women’s to be driven by control motives; (e) studies of couples in mutually violent relationships find more negative effects for women than for men; and (f ) because of the many differences in behaviors and motivations between women’s and men’s violence, interventions based on male models of partner violence are likely not effective for many women. PMID:18624096
Tudor, Carrie; Weinstein, Marc; Moss, Helen; Glass, Nancy
Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health concern, affecting 5.3 million US individuals annually. An estimated 1 in 3 women globally are abused by an intimate partner in their lifetime, and the effects carry over into the workplace. This article examines employers' perceptions of IPV in the workplace, targeting supervisors of Latina employees. Methods Fourteen employers and supervisors of small service-sector companies in Oregon were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretive description was used to identify themes. These qualitative interviews preceded and helped to formulate a larger workplace intervention study. Results The following themes were found and are detailed: (1) factors associated with recognizing IPV in the workplace, (2) effects of IPV on the work environment and (3) supervisors' responses to IPV-active vs. passive involvement. Also, supervisors' suggestions for addressing IPV in the workplace are summarized. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the need for more IPV-related resources in the workplace to be available to supervisors as well as survivors and their coworkers. The needs of supervisors and workplaces vary by site, demonstrating the need for tailored interventions, and culturally appropriate workplace interventions are needed for Latinas and other racially and ethnically diverse populations. PMID:22953209
Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D
Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. PMID:24053263
Vigdor, Elizabeth Richardson; Mercy, James A
Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement officers to confiscate firearms at a domestic violence scene. The authors find that female intimate partner homicide rates decline 7% after a state passes a restraining order law. They find no effect from the domestic violence misdemeanor or confiscation laws. PMID:16679499
Slep, Amy M Smith; Foran, Heather M; Heyman, Richard E; Snarr, Jeffery D; Usaf Family Advocacy Research Program
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern. To date, risk factor research has not differentiated physical violence that leads to injury and/or fear (i.e., clinically significant IPV; CS-IPV) from general physical IPV. Isolating risk relations is necessary to best inform prevention and treatment efforts. The current study used an ecological framework and evaluated relations of likely risk factors within individual, family, workplace, and community levels with both CS-IPV and general IPV to determine whether they were related to one type of IPV, both, or neither for both men and women. Probable risk and promotive factors from multiple ecological levels of influence were selected from the literature and assessed, along with CS-IPV and general IPV, via an anonymous, web-based survey. The sample comprised US Air Force (AF) active duty members and civilian spouses (total N = 36,861 men; 24,331 women) from 82 sites worldwide. Relationship satisfaction, age, and alcohol problems were identified as unique risk factors (in the context of the 23 other risk factors examined) across IPV and CS-IPV for men and women. Other unique risk factors were identified that differed in prediction of IPV and CS-IPV. The results suggest a variety of both established and novel potential foci for indirectly targeting partner aggression and clinically-significant IPV by improving people's risk profiles at the individual, family, workplace, and community levels. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25474230
Slep, Amy M Smith; Foran, Heather M; Heyman, Richard E; Snarr, Jeffery D; Usaf Family Advocacy Research Program
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern. To date, risk factor research has not differentiated physical violence that leads to injury and/or fear (i.e., clinically significant IPV; CS-IPV) from general physical IPV. Isolating risk relations is necessary to best inform prevention and treatment efforts. The current study used an ecological framework and evaluated relations of likely risk factors within individual, family, workplace, and community levels with both CS-IPV and general IPV to determine whether they were related to one type of IPV, both, or neither for both men and women. Probable risk and promotive factors from multiple ecological levels of influence were selected from the literature and assessed, along with CS-IPV and general IPV, via an anonymous, web-based survey. The sample comprised US Air Force (AF) active duty members and civilian spouses (total N = 36,861 men; 24,331 women) from 82 sites worldwide. Relationship satisfaction, age, and alcohol problems were identified as unique risk factors (in the context of the 23 other risk factors examined) across IPV and CS-IPV for men and women. Other unique risk factors were identified that differed in prediction of IPV and CS-IPV. The results suggest a variety of both established and novel potential foci for indirectly targeting partner aggression and clinically-significant IPV by improving people's risk profiles at the individual, family, workplace, and community levels. Aggr. Behav. 41:227-241, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27541201
Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O; Park, Aely; Elwyn, Laura; Thornberry, Terence P
This study focuses on intergenerational continuity in violent partner relationships. We investigate whether exposure to caregiver intimate partner violence (IPV) during adolescence leads to increased involvement in IPV during early adulthood (age 21-23) and adulthood (age 29-31). We also investigate whether this relationship differs by gender. Although there is theoretical and empirical support for intergenerational continuity of relationship violence, there are few prospective studies of this issue. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS), a longitudinal study of the development of antisocial behavior in a community sample of 1,000 urban youth followed from age 14 to adulthood. The original sample includes 73% men and 85% African American or Hispanic youth. Measures come from a combination of interviews and official records. The Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) is used to assess IPV and severe IPV in the youth and parent generations. Analyses controlled for child physical abuse, race/ethnicity as well as parent education, family stability, and poverty. In multivariate models, adolescent exposure to caregiver severe IPV resulted in significantly increased risk of relationship violence in early adulthood (age 21-23). Furthermore, there is an indirect effect of adolescent exposure to severe IPV on later adult involvement in IPV (age 29-31), mediated by involvement in a violent relationship in early adulthood. These results were largely invariant by gender. However, we observed a direct pathway between IPV exposure and adult IPV for women (marginally significant) suggesting that adolescent exposure to caregiver IPV may set in motion women-specific processes. PMID:21810795
Davidov, Danielle M.; Larrabee, Hollynn; Davis, Stephen M.
Background Limited information exists about medical treatment for victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) Objective Our aim was to estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits and subsequent hospitalizations that were assigned a code specific to IPV and to describe the clinical and sociodemographic features of this population. Methods Data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample from 2006–2009 were analyzed. Cases with an external cause of injury code of E967.3 (battering by spouse or partner) were abstracted. Results From 2006–2009, there were 112,664 visits made to United States EDs with an e-code for battering by a part-ner or spouse. Most patients were female (93 %) with a mean age of 35 years. Patients were significantly more likely to reside in communities with the lowest median income quar-tile and in the Southern United States. Approximately 5% of visits resulted in hospital admission. The mean charge for treat-and-release visits was $1904.69 and $27,068.00 for hospitalizations. Common diagnoses included superficial injuries and contusions, skull/face fractures, and complications of pregnancy. Females were more likely to experience superficial injuries and contusions, and males were more likely to have open wounds of the head, neck, trunk, and extremities. Conclusions From 2006 to 2009, there were approximately 28,000 ED visits per year with an e-code specific to IPV. Although a minority, 7% of these visits were made by males, which has not been reported previously. Future prospective research should confirm the unique demographic and geographic features of these visits to guide development of targeted screening and intervention strategies to mitigate IPV and further characterize male IPV visits. PMID:25282121
Lewis, Robin J.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Milletich, Robert J.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Mason, Tyler B.
This study examined the relationship between emotional distress (defined as depression, brooding, and negative affect), alcohol outcomes, and bidirectional intimate partner violence among lesbian women. Results lend support to the self-medication hypothesis which predicts that lesbian women who experience more emotional distress are more likely to drink to cope, and in turn report more alcohol use, problem drinking, and alcohol-related problems. These alcohol outcomes were in turn, associated with bidirectional partner violence. These results offer preliminary evidence that, similar to findings for heterosexual women, emotional distress, alcohol use, and particularly alcohol-related problems, are risk factors for bidirectional partner violence among lesbian women. PMID:26062874
Schaffer, Bradley J
The objective of this study is to examine the health characteristics of military veterans identified through the Criminal Justice System (CJS) with partner violence and their relationships with their fathers. The 282 veterans involved in the CJS participated to complete a psycho-social assessment which included partner violence and ascertained their relationships with their fathers. The mean age of the men in the study was 44.9 years old. The majority were divorced, Caucasian, had a high school education, and served in the Army. This sample shows the benefit of integrating partner violence and relationships with fathers into the assessment process and highlights the need for more research. PMID:25976170
Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kraemer, Alexander
This article documents the beliefs and attitudes of men toward intimate partner violence in Pakistan. Men's beliefs and attitudes toward partner violence are shaped by the life-long process of gender socialization, where the role of wife is projected as submissive and docile. Drawing on eight in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted in Lahore and Sialkot, this article presents how men perceive and justify partner violence within the context of Pakistani society. The data show that the construct of "ideal wife" inculcated among men fits into Foucault's notion of "docile bodies," which are subjected to control, discipline, and violent punishment. PMID:23448911
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.
The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655
Frattaroli, Shannon; McCaw, Brigid; Coker, Ann L.; Miller, Elizabeth; Sharps, Phyllis; Lane, Wendy G.; Mandal, Mahua; Hirsch, Kelli; Strobino, Donna M.; Bennett, Wendy L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Gielen, Andrea
Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent among adolescent and adult women, with significant physical, sexual, and mental health consequences. In 2011, the Institute of Medicine's Clinical Preventive Services for Women consensus report recommended universal screening for violence as a component of women's preventive services; this policy has been adopted by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). These policy developments require that effective clinic-based interventions be identified, easily implemented, and taken to scale. Methods To foster dialogue about implementing effective interventions, we convened a symposium entitled “Responding to Violence Against Women: Emerging Evidence, Implementation Science, and Innovative Interventions,” on May 21, 2012. Drawing on multidisciplinary expertise, the agenda integrated data on the prevalence and health impact of IPV violence, with an overview of the implementation science framework, and a panel of innovative IPV screening interventions. Recommendations were generated for developing, testing, and implementing clinic-based interventions to reduce violence and mitigate its health impact. Results The strength of evidence supporting specific IPV screening interventions has improved, but the optimal implementation and dissemination strategies are not clear. Implementation science, which seeks to close the evidence to program gap, is a useful framework for improving screening and intervention uptake and ensuring the translation of research findings into routine practice. Conclusions Findings have substantial relevance to the broader research, clinical, and practitioner community. Our conference proceedings fill a timely gap in knowledge by informing practitioners as they strive to implement universal IPV screening and guiding researchers as they evaluate the success of implementing IPV interventions to improve women's health and well-being. PMID:23210490
de Barros, Érika Neves; Silva, Maria Arleide; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Lucena, Sara Gomes; Ponzo, Lucas; Pimentel, Amanda Patrícia
Intimate partner violence is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among women. Although there are no official statistics, data reveal a high prevalence worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence among women in a community in Recife, Pernambuco. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted with 245 women in the 15 to 49-year age bracket. A questionnaire with sociodemographic variables was used, together with the WHO Violence Against Women (VAW) study tools and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). The participants all signed an informed consent form. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was classified by type of violence: emotional - 52.7%; physical - 46.1 %; and sexual - 13.6%. Bivariate analysis revealed an association between experiencing violence with not having a partner (p = 0.001) and drug use (p ≤ 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the variables were strongly associated with the outcome: sexual intercourse for fear (OR 5.58); depressive-anxious mood (OR 2.69); drug use (OR 2.57). A high prevalence of intimate partner violence in the community, especially emotional violence, emerges as an important finding, indicating the need for care in prevention and the overall health of this population. PMID:26910166
In this article, the author highlights her choice of the 10 most important recent findings from the intimate partner violence research literature, which include (a) the creation of the Conflict Tactics Scale; (b) the finding that violent acts are most often perpetrated by intimates; (c) a series of findings that indicate that women also engage in intimate partner violence; (d) the finding that intimate partner violence typically evolves out of relationship dissatisfaction; (e) the finding that there are different subtypes of domestically violent men; (f) physiological measures that have added to our knowledge of intimate partner violence; (g) the evolving intergenerational transmission of violence theory; (h) the finding that verbal abuse, neglect, and psychological abuse need to be studied alongside physical violence; (i) research on leaving abusive relationships that may inform policy about sheltering battered women; and (j) the finding that alcohol plays an important role in the production of intimate partner violence. In the conclusion, the author describes a dyadic cycle of violence that may characterize some abusive couples. She also argues for a multimodal theory that links findings obtained from individual, relationship, intergenerational, gender-specific, and cultural perspectives. PMID:15618567
Silva, Elisabete Pereira; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda
OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for intimate partner violence during postpartum. METHODS This prospective cohort study was conducted with women, aged between 18-49 years, enrolled in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Of the 1.057 women interviewed during pregnancy and postpartum, 539 women, who did not report violence before or during pregnancy, were evaluated. A theoretical-conceptual framework was built with three levels of factors hierarchically ordered: women’s and partners’ sociodemografic and behavioral characteristics, and relationship dynamics. Incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The incidence of violence during postpartum was 9.3% (95%CI 7.0;12.0). Isolated psychological violence was the most common (4.3%; 95%CI 2.8;6.4). The overlapping of psychological with physical violence occurred at 3.3% (95%CI 2.0;5.3) and with physical and/or sexual in almost 2.0% (95%CI 0.8;3.0) of cases. The risk of partner violence during postpartum was increased for women with a low level of education (RR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.3;5.4), without own income (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9) and those who perpetrated physical violence against their partner without being assaulted first (RR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2;3.4), had a very controlling partner (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1;5.8), and had frequent fights with their partner (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9). CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of intimate partner violence during postpartum and its association with aspects of the relationship’s quality between the couple, demonstrated the need for public policies that promote conflict mediation and enable forms of empowerment for women to address the cycle of violence. PMID:26270012
Martin, Sandra L; Macy, Rebecca J; Sullivan, Kristen; Magee, Melissa L
This literature review examines intimate partner violence in relation to pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide. Empirical publications were eligible for review if they included information on intimate partner violence and examined females who were pregnant/postpartum and who were victims of femicide/attempted femicide and/or suicide/attempted suicide. Nine publications met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Results suggest that intimate partners perpetrate one- to two-thirds of the pregnancy-associated femicides in the United States and that pregnant women make up 5% of urban intimate partner femicides. Intimate partner abuse during pregnancy appears to be a risk factor for severe intimate partner violence, including attempted/completed femicide. So little information exists concerning intimate partner violence in pregnancy-associated suicides that it is impossible to draw conclusions regarding this topic; however, a hospital-based study suggests that intimate partner violence may be a risk factor for attempting suicide while pregnant. More research is needed concerning intimate partner pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide so that evidenced-based preventive/therapeutic interventions may be developed. PMID:17545571
O'Leary, K. Daniel; Tintle, Nathan; Bromet, Evelyn
