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Sample records for adult performance level

  1. ERIC/RCS: Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Thom

    1976-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series reviews the literature in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) on the Adult Performance Level (APL) project and other programs for adult education. (See CS 710 176) (KS)

  2. The Adult Performance Level Program: A Serious and Deliberate Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.; Cervero, Ronald M.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the claims of the developers of the Adult Performance Level (APL) program to improve the teaching and testing of adults enrolled in federally supported adult basic education programs, identifies APL's theoretical problems, scrutinizes the technical aspects of its development, and evaluates the role of the U.S. Office of Education in these…

  3. The Adult Performance Level Program: A Serious and Deliberate Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, William S.; Cervero, Ronald M.

    Noting that the Federal adult education program, Adult Performance Level Program (APL), only affects 1% of its target population, the author examines the program and concludes with seven major observations: (1) Increased attention should be given to the admonition, "Users of the instrument should have a general knowledge of the principles of…

  4. Adult Competency Instructional Guide Based on Adult Performance Level Studies. Career Education for Adults. Consumer Economics Module. Health Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Developed at Auburn University, Alabama, and based on Adult Performance Level (APL) research conducted at the University of Texas, the two teaching modules for adult career education in this curriculum guide are for the health and for the consumer economics curriculum areas. Focus is on development of basic skills in communication, problem…

  5. An Examination of the Adult Performance Level Project and Its Effects upon Adult Literacy Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    The Adult Performance Level (APL) project, which developed and validated a series of objectives for adult functional competency free from school-based notions of literacy, is the most widely accepted approach to adult literacy and adult literacy education in the United States today. Yet a review of the project and its impact reveals that the APL…

  6. Educator's Crock or Panacea: Implications of the Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Gerald E.

    1977-01-01

    Adult performance level (APL) methodology, results, and conclusions are summarized. Taking exception to functional literacy accounting for an individuals level of income, education, and job status, the author questions the utilitarian value of an APL curriculum. (Author)

  7. Adult Basic Education. Adult Performance Level Curriculum Handbook: Occupational Knowledge, Consumer Economics, Health and Safety, Government and Law, Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Mildred; Thomas, Claire

    Beginning with a brief project report, this curriculum guide is intended to enable teachers to work effectively with Adult Performance Level (APL) programs. The manual (1) clarifies the concept of APL, (2) describes the APL-ABE (Adult Basic Education) curriculum at Florida Junior College (FJC), (3) provides examples of effective lesson plans for…

  8. The Development and Testing of Adult Vocational Programs Utilizing the Adult Performance Level Competency Approach. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    A project set out to develop and test adult performance level (APL) materials for pre-vocational programs to enable adults to develop those skills needed to seek and retain employment. Addressing the APL area of occupational knowledge only, methodology focused on (1) joint planning in material development and testing; (2) extensive training in…

  9. Comparative Functional Literacy of Adult Performance Level Graduates and Wichita East High School Graduating Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Deborah; Peppers, Jimmy

    1978-01-01

    Study compared fifty adult performance level (APL) graduates' scores to fifty high school graduates' scores for four APL knowledge areas. APL graduates scored significantly higher than high school graduates in consumer economics and occupational knowledge. No significant differences were recorded between groups in areas of community resources and…

  10. Louisiana Adult Performance Level Pilot Study: A Comparative Analysis of APL Competency-Based Instructional Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauzat, Sam V.

    Adults enrolled in local adult basic education programs at six sites in Louisiana were used to compare the credibility of Adult Performance Level (APL) competency-based instructional programs (experimental group) with traditional adult education instructional activities (control group). Focus was on determining the correlation between grade level…

  11. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  12. Morphological characteristics of adult male handball players considering five levels of performance and playing position.

    PubMed

    Massuça, Luís; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study aims 1--to describe and compare the anthropometric characteristics of male handball players from different levels of performance, and 2--to identify the morphological variables that allow differentiation of the level of performance for each individual playing position. A total of 212 male handball players (age, 23.6 ± 5.2 years) were included in this study, and divided into five levels of performance for comparison. The playing position of each player was recorded. All participants were tested during the 2008-2009 Portuguese handball season. Twenty-eight anthropometric measures were taken by a group of anthropometrics accredited by International Society of the Advance of Kinanthropometry. Body composition, fat mass and muscle mass were calculated from the equations proposed by Faulkner26, Yuhase28, Durnin and Womersley25, Jackson and Pollock29, Matiegka33, Heymsfield, McManus, Smith, Stevens and Nixon34, Martin, Spenst, Drinkwater and Clarys21, Doupe, Martin, Searle, Kriellaars and Giesbrecht35 and Lee, Wang, Heo, Ross, Janssen and Heymsfield36. The research findings showed that the morphological optimization is important to have success in handball.

  13. Copper at low levels impairs memory of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and affects swimming performance of larvae.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Daiane da Silva; Danielle, Naissa Maria; Altenhofen, Stefani; Luzardo, Milene Dornelles; Costa, Patrícia Gomes; Bianchini, Adalto; Bonan, Carla Denise; da Silva, Rosane Souza; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Metal contamination at low levels is an important issue because it usually produces health and environmental effects, either positive or deleterious. Contamination of surface waters with copper (Cu) is a worldwide event, usually originated by mining, agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Water quality criteria for Cu are variable among countries but allowed limits are generally in the μg/L range, which can disrupt several functions in the early life-stages of fish species. Behavioral and biochemical alterations after Cu exposure have also been described at concentrations close to the allowed limits. Aiming to search for the effects of Cu in the range of the allowed limits, larvae and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to different concentrations of dissolved Cu (nominally: 0, 5, 9, 20 and 60μg/L; measured: 0.4, 5.7, 7.2 16.6 and 42.3μg/L, respectively) for 96h. Larvae swimming and body length, and adult behavior and biochemical biomarkers (activity of glutathione-related enzymes in gills, muscle, and brain) were assessed after Cu exposure. Several effects were observed in fish exposed to 9μg/L nominal Cu, including increased larvae swimming distance and velocity, abolishment of adult inhibitory avoidance memory, and decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in gills of adult fish. At the highest Cu concentration tested (nominally: 60μg/L), body length of larvae, spatial memory of adults, and gill GST activity were decreased. Social behavior (aggressiveness and conspecific interaction), and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were not affected in adult zebrafish. Exposure to Cu, at concentrations close to the water quality criteria for this metal in fresh water, was able to alter larvae swimming performance and to induce detrimental effects on the behavior of adult zebrafish, thus indicating the need for further studies to reevaluate the currently allowed limits for Cu in fresh water.

  14. A Comparison of the Adult Performance Levels of Women Offenders in the Texas Department of Corrections and Free-World Women in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Karin Stork

    The functional competencies of 131 women offenders incarcerated in Texas were assessed and than compared to the functional competencies of 868 free-world women in Texas surveyed during the Adult Performance Level (APL) Project. The findings support the following conclusions: (1) women in the free-world are more functionally competent than women…

  15. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  16. Testing Solutions for Adult Film Performers.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the nation's adult films are produced in California, and within California, most production occurs in Los Angeles. In order to regulate that content, the County of Los Angeles passed the Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act (Measure B) by way of referendum in November 2012. Measure B requires that adult film producers wishing to film in Los Angeles County obtain permits from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, and it also mandates that adult film performers use condoms while filming and "engaging in anal or vaginal sexual intercourse." Nevertheless, between August 2013 and January 2014, several adult film performers in California tested positive for HIV, and the threat of infection remains. Although Measure B is not the best way forward for Los Angeles County, elements of the ordinance should be incorporated into future legislative efforts. Given the economic ramifications of industry flight due to more localized regulations, this Note concludes that California should pass statewide comprehensive reform. Any such new legislation must treat "independent contractors," the classification generally used for adult film performs, as if they were regular employees. Legislation should also couple mandatory testing mechanisms with provisions granting performers the right to choose whether they use condoms. Finally, legislation must include mechanisms that ensure performers' preferences are not improperly tainted by outside forces and pressures. While there will always be risks associated with the production of adult content, if undertaken, these reforms could significantly mitigate those hazards.

  17. Adult Illiteracy and Economic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Lauren; Noyelle, Thierry

    Most industrialized nations of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have entered a new economic era characterized by new industries, new forms of production and competition, and a much higher premium on skills. Those with low levels of literacy and basic workplace skills find it increasingly difficult to obtain or…

  18. 34 CFR 361.86 - Performance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Performance Indicators § 361.86 Performance levels. (a) General. (1) Paragraph (b) of this..., new performance levels. (b) Performance levels for each performance indicator. (1)(i) The performance levels for Performance Indicators 1.1 through 1.6 are— Performance indicator Performance level by type...

  19. Vitamin levels in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Landaas, Elisabeth Toverud; Aarsland, Tore Ivar Malmei; Ulvik, Arve; Halmøy, Anne; Ueland, Per Magne; Haavik, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Micronutrients containing vitamins are reported to reduce symptom levels in persons with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on vitamin levels in ADHD are sparse. Aims To examine the relationship between vitamin concentrations, ADHD diagnosis and psychiatric symptoms in young adult ADHD patients and controls. Method Eight vitamins and the nicotine metabolite cotinine were analysed in serum samples from 133 ADHD patients and 131 controls aged between 18 and 40, who also reported ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions. Results Lower concentrations of vitamins B2, B6 and B9 were associated with the ADHD diagnosis, and B2 and B6 also with symptom severity. Smokers had lower levels of vitamins B2 and B9. Conclusions ADHD patients were overrepresented in the group with low levels of some vitamins, possibly indicative of inadequate dietary intake of these micronutrients in a subgroup of patients. It is important to identify these patients in dietary intervention trials of ADHD. Declaration of interest J.H. has received lecture honoraria as part of continuing medical education programmes sponsored by Novartis, Eli Lilly and Company, and Janssen-Cilag. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27990293

  20. Cut performance levels and testing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job.

  1. Relationships of Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Performance of Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Beverly Kinsey

    2011-01-01

    Competent mathematical skills are needed in the workplace as well as in the college setting. Adults in Adult Basic Education classes and programs generally perform below high school level competency, but very few studies have been performed investigating the predictors of mathematical success for adults. The current study contributes to the…

  2. Differences in cognitive performance, level of dependency and quality of life (QoL), related to age and cognitive status in a sample of Spanish old adults under and over 80 years of age.

    PubMed

    Calero, Dolores; Navarro, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the similarities and differences in cognitive performance, level of dependency, cognitive plasticity and QoL in a sample of young-old adults and old-old adults, bearing in mind both the age-group (under or over 80 years) and the cognitive status of the participants. The study population consisted of 220 people living in sheltered accommodation for elderly people in the South of Spain, with an average age of 80.75 years. Participants were evaluated by means of cognitive performance tests, a QoL questionnaire, a depression scale and a dependency assessment scale. The results indicate that the main differences in the variables analyzed are due to the cognitive status of the sample and not to the fact that the participants are under or over 80 years of age. The findings show that major inter-individual differences in this stage of life depend not only on age but also on cognitive status, which is thus an important factor to take into account when working with this sector of the population.

  3. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Edna M; Valente, Joaquim G; Grattan, Lynn; Schmidt, Sérgio Luís; Platt, Illeane; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2003-01-01

    Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs) living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso) in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration, consistent with a dose

  4. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS

    TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…

  5. Improving older adults' memory performance using prior task success.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; Miller, Tyler M

    2013-06-01

    Holding negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. We attempted to improve older adults' memory performance by giving them task experience that would counter their negative performance expectations. Before participating in a memory experiment, younger and older adults were given a cognitive task that they could either successfully complete, not successfully complete, or they were given no prior task. For older adults, recall was significantly higher and self-reported anxiety was significantly lower for the prior task success group relative to the other groups. There was no effect of prior task experience on younger adults' memory performance. Results suggest that older adults' memory can be improved with a single successful prior task experience.

  6. Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels Predict Falls in Older Diabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Cauley, Jane A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Schwartz, Gary G.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and incident falls in older diabetic adults. Design Longitudinal analysis of incident falls over 1 year in a sub-study of diabetic participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants Well-functioning, community-dwelling black and white adults aged 70-79 with diabetes (n = 472). Measurements Measured baseline serum PTH. Self-report of falls over the subsequent 12 months. Baseline physical performance and self-reported demographic, behavioral, and health status measures including kidney function, chronic conditions and medication use. Results 30.3% of participants reported falling over one year of follow-up. The mean ± SD baseline serum PTH was 53.5 ± 30.0 pg/mL in non-fallers and 62.6 ± 46.2 pg/mL in fallers (p = 0.01). For every 1 SD (36 pg/mL) increment in baseline serum PTH, there was approximately a 30% increased likelihood of reporting a fall in the subsequent year after adjusting for age, gender, race, field center, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and winter/spring season (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.59). Further adjustment for kidney function, chronic conditions, medication and supplement use, and physical performance attenuated the association slightly (OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01-1.58)). A trend remained after additional adjustment for reported falls in the previous year. Conclusion Higher serum PTH was associated with incident falls among older, well-functioning diabetic men and women. Further investigation aimed at understanding the underlying mechanism for the association between serum PTH and falls is needed. PMID:19016936

  7. Pubertal testosterone predicts mental rotation performance of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C J Peter; Rose, Richard J

    2012-11-01

    Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21-23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r=-.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r=-.32): the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in 18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r=-.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r=-.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability.

  8. Blooms's Six Cognitive Levels Represent Two Levels of Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Robert; Rosen, Gaye

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies designed to investigate the presence of six cognitive levels of intellectual performance as predicted by Bloom's taxonomy. Results of both experiments revealed a performance dichotomy with synthesis and evaluation forming the superior category. Includes examples of the text items used and draws implications for…

  9. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  10. Teaching Low-Level Adult ESL Learners. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Grace Massey

    In recent years, the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching profession has made discoveries about teaching beginning or low-level adult learners (those with little or no schooling in their native languages, learners who may not be familiar with the Roman alphabet, those with learning disabilities, and those literate in their native languages…

  11. Executive performance in older Portuguese adults with low education.

    PubMed

    Pavão Martins, Isabel; Maruta, Carolina; Freitas, Vanda; Mares, Inês

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of executive functions is essential in clinical diagnosis, yet there are limited data regarding the performance of participants with low education. We present results on several measures of executive functions obtained in community-dwelling adults with an overall low education and study the effect of this variable in each test. A sample of 479 adults (64% female, mean age 66.4 years) was assessed by a battery comprising 13 measures of executive function (Trail Making Test; Symbol Search; Matrix reasoning; Semantic and phonemic verbal fluencies; Stroop test; and digit spans). Tests' psychometric properties and the effects of age, gender, and education were studied across education levels within each age group. Tests showed good psychometric properties. Education explained more variance than age in the majority of measures, with lower educational levels being significantly associated to worse scores. Tables are presented with mean scores, standard deviation, and the value of extreme percentiles for younger (50-65, N = 232) and older (>65 years, N = 247) × education (0-3, 4, 5-9, and >9 years) subgroups. Education-adjusted norms are necessary for an adequate interpretation of test results. The present data may be useful for clinicians caring for populations with low literacy.

  12. Metacomprehension and Comprehension Performance in Younger and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, DeWayne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The Metacomprehension Scale was completed by 30 younger and 30 older adults. Younger adults reported greater use of strategies to resolve comprehension failures and valued good comprehension more. The regulation dimension of metacomprehension was a reliable predictor of comprehension performance. (SK)

  13. Policy to Performance Toolkit: Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Limardo, Chrys

    2012-01-01

    The "Policy to Performance Toolkit" is designed to provide state adult education staff and key stakeholders with guidance and tools to use in developing, implementing, and monitoring state policies and their associated practices that support an effective state adult basic education (ABE) to postsecondary education and training transition…

  14. Association between osteocalcin and cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bradburn, Steven; McPhee, Jamie S; Bagley, Liam; Sipila, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; Narici, Marco Vincenzo; Pääsuke, Mati; Gapeyeva, Helena; Osborne, Gabrielle; Sassano, Lorraine; Meskers, Carel G. M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Murgatroyd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction cognitive deterioration and reductions of bone health coincide with increasing age. We examine the relationship between bone composition and plasma markers of bone remodelling with measures of cognitive performance in healthy adults. Methods this cross-sectional study included 225 old (52% women, mean age: 74.4 ± 3.3 years) and 134 young (52% women, mean age: 23.4 ± 2.7 years) adult participants from the MyoAge project. Whole body bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood analyses included a panel of bone-related peptides (dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin, sclerostin, parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23), as well as serum calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D assays. A selection of cognitive domains (working memory capacity, episodic memory, executive functioning and global cognition) was assessed with a standardised neuropsychological test battery. Results adjusting for covariates and multiple testing revealed that plasma OC levels were positively associated with measures of executive functioning (β = 0.444, P < 0.001) and global cognition (β = 0.381, P = 0.001) in the older women. Discussion these correlative results demonstrate a positive association between OC, a factor known to regulate bone remodelling, with cognitive performance in older non-demented women. Further work should address possible mechanistic interpretations in humans. PMID:27515675

  15. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Rabelo, Camila M.; Silagi, Marcela L.; Mansur, Letícia L.; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor “years of schooling” was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills. PMID:27013958

  16. Mapping Adult Literacy Performance. Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circelli, Michelle; Curtis, David; Perkins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Language, literacy and numeracy are necessary for greater workforce participation, productivity and social inclusion. Being able to measure the level of proficiency in these skills, and any changes in the level of skills, is important for getting a sense of how well language, literacy and numeracy programs are working. Two measurement tools used…

  17. Determinants of masticatory performance in dentate adults.

    PubMed

    Hatch, J P; Shinkai, R S; Sakai, S; Rugh, J D; Paunovich, E D

    2001-07-01

    Masticatory performance results from a complex interplay of direct and indirect effects, yet most studies employ univariate models. This study tested a multivariate model of masticatory performance for dentate subjects. Explanatory variables included number of functional tooth units, bite force, sex, age, masseter cross-sectional area, presence of temporomandibular disorders, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The population-based sample consisted of 631 dentate subjects aged 37-80 years. Covariance structure analysis showed that 68% of the variability in masticatory performance could be explained by the combined effects of the explanatory variables. Age and sex did not show a strong effect on masticatory performance, either directly or indirectly through masseter cross-sectional area, temporomandibular disorders, and bite force. Number of functional tooth units and bite force were confirmed as the key determinants of masticatory performance, which suggests that their maintenance may be of major importance for promoting healthful functional status.

  18. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  19. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance.

  20. Pathways to health risk exposure in adult film performers.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers' exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases.

  1. 34 CFR 361.86 - Performance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Performance levels. 361.86 Section 361.86 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM...

  2. 34 CFR 361.86 - Performance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Performance levels. 361.86 Section 361.86 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM...

  3. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  4. Predictors of Urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Levels in 50 North Carolina Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Marsha; Jones, Paul; Sobus, Jon; Boyd Barr, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Limited data are available on the non-chemical stressors that impact adult exposures to pyrethroid insecticides based on urinary biomonitoring. The urinary metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), is commonly used to assess human exposure to a number of pyrethroids. In a further analysis of published study data, we quantified urinary 3-PBA levels of 50 adults over a single, 24-h sampling period and examined the associations between the biomarker measurements and selected non-chemical stressors (demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors). A convenience sample of 50 adults was recruited in North Carolina in 2009–2011. Participants collected individual urine voids (up to 11) and filled out activity, food, and pesticide use diaries over a 24-h sampling period. Urine voids (n = 326) were analyzed for 3-PBA concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 3-PBA was detected in 98% of the 24-h composited urine samples. The geometric mean urinary 3-PBA level was 1.68 ng/mL in adults. Time spent outside (p = 0.0006) was a highly significant predictor of natural log-transformed (ln) urinary 3-PBA levels, while consumption of coffee (p = 0.007) and breads (p = 0.019) and ln creatinine levels (p = 0.037) were significant predictors of urinary 3-PBA levels. In conclusion, we identified specific factors that substantially increased adult exposures to pyrethroids in their everyday environments. PMID:27886113

  5. Physiological Indicators of Stress and Intellectual Performance among Anxious Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kimberly S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Older adults (n=27) concerned about declining cognitive functioning performed cognitive tasks, completed questionnaires, and were given measures of anxiety and physiological change. Negative correlations appeared between level of cortisol, a stress-related hormone, and self-efficacy on measures of fluid intelligence. Epstein-Barr virus levels were…

  6. External distraction impairs categorization performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wais, Peter E; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-09-01

    The detrimental influence of distraction on memory and attention is well established, yet it is not as clear whether irrelevant information impacts categorization abilities and whether this impact changes in aging. We examined categorization with morphed prototype stimuli in both younger and older adults, using an adaptive staircase approach to assess participants' performance in conditions with and without visual distractors. Results showed that distraction did not affect younger adults, but produced a negative impact on older adults' categorization such that there was an interaction of age and distraction. These results suggest a relationship between the increased susceptibility to visual distraction in normal aging and impairment in categorization.

  7. Nuisance levels of noise effects radiologists' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Coffey, Amina; Ryan, John; O'Beirne, Aaron; Toomey, Rachel; Evanoff, Micheal; Manning, David; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to measure the sound levels in Irish x-ray departments. The study then established whether these levels of noise have an impact on radiologists performance Noise levels were recorded 10 times within each of 14 environments in 4 hospitals, 11 of which were locations where radiologic images are judged. Thirty chest images were then presented to 26 senior radiologists, who were asked to detect up to three nodular lesions within 30 posteroanterior chest x-ray images in the absence and presence of noise at amplitude demonstrated in the clinical environment. The results demonstrated that noise amplitudes rarely exceeded that encountered with normal conversation with the maximum mean value for an image-viewing environment being 56.1 dB. This level of noise had no impact on the ability of radiologists to identify chest lesions with figure of merits of 0.68, 0.69, and 0.68 with noise and 0.65, 0.68, and 0.67 without noise for chest radiologists, non-chest radiologists, and all radiologists, respectively. the difference in their performance using the DBM MRMC method was significantly better with noise than in the absence of noise at the 90% confidence interval (p=0.077). Further studies are required to establish whether other aspects of diagnosis are impaired such as recall and attention and the effects of more unexpected noise on performance.

  8. Awareness of the Segmental Structure of English in Adults of Various Literacy Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, David; Hamilton, Mary E.

    As part of a wider study of metalinguistic skills, a study examined the segmental awareness skills of adults with a low level of literacy and compared them with the skills of more literate adults of similar backgrounds. Subjects, 60 adults enrolled in adult education classes, were divided into three groups of 20 according to reading level.…

  9. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption in Older and Younger Adults: Perceived Impairment Versus Psychomotor Performance*

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Rebecca; Ceballos, Natalie A.; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Perceived impairment and psychomotor performance following acute alcohol administration in older (ages 50-74, n = 42; 22 male) and younger (ages 25-35, n = 26; 12 male) adults were investigated in this study. Method: Double-blind, placebo-controlled alcohol administration techniques were designed to produce peak levels of breath alcohol concentration consistent with an episode of social drinking (40 mg/100 ml). Behavioral measures (Trail Making Test, Forms A and B), as well as measures of self-reported perceived intoxication and impairment, were administered on the ascending and descending limbs at common time points after beverage ingestion. Results: Results indicated that psychomotor performance differences did not parallel self-reported levels of perceived impairment. Relative to younger adults, older adults exhibited performance deficits on the ascending limb while simultaneously reporting less perceived impairment. Conversely, on the descending limb, older adults who received alcohol reported more perceived impairment than did those who received placebo, although psychomotor performance between these two groups of older drinkers did not differ. For younger participants, a moderate dose of alcohol facilitated performance on the ascending limb; however, these differences were not reflected on the descending limb. Conclusions: These results reinforce the common knowledge that self-reported measures may not provide an accurate reflection of performance outcomes and, importantly, that older adults may be impaired even under a moderate dose of alcohol, although they may not be aware (i.e., report) of this impairment. PMID:19261236

  10. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  11. Prediction of the mid-tracheal level using surface anatomical landmarks in adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Young-Eun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Ryu, Ho-Geoul; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Endotracheal tube (ETT) should be placed at the optimal level to avoid single lung ventilation or accidental extubation. This study was performed to estimate the mid-tracheal level by using surface anatomical landmarks in adult patients. Neck computed tomography images of 329 adult patients between the ages of 16 and 79 years were reviewed. In the midline sagittal plane, the levels corresponding to the vocal cords, cricoid cartilage, suprasternal notch, manubriosternal junction, and carina were identified. The surface distances from the cricoid cartilage to the suprasternal notch (extCC-SSN) and that from the suprasternal notch to the manubriosternal junction (extSSN-MSJ) were measured. The relationship between mid-tracheal level and the surface distances was analyzed using Bland–Altman plot. The difference between the extCC-SSN and the mid-tracheal level was −6.6 (12.5) mm, and the difference between the extSSN-MSJ and the mid-tracheal level was −19.2 (6.1) mm. The difference between the extCC-SSN and the mid-tracheal level was smaller in females compared with males [−1.7 (11.7) mm vs −12.8 (10.7) mm; P < 0.001]. The mid-tracheal level, which is helpful in planning the insertion depth of an ETT, can be predicted by the surface distance between the cricoid cartilage and suprasternal notch in adults, especially in females. PMID:28328810

  12. Sacral-level myelomeningocele: long-term outcome in adults.

    PubMed

    Selber, P; Dias, L

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed long-term outcome of 46 adult patients with sacral-level myelomeningocele with an average age of 23 years (range, 18-38). Data were collected from the medical records, computerized database, and a questionnaire. Thirty patients had high sacral lesions (weak gluteus medius, gluteus maximums, and gastroc/soleus), and 16 had low sacral lesions (fair to normal-strength gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, and gastroc/soleus). Thirteen patients had signs of tethered-cord syndrome, and 12 underwent neurosurgical release. Thirty-nine patients underwent a total of 217 orthopaedic surgeries. At the final follow-up, 41 (89.13%) patients were community ambulators. Thirty-two required no external support for walking. Twenty-nine patients used some kind of orthosis. Aggressive management of tethered-cord syndrome, surgical correction of musculoskeletal deformities, and avoidance of arthrodesis at the foot level may be the main factors in accounting for these results.

  13. Camp Verde Adult Reading Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, David A.

    This document begins with a four-page performance report describing how the Camp Verde Adult Reading Program site was relocated to the Community Center Complex, and the Town Council contracted directly with the Friends of the Camp Verde Library to provide for the requirements of the program. The U.S. Department of Education grant allowed the…

  14. Memory monitoring performance and PFC activity are associated with 5-HTTLPR genotype in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Jennifer; Beevers, Christopher G.; McGeary, John E.; Schnyer, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Older adults show extensive variability in cognitive performance, including episodic memory. A portion of this variability could potentially be explained by genetic factors. Recent literature shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin plays an important role in memory processes, as enhancements of brain serotonin have led to memory improvement. Here, we have begun to explore genetic contributions to the performance and underlying brain activity associated with source memory monitoring. Using a source recognition memory task during fMRI scanning, this study offers evidence that older adults who carry a short allele (S-car) of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the SLC6A4 gene show specific deficits in source memory monitoring relative to older adults who are homozygous for the long allele (LL). These deficits are accompanied by less neural activity in regions of prefrontal cortex that have been shown to support accurate memory monitoring. Moreover, while the older adult LL group’s behavioral performance does not differ from younger adults, their brain activation reveals evidence of compensatory activation that likely supports their higher performance level. These results provide preliminary evidence that the long-allele homozygous profile is cognitively beneficial to older adults, particularly for memory functioning. PMID:22705442

  15. Simulated driving performance of adults with ADHD: comparisons with alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Weafer, Jessica; Camarillo, Daniel; Fillmore, Mark T; Milich, Richard; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2008-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to experience driving-related problems, which suggests that they may exhibit poorer driving performance. However, direct experimental evidence of this hypothesis is limited. The current study involved 2 experiments that evaluated driving performance in adults with ADHD in terms of the types of driving decrements typically associated with alcohol intoxication. Experiment 1 compared the simulated driving performance of 15 adults with ADHD to 23 adult control participants, who performed the task both while sober and intoxicated. Results showed that sober adults with ADHD exhibited decrements in driving performance compared to sober controls, and that the profile of impairment for the sober ADHD group did in fact resemble that of intoxicated drivers at the blood alcohol concentration level for legally impaired driving in the United States. Driving impairment of the intoxicated individuals was characterized by greater deviation of lane position, faster and more abrupt steering maneuvers, and increased speed variability. Experiment 2 was a dose-challenge study in which 8 adults with ADHD and 8 controls performed the driving simulation task under 3 doses of alcohol: 0.65g/kg, 0.45g/kg, and 0.0g/kg (placebo). Results showed that driving performance in both groups was impaired in response to alcohol, and that individuals with ADHD exhibited generally poorer driving performance than did controls across all dose conditions. Together the findings provide compelling evidence to suggest that the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with ADHD might impair driving performance in such a manner as to resemble that of an alcohol intoxicated driver. Moreover, alcohol might impair the performance of drivers with ADHD in an additive fashion that could considerably compromise their driving skill even at blood alcohol concentrations below the legal limit.

  16. Physical activity levels of older community-dwelling adults are influenced by summer weather variables.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Caitlin A; Gill, Dawn P; Speechley, Mark; Gilliland, Jason; Jones, Gareth R

    2009-04-01

    Adequate daily physical activity (PA) is important for maintaining functional capacity and independence in older adults. However, most older adults in Canada do not engage in enough PA to sustain fitness and functional independence. Environmental influences, such as warmer daytime temperatures, may influence PA participation; however, few studies have examined the effect of summertime temperatures on PA levels in older adults. This investigation measured the influence of summertime weather variables on PA in 48 community-dwelling older adults who were randomly recruited from a local seniors' community centre. Each participant wore an accelerometer for a single 7-consecutive-day period (between 30 May and 9 August 2006) during waking hours, and completed a PA logbook to remark on major daily PA events. Local weather variables were collected from a national weather service and compared with PA counts per minute. Regression analysis revealed a curvilinear relationship between log-transformed PA and mean daily temperature (r2 = 0.025; p < 0.05). Linear mixed effects models that accounted for repeated measures nested within individuals were performed for monthly periods, meteorological variables, sex, age, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption, with PA as the dependent variable. Age and Air Quality Index remained significant variables within the model. Higher fitness levels had no effect on allowing individuals to perform more vigorous PA in warmer temperatures.

  17. Distinct effects of positive and negative music on older adults' auditory target identification performances.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Older adults, compared to younger adults, are more likely to attend to pleasant situations and avoid unpleasant ones. Yet, it is unclear whether such a phenomenon may be generalized to musical emotions. In this study, we investigated whether there is an age-related difference in how musical emotions are experienced and how positive and negative music influences attention performances in a target identification task. Thirty-one young and twenty-eight older adults were presented with 40 musical excerpts conveying happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and threat. While listening to music, participants were asked to rate their feelings and monitor each excerpt for the occurrence of an auditory target. Compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing weaker emotional activation when listening to threatening music and showed higher level of liking for happy music. Correct reaction times (RTs) for target identification were longer for threatening than for happy music in older adults but not in younger adults. This suggests that older adults benefit from a positive musical context and can regulate emotion elicited by negative music by decreasing attention towards it (and therefore towards the auditory target).

  18. Secondary Level Re-Entry of Young Canadian Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cassandra; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper illuminates and details some of the traits, pressures and semi-autonomy of the young adult between the ages of 18 and 24 who must confront the barriers and challenges upon returning to secondary school within the high school and the adult education centre context. Focusing on these young adults is fundamentally important to begin to…

  19. A Word Is a Word: Metalinguistic Skills in Adults of Varying Literacy Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary E.; Barton, David

    As part of a wider study of metalinguistic skills, a study examined the metalinguistic awareness of the concept "word" of adults at different literacy levels. Subjects, 60 adult monolingual English speakers enrolled in adult education classes, were divided into three groups according to reading level. Data were gathered through a…

  20. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing.

  1. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    PubMed Central

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  2. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-13

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  3. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  4. Lobeline Effects on Cognitive Performance in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Martin, Catherine A; Nuzzo, Paul A; Ranseen, John D; Kleven, Mark S; Guenthner, Greg; Williams, Yolanda; Walsh, Sharon L; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2013-08-21

    Objective: In preclinical studies, lobeline inhibited hyperactivity induced by nicotine and amphetamine, and improved performance and learning in studies utilizing radial-arm maze and spatial-discrimination water maze. This laboratory proof-of-concept study investigated lobeline as a treatment for ADHD symptoms in adults (31.11 ± 7.08 years). Method: Using cognitive tasks and self-report measures, the effects of lobeline (0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg, s.l.) and methylphenidate (0, 15, or 30 mg, p.o.) were assessed in nine volunteers with ADHD. Results: Evidence suggested that lobeline could modestly improve working memory in adults with ADHD, but no significant improvement in attention was observed. Lobeline administration was associated with mild adverse side effects (nausea). Conclusion: Further investigation of lobeline on working memory may be warranted.

  5. Lobeline Effects on Cognitive Performance in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Catherine A.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Ranseen, John D.; Kleven, Mark S.; Guenthner, Greg; Williams, Yolanda; Walsh, Sharon L.; Dwoskin, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In preclinical studies, lobeline inhibited hyperactivity induced by nicotine and amphetamine, and improved performance and learning in studies utilizing radial-arm maze and spatial-discrimination water maze. This laboratory proof-of-concept study investigated lobeline as a treatment for ADHD symptoms in adults (31.11 ± 7.08 years). Method Using cognitive tasks and self-report measures, the effects of lobeline (0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg, s.l.) and methylphenidate (0, 15, or 30 mg, p.o.) were assessed in nine volunteers with ADHD. Results Evidence suggested that lobeline could modestly improve working memory in adults with ADHD, but no significant improvement in attention was observed. Lobeline administration was associated with mild adverse side effects (nausea). Conclusion Further investigation of lobeline on working memory may be warranted. PMID:23966351

  6. Cumulative blood lead levels and neurobehavioral test performance.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Chia, H P; Ong, C N; Jeyaratnam, J

    1997-01-01

    The current scientific literature provides inadequate evidence to conclude whether or not cumulative exposure to or absorption of lead adversely affects performance in neurobehavioral tests in adults. One of reasons for this controversy is the lack of studies with good cumulative exposure to or dose of lead. The aims of this study are to compare the neurobehavioral test performances of a group of lead-exposed workers and a referent group, and to study the association of the neurobehavioral test performances with concurrent blood lead levels and cumulative blood lead levels. Fifty lead battery workers and 97 non-exposed (referent) workers from a vehicle maintenance workshop were evaluated on their neurobehavioral performance using the World Health Organization Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (WHO-NCTB). The geometric mean concurrent blood lead (ConPb) of the exposed and referent groups were 37.1 (range 13.2-64.6) microg/100 ml and 6.1 (range 2.4-12.4) microg/100 ml, respectively. Cumulative blood lead (CumPb) was defined as area under the curve for the number of years each worker was exposed to lead (three workers previous blood lead results were not available). ConPb and CumPb were used to study the association with the neurobehavioral test results. The exposed group had significantly poorer manual dexterity, perceptual-motor speed, and motor steadiness compared with the referents. The standardized partial regression coefficients were higher for CumPb than ConPb for most of the neurobehavioral test results. In the group >35 years old, there were significantly stronger associations between CumPb and Digit Symbol and Trail Making Part A results than for ConPb which are tests of perceptual and motor skills. CumPb was a better predictor than ConPb of the effects of lead on neurobehavioral performances.

  7. Relationships between Adult Learners' Anxiety Levels and Cooperative Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curless, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    More nontraditional, adult learners are entering higher education than ever before due to the continued growth in technology and current economic conditions that encourage adults to acquire additional skills for the workplace. The pressure for these students to do well in school and finish quickly can lead to increased anxiety associated with the…

  8. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year.

  9. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  10. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  11. Correlates of Virtual Navigation Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Korthauer, L.E.; Nowak, N.T.; Moffat, S.D.; An, Y.; Rowland, L.M; Barker, P.B.; Resnick, S.M.; Driscoll, I.