Objective To examine unique and relative predictive values of demographic, social learning, developmental, psychopathology, and dyadic variables as risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner physical aggression in a national sample of married or cohabitating individuals. Method Men (n=798) and women (n=770) were selected from the public use data file of the 2003 National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) which used a multi-stage cluster sampling design. Results Eight percent of women and 5% of men reported perpetrating physical aggression in the past year. Based on multivariable regression analyses, among men, the unique risk factors for perpetrating physical aggression were parental violence, dating before age 14, dating aggression, Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) before and after age 20, and being victimized by partner. Among women, significant risk factors were younger age, dating aggression, IED before age 20, cohabiting, victimization by partner, and marital/relationship strain. Conclusions A number of social learning, developmental, adult psychopathology, and dyadic factors were significant. Two dyadic variables, victimization and marital strain, had by far the strongest associations with perpetration of partner aggression. Given that dating aggression and early IED were risk factors for male and female IPV much later in life suggests early interventions for those at risk. PMID:26236543
Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth; Meyer, Silke; Akers, Caroline
Given the far-reaching social, personal, and economic costs of crime and violence, as well as the lasting health effects, understanding how women respond to domestic violence and the types of help sought are critical in addressing intimate partner violence. We use a nationally representative dataset (Canadian General Social Survey, Personal Risk, 1999) to examine the help-seeking behaviors of female intimate partner violence victims (N = 250). Although victims of violent crime often do not call the police, many victims, particularly women who have been battered by their partner rely on family, friends, social service, and mental health interventions in dealing with the consequences of violent crime. We examine the role of income, education, and employment status in shaping women's decisions to seek help, and we treat these economic variables as symbolic and relative statuses as compared to male partners. Although family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the dynamics of intimate partner violence with respect to the structural dimensions of sociodemographic factors, feminist researchers connect economic power to family dynamics. Drawing on these literatures, we tap the power in marital and cohabiting relationships, rather than treating these variables as simply socioeconomic resources. Controlling for other relevant variables we estimate a series of multivariate models to examine the relationship between status compatibilities and help-seeking from both formal and informal sources. We find that status incompatibilities between partners that favor women increase the likelihood of seeking support in dealing with the impact of violence. PMID:22946106
Pereira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important cause of women's health and socio-familial severe problems, the most extreme being the victims' homicide. This is the first nationwide Portuguese autopsy-based and judicial-proven study about female intimate partner homicide. At least 62 women over 15 years old were killed by current or former men-intimate partners, corresponding to an IPV-related female mortality rate of 0.44/100.000 women; intimate partner violence was the reason of homicide in 60.8% of all autopsied women. The typical Portuguese victim showed to be a young adult woman, employed, killed by a current husband in a long-term relationship, usually with children in common and with a history of previous IPV. The typical Portuguese perpetrator showed to be older than the victim, employed, owning a firearm and without criminal records. At the time of the fatal event 59.7% of the relationships were current. In 57.9% of the former relationships women were killed during the 1st year after its terminus. Near half of the perpetrators attempted or committed suicide afterward. Most women were killed by gunshot wounds (45.2%), especially in the thorax (48.4%), with multiple fatal injuries; 56.5% also presented non-fatal injuries. The detection of prior IPV and the risk evaluation seems to be fundamental to decrease these fatal outcomes, but also, the prevention of perpetrators' alcohol abuse and carrying weapons. This work emphasizes the need to deepen the research on this issue, aiming to contribute to prevent both fatal and non-fatal IPV-related cases. PMID:24237830
Iverson, Katherine M; Mercado, Rowena; Carpenter, Sarah L; Street, Amy E
Experiences of abuse during childhood or military service may increase women veterans' risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. This study examined the relative impact of 3 forms of interpersonal violence exposure (childhood physical abuse [CPA], childhood sexual abuse [CSA], and unwanted sexual experiences during military service) and demographic and military characteristics on past-year IPV among women veterans. Participants were 160 female veteran patients at Veterans Afffairs hospitals in New England who completed a paper-and-pencil mail survey that included validated assessments of past-year IPV and previous interpersonal violence exposures. Women who reported CSA were 3.06 times, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.14, 8.23], more likely to report past-year IPV relative to women who did not experience CSA. Similarly, women who reported unwanted sexual experiences during military service were 2.33 times, 95% CI [1.02, 5.35], more likely to report past-year IPV compared to women who did not report such experiences. CPA was not associated with IPV risk. Having less education and having served in the Army (vs. other branches) were also associated with greater risk of experiencing IPV in the past year. Findings have implications for assisting at risk women veterans in reducing their risk for IPV through detection and intervention efforts. PMID:24243652
Leone, Janel M; Lape, Megan E; Xu, Yili
This study examined the help-seeking decisions of low-income women (n = 389) in two types of physically violent heterosexual relationships-intimate terrorism (i.e., physical violence used within a general pattern of coercive control) and situationally violent (i.e., physical violence that is not part of a general pattern of coercive control). Intimate terrorism victims were significantly more likely than situational couple violence victims to cite fear as a reason for not seeking help from the police, medical centers, and counselors/agencies. In contrast, situational couple violence victims more often said that they did not need help. Regression analyses also indicate that additional violence-related factors predict women's help-seeking. Findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between types of male partner violence and recognizing women's exertions of personal choice and perceptions of dangerousness when examining their decisions about seeking help from service providers. PMID:24366964
Annan, Jeannie; Brier, Moriah
The physical and psychological consequences of armed conflict and intimate partner violence are well documented. Less research focuses on their intersection and the linkages between domestic violence, gender-based discrimination, and the structural violence of poverty in armed conflict. This paper describes emerging themes from qualitative interviews with young women who have returned from abduction into the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda, many of whom were forcibly given as "wives" to commanders. Their interviews reveal multiple levels of violence that some women experience in war, including physical and sexual violence in an armed group, verbal and physical abuse from extended family members, and intimate partner violence. Striking is the violence they describe after escaping from the rebels, when they are back with their families. The interviews point to how abduction into the armed group may exacerbate problems but highlight the structural factors that permit and sustain intimate partner violence, including gender inequalities, corruption in the police system, and devastating poverty. Findings suggest that decreasing household violence will depend on the strength of interventions to address all levels, including increasing educational and economic opportunities, increasing accountability of the criminal justice system, minimizing substance abuse, and improving the coping mechanisms of families and individuals exposed to extreme violence. PMID:19853985
Taherkhani, Sakineh; Negarandeh, Reza; Simbar, Masomeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
Background: Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Methods: Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. Results: During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. “Neglect or covert violence” and “overt violence” were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Conclusion: Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women‟s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women. PMID:25649136
Background Various risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been found to vary by gender. South Korea has one of the highest prevalences of IPV in the world; however, little is known about potential risk factors of IPV and whether gender influences this relationship. Methods Using data from the 2006 Korea Welfare Panel Study, 8,877 married participants (4,545 men and 4,332 women) aged ≥30 years were included. Reported IPV was categorized as verbal or physical IPV and the association between IPV and related factors was assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Women were significantly more likely than men were to report IPV victimization (verbal 28.2% vs. 24.4%; physical 6.9% vs. 3.4%). Wor odds of physical perpetration than women satisfied with their family. Moreover, alcohol intake was significantly associated with IPV perpetration and victimization in both genders. Conclusion Significant gender-specific differences were found among factors related to perpetrating violence and being a victim of violence among adults in heterosexual relationships in South Korea. PMID:24885985
Madden, Kim; Scott, Taryn; Sholapur, Naushin; Bhandari, Mohit
Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 4 in 10 women in North America in their lifetime and 13-27 % in the past year. The basis for estimates stems largely from studies involving Caucasian women. Less is known about other minority populations such as South Asian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of IPV in the past year among South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. We conducted a survey of South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. All adult self-identified South Asian women attending a cultural event celebrating South Asian women who could understand English or Punjabi were eligible to participate. The survey contained three IPV prevalence questions adapted from the Woman Abuse Screening Tool. A total of 188 women (45 % of potentially eligible women) participated. Nearly 1 in 5 women reported IPV within the past year (19.3 %, 95 % CI 13.9-26.1 %). In this study single women were significantly more likely to have experienced IPV in the past year compared to married women (p = 0.035). Self-identified immigrant and non-immigrant South Asian women in this sample of women living in Southern Ontario experienced violence in proportions comparable to the general population. Programs for women should ensure accessibility and support of all ethnicities given equivalent rates of violence in the community. PMID:26678912
Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey
While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths’ experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p < .05) than females who did not experience IPV. Female homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p < .05), but those who experienced sexual abuse during childhood had fewer male friends (β = −2.04, SE = 0.93, p < .05). Although there was no significant difference in the rate of IPV victimization across genders, the context of this abuse appears to be drastically different. The results suggest that females with more male friendships are at greater risk for exposure to IPV. To date, there are few effective youth-targeted IPV prevention programs and none have been shown to be effective with homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071
Ray, Ellen; Sharps, Phyllis; Bullock, Linda
Abstract The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on maternal and neonatal outcomes are multifaceted and largely preventable. During pregnancy, there are many opportunities within the current health care system for screening and early intervention during routine prenatal care or during episodic care in a hospital setting. This article describes the effects of IPV on maternal health (e.g., insufficient or inconsistent prenatal care, poor nutrition, inadequate weight gain, substance use, increased prevalence of depression), as well as adverse neonatal outcomes (e.g., low birth weight [LBW]), preterm birth [PTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) and maternal and neonatal death. Discussion of the mechanisms of action are explored and include: maternal engagement in health behaviors that are considered “risky,” including smoking and alcohol and substance use, and new evidence regarding the alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and resulting changes in hormones that may affect LBW and SGA infants and PTB. Clinical recommendations include a commitment for routine screening of IPV in all pregnant women who present for care using validated screening instruments. In addition, the provision of readily accessible prenatal care and the development of a trusting patient–provider relationship are first steps in addressing the problem of IPV in pregnancy. Early trials of targeted interventions such as a nurse-led home visitation program and the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program show promising results. Brief psychobehavioral interventions are also being explored. The approach of universal screening, patient engagement in prenatal care, and targeted individualized interventions has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of IPV and highlight the importance of this complex social disorder as a top priority in maternal and neonatal health. PMID:25265285
Beyer, Kirsten; Wallis, Anne Baber; Hamberger, L Kevin
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important global public health problem, affecting women across the life span and increasing risk for a number of unfavorable health outcomes. Typically conceptualized as a private form of violence, most research has focused on individual-level risk markers. Recently, more scholarly attention has been paid to the role that the residential neighborhood environment may play in influencing the occurrence of IPV. With research accumulating since the 1990s, increasing prominence of the topic, and no comprehensive literature reviews yet undertaken, it is time to take stock of what is known, what remains unknown, and the methods and concepts investigators have considered. In this article, we undertake a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature to date on the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, asking, "what is the status of scholarship related to the association between neighborhood environment and IPV occurrence?" Although the literature is young, it is receiving increasing attention from researchers in sociology, public health, criminology, and other fields. Obvious gaps in the literature include limited consideration of nonurban areas, limited theoretical motivation, and limited consideration of the range of potential contributors to environmental effects on IPV--such as built environmental factors or access to services. In addition, explanations of the pathways by which place influences the occurrence of IPV draw mainly from social disorganization theory that was developed in urban settings in the United States and may need to be adapted, especially to be useful in explaining residential environmental correlates of IPV in rural or non-U.S. settings. A more complete theoretical understanding of the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, especially considering differences among urban, semiurban, and rural settings and developed and developing country settings, will be necessary to advance
Beyer, Kirsten; Wallis, Anne Baber; Hamberger, L. Kevin
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important global public health problem, affecting women across the lifespan and increasing risk for a number of unfavorable health outcomes. Typically conceptualized as a private form of violence, most research has focused on individual-level risk markers. Recently, more scholarly attention has been paid to the role that the residential neighborhood environment may play in influencing the occurrence of IPV. With research accumulating since the 1990s, increasing prominence of the topic, and no comprehensive literature reviews yet undertaken, it is time to take stock of what is known, what remains unknown, and the methods and concepts investigators have considered. In this paper, we undertake a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature to date on the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, asking: “What is the status of scholarship related to the association between neighborhood environment and IPV occurrence?” Although the literature is young, it is receiving increasing attention from researchers in sociology, public health, criminology, and other fields. Obvious gaps in the literature include limited consideration of non-urban areas, limited theoretical motivation, and limited consideration of the range of potential contributors to environmental effects on IPV – such as built environmental factors or access to services. In addition, explanations of the pathways by which place influences the occurrence of IPV draw mainly from social disorganization theory, which was developed in urban settings in the United States and may need to be adapted, especially to be useful in explaining residential environmental correlates of IPV in rural or non-US settings. A more complete theoretical understanding of the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, especially considering differences among urban, semi-urban and rural settings, and developed and developing country settings, will be necessary to
Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md. Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D.; Hoque, Nazrul
Background A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh. PMID:24861340
Alhusen, Jeanne L; Ray, Ellen; Sharps, Phyllis; Bullock, Linda
The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on maternal and neonatal outcomes are multifaceted and largely preventable. During pregnancy, there are many opportunities within the current health care system for screening and early intervention during routine prenatal care or during episodic care in a hospital setting. This article describes the effects of IPV on maternal health (e.g., insufficient or inconsistent prenatal care, poor nutrition, inadequate weight gain, substance use, increased prevalence of depression), as well as adverse neonatal outcomes (e.g., low birth weight [LBW]), preterm birth [PTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) and maternal and neonatal death. Discussion of the mechanisms of action are explored and include: maternal engagement in health behaviors that are considered "risky," including smoking and alcohol and substance use, and new evidence regarding the alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and resulting changes in hormones that may affect LBW and SGA infants and PTB. Clinical recommendations include a commitment for routine screening of IPV in all pregnant women who present for care using validated screening instruments. In addition, the provision of readily accessible prenatal care and the development of a trusting patient-provider relationship are first steps in addressing the problem of IPV in pregnancy. Early trials of targeted interventions such as a nurse-led home visitation program and the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program show promising results. Brief psychobehavioral interventions are also being explored. The approach of universal screening, patient engagement in prenatal care, and targeted individualized interventions has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of IPV and highlight the importance of this complex social disorder as a top priority in maternal and neonatal health. PMID:25265285
Klevens, Joanne; Kee, Romina; Trick, William; Garcia, Diana; Angulo, Francisco R.; Jones, Robin; Sadowski, Laura S.
Context Although partner violence screening has been endorsed by many health organizations, there is insufficient evidence that it has beneficial health outcomes. Objective To determine the effect of computerized screening for partner violence plus provision of a partner violence resource list vs provision of a partner violence list only on women's health in primary care settings, compared with a control group. Design, Setting, and Participants A 3-group blinded randomized controlled trial at 10 primary health care centers in Cook County, Illinois. Participants were enrolled from May 2009–April 2010 and reinterviewed 1 year (range, 48–56 weeks) later. Participants were English- or Spanish-speaking women meeting specific inclusion criteria and seeking clinical services at study sites. Of 3537 women approached, 2727 were eligible, 2708 were randomized (99%), and 2364 (87%) were recontacted 1 year later. Mean age of participants was 39 years. Participants were predominantly non-Latina African American (55%) or Latina (37%), had a high school education or less (57%), and were uninsured (57%). Intervention Randomization into 3 intervention groups: (1) partner violence screen (using the Partner Violence Screen instrument) plus a list of local partner violence resources if screening was positive (n=909); (2) partner violence resource list only without screen (n=893); and (3) no-screen, no-partner violence list control group (n=898). Main Outcome Measures Quality of life (QOL, physical and mental health components) was the primary outcome, measured on the 12-item Short Form (scale range 0–100, mean of 50 for US population). Results At 1-year follow-up, there were no significant differences in the QOL physical health component between the screen plus partner violence resource list group (n=801; mean score, 46.8; 95% CI, 46.1–47.4), the partner violence resource list only group (n=772; mean score, 46.4; 95% CI, 45.8–47.1), and the control group (n=791; mean score
Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Morgan, Douglas; Peña, Rodolfo; Cortes, Loreto; Martin, Christopher F.; Valladares, Eliette
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disabling functional gastrointestinal disorder, which serves as a model for abdominal pain syndromes. An association between intimate partner violence and IBS has been shown among Caucasian women in the industrialized world. To determine whether this relationship transcends cultural boundaries, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey in Nicaragua, using the innovative Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the León province. Women who had experienced physical intimate partner violence had significantly increased risk of IBS (OR 2.08, 95% CI, 1.35, 3.21), as did those who had experienced sexual intimate partner violence (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.45, 5.59). These findings argue for intimate partner violence screening among Latina women with IBS. PMID:20558772
Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert
This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract–level, couples’ perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of couples 18 years of age and older who were first interviewed in 1995. The path analysis shows that poverty is associated with perceived social cohesion and perceived social control as hypothesized. However, there is no significant mediation effect for social control or social cohesion on any type of violence. In the path analysis, Black ethnicity is associated with social cohesion, which is associated with MFPV. Intimate partner violence (IPV), as a form of domestic violence, may not be as concentrated in high-poverty neighborhoods as criminal violence. IPV may be more determined by personal and dyadic characteristics than criminal violence. PMID:20040713
Roustit, C; Renahy, E; Guernec, G; Lesieur, S; Parizot, I; Chauvin, P
Background: Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life-course epidemiological studies. Aims: To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when taking into account early family and social stressors. Methods: A retrospective French cohort study of 3023 adults representative of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area was conducted in 2005 through at-home, face-to-face interviews. The outcomes measures were current depression and lifetime suicide attempt, intimate partner violence, violence against children and alcohol dependence. Results: The adults exposed to interparental violence during childhood had a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. After adjusting for family- and social-level stressors in childhood, this risk was, respectively, 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.00) for depression, 3.17 (1.75 to 5.73) for conjugal violence, 4.75 (1.60 to 14.14) for child maltreatment and 1.75 (1.19 to 2.57) for alcohol dependence. Conclusions: The adult consequences of parental violence in childhood—and this independently of the other forms of domestic violence and the related psychosocial risks—should lead to intensifying the prevention of and screening for this form of maltreatment of children. PMID:19477880
Roelens, K.; Verstraelen, H.; Temmerman, M.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem, which has been extensively studied all over the world, yet Belgian data are limited. IPV remains a taboo resulting in denial and underreporting. For an obstetrician-gynaecologist (OB/GYN), IPV, committed by a male partner to a woman, is of particular interest, because of its negative impact on women’s and children’s health. In Belgium there are few data on IPV and guidelines for OB/GYN are missing. In a multi-centered survey surveillance study which was carried out among pregnant women attending 5 large hospitals in the province of East Flanders, the lifetime prevalence of IPV was estimated to be 10.1% and the period prevalence during pregnancy and/or in the year preceding pregnancy 3.4%. In our highly medicalised society, only 19.2% and 6.6% of the victims of physical and sexual abuse respectively sought medical care. Routine screening for IPV by a general practitioner or OB/GYN was found to be largely acceptable. In a questionnaire-based Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice survey among OB/GYN in Flanders, OB/GYN prove unfamiliar with IPV and largely underestimate the extent of the problem. Merely 6.8% of the respondents ever received any education on IPV. They refute the incentive of universal screening, even during pregnancy and one of the major barriers is fear of offending patients. Physician education was found to be the strongest predictor of a positive attitude towards screening and of current screening practices. Hence, there is a definite need to improve women’s awareness regarding abuse and to endorse physician training on IPV. PMID:25478074
Olowookere, Samuel A; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adekanle, Daniel A; Adeleke, Najemdeen A; Abioye-Kuteyi, Emmanuel A
We assessed the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) to women living with HIV/AIDS in an antiretroviral clinic in Nigeria. Three hundred sixty respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Sixty percent were married, of which 24% had disclosed HIV status to their partner. About a quarter (23.6%) had experienced IPV since HIV diagnosis. Types of violence experienced were physical violence (17%), emotional violence (21%), and sexual violence (2%). Predictors of IPV included having a younger aged partner, disclosing status, and partner's alcohol use (p = .001). Suggestions to prevent IPV include increasing public awareness and family counseling. PMID:26175518
Wathen, C Nadine; MacMillan, Harriet L
Exposure to intimate partner violence is increasingly being recognized as a form of child maltreatment; it is prevalent, and is associated with significant mental health impairment and other important consequences. The present article provides an evidence-based overview regarding children’s exposure to intimate partner violence, including epidemiology, risks, consequences, assessment and interventions to identify and prevent both initial exposure and impairment after exposure. It concludes with specific guidance for the clinician. PMID:24426794
Smith, Carolyn A.; Elwyn, Laura J.; Ireland, Timothy O.; Thornberry, Terence P.
Objective: Youth exposure to intimate partner violence has been theorized to increase the risk of adverse outcomes in adulthood including substance-use problems. However, the limited research on the association between early exposure to intimate partner violence and later alcohol- or drug-use problems is inconclusive. Using a prospective design, this study investigates whether adolescent exposure to intimate partner violence increases the risk for problem substance use in early adulthood and whether this relationship differs by gender. Method: The study uses a subsample (n = 508) of participants from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of urban, largely minority adolescents that oversampled youth at high risk for antisocial behavior and drug use. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess whether adolescent exposure to intimate partner violence predicted increased odds of four indicators of problem substance use in early adulthood, controlling for parental substance use, adolescent maltreatment, and sociodemographic risk factors. Results: Exposure to severe intimate partner violence as an adolescent significantly increased the odds of alcohol-use problems in early adulthood for young women (odds ratio = 5.63, p < .05) but not for young men. Exposure to intimate partner violence did not increase the odds of other substance-use indicators for either gender. Conclusions: Girls exposed to intimate partner violence may be at increased risk for problems with alcohol use in adulthood and should be a target for prevention and intervention efforts. Overall, however, the association between exposure to intimate partner violence and later substance-use problems is less than anticipated in this high-risk community sample. PMID:20230719
Martin, Caitlin Eileen; Houston, Avril Melissa; Mmari, Kristin N.
Objectives Adolescent dating violence is increasingly recognized as a public health problem. Our qualitative investigation sought input from urban, African-American adolescents at risk for dating violence concerning (1) dating violence descriptions, (2) preferences for help-seeking for dating violence, and (3) recommendations for a teen dating violence resource center. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with urban, African American adolescents (n=32) aged 13 to 24 recruited from an urban adolescent clinic's community outreach partners. Qualitative analysis was conducted. Results Participants assigned a wide range of meanings for the term “relationship drama”, and used dating violence using language not typically heard among adults, e.g., “disrespect”. Participants described preferences for turning to family or friends before seeking formal services for dating violence, but reported barriers to their ability to rely on these informal sources. When asked to consider formal services, they described their preferred resource center as confidential and safe, with empathetic, non-judgmental staff. Teens also gave insight into preferred ways to outreach and publicize dating violence resources. Conclusions Findings inform recommendations for youth-specific tailoring of violence screening and intervention efforts. Current evidence that slang terms, i.e., “drama”, lack specificity suggests that they should not be integrated within screening protocols. These data highlight the value of formative research in understanding terminology and help-seeking priorities so as to develop and refine dating violence prevention and intervention efforts for those most affected. PMID:21611717
Macy, Rebecca J.; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Guo, Shenyang; Ermentrout, Dania M.
Increasingly, female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are charged with IPV perpetration and mandated by courts or child protective services to receive domestic violence services. A critical need exists for evidence-based interventions targeting the needs of this unique population, but such research is scarce. To address this gap, we…
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.
The DELTA PREP Project aims to reduce risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). It engaged leadership and staff from 19 statewide domestic violence coalitions in building capacity to prevent IPV before it occurs (rather than solely responding to IPV). This article describes the process and outcomes associated with action planning to create…
Stockl, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte; Penhale, Bridget
Violence against women is a recognized human rights and public health issue, with significant impacts on women's life and health. Until now, several studies, most of them relying on small scale samples, have explored the prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence against older women, whereas few have examined what actually puts…
Alsaker, Kjersti; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Moen, Bente E.; Baste, Valborg
Women (n = 87) at women's shelters in Norway, a country of high welfare and gender equality, reported a multitude of severe threats and actual acts of physical, sexual and psychological violence. An individual threatening to kill his partner represented a significant increased risk for experiencing serious acts of violence, especially when the…
Witte, Tricia H.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.
The present study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) following victim infidelity (i.e., girlfriend had sex with another man). While watching a video-taped vignette of a young, dating couple in an argument that escalated to male-to-female violence, male…
Sitterding, Heather A.; Adera, Tilahun; Shields-Fobbs, Erima
A survey of 321 family physicians and 170 obstetricians/gynecologists identified their screening practices and where they acquired spouse/partner violence education (medical school, residency, continuing education, other). All who had violence education were more likely to screen every patient. Lectures during residency were significant predictors…
Chronister, Krista M.; Harley, Eliza; Aranda, Christina L.; Barr, Leah; Luginbuhl, Paula
Intimate partner violence (IPV) costs women nearly 8 million days of paid work annually. Greater attention to violence survivors' employment and career development can facilitate women escaping abusive relationships and promotes their overall rehabilitation and healing. A first step to increasing attention to survivors' career development includes…
Vigdor, Elizabeth Richardson; Mercy, James A.
Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement…
Pandey, G. K.; Dutt, Debashis; Banerjee, Bratati
A cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 751 women, living in slums, examined their perspectives on partner and relationship factors of domestic violence. More than 17% of women experienced physical violence in the past year. Individual factors related to the husband--namely, poor socioeconomic status, use of alcohol, extramarital…
Macy, Rebecca J.; Ferron, Joelle; Crosby, Carmen
Although most social work professionals may expect that women who experience partner violence will sustain acute physical injuries, social workers may be less knowledgeable about the chronic health problems with which violence survivors often struggle. To inform social work practice, we reviewed and synthesized the recently published research on…
Ansara, Donna L.; Hindin, Michelle J.
Although the negative health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are well documented, most research has conceptualized IPV as a unitary construct and has primarily focused on the impact of physical violence. However, recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that IPV may be heterogeneous, with different consequences associated…
Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Lloyd, Susan E.
The current study used a random sample of 563 low-income women to test Johnson's (1995) theory that there are two major forms of male-partner violence, situational couple violence and intimate terrorism, which are distinguished in terms of their embeddedness in a general pattern of control. The study examined the associations between type of…
Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of…
Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
Factors that may contribute to preschool-aged children's appraisals of their parent's violent conflicts in families experiencing recent intimate partner violence (IPV) were evaluated for 116 mother-child dyads. Mothers and children were interviewed using empirically-validated measures to assess level of violence, maternal and child mental health,…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Hong, Jun Sung
A growing body of research documents that various forms of violence exposures are interrelated. This paper presents a conceptual model, which accounts for the relationship between youth witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) at home and their subsequent engagement in bullying behaviors and victimization by peers. A comprehensive search of…
Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.