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence for deleterious effects of aging on place learning and memory, less is known about the trajectory and the putative neural mechanisms of these decrements. The virtual Morris Water Task (vMWT) is a human analog of a non-human spatial navigation task. The present study investigated longitudinal changes in place learning in 51 healthy, non-demented adults (age 30–83) who completed the vMWT and a neuropsychological battery at two time-points (interval= ~8 years). We also assessed cross-sectional associations between vMWT and brain structure, biochemical integrity, and standardized neuropsychological measures in a subset of 22 individuals who underwent MR imaging at follow-up. Despite no longitudinal decrement in vMWT performance, there were cross-sectional age differences on the vMWT favoring younger adults. Negative associations were observed between vMWT latency and gray matter volumes in the right hippocampus, bilateral thalamus, and right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and between vMWT latency and white matter fractional anisotropy in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus. Collectively, these results suggest a pattern of differences in the structural integrity of regions supporting successful navigation even in the absence of longitudinal performance decrements. PMID:26923408

  12. Detection of Cardiovascular Disease Risk's Level for Adults Using Naive Bayes Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Eka; Amelga, Alowisius Y.; Maribondang, Marco M.; Salim, Mulyadi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The number of deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke is predicted to reach 23.3 million in 2030. As a contribution to support prevention of this phenomenon, this paper proposes a mining model using a naïve Bayes classifier that could detect cardiovascular disease and identify its risk level for adults. Methods The process of designing the method began by identifying the knowledge related to the cardiovascular disease profile and the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors for adults based on the medical record, and designing a mining technique model using a naïve Bayes classifier. Evaluation of this research employed two methods: accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity calculation as well as an evaluation session with cardiologists and internists. The characteristics of cardiovascular disease are identified by its primary risk factors. Those factors are diabetes mellitus, the level of lipids in the blood, coronary artery function, and kidney function. Class labels were assigned according to the values of these factors: risk level 1, risk level 2 and risk level 3. Results The evaluation of the classifier performance (accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity) in this research showed that the proposed model predicted the class label of tuples correctly (above 80%). More than eighty percent of respondents (including cardiologists and internists) who participated in the evaluation session agree till strongly agreed that this research followed medical procedures and that the result can support medical analysis related to cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The research showed that the proposed model achieves good performance for risk level detection of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27525161

  13. Burns ITU admissions: length of stay in specific levels of care for adult and paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Maan, Zeshaan N; Frew, Quentin; Din, Asmat H; Unluer, Zeynep; Smailes, Sarah; Philp, Bruce; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of total length of stay (LOS) for burns patients based on the total burn surface area (TBSA) is well accepted. Total LOS is a poor measure of resource consumption. Our aim was to determine the LOS in specific levels of care to better inform resource allocation. We performed a retrospective review of LOS in intensive treatment unit (ITU), burns high dependency unit (HDU) and burns low dependency unit (LDU) for all patients requiring ITU admission in a regional burns service from 2003 to 2011. During this period, our unit has admitted 1312 paediatric and 1445 adult patients to our Burns ITU. In both groups, ITU comprised 20% of the total LOS (mean 0.23±0.02 [adult] and 0.22±0.02 [paediatric] days per %burn). In adults, 33% of LOS was in HDU (0.52±0.06 days per %burn) and 48% (0.68±0.06 days per %burn) in LDU, while in children, 15% of LOS was in HDU (0.19±0.03 days per %burn) and 65% in LDU (0.70±0.06 days per %burn). When considering Burns ITU admissions, resource allocation ought to be planned according to expected LOS in specific levels of care rather than total LOS. The largest proportion of stay is in low dependency, likely due to social issues.

  14. Effect of lifestyles on the blood mercury level in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, N-Y; Ahn, S-J; Ryu, D-Y; Choi, B-S; Kim, H; Yu, I-J; Park, J-D

    2013-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is widely distributed in the environment and oral exposure is a main route in the general population. In this study, we estimated the dietary intake of Hg and its relationship with blood Hg levels in Korean adults. The study subjects were recruited from three different districts (rural: 189, coastal: 208 and urban: 184). We used a general questionnaire to collect information about demographic factors, lifestyles and diet. Dietary habits were studied using the 24-h recall method. The estimation of Hg intake was performed using the database of Hg contents in 128 Korean foods based on the previous studies. Blood Hg was analyzed using Direct Mercury Analyzer with the gold-amalgam method. Daily intake of Hg by diet was estimated at 13.57 μg (0.22 μg/kg body weight). The geometric mean Hg concentration in whole blood was 3.92 μg/L. Blood Hg level and Hg intake by diet was higher in coastal areas than in urban or rural areas, respectively. Blood Hg level correlated with the intake of Hg consumed from diet. Seafood was highly responsible and account for 75.6% of total dietary Hg intake. In this study, blood Hg concentrations were found to be significantly affected by sex, age, individual lifestyles and especially the amount of seafood intake, which might play an important role in determining blood Hg levels in Korean adults.

  15. The association between childhood trauma and lipid levels in an adult low income, minority population

    PubMed Central

    Spann, Sarah J.; Gillespie, Charles F.; Davis, Jennifer S.; Brown, Angelo; Schwartz, Ann; Wingo, Aliza; Habib, Leah; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate the association between childhood trauma and lipid profiles in adults from a highly traumatized population at-risk for cardiovascular disease. Method We recruited 452 participants, primarily African American, low socioeconomic status from general medical clinics in a large urban hospital. We performed direct comparisons, univariate ANOVA and regression analyses together and separated by sex, examining the associations of child abuse, BMI, lipid lowering drug use, blood pressure, age, and substance use to HDL levels and HDL/LDL ratios. Results A history of moderate to severe levels of childhood trauma and abuse was associated with a significant decrease in HDL levels (p≤0.01) and HDL/LDL ratios (p≤0.001) relative to males with low levels of abuse. This relationship held when the status of lipid-lowering drugs was considered. When controlling for age, substance abuse, tobacco use, and adult trauma, the effects of childhood trauma remained significant. We found a significant child abuse by sex interaction on HDL/LDL ratios (F(1, 369)=13.0, p≤0.0005) consistent with a differential effect of trauma on dyslipidemia in male but not female subjects Conclusions Our data suggest that childhood trauma exposure, obtained with self-report measures, may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease by way of stress-mediated alterations of lipid concentration and composition in male, but not female, subjects. PMID:24315076

  16. The Relationship between Word and Stress Pattern Recognition Ability and Hearing Level in Hearing-Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela; Kelly-Ballweber, Denise

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between word and stress pattern recognition ability and hearing level was explored by administering the Children's Auditory Test to hearing-impaired young adults (N=27). For word recognition, subjects with average hearing loss between 85 and 100 decibels demonstrated a wide range of performance not predictable from their…

  17. The Level of Willingness to Evacuate among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Graves, Amy; Turner, Keith W.; Swan, James H.

    2011-01-01

    The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of older adults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations…

  18. [Pneumococcal disease in adults: Risk levels and vaccine recommendations].

    PubMed

    Vila-Córcoles, Angel; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga

    2017-02-01

    There are currently two anti-pneumococcal vaccines available for use in adults: the classical 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) and the new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The main advantage of the PCV13 is the potentially better immunogenicity, with its major disadvantages being the higher cost and the lower serotype-coverage than the PPV23. The currently available scientific evidence supports the following basic recommendations: (i)among adults with greatest risk (basically asplenia and immunocompromised), a dual vaccination (PCV13+PPV23) is recommended; (ii)among adults with increased risk (basically persons >65years-old and patients 15-64years with chronic pulmonary or heart disease, diabetes and/or alcoholism), a single vaccination with PPV23 is recommended (single dose in primo-vaccinated >65years; re-vaccination at 5-10years in those primo-vaccinated <65years-old); and (iii) in the rest of adults (risk normal/low) vaccination is not recommended.

  19. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  20. Uniform task level definitions for robotic system performance comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Charles; Tesar, Delbert

    1989-01-01

    A series of ten task levels of increasing difficulty was compiled for use in comparative performance evaluations of available and future robotics technology. Each level has a breakdown of ten additional levels of difficulty to provide a layering of 100 levels. It is assumed that each level of task performance must be achieved by the system before it can be appropriately considered for the next level.

  1. U.S. Diagnostic Reference Levels and Achievable Doses for 10 Adult CT Examinations.

    PubMed

    Kanal, Kalpana M; Butler, Priscilla F; Sengupta, Debapriya; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Coombs, Laura P; Morin, Richard L

    2017-02-21

    Purpose To develop diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and achievable doses (ADs) for the 10 most common adult computed tomographic (CT) examinations in the United States as a function of patient size by using the CT Dose Index Registry. Materials and Methods Data from the 10 most commonly performed adult CT head, neck, and body examinations from 583 facilities were analyzed. For head examinations, the lateral thickness was used as an indicator of patient size; for neck and body examinations, water-equivalent diameter was used. Data from 1 310 727 examinations (analyzed by using SAS 9.3) provided median values, as well as means and 25th and 75th (DRL) percentiles for volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE). Applicable results were compared with DRLs from eight countries. Results More than 46% of the facilities were community hospitals; 13% were academic facilities. More than 48% were in metropolitan areas, 39% were suburban, and 13% were rural. More than 50% of the facilities performed fewer than 500 examinations per month. The abdomen and pelvis was the most frequently performed examination in the study (45%). For body examinations, DRLs (75th percentile) and ADs (median) for CTDIvol, SSDE, and DLP increased consistently with the patient's size (water-equivalent diameter). The relationships between patient size and DRLs and ADs were not as strong for head and neck examinations. These results agree well with the data from other countries. Conclusion DRLs and ADs as a function of patient size were developed for the 10 most common adult CT examinations performed in the United States. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  2. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Atomoxetine on Driving Performance in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Anderson, Deborah L.; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Method: Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with…

  3. Physical Activity Is Associated With Greater Visuospatial Cognitive Functioning Regardless of the Level of Cognitive Load in Elderly Adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Hao; Tsai, Chia Liang

    2016-02-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of regular physical activity on visuospatial cognition in elderly adults, and to further understand the potential neural mechanisms underpinning such effects. We assessed 24 physically active elderly adults and 24 sedentary counterparts using behavioral and neuroelectric measures during a visuospatial cognitive task with different levels of cognitive load. The results showed that the active group had higher behavioral accuracy along with greater P3 amplitudes, regardless of the level of cognitive load. Moreover, the correlation results revealed that physical activity levels were positively associated with accuracy performance in both conditions, while being correlated with frontal P3 amplitudes in the high cognitively demanding condition. However, no significant effects were observed in terms of P3 latency and contingent negative variation. These findings suggest that regular physical activity might be part of an effective lifestyle to attenuate the trajectory of age-related cognitive declines, thus increasing the likelihood of individuals becoming high-functioning older adults.

  4. California adults with elevated blood lead levels, 1987 through 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Follow-up of California blood lead registry reports, 95% of which are of occupationally exposed adults, can guide interventions at specific high-risk work sites and measure the impact of targeted, industry-specific interventions. METHODS. A protocol was implemented to follow up the most severe case reports (> or = 2.90 mumol/L) and establish a statistical database for descriptive analysis. RESULTS. From 1987 through 1990, the California Department of Health Services received 17,951 reports for 4069 civilian, noninstitutionalized adults employed by at least 328 companies. Of 232 incident case subjects with severe lead toxicity (> or = 2.90 mumol/L), 182 were successfully traced and interviewed. Index case subjects were mostly male (95%) and disproportionately Hispanic (46%); 35% lived with children aged 7 or younger, and 10% had been hospitalized. Ninety-four percent involved overexposures at work sites that lacked medical removal (50%), ventilation (36%), appropriate respirators (62%), training (64%), clothing changes (45%), or showering (60%). CONCLUSIONS. Well-known risk factors for occupational lead poisoning clustered at the work sites of index case subjects. Despite standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, lead overexposure in California adults remains a significant public and occupational health concern. PMID:8438980

  5. College Student Performance on the General Ability Measure for Adults and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Kerry S.; Bell, Nancy L.; Hutchinson, Melody B.; Matthews, T. Darin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the concurrent validity of the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). A comparison of the sample's mean scores indicates similar GAMA and WAIS-III Performance IQ scores. In contrast, the sample's mean GAMA IQ score was significantly lower than the sample's mean Full…

  6. Cortisol Reactivity and Performance Abilities in Social Situations in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lense, Miriam D.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypersociability and anxiety. However, little is known about how these salient aspects of the phenotype are related or their underlying physiology. We examined cortisol reactivity in WS because cortisol is responsive to psychosocial stress. Compared to typically developing adults, adults with WS had a significant cortisol decrease in response to a challenging cognitive battery. In contrast, cortisol levels in WS stayed stable in response to a solo musical performance, and baseline cortisol levels were significantly associated with musical skill. Results indicate that people with WS respond differentially to different socially-loaded situations. Implications for salience and arousal in cognitive and social situations are discussed. PMID:24245731

  7. Optimal speech level for speech transmission in a noisy environment for young adults and aged persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hayato; Ota, Ryo; Morimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Hiroshi

    2005-04-01

    Assessing sound environment of classrooms for the aged is a very important issue, because classrooms can be used by the aged for their lifelong learning, especially in the aged society. Hence hearing loss due to aging is a considerable factor for classrooms. In this study, the optimal speech level in noisy fields for both young adults and aged persons was investigated. Listening difficulty ratings and word intelligibility scores for familiar words were used to evaluate speech transmission performance. The results of the tests demonstrated that the optimal speech level for moderate background noise (i.e., less than around 60 dBA) was fairly constant. Meanwhile, the optimal speech level depended on the speech-to-noise ratio when the background noise level exceeded around 60 dBA. The minimum required speech level to minimize difficulty ratings for the aged was higher than that for the young. However, the minimum difficulty ratings for both the young and the aged were given in the range of speech level of 70 to 80 dBA of speech level.

  8. Psychological variables and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV performance.

    PubMed

    Gass, Carlton S; Gutierrez, Laura

    2016-06-07

    The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV are commonly used together in neuropsychological evaluations yet little is known about their interrelationships. This study explored the potential influence of psychological factors on WAIS-IV performance in a sample of 180 predominantly male veteran referrals that underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a VA Medical Center. Exclusionary criteria included failed performance validity testing and self-report distortion on the MMPI-2. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the 15 MMPI-2 content scales, yielding three broader higher-order psychological dimensions: Internalized Emotional Dysfunction (IED), Externalized Emotional Dysfunction (EED), and Fear. Level of IED was not related to performance on the WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ or its four indexes: (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed). EED was not related to WAIS-IV performance. Level of Fear, which encompasses health preoccupations (HEA) and distorted perceptions (BIZ), was significantly related to WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension. These results challenge the common use of high scores on the MMPI-2 IED measures (chiefly depression and anxiety) to explain deficient WAIS-IV performance. In addition, they provide impetus for further investigation of the relation between verbal intelligence and Fear.

  9. Low Literacy Levels in Adults: Implications for Patient Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Health-education materials often require reading levels higher than that of many patients. Nurses need awareness of the prevalence of low literacy and the ability to assess reading levels so they can develop appropriate patient-education materials. (SK)

  10. Association between Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyun; Choi, Jin-Su; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Oh, Su-Hyun; Kim, Sun A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. This study evaluated the association between serum vitamin D levels and type 2 diabetes in Korean adults. This study included 9,014 subjects (3,600 males and 5,414 females) aged ≥50 years who participated in the Dong-gu Study. The subjects were divided into groups in whom the serum vitamin D level was severely deficient (<10 ng/mL), deficient (10 to <20 ng/mL), insufficient (20 to <30 ng/mL) and sufficient (≥30 ng/mL). Type 2 diabetes was defined by a fasting blood glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL and/or an HbA1c proportion of ≥6.5% and/or self-reported current use of diabetes medication. Multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and type 2 diabetes. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 22.6%, 22.5% and 18.4% and 12.7% for severely deficient, deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, respectively. Multivariate modeling revealed that subjects with insufficient or sufficient vitamin D levels were at a lower risk of type 2 diabetes than were subjects with deficient vitamin D levels [odds ratio (OR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71–0.94 and OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35–0.74, respectively]. Higher serum vitamin D levels were associated with a reduced risk of diabetes in Korean adults, suggesting that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:28184342

  11. Executive Function Is Necessary for Perspective Selection, Not Level-1 Visual Perspective Calculation: Evidence from a Dual-Task Study of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qureshi, Adam W.; Apperly, Ian A.; Samson, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that perspective-taking and other "theory of mind" processes may be cognitively demanding for adult participants, and may be disrupted by concurrent performance of a secondary task. In the current study, a Level-1 visual perspective task was administered to 32 adults using a dual-task paradigm in which the secondary task…

  12. The Artistic Infant Directed Performance: A Mycroanalysis of the Adult's Movements and Sounds.

    PubMed

    Español, Silvia; Shifres, Favio

    2015-09-01

    Intersubjectivity experiences established between adults and infants are partially determined by the particular ways in which adults are active in front of babies. An important amount of research focuses on the "musicality" of infant-directed speech (defined melodic contours, tonal and rhythm variations, etc.) and its role in linguistic enculturation. However, researchers have recently suggested that adults also bring a multimodal performance to infants. According to this, some scholars seem to find indicators of the genesis of the performing arts (mainly music and dance) in such a multimodal stimulation. We analyze the adult performance using analytical categories and methodologies of analysis broadly validated in the fields of music performance and movement analysis in contemporary dance. We present microanalyses of an adult-7 month old infant interaction scene that evidenced structural aspects of infant directed multimodal performance compatible with music and dance structures, and suggest functions of adult performance similar to performing arts functions or related to them.

  13. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  14. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of…

  15. Effects of moderate zinc deficiency on cognitive performance in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Massaro, T F; Mohs, M; Fosmire, G

    1982-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to establish a dietary zinc level which approximates a moderate deficiency in the young adult rat and to determine if a concurrent zinc deficiency affects cognitive performance. Male rats were fed varying levels of zinc in diet throughout a 17-day period. The lowest dietary level that depressed serum and bone zinc without influencing food consumption or body weight gains was observed to be 5.8 microgram Zn/g diet. Young adult rats maintained on either a zinc adequate (24.4 microgram Zn/g) or low-zinc (5.3 microgram Zn/g) diet were tested in a modified Skinner Box involving tests of visual, auditory, association, and discrimination learning. No differences were observed in the visual discrimination performance of the zinc deficient animals when compared with control counterparts. Deficits in the ability to transfer a learned association between visual and auditory stimuli were observed, however, in the deficient group during the transfer test phase. The latter performed better during the final auditory discrimination task in transferring a learned food-relevant cue.

  16. Blood lead levels in relation to cognitive function in older U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Winters, Paul C; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2011-01-01

    Studies suggest that cumulative exposure to lead, as measured in the bone, is associated with accelerated cognitive decline at older age. It is presently unclear, however, whether current blood lead levels (BLLs) are adversely related to cognitive functioning in older adults. We evaluated BLLs in relation to cognition in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The current study was limited to adults age 60 and older. We examined two measures of cognitive functioning: self-reported functional limitation due to difficulty remembering or periods of confusion (NHANES 1999-2008; n=7277) and performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST; NHANES 1999-2002; n=2299). We evaluated quintiles of BLL (<1.30, 1.79-<2.30, 2.30-<3.20, and ≥3.20μg/dL) in relation to cognitive functioning using logistic (functional limitation) and linear (DSST scores) regression in SUDAAN, adjusting for age, sex, race, poverty-income ratio, education, and self-reported general health status. BLLs were not associated with self-reported confusion or memory problems in crude and adjusted analyses, with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.0 (ref.), 0.9 (CI=0.7-1.3), 0.8 (CI=0.6-1.2), 1.0 (CI=0.7-1.3), 1.0 (CI=0.7-1.4), respectively, in increasing quintiles. Similarly, there was no clear association between performance on the DSST and BLL after accounting for all covariates. Our findings add to the inconsistent evidence regarding the association between concurrent BLLs and cognitive function in older adults. Early-life or long-term, accumulated lead exposures may be etiologically more relevant to accelerated cognitive decline at older age.

  17. The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL): Performance of African Americans in a National Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwudike, Benjamin C.

    2008-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL): Performance of African Americans in a National Context Sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) the 2003 NAAL was America's most comprehensive assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). NAAL was a nationally representative…

  18. Assessing Adult Learner's Numeracy as Related to Gender and Performance in Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Anyikwa, Blessing E.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated adult learner numeracy as related to gender and performance in arithmetic among 32 Nigerian adult learners from one government accredited adult literacy centre in Lagos State using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of descriptive survey design. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive statistics…

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Functional Disability Levels of Adult Day Care, Adult Day Health and ICF-Level Nursing Home Elderly in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashida, Cullen T.

    This study compared the functional disability levels of participants in adult day centers with patients in intermediate care facilities (ICFs). A three-page questionnaire measuring demographics, social resources, physical health, mental health, and activities of daily living as assessed by the Activities of Daily Living scale and the Instrumental…

  20. Impacts of Deepwater Horizon crude oil exposure on adult mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) swim performance.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, John D; Mager, Edward M; Hoenig, Ronald H; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The temporal and geographic attributes of the Deepwater Horizon incident in 2010 likely exposed pelagic game fish species, such as mahi-mahi, to crude oil. Although much of the research assessing the effects of the spill has focused on early life stages of fish, studies examining whole-animal physiological responses of adult marine fish species are lacking. Using swim chamber respirometry, the present study demonstrates that acute exposure to a sublethal concentration of the water accommodated fraction of Deepwater Horizon crude oil results in significant swim performance impacts on young adult mahi-mahi, representing the first report of acute sublethal toxicity on adult pelagic fish in the Gulf of Mexico following the spill. At an exposure concentration of 8.4 ± 0.6 µg L(-1) sum of 50 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; mean of geometric means ± standard error of the mean), significant decreases in the critical and optimal swimming speeds of 14% and 10%, respectively (p < 0.05), were observed. In addition, a 20% reduction in the maximum metabolic rate and a 29% reduction in aerobic scope resulted from exposure to this level of ΣPAHs. Using environmentally relevant crude oil exposure concentrations and a commercially and ecologically valuable Gulf of Mexico fish species, the present results provide insight into the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on adult pelagic fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2613-2622. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-09-12

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  2. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1996-09-16

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single- and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and its performance as early as possible in the project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  3. Night vision goggles resolution performance at low contrast levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernstrom, Lars

    1993-01-01

    NVG (Night Vision Goggle) resolution performance data is usually given as measured against high contrast, black and white, targets. When NVGs are used as night vision aids for visual night flight, the scene viewed by the pilot is in most cases dominated by low contrast. Therefore, NVG performance at low contrast levels is more relevant to the piloting task than NVG resolution at high contrast levels. A set of resolution targets with different contrast levels was designed and ground tests performed at various light levels outdoors at night. The results showed a marked loss of resolution at lower contrast levels. The presentation will describe the test method, give the results and discuss how the results may be explained. A method for using the test results as the basis for correlating piloting performance to light levels will be presented.

  4. Current recordings at the single channel level in adult mammalian isolated cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Guinamard, Romain; Hof, Thomas; Sallé, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes appropriate methods to investigate mammalian cardiac channels properties at the single channel level. Cell isolation is performed from new born or adult heart by enzymatic digestion on minced tissue or using the Langendorff apparatus. Isolation proceeding is suitable for rabbit, rat, and mouse hearts. In addition, isolation of human atrial cardiomyocytes is described. Such freshly isolated cells or cells maintained in primary culture are suitable for patch-clamp studies. Here we describe the single channel variants of the patch-clamp technique (cell-attached, inside-out, outside-out) used to investigate channel properties. Proceedings for the evaluation of biophysical properties such as conductance, ionic selectivity, regulations by extracellular and intracellular mechanisms are described. To illustrate the study, we provide an example by the characterization of a calcium-activated non-selective cation channel (TRPM4).

  5. Gait Velocity Is an Indicator of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jabourian, Artin; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Delva, Catherine; Perreve-Genet, Alain; Lablanchy, Jean-Pierre; Jabourian, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18–65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years) who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters) and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure) were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R = −0.817, p<0.0001); the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared = 0.496). In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R = −0.867; p<0.001). In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ≤ 49 = 0.361; ≥50 = 0.613). These findings indicate that i) a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii) cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii) gait velocity (GV) could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation because

  6. The Impact of Level of Performance on Feedback Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, R. P.; Love, Kevin G.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the level of observed performance on the feedback strategy selected by a performance evaluator. One hundred and twenty-three actual performance evaluators from 15 different organizations and 123 college students reviewed, in groups which ranged from 2 to 20, a job description for…

  7. Effects of ethanol administration on corticosterone levels in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Willey, Amanda Rachel; Anderson, Rachel Ivy; Morales, Melissa; Ramirez, Ruby Liane; Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-02-01

    Adolescent humans and rodents have been shown to consume more alcohol than their adult counterparts. Given that corticosterone (CORT) has been shown to be related to the intake of several drugs of abuse, this study assessed the ontogenetic effects of low-moderate doses of ethanol on CORT increases and recovery. Despite no significant differences in baseline (home cage) CORT levels, CORT responses to ethanol were greater in females than in males and in adult females than in adolescent females; males, however, showed less marked age differences in CORT levels after ethanol consumption. Adolescent blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) were lower than those of adults, although these BEC differences appear insufficient to account for the ontogenetic differences in CORT levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that it is unlikely that age differences in CORT elevations provide a major contribution to the ontogenetic differences in alcohol intake seen between adolescents and adults.

  8. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiandu, C; Okerengwo, A A; Dapper, D V

    2013-06-30

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. The effects of age and sex on the serum levels of the various immunoglobulin types were also determined. The mean values and ranges for the various immunoglobulin types are presented for both children and adults. Although, female children were found to have significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male children (p<0.05), there were no significant differences in the mean values of both IgG and IgM between male and female children involved in the present study (p>0.05). However, female adults had significantly higher mean values of IgG and significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male adults (p<0.05); suggesting a significant gender difference in the value of both IgG and IgA amongst adult subjects. No significant differences were observed in the mean values of any of the various types of immunoglobulin between adults and children. The present study reports mean values of the various types of immunoglobulin in apparently healthy children and adults resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. Significant gender differences were observed for some of the immunoglobulin types only amongst adults. Our results suggest that these gender differences amongst adults were apparently a gradual build-up from childhood. The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria.

  9. Adult Blood Lead Levels in Minnesota: Rates and Trends, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Adrienne; Yendell, Stephanie; Lindgren, Paula; Olson, Larry; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is associated with a number of adverse health events including peripheral neuropathy, anemia, renal damage and cognitive impairment. The vast majority of adult lead exposures occur in the workplace. By statute, all results from blood lead level (BLL) tests performed in Minnesota are submitted to the Minnesota Department of Health for surveillance purposes. We analyzed that data to examine lead exposure trends from 2005 through 2012. We found that an average of 548 persons 16 years of age and older had a BLL greater than 10 μg/dL each year during that period. Analysis of the prevalence rate of elevated BLLs among adults for the years 2005-2012 showed a modest, nonsignificant decline among those with BLLs greater than 1O μg/dL. Much has been done to reduce exposures and BLLs among young children. However, the policies and standards that protect workers have not been similarly adjusted, and many workers remain at risk of exposure. Although OSHA is responsible for developing and implementing policies and standards to protect workers, health care providers can play a critical role in identifying cases of lead exposure by asking patients about their occupation and industry. Those working in high-risk industries should be tested to determine whether they have been exposed and intervention is warranted.

  10. The influence of various factors on the performance of repetition tests in adults with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Eun Yeon; Jeong, Jin Ok; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2012-03-01

    A variety of internal and external factors influence speech perception performance following cochlear implantation (CI) in adult deaf patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the speech perception performance during repetition testing according to various factors and to identify the predictive factors associated with postoperative speech perception. The performances on speech perception under audio-only conditions were examined over time in 61 adult patients with CI. Mono- and bi-syllable and sentence repetition testing, using both the Korean version of the Central Institute for the Deaf (K-CID) and the K-Western Aphasia Battery test (K-WAB), were performed preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. To elucidate the effect that the etiology of deafness has on postoperative outcome, patients were divided into the following four groups: Prelingual hearing loss (HL) (n = 9), Meningitis (n = 6), Progressive HL (n = 31) and Sudden HL groups (n = 15). Moreover, the duration of HL and deafness was defined as follows: (1) "age of deafness onset: AoD", (2) "number of years between the onset of profound deafness and CI: DoD" and (3) "percentage of the patient's life with moderate-to-profound hearing loss before CI: PoL". DoD and PoL were significantly different between the four groups. Although AoD appeared to be associated with performance on the sentence repetition test before standardizing for education level and age (P = 0.015), there was no association after adjusting for these factors (P = 0.719). Only PoL showed a good correlation with performance on repetition testing after CI after adjusting for AoD and DoD. However, DoD was associated with speech perception performance on the sentence repetition test only. In addition, speech perception performance results in the Progressive and Sudden HL groups were improved over the Prelingual HL and Meningitis groups. The Meningitis group showed the poorest speech perception performance among postlingually

  11. Subclinical sleep apnoea and plasma levels of endothelin-1 among young and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Tobias; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Leuppi, Joerg D; Miedinger, David; Werthmüller, Ursina; Estis, Joel; Todd, John; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a risk factor for vascular disease and other adverse outcomes. These associations may be at least partly due to early endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated endothelial dysfunction (ED). Therefore, we assessed the relationships between subclinical sleep apnoea and plasma levels of ET-1. Methods We performed a population-based study among 1255 young and healthy adults aged 25–41 years. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes or a body mass index >35 kg/m2 were exclusion criteria. Plasma levels of ET-1 were measured using a high-sensitivity, single-molecule counting technology. The relationships between subclinical sleep apnoea (OSA indices: respiratory event index (REI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean night-time blood oxygen saturation (SpO2)) and ET-1 levels were assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Median age of the cohort was 35 years. Median ET-1 levels were 2.9 (IQR 2.4–3.6) and 2.5 pg/mL (IQR 2.1–3.0) among patients with (n=105; 8%) and without subclinical sleep apnoea (REI 5–14), respectively. After multivariable adjustment, subclinical sleep apnoea remained significantly associated with plasma levels of ET-1 (β=0.13 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.20) p=0.0002 for a REI 5–14; β=0.10 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.16) p=0.003 for an ODI≥5). Every 1% decrease in mean night-time SpO2 increased ET-1 levels by 0.1 pg/mL, an association that remained significant after multivariable adjustment (β=0.02 (95% CI 0.003 to 0.033) p=0.02). Conclusions In this study of young and healthy adults, we found that participants with subclinical sleep apnoea had elevated plasma ET-1 levels, an association that was due to night-time hypoxaemia. Our results suggest that ED may already be an important consequence of subclinical sleep apnoea.

  12. Adult Literacy Policies and Performance in the SADCC Region (Southern Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    While the implementation of adult literacy promotion can best be handled at the national level, some important things can be done at the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC) level. A persuasive argument can be made on behalf of adult literacy in the SADCC development strategy. The people need to be educated in the…

  13. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    PubMed

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  14. Public Notification - RTCR Failure To Perform Level 1 Assessment Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When a PWS fails to perform a required Level 1 Assessment, it must issue a public notice to inform the consumers of its water of that failure. You can use this template as a guide to prepare that public notice.

  15. Levels of Health Literacy in a Community-Dwelling Population of Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lower levels of health literacy have been associated with adverse health outcomes, especially for older adults. However, limited research has been conducted to understand health literacy levels among Chinese American older adults. Methods. The PINE study is an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults, 95% of whom do not speak or read English. Chinese older adults’ health literacy levels were examined using the Chinese version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Revised (REALM-R) test. Kruskal–Wallis test and chi-square statistics were used to identify significant differences by sociodemographic and self-reported health characteristics. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine correlations between personal characteristics and health literacy level. Results. The mean age among this sample of Chinese older adults was 72.8 years (SD = 8.3, range = 60–105) and the mean REALM-R test score was 6.9 [SD = 2.3, range (0–8)]. Health literacy was positively associated with education, marriage status, and number of people living with. Older age, being female, greater number of children, years in the United States, and preference for speaking Cantonese or Taishanese were negatively associated with health literacy. Health literary was not associated with self-reported health status or quality of life. Conclusions. In this Chicago Chinese population, older adults had reasonable levels of health literacy in Chinese. Future longitudinal research is needed to understand risk/protective factors associated with health literacy level in Chinese older adults. PMID:25378449

  16. Neonatal manipulation of oxytocin alters oxytocin levels in the pituitary of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Young, E; Carter, C S; Cushing, B S; Caldwell, J D

    2005-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) and its OT antagonists (OTA) in infant rats affect their behavior as adults. In this study we attempted to determine whether treating rats on the day of birth (postnatal day 1) with OT or OTA would affect brain OT levels of these rats as adults. Rat pups were injected with OT (3 microg), OTA (0.3 microg) or saline vehicle ip on postnatal day 1. As 60-day-old adults, treated rats were killed, and the OT content in their medial preoptic areas (MPOAs), medial hypothalami (MH) and pituitaries were assayed. In females, treatment with OTA on postnatal day 1 significantly decreased pituitary OT levels as adults. In males, by contrast, treatment with OTA on postnatal day 1 resulted in increased pituitary OT levels when they become adults compared to male rats treated with OT on postnatal day 1. There were no significant effects of neonatal treatment on OT levels in either the MH or MPOA. Day 1 postnatal treatment with OT or OTA had a long-term sexually dimorphic effect on OT levels in the pituitary.

  17. Design optimization of system level adaptive optical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, Gregory J.; Genberg, Victor L.; Doyle, Keith B.; Bisson, Gary R.

    2005-09-01

    By linking predictive methods from multiple engineering disciplines, engineers are able to compute more meaningful predictions of a product's performance. By coupling mechanical and optical predictive techniques mechanical design can be performed to optimize optical performance. This paper demonstrates how mechanical design optimization using system level optical performance can be used in the development of the design of a high precision adaptive optical telescope. While mechanical design parameters are treated as the design variables, the objective function is taken to be the adaptively corrected optical imaging performance of an orbiting two-mirror telescope.

  18. Optimizing Performance in Adult Cochlear Implant Users through Clinician Directed Auditory Training

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Geoff; Bernstein, Claire Marcus; Levitt, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Clinician-directed auditory training using the KTH Speech Tracking Procedure can be a powerful approach for maximizing outcomes with adult cochlear implant (CI) users. This article first reviews prior research findings from an 8-week clinician-directed auditory training (AT) program using speech tracking that yielded significant gains in speech tracking rate and sentence recognition scores following training. The second focus of the article is to illustrate the value of intensive face-to-face long-term AT using speech tracking with adult CI users. A detailed case study report is presented that demonstrates major ongoing and progressive gains in tracking rate, sentence recognition, and improvements in self-perceived competence and confidence over the course of intensive long-term training. Given the potential of both short- and long-term clinician-directed auditory training via KTH speech tracking to help CI users reach their optimal performance level, consideration for more widespread clinical use is proposed in the overall rehabilitation of adult CI users. PMID:27587916

  19. Supported Employment Improves Cognitive Performance in Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…

  20. Visual Performance of Adults with Prelingual Auditory Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietveld, S.; Spiering, M.; Rotteveel, M.; van Beest, I.

    2004-01-01

    Reaction times and picture evaluations by 18 adults with hearing loss were compared with those of 18 matched controls during two visual priming tasks. In Task 1, participants reacted to sexual and plant target pictures (while influenced by similar preceding pictures) by pressing "sex" or "plant" buttons. In Task 2, they evaluated target Japanese…

  1. Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.