This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…
Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia
How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Li, Zhonghe
This cross-sectional, retrospective study used epidemiological and anthropological methods toward two aims: 1) to examine associations between partner violence and major depression in a community probability sample of women and 2) to provide new data on partner violence in Chinese Americans. In this study, 181 Chinese American women were interviewed, with 178 completing structured sections on CIDI 2.1 major depression and on partner violence history. Results indicate that a history of partner violence is associated with significantly higher rates of lifetime, 12-month, and current major depression in this community population. This effect is specific and independent of other factors. Partner violence also has a dose-response relationship with the severity of major depression episodes, increasing risk for severe and moderate episodes. The strength and specificity of this association, its dose-response effect, and its commonality across different populations suggest a possible causal role for partner violence needing further investigation in research on major depression in women. PMID:14614339
Lannert, Brittany K; Garcia, Antonia M; Smagur, Kathryn E; Yalch, Matthew M; Levendosky, Alytia A; Bogat, G Anne; Lonstein, Joseph S
The relational model of trauma (Scheeringa & Zeanah, 2001) proposes that infants' trauma symptoms may be influenced by their mothers' trauma symptoms and disruptions in caregiving behavior, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are less well understood. In this research, we examined the direct and indirect effects of a traumatic event (maternal intimate partner violence [IPV]), maternal trauma symptoms, and impaired (harsh and neglectful) parenting on infant trauma symptoms in a sample of mother-infant dyads (N=182) using structural equation modeling. Mothers completed questionnaires on IPV experienced during pregnancy and the child's first year of life, their past-month trauma symptoms, their child's past-month trauma symptoms, and their parenting behaviors. Results indicated that the effects of prenatal IPV on infant trauma symptoms were partially mediated by maternal trauma symptoms, and the relationship between maternal and infant trauma symptoms was fully mediated by neglectful parenting. Postnatal IPV did not affect maternal or infant trauma symptoms. Findings support the application of the relational model to IPV-exposed mother-infant dyads, with regard to IPV experienced during pregnancy, and help identify potential foci of intervention for professionals working with mothers and children. PMID:25455216
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significantly prevalent health issue that creates devastating effects for victims, their families, and the community IPV extends across social, religious, economical, geographical, and cultural groups. IPV has public health implications that affect current victims and may impact future generations. While all people are at risk for IPV, women are 5 times more likely to be victimized. Despite all of the literature regarding IPV, there is still a compliance issue regarding screening for IPV in health care settings. Utilizing the Synergy Model of Nursing Practice, this article demonstrates the care of victims of IPV by the clinical nurse specialist. The Synergy Model framework is described, and correlated with IPV The clinical nurse specialist plays a unique role that can improve patient outcomes through many domains including expert clinical practice, role modeling, education, global systems thinking, research, consultation, and holistic approaches to care. Current state of the science practice techniques and barriers to screening are discussed. The summary highlights suggestions for future research. PMID:14604131
Stuart, Gregory L.; McGeary, John; Shorey, Ryan C.; Knopik, Valerie
We thank Drs. Abbey, Bennett, DeWall, and Way for making truly outstanding points in their thoughtful commentaries. We agree with the feedback and advice from all of these distinguished scientists. Future work on genetics and intimate partner violence (IPV) should, when possible, include a larger number of genetic variants, closely examine gene by environment interactions, and study potential mechanisms explaining the connection between genetics and IPV. As with any research, but particularly with respect to studies on a controversial topic such as genetic correlates of IPV, extreme caution should be taken prior to generalizing results or deriving any practical applications from the data. Clearly, replication and extension of the findings in other populations is essential. Ultimately, we believe that it is worth pursuing this line of work given the possible contributions it may make to understand the etiology, prevention, and treatment of IPV in the future. Finding solutions to IPV will require the collaboration of a diverse group of constituents from many disciplines. PMID:24759926
Gracia, Enrique; López-Quílez, Antonio; Marco, Miriam; Lladosa, Silvia; Lila, Marisol
We examined whether neighborhood-level characteristics influence spatial variations in the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). Geocoded data on IPV cases with associated protection orders (n = 1,623) in the city of Valencia, Spain (2011-2013), were used for the analyses. Neighborhood units were 552 census block groups. Drawing from social disorganization theory, we explored 3 types of contextual influences: concentrated disadvantage, concentration of immigrants, and residential instability. A Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach was used to analyze influences of neighborhood-level characteristics on small-area variations in IPV risk. Disease mapping methods were also used to visualize areas of excess IPV risk. Results indicated that IPV risk was higher in physically disordered and decaying neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with low educational and economic status levels, high levels of public disorder and crime, and high concentrations of immigrants. Results also revealed spatially structured remaining variability in IPV risk that was not explained by the covariates. In this study, neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and immigrant concentration emerged as significant ecological risk factors explaining IPV. Addressing neighborhood-level risk factors should be considered for better targeting of IPV prevention. PMID:25980418
Carlyle, Kellie E; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Slater, Michael D
Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health priority. An important component of designing prevention programs is developing an understanding of how media portrayals of health issues influence public opinion and policy. To better understand the ways in which media images may be informing our understanding of IPV, this study content analyzed portrayals of IPV in news media articles. Stratified media outlets were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas. Researchers created constructed months using weeks from each season across a 2-year period. The first part of the study investigated quantitative differences in the coverage of female and male perpetrators (n = 395) and identified several areas where coverage differed. The second part of the study qualitatively examined coverage of female perpetrators (n = 61) to provide a richer description of such coverage. This study contributes to our understanding of female perpetrators and how these portrayals may contribute to the larger gender symmetry debate surrounding female aggressors. Implications for public health policy and research are discussed. PMID:24505087
Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Frohman, N.; Purcell, Genevieve
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 – 28 weeks gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89%. In the fully adjusted model antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95% CI 2.10 – 38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95% CI 3.41 – 25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19% experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680
Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680
Sheehan, Kathleen A; Thakor, Sumaiya; Stewart, Donna E
Understanding why and how perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) change their behavior is an important goal for both policy development and clinical practice. In this study, the authors investigated the concept of "turning points" for perpetrators of IPV by conducting a systematic review of qualitative studies that investigated the factors, situations, and attitudes that facilitated perpetrators' decisions to change their abusive behavior. Two literature databases were searched and six studies were found that met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Most included participants from batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The data indicate that community, group, and individual processes all contribute to perpetrators' turning points and behavioral change. These include identifying key incidents that precede change, taking responsibility for past behavior, learning new skills, and developing relationships within and outside of the BIP. By using a qualitative systematic review, the authors were able to generate a more complete understanding of the catalysts for and process of change in these individuals. Further research, combining quantitative and qualitative approaches, will be helpful in the modification of existing BIPs and the development of new interventions to reduce IPV. PMID:22096016
Aupperle, Robin L; Stillman, Ashley N; Simmons, Alan N; Flagan, Taru; Allard, Carolyn B; Thorp, Steven R; Norman, Sonya B; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to deficits in response inhibition, and neuroimaging research suggests this may be due to differences in prefrontal cortex recruitment. The current study examined relationships between PTSD from intimate partner violence (IPV) and neural responses during inhibition. There were 10 women with PTSD from IPV and 12 female control subjects without trauma history who completed the stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Linear mixed models were used to investigate group differences in activation (stop-nonstop and hard-easy trials). Those with PTSD exhibited greater differential activation to stop-nonstop trials in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula and less differential activation in several default mode regions (d = 1.12-1.22). Subjects with PTSD exhibited less differential activation to hard-easy trials in the lateral frontal and the anterior insula regions (driven by less activation to hard trials) and several default mode regions (i.e., medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate; driven by greater activation to easy trials; d = 1.23-1.76). PTSD was associated with difficulties disengaging default mode regions during cognitive tasks with relatively low cognitive demand, as well as difficulties modulating executive control and salience processing regions with increasing cognitive demand. Together, these results suggest that PTSD may relate to decreased neural flexibility during inhibition. PMID:26748991
Okuda, Mayumi; Olfson, Mark; Wang, Shuai; Rubio, Jose M; Xu, Yang; Blanco, Carlos
This study presents data on the association of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and rates of psychiatric disorders, and other correlates. Data were drawn from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States, 18 years and older, residing in households and group quarters. The sample comprised adults who reported being in a relationship within the past 12 months (N = 25,631). Of these, 1,677 individuals reported perpetrating IPV (4.2% in men, 7.0% in women). Compared to non-IPV perpetrators, IPV perpetrators had greater odds of having any psychiatric disorder, 42.0% and 67.7%, respectively, OR = 2.89, 95% CI [2.51, 3.32]. After adjusting for the effects of nuisance variables, being younger, having an alcohol use disorder, a personality disorder, low levels of social support, and low income were associated with perpetration. Across a wide range of factors, IPV victimization itself had the strongest association with perpetration, AOR = 66.12, 95% CI [55.01, 79.48]. Mental health assessments of IPV perpetrators might offer an opportunity to identify and treat psychiatric disorders and improve the clinical course of conditions that can be affected by ongoing acts of violence. PMID:25624189
Lundgren, Rebecka; Amin, Avni
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) are widespread among adolescents and place them on a lifelong trajectory of violence, either as victims or perpetrators. The aim of this review was to identify effective approaches to prevent adolescent IPV and SV and to identify critical knowledge gaps. The interventions reviewed in this article reflect the global focus on interventions addressing violence perpetrated by men against women in the context of heterosexual relationships. Interventions for girls and boys (10-19 years) were identified through electronic searches for peer-reviewed and gray literature such as reports and research briefs. Studies were excluded if they were published before 1990 or did not disaggregate participants and results by age. Programs were classified as "effective," "emerging," "ineffective," or "unclear" based on the strength of evidence, generalizability of results to developing country settings, and replication beyond the initial pilot. Programs were considered "effective" if they were evaluated with well-designed studies, which controlled for threats to validity through randomization of participants. A review of 142 articles and documents yielded 61 interventions, which aimed to prevent IPV and SV among adolescents. These were categorized as "parenting" (n = 8), "targeted interventions for children and adolescents subjected to maltreatment" (n = 3), "school based" (n = 31; including 10 interventions to prevent sexual assault among university students), "community based" (n = 16), and "economic empowerment" (n = 2). The rigor of the evaluations varies greatly. A good number have relatively weak research designs, short follow-up periods, and low or unreported retention rates. Overall, there is a lack of robust standardized measures for behavioral outcomes. Three promising approaches emerge. First, school-based dating violence interventions show considerable success. However, they have only been implemented in high
Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Alonso, Alvaro; Spencer, Rachael A; Brady, Sonya S; Resnick, Michael D; Borowsky, Iris W; Connett, John E; Krueger, Robert F; Suglia, Shakira F
Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02) and 4 (2008-09) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication) were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28) higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37) of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension. PMID:24658452
Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
The aim of this study was to assess mental health, substance use and intimate partner violence in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk in South Africa. In all 268 women (18 years and older) consecutively receiving a protection order in the Vhembe district in South Africa were assessed by an external interviewer. Results indicate that 69.8% of the women had never used a condom with their abusive partner and 16.4% had been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past three months. A high proportion (51.9%) had Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression (66.4%). In multivariate analysis, being married or cohabiting, lower psychological abuse, higher physical violence and lower sexual violence, and having a PTSD was associated with never using a condom in the past 3 months; higher psychological abuse and higher physical and sexual violence were associated with a history of an STI in the past 3 months. Severity of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and suffering from PTSD increased HIV risk calling for multimodal interventions. PMID:24309860
Brown, Jackie; Burnette, Mandi L; Cerulli, Catherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood abuse, and sexual assault in adulthood are profound public health concerns, particularly for women. Exposure to trauma can contribute to long-standing health problems and escalated medical costs. Unfortunately, these experiences are often intertwined. Sexual assault often occurs in intimate relationships in which there is concurrent IPV; likewise, many victims of IPV have experienced childhood abuse. The prevalent intersections of these struggles can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This article examines the contributions of childhood abuse histories and sexual assault to PTSD symptoms among women experiencing IPV. Findings suggest childhood abuse experiences account for more variance in PTSD symptoms than adult sexual assault. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25324230
Wymbs, Brian T.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.
Objective Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk of perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with problematic drinking and IPV, but it is unclear whether problem drinkers with ADHD are more likely than those without ADHD to perpetrate IPV. Method We compared the strength of association between problem drinking trajectories and IPV perpetration among 19 to 24 year-old men with (n=241) and without (n=180) childhood ADHD. Results Men with ADHD who reported higher heavy episodic drinking or alcohol use problems at age 19, and slower decreases in alcohol use problems from age 19 to 24, were more likely to perpetrate IPV than problem drinkers without ADHD, among whom the same associations were non-significant. Associations between problem drinking and IPV were not attenuated in adults with ADHD upon controlling for antisocial personality disorder. Conclusion Study findings highlight the heightened risk of problem drinkers with ADHD perpetrating IPV. PMID:25394520
Kelley, Michelle L; Stambaugh, Leyla; Milletich, Robert J; Veprinsky, Anna; Snell, Alicia K
The present brief report examined whether number of deployments, relationship satisfaction, and the interaction between number of deployments and relationship satisfaction predicted Navy members' reports of perpetrating physical partner violence. Participants were 80 U.S. Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. The effect that the number of deployments had on perpetrating physical partner violence diminished as relationship satisfaction increased. Results suggest the importance of designing domestic violence intervention and treatment efforts toward those who report high levels of deployment and low relationship satisfaction. PMID:26053344
Dichter, Melissa E; Gelles, Richard J
Police intervention is a primary response to intimate partner violence (IPV) but does not guarantee a victim's future safety. This study sought to identify factors associated with IPV survivors' perceptions of safety and risk of revictimization following police intervention. One hundred sixty-four women completed a questionnaire, and 11 of those women also took part in qualitative interviews. The findings revealed that feeling unsafe and perceiving oneself to be at risk of future violence is associated with experiencing particular forms of IPV, including battering, lethality threats, and sexual violence. Having support from others and distance from the partner helps women feel safe. PMID:22411298
Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin
Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767
Shoultz, Jan; Richardson, Karol; Oneha, Mary Frances; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Matsunaga, Doris Segal; Selifis, Selynda Mori; Sapolu, Merina; Samifua, Mariama; Manzano, Helena; Spencer, Cindy; Arias, Cristina
This paper presents the findings from a community based participatory research (CBPR) study that investigated the interface between culture and intimate partner violence (IPV) for women in selected cultural groups in Hawaii: Native Hawaiian, Filipino, Samoan, and Chuukese. The research question was, “What are the cultural perceptions, responses, and needs regarding IPV of selected individuals and groups served through a variety of programs that are affiliated with the three participating Community Health Centers (CHCs)?” This cross sectional, descriptive study collected both qualitative and quantitative data. Individual interviews were conducted with women who had experienced IPV. Focus groups were also conducted with other women from the same culture. Five common themes were identified across the four cultural groups: Living within a Collective; Cultural Protective Factors; Cultural Barriers to Helpseeking; Gender Specific Roles; and Belonging to a Place. The outcome from this study is increased knowledge that will be used to develop culturally appropriate interventions. Specific findings from each cultural group have been published.1–4 The purpose of this paper is to present common perceptions and responses to IPV from the four groups and suggest interventions based on the findings. Implications for practice are presented. PMID:21225589
Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth
Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…
Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Fals-Stewart, William
This study examined partner violence before and in the 1st and 2nd year after behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for 103 married or cohabiting women seeking alcohol dependence treatment and their male partners; it used a demographically matched nonalcoholic comparison sample. The treatment sample received M = 16.7 BCT sessions over 5-6 months.…
Frasier, Pamela York; Belton, Leigh; Hooten, Elizabeth; Campbell, Marci Kramish; DeVellis, Brenda; Benedict, Salli; Carrillo, Carla; Gonzalez, Pam; Kelsey, Kristine; Meier, Andrea
In the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd in 1999, a Community Advisory Committee requested assistance from its university partners (University of North Carolina) to address stress and increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Collected from 12 study work sites, baseline data indicated that IPV rates were higher among blue-collar women in…
Coker, Ann L.; Sanderson, Maureen; Cantu, Ethel; Huerta, Debbie; Fadden, Mary Kay
Objective and Participants: The authors studied the prevalence of partner violence, by type, among Mexican American college women aged 18 to 35 years (N = 149; response rate = 85%). Results: Twelve percent of women who reported a dating partner in the past year were physically or sexually assaulted, 12.1% were stalked, and 9.1% scored as…
Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.; Park, Aely; Elwyn, Laura; Thornberry, Terence P.
This study focuses on intergenerational continuity in violent partner relationships. We investigate whether exposure to caregiver intimate partner violence (IPV) during adolescence leads to increased involvement in IPV during early adulthood (age 21-23) and adulthood (age 29-31). We also investigate whether this relationship differs by gender.…
Field, Craig A.; Caetano, Raul
This article reviews survey research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in the U.S. general population. Results from survey research conducted over the past quarter century are briefly summarized. Three additional national studies related to injuries, crime victimization, and homicide among intimate partners in the United States are also…
Paterson, Janis; Feehan, Michael; Butler, Sarnia; Williams, Maynard; Cowley-Malcolm, Esther Tumama
Maternal reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) were obtained from a cohort of Pacific mothers living in New Zealand. The Conflict Tactics Scale was completed by 1,095 women who had given birth in the past 12 months, and who were married or living with a partner as married. The 12-month prevalence of "victimization" through verbal aggression…
Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.
Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…
Ragusa, Angela T.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study…
Echeburúa, Enrique; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; de Corral, Paz; López-Goñi, José J
The aim of this study is to develop a scale to predict intimate partner femicide and severe violence. The sample consists of 1,081 batterer men who were reported to the police station. First, the most significant differences between the severe violence group (n = 269) and the less severe violence group (n = 812) in sociodemographic variables are determined. Both aggressors and victims of the severe violence group have a higher rate of immigration. Second, the proposed 20-item scale is derived from a larger 58-item scale, where only the most discriminative items between severe and nonsevere intimate partner violence are taken into account. Psychometric properties of reliability and validity are rather good. Cutoff scores have been proposed according to sensitivity and specificity. This easy-to-use tool appears to be suitable to the requirements of criminal justice professionals and is intended for use in safety planning. Implications of these results for further research are discussed. PMID:18544750
Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Islam, Farzana
Violence against women perpetrated by husbands and male partners occurs worldwide, and an increasing number of surveys indicate that it is widely condoned. This article presents findings from a 2002 survey conducted in six rural villages in Bangladesh suggesting that an extremely high proportion of women believe that husband's use of violence against their wives is acceptable. To investigate the reliability and the psychosocial underpinnings of these survey findings, we also examine data from 110 in-depth interviews and 14 small group discussions. The results suggest that although most abused women in the study had resigned themselves to accept a certain level of violence, they did not condone it, and many abused women said that perpetrators of violence should be punished, and in some cases the punishments they suggested were harsh. We conclude by raising questions regarding the meaning of responses to commonly used questions intended to measure women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence and by discussing policy implications. PMID:18540523
Volpe, Ellen M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilynn S.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc’s framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors’ effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (−.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior. PMID:23345572
Li, Simiao; Levick, Ani; Eichman, Adelaide; Chang, Judy C
Intimate partner violence (IPV) accounts for up to 50% of all calls to police. In an effort to standardize arrest criteria, mandatory arrest laws were established. It is unclear whether subsequent increased rates of female arrest are due to greater recognition of female IPV perpetrators or of women acting in self-defense. This study aims to understand the context and consequences of IPV-related arrest from perspectives of women arrested in a single metropolitan area. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with women arrested and court-ordered to attend IPV education groups at a women's shelter in the Northeast United States. Interviews addressed circumstances surrounding arrest, experience with past violence, and reasoning regarding use of partner violence. Two researchers independently coded transcripts and met to iteratively refine the code and review transcripts for themes. Eighteen women were interviewed. Major themes that emerged were as follows: (a) Women's use of violence occurred within the context of their own victimization; (b) the arrest included a complex interplay between subject, partner, and police; (c) women perceived police arrest decisions to be based on a limited understanding of context; and (d) women experienced both positive and negative consequences of arrest. Many relationships did not fall under the traditional victim/perpetrator construct. Rather, women's use of violence evolved, influenced by prior experiences with violence. More appropriate methods must be developed for making arrest decisions, guiding justice system responses, and developing interventions for couples experiencing IPV. Recognition that women's use of partner violence often represented either a retaliatory or self-defensive gesture within the context of prior victimization suggests that victims' interventions should not only focus on empowerment but also provide skills and strategies to avoid temptation to adopt aggression as a primary method of self
Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José Javier
There is a close relationship between substance abuse (alcohol and other drugs) and intimate partner violence. Studies carried out with male offenders and with addicted patients show a high comorbidity rate between these two phenomena. However, few batterer intervention programmes have been implemented to date in the field of drug addiction. This paper proposes, first, the need to detect cases of intimate partner violence that are camouflaged beneath a drug problem. Thus, it is important to determine the prevalence rate of intimate partner aggressors among users of drug-addiction treatment programmes, as well as identifying the specific characteristics of these patients. Second, once aggressors are identified, it would be possible to develop specific programmes for the simultaneous treatment of the two problems (addiction and intimate partner violence). Some studies have already been carried with joint treatments for addiction and intimate partner violence. The results obtained are encouraging, and show that intervention programs with addictions can be a useful framework for applying also, where necessary, specific treatments for those addicted patients with an associated problem of intimate partner violence. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research in this field are discussed. PMID:21503558
Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Su, Shaobing; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shen, Zhiyong
Limited data are available regarding risk factors that are related to intimate partner violence (IPV) against female sex workers (FSWs) in the context of stable partnerships. Out of the 1,022 FSWs, 743 reported ever having a stable partnership and 430 (more than half) of those reported experiencing IPV. Hierarchical multivariate regression revealed that some characteristics of stable partners (e.g., low education, alcohol use) and relationship stressors (e.g., frequent friction, concurrent partnerships) were independently predictive of IPV against FSWs. Public health professionals who design future violence prevention interventions targeting FSWs need to consider the influence of their stable partners. PMID:24730642
Using data from the 2005 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this analysis focuses on the impacts that domestic violence mandatory arrest policies have on arrest outcomes in "situationally ambiguous" cases: cases where both the female and male partners have been identified by police as both a victim and an offender. Results indicate that although officers arrest male partners more frequently than female partners, after controlling for incident and individual factors, mandatory arrest policies disproportionately affect women. Furthermore, correlates of arrest differ for male-only arrests versus female-only arrests. These findings are discussed in the context of changing legal responses to domestic violence. PMID:22411299
Wang, Tianfu; Parish, William L.; Laumann, Edward O.; Luo, Ye
Using data from a nationally representative survey of China, this paper examines the prevalence and risk factors for partner violence with a special focus on the important role of sexual jealousy. Among women age 20–49, 7.2% reported that they were hit by their partner last year. Comparison shows that the Chinese prevalence is modestly below the overall median for other societies. Net of other factors, jealousy exacerbates hitting for both men and women in a reactive pattern, with the jealous partner getting hit. This suggests a rethinking of the role of sexual jealousy in spousal violence in some social settings. PMID:19451317
Zweigenthal, Virginia; Joyner, Kate
Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a common and serious public health concern, particularly in South Africa, but it is not well managed in primary care. Aim This review aims to summarise the current state of knowledge regarding health sector-based interventions for IPV, their integration into health systems and services and the perspectives of service users and healthcare workers on IPV care, focusing on the South African context. Method PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Google Scholar were searched between January 2012 and May 2014. All types of study design were included, critically appraised and summarised. Results Exposure to IPV leads to wide-ranging and serious health effects. There is sufficient evidence that intervening in IPV in primary care can improve outcomes. Women who have experienced IPV have described an appropriate response by healthcare providers to be non-judgmental, understanding and empathetic. IPV interventions that are complex, comprehensive and utilise systems-wide approaches have been most effective, but system- and society-level barriers hamper implementation. Gender inequities should not be overlooked when responding to IPV. Conclusion Further evaluations of health sector responses to IPV are needed, in order to assist health services to determine the most appropriate models of care, how these can be integrated into current systems and how they can be supported in managing IPV. The need for this research should not prevent health services and healthcare providers from implementing IPV care, but rather should guide the development of rigorous contextually-appropriate evaluations. PMID:26245388
Teten, Andra L.; Sherman, Michelle D.; Han, Xiaotong
Among male veterans and their female partners seeking therapy for relationship issues, three violence profiles were identified based on self-reports of physical violence: nonviolent, in which neither partner reported perpetrating physical violence (44%); one-sided violent, in which one partner reported perpetrating violence (30%); and mutually…
Yick, Alice G; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Agbayani-Siewert, Pauline
Because the Chinese tend to display psychological problems such as depression in somatic This article examines cultural aspects, experiences, and the mental health consequences of partner violence among families of Chinese descent. A total of 262 Chinese men and women participated in a telephone survey about partner violence and psychological well-being. Symptoms, two indicators of mental health were employed in the research study. Findings indicated a high level of verbal aggression both perpetrated and sustained by participants. Rates of physical abuse were lower; however, these figures dispel the model minority myth associated with Asian Americans. In addition, findings showed a positive correlation between depression and partner violence. Those who experienced verbal and physical aggression by a spouse/intimate partner in the last 12 months were more likely to experience depression. Those who perpetrated physical aggression were more likely to experience somatic symptoms. Practice and research implications are highlighted. PMID:14692179
Bianchi, Ann L; Cesario, Sandra K; McFarlane, Judith
Intimate partner violence is a public health problem that affects many women during pregnancy and can compromise the health and safety of mothers and infants. Identification and routine assessment of intimate partner violence during pregnancy is essential, and health care providers must be afforded training and resources that support an effective screening and assessment program. The essential components of an intimate partner violence assessment program for women who are abused during pregnancy are explored. PMID:27234157
Anetzberger, G J
This article on elderly adult survivors of domestic violence (usually women) reviews the literature that examines the impact on later life of domestic violence experienced earlier in life and that examines the effects of elder abuse perpetrated by adult family members. The discussion is illustrated with case studies and figures that list the physical, psychological, behavioral, and social effects of each type of violence as well as intervening variables. Next, the paper reviews the influence of culture and ethnicity on the meaning attached to elder abuse and on help-seeking or accepting behavior. The article then proposes a conceptual framework that uses contributing factors (cultural background, individual influences, and cohort influences), modifying factors (the nature of violence, personal circumstances, and relationship with perpetrator), the meaning of violence, and the effects on the survivor to explain the effects of early or late family violence on elderly adult survivors. The discussion notes that the framework focuses on negative effects but that survivors of domestic violence can experience positive effects, such as the development of personal coping skills. The article ends by noting that this proposed framework has clinical implications because it recognizes that the effects of domestic violence on elderly adults may be complicated, it helps practitioners link symptoms to domestic violence, it helps practitioners realize that the meaning of domestic violence may vary among elderly victims, and it shows that family violence occurs in a social context. PMID:12322016
Shorey, Ryan C.; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Labrecque, Lindsay; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Temple, Jeff R.; Stuart, Gregory L.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious and prevalent problem throughout the United States. Currently, individuals arrested for domestic violence are often court mandated to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). However, little is known about the arrest histories of these individuals, especially women. The current study examined the arrest histories of men (n = 303) and women (n = 82) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to BIPs. Results demonstrated that over 30% of the entire sample had been previously arrested for a non-violent offense, and over 25% of the participants had been previously arrested for a violent offense other than domestic violence. Moreover, men were arrested significantly more frequently for violence-related and non-violent offenses than their female counterparts. In addition, men were more likely than women to have consumed binge-levels of alcohol prior to the offense that led to their most recent arrest and court-referral to a BIP. Lastly, arrest history was positively associated with physical and psychological aggression perpetration against an intimate partner for men only, such that more previous arrests were associated with more frequent aggression. These results provide evidence that many men and women arrested for domestic violence have engaged in a number of diverse criminal acts during their lifetimes, suggesting that BIPs may need to address general criminal behavior. PMID:25379068
Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Fals-Stewart, William
This study examined partner violence before and in the first and second year after behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for 103 married or cohabiting women seeking alcohol dependence treatment and their male partners, and used a demographically matched non-alcoholic comparison sample. The treatment sample received M = 16.7 BCT sessions over 5-6 months. Follow-up rates for the treatment sample at years 1 and 2 were 88% and 83%, respectively. In the year before BCT, 68% of female alcoholic patients had been violent toward their male partner, nearly five times the comparison sample rate of 15%. In the year after BCT, violence prevalence decreased significantly to 31% of the treatment sample. Women were classified as remitted after treatment if they demonstrated abstinence or minimal substance use and no serious consequences related to substance use. In year 1 following BCT, 45% were classified as remitted, and 49% were classified as remitted in year 2. Among remitted patients in the year after BCT, violence prevalence of 22% did not differ from the comparison sample and was significantly lower than the rate among relapsed patients (38%). Results for male-perpetrated violence and for the second year after BCT were similar to the first year. Results supported predictions that partner violence would decrease after BCT, and that clinically significant violence reductions to the level of a non-alcoholic comparison sample would occur for patients whose alcoholism was remitted after BCT. These findings replicate previous research among men with alcoholism. PMID:19968389
Devries, Karen M; Kishor, Sunita; Johnson, Holly; Stöckl, Heidi; Bacchus, Loraine J; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Watts, Charlotte
We aimed to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy across 19 countries, and examine trends across age groups and UN regions. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (20 surveys from 15 countries) and the International Violence Against Women Surveys (4 surveys from 4 countries) carried out between 1998 and 2007. Our data suggest that intimate partner violence during a pregnancy is a common experience. The prevalence of IPV during pregnancy ranged from approximately 2.0% in Australia, Cambodia, Denmark and the Philippines to 13.5% in Uganda among ever-pregnant, ever-partnered women; half of the surveys estimated prevalence to be between 3.9 and 8.7%. Prevalence appeared to be higher in African and Latin American countries relative to the European and Asian countries surveyed. In most settings, prevalence was relatively constant in the younger age groups (age 15-35), and then appeared to decline very slightly after age 35. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is more common than some maternal health conditions routinely screened for in antenatal care. Global initiatives to reduce maternal mortality and improve maternal health must devote increased attention to violence against women, particularly violence during pregnancy. PMID:21111360
Recognizing the reality of domestic violence and its impact on the workplace, the Police and Security Staff of a leading hospital launched a team effort to protect and empower abused employees and break the cycle of violence. In this article, the author describes how the team was formed, how it operates, and the results it has achieved. PMID:26978955
Cheng, Diana; Salimi, Shabnam; Terplan, Mishka; Chisolm, Margaret S.
OBJECTIVE To determine the association of intimate partner violence with maternal cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. METHODS Data were obtained for 196,391 U.S. mothers who delivered live neonates from 2004–2008 and completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey 2–9 months postpartum. Intimate partner violence was defined as being physically hurt by a current or expartner in the year before or during pregnancy. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS Compared with nonphysically abused women, those who experienced physical abuse were 2.1 times more likely to smoke before pregnancy (44.0% compared with 21.0%, P<.001) and 2.6 times more likely to smoke during pregnancy (29.6% compared with 11.4%, P<.001). Smoking prevalence during pregnancy was highest for abused women who were non-Hispanic white (42.3% smoked) and lowest for nonabused college graduates (2.2% smoked). Smoking rates more than tripled for college graduates in abusive relationships (2.2% compared with 7.1%). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, abused women were significantly more likely to smoke during pregnancy than nonabused women (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, P<.001, 95% confidence interval 1.80–2.12). CONCLUSION Women who experienced intimate partner violence had significantly higher rates of smoking before pregnancy and were less likely to quit during pregnancy than women who did not experience intimate partner violence. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the U.S. Public Services Task Force recommend routine intimate partner violence screening with appropriate interventions to prevent violence against women, optimize safety, and improve health. Additional and targeted intimate partner violence assessment of women who smoke during pregnancy may prove especially beneficial. PMID:25568990
Achor, JU; Ibekwe, PC
Background: Even though intimate partner violence represents a major public health problem in Nigeria, much of its associated burden of psychiatric morbidity presenting in the clinical setting goes unrecognized and untreated. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the psychiatric perspectives on intimate partner violence and highlight the barriers that militate against the detection of these problems in clinical contexts. Method: This paper utilized the framework of relevant case series and a focused review of the relevant literature to describe and annotate the psychiatric problems of the victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in southeast Nigeria. Results: The major barriers to detection of the psychiatric disorders occurring in the context of intimate partner violence include patients’ feelings of shame, reticence about the abuse experiences in the clinical encounter, and cloaking of their emotional distress in somatic complaints. Also, the poor interviewing skills of many doctors and their difficulty in processing psychosocial matters contributes to the non-detection of psychiatric problems occurring in the context of partner violence. Conclusion: Concerted efforts directed towards the improved detection, treatment and/or referral of patients presenting with these difficulties will enhance their wellbeing and quality of life. PMID:23209997
Crane, Cory A.; Oberleitner, Lindsay M.S.; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J.
Objective The current investigation sought to examine the direct associations and interactions among individual and concurrent alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, and opioid use diagnoses with the perpetration of intimate partner violence as well as to assess gender differences across these associations within a large forensic sample of male and female offenders. Method Participants (1,290 male and 294 female) completed a court-mandated substance abuse evaluation during which they completed a clinical interview, either endorsing or denying recent physical partner violence perpetration. Specific substance use disorders were diagnosed based primarily upon responses to the clinical interview and were used to predict partner violence perpetration using logistic regression. Results Alcohol and cocaine use disorders were significantly associated with IPV perpetration over the past year. Cannabis and opioid use disorders were not directly associated with IPV. A comorbid alcohol use diagnosis increased the likelihood of IPV perpetration among participants with either a cannabis or a cocaine use disorder while participants with an alcohol use disorder were less likely to be violent if they had also met criteria for a cannabis use disorder. These relationships held across males and females. Conclusions The current findings emphasize the importance of assessing associations between specific substances of abuse in researching and predicting partner violence and suggest that future efforts focus on the development of integrated treatments for co-occurring partner violence and substance use disorders. PMID:27011885
McConochie, William A.