  2. GHb level and subsequent mortality among adults in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Saydah, Sharon; Tao, Min; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Gregg, Edward

    2009-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association of hyperglycemia, as measured by GHb, with subsequent mortality in a nationally representative sample of adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We included adults aged > or =20 years who participated in Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and had complete information, including baseline diabetes status by self-report and measured GHb (n = 19,025) and follow-up through the end of 2000 for mortality. RESULTS In the overall population, higher levels of GHb were associated with increased risk of mortality from all causes, heart disease, and cancer. After adjustment for potential risk factors, the relative hazard (RH) for adults with GHb > or =8% compared with adults with GHb <6% was 2.59 (95% CI 1.88-3.56) for all-cause mortality, 3.38 (1.98-5.77) for heart disease mortality, and 2.64 (1.17-5.97) for cancer mortality. Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, having GHb > or =8% compared with GHb <6% was associated with higher all-cause mortality (RH 1.68, 95% CI 1.03-2.74) and heart disease mortality (2.48, 1.09-5.64), but there was no increased risk of cancer mortality by GHb category. Among adults without diagnosed diabetes, there was no significant association of all-cause, heart disease, or cancer mortality and GHb category. CONCLUSIONS These results highlight the importance of GHb levels in mortality risk among a nationally representative sample of adults with and without diagnosed diabetes and indicate that higher levels are associated with increased mortality in adults with diabetes.

  3. Information Processing Differences and Similarities in Adults with Dyslexia and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder during a Continuous Performance Test: A Study of Cortical Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhar, Monica; Been, Pieter H.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Twenty male adults with ADHD, 16 dyslexic adults, 15 comorbid adults, and 16 normal controls were compared on performance and underlying brain responses, during a cued Continuous Performance Test (O-X CPT), with the aim of discovering features of information processing differentiating between the groups. The study evaluated both cue- and…

  4. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  5. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON PERFORMANCE AMONG OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies exploring differential effects of acute alcohol consumption on younger and older adults are lacking within the field of alcohol research, especially those using moderate doses. Previous studies addressing this question have tended to use complex behavioral tasks too broad to isolate specific neurocognitive processes affected by both alcohol and aging. Compromises in cognitive efficiency (i.e. the ability to respond both quickly and accurately) have previously been identified in both elderly and acutely intoxicated individuals. Methods The present study employed a visual-spatial, two-choice reaction time task to evaluate the interactive effects of aging and alcohol on cognitive efficiency. Our primary outcome measure was an efficiency ratio derived from each participant’s response accuracy (ACC) and mean reaction time (RT) (%correct/RT). Younger (25 – 35; n=22) and older (55 – 74; n=37) participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or moderate alcohol dose intended to produce a peak BrAC of 0.04%. Participants performed the task at peak alcohol levels. Results: A significant interaction between age group and dose assignment was observed (F3,55=4.86, p=.03) for the efficiency ratio. Younger participants who received alcohol performed significantly better than did their older counterparts regardless of alcohol condition and despite no differences in performance between the two age groups in the placebo condition. Additional correlation analyses between ACC and RT suggested that moderately intoxicated older adults become more accurate as response times increase. This relationship was not observed in older adults in the placebo condition. Conclusions These data suggest that healthy individuals exhibit a differential susceptibility to the effects of alcohol depending on their age. Unfortunately, due to the presumed safety of moderate alcohol doses and a lack of studies investigating the interactive effects of acute alcohol

  6. Community-Level Characteristics Associated With Variation in Rates of Homelessness Among Families and Single Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fargo, Jamison D.; Munley, Ellen A.; Byrne, Thomas H.; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. Methods. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Results. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Conclusions. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations. PMID:24148057

  7. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) Study: Biological and Psychological Factors Associated with Learning Performance in Adult Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Groot, Renate H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these associations for adult distance students is lacking…

  8. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences.

  9. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  10. Indication-based diagnostic reference levels for adult CT-examinations in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, A

    2015-07-01

    A diagnostic reference level (DRL) is a predefined dose level, which should not be exceeded in an examination that is conducted appropriately on an average-sized patient. Since dose from only one examination should not be compared with a DRL, the average dose from a good sample of at least 10 average-sized patients should be compared. The previous DRLs for computed tomography (CT)-examinations for adults in Finland were issued in 2007 and only covered examinations conducted on a particular body region. Because the image quality requirements, and thus the dose needed, vary between different indications, there has been a call for indication-based DRLs for CT. The new indication-based DRLs for CT came into effect on June 2013. They are based on a dose survey performed in 2012. Doses were collected from examinations conducted on a particular body region, based on some indication and from some special examination types. The DRLs were set according to the third quartile approach. On average, the DRLs for a particular body region dropped ∼ 20 % from the previous DRLs.

  11. Expert-novice differences in performance skills and problem representations of youth and adults during tennis competition.

    PubMed

    McPherson, S L

    1999-09-01

    Expert and novice tennis players selected from three different age groups (i.e., 10-11 years, 12-13 years, and collegiate adults) were examined for differences in performance skills (i.e., behavioral analyses of video recordings) and problem representations (i.e., verbal report analyses of tape recordings) during matched competition. Factorial analyses of variance on behavioral measures indicated that experts' performances exhibited higher levels of decision and execution than novices, regardless of age. Kruskal-Wallis tests on verbal report measures indicated that experts generated more total, varied, and sophisticated condition and action concepts than novices. Within experts, adults accessed more sophisticated problem representations than youth. Both current event and action plan profiles guided and mediated adult experts' response selections and executions, respectively. Youth experts primarily used action plan profiles to guide their response selections. Novices, regardless of age, accessed weak problem representations.

  12. Relationships Between Metabolic Rate, Muscle Electromyograms and Swim Performance of Adult Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a two-year study to investigate the metabolic rate and swimming performance and to estimate the total energy used (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) by adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study, reported here, were to (1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; (2) estimate the Ucrit of adult spring chinook salmon; and (3) monitor EMGs of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Future papers will report on the results of the field study. Our results indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. Active oxygen consumption increased linearly with swim speed before leveling off at speeds at or above Ucrit. This pattern was similar at each water temperature and indicated that fish were approaching their maximal aerobic oxygen consumption at higher swim speeds. Modeling showed that temperature, but not size or sex, influenced the relation between V02 and swim speed, thus a V02-swim speed model based on temperature (but independent of sex and size) should be a biologically relevant way of estimating the energy use of fish in the wild.

  13. Correlation between physics A-levels/A-levels and degree performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Roy

    1985-09-01

    The author presents an analysis of 178 students who left Solihull Sixth form College between 1975 and 1981 to do a degree in physics (approximately one third) or engineering (approximately two thirds) at university or polytechnic. The first table is an analysis of physics A-level grade and degree performance; the second table an analysis of the points total for physics A-level plus maths A-level (five for A, four for B, etc.), against degree performances, and the final table an analysis of the points total for physics A-level plus maths A-level plus third A-level (again five for A, four for B, etc.), against degree performance.

  14. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  15. A Common variant in RAB27A gene is associated with fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in adults

    PubMed Central

    Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Nadif, Rachel; Thompson, Emma E.; Concas, Maria Pina; Kuldanek, Susan; Du, Gaixin; Brossard, Myriam; Lavielle, Nolwenn; Sarnowski, Chloé; Vaysse, Amaury; Dessen, Philippe; van der Valk, Ralf JP; Duijts, Liesbeth; Henderson, A John; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; de Jongste, Johan C; Dizier, Marie-Hélène; Pin, Isabelle; Matran, Régis; Lathrop, Mark; Pirastu, Mario; Demenais, Florence; Ober, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker for eosinophilic inflammation in the airways and for responsiveness to corticosteroids in asthmatics. Objective We sought to identify in adults the genetic determinants of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels and to assess whether environmental and disease-related factors influence these associations. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study of FeNO through meta-analysis of two independent discovery samples of European ancestry: the outbred EGEA study (French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, N=610 adults) and the Hutterites (N=601 adults), a founder population living on communal farms. Replication of main findings was assessed in adults from an isolated village in Sardinia (Talana study, N=450). We then investigated the influence of asthma, atopy and tobacco smoke exposure on these genetic associations and whether they were also associated with FeNO values in children of the EAGLE (EArly Genetics & Lifecourse Epidemiology, N=8,858) consortium. Results We detected a common variant in RAB27A (rs2444043) associated with FeNO that reached the genome-wide significant level (P=1.6×10−7) in the combined discovery and replication adult datasets. This SNP belongs to member of RAS oncogene family (RAB27A) and was associated with an expression quantitative trait locus for RAB27A in lymphoblastoid cell lines from asthmatics. A second suggestive locus (rs2194437, P=8.9×10−7) located nearby the sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (SLC8A1) was mainly detected in atopic subjects and influenced by inhaled corticosteroid use. These two loci were not associated with childhood FeNO values. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance This study identified a common variant located in RAB27A gene influencing FeNO levels specifically in adults and with a biological relevance to the regulation of FeNO levels. This study provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying FeNO levels in

  16. Auditory map reorganization and pitch discrimination in adult rats chronically exposed to low-level ambient noise

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral adaption to a changing environment is critical for an animal's survival. How well the brain can modify its functional properties based on experience essentially defines the limits of behavioral adaptation. In adult animals the extent to which experience shapes brain function has not been fully explored. Moreover, the perceptual consequences of experience-induced changes in the brains of adults remain unknown. Here we show that the tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats living with low-level ambient noise underwent a dramatic reorganization. Behaviorally, chronic noise-exposure impaired fine, but not coarse pitch discrimination. When tested in a noisy environment, the noise-exposed rats performed as well as in a quiet environment whereas the control rats performed poorly. This suggests that noise-exposed animals had adapted to living in a noisy environment. Behavioral pattern analyses revealed that stress or distraction engendered by the noisy background could not account for the poor performance of the control rats in a noisy environment. A reorganized auditory map may therefore have served as the neural substrate for the consistent performance of the noise-exposed rats in a noisy environment. PMID:22973201

  17. Evaluation of continuous arch and segmented arch leveling techniques in adult patients--a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Weiland, F J; Bantleon, H P; Droschl, H

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of overbite correction achieved by a conventional continuous arch wire technique and the segmented arch technique as recommended by Burstone. The sample comprised 50 adult patients (age 18 to 40 years) with deep bites. Twenty-five patients were treated with a continuous arch wire technique (CAW); in the second half of the sample, the segmented arch technique (Burstone) was used for correction of the vertical malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms and plaster cast models taken before and immediately after treatment were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed on the collected data. The results showed that both techniques produced a highly significant overbite reduction (CAW: -3.17 mm, p < 0.001; Burstone: -3.56 mm, p < 0.001). The CAW group showed an extrusion in the molar area with subsequent posterior rotation of the mandible (6occl-ML: +1.30 mm; 6occl-NSL: +1.63 mm; ML/NSL: +1.94 degrees, all p < 0.001). The Burstone group, however, showed overbite reduction by incisor intrusion without any substantial extrusion of posterior teeth (upper 1-NSL: -1.50 mm; lower 1-ML: -1.72 mm; both p < 0.001). As a consequence, no significant posterior rotation of the mandible took place (ML/NSL: +0.52 degrees, n.s.). It is concluded that in adult patients the segmented arch technique (Burstone) can be considered as being superior to a conventional continuous arch wire technique if arch leveling by incisor intrusion is indicated.

  18. Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Matheus, Agatha Caveda; da Silva, Rodrigo Pereira; Lauria, Vinícius Tonon; Romiti, Marcello; Gagliardi, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL), as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years) underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness), the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI) as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8), smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5), physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4), larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71); and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98). Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies. PMID:26982037

  19. Reduced swim performance and aerobic capacity in adult zebrafish exposed to waterborne selenite.

    PubMed

    Massé, Anita J; Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M

    2013-04-01

    Although dietary exposure of adult fish to organoselenium in contaminated aquatic ecosystems has been reported to bioaccumulate and cause larval deformities in offspring, subtle physiological effects produced through low level waterborne selenium exposure in fish such as swim performance and aerobic capacity have not been investigated. To evaluate potential effects of selenite on these responses, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to nominal aqueous concentrations of 0, 10 or 100 μg/L sodium selenite for 14 days. Upon completion of the exposure period, fish underwent two successive swim trials in a swim tunnel respirometer to determine critical swim speed (Ucrit), oxygen consumption (MO2), standard and active metabolic rates, aerobic scope (AS) and cost of transport (COT) followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride and glycogen concentrations. Selenite exposure had a significant negative effect on Ucrit and aerobic capacity. Active metabolic rates and AS significantly decreased in both selenite exposure groups after the second swim trial. No significant effect was observed in MO2, standard metabolic rate, COT, triglyceride and glycogen levels, or condition factor between groups. These results suggest that aqueous selenite exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations produces adverse effects on aerobic capacity that can diminish endurance and maximum swim speeds, which may lower fish survivability.

  20. Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

  1. The Effect of Implicit Stereotypes on the Physical Performance of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriello, Gabriele; Cotter, J. James; Shook, Nathalie; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Welleford, E. Ayn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how stereotypes affect physical performance in older adults. During Experiment 1, older adults were primed with objects representing aging stereotypes to determine whether these objects can activate stereotypes of aging. Results from the first part of this study provide evidence that certain material…

  2. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Amanda Alders

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…

  3. Exploring Discordance between Self-Efficacy and Writing Performance among Low-Literate Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Michail, Domna

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores accordance or discordance between efficacy beliefs of adult students and their writing performance, using a mixed methods design. The participants are 33 students with learning disabilities (LD) and 35 low-achieving (LA) students, who were attending two Second-Chance Schools (SCSs), a specific type of adult education.…

  4. Association of Vascular Health and Neurocognitive Performance in Overweight Adults with High Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrick J.; Blumenthal, James A.; Babyak, Michael A.; Hinderliter, Alan; Sherwood, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    To examine the relationship between vascular health, including flow-mediated dilation (FMD), intima medial thickness (IMT), and neurocognitive performance in a sample of 124 sedentary, middle-aged adults with high blood pressure (SBP 130–159 mmHg or DBP 85–99 mmHg) who were overweight or obese (body mass index 25.0 – 39.99 kgs/m2). Patients completed a neuropsychological test battery including measures of Executive Function and Psychomotor Speed, along with measures of IMT and FMD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the association between vascular measures and neurocognitive performance after controlling for demographic factors and cerebrovascular risk factors. Higher levels of FMD predicted better Executive Function (b = 0.90, P = .045). Greater IMT tended to be associated with slower Psychomotor Speed (b = −0.82, P = .084), with the effect attenuated after controlling for FMD. Impaired FMD is associated with worse neurocognitive functioning among overweight adults with high blood pressure. PMID:21229433

  5. TSH levels are associated with vitamin D status and seasonality in an adult population of euthyroid adults.

    PubMed

    Barchetta, I; Baroni, M G; Leonetti, F; De Bernardinis, M; Bertoccini, L; Fontana, M; Mazzei, E; Fraioli, A; Cavallo, M G

    2015-08-01

    A circannual periodicity in thyrotropin (TSH) secretion has been reported but the causes of these phenomenon are still undefined. Vitamin D exerts a direct influence on pituitary axes including the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Aims of the present study were to investigate the presence of a seasonal variability of TSH secretion and to study the association between vitamin D status and TSH levels in a population of euthyroid adults. For this purpose, we recruited 294 euthyroid adults (M/F 133/161, 48.5 ± 12.4 years). Study participants underwent clinical examination and routine biochemistry assessment. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed for serum 25(OH) vitamin D <25 nmol/l. Significantly higher TSH levels were found in subjects who underwent blood sampling during the Autumn-Winter compared with individuals evaluated in Spring-Summer (2.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.8 ± 1.1 μIU/ml, p = 0.03). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with higher TSH levels (p = 0.01) after adjusting for sex, age, and sample's season. Although vitamin D deficiency was also associated with metabolic syndrome and its components, the association between TSH levels and vitamin D status persisted also considering these confounders. These data reveal the occurrence of seasonal variability of serum TSH concentration in euthyroid subjects and provide evidence for the first time that an association exists between vitamin D status and serum TSH levels.

  6. Low physical fitness levels in older adults with ID: results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of 1050 older adults with ID, and results were compared with reference values from the general population. Across all age ranges, approximately two-third of the entire study population scored 'below average' or 'impaired'. Even the youngest age groups (50-59 or 50-54 years) in this sample achieve similar or worse results than age groups 20-30 years older in the general population. Low physical fitness levels in older adults with ID demonstrate that this group is prone to unnecessary premature loss of functioning and health problems, and maintaining physical fitness should have priority in practice and policy.

  7. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor

  8. Tracking blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in Andean adults working in a lead contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4, and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007, and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Lead exposure of the workers needs to be continually monitored.

  9. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  10. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-09-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. PATHWAYS: An Adult Basic Skills Writing Workbook, Level III. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabe, Rosemeri; And Others

    Part of an adult basic education series utilizing Southwestern American Indian cultural material, this level III (fifth grade equivalent, 4.5-6.0 readability) teacher's guide contains concise explanations of the various skills presented, suggested teaching strategies, answers to workbook exercises, and a list of available supplementary commercial…

  12. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  13. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  14. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  15. Revisiting Adults' Perceptual Learning Style and Their Educational Level: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kourtland R.

    2004-01-01

    This study is a replication of an original study conducted by James and Blank (1991) which examined the relationship between educational attainment and adult performance using the Multi-Modal Paired Associates Learning Test-Revised (MMPALT-II) (Cherry, 1981). The MMPALT-II was designed to measure an individual's demonstrated perceptual modality…

  16. Performance Capabilities and Competencies at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels for Performance Improvement Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giberson, Tomas R.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to identify the performance capabilities and competencies that organizations in the northern midwestern United States expect of future performance improvement professionals at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Eighty-nine performance improvement professionals representing 89 organizations completed an online…

  17. Dynamic expression of the polysialyltransferase in adult rat hippocampus performing an olfactory associative task.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Christine; Migliorati, Martine; Gilbert, Valérie; Brezun, Jean-Michel; Chaillan, Franck A; Truchet, Bruno; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Roman, François S

    2014-08-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is associated with polysialic acid (PSA), and its function is highly dependent on the extent of polysialylation through the activity of two polysialyltransferases, sialyltransferase-X (STX) and polysialyltransferase (PST). PSA-NCAM plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The involvement of STX and PST during mnesic processes was assessed in the adult rat hippocampus. We investigated whether different levels in learning and memory using an olfactory associative task influenced STX and PST gene expression in the hippocampus using semiquantitative transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, NCAM polysialylation and cell proliferation were quantified in the dentate gyrus of a "Learning and Memory" group using immunohistochemistry. We found that only the expression level of PST mRNA increased with learning performance and returned to an initial level when learned associations were consolidated in long-term memory, while STX mRNA levels remained unchanged. This phenomenon was accompanied by an increase in PSA on NCAM but not by cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Our results suggest a different involvement for STX and PST in neural plasticity: while STX is probably involved in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells, PST could play a key role in synaptic plasticity of mature neural networks. The expression of the STX and PST genes could, therefore, be useful markers of neurobiological plasticity in the brain, allowing to follow chronological events in limbic and cortical structures related first to learning and memory processes (for PST) and, second, to adult neurogenesis processes (for STX).

  18. 10 CFR 435.5 - Performance level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.5 Performance level determination. (a) For Federal buildings for which design for construction...

  19. 10 CFR 435.5 - Performance level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.5 Performance level determination. (a) For Federal buildings for which design for construction...

  20. 10 CFR 433.5 - Performance level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.5 Performance level determination. (a)(1) For Federal buildings for which design for construction began on or after January 3, 2007, but before...

  1. 10 CFR 433.5 - Performance level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.5 Performance level determination. (a)(1) For Federal buildings for which design for construction began on or after January 3, 2007, but before...

  2. 10 CFR 435.5 - Performance level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.5 Performance level determination. (a) For Federal buildings for which design for construction...

  3. 10 CFR 433.5 - Performance level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.5 Performance level determination. (a)(1) For Federal buildings for which design for construction began on or after January 3, 2007, but before...

  4. Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Kimberley; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the level of their EP (low versus high), were tested on…

  5. High levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrenes in urine of children and adults from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Hemat, Hamayon; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael; Müller, Johannes; Göen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Among a health cooperation project, we had the opportunity to study the internal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure of residents from urban and rural areas in Afghanistan. Urine samples from 13 children (age 2.0-9 years) and 42 adults (age 20-65 years) were collected. A total of 25 participants were from Kabul, and 30 participants lived in a rural area. The determination of 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrenes was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Median (range) were as follows (n=55): 1-hydroxypyrene 1646 ng/l (71-16,288 ng/l) and sum of 1-, 2- and 9-, 3-, 4-OH-phenanthrenes 3602 ng/l (116-19,670 ng/l). These results indicate a high PAH exposure, compared with the general population in more developed countries. The levels of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of women (all non-smokers) from the rural area were higher than those from Kabul (N, median, range): rural 15, 2095, 334-11,357 ng/l; Kabul 11, 748,137-5332 ng/l. All households from the rural area used open fires for cooking and energy. We conclude that populations in low-developed countries may be at special risk to increased PAH exposure due to inadequate control of air pollution from car emissions and due to burning of biomass fuels for cooking and household energy.

  6. Visual performance of adults with prelingual auditory impairment.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Simon; Spiering, Mark; Rotteveel, Mark; van Beest, Ilja

    Reaction times and picture evaluations by 18 adults with hearing loss were compared with those of 18 matched controls during two visual priming tasks. In Task 1, participants reacted to sexual and plant target pictures (while influenced by similar preceding pictures) by pressing "sex" or "plant" buttons. In Task 2, they evaluated target Japanese ideographs (while influenced by preceding positive or negative facial expressions as prime pictures) by pressing "positive" or "negative" buttons. In Task 1, the controls had the faster responses. In Task 2, they showed the usual congruent priming effect during very short prime presentations. Participants with hearing loss showed this effect only during short and long prime presentation times; thus, they were not superior to the controls in picture recognition, instead showing (a) impaired processing of visual information or (b) impaired perceptual-motor skills regarding quick responses to visual information (or both).

  7. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  8. Drink Availability is Associated with Enhanced Examination Performance in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawson, Chris; Gardner, Mark R.; Doherty, Sarah; Martin, Laura; Soares, Rute; Edmonds, Caroline J.

    2013-01-01

    While dehydration has negative effects on memory and attention, few studies have investigated whether drinking water can enhance cognitive performance, and none have addressed this in a real-world setting. In this study we explored the potential benefits of the availability of water for undergraduates. The exam performance of students who brought…

  9. Learning vs. Performance: Implications for the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sample, John

    Goal setting is a dispositional trait that influences motivation to learn and to perform. Individuals with a Performing (or Proving) Goal Orientation are characterized by a desire to please authority figures, the belief that personal abilities are stable and unchanging, and a tendency to become frustrated and give up quickly when faced by…

  10. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ≥ 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity, increased sedentary time, and frequent consumption of instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted.

  11. MATRICS cognitive consensus battery (MCCB) performance in children, adolescents, and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Nitzburg, George C.; DeRosse, Pamela; Burdick, Katherine E.; Peters, Bart D.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia suggest that cognitive deficits may be observed during childhood and adolescence, long before the onset of psychotic symptoms. Elucidating the trajectory of normal cognitive development during childhood and adolescence may therefore provide a basis for identifying specific abnormalities related to the development of schizophrenia. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), which was designed for use in clinical trials targeting cognitive deficits most common in schizophrenia, may provide a mechanism to understand this trajectory. To date, however, there is no performance data for the MCCB in healthy children and adolescents. The present study sought to establish performance data for the MCCB in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults. Methods The MCCB was administered to a community sample of 190 healthy subjects between the ages of 8 and 23 years. All MCCB domain scores were converted to T-scores using sample means and standard deviations and were compared for significant performance differences between sex and age strata. Results Analyses revealed age effects following quadratic trends in all MCCB domains, which is consistent with research showing a leveling off of childhood cognitive improvement upon approaching late adolescence. Sex effects after controlling for age only presented for one MCCB domain, with males exhibiting well-known spatial reasoning advantages. Conclusions Utilizing this performance data may aid future research seeking to elucidate specific deficits that may be predictive of later development of SZ. PMID:24321710

  12. Effect of Calcitriol on FGF23 Level in Healthy Adults and its Dependence on Phosphate Level

    PubMed Central

    GEORGIADOU, EFFROSYNI; MARKETOU, HELEN; TROVAS, GEORGE; DONTAS, ISMENE; PAPAIOANNOU, NIKOLAOS; MAKRIS, KONSTANTINOS; GALANOS, ANTONIOS; PAPAVASSILIOU, ATHANASIOS

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the short-term effects of calcitriol and sevelamer hydrochloride on fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) in humans and to determine whether the effect is direct or indirect through calcitriol-induced increased absorption of phosphorus from the intestine. Patients and Methods: A total of 15 healthy individuals were tested at three time points and stages, for 24 h and at 1-week intervals. During each stage, blood samples were taken at three time points (0, 8 and 24 h); baseline stage: under no intervention; second stage, while receiving 0.5 μg calcitriol orally twice daily; and at the third stage, while receiving 0.5 μg calcitriol orally twice daily and sevelamer hydrochloride during meals. The changes in FGF23, parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, Ca, and phosphorus were determined. Results: During calcitriol administration, the FGF23 level changed significantly (p=0.008), with the level at 24 h levels being significantly higher than at 8 h (8.8 pg/ml vs. 13.0 pg/ml, p=0.036). There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage change, among the three stages, at time 8 to 24 h and 0 to 24 h for FGF23 (p=0.014 and p=0.015, respectively), with significant differences between baseline vs. calcitriol for 8 to 24 h FGF23 change (−9.23% vs. 26.98%, p=0.003) and a trend between baseline vs. calcitriol (p=0.061) and calcitriol plus sevelamer (p=0.069) for 0 to 24 h FGF23 change. Conclusion: Administration of calcitriol to healthy individuals increases the circulating level of FGF23 within 24 h. Combined calcitriol and sevelamer administration restrains the increase of FGF23, suggesting that calcitriol-induced increased absorption of phosphate from the intestine might also be involved in the increase of FGF23. PMID:28064234

  13. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo

    PubMed Central

    Barbado, David; Lopez-Valenciano, Alejandro; Juan-Recio, Casto; Montero-Carretero, Carlos; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas). Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1) sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2) stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants’ ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05) and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05) than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512) significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance. PMID:27232602

  14. Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training…

  15. Neural Correlates Associated with Successful Working Memory Performance in Older Adults as Revealed by Spatial ICA

    PubMed Central

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which neural correlates are associated with successful working memory performance, fMRI was recorded in healthy younger and older adults during performance on an n-back task with varying task demands. To identify functional networks supporting working memory processes, we used independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed a larger neural (BOLD) response in the more complex (2-back) than in the baseline (0-back) task condition, in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and in the right fronto-parietal network (FPN). Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in both the baseline and the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship suggests that the neural correlates linked with successful performance in the older adults are not uniquely related to specific working memory processes present in the complex but not in the baseline task condition. Furthermore, the selective presence of this relationship in older but not in younger adults suggests that increased neural activity in the VLPFC serves a compensatory role in the aging brain which benefits task performance in the elderly. PMID:24911016

  16. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal; Elhakeem, Ramaze Farouke

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown. Aims To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV) derived indices. Subjects and Methods The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln) of total power (LnTP), very low frequency (LnVLF), low frequency (LnLF) and high frequency (LnHF), low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF), normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and high frequency (HF Norm). Results FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031) and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025) and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025) and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035). LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34) ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94) n.u) compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63) ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73) n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively). LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94) n.u and 0.73 (0.53)) compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83) n.u and 0.03 (0.79), P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively). Conclusion The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which

  17. Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bento-Torres, N V O; Bento-Torres, J; Tomás, A M; Costa, V O; Corrêa, P G R; Costa, C N M; Jardim, N Y V; Picanço-Diniz, C W

    2017-03-23

    Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB). The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61-84 years of age). CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test), no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling) and age (60-69 and ≥70 years). Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

  18. Local cultural animal food contributes high levels of nutrients for Arctic Canadian Indigenous adults and children.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, Harriet V; Receveur, Olivier

    2007-04-01

    Food systems of Canadian Arctic Indigenous Peoples contain many species of traditional animal and plant food, but the extent of use today is limited because purchased food displaces much of the traditional species from the diet. Frequency and 24-h dietary interviews of Arctic adults and children were used to investigate these trends. The most frequently consumed Arctic foods were derived from animals and fish. In adults these foods contributed 6-40% of daily energy of adults. Children ate much less, 0.4-15% of energy, and >40% of their total energy was contributed by "sweet" and "fat" food sources. Nevertheless, for adults and children, even a single portion of local animal or fish food resulted in increased (P < 0.05) levels of energy, protein, vitamin D, vitamin E, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and potassium; although children had similar results for these nutrients, they did not reach significance for energy, vitamin D, or manganese. Because market foods are the major source of energy in the Arctic, traditional animal-source foods are extremely important to ensure high dietary quality of both adults and children.

  19. Social Anxiety Level in Adult Patients With Epilepsy and Their First-Degree Cohabiting Relatives.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ebru; Yerdelen, V Deniz; Taskintuna, Nilgün

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy affects not only the patient but also the patient's cohabiting relatives, to various degrees. This study investigated state and trait anxiety, depression, and social fear and avoidance levels in 48 adult patients with epilepsy and 48 family members, compared with 43 healthy control subjects, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. The results suggested that the patients and their first-degree relatives had higher levels of depression, state and trait anxiety, and avoidance compared with healthy subjects. The mothers of patients with epilepsy had the highest level of depression and anxiety.

  20. Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  1. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18–71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  2. Unwanted sex among young adults in the US: The role of physical disability and cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between unwanted sexual experiences and both physical disability and cognitive performance in a nationally representative sample of young adults. We used data from 11,878 participants (ages 26–32) in Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Logistic regressions determined associations between physical disability and level of cognitive performance (using a modified Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and the odds of experiencing physically forced and non-physically coerced sex. Approximately 24% of females and 4% of males reported unwanted sexual experiences. Compared to respondents without disabilities, females with a physical disability had greater odds of experiencing forced sex (OR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.08), while males with a physical disability had greater odds of coerced sex (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.52). Compared to those with average cognitive performance scores, females with scores above 110 had slightly higher odds of coerced sex (OR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.03–1.41). Further research on pathways underlying these associations is needed to inform prevention efforts. PMID:21602209

  3. Similar Subgroups Based on Cognitive Performance Parse Heterogeneity in Adults With ADHD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Jeanette C.; Hoogman, Martine; Onnink, A. Marten H.; van Rooij, Daan; von Rhein, Daniel; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Norris, David G.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize heterogeneity in adults with ADHD we aimed to identify subgroups within the adult ADHD spectrum, which differ in their cognitive profile. Method Neuropsychological data from adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy control participants (n = 132) were used in a confirmatory factor analysis. The resulting six cognitive factors were correlated across participants to form networks. We used a community detection algorithm to cluster these networks into subgroups. Results Both the ADHD and control group separated into three profiles that differed in cognitive performance. Profile 1 was characterized by aberrant attention and inhibition, profile 2 by increased delay discounting, and profile 3 by atypical working memory and verbal fluency. Conclusion Our findings suggest that qualitative differences in neuropsychological performance exist in both control and ADHD adult individuals. This extends prior findings in children with and without ADHD and provides a framework to parse participants into well-defined subgroups. PMID:26374770

  4. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, M. M.; Aljumaah, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (P<0.05) the total live weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control and T3 groups. Moreover, treatment, time and time × treatment caused a significant change on Co concentration in blood serum with higher value at the end of the experiment. Treatments had a significant effect (P<0.05) on blood serum cholesterol and protein levels. Undegradable methionine supplementation (T3) significantly increased longissimus dorsi weight, fat thickness and omental fat%. In conclusion, feeding Baladi kids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity. PMID:27175130

  5. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, M M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (P<0.05) the total live weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control and T3 groups. Moreover, treatment, time and time × treatment caused a significant change on Co concentration in blood serum with higher value at the end of the experiment. Treatments had a significant effect (P<0.05) on blood serum cholesterol and protein levels. Undegradable methionine supplementation (T3) significantly increased longissimus dorsi weight, fat thickness and omental fat%. In conclusion, feeding Baladi kids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity.

  6. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  7. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  8. Lessons from Adult Education: Identifying and Exploring Emerging Ethical Issues in Technologically Enhanced Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Christie Knittel; O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Technologically Enhanced Performance (TEP) is the application of technology to improve the performance of knowledge workers. TEP is both an intellectual and ideological complement to the field of Adult Education. As such, much can be learned about ethical issues associated with implementing TEP from the established research and literature base in…

  9. Manual Asymmetries in the Performance of Sequential Movement by Adolescents and Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby

    1985-01-01

    Movement-sequencing deficits and possible manual-performance asymmetries in right-handed adolescents and adults with Downs syndrome were examined. Although Ss with Down syndrome showed no hand differences in tapping performance, they evidenced the same transfer of training asymmetries as did Ss without Down syndrome, suggesting that both the Down…

  10. Correlation analysis between ionospheric scintillation levels and receiver tracking performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Elmas, Z. G.; Forte, B.

    2012-06-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of a transionospheric radio signal caused by small scale plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere are known as scintillation. Scintillation can seriously impair a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) receiver tracking performance, thus affecting the required levels of availability, accuracy and integrity, and consequently the reliability of modern day GNSS based applications. This paper presents an analysis of correlation between scintillation levels and tracking performance of a GNSS receiver for GPS L1C/A, L2C and GLONASS L1, L2 signals. The analyses make use of data recorded over Presidente Prudente (22.1°S, 51.4°W, dip latitude ˜12.3°S) in Brazil, a location close to the Equatorial Ionisation Anomaly (EIA) crest in Latin America. The study presents for the first time this type of correlation analysis for GPS L2C and GLONASS L1, L2 signals. The scintillation levels are defined by the amplitude scintillation index, S4 and the receiver tracking performance is evaluated by the phase tracking jitter. Both S4 and the phase tracking jitter are estimated from the post correlation In-Phase (I) and Quadra-Phase (Q) components logged by the receiver at a high rate. Results reveal that the dependence of the phase tracking jitter on the scintillation levels can be represented by a quadratic fit for the signals. The results presented in this paper are of importance to GNSS users, especially in view of the forthcoming high phase of solar cycle 24 (predicted for 2013).

  11. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  12. Fulfilling Dreams in Adult Education: Managing the Multi-Level Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how Laura Ingalls Wilder taught all of her students in the little one-room school house in The Little House on the Prairie series? How did she teach students on so many different levels and all at the same time? Well, that is exactly what it is like in most adult education classrooms today. The purpose of this paper is to…

  13. Effects of low salinity on adult behavior and larval performance in the intertidal gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae).

    PubMed

    Montory, Jaime A; Pechenik, Jan A; Diederich, Casey M; Chaparro, Oscar R

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae). Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control), 25, 20 or 15), to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR), oxygen consumption (OCR), and mortality (LC50); we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities <24 clearly affect survival, physiology and behavior in early larval life, which will substantially affect the fitness of the species under declining ambient salinities.

  14. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Bockting, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed individual (i.e., internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including: density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion towards homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N=1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92–0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults. PMID:26287284

  15. White matter fractional anisotropy predicts balance performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Van Impe, Annouchka; Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Doumas, Mihail; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2012-09-01

    Aging is characterized by brain structural changes that may compromise motor functions. In the context of postural control, white matter integrity is crucial for the efficient transfer of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular feedback in the brain. To determine the role of age-related white matter decline as a function of the sensory feedback necessary to correct posture, we acquired diffusion weighted images in young and old subjects. A force platform was used to measure changes in body posture under conditions of compromised proprioceptive and/or visual feedback. In the young group, no significant brain structure-balance relations were found. In the elderly however, the integrity of a cluster in the frontal forceps explained 21% of the variance in postural control when proprioceptive information was compromised. Additionally, when only the vestibular system supplied reliable information, the occipital forceps was the best predictor of balance performance (42%). Age-related white matter decline may thus be predictive of balance performance in the elderly when sensory systems start to degrade.