The At Risk for Violence Test (ARFV) is a test used to identify violence prone teens and adults. The ARFV, teen version, is designed for use in public and private schools, grades 6 through 12, as an annual screening early in the school year. Norms for girls and boys are used for scoring reports. The adult version may be used to screen job…
Callands, Tamora A.; Sipsma, Heather L.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Hansen, Nathan B.
Women who experience intimate partner violence may be at elevated risk for poor sexual health outcomes including sexual transmitted infections (STIs). This association however, has not been consistently demonstrated in low-income or post-conflict countries; furthermore, the role that attitudes towards intimate partner violence play in sexual health outcomes and behaviour has rarely been examined. We examined associations between intimate partner violence experiences, accepting attitudes towards physical intimate partner violence, and sexual health and behavioural outcomes among 592 young women in post-conflict Liberia. Participants’ experiences with either moderate or severe physical violence or sexual violence were common. Additionally, accepting attitudes towards physical intimate partner violence were positively associated with reporting STI symptoms, intimate partner violence experiences and the ability to negotiate safe sex. Findings suggest that for sexual health promotion and risk reduction intervention efforts to achieve full impact, interventions must address the contextual influence of violence, including individual attitudes toward intimate partner violence. PMID:23586393
Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Toner, Brenda; Mason, Robin; Vidal, Carolina; McKenzie, Kwame
Research from the United States suggests that Latin American immigrant and refugee women are one of the groups most greatly impacted by intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated mental health consequences including higher rates of depression than women from other ethno-racial groups. In Canada, little is known about the experience of IPV and mental health among this population. Even in the broader North American context, how Latin American women themselves perceive the connection between IPV and depression is unknown. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Using a convenience and snowball sampling method, semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted and thematic content analysis was completed supported by Nvivo9(®) qualitative data management software. All participants had experienced some form of IPV in their adult lives, with psychological violence being the most common. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population. PMID:25472614
Sylaska, Kateryna M; Edwards, Katie M
Although research on disclosure following intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is burgeoning, sexual minority young adults' (lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, questioning, etc.; LGBQ+) experiences have not received equal attention. The current study employed the minority stress framework to examine disclosure experiences of LGBQ+ college students across the United States reporting physical IPV victimization within their current relationship (n = 77). Participants completed measures assessing minority stress and IPV disclosure, and answered open-ended questions regarding the most and least helpful persons/responses to disclosure or reasons for non-disclosure. Results indicated that approximately one-third (35 %) of victims disclosed to at least one person, with friends being the most common recipients. Thematic analyses indicated that talking or listening to the victim was considered the most helpful response and not understanding the situation least helpful. Reasons for non-disclosure centered on themes of the victims' perception that the IPV was not a big deal. Quantitative findings regarding physical IPV disclosure indicated that non-disclosers experienced greater minority stress than disclosers. The current study suggests the presence of differences between sexual minority (i.e., LGBQ +persons) and non-sexual minority persons, as well as between LGBQ+ young adults/college students and older adults and presents a theoretical structure (i.e., minority stress framework) through which these differences may be understood. PMID:25845665
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine
Objectives The paper describes the creation of a new scale to measure intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay and bisexual men. Methods Seven focus group discussions were held with gay and bisexual men, focusing on defining intimate partner violence: 30 forms of IPV were identified. A venue-recruited sample of 912 gay and bisexual men was surveyed, examining definitional understanding and recent experiences of each of the 30 forms of IPV. Participants were also asked questions from the CDC definition of intimate partner violence and the short-form of the Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2S). Factor analysis of responses to the definitional questions was used to create the IPV-GBM scale, and the prevalence of intimate partner violence was compared with that identified by the CDC and CTS2S measures of intimate partner violence. Results A 23-item scale, with 5 unique domains, was created, with strong internal reliability (Cronbach Alpha >.90). The IPV-GBM scale mirrored both the CDC and CTS2S definitions of intimate partner violence, but contained additional domains such as controlling violence, monitoring behaviors, emotional violence, and HIV-related violence. The new scale identified a significantly higher prevalence of IPV than either of the more commonly used measures. Conclusions The results presented here provide encouraging evidence for a new, more accurate measure of intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men in the U.S. PMID:23755098
Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further
Bagwell-Gray, Meredith E; Messing, Jill Theresa; Baldwin-White, Adrienne
Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a significant aspect of intimate partner violence (IPV). While intimate partners commit one third of sexual assaults, IPSV is often overlooked in studies about IPV and in research on sexual violence. There are difficulties identifying, defining, and measuring IPSV, and research lacks consistency in terminology and measurement. The purpose of this article is to review the terms, definitions, and measurements associated with IPSV. Academic journals and nonscholarly documents from the United States were searched for articles and reports associated with the study of sexual violence and IPV. Forty-nine documents met the criteria for inclusion. A four-part taxonomy defining IPSV was developed, which included IPSV, intimate partner sexual coercion, intimate partner sexual abuse, and intimate partner forced sexual activity. The average weighted prevalence rates of these various forms of IPSV were calculated across included research studies. However, the measurements generally used to assess IPV do not adequately measure IPSV. Future research should consist terms to ensure consistent conceptualization and measurement of IPSV and to inform practice with survivors. PMID:25561088
Renner, Lynette M; Whitney, Stephen D; Vasquez, Matthew
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that reaches across age, sex, and ethnicity. In this study, we examined risk factors for physical IPV perpetration among young adult males and females from four ethnic groups. Data were taken from Waves 1-3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample included 10,141 Wave 3 respondents (ages ranged from 18-27 years old) who reported being in a current romantic relationship. Physical IPV perpetration was reported by 14.10% of White, 23.28% of Black, 18.82% of Latino, and 18.02% of Asian males. Physical IPV perpetration was reported by 19.01% of White, 24.80% of Black, 25.97% of Latina, and 19.21% of Asian females. Following an ecological framework, proximal risk factors at intrapersonal and interpersonal levels were included in the analyses. Despite finding fairly consistent percentage of physical IPV perpetration across sample groups, the risk factors for physical IPV perpetration were rather uncommon across sex and ethnicity. Only 1 factor--psychological IPV perpetration toward a romantic partner--was consistently associated with physical IPV perpetration across all groups. Our findings have implications for tailoring prevention and intervention efforts toward risk factors of physical IPV perpetration that are uniquely associated with biological sex and ethnicity. PMID:25774417
Levendosky, Alytia A; Lannert, Brittany; Yalch, Matthew
Approximately 25% of women in the United States report having experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) in an adult relationship with a male partner. For affected women, IPV has been shown to increase the risk of psychopathology such as depression, anxiety, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Further, studies suggest that the risk of IPV (victimization or perpetration) may be carried intergenerationally, and children exposed to IPV are at a greater risk of both attachment insecurity and internalizing/externalizing problems. The authors employ an attachment perspective to describe how insecure/non-balanced working models of the relational self and others may be evoked by, elicit, or exacerbate maladaptive outcomes following experiences of IPV for mothers and their children. This article draws on both rich theory and empirical evidence in a discussion of attachment patterns in violent relationships, psychopathological outcomes for exposed women, disruptions in the caregiving relationship that may confer risk to children of exposed mothers, and the biological, social, and attachment risk factors for children exposed to IPV. A clinical case example is presented and discussed in the context of attachment theory. PMID:23002702
Ambuel, B; Hamberger, L K; Lahti, J
Although partner violence is a common source of injury for women, physicians and female patients rarely discuss this problem. We outline a systematic approach to clinical practice that includes screening, case finding, intervention, and changes in the office environment. The clinician can begin to address partner violence by artfully applying these techniques. Future health outcomes research will provide additional guidance to clinical practice. We conclude with a quote from a third year medical student at the Medical College of Wisconsin who has a clear and challenging vision of the future: "I look forward to helping victims of domestic violence and eradicating domestic violence from the face of the earth just as smallpox has been eliminated." PMID:8936032
Ta Park, Van M; Hayes, Donald K; Humphreys, Janice
Prenatal health care counseling is associated with positive health outcomes for mothers and infants. Moreover, pregnant women are considered a vulnerable population at risk of being victims of intimate partner violence. Pregnancy provides a unique opportunity to identify and refer women experiencing intimate partner violence to community resources; however, in prior research, most women reported that their prenatal care providers did not talk to them about intimate partner violence. Given the importance for providers to offer prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence, it is concerning that there is scant knowledge on Asian, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander mothers' experiences in this area. The study's objectives were (a) to determine the proportion of mothers who received prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence; and, (b) to examine racial differences of those who received prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence. Hawai'i's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data from 2004-08 were analyzed for 8,120 mothers with information on receipt of intimate partner violence prenatal health care counseling. Overall, 47.7% of mothers were counseled on intimate partner violence. Compared to Whites, Native Hawaiians, Japanese, Chinese, and Koreans were significantly less likely to report receiving prenatal health care counseling in intimate partner violence, but the opposite association was observed for Samoans. Intimate partner violence continues to be a significant problem for women, thus, this study's findings may be used as important baseline data to measure the progress made given the implementation of the new Guidelines for Women's Preventive Services in intimate partner violence screening and counseling. PMID:24843836
Moghaddam Hosseini, Vahideh; Asadi, Zahra Sadat; Akaberi, Arash; Hashemian, Masoumeh
Intimate partner violence against women is a widespread phenomenon that is the cause of many deleterious health and social consequences. This study examines the impact of some risk factors on partner violence in the eastern region of Iran, using path analysis. The study used a population-based cross sectional study design. In this study, 251 married women who were referred to the health centers were selected through a proportionally stratified and randomized sampling method. Domestic violence was measured using Conflict Tactics Scale and the socio-demographic variable was assessed by a self-report questionnaire. Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling was used for evaluating the overall path analysis and the direct and indirect p-value was estimated by Bootstrap method. AMOS and SPSS software were used to analyze data. The prevalence of overall violence was 78.1%, with 37.8% and 0.8% of women reporting minor and severe violence, respectively, and 39.8% reporting both severe and minor forms of violence. Psychological violence was the most common type of violence reported (66.5%). The model showed that husbands' drug abuse and women's higher level of education compared to their husbands were the first and second most important factors that significantly and directly influenced the violence. The women's attitude, however, had the least effect on the violence. The findings indicated that higher educated women and women with addicted husbands were more likely to experience violence. Treating the drug abuse disorders, especially mental disorders, using behavioral couple's therapy, as well as modifying certain traditional and cultural biases against women's empowerment are suggested. PMID:23909674
Conroy, Amy A
Extramarital sexual partnerships are a common reason for intimate partner violence (IPV) in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the fact that IPV requires an interaction between two partners, the majority of the research focuses on individuals rather than the broader relationship context where such violence takes place. Using a sample of 422 married couples from rural Malawi, this study examined the dyadic environment of marital infidelity and two types of IPV victimization: sexual coercion and physical abuse. We considered both self-reported marital infidelity and perceived partner infidelity to assess how well partners knew each other and to compare their respective associations with IPV. Logistic regression was used to test for associations between self-reported marital infidelity and IPV. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine actor and partner effects of perceived partner infidelity on an individual's and their partner's experience of IPV. The results show that self-reported marital infidelity was not significantly associated with IPV for men or women. However, the perception of a partner's infidelity was significantly associated with both an individual's and their partner's risk for sexual coercion and physical abuse. Contrary to the "sexual double standard" hypothesis, women were not significantly more likely than men to report being physically abused when their partners suspected infidelity. Future studies should continue to explore the relationship context of IPV in sub-Saharan Africa in order to understand how spouses mutually shape each other's experience of IPV and subsequent health outcomes. PMID:24789050
Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Plasencia, Maribel; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L
Although research has shown links between family-of-origin violence (FOV), intimate partner violence (IPV), and hostility, research has not examined whether hostility mediates the relationship between FOV and IPV. The current study examined whether hostility mediates FOV and IPV perpetration in 302 men arrested for domestic violence. Results demonstrated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between father-to-participant FOV and physical and psychological IPV, and the relationship between mother-to-participant FOV and physical IPV. Results indicated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between experiencing and witnessing FOV and physical IPV (composite FOV), and partially mediated the relationship between composite FOV and psychological aggression. PMID:26712239
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships. PMID:23194141
Leppäkoski, Tuija; Paavilainen, Eija
Aims and objectives. To examine interventions and practices carried out by the emergency department professionals. Background. Developing the related practices provides an opportunity for early intervention in women exposed to intimate partner violence who visit the emergency department. Design. The descriptive, cross-sectional multi-centre designed study with a convenience sample was used to acquire more information to illustrate the situation of intervening in intimate partner violence at Finnish emergency departments. Participants. A total of 24-hour emergency departments from all over Finland participated in the study. Methods. Research materials were collected by questionnaires given to emergency department professionals (n = 950) and 51% were returned. Data analysis. The data were analysed using quantitative methods. Chi-square test was used to test the statistical significance of the data. A p-value of <0·05 was considered to indicate statistical significance of each analysis. Results. The findings of this study reveal that the emergency department professionals who had common practices and written procedures for handling intimate partner violence reported having helped both women and perpetrators more often than those without. Good cooperation with different help providers, opportunities to consult them and training received facilitated intervention methods. Conclusions. There is a need for more effective change of information and cooperation with different help providers concerning how to act with women and their family members in intimate partner violence situations. Emergency department professionals do not know enough about the legislation concerning intimate partner violence and their professional duty, e.g. if a child's health and well-being are in danger. Relevance to clinical practice. This information can be utilised in research, professional education, further training and practical work and when planning the prevention of intimate partner
Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis
Objective To assess the prevalence of intimate partner violence, substance use, and their co-occurrence during pregnancy and examines their associations with adverse neonatal outcomes. Study design Between February 2009 and February 2010, pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at three urban clinics were screened for intimate partner violence and substance use between 24-28 weeks gestation. A chart review was conducted upon delivery to assess for adverse neonatal outcomes of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, and small for gestational age (SGA). Results Maternal and neonatal data were collected on 166 mothers and their neonates. Overall, 19% of the sample reported intimate partner violence during their pregnancies. Of the study's neonates 41% had at least one adverse neonatal outcome. Nearly half of the mothers reported using at least one substance during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence had a higher prevalence of marijuana use than their non-abused counterparts (p < 0.01). Experiencing intimate partner violence was associated with a fourfold increase in having a SGA neonate (aOR = 4.00; 95% CI 1.58 – 9.97). Women who reported marijuana use had five times the odds of having a neonate classified as SGA (aOR = 5.16, 95% CI 2.24 – 11.89) or LBW (aOR 5.00; 95% CI 1.98 – 12.65). Conclusions The prevalence of intimate partner violence during pregnancy and substance use is high in urban mothers, the risks of which extend to their neonates. Pediatric providers are urged to routinely screen for both issues and recognize the impact of co-occurrence of these risk factors on poor neonatal and childhood outcomes. PMID:23485028
Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Salazar, Laura F; Sullivan, Patrick S
Objective: Although the research community has begun to recognize intimate partner violence (IPV) as an important issue in same-sex relationships, there has been a lack of attention to characteristics of these relationships that may be associated with IPV. In particular, there has been a lack of attention paid to the associations between dyadic characteristics and IPV in same-sex relationships. This paper examined associations between dyadic characteristics, including relationship satisfaction, communal coping and efficacy, and perpetrating and experiencing IPV among a sample of United States men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: We collected data via an online survey with 528 MSM, who were greater than 18 years of age and reported at least one male sex partner in the last 12 months. The analysis examined dyadic factors associated with reporting of experiencing and perpetrating emotional violence, physical violence, and sexual violence. Results: The prevalence of violence in the sample ranged from nine percent reporting perpetrating sexual violence to 33% of men reporting experiencing emotional violence. MSM who reported greater satisfaction with their relationship or who reported a higher degree of concordance with their partner on lifestyle choices were less likely to report experiencing or perpetrating emotional violence. MSM who perceived a stigma to being in a male same-sex couple were less likely to report experiencing or perpetrating sexual violence. Conclusion: The results presented here demonstrate high levels of IPV among MSM and that dyadic characteristics are associated with the occurrence of IPV. Understanding relationship characteristics associated with increased IPV among same-sex male couples can contribute to the development of more accurate IPV screening tools, and more sensitively and appropriately designed intervention messages. PMID:21731790
Ben Natan, Merav; Abramov, Luda; Dhokarker, Avigail; Israelov, Etery
Violence against women has become a frequent occurrence. In Israel, some 200,000 women are subjected to various types of violence by their intimate partners annually. Routine screening for intimate partner violence is endorsed by the Ministry of Health in Israel; however, screening rates in health-care settings remain problematic. This study aimed to examine whether the model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) succeeds in predicting women's intention to comply with screening for intimate partner violence. A questionnaire based on the literature review and research model was administered to a convenience sample of 200 married women. Although only 4.5% (n = 9) of respondents were screened for violence at various health-care institutions over the past year, 75% (n = 150) of women declared that they intend to cooperate with screening. A positive correlation was found between women's marriage duration, beliefs concerning violence, attitudes towards screening, family member support for compliance with screening-and women's intention to comply with screening. The TRA succeeds in partially predicting women's intention to comply with screening. PMID:23577975
Kane, Michael N; Green, Diane; Jacobs, Robin J
Educational programs in human service professions such as social work, criminal justice, psychology, and public administration stress the importance of recognizing domestic/intimate partner violence as well as elder abuse. Students' abilities to recognize domestic violence in older couples have not been well-investigated. In this study, three vignettes were developed (Pat and Lee at age 75, Pat and Lee at age 30, Imagine yourself with Lee at age 75) in which intimate partner violence was perpetrated by the character Lee. Twenty-five items followed each vignette. When the variables of educational standing (graduate/undergraduate), ethnicity, and academic major were controlled, there were significant differences between the vignettes in 14 of 25 items (General Linear Model, F = 1.552, df = 50, p = .012). More than three out of four respondents for each vignette identified this as domestic violence and believed there was potential for serious harm. However, respondents were less likely to believe that a 75-year-old partner would know when to terminate a relationship in which there was intimate partner violence. Respondents who were asked to imagine themselves with Lee at 75 were likely to perceive Lee as more dangerous than respondents for the other vignettes. Implications are considered for educators. PMID:21253932
Chan, Ko Ling; Zhang, Yulian
This study investigates the impact of the earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan, China on stressed families already experiencing domestic violence. We hypothesized that cumulative postdisaster stress would increase marital aggression and that the well-being of victims would deteriorate following the quake. A total of 186 women were recruited for this study. Results show that all types of family violence, including psychological aggression and physical violence between partners, increased after the earthquake. We provided preliminary evidence that psychological aggression was significantly associated with the detrimental effects on victims' mental and physical functioning. The findings support the need for violence assessment among victims of earthquakes, and we recommend that violence prevention be considered as part of the intervention during such natural disasters. PMID:21846023
Jiao, Yanpeng; Sun, Ivan Y; Farmer, Ashley K; Lin, Kai
Although a large number of studies have been conducted worldwide to examine various aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV), comparative study of people's views on such violence in Chinese societies has been scarce. Using survey data collected from more than 850 college students in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, this study specifically assessed the impact of attitudes toward gender role and violence, personal and vicarious experience, demographic characteristics, and locality on students' definitions of IPV. The Taiwanese students were most likely to define a broader range of abusive behavior as IPV, followed by Hong Kong and Beijing students. Gender role and violence attitudes appeared to be most important predictors of IPV definitions. College students who supported the notion of male dominance were more likely to have a narrower definition of IPV, whereas those who viewed domestic violence as crime were more inclined to have a broader definition of IPV. Implications for future research and policy were discussed. PMID:25538119
Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R
Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113
Nascimento, Edna de Fátima Gonçalves Alves do; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de
This was a qualitative exploratory study with the objective of identifying perceptions and practices among health professionals in Angola concerning intimate partner violence against women. Semi-structured interviews were held with a senior health administrator, head nurses, medical directors, psychologists, and nurse technicians in three national hospitals in the capital city of Luanda. The perceptions of Angolan health professionals towards violence against women are marked by the cultural construction of woman's social role in the family and the belief in male superiority and female weakness. Despite their familiarity with the types of violence and the consequences for physical and mental health, the health professionals' practices in providing care for women in situations of violence focus on the treatment of physical injuries, overlooking the subjectivity and complexity of these situations. Recent inclusion of the issue in public policies is reflected in health professionals' practices and raises challenges for the health sector in caring for women in situations of violence. PMID:25099046
Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R.
Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113
Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema
Introduction. Violence against women has serious consequences for their reproductive and sexual health including birth outcomes. In Ethiopia, though the average parity of pregnant women is much higher than in other African countries, the link between intimate partner violence with low birth weight is unknown. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the association between intimate partner violence and low birth weight among pregnant women. Method. Hospital based case-control study was conducted among 387 mothers (129 cases and 258 controls). Anthropometric measurements were taken both from mothers and their live births. The association between intimate partner violence and birth weight was computed through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses and statistical significance was declared at P < 0.05. Result. Out of 387 interviewed mothers, 100 (25.8%) had experienced intimate partner violence during their index pregnancy period. Relatively more mothers of low birth weight infants were abused (48%) compared with controls (16.4%). Those mothers who suffered acts of any type of intimate partner violence during pregnancy were three times more likely to have a newborn with low birth weight (95% CI; (1.57 to 7.18)). The association between overall intimate partner violence and LBW was adjusted for potential confounder variables. Conclusion. This research result gives insight for health professional about the importance of screening for intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Health care providers should consider violence in their practice and try to identify women at risk. PMID:26798345
Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Lloyd, Jacqueline
Abstract We describe a vision of screening and intervention for Intimate Partner Violence informed by deliberations during the December 2013 Intimate Partner Violence Screening and Counseling Research Symposium and the resultant manuscripts featured in this special issue of the Journal of Women's Health. Our vision includes universal screening and intervention, when indicated, which occurs routinely as part of comprehensive physical and behavioral health services that are both patient centered and trauma informed. Areas for future research needed to realize this vision are discussed. PMID:25405270
Parson, Nia; Escobar, Rebecca; Merced, Mariam; Trautwein, Anna
This article is based on qualitative research investigating Spanish-speaking immigrant women's experiences of gender-based intimate partner violence (GBPV) and help seeking in New Jersey (2006-2008). Methods included interviews with these women, health care and social service providers, and community members. This article reveals that as many immigrant women live at the intersections of structural, normalized, and gender-based partner violence, integrated social service responses emerge as key health care responses to GBPV. The health impacts of undocumented and precariously documented migration and GBPV demand policy interventions and dedication of resources to address the multi-faceted needs of this population. PMID:25148835
Ben Natan, Merav; Muasi, Hiba; Farhan, Fidaa; Shhada, Miada; Masarwa, Gada
In the present study, we explored whether the research model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action predicts Israeli Arab Muslim women's willingness to be screened for intimate partner violence at healthcare facilities. Three hundred women completed a questionnaire. Most women (68.4%) expressed willingness to be screened, however, only 16% of them had been screened over the past year. Women's beliefs about screening for intimate partner violence and the support of significant others were found to predict this willingness. The study may constitute an initial foundation for determining national policy with the aim of detecting and eradicating the phenomenon among this unique population. PMID:24636365
Durfee, Alesha; Messing, Jill Theresa
One increasingly important resource for victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) is domestic violence civil protection orders (POs). Using a transdisciplinary framework, this article critically examines the use of POs by IPV victims seeking shelter services. Previous contact with police and medical professionals are the strongest predictors of having obtained a PO; education level, income, age, race, and having children in the shelter are also significant predictors of having obtained a PO. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research on help-seeking behaviors and the growing body of transdisciplinary research on violence against women. PMID:22831846
Romito, Patrizia; Beltramini, Lucia; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta
Only a few studies have analyzed the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on male and female adolescents, taking into account other kinds of violence that can affect their health. In this study, 43.7% of female adolescents and 34.8% of males reported IPV; females reported more psychological and sexual IPV, with no differences for physical IPV. Controlling for family and sexual violence and other confounding factors, female adolescents exposed to IPV had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for depression, panic attacks, eating problems, and suicidal ideation. For male adolescents, only the OR of eating problems almost reached statistical significance. PMID:23363657
Goo, Leslie; Harlow, Siobán D
Delivery assistance by skilled health personnel is a key progress indicator for Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to reduce the worldwide maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The role of socio-demographic factors in determining skilled attendance at delivery has been widely explored, but relatively little attention has been paid to the effect of gender power relations on delivery care. This analysis investigated whether women's status in the household, as measured by their experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), affected skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS). 975 ever-married women who had given birth in the past year and completed the KDHS domestic violence module were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between skilled attendance and IPV. In this sample, 46% reported having experienced any type of IPV, with 39% reporting physical violence, 21% emotional violence, and 13% sexual violence. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and number of antenatal visits, lifetime experience of emotional violence was found to decrease the odds of skilled attendance at most recent delivery by 40%, while lifetime experience of physical violence reduced the odds by 29%. Women's experience of IPV may influence receipt of skilled attendance during parturition, and should be addressed as national programs and their international partners align efforts to contribute to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5. PMID:21688110
Hirschel, David; Hutchison, Ira
The nexus between substance abuse and intimate partner violence has been studied in depth. The interrelationship between drinking, intimate partner violence, and an officer's decision to make an arrest has not received as much attention. The issue is complicated by the fact that either or both of the involved parties may have been drinking and the…
Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget
Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages. PMID:25392386
Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.
The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated in a larger investigation of the psychological and psychophysiological correlates of recent partner violence among women seeking help for the abuse. Race was examined as a moderator of the relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms. Although mean levels of partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms did not significantly differ between African American and Caucasian women, linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant positive relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for African American women; whereas there was no association observed between these variables for Caucasian women. Post hoc analyses revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms partially mediated the association between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for the African American women. The current findings underscore the importance of considering race when studying the effect of partner violence on women’s health. PMID:23616911
Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.
This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…
Janssen, Patricia A.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Kumar, Ravinesh A.; Stefanakis, Harry; Spidel, Alicia L.; Simpson, Elizabeth M.
The past two decades have yielded a recognition that intimate partner violence is ubiquitous. Although violence within relationships is bidirectional, there is acknowledgment that violence directed against women is more persistent and dangerous. Strategies for treatment of men have been largely unsuccessful, and studies of women-centered…
Nelson, Kara A; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L; Masho, Saba W
Sub-Saharan African countries are heavily burdened with HIV, which disproportionately affects women of reproductive age. Extant literature is inconsistent regarding the link between intimate partner violence and HIV. Data from the 2007 Zambian Demographic Health Survey of women aged 15-49 (n = 5014) were analysed. The influence of abuse by a current or former husband on consent to HIV testing and HIV positivity were evaluated. The unadjusted analysis showed a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and consent to testing for HIV. Stratified analysis showed that there was a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and HIV testing in rural areas but not in urban areas. However, the association lost its significance when adjusted for confounding factors. No statistically significant association was found between intimate partner violence and HIV-positive status. It is encouraging that women who experienced intimate partner were testing for HIV. Prevention efforts should continue addressing the needs of this population. PMID:26185042
Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Tiberio, Stacey S
The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking partners' friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples' psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples' friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples' psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples' friend stress predicted increases in couples' partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples' relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples' friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples' psychological partner violence. PMID:23358887
Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.
This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274
Teitelman, Anne M; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S; Jemmott, John B
This article describes the influence of abusive and nonabusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had two or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard, as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274
Weeks, Lori E; Macquarrie, Colleen; Begley, Lorraine; Gill, Carmen; Leblanc, Kristal D
Little is known about midlife and older women who experience intimate partner violence living in rural places and their resource needs. Guided by a strengths perspective, we provided insights into resources that midlife and older women use, or would like to use, in their journey in leaving an abusive partner. Eight women who had left an abusive partner participated in a face-to-face interview. They drew on a wide variety of paid and unpaid resources, while each woman had a unique set of resources that contributed to her being able to make such a significant life transition. It is clear that we need to have a variety of formal and informal resources available to older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural places, and new forms of resources need to be developed. Our results also indicate that increased efforts are needed in improving both public and professional education regarding older rural women and IPV. PMID:26798951
Zhang, Huaiyu; Pittman, Delishia M.; Lamis, Dorian A.; Fischer, Nicole L.; Schwenke, Tomina J.; Carr, Erika R.; Shah, Sanjay; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Childhood maltreatment places individuals, including African American women who are undereducated and economically disadvantaged, at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 192 African American women with a history in the prior year of both a suicide attempt and intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure. They were recruited from a public hospital that provides medical and mental health treatment to mostly low-income patients. A simple mediator model was used to examine if (1) existential well-being (sense of purpose) and/or religious well-being (relationship with God) mediated the link between childhood maltreatment and adult PTSD symptoms. Sequential multiple mediator models determined if physical and nonphysical IPV enhanced our understanding of the mediational association among the aforementioned variables. Findings suggest that existential well-being mediated the association between childhood maltreatment and adult PTSD symptoms in a simple mediator model, and existential well-being and recent nonphysical IPV served as sequential multiple mediators of this link. However, religious well-being and physical IPV were not significant mediators. Findings underscore the importance of enhancing existential well-being in the treatment of suicidal African American women with a history of childhood maltreatment and IPV. PMID:26989343
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.