  16. Erythropoietic drive is the strongest predictor of hepcidin level in adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Karafin, Matthew S; Koch, Kathryn L; Rankin, Amy B; Nischik, Debora; Rahhal, Ghady; Simpson, Pippa; Field, Joshua J

    2015-12-01

    Levels of hepcidin, a key modulator of iron metabolism, are influenced by erythropoiesis, iron, and inflammation, all of which may be increased in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the variation in hepcidin level, and 2) the relative contribution of erythropoietic drive, iron, and inflammation to differences in hepcidin level in an adult cohort with SCD. In a prospective study, cross-sectional measurements of hepcidin, reticulocyte percentage, erythropoietin, ferritin, and high-sensitivity CRP were obtained. A regression tree analysis was used to measure the association between these interacting factors and hepcidin level. The cohort was comprised of 40 adults with SCD. Median age was 26years, 68% were female, and all had HbSS. Hepcidin values ranged from 30ng/ml to 326ng/ml, with a median of 87ng/ml. Regression tree analysis demonstrated that reticulocyte percentage, erythropoietin, ferritin and hs-CRP all were associated with hepcidin. The highest hepcidin values were found in subjects with low reticulocyte percentage and erythropoietin. In conclusion, erythropoietic drive, iron status, and inflammation all contribute to variation in hepcidin level. The strongest contributor is erythropoietic drive. Future studies could determine whether suppression of erythropoiesis with chronic transfusion influences hepcidin level.

  17. The relation of salivary cortisol to patterns of performance on a word list learning task in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Julie; Demireva, Petya; Heffner, Kathi

    2008-10-01

    A pattern of performance on a word list learning task known as a reduced primacy effect has been shown to be characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can distinguish AD from depression. Deficits in memory and hippocampal atrophy seen in AD have been associated with hypercortisolism. The present study evaluated whether the reduced primacy effect is associated with elevated salivary cortisol in a sample of 40 healthy older community-dwelling adults participating in a study of memory and stress. We found that primacy, but not recency, was associated with higher salivary cortisol levels. In addition, participants who showed a reduced primacy had higher salivary cortisol levels than those with a normal serial position curve. Results suggest that there may be value to examining both serial position curves and changes to cortisol patterns over time as potential predictors of cognitive decline in healthy older adults.

  18. Instruction-level performance modeling and characterization of multimedia applications

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Cameron, K.W.

    1999-06-01

    One of the challenges for characterizing and modeling realistic multimedia applications is the lack of access to source codes. On-chip performance counters effectively resolve this problem by monitoring run-time behaviors at the instruction-level. This paper presents a novel technique of characterizing and modeling workloads at the instruction level for realistic multimedia applications using hardware performance counters. A variety of instruction counts are collected from some multimedia applications, such as RealPlayer, GSM Vocoder, MPEG encoder/decoder, and speech synthesizer. These instruction counts can be used to form a set of abstract characteristic parameters directly related to a processor`s architectural features. Based on microprocessor architectural constraints and these calculated abstract parameters, the architectural performance bottleneck for a specific application can be estimated. Meanwhile, the bottleneck estimation can provide suggestions about viable architectural/functional improvement for certain workloads. The biggest advantage of this new characterization technique is a better understanding of processor utilization efficiency and architectural bottleneck for each application. This technique also provides predictive insight of future architectural enhancements and their affect on current codes. In this paper the authors also attempt to model architectural effect on processor utilization without memory influence. They derive formulas for calculating CPI{sub 0}, CPI without memory effect, and they quantify utilization of architectural parameters. These equations are architecturally diagnostic and predictive in nature. Results provide promise in code characterization, and empirical/analytical modeling.

  19. Determinants of elite-level air rifle shooting performance.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, S; Kuitunen, S; Mononen, K; Linnamo, V

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on identifying the most important factors determining performance in elite-level air rifle shooting technique. Forty international- and national-level shooters completed a simulated air rifle shooting competition series. From a total of 13 795 shots in 319 tests, shooting score and 17 aiming point trajectory variables were measured with an optoelectronic device and six postural balance variables were measured with force platform. Principal component analysis revealed six components in the air rifle shooting technique: aiming time, stability of hold, measurement time, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering. Multiple regression analysis identified four of those, namely stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, aiming accuracy, and timing of triggering as the most important predictors of shooting performance, accounting for 81% of the variance in shooting score. The direct effect of postural balance on performance was small, accounting for less than 1% of the variance in shooting score. Indirectly, the effect can be greater through a more stable holding ability, to which postural balance was correlated significantly (R = 0.55, P < 0.001). The results of the present study can be used in assessing athletes' technical strengths and weaknesses and in directing training programs on distinct shooting technical components.

  20. Vintage-level energy and environmental performance of manufacturing establishments

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; Bock, M.J.; Neifer, M.J.; Karlson, S.H.; Ross, M.H.

    1994-05-01

    This report examines the relationship between an industrial plant`s vintage and its energy and environmental performance. Basic questions related to defining vintage and measuring the effects of the manufacturing industry`s vintage distribution of plant-level capacity and energy intensity are explored in general for six energy-intensive sectors (paper, chlorine, nitrogenous fertilizer, aluminum, steel, and cement) at the four-digit standard industrial classification (SIC) level and in detail for two sectors (steel and cement). Results show that greenfield (i.e., newly opened) plants in the paper, steel, and cement industries exhibit low fossil fuel intensities. These results are consistent with expectations. New plants in the paper and steel industries, where processes are undergoing electrification, exhibit high electricity intensities. An analysis of a subsector of the steel industry -- minimills that use scrap-based, electric arc furnaces -- reveals a decline in electricity intensity of 6.2 kilowatt-hours per ton for each newer year of installed vintage. This estimate is consistent with those of engineering studies and raises confidence that analyses of vintage effects in other industries could be conducted. When a vintage measure is assigned on the basis of investment data rather than trade association data, the vintage/performance relationship results for the cement industry are reasonably robust; thus, the analysis of vintage and performance could be extended to sectors for which only US Bureau of the Census data are available.

  1. The effects of acetaldehyde on nicotine-induced transmitter levels in young and adult brain areas.

    PubMed

    Sershen, H; Shearman, E; Fallon, S; Chakraborty, G; Smiley, J; Lajtha, A

    2009-08-14

    nicotine-induced changes by acetaldehyde was noticed in four young brain areas (DA in PFC and MTC, 5-HT in VTA, and VH) and in 13 adult brain areas (DA in NAccS, DH, VH, PFC, MTC, NE in NAccS, DH, PFC, MTC, and 5-HT in DH, VH, MTC, and PFC). Thus acetaldehyde was more stimulatory in young and more inhibitory in the adult brain areas tested, which could explain its stimulating nicotine reward only in young animals. That increases in NE were noted only in young, decreases in NE only in adult brain areas further suggest the role of NE in the age-dependent response. In general, six areas showed some increase and four showed decrease in the young versus one showing increase and thirteen showing decrease in the adult. Clearly the effects of acetaldehyde in young animals are different from those in adult animals. Because acetaldehyde did not induce elevated DA levels in the NAccS of the young, we believe that the higher reward in the young caused by acetaldehyde is not likely due to DA changes in the accumbens. The increase of NE and 5-HT in the brain areas of the young only raises the possibility that they may play an important role in reward in some cases when DA in the accumbens does not. Areas involved in cognitive mechanisms and a number of transmitters seem to play a role in reward stimulation.

  2. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise.

  3. From Grapheme to Phonological Output: Performance of Adults Who Stutter on a Word Jumble Task

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Megann; Sussman, Harvey; Byrd, Courtney T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research by analyzing the ability of adults who stutter to use phonological working memory in conjunction with lexical access to perform a word jumble task. Method Forty English words consisting of 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-letters (n = 10 per letter length category) were randomly jumbled using a web-based application. During the experimental task, 26 participants were asked to silently manipulate the scrambled letters to form a real word. Each vocal response was coded for accuracy and speech reaction time (SRT). Results Adults who stutter attempted to solve fewer word jumble stimuli than adults who do not stutter at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths. Additionally, adults who stutter were significantly less accurate solving word jumble tasks at the 4-letter, 5-letter, and 6-letter lengths compared to adults who do not stutter. At the longest word length (6-letter), SRT was significantly slower for the adults who stutter than the fluent controls. Conclusion Results of the current study lend further support to the notion that differences in various aspects of phonological processing, including vision-to-sound conversions, sub-vocal stimulus manipulation, and/or lexical access are compromised in adults who stutter. PMID:26963917

  4. Effects of low-level laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and radiofrequency on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), electroacupuncture (EA), and radiofrequency (RF), which are used in physical therapy, on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women’s faces were investigated to provide basic data for skin interventions. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult females were assigned to either an LLLT group (n=10), an EA group (n=10), or an RF group (n=10). The intervention was performed in two 15-minute sessions per week for six weeks. Subjects’ skin tone and pigmentation were observed before and after the intervention. [Results] The EA group showed significant reductions in pigmentation in the left and right eye rims, as well as in the left cheek. The RF group showed significant post-intervention reductions in pigmentation under the left eye, as well as in the left and right eye rims and the left cheek. The LLLT group showed significant increases in skin tone in the forehead and both eye rims. The RF group showed significant increases in skin tone under both eyes. [Conclusion] The application of LLLT, EA, and RF had positive effects on pigmentation and skin tone of adult women’s faces. PMID:27313340

  5. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed.

  6. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    approximately 61.4%–85.8% of reduction in both fatigue scores and muscle fatigue biomarkers with substantial improvement in muscle performance in healthy older adults. Conclusion The data showed that considerable levels of 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium intake, and lower obesity positively correlated with the improvement in the muscle relief and performance of physically active participants. These results demonstrate that 25(OH)D concentrations and calcium might prevent muscle fatigue by regulation of the biosynthesis of creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, and hydroxyproline via a proposed antifree radical mechanism reported by higher TAC activity. It was suggested that vitamin D status could be reported as a marker of the improvement of muscle performance, especially in healthy older adults with lower physical activity. PMID:27217733

  7. SENTINEL-2 Level 1 Products and Image Processing Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillarin, S. J.; Meygret, A.; Dechoz, C.; Petrucci, B.; Lacherade, S.; Tremas, T.; Isola, C.; Martimort, P.; Spoto, F.

    2012-07-01

    stringent image quality requirements are also described, in particular the geo-location accuracy for both absolute (better than 12.5 m) and multi-temporal (better than 0.3 pixels) cases. Then, the prototyped image processing techniques (both radiometric and geometric) will be addressed. The radiometric corrections will be first introduced. They consist mainly in dark signal and detector relative sensitivity correction, crosstalk correction and MTF restoration. Then, a special focus will be done on the geometric corrections. In particular the innovative method of automatic enhancement of the geometric physical model will be detailed. This method takes advantage of a Global Reference Image database, perfectly geo-referenced, to correct the physical geometric model of each image taken. The processing is based on an automatic image matching process which provides accurate ground control points between a given band of the image to refine and a reference image, allowing to dynamically calibrate the viewing model. The generation of the Global Reference Image database made of Sentinel-2 pre-calibrated mono-spectral images will be also addressed. In order to perform independent validation of the prototyping activity, an image simulator dedicated to Sentinel-2 has been set up. Thanks to this, a set of images have been simulated from various source images and combining different acquisition conditions and landscapes (mountains, deserts, cities …). Given disturbances have been also simulated so as to estimate the end to end performance of the processing chain. Finally, the radiometric and geometric performances obtained by the prototype will be presented. In particular, the geo-location performance of the level-1C products which widely fulfils the image quality requirements will be provided.

  8. Future thinking improves prospective memory performance and plan enactment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n = 40) and older (n = 40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life.

  9. Effects of an aerobic exercise program on driving performance in adults with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Jeffrey; Mekary, Saïd; Bélanger, Mathieu; Johnson, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been linked to decreases in driving performance and an increased crash risk. Regular exercise has been linked to improved driving performance among healthy adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program and driving performance among individuals with CVD. Twenty-five individuals, including 12 cardiac adults and 13 healthy adults, took part in this study. Simulated driving performance was assessed using a standardized demerit-based scoring system at 0 and 12 weeks. Cardiac participants completed a 12-week CR program between evaluations. At baseline, cardiac participants had a higher number of demerit points than healthy adults (120.9±38.1 vs. 94.7±28.3, P=0.04). At follow-up, there was an improvement in both groups' driving evaluations, but the improvement was greater among the cardiac group such that there was no longer a difference in driving performance between both groups (94.6±30 vs. 86.9±34.8, P=0.51). Participation in an aerobic exercise-based CR program appears to lead to improvements in simulated driving performances of individuals with CVD.

  10. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of electrolyte fill-level on electrode performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kitai, Takashi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro

    1996-12-31

    As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. This work has been performed in the Basic Research Project, as part of that project on PAFC`s, selecting four subjects (Electrocatalysts degradation, Electrolyte fill-level, Cell material corrosion, Electrolyte loss) as the essential factors relating to the life-time. In this report, we will exhibit the effect of the electrolyte fill-level on the electrode performances.

  11. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  12. Motor unit activity when young and old adults perform steady contractions while supporting an inertial load.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michael A; Gould, Jeffrey R; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units of young and old adults when they performed steady, submaximal contractions while the arm supported different inertial loads. Young (28 ± 4 yr; n = 16) and old (75 ± 4 yr; n = 14) adults performed steady contractions with the elbow flexors at target forces set at either small (11.7 ± 4.4% maximum) or large (17.8 ± 6.5% maximum) differences below the recruitment threshold force of the motor unit (n = 40). The task was to maintain an elbow angle at 1.57 rad until the motor unit was recruited and discharged action potentials for ∼120 s. Time to recruitment was longer for the larger target force difference (187 ± 227 s vs. 23 ± 46 s, P < 0.001). Once recruited, motor units discharged action potentials either repetitively or intermittently, with a greater proportion of motor units exhibiting the repetitive pattern for old adults. Discharge rate at recruitment and during the steady contraction was similar for the two target force differences for old adults but was greater for the small target force difference for young adults. Discharge variability was similar at recruitment for the two age groups but less for the old adults during the steady contraction. The greatest difference between the present results and those reported previously when the arm pulled against a rigid restraint was that old adults modulated discharge rate less than young adults across the two contraction intensities for both load types.

  13. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  14. Relationship between hemoglobin levels and risk for suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver in Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chyi-Huey; Wu, Ming-Shun; Owaga, Eddy; Cheng, Shu-Yu; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Jung-Su

    2014-10-31

    Body iron levels have recently been shown to be a strong predictor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD in a general adult population, and to investigate the relationship between body iron levels, NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). 2186 adults participated in the third National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT, 2005-2008). The participants underwent anthropometry measurements and phlebotomy after an overnight fast, and those with excessive alcohol intake, iron overload of serum ferritin > 600 ng/ml, hepatitis viral infection and hepatocellular carcinoma were excluded. Suspected NAFLD was diagnosed by three alanine transaminase (ALT) cut-points: cut-point 1: serum ALT > 40 U/l; cut-point 2: ALT ≥ 25 U/l for male and ALT ≥ 17 U/l for female; and cut-point 3: ALT ≥ 35 U/l for male and ALT ≥ 26 U/l for female. The prevalence proportion of suspected NAFLD among Taiwanese adults was 6.6% (cut-point 1), 36% (cut-point 2); and 14.3% (cut-point 3). Body iron levels were significantly higher in individuals with suspected NAFLD compared with those without. Distribution of hemoglobin levels, but not serum ferritin levels, by decade of age showed strong correlation with the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in individuals with MetS. Multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) showed that the best predictors for suspected NAFLD with the MetS were hemoglobin [OR 1.43 (1.21-1.68); P < 0.0001] and hyperlipidemia [OR 1.52 (1.19-1.94); P = 0.0007]. In individuals without MetS, the adjusted OR of suspected NAFLD was markedly higher for hemoglobin [OR 1.25 (1.12-1.41); P < 0.0001]. In conclusion, adults with high hemoglobin levels (14.4 μg/dl for male and 13.2 μg/dl for female) are at the greatest risk for developing abnormal liver function. Hemoglobin test should be considered as a part of clinical evaluation for patients with NAFLD.

  15. The Performance of O Level Science Students on an Essential Arithmetical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, G. M. and Thorne, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Concern about low performance levels on the 0 level science examinations because of difficulty performing mathematical expressions of the form axb/c led to an investigation to assess the mean level of performance for secondary level science students in Britain. Average levels of performance did not meet 0 level standards. (Author/IS)

  16. Assessing Error Awareness as a Mediator of the Relationship between Subjective Concerns and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Rachel F.; Laming, Gemma; Chen, Li Peng Evelyn; Crole, Alice; Hester, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Subjective concerns of cognitive decline (SCD) often manifest in older adults who exhibit objectively normal cognitive functioning. This subjective-objective discrepancy is counter-intuitive when mounting evidence suggests that subjective concerns relate to future clinical progression to Alzheimer’s disease, and so possess the potential to be a sensitive early behavioural marker of disease. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether individual variability in conscious awareness of errors in daily life might mediate this subjective-objective relationship. Methods 67 cognitively-normal older adults underwent cognitive, SCD and mood tests, and an error awareness task. Results Poorer error awareness was not found to mediate a relationship between SCD and objective performance. Furthermore, non-clinical levels of depressive symptomatology were a primary driving factor of SCD and error awareness, and significantly mediated a relationship between the two. Discussion We were unable to show that poorer error awareness mediates SCD and cognitive performance in older adults. Our study does suggest, however, that underlying depressive symptoms influence both poorer error awareness and greater SCD severity. Error awareness is thus not recommended as a proxy for SCD, as reduced levels of error awareness do not seem to be reflected by greater SCD. PMID:27832173

  17. Higher Circulating Adiponectin Levels Are Associated with Increased Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Macheret, Fima; Bartz, Traci M.; Djousse, Luc; Ix, Joachim H.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Zieman, Susan J.; Siscovick, David S.; Tracy, Russell P.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kizer, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adiponectin has cardioprotective properties, suggesting that lower levels seen in obesity and diabetes could heighten risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Among older adults, however, higher adiponectin has been linked to greater incidence of adverse outcomes associated with AF, although recent reports have shown this association to be U-shaped. We postulated that higher adiponectin would be linked to increased risk for AF in older adults in a U-shaped manner. Methods We examined the associations of total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin with incident AF among individuals free of prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) participating in a population-based cohort study of older adults (n=3190; age=74±5 years). Results During median follow-up of 11.4 years, there were 886 incident AF events. Adjusted cubic splines showed a positive and linear association between adiponectin and incident AF. After adjusting for potential confounders, including amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide 1–76, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for AF per SD increase in total adiponectin was 1.14 (1.05–1.24), while that for HMW adiponectin was 1.17 (1.08–1.27). Additional adjustment for putative mediators, including subclinical CVD, diabetes, lipids, and inflammation, did not significantly affect these estimates. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that higher, not lower, levels of adiponectin are independently associated with increased risk of AF in older adults despite its documented cardiometabolic benefits. Additional work is necessary to determine if adiponectin is a marker of failed counter-regulatory pathways or whether this hormone is directly harmful in the setting of or as a result of advanced age. PMID:25855796

  18. Plasma selenium levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Yan, Chonghuai; Liu, Gang; Niu, Yixin; Zhang, Weiwei; Lu, Shuai; Li, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Hongmei; Ning, Guang; Fan, Jiangao; Qin, Li; Su, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium exposure can induce liver insulin resistance and increased liver triglyceride concentrations in animals, which may link to an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, epidemiological studies investigating the association between elevated plasma selenium levels and NAFLD were not available. We aimed to investigate the association of selenium levels with the prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 8550 Chinese adults aged 40 yr or older in Shanghai, China. A questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory tests were conducted. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasound after the exclusion of alcohol abuse and other liver diseases. Plasma selenium concentration was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The median concentration of plasma selenium was 213.0 μg/L. Elevated plasma selenium levels were associated with higher triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, post-loading plasma glucose, A1c, HOMA-IR, as well as ALT, AST and γ-GT (all P < 0.05). The odds ratios were substantially higher for NAFLD (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.13–2.18) in the highest selenium quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile, after adjustment for potential cofounder. The results of this study provided epidemiological evidence that increased plasma selenium level is associated with elevated prevalence of NAFLD. PMID:27853246

  19. Serum carotenoid levels and risk of lung cancer death in US adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2014-06-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer-induced death in the USA. Although much attention has been focused on the anti-carcinogenic effect of consuming carotenoid-containing food or supplements, the results have been inconsistent. We investigated whether serum carotenoid levels were associated with the mortality risk of lung cancer in US adults using data from a nationally representative sample. The data were obtained from the Third Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (NHANES III) database and the NHANES III Linked Mortality File. A total of 10,382 participants aged over 20,years with available serum carotenoid levels and no other missing information on questionnaires and biomarkers at baseline (NHANES III) were included in the present study. Of the 10,382 participants, 161 subjects died due to lung cancer. We found that high serum levels of alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin at baseline were significantly associated with a lower risk of lung cancer death. When we stratified the risk by current smoking status, the risk of death of current smokers was significantly decreased to 46% (95% confidence interval, 31-94%) for alpha-carotene and 61% (95% confidence interval, 19-80%) for beta-cryptoxanthin. By contrast, no association was observed among never/former smokers at baseline. High serum levels of alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin are associated with a lower risk of lung cancer death in US adults.

  20. System design and performances of ASTER Level-1 data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Sumiyuki; Hachiya, Jun; Matsumoto, Ken; Fujisada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masatane

    1998-12-01

    ASTER is a multispectral imager which covers wide spectral region from visible to thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands, and will fly on EOS-AM1 in 1999. To meet this wide spectral coverage, ASTER has three optical sensing subsystems (multi-telescope system), VNIR, SWIR and TIR. This multi- telescope configuration requires highly refined ground processing for the generation of Level-1 data products that are radiometrically calibrated and geometrically corrected. A prototype Level-1 processing software system is developed to satisfy these requirements. System design concept adopted includes; (1) 'Automatic Processing,' (2)'ALL-IN-ONE-CONCEPT' in which the processing is carried out using information included in Level-0 data product only, (3) 'MODULE INDEPENDENCE' in which only process control module independently control other modules to change any operational conditions. (4) 'FLEXIBILITY' in which important operation parameters are set from an external component to make the processing condition change easier. The adaptability and the performance of the developed software system are evaluated using simulation data.

  1. Academic performance and student engagement in level 1 physics undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, M. M.; McVitie, S.

    2009-09-01

    At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.

  2. High-Level Performance Modeling of SAR Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    SAUSAGE (Still Another Utility for SAR Analysis that s General and Extensible) is a computer program for modeling (see figure) the performance of synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) or interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR or IFSAR) systems. The user is assumed to be familiar with the basic principles of SAR imaging and interferometry. Given design parameters (e.g., altitude, power, and bandwidth) that characterize a radar system, the software predicts various performance metrics (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio and resolution). SAUSAGE is intended to be a general software tool for quick, high-level evaluation of radar designs; it is not meant to capture all the subtleties, nuances, and particulars of specific systems. SAUSAGE was written to facilitate the exploration of engineering tradeoffs within the multidimensional space of design parameters. Typically, this space is examined through an iterative process of adjusting the values of the design parameters and examining the effects of the adjustments on the overall performance of the system at each iteration. The software is designed to be modular and extensible to enable consideration of a variety of operating modes and antenna beam patterns, including, for example, strip-map and spotlight SAR acquisitions, polarimetry, burst modes, and squinted geometries.

  3. Motor Performance Is not Enhanced by Daytime Naps in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Backhaus, Winifried; Braass, Hanna; Renné, Thomas; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sleep on motor learning in the aging brain was investigated using an experimental diurnal nap setup. As the brain ages several components of learning as well as motor performance change. In addition, aging is also related to sleep architectural changes. This combination of slowed learning processes and impaired sleep behavior raises the question of whether sleep can enhance learning and specifically performance of procedural tasks in healthy, older adults. Previous research was able to show sleep-dependent consolidation overnight for numerous tasks in young adults. Some of these study findings can also be replicated for older adults. This study aims to clarify whether sleep-dependent consolidation can also be found during shorter periods of diurnal sleep. The impact of midday naps on motor consolidation was analyzed by comparing procedural learning using a sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion in healthy, non-sleep deprived, older adults randomly subjected to wake (45 min), short nap (10–20 min sleep) or long nap (50–70 min sleep) conditions. Older adults exhibited learning gains, these were not found to be sleep-dependent in either task. The results suggest that daytime naps do not have an impact on performance and motor learning in an aging population. PMID:27303292

  4. The Impact of Phenylalanine Levels on Cognitive Outcomes in Adults With Phenylketonuria: Effects Across Tasks and Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to an inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe), leading to its accumulation in the brain. Phe levels can be controlled following a protein-free diet, but cognitive impairments are still present. A number of questions remain to be answered related to which type of metabolic control is important, the age when it is important, the cognitive functions which are most affected and, the best tests to use to monitor cognitive health. Method: We investigated the impact of metabolic control at different ages on cognitive performance in 37 early treated adults with PKU. Results: (a) Phe variation was as associated to performance as average Phe showing that stable dietary control is as important as strict control; (b) For some tasks, current and adult Phe were stronger predictors of performance than childhood or adolescent Phe, showing the importance of a strict diet even in adulthood; and (c) The relationship between performance and Phe levels varied depending on time and cognitive domain. For some functions (sustained attention, visuomotor coordination), Phe at the time of testing was the best predictor. While for other functions (visual attention, executive functions) there was a diminishing or stable relationship across time. Conclusion: Results show the importance of selecting the right tasks to monitor outcomes across ages, but also that the impact of bio-chemical disruptions is different for different functions, at different ages. We show how inherited metabolic diseases offer us a unique vantage point to inform our understanding of brain development and functioning. PMID:28240926

  5. Assessment of the effects of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and trace elements on cognitive performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S

    2015-01-01

    Background Homeostatic imbalance of trace elements such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) demonstrated adverse effects on brain function among older adults. Objective The present study aimed to investigate the effects of trace elements and the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs) in human cognitive abilities among healthy older adults. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (65 males, 35 females; age range; 64–96 years) were recruited for this study. Based on Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) score, the participants were classified according to cognitive performance into normal (n=45), moderate (n=30), and severe (n=25). Cognitive functioning, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), serum trace elements – Fe, Cu, Zn, Zn/Cu, and GADAs were assessed using LOTCA battery, pre-validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire, atomic absorption, and immunoassay techniques, respectively. Results Approximately 45% of the study population (n=45) had normal distribution of cognitive function and 55% of the study population (n=55) had abnormal cognitive function; they were classified into moderate (score 62–92) and severe (score 31–62). There was a significant reduction in the level of Zn and Zn/Cu ratio along with an increase in the level of Fe, Cu, and anti-GADAs in subjects of severe (P=0.01) and moderate (P=0.01) cognitive performance. LOTCA-cognitive scores correlated positively with sex, HbA1c, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Zn/Cu ratio, and negatively with age, PA, body mass index, and anti-GADAs. Significant inter-correlation was reported between serum trace element concentrations and anti-GADAs which suggest producing a cognitive decline via oxidative and neural damage mechanism. Conclusion This study found significant associations among trace elements, anti-GADAs, and cognitive function in older adults. The homeostatic balance of trace elements should be recommended among older adults for better cognitive

  6. Wafer-level radiometric performance testing of uncooled microbolometer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Denis G.; Topart, Patrice; Tremblay, Bruno; Julien, Christian; Martin, Louis; Vachon, Carl

    2014-03-01

    A turn-key semi-automated test system was constructed to perform on-wafer testing of microbolometer arrays. The system allows for testing of several performance characteristics of ROIC-fabricated microbolometer arrays including NETD, SiTF, ROIC functionality, noise and matrix operability, both before and after microbolometer fabrication. The system accepts wafers up to 8 inches in diameter and performs automated wafer die mapping using a microscope camera. Once wafer mapping is completed, a custom-designed quick insertion 8-12 μm AR-coated Germanium viewport is placed and the chamber is pumped down to below 10-5 Torr, allowing for the evaluation of package-level focal plane array (FPA) performance. The probe card is electrically connected to an INO IRXCAM camera core, a versatile system that can be adapted to many types of ROICs using custom-built interface printed circuit boards (PCBs). We currently have the capability for testing 384x288, 35 μm pixel size and 160x120, 52 μm pixel size FPAs. For accurate NETD measurements, the system is designed to provide an F/1 view of two rail-mounted blackbodies seen through the Germanium window by the die under test. A master control computer automates the alignment of the probe card to the dies, the positioning of the blackbodies, FPA image frame acquisition using IRXCAM, as well as data analysis and storage. Radiometric measurement precision has been validated by packaging dies measured by the automated probing system and re-measuring the SiTF and Noise using INO's pre-existing benchtop system.

  7. Association between educational level and health related quality of life in Spanish adults

    PubMed Central

    Regidor, E.; Barrio, G.; de la Fuente, L.; Domingo, A.; Rodriguez, C.; Alonso, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse differences in health by educational level in Spanish adults by comparing the health dimensions of the SF-36 Heath Survey. DESIGN: Data were taken from the National Survey on Drug Use carried out in February 1996. The information was collected by home personal interview. In addition to measuring the use of legal and illegal drugs and their associated health risks, the health status of the Spanish population was analysed using the Spanish version of the SF- 36 Health Survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Absolute and standardised differences between mean score on each dimension of the SF-36 Health Survey in each educational group with respect to the group with the highest educational level. RESULTS: Perceived health status declines with decreasing educational level, except in women with second level education who have a higher mean rating than women with third level education on various health dimensions. The absolute differences in perceived health between the different categories of educational level and the reference category become larger with increasing age. The greatest differences by educational level in both men and women were found in mental health and general health among persons 25 to 44 years of age, and in physical function and general health among those 45 to 64 years. In persons aged 65 or older, the greatest differences are seen in physical function and vitality in men, and in bodily pain and emotional role in women. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of educational level on the different dimensions of perceived health may vary by sex.   PMID:10396467

  8. Effects of context expectation on prospective memory performance among older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Kominsky, Terrence K; Reese-Melancon, Celinda

    2017-01-01

    This experiment examined the impact of context expectation on prospective memory (PM) performance among older and younger adults. Participants responded to PM target words embedded in an ongoing lexical decision task (LDT). Older and younger adults performed similarly on the PM task. Regardless of age, PM was significantly better for participants in the correct context expectation condition and significantly worse in the incorrect context expectation condition relative to participants who held no expectations about the context in which targets would appear. Participants' LDT response latencies were used to assess cost of the PM task to the ongoing task. Latencies were discernibly longer in the LDT block where the PM targets were expected compared to the block where they were not expected. The findings provide new information about how context can be used to support PM aging and suggest that contextual information can be equally beneficial for older and younger adults.

  9. The development of national quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products for adult incontinence.

    PubMed

    Muller, Nancy; McInnis, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    Disposable absorbent products are widely used in inpatient care settings and in the community to manage adult urinary and fecal incontinence, but few product standards exist to help guide their production or optimal use. Increasing costs and reduced revenues have caused a number of states to evaluate absorbent product use among persons who receive care at home with the assistance of the Medicaid Waiver Program, further increasing concerns about the lack of product performance standards. To address these issues, the National Association For Continence (NAFC) formed a council of experts and key stakeholders with the objective of establishing national, independent quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products provided by states to Waiver Program recipients. The Council consisted of representatives from five purposefully selected states, technical directors from six nonwoven product manufacturers, an officer of the nonwoven manufactures trade association, a delegate from an academic nursing program and professional societies, a family caregiver, and a patient representative. Following a consensus method and guidelines for use, nine specific recommendations were developed, posted for public comment, and further refined. Final recommendations for product performance assessment include: rewet rate (a measure of a product's ability to withstand multiple incontinent episodes between changes), rate of acquisition (a measure of the speed at which urine is drawn away from the skin by a product, product retention capacity (a measure of a product's capacity to hold fluid without rewetting the skin), sizing options, absorbency levels, product safety, closure technology, breathable zones (a measure of the air permeability across a textile-like fabric at a controlled differential pressure), and elasticity. The Council also set values for and recommended four quantifiable parameters, and the testing methodology associated with each, to help consumers and states

  10. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Different Sedentary Behaviors with Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Charreire, Hélène; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Background The deleterious health effects of sedentary behaviors, independent of physical activity, are increasingly being recognized. However, associations with cognitive performance are not known. Purpose To estimate the associations between different sedentary behaviors and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Methods Computer use, time spent watching television (TV), time spent reading and habitual physical activity levels were self-reported twice (in 2001 and 2007) by participants in the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et MinérauX (SU.VI.MAX and SU.VI.MAX2) study. Cognitive performance was assessed at follow-up (in 2007–2009) via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests used to derive verbal memory and executive functioning scores. Analyses (ANCOVA) were performed among 1425 men and 1154 women aged 65.6±4.5 at the time of the neuropsychological evaluation. We estimated mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) in cognitive performance across categories of each type of sedentary behavior. Results In multivariable cross-sectional models, compared to non-users, participants using the computer for >1 h/day displayed better verbal memory (mean difference = 1.86; 95%CI: 0.95, 2.77) and executive functioning (mean difference = 2.15; 95%CI: 1.22, 3.08). A negative association was also observed between TV viewing and executive functioning. Additionally, participants who increased their computer use by more than 30 min between 2001 and 2007 showed better performance on both verbal memory (mean difference = 1.41; 95%CI: 0.55, 2.27) and executive functioning (mean difference = 1.41; 95%CI: 0.53, 2.28) compared to those who decreased their computer use during that period. Conclusion Specific sedentary behaviors are differentially associated with cognitive performance. In contrast to TV viewing, regular computer use may help maintain cognitive function during the aging process. Clinical Trial Registration clinicaltrial.gov (number NCT

  11. Levels of plasma soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1) in normal Indian adult population.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, B; Raju, K R; Anand, V; Malu, S; Padmanabhan, S; Tiwari, S C; Das, N; Srivastava, L M

    1999-07-01

    A decrease in the membrane anchored erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1) is reported as an acquired phenomenon in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with concomitant rise in soluble CR1 (sCR1) levels in plasma. There is a need to establish the normal range of sCR1 in Indian adults to assess the function and disease association of this protein. The plasma sCR1 levels of 50 healthy individuals have been estimated by an indigenously developed sandwich ELISA. sCR1 levels from 26 patients suffering from nephropathies had also been assayed which was much higher than the normal controls. This observation suggests sCR1 as a potential market for the assessment of disease activity in nephropathies.

  12. Level1B Performance Evaluation On CryoSat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Tagliani, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    A performance assessment of the CryoSat products for SAR/SARin modes is here presented. The effective across-track IRF has been compared with the expected one, according to the system requirements, and exploiting the calibration products. Then, starting from the along-track processing for Delay/Doppler Radar altimeters, the theoretical model of the along-track IRF for CryoSat has been derived. Moreover the effects of the azimuth windowing on the along-track resolution and on the clutter suppression have been investigated. In particular, the clutter has been evaluated on the Level1b products for both sea ice and ocean scenario, revealing that the azimuth window allows to improve the signal to clutter ratio also in case of ocean waveforms.

  13. From suffering to caring: A model of differences among older adults in levels of compassion

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Raeanne C.; Martin, A'verria Sirkin; Kaup, Allison R.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Peters, Matthew E.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Golshan, Shahrokh; Eyler, Lisa T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Compassion is an important contributor to pro-social behavior and maintenance of interpersonal relationships, yet little is known about what factors influence compassion in late life. The aim of this study was to test theories about how past and current stressors and emotional functioning, resilience, and demographic indicators of life experiences are related to compassion among older adults. Methods One-thousand and six older adults (50-99 years) completed a comprehensive survey including self-report measures of compassion, resilience, past and present stress and emotional functioning (i.e., stressful life events, perceived stress, and current and prior depression and anxiety), and demographic information. The sample was randomly split, and exploratory and confirmatory regression analyses were conducted testing hypothesized relationships with compassion. Results Exploratory stepwise regression analysis (n=650) indicated that participants who reported higher levels of compassion were more likely to be female, not currently in a married/married-like relationship, reported higher resilience levels, and had experienced more significant life events. Age, income level, past and current mental distress, and interactions between resilience and other predictors were not significantly related to compassion. The associations between greater self-reported compassion and being female, having greater resilience, and having experienced more significant life events were supported by a confirmatory stepwise regression analysis (n=356). Conclusions Older women report more compassion than older men. Resilience and significant life events, independently, also appear to facilitate a desire to help others, while current stress and past and present emotional functioning are less relevant. Specificity of findings to older adults is not yet known. PMID:24733732

  14. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults. PMID:26403099

  15. Young adult born neurons enhance hippocampal dependent performance via influences on bilateral networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Tseng, Hua-an; Desai, Mitul; Bucklin, Mark E; Mohammed, Ali I; Robinson, Nick TM; Boyden, Edward S; Rangel, Lara M; Jasanoff, Alan P; Gritton, Howard J; Han, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis supports performance in many hippocampal dependent tasks. Considering the small number of adult-born neurons generated at any given time, it is surprising that this sparse population of cells can substantially influence behavior. Recent studies have demonstrated that heightened excitability and plasticity may be critical for the contribution of young adult-born cells for certain tasks. What is not well understood is how these unique biophysical and synaptic properties may translate to networks that support behavioral function. Here we employed a location discrimination task in mice while using optogenetics to transiently silence adult-born neurons at different ages. We discovered that adult-born neurons promote location discrimination during early stages of development but only if they undergo maturation during task acquisition. Silencing of young adult-born neurons also produced changes extending to the contralateral hippocampus, detectable by both electrophysiology and fMRI measurements, suggesting young neurons may modulate location discrimination through influences on bilateral hippocampal networks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22429.001 PMID:27914197

  16. Examining Differences in the Levels of False Memories in Children and Adults Using Child-Normed Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Jeffrey S.; Rhodes, Matthew G.

    2008-01-01

    Several previous studies have demonstrated that children, when compared with adults, exhibit both lower levels of veridical memory and fewer intrusions when given semantically associated lists. However, researchers have drawn these conclusions using semantically associated word lists that were normed with adults, which may not lead to the same…

  17. How Depressive Levels Are Related to the Adults' Experiences of Lower-Limb Amputation: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study aims to explore whether different adults' experiences of lower-limb amputation could be associated with different levels of depression. To achieve these study objectives, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was used in a convenience sample of 42 adult amputees (mean age of 61 years; SD = 13.5). All of them had…

  18. Factors of Significant Impact on Proficiency Levels of Adult ESL Learners within Post-Secondary Education in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study seeks to identify factors that have a significant impact on the second language proficiency levels of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at a four-year university in Puerto Rico. Current data indicate that a significant percentage of adult ESL learners encounter major difficulties within the process of…

  19. Consideration of How Levels of Achievement and Anxiety toward Education Affect Older People's Participation in Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Paul G.

    Using a sample of 250 adults aged 65 or over (in Quincy, Massachusetts), this study investigated the relation of educational participation by older adults to socioeconomic achievement and to anxiety as regards education. Achievement was based on levels of occupation, income, and education. A series of 17 questions covered peer relationships,…

  20. Reducing Lissencephaly-1 levels augments mitochondrial transport and has a protective effect in adult Drosophila neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Hoffmann, Patrick C.; Bullock, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defective transport of mitochondria in axons is implicated in the pathogenesis of several age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. However, the regulation and function of axonal mitochondrial motility during normal ageing is poorly understood. Here, we use novel imaging procedures to characterise axonal transport of these organelles in the adult Drosophila wing nerve. During early adult life there is a boost and progressive decline in the proportion of mitochondria that are motile, which is not due to general changes in cargo transport. Experimental inhibition of the mitochondrial transport machinery specifically in adulthood accelerates the appearance of focal protein accumulations in ageing axons, which is suggestive of defects in protein homeostasis. Unexpectedly, lowering levels of Lissencephaly-1 (Lis1), a dynein motor co-factor, augments axonal mitochondrial transport in ageing wing neurons. Lis1 mutations suppress focal protein accumulations in ageing neurons, including those caused by interfering with the mitochondrial transport machinery. Our data provide new insights into the dynamics of mitochondrial motility in adult neurons in vivo, identify Lis1 as a negative regulator of transport of these organelles, and provide evidence of a link between mitochondrial movement and neuronal protein homeostasis. PMID:26598558

  1. Increased rat neonatal activity influences adult cytokine levels and relative muscle mass

    PubMed Central

    Buchowicz, Bryce; Yu, Tiffany; Nance, Dwight M.; Zaldivar, Frank P.; Cooper, Dan M.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of physical activity in early life on subsequent growth and regulation of inflammation. We previously reported that exposure of muscles in growing rats to IL-6 results in decreased muscle growth apparently due to a state of resistance to growth factors such IGF-I and that running exercise could ameliorate this growth defect. Herein we hypothesized that increased activity, for a brief period during neonatal life, would pattern the adult rat towards a less inflammatory phenotype. Neonatal rats were induced to move about their cage for brief periods from day 5 to day 15 postpartum. Additional groups were undisturbed controls (CON) and handled (HAND). Sub-groups of rats were sampled at 30 and 65 days of age. Relative to CON and HAND, neonatal exercise (EX) results in decreased circulating levels of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β in adulthood, primarily in male rats. In addition, adult male EX rats had lower body mass and increased skeletal muscle mass suggesting a leaner phenotype. The results of this study suggest that moderate increases in activity early in life can influence the adult toward a more healthy phenotype with regard to inflammatory mediators and relative muscle mass. PMID:20657345

  2. Adult Socialization: The Effects of Aspiration Upon Role Performance in Rehabilitation Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Gary L.

    This paper is concerned with the dynamics of the adult socialization process. The general hypothesis is: the level of aspiration of a patient is positively associated with his socialization (his rehabilitation) outcome. Subjects were 105 patients with spinal cord injuries or amputations. The two aspects of socialization considered in the study are…

  3. For the Arts To Have Meaning...A Model of Adult Education in Performing Arts Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitinoja, L.; Heimlich, J. E.

    A model of adult education appears to function in the outreach programs of three Columbus (Ohio) performing arts organizations. The first tier represents the arts organization's board of trustees, and the second represents the internal administration of the company. Two administrative bodies are arbitrarily labelled as education and marketing,…

  4. The Use of Contingency Management to Affect Learning Performance in Adult Institutionalized Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A description is given of the development and application of contingency management (CM) techniques to the educational performance of a broad cross section of adult, male prison inmates. By most standards, these inmates are judged to be at the lowest rung of the motivational ladder. Draper Correctional Center experimental and demonstration…

  5. Relation of Everyday Activities of Adults to Their Prose Recall Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, G. Elizabeth; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored connection between everyday activities of different aged adults (N=54) and their performance on prose recall task. Regression analyses showed that demographic variables of age, education, and verbal ability were best predictors of prose recall. Total time spent reading and other reading variables were also significantly correlated with…

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Adult-Rated Child Personality and Academic Performance in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…

  7. The Effects of Verbal and Nonverbal Contingent Reinforcement Upon the Intelligence Test Performance of Black Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheckart, George R.; Bass, Barry A.

    1976-01-01

    It appears that contingent reinforcement may have an effect upon the intelligence test performance of black adults as evidenced by the consistent trend of the IQ scores in the direction of the proposed hypothesis. However, the primary analysis of the data revealed no statistically significant differences among treatment groups. (Author)

  8. Development of prolactin levels in marmoset males: from adult son to first-time father.

    PubMed

    Schradin, Carsten; Anzenberger, Gustl

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have found a clear relationship between prolactin (prl) and paternal care in various vertebrate taxa. In New World monkeys, it has been demonstrated in several species that fathers have high prolactin levels even during periods without infant rearing. In this study, we followed the reproductive careers of common marmoset males as they transitioned from being an adult son within their native family to fathering their own offspring for the first time. Specifically, we examined the first experience of elevated prolactin levels in marmoset males. Additionally, we investigated the effects of the total number of experienced births as well as of age on prolactin levels. Our results show that common marmoset males did not experience an increase in prolactin secretion after pairing or shortly before birth of their first infants. However, prolactin levels rose more than twofold after the birth of their first infants and had lowered again 2.5 months after this event. We found no correlation between prolactin levels and the number of previous births experienced or age. Our study demonstrates that further work about a possible enhancing effect of prolactin on paternal care, by means of experimentally reducing hormonal levels, should be conducted in common marmosets using first-time fathers before males experience the first paternal increase in prolactin levels.

  9. Implementation And Performance of the ATLAS Second Level Jet Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Conde Muino, Patricia; Aracena, I.; Brelier, B.; Cranmer, K.; Delsart, P.A.; Dufour, M.A.; Eckweiler, S.; Ferland, J.; Idarraga, J.; Johns, K.; LeCompte, T.; Potter, C.; Robertson, S.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Segura, E.; Silverstein, D.; Vachon, B.; /McGill U.

    2011-11-09

    ATLAS is one of the four major LHC experiments, designed to cover a wide range of physics topics. In order to cope with a rate of 40MHz and 25 interactions per bunch crossing, the ATLAS trigger system is divided in three different levels. The jet selection starts at first level with dedicated processors that search for high E{sub T} hadronic energy depositions. At the LVL2, the jet signatures are verified with the execution of a dedicated, fast jet reconstruction algorithm, followed by a calibration algorithm. Three possible granularities have been proposed and are being evaluated: cell based (standard), energy sums calculated at each Front-End Board and the use of the LVL1 Trigger Towers. In this presentation, the design and implementation of the jet trigger of ATLAS will be discussed in detail, emphasazing the major difficulties of each selection step. The performance of the jet algorithm, including timing, efficiencies and rates will also be shown, with detailed comparisons of the different unpacking modes.

  10. An Acute Bout of Exercise Improves the Cognitive Performance of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Liam; Addamo, Patricia K; Selva Raj, Isaac; Borkoles, Erika; Wyckelsma, Victoria; Cyarto, Elizabeth; Polman, Remco C

    2016-10-01

    There is evidence that an acute bout of exercise confers cognitive benefits, but it is largely unknown what the optimal mode and duration of exercise is and how cognitive performance changes over time after exercise. We compared the cognitive performance of 31 older adults using the Stroop test before, immediately after, and at 30 and 60 min after a 10 and 30 min aerobic or resistance exercise session. Heart rate and feelings of arousal were also measured before, during, and after exercise. We found that, independent of mode or duration of exercise, the participants improved in the Stroop Inhibition task immediately postexercise. We did not find that exercise influenced the performance of the Stroop Color or Stroop Word Interference tasks. Our findings suggest that an acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive performance and, in particular, the more complex executive functioning of older adults.

  11. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A.

    2008-07-08

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material.Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide.Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures.In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.

  12. Rising Levels of HIV Infection in Older Adults in Eastern Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Negin, Joel; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Schur, Nadine; Takaruza, Albert; Mason, Peter; Nyamukapa, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Background With the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment across Africa, many people are living longer with HIV. Understanding the ageing of the HIV cohort and sexual behaviour among older adults are important for appropriately responding to the changing demographics of people living with HIV. Methods We used data from a large population-based open cohort in eastern Zimbabwe to examine HIV prevalence trends and incidence among those aged 45 years and older. Five survey rounds have been completed between 1998 and 2011. Incidence was analysed using midpoint between last negative and first positive HIV test. Results Across the survey rounds, 13,071 individuals were followed for 57,676 person years. While HIV prevalence among people aged 15–44 has fallen across the five rounds, HIV prevalence among those aged 45–54 has increased since the 2006–08 survey round. In the 2009–11 round, HIV prevalence among men aged 45–54 was 23.4% compared to 11.0% among those aged 15–44. HIV positive people aged 45–54 now represent more than 20% of all those living with HIV in Manicaland. Among those aged 45 years and older, there were 85 seroconversions in 11,999 person years for an HIV incidence of 0.708 per 100 person years. Analysis of cohort data and assessment of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection among older people shows significantly lower levels of condom use among older adults and a number of seroconversions past the age of 50. Conclusions The cohort of people living with HIV is ageing in Zimbabwe and the behaviour of older adults puts them at risk of HIV infection. Older adults must be included in both HIV prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27828979

  13. 41 CFR 102-192.110 - At what level(s) in our agency must we have performance measures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Performance Measurement Requirements § 102-192.110 At what level(s... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false At what level(s) in our agency must we have performance measures? 102-192.110 Section 102-192.110 Public Contracts and...

  14. 41 CFR 102-192.110 - At what level(s) in our agency must we have performance measures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Performance Measurement Requirements § 102-192.110 At what level(s... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false At what level(s) in our agency must we have performance measures? 102-192.110 Section 102-192.110 Public Contracts and...

  15. Adult Competency Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of abstracts of 120 current Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) federally supported projects being conducted in 34 States and the District of Columbia, this project profile was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are currently…

  16. Adult Competency Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of brief descriptions of 20 current resources for Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) programs, this guide was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are already involved with APL/ACE programs. Each citation contains information…

  17. Performance-intensity functions for normal-hearing adults and children using CASPA

    PubMed Central

    McCreery, Ryan; Ito, Rindy; Spratford, Merry; Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The Computer Aided Speech Perception Assessment (CASPA) is a clinical measure of speech recognition that uses ten-item, isophonemic word lists to derive performance-intensity (PI) functions for adult listeners. Because CASPA was developed for adults, the ability to obtain PI functions in children has not been directly evaluated. The current study sought to evaluate PI functions for adults and four age groups of children with normal hearing to compare speech recognition as a function of age using CASPA. Comparisons between age groups for scoring by words and phonemes correct were made to determine the relative benefits of available scoring methods in CASPA. Design Speech recognition using CASPA was completed with twelve adults and four age groups of children (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 year-olds), each with twelve participants. Results were scored by the percentage of words, phonemes, consonants and vowels correct. All participants had normal hearing and age-appropriate speech production skills. Results Adults had higher mean speech recognition scores than children in the 5-6 year-old and 7-8 year-old age groups when responses were scored by the percentage of words correct. However, only differences between the 5-6 year-olds and adults were statistically significant when responses were scored by the percentage of phonemes correct. Speech recognition scores decreased as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both children and adults. However, the magnitude of degradation at poorer SNRs did not vary between adults and children, suggesting that mean differences could not be explained by interference from noise. Conclusions Obtaining PI functions in noise using CASPA is feasible with children as young as 5 years-old. Statistically significant differences in speech recognition were observed between adults and the two youngest age groups of children when scored by the percentage of words correct. When results were scored by the percentage of phonemes

  18. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  19. Functional Connectivity in Multiple Cortical Networks Is Associated with Performance Across Cognitive Domains in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Emily E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intrinsic functional connectivity MRI has become a widely used tool for measuring integrity in large-scale cortical networks. This study examined multiple cortical networks using Template-Based Rotation (TBR), a method that applies a priori network and nuisance component templates defined from an independent dataset to test datasets of interest. A priori templates were applied to a test dataset of 276 older adults (ages 65–90) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study to examine the relationship between multiple large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Factor scores derived from neuropsychological tests represented processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Resting-state BOLD data were acquired in two 6-min acquisitions on a 3-Tesla scanner and processed with TBR to extract individual-level metrics of network connectivity in multiple cortical networks. All results controlled for data quality metrics, including motion. Connectivity in multiple large-scale cortical networks was positively related to all cognitive domains, with a composite measure of general connectivity positively associated with general cognitive performance. Controlling for the correlations between networks, the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) and executive function demonstrated the only significant association, suggesting specificity in this relationship. Further analyses found that the FPCN mediated the relationships of the other networks with cognition, suggesting that this network may play a central role in understanding individual variation in cognition during aging. PMID:25827242

  20. The Level of Dental Anxiety and Dental Status in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobros, Katarzyna; Hajto-Bryk, Justyna; Wnek, Anna; Zarzecka, Joanna; Rzepka, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to assess potential correlation between dental anxiety and overall dental status in adult patients, in consideration of the frequency of dental appointments and individual dental hygiene practices. Materials and Methods: Individual dental anxiety levels were assessed with the aid of the Corah’s dental anxiety scale (DAS). The study embraced 112 patients of the University Dental Clinic, Kraków. Following clinical and X-ray exams, respectively, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index and dental treatment index (DTI) were computed for each study subject. Results: Mean DAS among the 112 subjects under study was 9.41 standard deviation (SD = 3.36). Mean DMFT value was 15.86 (SD = 7.00), whereas DTI value was 0.76 (SD = 0.27). The number of decayed teeth and an individual dental anxiety level were found to be correlated (r = 0.26). Higher dental anxiety correlated with lower DTI value (r = −0.22) and lesser frequency of dental appointments (r = 0.22). Conclusions: Individual dental anxiety level appears to impact overall dental status, frequency of dental appointments and everyday oral health practices. Every conceivable effort should therefore be undertaken with a view to effectively diminishing dental anxiety levels in the patients. How to cite the article: Dobros K, Hajto-Bryk J, Wnęk A, Zarzecka J, Rzepka D. The level of dental anxiety and dental status in adult patients. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):11-4. PMID:25083026

  1. Imipramine reverses alterations in cytokines and BDNF levels induced by maternal deprivation in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Ribeiro, Karine F; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Vuolo, Francieli; Colpo, Gabriela D; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Kapczinski, Flávio; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence is pointing toward an association between immune molecules, as well brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the depression. The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioral and molecular effects of the antidepressant imipramine in maternally deprived adult rats. To this aim, maternally deprived and non-deprived (control group) male rats were treated with imipramine (30mg/kg) once a day for 14 days during their adult phase. Their behavior was then assessed using the forced swimming test. In addition to this, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines were assessed in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In addition, BDNF protein levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. In deprived rats treated with saline was observed an increase on immobility time, compared with non-deprived rats treated with imipramine (p<0.05). Deprived rats treated with saline presented a decrease on BDNF levels in the amygdala (p<0.05), compared with all other groups. The IL-10 levels were decreased in the serum (p<0.05). TNF-α and IL-1β levels were increased in the serum and CSF of deprived rats treated with saline (p<0.05). Interestingly, imipramine treatment reversed the effects of maternal deprivation on BDNF and cytokines levels (p<0.05). Finally, these findings further support a relationship between immune activation, neurotrophins and the depression, and considering the action of imipramine, it is suggested that classic antidepressants could exert their effects by modulating the immune system.

  2. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation.

  3. Functional impairment and cognitive performance in mood disorders: A community sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Amanda N; Cardoso, Taiane A; Jansen, Karen; Mondin, Thaíse C; Souza, Luciano D M; Magalhães, Pedro V S; Kapczinski, Flavio; Silva, Ricardo A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the global functioning and cognitive performance in a community sample of young adults with mood disorders versus community controls. This was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort study with a community sample. Data was collected from February 2012 to June 2014; specifically, at a mean of five years after the first phase, all young adults were invited to participate in a re-evaluation. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - PLUS (MINI-PLUS) was used for the diagnosis of mood disorders. The Functional Assessment Short Test (FAST) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were used to assess the global functioning, and cognitive performance, respectively. Were included 1258 subjects. Functional impairment was greater in subjects with bipolar disorder when compared to community controls, and there were no differences between major depressive disorder and community controls. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance between young adults with mood disorders when compared to community controls. Functional impairment is a marker for bipolar disorder in young adults; however, gross cognitive impairment assessed by a screening test is not, possibly because cognition is impaired in more advanced stages of the disorder.

  4. Phonemic verbal fluency task in adults with high-level literacy

    PubMed Central

    Opasso, Patrícia Romano; Barreto, Simone dos Santos; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. Methods: The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters. Results: The means for number of words beginning the letters F, A and S and for total number of words beginning with either letter generated per minute corresponded to 15.3, 14.4, 13.9 and 43.5, respectively. Conclusion: Reference values obtained from young adults with high levels of literacy submitted to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test in this study were similar to those reported in the international literature. These reference values can be used for clinical assessment of language disorder and neuropsychological evaluation. PMID:27759830

  5. Diazepam affects the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor density and their expression levels in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Caterina; Bolaris, Stamatis; Valcana, Theony; Margarity, Marigoula

    2005-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the occurrence of anxiety and affective disorders; however, the effects following an anxiolytic benzodiazepine treatment, such as diazepam administration, on the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones has not yet been investigated. The effect of diazepam on the in vitro nuclear T3 binding, on the relative expression of the TH receptors (TRs) and on the synaptosomal TH availability were examined in adult rat cerebral hemispheres 24 h after a single intraperitoneal dose (5 mg/kg BW) of this tranquillizer. Although, diazepam did not affect the availability of TH either in blood circulation or in the synaptosomal fraction, it decreased (33%) the nuclear T3 maximal binding density (B(max)). No differences were observed in the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)). The TRalpha2 variant (non-T3-binding) mRNA levels were increased by 33%, whereas no changes in the relative expression of the T3-binding isoforms of TRs (TRalpha1, TRbeta1) were observed. This study shows that a single intraperitoneal injection of diazepam affects within 24 h, the density of the nuclear TRs and their expression pattern. The latest effect occurs in an isoform-specific manner involving specifically the TRalpha2 mRNA levels in adult rat brain.

  6. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  7. Myostatin protein and RNA transcript levels in adult and developing brook trout.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven B; Goetz, Frederick W

    2003-11-28

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western analysis were used to measure RNA expression of the two brook trout myostatin (MSTN) genes ("ovarian", ov and "brain/muscle", b/m), and levels of MSTN immunoreactive protein (MIP) in developing embryos and muscle of brook trout adults. In developing brook trout embryos, ov and b/m MSTN RNAs and MIP significantly increased 45 days post-fertilization. In adult brook trout, the b/m MSTN form was expressed at higher levels in red versus white muscle regardless of gender or time of year. While few changes were observed in MSTN transcripts in fish sampled throughout the year, a significant increase in the processed 14 kDa MIP was observed at spawning in a tissue specific manner, and differences were observed between males and females. These data, along with promoter sequence analysis of the of b/m and ov genes, support a role for MSTN in muscle growth and development in fish.

  8. Levels of persistent organic pollutant and their predictors among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p’-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continues to be of concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and high persistence. Current toxicant body burden is still a primary concern within the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation since other studies conducted within the community have shown relationships between these POPs and endocrine disruption. In this article we describe the levels of these toxicants in young adults of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation between the ages of 17 and 21 years of age (mean age 18.1 years), and investigate potential influences of their current body-burden. Seventeen congeners in fourteen chromatographic peaks were detected in 50% or more of the individuals sampled (geometric mean [GM] of the sum of these congeners = 0.43 ppb). Congeners 118, 138[+163+164] and 153 had the highest rate of detection (≥ 98%) within the Akwesasne youth. Of the other organochlorines, HCB (GM= 0.04 ppb) and p,p’-DDE (GM=0.38 ppb) were found in 100% and 99% of the sample respectively. Significantly higher levels of PCBs were found among individuals who were breastfed as infants, were first born, or had consumed local fish within the past year. When compared to levels of p,p’-DDE, HCB, and 13 specific congeners reported by the CDC for youth between the ages of 12 and 19 years, the geometric means of several congeners (CBs 99, 105, 110, and 118) among the Akwesasne were higher than the reported CDC 90th percentile. In contrast, levels of CB 28 in Akwesasne youth were ∼50% or less than those of the CDC cohort. p,p’-DDE and HCB levels were generally higher in the CDC cohort (GM of 0.516 and 0.065 ppb, respectively for Mohawks vs. 2.51 and 0.123, respectively, for CDC). Concentrations of non-persistent PCBs among this sample of Akwesasne young adults were higher than those reported by the CDC suggesting continued exposure, but lower than those

  9. Influence of Dietary Cyanide on Immunoglobulin and Thiocyanate Levels in the Serum of Liberian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Linda C.; Bloch, Earl F.; Jackson, Robert T.; Chandler, James P.; Kim, Yong L.; Malveaux, Floyd J.

    1985-01-01

    Serum thiocyanate, antibody titers to thiocyanates, and serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgA) were measured in 73 Liberian adults normally consuming diets of low, moderate, high, or no (control) cassava-derived cyanide (CN−). When control and low groups (n = 40; daily intake less than 0.60 mg CN− per kg body weight) were contrasted with moderate and high groups (n = 33; daily intake greater than or equal to 0.60 mg CN− per kg body weight), the authors observed that (1) one-time serum thiocyanate measurements were not sensitive to long-term cyanide intake; however, (2) antibody titers to thiocyanates were positively correlated with cassava-based cyanide intakes (r = .22, P = 0.05); and (3) serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels were elevated in individuals regularly consuming moderate and high levels of dietary cyanide. Possible responsible mechanisms and health implications are discussed. PMID:4057268

  10. Association between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance in young dentate adults.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Kanazawa, M; Komagamine, Y; Minakuchi, S

    2015-11-01

    Motor functions of masticatory organs such as the tongue, lips, cheeks and mandible are known to deteriorate with age, thereby influencing masticatory performance. However, there are few reports on the relationships between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance. To investigate the relationship between tongue and lip functions and comprehensive masticatory performance, by evaluating crushing, mixing and shearing abilities in young dentate adults. Participants comprised 51 dentate adults with a mean age of 25 years. Maximum tongue pressure and oral diadochokinesis were measured to evaluate tongue and lip functions. A multiple sieving method using peanuts was performed to evaluate crushing ability. A colour-changeable chewing gum was performed to evaluate mixing ability. A test gummy jelly was performed to evaluate shearing ability. The relationship between tongue and lip functions and each masticatory performance was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of crushing ability. Crushing ability was significantly correlated with maximum tongue pressure and the number of repetitions of the syllables /pa/, /ta/ and /ka/. Maximum tongue pressure and number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/ were identified as significant predictors for crushing ability. Mixing ability was significantly correlated with the number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/. Shearing ability was not significantly correlated with tongue and lip functions. Masticatory performance during the chewing of brittle foods such as peanuts and solid foods such as chewing gum appears to be correlated with tongue and lip functions.

  11. Influence of whole body vibration platform frequency on neuromuscular performance of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Furness, Trentham P; Maschette, Wayne E

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to progressively overload vibration platform frequency to describe sea-saw whole body vibration influence on neuromuscular performance of community-dwelling older adults. Seventy-three community-dwelling older adults (aged 72 +/- 8 years) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (zero, one, 2, and 3 whole body vibration sessions per week). Quantifiers of neuromuscular performance such as the 5-Chair Stands test, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and the Tinetti test were recorded. Furthermore, Health-related quality of life was qualified with the SF-36 Health Survey. A 6-week whole body vibration intervention significantly improved the quantifiers of neuromuscular performance in a community-dwelling older adult sample. Whole body vibration was shown to significantly reduce time taken to complete the 5-Chair Stands test (p < 0.05) and the TUG test (p < 0.05). Tinetti test scores significantly improved (p < 0.05). as did all components of health-related quality of life (p < 0.05). Overall, progressively overloaded frequency elicited more beneficial improvement for the 3 whole body vibration sessions per week group. It was concluded that progressively overloaded frequency was effective in improving quantifiable measures of neuromuscular performance in the sample and that practitioners may confidently prescribe 3 whole body vibration sessions per week with more precise knowledge of the effects of whole body vibration on neuromuscular performance and health-related quality-of-life effects.

  12. Multicenter study on adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-min; Gu, Jian-wen; Kuang, Yong-qin; Ma, Yuan; Xia, Xun; Yang, Tao; Lu, Min; He, Wei-qi; Sun, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Yan-chao

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to observe the adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients of multi-centers, and explore the change of hypophyseal hormones in postoperative pituitary tumor patients. Sixty patients with pituitary tumor admitted during March, 2011-March, 2012 were selected. Postoperative hypophyseal hormone deficiency and the change of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative growth hormone levels were recorded. Growth hormone hypofunction was the most common hormonal hypofunction, which took up to 85.0 %. Adrenocortical hormone hypofunction was next to it and accounted for 58.33 %. GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn deficiency was the most common in postoperative hormone deficiency, which took up to 40.00 %, and GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn + AVP and GH deficiencies were next to it and accounted for 23.33 and 16.67 %, respectively. The hormone levels in patients after total pituitary tumor resection were significantly lower than those after partial pituitary tumor resection, and the difference was statistically significant; growth hormone and serum prolactin levels after surgery in two groups were decreased, and the difference was statistically significant. The incidence rate of growth hormone deficiency in postoperative pituitary tumor patients is high, which is usually complicated with deficiency of various hypophyseal hormones. In clinical, we should pay attention to the levels of the hypopnyseal hormones, and take timely measures to avoid postoperative complications.

  13. Host plant flowering increases both adult oviposition preference and larval performance of a generalist herbivore.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhudong; Scheirs, Jan; Heckel, David G

    2010-04-01

    Most adult Lepidoptera feed on nectar, whereas caterpillars consume mainly structural tissue such as leaves, stems, flowers, and/or fruits. This may result in behavioral trade-offs in which search time for high-quality oviposition sites suitable for larval food is restricted by adult foraging needs. Here we report on the preference for and performance on flowering and nonflowering host plants of the generalist herbivore Helicoverpa armigera to explore whether there are such behavioral trade-offs between moth and their caterpillars offpsring. We found that the adult moths have a strong oviposition preference for flowering tobacco and sunflower plants. Young caterpillars preferred to feed on the inflorescences. Adult-realized fecundity was almost 10 times higher when ovipositing on flowering plants. Weight at pupation, which is correlated with potential future fecundity of the caterpillars, was also higher when feeding on flowers. We found no evidence for a behavioral trade-off and conclude that a general preference for flowers by Helicoverpa armigera is highly beneficial from a nutritional perspective for both adults and larvae. The results suggest that the manipulation of flowering plants for the attraction of oviposition is relevant to pest control of this polyphagous species.

  14. The effect of arm action on the vertical jump performance in children and adult females.

    PubMed

    Floría, Pablo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the use of arm swing in the vertical jump. Countermovement jumps with arms (CMJA) and without arms (CMJ) performed by 36 girls and 20 adult females were examined using force platform analysis. The data were analyzed to determine differences between groups and between types of jump. The analysis of the data indicated that the arm action increased the jump height in both groups, although the increase was greater in children than adults (22.6% and 18.7% respectively; P < .05). This difference in jump height was due to a combination of a greater increase of the height at take-off in children compared with adults (40.6% and 21.6% respectively; P < .05) with no differences in the increase of the flight height. This increase in height of take-off was accompanied by an increase in the distance of propulsion in CMJA compared with CMJ (0.25 m and 0.23 m respectively; P < .05). The results suggested that children take advantage of the action of the arms in vertical jump differently than adults. The children improved their jump height by increasing height at take-off whereas the adults improved by increasing the flight height.

  15. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45–95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65–95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45–64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R2 change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R2 change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects. PMID:28321189

  16. Changes in Disability Levels Among Older Adults Experiencing Adverse Events in Postacute Rehabilitation Care

    PubMed Central

    Gacto-Sánchez, Mariano; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Navarro-Pujalte, Esther; Escolar-Reina, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to assess the relationship between adverse events (AEs) and changes in the levels of disability from admission to discharge during inpatient rehabilitation programs. A prospective cohort study was conducted among a cohort of inpatients (216 older adults) admitted to a rehabilitation unit. The occurrences of any AE were reported. The level of disability regarding mobility activities was estimated using the disability qualifiers from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Changes in the levels of disability between admission and discharge were assessed. Baseline-measured covariates were also selected. Regarding all 4 disability levels (“no limitation,” “mild,” “moderate,” “severe,” and “complete disability”), a total of 159 participants experienced an improvement at discharge (126 participants progressed 1 level, whereas 33 improved 2 disability levels), 56 made no change, and no participants experienced a decline. The occurrence of fall-related events and the diagnostic group (musculoskeletal system) are specific predictive factors of change in the level of disability. The odds of undergoing a change in any disability level between admission and discharge decreases by 68% (1–0.32) when patients experience fall-related events (odds ratio [OR] = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11–0.97, P = 0.041) and increases for individuals with musculoskeletal conditions (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.34–11.38, P = 0.012). Our findings suggest that increased efforts to prevent the occurrence of these AEs, together with early interventions suited to the diagnosis of the affected system, may have a positive influence on the improvement of disability. Further studies should evaluate disability over time after discharge to obtain a better sense of how transient or permanent the associated disability may be. PMID:25715255

  17. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45-95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65-95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45-64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R(2) change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R(2) change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects.

  18. Plasma Levels of High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T in Adults with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Clare T. M.; Wong, Sophia J.; Ip, Janice J. K.; Wong, Wai-keung; Tsang, Kwong-cheong; Lam, Wendy W. M.; Cheung, Yiu-fai

    2015-01-01

    Detectable low circulating level of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) may reflect subclinical myocardial injury. We tested the hypothesis that circulating levels of hs-cTnT are altered in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and associated with ventricular volume load and function. Eighty-eight TOF patients and 48 controls were studied. Plasma hs-cTnT levels were determined using a highly sensitive assay (hs-cTnT). The right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) were measured using 3D echocardiography and, in 52 patients, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). The median (interquartile range) for male and female patients were 4.87 (3.83–6.62) ng/L and 3.11 (1.00–3.87) ng/L, respectively. Thirty percent of female but none of the male patients had increased hs-cTnT levels. Female patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels, compared to those without, had greater RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and LV systolic dyssynchrony index (all p < 0.05). For patient cohort only, hs-cTnT levels correlated positively with CMR-derived RV end-diastolic volume and negatively with echocardiography-derived LV and RV EF (all p < 0.05). Multiple linear regression identified sex and RV EF as significant correlates of log-transformed hs-cTnT levels. Increased hs-cTnT levels occur in 30% of female patients after TOF repair, and are associated with greater RV volumes and worse RV EF. PMID:26360613

  19. Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-07-15

    Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship

  20. The relationship between blood lead levels and neurobehavioral test performance in NHANES III and related occupational studies.

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Edward F.; Chrislip, David W.; Crespo, Carlos J.; Brightwell, W. Stephen; Ehrenberg, Richard L.; Otto, David A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were two-fold: (1) to assess the relationship between blood lead levels and neurobehavioral test performance in a nationally sample of adults from the third National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey and (2) to analyze the results from previously published studies of occupational lead exposure that used the same neurobehavioral tests as those included in the survey. METHODS: Regression models were used to test and estimate the relationships between measurements of blood lead and performance on a simple reaction time, a symbol-digit substitution, and a serial digit learning test in adults aged 20-59 years who participated the survey. Mixed models were used to analyze the data from the occupational studies. RESULTS: The blood lead levels of those participating in the survey ranged from 0.7 to 41.8 microg/dl. The estimated geometric mean was 2.51 microg/dl, and the estimated arithmetic mean was 3.30 microg/dl. In the survey, no statistically significant relationships were found between blood lead concentration and performance on the three neurobehavioral tests when adjusted for covariates. In the occupational studies, the groups exposed to lead consistently performed worse than control groups on the simple reaction time and digit-symbol substitution tests. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the survey and the occupational studies do not provide evidence for impairment of neurobehavioral test performance at levels below 25 microg/dl, the concentration that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention define as elevated in adults. The average blood lead level of the exposed groups in the occupational studies was 41.07 microg/dl, less than 50 microg/dl, the minimum concentration that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration requires for medical removal from the workplace. Given the evidence of impaired neurobehavioral performance in these groups, the 50 microg/dl limit should be reevaluated. PMID:16134563

  1. Transcription levels of sirtuin family in neural stem cells and brain tissues of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, H F; Li, Q; Feng, R L; Wen, T Q

    2012-09-10

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) has been used as a well-known model to investigate apoptosis, differentiation, maintenance of stem cells status, and therapy of neurological disease. The C17.2 NSCs line was produced after v-myc transformation of neural progenitor from mouse cerebellar cortex. Sirtuin family plays important roles involved in neuronal differentiation, genomic stability, lifespan, cell survival. However, little is known about gene expression variation of sirtuin family in C17.2 NSCs, primary NSCs, and different brain tissues in adult mice. Here, we confirmed that the mRNA expression levels of sirt2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 in E14.5 NSCs were significantly higher than in C17.2 NSCs, whereas that sirt 6 displayed an opposing mode. Moreover, a higher mRNA level of sirtuin family was observed in the adult mouse brain compared to C17.2 NSCs. In addition, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors nicotinamide and Trichostatin A (TSA) were used to explore differential changes at the transcriptional level of sirtuins. Results indicated that the expression of sirt1, sirt5 and sirt6 was significant downregulated by nicotinamide treatment. Whereas, a significant downregulation in sirt1 and sirt3 and a significant upregulation in sirt2, sirt4, sirt6, and sirt7 were observed in the treatment of TSA. Thus our studies indicate different sirtuin mRNA expression profiles between C17.2 NSCs, E14.5 NSCs and brain tissues, suggesting the transcriptional regulation of sirtuin family could be mediated by different histone acetylation.