The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples’ interpersonal stress related to not liking partners’ friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples’ psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples’ friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples’ psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples’ friend stress predicted increases in couples’ partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples’ relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples’ friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples’ psychological partner violence. PMID:23358887
McAndrew, Maureen; Pierre, Gaëlle C; Kojanis, Lee C
This pilot study sought to determine whether New York University College of Dentistry's online tutorial on domestic violence is effective for dental students poised to embark on their professional careers. The modular program is based on the RADAR model developed by the Massachusetts Medical Society. RADAR stands for Routinely screen, Ask direct questions, Document findings, Assess patient safety, and Review options and refer as indicated. An objective and validated measure, the Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey (PREMIS), was given pre- and post-tutorial to determine whether it impacted senior dental students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors about intimate partner violence. Study participants were twenty-five senior dental students (7 percent of a class of 358) who had not received didactic instruction in domestic violence for over two years. A quasi-experimental research design was utilized. Data analysis indicated statistically significant improvements in composite scale scores on the PREMIS Perceived Preparation, Perceived Knowledge, and Actual Knowledge sections. There was a statistically significant improvement on the self-efficacy and constraint opinion scales. The other six opinion scale scores showed improved but not statistically significant scores. This online tutorial was found to be effective in increasing the participants' perceived preparation, knowledge, and self-efficacy and decreasing perceptions of provider constraints in managing victims of intimate partner violence. PMID:25086151
This paper addresses the issue of intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany. Drawing on 32 in-depth interviews with Pakistani women in three cities in Germany, we found that psychological violence was the commonly reported violence among the study participants. The data showed that the process of immigration exacerbated tensions between spouses because of various immigration stressors such as threats to cultural identity, children’s socialization, and social isolation. In order to cope with the stressful spousal relations, women applied various indigenous strategies, but avoided seeking help from the host country’s formal care-providing institutions. This study also debunks some stereotypes and popular media clichés about the “victimhood of women from conservative developing countries” and provides an understanding of the issue of intimate partner violence within an immigration context. Further research with a larger sample will be helpful to understand immigration-induced stress and intimate partner violence in immigrant families. PMID:23984223
Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo
Alcohol consumption is often associated with violence against women. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between alcohol and other relevant variables in the intervention with men convicted of intimate partner violence, both at the individual and contextual spheres. Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem, Assumption of responsibility, Intimate support perception, Social rejection perception, Accumulation of stressful life events, Income perception and Social support in community are assessed in a sample of 291 participants in an intervention program for men condemned for intimate partner violence. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations and ANOVAs. Statistically significant differences were obtained among Risk consumers and Not risk consumers in Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem and Attribution of blame to personal context as individual variables and Intimate support perception, Social rejection and Accumulation of stressful life events as contextual variables. Results of previous work are confirmed and the importance of considering social factors in the participants' environment when considering decreasing alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence is demonstrated. New tools for enhancing interventions in rehabilitation programs with men convicted for violence against women is provided. PMID:23487276
Connors, Angela D.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Gray, Andrew L.
The following study is an evaluation of the Moderate Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (MIFVPP). The sample consisted of 298 male federal offenders who participated in the MIFVPP while incarcerated or on release within the community. Participants were assessed pre-, mid-, and postprogram using an assessment battery consisting of…
Renauer, Brian; Henning, Kris
Mandatory and preferred arrest policies for domestic violence (DV) have led to an increase in DV arrests and prosecutions of male and female suspects. The strain of this increase on criminal justice resources suggests a need for prioritizing DV cases and determining suspects most at risk for recidivism and victimization. The present study sought…
Daro, Deborah; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Pinderhughes, Howard
For several decades, we have witnessed a surge in public policies aimed at ending child maltreatment, youth violence, and adult domestic violence. Commensurate with this increased interest has been a growing body of research on each issues etiology, affected population, and the public policy and prevention impacts. Even a cursory review of the…
Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna
Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…
Latta, Rachel E.; Goodman, Lisa A.
A large body of cross-sectional and longitudinal research demonstrates the important contribution of informal social networks to the well-being and safety of female survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). Most survivors turn to family and friends before, during, and after their involvement with formal services; and many rely solely on…
Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.
Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…
Beeble, Marisa L.; Post, Lori A.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.
Although researchers have found that survivors of intimate partner violence seek support from a multitude of sources, ranging from professionals to informal support networks, little is known about the extent to which community members reach out to help survivors. This study explored the type of support provided to survivors and various factors…
Georgsson, Anna; Almqvist, Kjerstin; Broberg, Anders G.
Children with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at risk. Not all children, however, display symptoms, and differences connected to gender and age have been demonstrated. In this exploratory study, children's own reports of symptoms were used. The 41 recruited children, between 7 and 19 years old, were entered into a group program…
Chan, Ko Ling
This study examines the prevalence of co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse and neglect (CAN) in a cohort of Chinese parents drawn from a large representative sample in Hong Kong. It also investigates the risk factors for CAN with a special emphasis on the role of IPV. A subsample of 2,363 parents was invited to complete…
Keim, Jeanmarie; Strauser, David R.; Olguin, David L.
Rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) are high. Many survivors elect to leave abusive relationships and seek treatment to address the abusive cycle and psychiatric symptoms that may result. Programs to assist survivors often include an employment component. This article discusses the use of the Developmental Work Personality Scale (D. R.…
Forgey, Mary Ann; Badger, Lee; Gilbert, Tracey; Hansen, Johna
Evidence-based assessment in intimate partner violence (IPV) is critical to the accurate understanding of risk and to the development of interventions that increase safety. In this study standardized clients (actors) were used to train Army civilian social workers in evidence-based assessment of IPV and in the evaluation of the curriculum's…
Connor, Pamela D.; Nouer, Simonne S.; Mackey, SeeTrail N.; Banet, Megan S.; Tipton, Nathan G.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent problem detected frequently in the social work field, and also extends to the personal lives of social workers and students, with compelling evidence that professionals and students are often victims of IPV. However, students continue to lack substantive knowledge of IPV. This article addresses…
Schafer, John; Caetano, Raul; Cunradi, Carol B.
The present study was designed to identify the impact of drinking problems, impulsivity, and a history of childhood physical abuse on both male-to-female (MFIPV) and female-to-male intimate partner violence (FMIPV). The data were collected in 1995 from a representative national sample of couples living in the contiguous 48 states. Using a…
Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Hunter, Erin C.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
Preschool children who witness severe intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for a wide range of emotional, behavioural, cognitive, and health problems. Although much of intervention research has focused on alleviating their psychological symptoms, we know little about efforts to provide these children with preventative safety…
Witting, Michael D.; Furuno, Jon P.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Krugman, Scott D.; Perisse, Andre R. S.; Limcangco, Rhona
Emergency department (ED) screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) faces logistic difficulties and has uncertain efficacy. We surveyed 146 ED visitors and 108 ED care providers to compare their support for ED IPV screening in three hypothetical scenarios of varying IPV risk. Visitor support for screening was 5 times higher for the high-risk…
Chan, Ko Ling
Research has not conclusively determined whether men and women are equally likely to commit intimate partner violence (IPV). One explanation for the disparity in previous findings may be gender-based differences in reporting styles. The present study investigated whether there was any gender difference in self-reported IPV prevalence. A total of…
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei
A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…
Chan, Ko Ling
This study explored the associations between the perpetration of partner violence and two types of face orientation--protective and acquisitive--in Chinese societies. Data from a convenience sample of 3,388 university students from Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Beijing were analyzed. The participants completed the Protective and Acquisitive Face…
Jin, Xiaochun; Keat, Jane E.
This study explored how changes in power relations within couples after immigrating from more patriarchal societies contribute to intimate partner violence (IPV). Both subjective decision-making power and objective power bases were examined in Chinese immigrant couples. Batterers and nonviolent men both experienced loss of decision-making power in…
Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.
Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control…
Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Cobb, Norman
Discrepancies exist in research examining substance problems within groups of women arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV). In some studies women IPV arrestees have been found to be at high risk for substance-related problems, whereas in others they are found to be at low risk for substance-related problems. The current study explores these…
Thompson, Martie P.; Kingree, J. B.
Alcohol use increases the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), yet little research has examined its role in victimization outcomes (e.g., physical injury, police reporting). This study examined the roles of perpetrator and victim incident-specific alcohol use in IPV outcomes. The sample included 501 men and 1,756 women who had experienced an…
Fulfer, Jamie L.; Tyler, Jillian J.; Choi, Natalie J. S.; Young, Jill A.; Verhulst, Steven J.; Kovach, Regina; Dorsey, J. Kevin
A screening instrument for detecting intimate partner violence (IPV) was developed using indirect questions. The authors identified 5 of 18 items studied that clearly distinguished victims of IPV from a random group of health conference attendees with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 87%. This 5-item instrument (SAFE-T) was then tested on…
Allison, Colleen J.; Bartholomew, Kim; Mayseless, Ofra; Dutton, Donald G.
The authors explored the attachment dynamics of heterosexual couples identified for male partner violence. Based on semistructured interviews, participants were assessed for attachment orientations. Based on a thematic analysis of the interviews, two strategies for regulating distance within these relationships were identified: pursuit and…
Post, Lori Ann; Klevens, Joanne; Maxwell, Christopher D.; Shelley, Gene A.; Ingram, Eben
This study tests the impact of coordinated community response (CCR) on reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) and on modifying knowledge and attitudes. The authors conduct hierarchical linear modeling of data from a stratified random-digit dial telephone survey (n = 12,039) in 10 test and 10 control sites, which include 23 counties from…
Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett
This article explores what factors contribute to victims' vs. victim advocates' assessments of risk of repeat intimate partner violence. A sample of 169 court-involved victims and the advocates who conducted intake with them were asked to rate victims' risk of repeat abuse. Significant contributors to victim assessments were her level of…
Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Harris, T. Robert
This article examines the cross-sectional association between acculturation, acculturation stress, drinking, and intimate partner violence (IPV) among Hispanic couples in the U.S. The data being analyzed come from a multi-cluster random household sample of couples interviewed as part of the second wave of a 5-year national longitudinal study. The…
Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko
Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…
Galano, Maria M.; Miller, Laura E.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious problem for children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Recent changes to diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a reduction in avoidance symptom criteria from three to one and the separation of emotional numbing from avoidance symptoms, thus creating a need to better understand how…
Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A.
Interviews of women with (n = 193) and without (n = 170) recent exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) were used to examine how IPV and past exposure to child abuse influence self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The measurement of IPV included assessing psychological, physical, escalated physical, and sexual abuse.…
Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert
This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…
Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen
We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…
Harris, John M., Jr.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Amend, Robert W.; Surprenant, Zita J.
Introduction: There is a need to provide practicing physicians with training on the recognition and management of intimate partner violence (IPV). Online continuing medical education (CME) could help meet this need, but there is little information on the costs and effectiveness of promoting online CME to physicians. This lack of information may…
Tlapek, Sarah Myers
Women's greatest risk of violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may come from an intimate partner, but few studies have analyzed context-specific risk and protective factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) in the DRC. This study analyzed data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Congo to assess risk and protective factors for IPV and the role of women's status, a factor implicated in prior IPV research. Using a sample of 1,821 married or cohabiting women between the ages of 15 and 49, four logistic regression models tested relationships between physical, sexual, emotional, or any violence and independent variables of interest. Results indicated that 68.2% of respondents had experienced at least one of the three types of IPV. An attitude of acceptance toward spousal violence was associated with increased risk for physical and emotional IPV. Women who were the only wife of their husband were half as likely to experience IPV compared with women whose husbands had other wives or women who did not know their husbands' marital status. Partner's use of alcohol was associated with nearly doubled risk for both physical and sexual IPV. The study's results indicate that IPV occurs frequently and is justified as acceptable by many women in the DRC. Findings suggest that awareness-raising campaigns may be a helpful intervention and that partner characteristics should be considered when assessing women's risk for IPV. PMID:25315479
Beck, J. Gayle; McNiff, Judiann; Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Avery, Megan L.; Hagewood, J. Houston
This study explored the association of shame and guilt with PTSD among women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Sixty-three women were assessed by a research clinic serving the mental health needs of women IPV survivors. Results indicated that shame, guilt-related distress, and guilt-related cognitions showed significant…
Reeves, Carol; OLeary-Kelly, Anne M.
This study examines the productivity-related effects and costs of intimate partner violence (IPV) on the workplace. Specifically, it explores whether IPV victims and nonvictims differ in the number of work hours missed due to absenteeism, tardiness, and work distraction and the costs for employers from these missed work hours. The research…
Heintz, Adam Jackson; Melendez, Rita M.
To date, there has been little research examining HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are in abusive relationships. This article uses data collected from a community-based organization that provides counseling for LGBT victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 58 clients completed the…
Crandall, Marie; Schwab, Jennifer; Sheehan, Karen; Esposito, Thomas
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major source of morbidity and mortality nationally. Trauma Centers can be very helpful for victims of IPV but there may be variability in IPV resource provision. A survey was mailed to each of the 65 Trauma Centers in Illinois. Stata and EZ-Text statistical software were used for analysis. Eighty-three percent…
McColgan, Maria D.; Cruz, Mario; McKee, Jessica; Dempsey, Sandra H.; Davis, Martha B.; Barry, Patricia; Yoder, Ana Lisa; Giardino, Angelo P.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) intervention on knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices of pediatric residents. Methods: The intervention included: an on-site IPV counselor, IPV training for attending physicians, residents and social workers, and screening prompts. Evaluation included…
With the goal of understanding the true extent of intimate partner violence (IPV), researchers have put tremendous effort over the past 20 years developing, revising, and assessing IPV screening instruments. The enhancements made in IPV instrumentation reflect our improved understanding of the nature of IPV. Unfortunately, as is often the case…
Plichta, Stacey B.
Extensive research indicates that intimate partner violence (IPV) poses a significant risk to the physical health of women. IPV is associated with increased mortality, injury and disability, worse general health, chronic pain, substance abuse, reproductive disorders, and poorer pregnancy outcomes. IPV is also associated with an overuse of health…
Fusco, Rachel A.
The number of interracial couples in the U.S. is growing, but they often receive little support. Although previous studies have explored the relationship between low social support and decreased relationship satisfaction in interracial couples, there are few studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) in these couples. To better understand IPV in…
Speizer, Ilene S.
This study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda to inform IPV-prevention programs in the region. Nationally representative population-based data from women aged 15 to 49 and men aged 15 to 54 were collected between May and October 2006 as part of the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey.…
Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul
Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the United States, few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intraethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey…
Ireland, Timothy O.; Smith, Carolyn A.
Links between living in a partner-violent home and subsequent aggressive and antisocial behavior are suggested by the "cycle of violence" hypothesis derived from social learning theory. Although there is some empirical support, to date, findings have been generally limited to cross-sectional studies predominantly of young children, or…
Graves, Kelly N.; Sechrist, Stacy M.; White, Jacquelyn W.; Paradise, Matthew J.
Using a longitudinal design, the current study explored intimate partner violence perpetration among 1,300 college women within the context of one's history of physical and sexual victimization across 4 years of college. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexual victimization does not predict concurrent use of women's intimate partner…
Garcia, Lorena; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Kraus, Jess F.
This study sought to understand the relationship between acculturation and reporting intimate partner violence (IPV) among Latinas. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was conducted at public health care clinics throughout Los Angeles County. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of acculturation on reporting IPV. An…
The pervasive, personal crisis of intimate partner violence (IPV) demands community information resources in workforce, health care, mental health, public housing, criminal justice, and social service arenas. Although generally underutilized, public libraries have a pivotal role to play as the only public institution specifically structured to…