  2. Memory performance and affect: are there gender differences in community-residing older adults?

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham Joseph; Pituch, Keenan A; Stanton, Marietta P; Chang, Wanchen

    2014-08-01

    After age 65, the incidence of episodic memory decline in males is greater than in females. We explored the influence of anxiety and depression on objective and subjective memory performance in a diverse sample of community-residing older adults. The study was a secondary analysis of data on three samples of adults from two states, Ohio and Texas: a community sample (n = 177); a retirement community sample (n = 97); and the SeniorWISE Study (n = 265). The sample of 529 adults was 74% female, the average age was 76.58 years (range = 59-100 years), and educational attainment was 13.12 years (±3.68); 68% were Caucasian, and 17% had depressive symptoms. We found no memory performance differences by gender. Males and females were similarly classified into the four memory performance groups, with almost half of each gender in the poor memory category. Even though males had greater years of education, they used fewer compensatory memory strategies. The observed gender differences in memory were subjective evaluations, specifically metamemory. Age was not a significant predictor of cognition or memory performance, nor did males have greater memory impairment than females.

  3. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Local Measures of Performance § 666.310 What levels of performance apply to the indicators of... Governor and reach agreement on the local levels of performance for each indicator identified under §...

  4. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Local Measures of Performance § 666.310 What levels of performance apply to the indicators of... Governor and reach agreement on the local levels of performance for each indicator identified under §...

  5. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 in older adults with normal nutritional status by mini nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Araújo, D A; Noronha, M B; Cunha, N A; Abrunhosa, S F; Rocha, A N; Amaral, T F

    2016-07-01

    Undernutrition as well as low levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid are common problems among older adults. However, recommended routine nutritional status assessment tools may result in inadequate vitamin serum levels to go unnoticed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the inadequacy of serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid within Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) classification categories among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 97 older adults residing in care homes in Portugal. Undernutrition was identified through the MNA, and serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using chemiluminescence. Cognitive function, depressive symptoms and functional characteristics were also assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test Score, the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Barthel Index, respectively. The mean age of older adults was 82.2 (6.3) years; 3.1% were undernourished and 26.8% were at undernutrition risk. In the MNA normal nutritional status group, 11.8% presented vitamin B12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml), 32.4% had low serum levels (200-400 pg/ml) and 4.4% had folic acid deficiency (<3 ng/ml). A high proportion of older adults with low serum levels of vitamin B12 presenting normal nutritional status by MNA was identified. This finding emphasizes the need to evaluate serum vitamin B12 levels, independently of the MNA results.

  6. Effects of heavy-resistance strength and balance training on unilateral and bilateral leg strength performance in old adults.

    PubMed

    Beurskens, Rainer; Gollhofer, Albert; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Cardinale, Marco; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    The term "bilateral deficit" (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20-30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to investigate training-specific effects of resistance vs. balance training on MIF and BLD of the leg extensors in old adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to resistance training (n = 19), balance training (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). Bilateral heavy-resistance training for the lower extremities was performed for 13 weeks (3 × / week) at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Balance training was conducted using predominately unilateral exercises on wobble boards, soft mats, and uneven surfaces for the same duration. Pre- and post-tests included uni- and bilateral measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force. At baseline, young subjects outperformed older adults in uni- and bilateral MIF (all p < .001; d = 2.61-3.37) and in measures of BLD (p < .001; d = 2.04). We also found significant increases in uni- and bilateral MIF after resistance training (all p < .001, d = 1.8-5.7) and balance training (all p < .05, d = 1.3-3.2). In addition, BLD decreased following resistance (p < .001, d = 3.4) and balance training (p < .001, d = 2.6). It can be concluded that both training regimens resulted in increased MIF and decreased BLD of the leg extensors (HRT-group more than BAL-group), almost reaching the levels of young adults.

  7. Effects of Heavy-Resistance Strength and Balance Training on Unilateral and Bilateral Leg Strength Performance in Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beurskens, Rainer; Gollhofer, Albert; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Cardinale, Marco; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    The term “bilateral deficit” (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20–30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to investigate training-specific effects of resistance vs. balance training on MIF and BLD of the leg extensors in old adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to resistance training (n = 19), balance training (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). Bilateral heavy-resistance training for the lower extremities was performed for 13 weeks (3 × / week) at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Balance training was conducted using predominately unilateral exercises on wobble boards, soft mats, and uneven surfaces for the same duration. Pre- and post-tests included uni- and bilateral measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force. At baseline, young subjects outperformed older adults in uni- and bilateral MIF (all p < .001; d = 2.61–3.37) and in measures of BLD (p < .001; d = 2.04). We also found significant increases in uni- and bilateral MIF after resistance training (all p < .001, d = 1.8-5.7) and balance training (all p < .05, d = 1.3-3.2). In addition, BLD decreased following resistance (p < .001, d = 3.4) and balance training (p < .001, d = 2.6). It can be concluded that both training regimens resulted in increased MIF and decreased BLD of the leg extensors (HRT-group more than BAL-group), almost reaching the levels of young adults. PMID:25695770

  8. Visual–Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual–somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals’ RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation. PMID:26152050

  9. Circulating neuregulin 4 levels are inversely associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie; Lin, Mingzhu; Xu, Yanfang; Shao, Jin; Li, Xuejun; Zhang, Huijie; Yang, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) has been identified as a new secreted adipokine that may protect against development of obesity and metabolic disorders. However, information is not available regarding the association between circulating Nrg4 and subclinical atherosclerosis in humans. We measured serum Nrg4 in 485 obese adult subjects (aged 40 years or older) who had the measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) recruited from the community. Individuals with increased CIMT and carotid plaque had lower levels of circulating Nrg4 than controls (p < 0.05). The risks of increased CIMT and atherosclerotic plaque were significantly decreased by 28% and 31% [OR (95% CI): 0.72 (0.53–0.98) and 0.69 (0.50–0.96), respectively], adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, systolic BP, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-c, HOMA-IR, and body fat. Importantly, individuals in the lowest quartile of serum Nrg4 were 3.70 times (p < 0.001) more likely to have increased CIMT and 2.06 times (p < 0.05) more likely to have atherosclerotic plaque than those in the highest quartile in multivariable logistic regression analyses. These findings suggest that circulating Nrg4 concentrations are inversely associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in obese adults, and indicating that circulating Nrg4 might play a role in identifying patients at high risk for CVD. PMID:27819316

  10. Pour Adolescent et Adulte, Francais Langue Etrangere, Niveau 1 (French as a Foreign Language, Level 1, for Adolescents and Adults)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibert, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists dictionaries and reading materials including stories and legends, biographies, works relating to cinema, theatre and French civilization, magazines, and educational activities and games for introductory instruction of French as a foreign language to adults and adolescents. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  11. Is Handwriting Performance Affected by the Writing Surface? Comparing Preschoolers', Second Graders', and Adults' Writing Performance on a Tablet vs. Paper

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, Sabrina; Klassert, Annegret; Dolk, Thomas; Fliesser, Michael; Fischer, Martin H.; Nottbusch, Guido; Festman, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Due to their multifunctionality, tablets offer tremendous advantages for research on handwriting dynamics or for interactive use of learning apps in schools. Further, the widespread use of tablet computers has had a great impact on handwriting in the current generation. But, is it advisable to teach how to write and to assess handwriting in pre- and primary schoolchildren on tablets rather than on paper? Since handwriting is not automatized before the age of 10 years, children's handwriting movements require graphomotor and visual feedback as well as permanent control of movement execution during handwriting. Modifications in writing conditions, for instance the smoother writing surface of a tablet, might influence handwriting performance in general and in particular those of non-automatized beginning writers. In order to investigate how handwriting performance is affected by a difference in friction of the writing surface, we recruited three groups with varying levels of handwriting automaticity: 25 preschoolers, 27 second graders, and 25 adults. We administered three tasks measuring graphomotor abilities, visuomotor abilities, and handwriting performance (only second graders and adults). We evaluated two aspects of handwriting performance: the handwriting quality with a visual score and the handwriting dynamics using online handwriting measures [e.g., writing duration, writing velocity, strokes and number of inversions in velocity (NIV)]. In particular, NIVs which describe the number of velocity peaks during handwriting are directly related to the level of handwriting automaticity. In general, we found differences between writing on paper compared to the tablet. These differences were partly task-dependent. The comparison between tablet and paper revealed a faster writing velocity for all groups and all tasks on the tablet which indicates that all participants—even the experienced writers—were influenced by the lower friction of the tablet surface. Our

  12. Dual task performance in older adults: Examining visual discrimination performance whilst treadmill walking at preferred and non-preferred speeds.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Smith, Mike; Clarke, Neil D; Eyre, Emma L J; Wright, Sheila Leddington

    2016-04-01

    This study examined visual discrimination performance in a sample of older adults before, during and post treadmill walking at preferred walking speed and preferred walking speed +20%. Nine adults (6 females and 3 males) aged 60-77 years (mean age=67.1±5.7 years) undertook three trials each lasting 15 min, rest, walking at preferred speed and walking at preferred speed +20%. Pre, during and post each condition, participants undertook measures of visual-cognitive performance. There were no significant main effects or higher order interactions for condition (rest, vs. walking preferred speed, vs. walking preferred speed +20%) or time (pre, during, post) (all P>0.05). There was a significant condition X time interaction for response time (P=0.014, partial ɳ(2)=0.352). Post hoc analysis indicated that response times were significantly faster during exercise at preferred speed compared to pre exercise at preferred speed (P=0.042). Response times were significantly slower during walking at preferred speed +20% compared to pre exercise (P=0.002) and to post exercise (P=0.012). Response times were significantly faster during PSW compared to during rest (P=0.05), during PSW compared to during PSW20 (P=0.001) and significantly slower during PSW20 compared to during rest (P=0.001). Post PSW20 response times were significantly slower than post PSW (P=0.04). These results suggest that visual discrimination performance is facilitated when walking at preferred speeds but walking at 20% faster than preferred speed significantly impedes visual discrimination in older adults.

  13. Association between aerobic exercise training effects of serum adropin level, arterial stiffness, and adiposity in obese elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of adropin, which enhances endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO), are lower in obese patients. Although habitual aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness and adiposity, the relationship between these effects and circulating levels of adropin remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if serum adropin level is associated with the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults. In Experiment 1, we examined whether serum adropin levels are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, carotid β-stiffness, plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level, and abdominal visceral fat in 27 normal, 20 overweight, and 25 obese adults (age, 41-79 years). In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise training program on the relationship between serum adropin level and arterial stiffness or adiposity in 13 obese adults (age, 54-76 years). Serum adropin levels in normal, overweight, and obese adults negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness and abdominal visceral fat, and positively correlated with plasma NOx level and cardiorespiratory fitness. After the 8-week exercise program, serum adropin levels in obese adults were elevated, and correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.573, P < 0.05), plasma NOx level (r = 0.671, P < 0.05), and abdominal visceral fat (r = -0.585, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the exercise training-induced increase in serum adropin may be related to the training effects of arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults.

  14. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that "attentional" brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction-compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional mobility.

  15. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that “attentional” brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction—compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional

  16. Multi-level intervention to prevent influenza infections in older low income and minority adults.

    PubMed

    Schensul, Jean J; Radda, Kim; Coman, Emil; Vazquez, Elsie

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we describe a successful multi-level participatory intervention grounded in principles of individual and group empowerment, and guided by social construction theory. The intervention addressed known and persistent inequities in influenza vaccination among African American and Latino older adults, and associated infections, hospitalizations and mortality. It was designed to increase resident ability to make informed decisions about vaccination, and to build internal and external infrastructure to support sustainability over time. The intervention brought a group of social scientists, vaccine researchers, geriatricians, public health nurses, elder services providers and advocates together with senior housing management and activist African American and Latino residents living in public senior housing in a small east coast city. Two buildings of equal size and similar ethnic composition were randomized as intervention and control buildings. Pre and post intervention surveys were conducted in both buildings, measuring knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Processes and outcomes were documented at four levels: Influenza Strategic Alliance (macro and exo levels), building management (meso level), building resident committee (meso level) and individual residents. The Influenza Strategic Alliance (I.S.A.) provided ongoing resources, information and vaccine; the building management provided economic and other in-kind resources and supported residents to continue flu clinics in the building. The V.I.P. Resident Committee conducted flu campaigns with flu clinics in English and Spanish. The vaccination rate in the intervention building at post test exceeded the study goal of 70% and showed a significant improvement over the control building. The intervention achieved desired outcomes at all four levels and resulted in a significant increase in influenza vaccination, and improvements in pro-vaccination knowledge, beliefs, and understanding of health consequences.

  17. Smarter Balanced Preliminary Performance Levels: Estimated MAP Scores Corresponding to the Preliminary Performance Levels of the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (Smarter Balanced)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (Smarter Balanced) released a document that established initial performance levels and the associated threshold scale scores for the Smarter Balanced assessment. The report included estimated percentages of students expected to perform at each of the four performance levels, reported by grade…

  18. Static stretching does not impair performance in active middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Handrakis, John P; Southard, Veronica N; Abreu, Jairo M; Aloisa, Mariella; Doyen, Mellissa R; Echevarria, Licet M; Hwang, Hyun; Samuels, Christine; Venegas, Steven A; Douris, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Recent investigations with young, healthy adult subjects suggest that static stretching before activity decreases performance and should, therefore, be avoided. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an acute static stretching protocol on balance and jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Ten subjects (6 men and 4 women aged 40-60 yr) from a martial arts school volunteered to take part in this research study. This was a repeated measures design. Subjects who stretched for 10 minutes using a 30-second hold during 1 session sat quietly for 10 minutes during the alternate session. Sessions were randomly assigned. The following dependent variables were compared: Dynamic Stability Index (DSI) for single-leg dynamic balance (smaller DSI = improved balance); distances for broad jump, single hop, triple hop, and crossover hop; elapsed time for a 6-m timed hop. Group means for balance were significantly different between the stretch and no-stretch conditions (3.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.3 +/- 1.4 DSI, respectively; p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the group means of the stretch and no-stretch conditions for the dependent measures of broad jump, single hop, triple hop, crossover hop, and 6-m timed hop performance. Ten minutes of acute static stretching enhances dynamic balance and does not affect jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Static stretching should be included before competition and before exercise in fitness programs of active middle-aged adults.

  19. Physiological responses to dyadic interactions are influenced by neurotypical adults' levels of autistic and empathy traits.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Anna; Setoh, Peipei; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Esposito, Gianluca

    2016-10-15

    Autistic traits are distributed on a continuum that ranges from non-clinical to clinical condition. Atypical responses to social situations represent a core feature of the Autism Spectrum Disorders phenotype. Here, we hypothesize that atypical physiological responses to social stimuli may predict non-clinical autistic and empathy traits levels. We measured physiological responses (heart rate, facial temperature) of 40 adults (20F) while showing them 24 movies representing dyadic interactions. Autistic traits were assessed through Autism Quotient questionnaire (AQ), while empathy traits were measured using the Empathy Quotient questionnaire (EQ). Opposite correlations between AQ and EQ scores and physiological responses were found. Analysis of physiological responses revealed that individuals with better social abilities, low AQ and high EQ, show opposite activation patterns compared to people with high AQ and low EQ. Findings show that physiological responses could be biomarkers for people's autistic traits and social abilities.

  20. Access to environmental resources and physical activity levels of adults in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Geller, KS; Nigg, CR; Ollberding, NJ; Motl, RW; Horwath, C; Dishman, RK

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Examine associations between physical activity (PA) and spatial accessibility to environmental PA resources in Hawaii. Methods Metabolic equivalents (METs) of mild, moderate, and strenuous PA were compared for accessibility to environmental PA resources within a population-based sample of Hawaiian adults (n=381). Multiple linear regression estimated differences in PA levels for residing further from a PA resource or residing in an area with a greater number of resources. Results No associations were found in the total sample. Analyses within subsamples stratified by ethnicity revealed that greater spatial accessibility to a PA resource was positively associated with strenuous PA among Caucasians (p=0.04), but negatively associated with moderate PA among Native Hawaiians (p=0.00). Conclusion The lack of association in the total sample may be a consequence of Hawaii’s unique environment. Results of stratified sample analyses are unique, providing groundwork for future examinations within parallel environments and among similar ethnic groups. PMID:22500037

  1. Short-term effects of low-level winter pollution on respiratory health of asthmatic adults

    SciTech Connect

    Neukirch, F.; Segala, C.; Korobaeff, M.; Le Moullec, Y.; Aubier, M.

    1998-09-01

    The authors studied the short-term effects of Paris winter air pollution (i.e., sulfur dioxide, Black Smoke, suspended particulates with an aerodynamic diameter close to 10 {micro}m, and nitrogen dioxide) in 40 nonsmoking mild to moderate asthmatics. During a 6-mo period, subjects recorded asthma symptoms and three daily peak expiratory flow measurements. Statistical analysis revealed consistent and significant associations between the pollutants and asthma attacks and symptoms in the entire study group, especially in the subgroup of individuals who took inhaled {beta}2 agonists as needed. Pollutants correlated negatively with morning peak expiratory flow in the subgroup that took inhaled {beta}2 agonists as needed, and they correlated positively with daily variability in asthmatics who received regularly scheduled inhaled {beta}2 agonists. The effects lingered several days after exposure occurred. Low-level pollution has consistent measurable effects on nonsmoking adults who have well-treated mild or moderate asthma.

  2. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    PubMed Central

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, p<0.05). Almost two thirds of MVPA was achieved in short bouts of less than 5 minutes, and 35% of the subjects did not achieve a single 10-minute bout. Hence, only 14% adhered to the WHO recommendation of 2.5 hours of MVPA/week in at least 10-minute bouts. Females, older subjects and obese subjects spent less time in MVPA (p<0.05), but no clear association with hypertension, asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in

  3. Working memory training and transfer in older adults: effects of age, baseline performance, and training gains.

    PubMed

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For that purpose, 80 older adults (65-95 years) were assigned either to a training group that worked on visuospatial, verbal, and executive working memory tasks for 9 sessions over 3 weeks or to a control group. Performance on trained and transfer tasks was assessed in all participants before and after the training period, as well as at a 9-month follow-up. Analyses revealed significant training effects in all 3 training tasks in trained participants relative to controls, as well as near transfer to a verbal working memory task and far transfer to a fluid intelligence task. Encouragingly, all training effects and the transfer effect to verbal working memory were stable at the 9-month follow-up session. Further analyses revealed that training gains were predicted by baseline performance in training tasks and (to a lesser degree) by age. Gains in transfer tasks were predicted by age and by the amount of improvement in the trained tasks. These findings suggest that cognitive plasticity is preserved over a large range of old age and that even a rather short training regime can lead to (partly specific) training and transfer effects. However, baseline performance, age, and training gains moderate the amount of plasticity.

  4. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed.

  5. Effects of a heavy and a moderate resistance training on functional performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kalapotharakos, Vasilios I; Michalopoulos, Maria; Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Godolias, George; Gourgoulis, Vasilios

    2005-08-01

    Resistance training can improve strength and functional performance, but there is little information about the effect of training intensity on functional performance in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 12 weeks of heavy (80% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and moderate (60% of 1RM) resistance training on functional performance in healthy, inactive older adults, ages 60-74 years. Volunteer subjects were assigned randomly to a control group (CS, n = 10), heavy resistance training group (HRT, n = 11), or moderate resistance training group (MRT, n = 12) and participated in 12 weeks of strength training, 3 times per week. Performance measurements included 1RM lower-body strength, chair-rising time, walking velocity, stair-climbing time, and flexibility. Significant differences between HRT and MRT were found for 1RM strength of the lower limbs after the training period. Functional performance improved similarly for both HRT and MRT after the training period. Functional performance can be improved significantly with either heavy or moderate resistance training, without significant differences in the effectiveness of the 2 training protocols.

  6. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284–0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202–0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  7. Alpha(2)-macroglobulin levels are high in adult patients with congenital antithrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, A; Chantarangkul, V; De Stefano, V; Mannucci, P

    2000-04-15

    Antithrombin is responsible for about 80% of the progressive inhibitory activity of thrombin in human plasma. The role of other protease inhibitors known to inhibit thrombin is not completely clarified. However, their contribution may become relevant when antithrombin is low. We elected to investigate adult patients with congenital antithrombin deficiency to assess the concentration of other naturally occurring thrombin inhibitors such as alpha(2)-macroglobulin, alpha(1)-antitrypsin, heparin cofactor II, and C(1)-inhibitor. The study included 59 patients with congenital antithrombin deficiency with and without a previous history of thrombosis, together with an equal number of control subjects matched for age and sex. Statistically significant differences (patients vs. controls) were observed only for alpha(2)-macroglobulin (i.e., 120 vs. 102%, p<0.01). Further analysis of antithrombin-deficient carriers with and without a past history of thrombosis showed that alpha(2)-macroglobulin levels were higher than the 90th percentile of control distribution more often in asymptomatic than symptomatic men (odds ratio=0.04; confidence interval=0.003-0.60), but not in women (odds ratio=2.14; confidence interval=0.35-13.1). In conclusion, results from this cross sectional study showed that alpha(2)-macroglobulin levels were high in patients with congenital antithrombin deficiency. Furthermore, the high levels were found more often in asymptomatic than symptomatic men. Whether this increase provides protection against thrombosis should be evaluated in a prospective study.

  8. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure.

  9. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (Tbody, incr) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (Tincr, max) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate Tincr, max in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used Tincr, max as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on Tincr, max for specified durations of exposure.

  10. Effect of muscle fatigue and physical activity level in motor control of the gait of young adults.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; dos Santos, Paulo Cezar Rocha; Vitório, Rodrigo; van Dieën, Jaap H; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of muscle fatigue in active and inactive young adults on the kinematic and kinetic parameters of normal gait and obstacle crossing. Twenty male subjects were divided into active (10) and inactive (10), based on self-reported physical activity. Participants performed three trials of two tasks (normal gait and obstacle crossing) before and after a fatigue protocol, consisting of repeated sit-to-stand transfers until the instructed pace could no longer be maintained. MANOVAs were used to compare dependent variables with the following factors: physical activity level, fatigue and task. The endurance time in the fatigue protocol was lower for the inactive group. Changes of gait parameters with fatigue, among which increased step width and increased stride speed were the most consistent, were independent of task and physical activity level. These findings indicate that the kinematic and kinetic parameters of gait are affected by muscle fatigue irrespective of the physical activity level of the subjects and type of gait. Inactive individuals used a slightly different strategy than active individuals when crossing an obstacle, independently of muscle fatigue.

  11. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  12. Serum γ-glutamyltransferase level is associated with periodontal disease independent of drinking habits in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Morita, Toyoko; Yamazaki, Yoji; Fujiharu, Chika; Ishii, Takanori; Seto, Misae; Nishinoue, Norihide; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Kawato, Takayuki; Motohashi, Masafumi; Maeno, Masao

    2014-10-31

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Periodontal disease is a mild chronic inflammatory disease with systemic effects, and many studies have indicated an association between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between periodontitis and liver biochemical parameters according to alcohol drinking habits through a cross-sectional study based on data from Japanese people in occupational settings. Material and Methods The subjects were 1510 employees (1218 males, 292 females, mean age 50.4 years) who underwent dental and medical checkups in 2012. Associations between the presence of periodontal pockets and serum levels of liver biochemical parameters were assessed. Results Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were higher in subjects with than without periodontal pockets. Multiple logistic regression analysis (adjusting for age, gender, cigarette smoking, and alcohol drinking habits, and components of metabolic syndrome) with GGT or ALT as the dependent variable revealed that there was a significant association between periodontal pockets and GGT (odds ratio, OR=1.48), but not ALT. Similar associations were observed when an analysis was performed according to the presence or absence of alcohol drinking habits; the OR was higher in subjects without (OR=1.84) than with drinking habits (OR=1.41). Conclusions The presence of periodontal pockets was associated with serum levels of GGT, a liver biochemical parameter, in Japanese adults with no drinking habit, suggesting that periodontal disease is associated with liver function, independent of alcohol ingestion.

  13. Modelling of Remediation Technologies at the Performance Assessment Level

    SciTech Connect

    Parton, N.J.; Paksy, A.; Eden, L.; Trivedi, D.P.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents approaches to modelling three different remediation technologies that are designed to support site operators during their assessment of remediation options for the management of radioactively contaminated land on nuclear licensed sites in the UK. The three selected technologies were soil washing, permeable reactive barrier and in-situ stabilisation. The potential exists to represent electrokinetics in the future. These technologies were chosen because it was considered that enough information already existed for site operators to assess mature technologies such as soil dig and disposal and groundwater pump and treat. Using the software code GoldSim, the models have been designed to allow site operators to make both a reasonable scoping level assessment of the viability of treatment and understand the cost-benefits of each technology. For soil washing, a standard soil leaching technique was simulated whereby the soil is separated into fines and oversize particles, and subsequently a chemical reagent is used to strip contamination off the soil. The cost benefit of this technology in terms of capital costs for the plant and materials, operational costs and waste disposal costs can also be assessed. The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) model can represent either a continuous wall or a funnel and gate system. The model simulates the transport of contaminants through the reactive material contained in the PRB. The outputs from the model include concentration of contaminants in the groundwater flow downstream of the PRB, mass of contaminants retained by the PRB, total mass and volume of waste and the various costs associated with the PRB remediation technology. The in-situ stabilisation (ISS) model has the capability to represent remediation by the addition of reagents that immobilise contaminated soil. The model simulates the release of contaminants from the treated soil over time. Performance is evaluated by comparison of the mass of contaminants

  14. Building a Beetle: How Larval Environment Leads to Adult Performance in a Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Reaney, Leeann T.; Knell, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related traits such as strength and testes mass in the horned beetle Euoniticellus intermedius. In males weight gain post-eclosion had a central role in determining both testes mass and strength. Weight gain was unaffected by adult nutrition but was strongly correlated with by horn length, itself determined by larval resource availability, indicating strong indirect effects of larval nutrition on the adult beetle’s ability to assimilate food and grow tissues. Female strength was predicted by a simple path diagram where strength was determined by eclosion weight, itself determined by larval nutrition: weight gain post-eclosion was not a predictor of strength in this sex. Based on earlier findings we discuss the insulin-like signalling pathway as a possible mechanism by which larval nutrition could affect adult weight gain and thence traits such as strength. PMID:26244874

  15. The OMPAT Level I Neurophysiological Performance Assessment Battery: NPPAB.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    compounds exists that is immediately suitable for the design and support of Level II in-depth cognitive and physiological screening efforts. As new ... pharmaceuticals are developed, however, such information is not likely to be available. To obtain the necessary data expeditiously, the Level I Task Area

  16. 10 CFR 433.5 - Performance level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.5 Performance... baseline building and proposed building by using the Performance Rating Method found in Appendix G of...

  17. 10 CFR 433.5 - Performance level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.5 Performance... baseline building and proposed building by using the Performance Rating Method found in Appendix G of...

  18. Task Level Job Performance Criteria Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Llewellyn N.; Hahn, Clifford P.

    This study investigated possibilities for improving identification of job performance requirements by examining job incumbent's performance on separate tasks. Three specialties were studied: 291X0, Telecommunications Operation Specialist; 304X4, Group Radio Communications Equipment Repairman; and 431X1C, Aircraft Maintenance Specialist.…

  19. Factors influencing executive function by physical activity level among young adults: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Mitsutake, Tsubasa; Nakahara, Masami; Nagai, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takuro; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions. PMID:28356633

  20. Factors influencing executive function by physical activity level among young adults: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Mitsutake, Tsubasa; Nakahara, Masami; Nagai, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takuro; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions.

  1. Carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet may influence circulating adiponectin levels by improving insulin sensitivity. We examined the associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults aged 26–81 y (n= 979 men and 1227 women). Dietary intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Fasting...

  2. Are Children's Memory Illusions Created Differently from Those of Adults? Evidence from Levels-of-Processing and Divided Attention Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Howe, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the robustness and automaticity of adults' and children's generation of false memories by using a levels-of-processing paradigm (Experiment 1) and a divided attention paradigm (Experiment 2). The first experiment revealed that when information was encoded at a shallow level, true recognition rates decreased for…

  3. Assessment of Musculoskeletal Strength and Levels of Fatigue during Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    D Souza, Urban John; Shivaprakash, G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Some of the physiological factors and athletic performance might show variation along the phases of menstrual cycle. The alterations seen in these physiological parameters of various systems relating to oscillations in hormonal levels do affect the autonomic nervous system and metabolic functions. Former studies heave inconclusively about the influence of hormones on exercise performance, predominantly muscle strength and rate of fatigue during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Studies regarding influence of these variations during bleeding phase were not done. Aim To evaluate the muscle strength variations and also the rate of fatigue during various phases of the menstrual cycle in young adults. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study conducted among 100 healthy adult female volunteers aged 18-24 years, with normal regular menstrual cycles persistent between 26- 32 days (average of 28 days), for a minimum of last 6 months. Muscle strength was assessed by calculating the work done and fatigue rate using Mosso’s ergograph and by handgrip dynamometer strength. Each subject was evaluated consecutively for two menstrual cycles in all three phases which were classified as Phase 1- Menstrual phase, Phase 2- Follicular phase and Phase 3- Luteal phase. The data obtained was analysed by statistical tool One-way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc Tukeys test. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results The amount of work done and handgrip strength was significantly higher in phase 2 (p<0.001) and relatively reduced in phase 1 and 3 (p<0.001) of menstrual cycle. In terms of fatigue rate percentage, phase 2 showed significantly lesser values (p<0.001) as compared to phase 1 and 3 of menstrual cycle. Conclusion We conclude that the cyclical variation in endogenous reproductive hormones increases the muscle strength in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus provide support for the influence of these hormones in regulation of these

  4. Association between educational status and dual-task performance in young adults.

    PubMed

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Pimentel Piemonte, Maria Elisa; Castelli, Lilian Zanchetta; Andrade Machado, Mariane Silva; Dos Santos Teixeira, Patrícia Pereira; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Ribeiro Do Valle, Luiz Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The influence of educational status on perceptual-motor performance has not been investigated. The single- and dual-task performances of 15 Low educated adults (9 men, 6 women; M age=24.1 yr.; 6-9 yr. of education) and 15 Higher educated adults (8 men, 7 women; M age=24.7 yr.; 10-13 yr. of education) were compared. The perceptual task consisted of verbally classifying two figures (equal or different). The motor task consisted of alternating steps from the floor to a stool. Tasks were assessed individually and simultaneously. Two analyses of variance (2 groups×4 blocks) compared the errors and steps. The Low education group committed more errors and had less improvement on the perceptual task than the High education group. During and after the perceptual-motor task performance, errors increased only in the Low education group. Education correlated to perceptual and motor performance. The Low education group showed more errors and less step alternations on the perceptual-motor task compared to the High education group. This difference on the number of errors was also observed after the dual-task, when the perceptual task was performed alone.

  5. Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

  6. Effect of stimulus intensity level on auditory middle latency response brain maps in human adults.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D A; Dietrich, S; McPherson, D L; Salamat, M T

    2001-05-01

    Auditory middle latency response (AMLR) brain maps were obtained in 11 young adults with normal hearing. AMLR waveforms were elicited with monaural clicks presented at three stimulus intensity levels (50, 70, and 90 dB nHL). Recordings were made for right and left ear stimulus presentations. All recordings were obtained in an eyes open/awake status for each subject. Peak-to-peak amplitudes and absolute latencies of the AMLR Pa and Pb waveforms were measured at the Cz electrode site. Pa and Pb waveforms were present 100 percent of the time in response to the 90 dB nHL presentation. The prevalence of Pa and Pb to the 70 dB nHL presentation varied from 86 to 95 percent. The prevalence of Pa and Pb to the 50 dB nHL stimulus never reached 100 percent, ranging in prevalence from 77 to 68 percent. No significant ear effect was seen for amplitude or latency measures of Pa or Pb. AMLR brain maps of the voltage field distributions of Pa and Pb waveforms showed different topographic features. Scalp topography of the Pa waveform was altered by a reduction in stimulus intensity level. At 90 dB nHL, the Pa brain map showed a large positivity midline over the frontal and central scalp areas. At lower stimulus intensity levels, frontal positivity was reduced, and scalp negativity over occipital regions was increased. Pb scalp topography was also altered by a reduction in stimulus intensity level. Varying the stimulus intensity significantly altered Pa and Pb distributions of amplitude and latency measures. Pa and Pb distributions were skewed regardless of stimulus intensity.

  7. Normal total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ziai, S; Elisha, B; Hammana, I; Tardif, A; Berthiaume, Y; Coderre, L; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2011-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD) is an important complication of CF that increases mortality. Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, plays an important role in fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Lower total adiponectin (TA) levels have been linked to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, studies show that the high molecular weight isoform (HMW), thought to be more active than TA, might be a better indicator of insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to determine the association between HMW and insulin sensitivity in CF subjects and determine if other factors might modulate its levels. Thirteen control subjects and 47 CF adults (16 with normal glucose tolerance, 16 prediabetic and 15 with CFRD) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples were taken at time 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Body mass index, fibrinogen, glucose and insulin, TA and HMW were measured in every subject. Regression analysis was used to determine the association between TA, HMW and glucose (fasting glucose, 2h glucose and glucose AUC) as well as insulin (fasting insulin, insulin AUC, and Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index) parameters. TA and HMW levels were similar between CF patients and controls and were not associated to insulin sensitivity. TA was negatively associated to insulin AUC (p=0.0108) and 2h glucose (p=0.0116) in controls while these relationships were either weakly negative (p=0.0208) or weakly positive (p=0.0105) in CF patients. Also, HMW was negatively associated to insulin (p=0.00301) and glucose AUC (p=0.0546) in controls whereas these associations were positive in CF patients (p=0.0388, p=0.0232 respectively). In conclusion, our exploratory study on HMW adiponectin demonstrated similar levels of TA and HMW between CF patients and controls and different relationships between forms of adiponectin to glucose metabolism and insulin in CF.

  8. Leptin and Hunger Levels in Young Healthy Adults After One Night of Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, and blood pressure/heart rate and whether a 2-hour mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (4 consecutive nights followed by a night of sleep loss and 2 recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (1400–1600) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-hour blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (pre-deprivation) and sixth day (post-deprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of “comfort” food and obesity. PMID:20545838

  9. Leptin and hunger levels in young healthy adults after one night of sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emmanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O; Chrousos, George P

    2010-12-01

    Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol and blood pressure/heart rate, and whether a 2-h mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (four consecutive nights followed by one night of sleep loss and two recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (14:00-16:00 hours) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-h blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (predeprivation) and sixth day (postdeprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin, or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes, which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of 'comfort' food and obesity.

  10. Revisiting thoracic surface anatomy in an adult population: A computed tomography evaluation of vertebral level.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Masroor; Soames, Roger; Khan, Muhammad Jaffar; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Adnan

    2017-03-01

    To compare key thoracic anatomical surface landmarks between healthy and patient adult populations using Computed Tomography (CT). Sixteen slice CT images of 250 age and gender matched healthy individuals and 99 patients with lung parenchymal disease were analyzed to determine the relationship of 17 thoracic structures and their vertebral levels using a 32-bit Radiant DICOM viewer. The structures studied were: aortic hiatus, azygos vein, brachiocephalic artery, gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), left and right common carotid arteries, left and right subclavian arteries, pulmonary trunk bifurcation, superior vena cava junction with the right atrium, carina, cardiac apex, manubriosternal junction, xiphisternal joint, inferior vena cava (IVC) crossing the diaphragm, aortic arch and junction of brachiocephalic veins. The surface anatomy of all structures varied among individuals with no significant effect of age. Binary logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between individual health status and vertebral level for brachiocephalic artery (P = 0.049), GEJ (P = 0.020), right common carotid (P = 0.009) and subclavian arteries (P = 0.009), pulmonary trunk bifurcation (P = 0.049), carina (P = 0.004), and IVC crossing the diaphragm (P = 0.025). These observations differ from those reported in a healthy white Caucasian population and from the vertebral levels of the IVC, esophagus, and aorta crossing the diaphragm in an Iranian population. The differences observed in this study provide insight into the effect of lung pathology on specific thoracic structures and their vertebral levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether these are general changes or pathology-specific. Clin. Anat. 30:227-236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in healthy adults from five regions of Spain.

    PubMed

    Jakszyn, Paula; Goñi, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asunción; Millán, Esmeralda; López, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, M José; Tormo, M José; González, Carlos A; Agudo, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure of serum levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (p,p'-DDE), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in healthy adults in Spain. Furthermore, we also analyzed these levels according to dietary, other lifestyle factors and anthropometric characteristics. We measured the concentrations of such organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in serum samples collected during 1992-1996 from 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, they were residents of five Spanish regions, they were randomly selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. OCPs were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The most frequent compound found in serum was p,p'-DDE, present in 98% of the samples, followed by HCB and beta-HCH, found in 89% and 77% of samples, respectively, while p,p'-DDT could be measured only in 26% of subjects. The geometric means of serum concentrations (ng/g lipid) were 822 for p,p'-DDE, 167 for beta-HCH, and 379 for HCB. The concentrations of all OCPs were positively associated with age and body mass index, and decreased along the period of blood collection. No association was found between OCPs levels and dietary factors. The concentrations of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCB were higher in Murcia, one of southern regions, most likely associated with intensive past use of pesticides related to agricultural practices, while higher levels of HCB were found in Navarra, located in the north, maybe due to industrial use rather than agricultural application.

  12. Performance of Interleukin-27 as a Sepsis Diagnostic Biomarker in Critically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hector R.; Liu, Kathleen D.; Kangelaris, Kirsten N.; Lahni, Patrick; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We recently identified interleukin-27 (IL-27) as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker in children. Here we assess IL-27 as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker in critically ill adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Methods IL-27 and procalcitonin (PCT) were measured from plasma samples in three groups: no sepsis (n = 78), pulmonary source of sepsis (n = 66), and non-pulmonary source of sepsis (n = 43). Receiver operating characteristic curves and classification and regression tree methodology were used to evaluate biomarker performance. Results IL-27 did not discriminate effectively between sepsis and sterile SIRS in unselected patients. The highest area under the curve (AUC) was 0.70 (95% C.I. 0.60 – 0.80) for IL-27 in subjects with a non-pulmonary source of sepsis. A decision tree incorporating IL-27, PCT, and age had an AUC of 0.79 (0.71 – 0.87) in subjects with a non-pulmonary source of sepsis. Compared to children with sepsis, adults with sepsis express less IL-27. Conclusions IL-27 performed overall poorly in this cohort as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker. Combining IL-27, PCT, and age reasonably estimated the risk of sepsis in subjects with a non-pulmonary source of sepsis. IL-27 may be a more reliable sepsis diagnostic biomarker in children than in adults. PMID:24848949

  13. Integrated Architectural Level Power-Performance Modeling Toolkit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-20

    laptop) systems. We utilize the MET/ Turandot toolkit originally developed at IBM TJ Watson Research Center as the underlying PowerPC...microarchitecture performance simulator [3]. Turandot is flexible enough to model a broad range of microarchitectures and has undergone extensive validation [3...In addition, Turandot has been augmented with power models to explore power-performance tradeoffs in an internal IBM tool called PowerTimer [4

  14. Loneliness and coping among tertiary-level adult cancer patients in the home.

    PubMed

    Perry, G R

    1990-10-01

    This exploratory study measured the degree of loneliness experienced by adult cancer patients. All were in the initial phases of the illness, that is, currently receiving treatment consisting of either chemotherapy or radiation therapy on an outpatient basis and/or recuperating from surgery in the home setting. All were within 100 days of initial diagnosis of cancer. The UCLA Loneliness Scale by Peplau was used in measuring loneliness. In addition, the coping methods of this same group of patients were examined using the Jalowiec Coping Scale to determine predominant methods of coping with the situational crisis imposed by cancer diagnosis and treatment. The instruments were administered in the home or in an outpatient setting and patients were accessed through cancer treatment centers and from oncologists in the southern Illinois area. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of loneliness, to identify predominant coping methods, and to discern the relationship, if any, between coping methods employed and the degree of loneliness reported by the adult cancer patients. The conceptual framework chosen for the study was taken from the work of Lazarus and Jalowiec with regard to coping; the work of Peplau, Russell, and Cutrone on loneliness formed the conceptual basis for the portion of the study regarding that dimension. A total of 41 cancer patients were surveyed--21 were male and 20 were female. The median age was 60 years, and the mean educational level was 10.5 years. There were significant differences found between loneliness scores by age categories and by marital status, as well as a relationship between membership in organizations and loneliness scores. There were significant relationships found between coping methods (confrontive, emotive, palliative) employed and the degree of loneliness experienced by these cancer patients. Coping methods were also ranked by frequency of use, and interesting patterns emerged--especially noteworthy were group

  15. Fitness Level is Associated with Sex-Specific Regional Fat Differences in Normal Weight Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Tyler A.; Dengel, Donald R.; Ryder, Justin R.; Kelly, Aaron S.; Chow, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize regional body composition and insulin sensitivity differences between young adults who were normal weight with either high or low fitness determined by VO2 peak. We hypothesized that higher fitness levels would be associated with reduced visceral fat (VAT) and improved insulin sensitivity. Design A cross-sectional comparison of normal weight males and females with high or low fitness matched on age and sex. Methods A total of 38 (20M/18F) individuals were recruited for this study. Thirty-two young adults (18M/14F) were matched on age (mean 22.5 ± 3 yrs.) and BMI (22.4 ± 2.4 kg/m2) and sex and classified by high or low fitness based on VO2 peak difference (≥ 8ml/kg/min). Total and regional body composition, including VAT, was measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. An analysis of variance compared regional body composition and insulin sensitivity between high and low fitness young adults with a normal BMI. Results Higher fitness was associated with significantly lower percent body fat, lower android fat mass and higher insulin sensitivity in males (−7.2%, P<0.001; −0.5kg, P=0.048; 5.6mg/kg (FFM)/min, p=0.002). In females, higher fitness was associated with significantly lower percent body fat, lower leg fat but no difference in insulin sensitivity (−6.7%, P=0.001; −2.7kg, P<0.001; 2.5 mg/kg(FFM)/min, P=0.40). No differences in VAT were observed between high and low fitness groups. Interestingly in females, there was no difference in total lean mass, trunk lean mass or leg lean mass (P=0.59, P=0.17, P=0.99). Conclusion Higher fitness does not influence VAT in normal weight individuals. Sex influenced regional fat and insulin sensitivity differences between high fitness and low fitness groups. PMID:27054196

  16. Caffeine Enhances Memory Performance in Young Adults during Their Non-optimal Time of Day

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Stephanie M.; Buckley, Timothy P.; Baena, Elsa; Ryan, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Many college students struggle to perform well on exams in the early morning. Although students drink caffeinated beverages to feel more awake, it is unclear whether these actually improve performance. After consuming coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), college-age adults completed implicit and explicit memory tasks in the early morning and late afternoon (Experiment 1). During the morning, participants ingesting caffeine demonstrated a striking improvement in explicit memory, but not implicit memory. Caffeine did not alter memory performance in the afternoon. In Experiment 2, participants engaged in cardiovascular exercise in order to examine whether increases in physiological arousal similarly improved memory. Despite clear increases in physiological arousal, exercise did not improve memory performance compared to a stretching control condition. These results suggest that caffeine has a specific benefit for memory during students’ non-optimal time of day – early morning. These findings have real-world implications for students taking morning exams. PMID:27895607

  17. The simulated gambling paradigm applied to young adults: an examination of university students' performance.

    PubMed

    Caroselli, Jerome Silvio; Hiscock, Merrill; Scheibel, Randall S; Ingram, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Simulated gambling tasks have become popular as sensitive tools for identifying individuals with real-time impairment in decision making. Various clinical samples, especially patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, perform poorly on these tasks. The patients typically persist in choosing risky (disadvantageous) card decks instead of switching to safer (advantageous) decks. In terms of Damasio's (1994) somatic marker hypothesis, the poor performance stems from defective integration of emotional and rational aspects of decision making. Less information is available about performance in healthy populations, particularly young adults. After administering a computerized gambling task to 141 university students, we found that individuals in this population also tend to prefer disadvantageous decks to advantageous decks. The results indicate that performance is governed primarily by the frequency of positive outcomes on a trial-by-trial basis rather than by the accumulation of winnings in the longer term. These findings are discussed in light of the cognitive literature pertaining to the simulated gambling paradigm.

  18. Executive function is independently associated with performances of balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke: implications for falls prevention

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Pang, Marco; Eng, Janice J

    2015-01-01

    Background Stroke survivors have a high incidence of falls. Impaired executive-controlled processes are frequent in stroke survivors and are associated with falls in this population. Better understanding of the independent association between executive-controlled processes and physiological fall risk (i.e. performances of balance and mobility) could enhance future interventions that aim to prevent falls and to promote an independent lifestyle among stroke survivors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 63 adults who suffered a mild stroke >1 year prior to the study, aged > or =50 years. Results Cognitive flexibility was independently associated with performances of balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke, after accounting for age, quadriceps strength of the paretic side and current physical activity level. Conclusions Clinicians may need to consider cognitive function when assessing and treating impaired balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke. PMID:17143004

  19. Relative Association of Multi-Level Supportive Environments on Poor Health among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G; Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-04-06

    Background: The aging of the United States population poses significant challenges to American healthcare and informal caregiving systems. Additional research is needed to understand how health promotion programs and policies based on a socio-ecological perspective impact the health and well-being of older persons. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal characteristics and supportive environments associated with poor health among older individuals aged 65 and over. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design and was guided by a conceptual framework developed by the authors to depict the relationship between personal characteristics and environments associated with poor health status. Environment types included in this study were family, home, financial, neighborhood, and healthcare. The sample was comprised of 1319 adults aged 65 years and older residing in Central Texas. From a random selection of households, participants were administered a mail-based survey created by a community collaborative effort. Descriptive statistics and three binary logistic regression models were fitted to examine associations with poor health status (i.e., physical, mental, and combined physical/mental). Results: Two personal characteristics (number of chronic conditions and educational level) were consistently related (p < 0.05) to health outcomes. Supportive family, home, financial, neighborhood, and health care environmental factors were shown to be related (p < 0.05) to various aspects of physical or mental health outcomes. Conclusions: Multidimensional factors including personal characteristics and protective environments are related to health status among older individuals. The unique roles of each environment can help inform public health interventions to create and enhance support for older adults to engage in healthful activities and improve their physical and mental health.

  20. Elevated blood lead levels among adults in Massachusetts, 1991-1995.

    PubMed Central

    Tumpowsky, C M; Davis, L K; Rabin, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lead poisoning, the oldest recognized occupational disease, remains a danger for children and adults. Data collected for 664 cases reported to the Massachusetts Occupational Lead Registry in 1991-1995 were summarized in a 1998 state report. Here, the authors present some of the key findings from that report for a wider audience. METHODS: The authors summarize key findings of the 1998 state report. FINDINGS: Construction workers, in particular licensed deleaders and house painters, accounted for almost 70% of occupational cases involving blood lead levels > or = 40 micrograms of lead per deciliter (mcg/dl) of blood. Among 100 workers with the highest blood lead levels (> or = 60 mcg/dl), 29% were house painters. Hispanic workers were over-represented in the Registry. A small proportion of cases were non-occupational, typically associated with recreational use of firing ranges or do-it-yourself home renovations. CONCLUSION: Lead poisoning is a preventable disease, yet these data indicate that additional prevention efforts are warranted. PMID:11059431

  1. Changes in Cognitive Performance Are Associated with Changes in Sleep in Older Adults With Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Hall, Martica H; Nebes, Robert D; Monk, Timothy H; Buysse, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined sleep features associated with cognition in older adults and examined whether sleep changes following insomnia treatment were associated with cognitive improvements. Polysomnography and cognition (recall, working memory, and reasoning) were assessed before and after an insomnia intervention (Brief Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia [BBTI] or information control [IC]) in 77 older adults with insomnia. Baseline wake-after-sleep-onset (WASO) was associated with recall. Greater NREM (nonrapid eye movement) delta power and lower NREM sigma power were associated with greater working memory and reasoning. The insomnia intervention did not improve performance. However, increased absolute delta power and decreased relative sigma power were associated with improved reasoning. Findings suggest that improvements in executive function may occur with changes in NREM architecture.

  2. Correlation Between Caregiver Reports of Physical Function and Performance-based Measures in a Cohort of Older Adults With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Brittany L; Bracey, Lauren E; Lane, Kathleen A; Ferguson, Denisha Y; LaMantia, Michael A; Gao, Sujuan; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to determine the association between performance-based measures of physical function with caregiver reports of physical function in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to examine whether those associations vary by the level of patients' cognitive functioning. Subjects included 180 patient-caregiver dyads who are enrolled in a clinical trial testing the impact of an occupational therapy intervention plus guideline-level care to delay functional decline among older adults with AD. The primary caregiver-reported measure is the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL). Performance-based measures include the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were used to determine the associations of each physical performance measure with ADCS-ADL, adjusting for cognition function and other covariates. We found significant correlations between caregiver reports and observed performance-based measures across all levels of cognitive function, with patients in the lowest cognitive group showing the highest correlation. These findings support the use of proxy reports to assess physical function among older adults with AD.

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana plants with different levels of aliphatic- and indolyl-glucosinolates affect host selection and performance of Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Oshry; Kafle, Dinesh; Elbaz, Moshe; Malitsky, Sergey; Aharoni, Asaph; Schwarzkopf, Alexander; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Morin, Shai

    2013-12-01

    Generalist insects show reduced selectivity when subjected to similar, but not identical, host plant chemical signatures. Here, we produced transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants that over-express genes regulating the aliphatic- and indolyl- glucosinolates biosynthetic pathways with either a constitutive (CaMV 35S) or a phloem-specific promoter (AtSUC2). This allowed us to examine how exposure to high levels of aliphatic- or indolyl-glucosinolates in homogenous habitats (leaf cage apparatus containing two wild-type or two transgenic leaves) and heterogeneous habitats (leaf cage apparatus containing one wild-type and one transgenic leaf) affects host selection and performance of Bemsia tabaci, a generalist phloem-feeding insect. Data from homogenous habitats indicated that exposure to A. thaliana plants accumulating high levels of aliphatic- or indolyl-glucosinolates negatively affected the performance of both adult females and nymphs of B. tabaci. Data from heterogeneous habitats indicated that B. tabaci adult females selected for oviposition plants on which their offspring perform better (preference-performance relationship). However, the combinations of wild-type and transgenic plants in heterogeneous habitats increased the period of time until the first choice was made and led to increased movement rate on transgenic plants, and reduced fecundity on wild-type plants. Overall, our findings are consistent with the view that both performance and selectivity of B. tabaci decrease in heterogeneous habitats that contain plants with closely-related chemical signatures.

  4. Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Nicole R.; O’Shea, Andrew M.; Bryant, Vaughn; Porges, Eric C.; Cohen, Ronald; Woods, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance (N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When compared to high performers, low performers exhibited significantly decreased cortical surface area in three frontal lobe regions lateralized to the right hemisphere: medial orbital frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (FDR p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in cortical thickness between groups, a proxy for neurodegenerative tissue loss. Our results suggest that decreases in cortical surface area (a proxy for brain structural integrity) in right frontal regions may underlie age-related decline of working memory function. PMID:28101053

  5. Pumping Performance or RBCC Engine under Sea Level Static Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchi, Toshinori; Tomioka, Sadatake; Kanda, Takeshi

    Numerical simulations were conducted to predict the ejector pumping performance of a rocket-ramjet combined-cycle engine under a take-off condition. The numerical simulations revealed that the suction airflow was chocked at the exit of the engine throat when the ejector rocket was driven by cold N2 gas at the chamber pressure of 3MPa. When the ejector-driving gas was changed from cold N2 gas to hot combustion gas, the suction performance decreased remarkably. Mach contours in the engine revealed that the rocket plume constricted when the driving gas was the hot combustion gas. The change of the area of the stream tube area seemed to induce the pressure rise in the duct and decreasing in the pumping performance.

  6. Divided Attention in Younger and Older Adults: Effects of Strategy and Relatedness on Memory Performance and Secondary Task Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Guez, Jonathan; Kreuger, Sharyn

    2005-01-01

    Divided attention at encoding leads to a significant decline in memory performance, whereas divided attention during retrieval has relatively little effect; nevertheless, retrieval carries significant secondary task costs, especially for older adults. The authors further investigated the effects of divided attention in younger and older adults by…

  7. Performance-Based Funding in Adult Education: Issues and Formula Design Options for Oregon. Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MPR Associates, Inc., 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA), Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-220) requires states to document whether or not adult education service providers are improving the quality of their instructional services. To reward effective providers, a number of states have adopted performance-based funding (PBF)…

  8. Co-Constructional Task Analysis: Moving beyond Adult-Based Models to Assess Young Children's Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott Weng Fai

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of young children's thinking competence in task performances has typically followed the novice-to-expert regimen involving models of strategies that adults use when engaged in cognitive tasks such as problem-solving and decision-making. Socio-constructivists argue for a balanced pedagogical approach between the adult and child that…

  9. Effective Literacy Instruction for Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities: Implications for Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level.…

  10. The effect of elevated plasma phenylalanine levels on protein synthesis rates in adult rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, D S; Yang, X R; Lajtha, A

    1994-01-01

    Increasing the plasma phenylalanine concentration to levels as high as 0.560-0.870 mM (over ten times normal levels) had no detectable effect on the rate of brain protein synthesis in adult rats. The average rates for 7-week-old rats were: valine, 0.58 +/- 0.05%/h, phenylalanine, 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h, and tyrosine, 0.60 +/- 0.09%/h, or 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h overall. Synthesis rates calculated on the basis of the specific activity of the tRNA-bound amino acid were slightly lower (4% lower for phenylalanine) than those based on the brain free amino acid pool. Similarly, the specific activities of valine and phenylalanine in microdialysis fluid from striatum were practically the same as those in the brain free amino acid pool. Thus the specific activities of the valine and phenylalanine brain free pools are good measures of the precursor specific activity for protein synthesis. In any event, synthesis rates, whether based on the specific activities of the amino acids in the brain free pool or those bound to tRNA, were unaffected by elevated levels of plasma phenylalanine. Brain protein synthesis rates measured after the administration of quite large doses of phenylalanine (> 1.5 mumol/g) or valine (15 mumol/g) were in agreement (0.62 +/- 0.01 and 0.65 +/- 0.01%/h respectively) with the rates determined with infusions of trace amounts of amino acids. Thus the technique of stabilizing precursor-specific activity, and pushing values in the brain close to those of the plasma, by the administration of large quantities of precursor, appears to be valid. PMID:8093014

  11. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on Oxytocin and Cortisol Blood Levels in Mothers.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the "hormone of affiliation" and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as well as

  12. Levels of selected trace metals in hair of urban and rural adult male population of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1995-02-01

    Human scalp hair as a biopsy material may well serve the purpose of estimating the degree of human exposure to environmental contaminants, especially trace metals. To this effect, the levels of trace metals in hair of various groups of population living in areas with varying extent of environmental exposure are generally compared together. Such comparative evaluations are important since they are unique for each group of population and probably reflect not only a number of factors of genetical, nutritional and environmental origin, but also indicate relationship with factors such as food, ambient air, drinking water, occupational exposure, age, race, sex and metabolic condition etc. Also there are some elements which are selectively deposited in hair and may thus provide clinical information on the level of exposure and toxication. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to collect base-line trace metal data on hair and to evaluate the metal levels as measure of the nutritional status of the relevant groups of urban and rural population in terms of industrial, agricultural and occupation exposure. For this purpose, scalp hair samples were obtained from donors belonging to urban adult male population from the city of Peshawer and a rural town, Jamrood and were investigated for three essential metals (Na, K and Zn) and four non-essential metals (Co, Hg, As and Ag) by AAS technique. The impact of urban and rural environments, including the food habits of individuals, on trace metal distribution in scalp hair of the two classes of population is then reviewed with reference to the literature data available from other parts of the world. 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Greater serum carotenoid levels associated with lower prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhao-min; Ling, Wen-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serum carotenoids may be inversely associated with liver injury, but limited data are available from population-based studies. We examined the relationship between serum carotenoid levels and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese adults. A total of 2935 participants aged 40–75 years were involved in this community-based cross-sectional study. General information, lifestyle factors, serum levels of carotenoid and the presence and degree of NAFLD were determined. After adjusting for potential covariates, we observed a dose-dependent inverse association between NAFLD risk and each individual serum carotenoid and total carotenoids (all p-values < 0.001). The ORs of NAFLD for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.44 (95% CI 0.35, 0.56) for α-carotene, 0.32 (95% CI 0.25, 0.41) for β-carotene, 0.62 (95% CI 0.49, 0.79) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.54 (95% CI 0.42, 0.68) for lycopene, 0.56 (95% CI 0.44, 0.72) for lutein + zeaxanthin and 0.41 (95% CI 0.32, 0.53) for total carotenoids. Higher levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the degree of NAFLD (p-trend: < 0.001 to 0.003). Serum carotenoids are inversely associated with prevalence of NAFLD in middle aged and elderly Chinese. PMID:26256414

  14. C-Reactive Protein Levels Among U.S. Adults Exposed to Parental Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Boch, Samantha J; Ford, Jodi L

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have linked childhood adversity to low-grade inflammation via C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. This study analyzed the association between low-grade inflammation and prior biological parental incarceration. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994-2008) were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression models. Measures included high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP (<3 mg/L = reference, 3-10 mg/L = low-grade inflammation, and >10 mg/L = acute inflammation), parent incarceration occurring in the child's lifetime, and frequency and timing of incarceration with respect to child's age (0-18 years or >18 years vs. never) of incarceration. Analyses were stratified by child's gender. Final sample sizes were n = 5,396 males and n = 6,447 females for maternal incarceration and n = 4,956 males and n = 5,860 females for paternal incarceration. In models with and without potential mediators, females whose fathers were ever incarcerated were more likely to have hs-CRP levels of 3-10 mg/L than females whose fathers were never incarcerated (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.09, 1.91]). Additionally, daughter's age (<18 years; AOR: 1.48, 95% CI: [1.11, 1.97]) and frequency of father's incarceration were significant (AOR: 1.24, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.49]). No mediating effects were observed. Males whose fathers were incarcerated when they were ≥18 years were less likely to have hs-CRP levels of 3-10 mg/L than those whose father was never incarcerated; the association was nonsignificant in the mediated model. Further investigation is needed on the physiological effects of exposure to parental incarceration and interventions to support children.

  15. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on Oxytocin and Cortisol Blood Levels in Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the “hormone of affiliation” and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as

  16. School Culture and Performance at Different Middle Level Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Martin Omar

    2010-01-01

    American educators and researchers have spent decades attempting to determine the most effective middle level school configuration. Although various models have been conceptualized in order to resolve one of our most extensive educational reform movements, a recent nationwide increase in K-8 schools suggest interested parties have accepted the K-8…

  17. 10 CFR 435.5 - Performance level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... both the baseline building and proposed building by using the Simulated Performance Alternative...

  18. 10 CFR 435.5 - Performance level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... both the baseline building and proposed building by using the Simulated Performance Alternative...

  19. PEAPOL (Program Evaluation at the Performance Objective Level) Outside Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auvil, Mary S.

    In evaluating this pilot project, which developed a computer system for assessing student progress and cost effectiveness as related to achievement of performance objectives, interviews were conducted with project participants, including project staff, school administrators, and the auto shop instructors. Project documents were reviewed and a…

  20. Maternal prolactin inhibition during lactation affects physical performance evaluated by acute exhaustive swimming exercise in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Lopes, G; Lisboa, P C; Koury, J C; Boaventura, G; Passos, M C F; Moura, E G

    2012-02-01

    Maternal prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation programs for metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism in adult offspring, which could negatively affect exercise performance. We evaluated the effects of maternal hypoprolactinemia in late lactation on physical performance in adult progeny. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (BRO, 1 mg per day) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation and offspring were followed until 180 days old. Physical performance was recorded in untrained rats at 90 and 180 days by an acute exhaustive swimming test (exercise group-Ex). At day 90, BRO offspring showed higher visceral fat mass, higher plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lower total antioxidant capacity, higher liver glycogen, lower glycemia, and normal insulinemia. Although thyroid hormones (TH) levels were unchanged, mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) activity was lower in muscle and in brown adipose tissue (BAT). At this age, BRO-Ex offspring showed higher exercise capacity, lower blood lactate, higher serum T3, and higher muscle and BAT mGPD activities. At day 180, BRO offspring showed central obesity, hypothyroidism, insulin resistance, and lower EDL (extensor digitorum longus) muscle glycogen with unaltered plasma oxidative stress markers. This group showed no alteration of exercise capacity or blood lactate. After exercise, EDL and liver glycogen were lower, while T3 levels, BAT and muscle mGPD activities were normalized. Liver glycogen seem to be related with higher exercise capacity in younger BRO offspring, while the loss of this temporary advantage maybe related to the hypothyroidism and insulin resistance developed with age.

  1. The biological age of 14-year-old boys and success in adult soccer: do early maturers predominate in the top-level game?

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Castagna, Carlo; Calleja-González, Julio; Jukic, Igor; Idrizovic, Kemal; Stojanovic, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Talent identification and development in soccer is often biased by maturation-related differences of young athletes. However, there is no information available about success rates for youth maturing at different tempos to achieve success in elite adult soccer. The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of different maturational groups among boys playing soccer, and to track them for competence in adult performance. A prospective cohort study design was used to follow 55, 14-year-old boys playing in Serbian youth soccer Division I over eight years. At the age of 14, biological age using skeletal age rates was determined, and participants were categorized as early maturers (EaM), normal maturers (NoM), and late maturers (LaM). Game competence for adult soccer at age 22 was described as elite if an individual played for clubs competing in top-five international soccer leagues (La Liga, Premier League, Bundesliga, Serie A, and Ligue 1), and/or has become a member of an adult National team. Among boys in our study group, 43.8% were categorized as EaM, 35.4% as NoM, and 20.8% as LaM (P = 0.11). A significant difference in biological age was found among maturational groups at age 14, with EaM > NoM > LaM (P > 0.0001). When assessed for adult soccer competence, 33.3% of participants (16 out of 48 players) succeed in achieving elite level. Elite soccer competence acquired 60.1% players from the group of LaM, 38.1% from NoM, and 11.8% from EaM (P > 0.0001). Our comparative analysis suggests that soccer excludes early maturing boys and favors late maturing boys as level of performance increases.

  2. Pumping Performance of RBCC Engine under Sea Level Static Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchi, Toshinori; Tomioka, Sadatake; Kanda, Takeshi

    Two-stream flow model of ejector including heat and mass transfer was constructed by the comparison of the numerical simulations in the rocket-ramjet combined-cycle engine driven three different rocket gas; cold N2 gas, hot combustion gas and it within excess H2. The analysis of the ejector revealed that the heat and mass transfer from hot rocket plume with supersonic speed to cold airflow induced area change (expansion) of the airflow stream tube and the pressure rise in the constant-area section at the downstream of the rocket base. This pressure rise reduced the pumping performance of the ejector. To absorb the expansion of the airflow, the flowpath was changed from the constant area to the diverging area at the downstream of the rocket base. The numerical simulation in the modified engine demonstrated that the diverging-area section at the downstream of the rocket base improved the pumping performance.

  3. Growth hormone treatment in growth hormone-deficient adults. II. Effects on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Cuneo, R C; Salomon, F; Wiles, C M; Hesp, R; Sönksen, P H

    1991-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment in adults with GH deficiency increases lean body mass and thigh muscle cross-sectional area. The functional significance of this was examined by incremental cycle ergometry in 24 GH-deficient adults treated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial with recombinant DNA human GH (rhGH) for 6 mo (0.07 U/kg body wt daily). Compared with placebo, the rhGH group increased mean maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) (+406 +/- 71 vs. +133 +/- 84 ml/min; P = 0.016) and maximal power output (+24.6 +/- 4.3 vs. +9.7 +/- 4.8 W; P = 0.047), without differences in maximal heart rate or ventilation. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, vital capacity, and corrected CO gas transfer were within normal limits and did not change with treatment. Mean predicted VO2max, based on height and age, increased from 78.9 to 96.0% in the rhGH group (compared with 78.5 and 85.0% for placebo; P = 0.036). The anaerobic ventilatory threshold increased in the rhGH group (+159 +/- 39 vs. +1 +/- 51 ml/min; P = 0.02). The improvement in VO2max was noted when expressed per kilogram body weight but not lean body mass or thigh muscle area. We conclude that rhGH treatment in adults with GH deficiency improves and normalizes maximal exercise performance and improves submaximal exercise performance and that these changes are related to increases in lean body mass and muscle mass. Improved cardiac output may also contribute to the effect of rhGH on exercise performance.

  4. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA. PMID:28173688

  5. Maintaining High Ambulatory Activity Levels of Sedentary Adults with a Reinforcement Thinning Schedule

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Leonardo F.; Barry, Danielle; Litt, Mark D.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality. Reinforcement interventions appear useful for increasing activity and preventing adverse consequences of sedentary lifestyles. This study evaluated a reinforcement thinning schedule for maintaining high activity levels. Sedentary adults (n=77) were given pedometers and encouraged to walk ≥10,000 steps/day. Initially, all participants earned rewards for each day they walked ≥10,000 steps. Subsequently, 61 participants were randomized to a monitoring only condition or a monitoring plus reinforcement thinning condition, in which frequencies of monitoring and reinforcing walking decreased over 12 weeks. The mean ± SD percentage of participants in the monitoring plusreinforcement thinning condition who met walking goals was 83% ± 24% versus. 55% ± 31% for participants in the monitoring only condition, p < .001. Thus, this monitoring plusreinforcement thinning schedule maintained high rates of walking when it was in effect; however, groups did not differ at a 24-week follow-up. Monitoring plus reinforcement thinning schedules, nevertheless, hold potential to extend benefits of reinforcement interventions at low costs. PMID:25041789

  6. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  7. Maintaining high activity levels in sedentary adults with a reinforcement-thinning schedule.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leonardo F; Barry, Danielle; Litt, Mark D; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality. Reinforcement interventions appear to be useful for increasing activity and preventing adverse consequences of sedentary lifestyles. This study evaluated a reinforcement-thinning schedule for maintaining high activity levels. Sedentary adults (N = 77) were given pedometers and encouraged to walk ≥10,000 steps per day. Initially, all participants earned rewards for each day they walked ≥10,000 steps. Subsequently, 61 participants were randomized to a monitoring-only condition or a monitoring-plus-reinforcement-thinning condition, in which frequencies of monitoring and reinforcing walking decreased over 12 weeks. The mean (± SD) percentage of participants in the monitoring-plus-reinforcement-thinning condition who met walking goals was 83% ± 24% and was 55% ± 31% for participants in the monitoring-only condition, p < .001. Thus, monitoring plus reinforcement thinning maintained high rates of walking when it was in effect; however, groups did not differ at a 24-week follow-up. Monitoring plus reinforcement thinning, nevertheless, hold potential to extend benefits of reinforcement interventions at low costs.

  8. Effect of Regular Gum Chewing on Levels of Anxiety, Mood, and Fatigue in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Otomaru, Akiyo; Sakuma, Yumiko; Mochizuki, Yoshiko; Ishida, Sadayo; Kanoya, Yuka; Sato, Chifumi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The effect of regular gum chewing on psychological status is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gum chewing for fourteen days on psychological status and physical and mental fatigue in healthy young adults. Methods: We assigned 50 volunteers randomly to an intervention group (n = 26) and a control group (n = 24). Participants in the intervention group were requested to chew the gum twice per a day for fourteen days. The volunteers were required to complete a questionnaire related to lifestyle for baseline assessment. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Profile of Mood State (POMS), the World Health Organization Quality of Life 26, and assessment of physical and mental fatigue by visual analog scale were used at baseline, 2 weeks (after intervention), and 4 weeks (follow-up). Results: At 2 weeks, the score of state anxiety was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group. The intervention participants’ scores of depression-dejection, fatigue and confusion in POMS were better than the control group scores. Mental fatigue were also relieved after the intervention. At 4 weeks, there were no significant differences between both groups. Conclusion: Fourteen days’ gum chewing may improve the levels of anxiety, mood and fatigue. PMID:21866229

  9. 20 CFR 666.120 - What are the procedures for negotiating annual levels of performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... performance for each core indicator and the customer satisfaction indicators. In negotiating these levels, the... customer satisfaction; (3) The extent to which the levels of performance promote continuous improvement and... Governor must reach agreement on levels of performance for each core indicator and the...

  10. 20 CFR 666.120 - What are the procedures for negotiating annual levels of performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... performance for each core indicator and the customer satisfaction indicators. In negotiating these levels, the... customer satisfaction; (3) The extent to which the levels of performance promote continuous improvement and... Governor must reach agreement on levels of performance for each core indicator and the...

  11. The Relationship between Older Adults' Risk for a Future Fall and Difficulty Performing Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Mamikonian-Zarpas, Ani; Laganá, Luciana

    2015-12-01

    Functional status is often defined by cumulative scores across indices of independence in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), but little is known about the unique relationship of each daily activity item with the fall outcome. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the level of relative risk for a future fall associated with difficulty with performing various tasks of normal daily functioning among older adults who had fallen at least once in the past 12 months. The sample was comprised of community-dwelling individuals 70 years and older from the 1984-1990 Longitudinal Study of Aging by Kovar, Fitti, and Chyba (1992). Risk analysis was performed on individual items quantifying 6 ADLs and 7 IADLs, as well as 10 items related to mobility limitations. Within a subsample of 1,675 older adults with a history of at least one fall within the past year, the responses of individuals who reported multiple falls were compared to the responses of participants who had a single fall and reported 1) difficulty with walking and/or balance (FRAIL group, n = 413) vs. 2) no difficulty with walking or dizziness (NDW+ND group, n = 415). The items that had the strongest relationships and highest risk ratios for the FRAIL group (which had the highest probabilities for a future fall) included difficulty with: eating (73%); managing money (70%); biting or chewing food (66%); walking a quarter of a mile (65%); using fingers to grasp (65%); and dressing without help (65%). For the NDW+ND group, the most noteworthy items included difficulty with: bathing or showering (79%); managing money (77%); shopping for personal items (75%); walking up 10 steps without rest (72%); difficulty with walking a quarter of a mile (72%); and stooping/crouching/kneeling (70%). These findings suggest that individual items quantifying specific ADLs and IADLs have substantive relationships with the fall outcome among older adults who have difficulty with walking

  12. The role of switching, inhibition and working memory in older adults' performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Gamboz, Nadia; Borella, Erika; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2009-05-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is considered a typical executive test. However, several interesting questions are still open as to the specific executive processes underlying this task. In the present study, we explored how local and global switching, inhibition and working memory, assessed through the Number-Letter, the Stop Signal and the Reading Span tasks, relate to older adults' performance in the WCST. Results showed that older adults' performance variability in the number of perseverative errors was predicted by the local switch component of the Number-Letter task. Results also showed age-related differences in inhibition, working memory and global switching, while local switching resulted largely spared in aging. This study provides evidence that switching abilities may contribute to performance of older adults in the WCST. It also provides initial evidence suggesting that switching processes, associated with local switch costs, are involved in performance on the WCST, at least in older adults.

  13. Free-field study on auditory localization and discrimination performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Freigang, Claudia; Schmiedchen, Kristina; Nitsche, Ines; Rübsamen, Rudolf

    2014-04-01

    Localization accuracy and acuity for low- (0.375-0.75 kHz; LN) and high-frequency (2.25-4.5 kHz; HN) noise bands were examined in young (20-29 years) and older adults (65-83 years) in the acoustic free-field. A pointing task was applied to quantify accuracy, while acuity was inferred from minimum audible angle (MAA) thresholds measured with an adaptive 3-alternative forced-choice procedure. Accuracy decreased with laterality and age. From young to older adults, the accuracy declined by up to 23 % for the low-frequency noise band across all lateralities. The mean age effect was even more pronounced on MAA thresholds. Thus, age was a strong predictor for MAA thresholds for both LN and HN bands. There was no significant correlation between hearing status and localization performance. These results suggest that central auditory processing of space declines with age and is mainly driven by age-related changes in the processing of binaural cues (interaural time difference and interaural intensity difference) and not directly induced by peripheral hearing loss. We conclude that the representation of the location of sound sources becomes blurred with age as a consequence of declined temporal processing, the effect of which becomes particularly evident for MAA thresholds, where two closely adjoining sound sources have to be separated. While localization accuracy and MAA were not correlated in older adults, only a weak correlation was found in young adults. These results point to an employment of different processing strategies for localization accuracy and acuity.

  14. Performance of multi level error correction in binary holographic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Reyes, George F.

    2004-01-01

    At the Optical Computing Lab in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) a binary holographic data storage system was designed and tested with methods of recording and retrieving the binary information. Levels of error correction were introduced to the system including pixel averaging, thresholding, and parity checks. Errors were artificially introduced into the binary holographic data storage system and were monitored as a function of the defect area fraction, which showed a strong influence on data integrity. Average area fractions exceeding one quarter of the bit area caused unrecoverable errors. Efficient use of the available data density was discussed. .

  15. Elevated NT-proBNP Levels are Associated with Poor Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Rancho Bernardo Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Lori B.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Clopton, Paul; Chen, Wei-Chung; Maisel, Alan S.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Background Natriuretic peptides (NP’s) have prognostic value across a wide spectrum of cardiovascular diseases and may predict cognitive dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease even in the absence of prior stroke. Little is known about the association of NP’s with cognitive function in community-dwelling adults. We assessed the association between NT-proBNP levels and cognitive function in community-dwelling ambulatory older adults in the Rancho Bernardo Study. Methods We studied 950 men and women, aged 60 years and older, who attended a research clinic visit where a medical history and examination were performed, and blood for cardiovascular disease risk factors and NT-proBNP levels were obtained. Three cognitive function tests were administered: Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), Trail-Making Test B (Trails B), and Category Fluency. Results Participants with high NT-proBNP levels (≥450 pg/mL, n=198) were older and had a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease (12% vs. 30%), and stroke (5% vs. 11%) (both p’s≤0.001). In unadjusted analyses, all three cognitive function test scores were significantly associated with NT-proBNP levels (p<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, education, hypertension, body mass index, exercise, alcohol use, smoking, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine clearance, and prior cardiovascular disease, elevated NT-proBNP levels remained independently associated with poor cognitive performance on MMSE (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.0 [1.1–3.6], p=0.02) and Trails B (1.7 [1.2–2.7], p=0.01), but not Category Fluency (1.4 [0.9–2.2], p=0.19). Results were unchanged after excluding the 6% of participants with a history of stroke. Conclusions NT-proBNP levels were strongly and independently associated with poor cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:21683832

  16. What Word-Level Knowledge Can Adult Learners Acquire after Minimal Exposure to a New Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…

  17. Altimeter error sources at the 10-cm performance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Error sources affecting the calibration and operational use of a 10 cm altimeter are examined to determine the magnitudes of current errors and the investigations necessary to reduce them to acceptable bounds. Errors considered include those affecting operational data pre-processing, and those affecting altitude bias determination, with error budgets developed for both. The most significant error sources affecting pre-processing are bias calibration, propagation corrections for the ionosphere, and measurement noise. No ionospheric models are currently validated at the required 10-25% accuracy level. The optimum smoothing to reduce the effects of measurement noise is investigated and found to be on the order of one second, based on the TASC model of geoid undulations. The 10 cm calibrations are found to be feasible only through the use of altimeter passes that are very high elevation for a tracking station which tracks very close to the time of altimeter track, such as a high elevation pass across the island of Bermuda. By far the largest error source, based on the current state-of-the-art, is the location of the island tracking station relative to mean sea level in the surrounding ocean areas.

  18. The Impact of Performance Level Misclassification on the Accuracy and Precision of Percent at Performance Level Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betebenner, Damian W.; Shang, Yi; Xiang, Yun; Zhao, Yan; Yue, Xiaohui

    2008-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB) performance mandates, embedded within state accountability systems, focus school AYP (adequate yearly progress) compliance squarely on the percentage of students at or above proficient. The singular importance of this quantity for decision-making purposes has initiated extensive research into percent proficient as a…

  19. Age-aware solder performance models : level 2 milestone completion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-09-01

    Legislated requirements and industry standards are replacing eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders with lead-free (Pb-free) solders in future component designs and in replacements and retrofits. Since Pb-free solders have not yet seen service for long periods, their long-term behavior is poorly characterized. Because understanding the reliability of Pb-free solders is critical to supporting the next generation of circuit board designs, it is imperative that we develop, validate and exercise a solder lifetime model that can capture the thermomechanical response of Pb-free solder joints in stockpile components. To this end, an ASC Level 2 milestone was identified for fiscal year 2010: Milestone 3605: Utilize experimentally validated constitutive model for lead-free solder to simulate aging and reliability of solder joints in stockpile components. This report documents the completion of this milestone, including evidence that the milestone completion criteria were met and a summary of the milestone Program Review.

  20. Archery performance level and repeatability of event-related EMG.

    PubMed

    Soylu, A R; Ertan, H; Korkusuz, F

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the repeatability of electromyographic linear envelopes (LE) of archery groups. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals of musculus flexor digitorum superficialis (MFDS) and extensor digitorum (MED) of 23 participants (seven skilled, six beginner archers and ten non-archers) were recorded during archery shooting. Two-second periods (clicker falls at first second) of 12 shots' EMG data were recorded, full-wave rectified and filtered (60 ms moving-average filter) for each participant's drawing arm. Repeatability was investigated by using a statistical criterion, variance ratio (VR). Archers' performances were evaluated in terms of FITA scores. The results showed that FITA scores were significantly correlated to the VRs of MFDS and MED. EMG LEs were more repeatable among archers than non-archers. Therefore, we inferred that VRs of MFDS and MED might be important variables for (a) assessing shooting techniques, (b) evaluation of archers' progress, and (c) selection of talented archers.

  1. Electronic Performance Support Systems: Comparison of Types of Integration Levels on Performance Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    Selecting appropriate performance improvement interventions is a critical component of a comprehensive model of performance improvement. Intervention selection is an interconnected process involving analysis of an organization's environment, definition of the performance problem, and identification of a performance gap and identification of causal…

  2. Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. Practitioner Summary We investigated the influence of task complexity and background physical exertion on the motor performance of tongue and hand. Results indicate the task performance degrades with an additional concurrent task or physical exertion due to the limited attentional resources available for handling both the motor task and background exertion. PMID:24003900

  3. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  4. Are children's memory illusions created differently from those of adults? Evidence from levels-of-processing and divided attention paradigms.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Marina C; Howe, Mark L

    2010-09-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the robustness and automaticity of adults' and children's generation of false memories by using a levels-of-processing paradigm (Experiment 1) and a divided attention paradigm (Experiment 2). The first experiment revealed that when information was encoded at a shallow level, true recognition rates decreased for all ages. For false recognition, when information was encoded on a shallow level, we found a different pattern for young children compared with that for older children and adults. False recognition rates were related to the overall amount of correctly remembered information for 7-year-olds, whereas no such association was found for the other age groups. In the second experiment, divided attention decreased true recognition for all ages. In contrast, children's (7- and 11-year-olds) false recognition rates were again dependent on the overall amount of correctly remembered information, whereas adults' false recognition was left unaffected. Overall, children's false recognition rates changed when levels of processing or divided attention was manipulated in comparison with adults. Together, these results suggest that there may be both quantitative and qualitative changes in false memory rates with age.

  5. Striking a Balance: Academic Advising and the Advisory Working Alliance with Adult Master's-Level Credential Candidates at Regional Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Cindy Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the advising approaches and the training received by academic advisors to form an advisory working alliance with adult master's-level credential candidates in educator preparation programs at regional campuses in Southern and Central California. This advisory working alliance concept includes: (a)…

  6. Putting Poverty in Political Context: A Multi-Level Analysis of Adult Poverty across 18 Affluent Democracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, David; Fullerton, Andrew S.; Cross, Jennifer Moren

    2009-01-01

    Our study analyzes how political context, embodied by the welfare state and Leftist political actors, shapes individual poverty. Using the Luxembourg Income Study, we conduct a multi-level analysis of working-aged adult poverty across 18 affluent Western democracies. Our index of welfare generosity has a negative effect on poverty net of…

  7. Influence of Omega-3 (N3) Index on Performance and Wellbeing in Young Adults after Heavy Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Lembke, Peter; Capodice, Jillian; Hebert, Kathleen; Swenson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the associations between the tissue levels of omega-3 (N3), also known as the Omega-3 Index (N3 Index), on various clinical and quality of life outcomes in healthy young adults after heavy eccentric exercise.. To ensure an adequate number of participants with an elevated N3 index would be available for comparison to those with a lower N3 Index, a subgroup of the study participants received N3 dietary supplementation (2.7 g·d-1) for 30 days prior to the performance of the heavy eccentric exercise. The remaining participants received a placebo supplement for the same 30-day period. After 30 days of supplementation, participants performed an eccentric exercise routine and were then measured at baseline (time 0), 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96 hours respectively on the following outcomes; C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase. Blood lactate levels were analyzed immediately after the exercise. Functional measurements of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), extension and torque were also analyzed. Quality of life (QOL) was measured by the quantitative questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire (POMS). Safety monitoring and analysis of adverse events was continuous throughout the study. Differences as demonstrated by a reduction in pain following eccentric exercise was experienced at both 72 and 96 hour time points in subjects with a higher N3 Index however there were no differences in extension or strength between the two groups. There was a significant difference in blood lactate levels (p = 0.0309) and improved emotional stability, reflected by the POMS questionnaire, in subjects with a higher N3 Index level. There was a statistically significant difference in CRP levels in subjects with a higher N3 Index level at 24 hours and a trend toward significance over 96 hours. There were no significant differences in creatine kinase levels and no reported adverse events. Subjects with a higher Omega-3 (N3) Index

  8. Childhood Trauma and Neighborhood-Level Crime Interact in Predicting Adult Posttraumatic Stress and Major Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Quinn, James W.; Richards, Catherine A.; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor – neighborhood-level crime – and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N = 3,192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract was collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime. PMID:26499372

  9. Childhood trauma and neighborhood-level crime interact in predicting adult posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Quinn, James W; Richards, Catherine A; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor - neighborhood-level crime - and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N=3192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract were collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime.

  10. Effective exposure level and diagnostic performance in endodontic radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, T.; Wiebe, J.D.; Webber, R.L.; Wagner, R.F.

    1983-05-01

    Image quality is limited by the information capacity of the image-forming system and can be computed from three parameters: contrast, resolution, and noise. These parameters can be combined to yield a single measure which determines the maximum amount of information obtainable from any x-ray system and is called the noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) per unit area. The effects of image quality, expressed as noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) per unit area, on the radiographic performance by dentists reading the position of an endodontic file in a root canal were studied. Three different speed films were used in conjunction with a fixed screen. Components of variance associated with the position of the tooth apex and the tip of an endodontic file in a root canal were compared for the effect of different NEQs and observers. Results show that the standard deviation in locating a file tip and tooth apex may be a linear function of log NEQ. These findings indicate that a significant reduction in exposure would have a relatively small effect on the precision of endodontic distance measurements.

  11. Self-Reported Sleep Quality Predicts Poor Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buysse, Daniel J.; Halligan, Edythe M.; Houck, Patricia R.; Monk, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sleep quality and cognitive performance in older adults, controlling for common medical comorbidities. Participants were community volunteers who, while not selected on the basis of their sleep, did report substantial variability in sleep quality. Good and poor sleepers differed on tests of working memory, attentional set shifting, and abstract problem solving but not on processing speed, inhibitory function, or episodic memory. Poor sleep was also associated with increased depressive symptomatology but only for functional symptoms (e.g., decreased concentration) and not for mood (e.g., sadness). The relationships between sleep quality and cognition were not explained by confound factors such as cerebrovascular disease, depression, or medication usage. Sleep problems may contribute to performance variability between elderly individuals but only in certain cognitive domains. PMID:19204069

  12. LPS infusion suppresses serum FGF21 levels in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina; Møller, Niels; Bjerre, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Context During the inflammatory acute phase response, plasma glucose and serum triglycerides are increased in humans. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 has plasma glucose and lipid-reducing actions, but its role in the acute inflammatory response in human is unknown. Objective To investigate circulating levels of FGF21 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. Design Two randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials were used. Setting The studies were performed at a university hospital clinical research center. Patients and interventions Study 1 (LPS bolus): Eight young, healthy, lean males were investigated two times: (1) after isotonic saline injection and (2) after LPS injection (bolus of 1 ng/kg). Each study day lasted 4 h. Study 2 (continuous LPS infusion): Eight, healthy males were investigated two times: (1) during continuously isotonic saline infusion and (2) during continuous LPS infusion (0.06 ng/kg/h). Each study day lasted 4 h. Circulating FGF21 levels were quantified every second hour by an immunoassay. Results A LPS bolus resulted in a late suppression (t = 240 min) of serum FGF21 (P = 0.035). Continuous LPS infusion revealed no significant effects on FGF21 levels (P = 0.82). Conclusions Our studies show that a bolus of LPS results in decreased FGF21 levels 4 h from exposure. PMID:28069899

  13. Skill Level as a Factor in the Relationship Between Worker Satisfaction and Worker Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Dennis A.; Warner, Stephen J.

    Thirty-three adult male employees at a chemical plant completed a Worker Opinion Questionnaire (WOQ) designed to yield a measure of worker satisfaction. The quality of their job performance was obtained by means of supervisor ratings. Eighteen of the subjects were involved in "skilled labor and fifteen in "unskilled" labor. It was hypothesized…

  14. Occupational HIV Transmission Among Male Adult Film Performers - Multiple States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Ried, Christopher; Rickett, Pristeen; Arno, Janet N; Mendez, Yesenia; Harrison, Robert J; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Bauer, Heidi M; Joyce, M Patricia; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Mark, Karen E

    2016-02-12

    In 2014, the California Department of Public Health was notified by a local health department of a diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection* and rectal gonorrhea in a male adult film industry performer, aged 25 years (patient A). Patient A had a 6-day history of rash, fever, and sore throat suggestive of acute retroviral syndrome at the time of examination. He was informed of his positive HIV and gonorrhea test results 6 days after his examination. Patient A had a negative HIV-1 RNA qualitative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)(†) 10 days before symptom onset. This investigation found that during the 22 days between the negative NAAT and being informed of his positive HIV test results, two different production companies directed patient A to have condomless sex with a total of 12 male performers. Patient A also provided contact information for five male non-work-related sexual partners during the month before and after his symptom onset. Patient A had additional partners during this time period for which no locating information was provided. Neither patient A nor any of his interviewed sexual partners reported taking HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences amplified from pretreatment plasma revealed that a non-work-related partner likely infected patient A, and that patient A likely subsequently infected both a coworker during the second film production and a non-work-related partner during the interval between his negative test and receipt of his positive HIV results. Adult film performers and production companies, medical providers, and all persons at risk for HIV should be aware that testing alone is not sufficient to prevent HIV transmission. Condom use provides additional protection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Performers and all persons at risk for HIV infection in their professional and personal lives should discuss the use of PrEP with their medical

  15. Competency-Based Adult Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    This resource guide for adult education personnel describes programs and publications on APL (Adult Performance Level) and Competency-Based Adult Education (CBAE). Includes: (1) Descriptions of APL examination programs developed by the American College Testing Program, (2) brief description of Missouri project on the identification of adult basic…

  16. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL-Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-17

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))(-18)) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland-Altman's agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R²) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R² = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = -6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = -0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  17. Oakland Readers. A Book of Life Stories Told by Students in the Second Start Adult Literacy Program. Levels One-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Jessica, Ed.

    This set of Oakland Readers consists of four books of oral histories edited on four reading levels. Each book contains life stories told by students in the Second Start Adult Literacy Program. The books are intended for use by tutors and adult students/new readers in adult literacy programs. Life stories of eight students appear in each book. In…

  18. Influence of end-expiratory level and tidal volume on gravitational ventilation distribution during tidal breathing in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Schnidrig, Silvia; Casaulta, Carmen; Schibler, Andreas; Riedel, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Our understanding of regional filling of the lung and regional ventilation distribution is based on studies using stepwise inhalation of radiolabelled tracer gases, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. We aimed to investigate whether these differences in ventilation distribution at different end-expiratory levels (EELs) and tidal volumes (V (T)s) held also true during tidal breathing. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measurements were performed in ten healthy adults in the right lateral position. Five different EELs with four different V (T)s at each EEL were tested in random order, resulting in 19 combinations. There were no measurements for the combination of the highest EEL/highest V (T). EEL and V (T) were controlled by visual feedback based on airflow. The fraction of ventilation directed to different slices of the lung (VENT(RL1)-VENT(RL8)) and the rate of the regional filling of each slice versus the total lung were analysed. With increasing EEL but normal tidal volume, ventilation was preferentially distributed to the dependent lung and the filling of the right and left lung was more homogeneous. With increasing V (T) and maintained normal EEL (FRC), ventilation was preferentially distributed to the dependent lung and regional filling became more inhomogeneous (p < 0.05). We could demonstrate that regional and temporal ventilation distribution during tidal breathing was highly influenced by EEL and V (T).

  19. The Effect of Performer Gender, Performer Skill Level, and Opponent Gender on Self-Confidence in a Competitive Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Evelyn G.

    1990-01-01

    Studies relationships among sex difference, performance expectation, and actual performance in video game competition between female and male subjects. Finds that self-confidence of females is not lower than that of males after competing against a good opponent, indicating that performance expectancies may be more related to skill level than to…

  20. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  1. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  2. Elevated serum complement C3 levels are associated with prehypertension in an adult population.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xue; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Han, Peipei; Dong, Renwei; Wang, Xiuyang; Li, Chunlei; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Bin; Ma, Xinyu; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Song, Kun; Wang, GuoLin; Huang, Guowei; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Prehypertension is a public health epidemic associated with various adverse outcomes, but can be reversed by timely intervention. However, little attention has been paid to prehypertension. Complement C3 is a central hub of complement-related immune system. We examined the association between C3 and prehypertension in an adult population for the first time, aiming to investigate whether pro-inflammatory immune response is involved in the prehypertensive state. About 7820 Tianjin residents without hypertension were categorized into sex-specific quintiles based on their serum concentration of complement C3. Adjusted logistic regression models were used separately by gender to assess the association between C3 quintiles and the prevalence of prehypertension. After multiple adjustment, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prehypertension across increasing quintiles of C3 were 1.00 (reference), 1.02 (0.84, 1.25), 1.15 (0.94, 1.42), 1.25 (1.01, 1.54), and 1.71 (1.35, 2.17) (p for trend < 0.0001) among men and were 1.00 (reference), 1.17 (0.92, 1.49), 1.13 (0.88, 1.44), 1.15 (0.89, 1.48), and 1.40 (1.07, 1.84) (p for trend = 0.03) among women. The findings suggested that elevated serum C3 levels are associated with prehypertension. Reducing inflammation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for prehypertension and hypertension that is worthy of further studies and discussion.

  3. Modifiable lifestyle factors are associated with lower pain levels in adults with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, A Erin; Tucker, Amy J; Kott, Laima S; Wright, Amanda J; Duncan, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With no cure or effective treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), the need to identify modifiable factors to decrease pain and increase physical function is well recognized. OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that characterize OA patients at different levels of pain, and to investigate the relationships among these factors and pain. METHODS: Details of OA characteristics and lifestyle factors were collected from interviews with healthy adults with knee OA (n=197). The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to assess pain. Factors were summarized across three pain score categories, and χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to examine differences. Multiple linear regression analysis using a stepwise selection procedure was used to examine associations between lifestyle factors and pain. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that pain was significantly higher with the use of OA medications and higher body mass index category, and significantly lower with the use of supplements and meeting physical activity guidelines (≥150 min/week). Stiffness and physical function scores, bilateral knee OA, body mass index category and OA medication use were significantly higher with increasing pain, whereas self-reported health, servings of fruit, supplement use and meeting physical activity guidelines significantly lower. No significant differences across pain categories were found for sex, age, number of diseases, duration of OA, ever smoked, alcoholic drinks/week, over-the-counter pain medication use, OA supplement use, physical therapy use, servings of vegetables or minutes walked/week. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy weight maintenance, exercise for at least 150 min/week and appropriate use of medications and supplements represent important modifiable factors related to lower knee OA pain. PMID:26125195

  4. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Okwuonu, C. G.; Chukwuonye, I. I.; Ogah, S. O.; Abali, C.; Adejumo, O. A.; Oviasu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher – administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18–78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria. PMID:26060365

  5. An Examination of the Dynamic Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Performance across Levels of Analysis and Levels of Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Gillian B.; Neal, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This research used resource allocation theory to generate predictions regarding dynamic relationships between self-efficacy and task performance from 2 levels of analysis and specificity. Participants were given multiple trials of practice on an air traffic control task. Measures of task-specific self-efficacy and performance were taken at…

  6. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  7. Serum leptin, thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels interact to affect cognitive function among US adults: evidence from a large representative survey.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Beydoun, Hind A; Shroff, Monal R; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Zonderman, Alan B

    2012-08-01

    Neuroanatomical connections point to possible interactions between areas influencing energy homeostasis and those influencing cognition. We assessed whether serum leptin, thyroxine, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels are associated with and interact to influence cognitive performance among US adults. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) were used. Measures included a battery of neuropsychological tests and serum leptin, thyroxine, and TSH levels (20-59-year-old: n = 1114-2665; 60-90-year-old: n = 1365-5519). Among those 20-59-year-old, the middle tertile of leptin (vs. first tertile) was inversely related to the number of errors on the symbol digits substitution test. Increased thyroxine level was associated with a poorer performance on the serial digits test in the 20-59-year-old, but a better performance on the math test in 60-90-year-old group. TSH was associated with poor performance on various tests in the 20-59-year-old, but better performance in the 60-90-year-old group. Significant antagonistic interactions were found in both age groups between thyroxine, TSH, and leptin for a number of tests, including between leptin and thyroxine in the 60-90-year-old group in their association with word recall-correct score. We found significant associations of our main exposures with cognitive function among US adults, going in opposite directions between age groups in the cases of thyroid hormonal levels, as well as some interactive effects between exposures. It is important to conduct prospective cohort studies to provide further insight into potential interventions that would assess interactive effects of various hormonal replacement regimens.

  8. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Ortiz, Genaro G.; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Árias-Merino, Elva D.; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability. PMID:24795758

  9. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Ortiz, Genaro G; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P; Macías-Islas, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability.

  10. Low Serum Levels of Prealbumin, Retinol Binding Protein, and Retinol Are Frequent in Adult Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bolado, Federico; Goñi, María José; Tamayo, Ibai; Ibáñez, Berta; Prieto, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To determine the serum prealbumin (PA), retinol binding protein (RBP), and retinol levels in adult patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to analyze some factors related to those levels. Methods. A total of 93 patients (47 women) were studied. Age, gender, BMI, duration of diabetes, chronic complications, HbA1c, lipid profile, creatinine, albumin, PA, RBP, and retinol were recorded. High and low parameter groups were compared by Mann–Whitney U and χ2 tests. Correlation between parameters was analyzed by Spearman's test. Odds of low levels were analyzed by univariate logistic regression and included in the multivariate analysis when significant. Results. 49.5%, 48.4%, and 30.1% of patients displayed serum PA, RBP, and retinol levels below normal values, respectively. A high correlation (Rho > 0.8) between PA, RBP, and retinol serum levels was found. Patients presenting low levels of any of them were predominantly women, normal-weighted, and with lower levels of triglycerides and serum creatinine. No differences in age, macrovascular complications, duration of diabetes, or HbA1c values were observed when comparing low and normal parameter groups. Conclusion. Low serum levels of PA, RBP, and retinol are frequent in T1D adult patients. This alteration is influenced by female sex and serum creatinine and triglyceride levels. PMID:28018921

  11. Juvenile but not adult methamphetamine exposure improves performance in the Morris Water Maze in male rats.

    PubMed

    Moenk, Michael D; Matuszewich, Leslie

    2012-06-01

    Early exposure to psychostimulants has been found to lead to long-lasting effects on cognitive processes. Our lab has previously reported that juvenile male rats administered methamphetamine showed improved performance in a spatial navigation task when tested in adulthood (McFadden and Matuszewich, 2007). What is not known, however, is if these effects are specific to the developing rat, or if a similar methamphetamine protocol given to adult rats would lead to an equally beneficial long-term change in spatial cognition. In the current study, male rats were given 1 daily injection of 2mg/kg methamphetamine or saline for 15 days during either preadolescence (PD20-34) or adulthood (PD70-84). Approximately 45 days after treatment, all rats then underwent 5 days of place training in the Morris water maze at a time when juvenile rats reached adulthood. Similar to previous findings, juvenile rats exposed to repeated methamphetamine displayed shorter latencies and distances to reach the platform throughout training compared to saline-treated rats. The juvenile rats treated with methamphetamine also swam shorter distances and had faster latencies to the hidden platform compared to adult methamphetamine-treated rats. There were no significant differences in rats treated in adulthood with methamphetamine compared to saline-treated rats. Likewise, there were no effects of prior methamphetamine treatment or age on matching-to-place trials or visible platform trials. Overall, the results show that repeated methamphetamine exposure can selectively improve spatial learning in adult male rats when administered during preadolescence, but does not significantly affect spatial learning when administered in adulthood. Furthermore, the current findings demonstrate the unique susceptibility of the developing brain to drugs that modulate dopaminergic activity, as well as the long-term behavioral impact of exposure at critical ages.

  12. Performance of the DIDGET Blood Glucose Monitoring System in Children, Teens, and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Larry C; Parkes, Joan L; Pardo, Scott; Schachner, Holly C; Viggiani, Maria T; Wallace, Jane; Bailey, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the performance of the DIDGET® blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) in the hands of its intended users: children, teens, and young adults with diabetes. Methods Finger stick capillary blood samples were tested in duplicate by subjects (with parent/guardian assistance, if needed) and health care professionals using the DIDGET BGMS, and results were compared with those obtained using a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer. Modified venous blood samples (i.e., glycolyzed or spiked with glucose) were used to analyze meter performance under extreme glucose concentrations. Accuracy was assessed using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines (i.e., 95% of meter results within ±15 mg/dl or ±20% of reference values). Results A total of 123 subjects aged 4 to 24 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were enrolled. The DIDGET meter achieved accuracy according to ISO 15197:2003 criteria: >97% of meter results were within ±15 mg/dl or ±20% of reference values. Regression analyses showed a high degree of correlation between meter and YSI results: coefficient of determination (R2) = 98.2% for all samples combined and 97.2% for capillary samples only. Clinical accuracy for combined samples was demonstrated by Parkes consensus error grid analyses; 100% of meter results were in zone A (98.5%) or zone B (1.5%). There was no difference in performance or accuracy across age subsets. Hematocrit values did not affect meter blood glucose results. Conclusion The DIDGET BGMS provided accurate test results across all age ranges in children, teens, and young adults with diabetes. PMID:22027310

  13. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white matter-cognition relation reduces the magnitude of age-cognition relation. In this research, we tested the mediating role of white matter integrity, in the context of a task switching paradigm involving word categorization. Participants were 20 healthy, community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years), and 20 younger adults (18–27 years). From diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, we obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) as an index of white matter integrity in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Mean FA values exhibited age-related decline consistent with a decrease in white matter integrity. From a model of reaction time distributions, we obtained independent estimates of the decisional and nondecisional (perceptual-motor) components of task performance. Age-related decline was evident in both components. Critically, age differences in task performance were mediated by FA in two regions: the central portion of the genu, and splenium-parietal fibers in the right hemisphere. This relation held only for the decisional component and was not evident in the nondecisional component. This result is the first demonstration that the integrity of specific white matter tracts is a mediator of age-related changes in cognitive performance. PMID:18564054

  14. PROLONGED PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH REPETITION LOW FORCE TASK INDUCES BONE ADAPTATION IN YOUNG ADULT RATS, BUT LOSS IN MATURE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14–18 mo of age) and 14 young adult (2.5–6.5 mo of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes. PMID:26517953

  15. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥ 40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV1/FVC ratio before (r = -0.276, p < 0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r = -0.115, p = 0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV1/FVC ratio (β = -0.017, p = 0.001, adjusted R(2) = 0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV1/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR = 0.007, 95% CI = 0.000-0.329) and Model 2 (OR = 0.006, 95% CI = 0.000-0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults.

  16. Influence of a visual-verbal Stroop test on standing and walking performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Wollesen, B; Voelcker-Rehage, C; Regenbrecht, T; Mattes, K

    2016-03-24

    The dual task (DT) paradigm has been used to investigate decrements in balance performance while walking and standing in fall prevention studies with older adults. However, there are inconsistent findings whether balance performance decreases or increases in DT situations. Following different theoretical models (e.g. limited resource hypothesis or cross domain competition model), these inconsistent findings can be explained by task settings and task complexity. We compared DT performance in an executive control task (Stroop test) while standing and walking to analyze which theoretical model would fit our data best. Twenty-eight persons (>65 years) were examined under single task (ST) and DT conditions for standing (sway length and sway velocity) and walking (step length, step width (SW), peak forces of the heel, mid- and forefoot). SW increased from ST to DT conditions, and step length decreased significantly. Maximum forces of the forefoot were reduced whereas the maximum forces of the midfoot increased. Additionally, correct answers of the Stroop test decreased from the ST baseline condition to DT walking. No correlations were found between DT costs (performance decrements) of standing and walking. For both conditions (standing and walking), the limited resources hypothesis fits best. Moreover, not all modified gait variables could be defined as negative DT costs. Increased SW and decreased step length might be used to compensate influences on lateral stability while demands on motor-cognitive resources increase. Further, drawing conclusions from a standing task for walking conditions might lead to misinterpretations.

  17. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  18. Mental ability performance among adults with type 2 diabetes in primary care.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Lambert, Michael C

    2009-06-01

    Aim and method The present university-based outpatient clinic, cross-sectional study assessed cognitive performance in a sample of 137 adults, with the primary objective of determining differences in cognitive performance as a function of gender and hypertension status in a type 2 diabetes cohort.Results Approximately 64% of the sample was 65 years old and younger, and 50 subjects had > 13 years of education. Global mental ability scores were relatively similar by age grouping, and higher-ordered cognitive functioning and reading literacy were strongly correlated, r (98) = 0.62, P < 0.01. Approximately 30% of the sample posted global mental ability scores in the slow learner range on tasks measuring attention, immediate memory and verbal reasoning. Males achieved higher cognitive functioning scores compared to females on multiple mental ability tasks. The presence of hypertension was associated with significantly worse cognitive performance compared to those subjects without hypertension, t = 2.11, P = 0.03. Approximately 57% of the hypertension group was classified as mild cognitive impaired.Conclusion While approximately half of the general population can be expected to demonstrate an average range of performance on cognitive ability measures, such an expectation could be inappropriately generalised to persons diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, even among those who were high school educated.

  19. Mental ability performance among adults with type 2 diabetes in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aim and method The present university-based outpatient clinic, cross-sectional study assessed cognitive performance in a sample of 137 adults, with the primary objective of determining differences in cognitive performance as a function of gender and hypertension status in a type 2 diabetes cohort. Results Approximately 64% of the sample was 65 years old and younger, and 50 subjects had > 13 years of education. Global mental ability scores were relatively similar by age grouping, and higher-ordered cognitive functioning and reading literacy were strongly correlated, r (98) = 0.62, P < 0.01. Approximately 30% of the sample posted global mental ability scores in the slow learner range on tasks measuring attention, immediate memory and verbal reasoning. Males achieved higher cognitive functioning scores compared to females on multiple mental ability tasks. The presence of hypertension was associated with significantly worse cognitive performance compared to those subjects without hypertension, t = 2.11, P = 0.03. Approximately 57% of the hypertension group was classified as mild cognitive impaired. Conclusion While approximately half of the general population can be expected to demonstrate an average range of performance on cognitive ability measures, such an expectation could be inappropriately generalised to persons diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, even among those who were high school educated. PMID:22477898

  20. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water.

  1. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury among Older Adults at Level I and II Trauma Centers

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Jeffrey P.; Whyte, John; Corrigan, John D.; Faul, Mark; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Individuals 65 years of age and over have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related hospitalizations and deaths, and older adults (defined variably across studies) have particularly poor outcomes after TBI. The factors predicting these outcomes remain poorly understood, and age-specific care guidelines for TBI do not exist. This study provides an overview of TBI in older adults using data from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) gathered between 2007 and 2010, evaluates age group-specific trends in rates of TBI over time using U.S. Census data, and examines whether routinely collected information is able to predict hospital discharge status among older adults with TBI in the NTDB. Results showed a 20–25% increase in trauma center admissions for TBI among the oldest age groups (those >=75 years), relative to the general population, between 2007 and 2010. Older adults (>=65 years) with TBI tended to be white females who have incurred an injury from a fall resulting in a “severe” Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of the head. Older adults had more in-hospital procedures, such as neuroimaging and neurosurgery, tended to experience longer hospital stays, and were more likely to require continued medical care than younger adults. Older age, injury severity, and hypotension increased the odds of in-hospital death. The public health burden of TBI among older adults will likely increase as the Baby Boom generation ages. Improved primary and secondary prevention of TBI in this cohort is needed. PMID:23962046

  3. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    PubMed

    Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Chatziarzenis, Marios; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Claesson, Hans-Peter; Koppner, Jenny; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124) and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112) participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (p<0.0001), had experienced more serious life events (p = 0.002), had lower hope for the future (p<0.0001), and had significantly more widespread symptoms of depression (p<0.0001) and anxiety (p<0.0001) than the Swedes. But, the Greeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (p<0.0001) than the Swedes, and this difference was still significant in a multivariate regression (p<0.0001), after adjustments for potential intervening variables. A variety of factors related to differences in the physical or socio-cultural environment between the two sites, might possibly explain this finding. However, a potential biological mechanism is that long-term stress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might have been

  4. The impact of hearing loss on language performance in older adults with different stages of cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Lodeiro-Fernández, Leire; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Maseda, Ana; Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Rodríguez-Villamil, José Luis; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The possible relationship between audiometric hearing thresholds and cognitive performance on language tests was analyzed in a cross-sectional cohort of older adults aged ≥65 years (N=98) with different degrees of cognitive impairment. Materials and methods Participants were distributed into two groups according to Reisberg’s Global Deterioration Scale (GDS): a normal/predementia group (GDS scores 1–3) and a moderate/moderately severe dementia group (GDS scores 4 and 5). Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and receptive and production-based language function (Verbal Fluency Test, Boston Naming Test, and Token Test) were assessed. Results Results showed that the dementia group achieved significantly lower scores than the predementia group in all language tests. A moderate negative correlation between hearing loss and verbal comprehension (r=−0.298; P<0.003) was observed in the predementia group (r=−0.363; P<0.007). However, no significant relationship between hearing loss and verbal fluency and naming scores was observed, regardless of cognitive impairment. Conclusion In the predementia group, reduced hearing level partially explains comprehension performance but not language production. In the dementia group, hearing loss cannot be considered as an explanatory factor of poor receptive and production-based language performance. These results are suggestive of cognitive rather than simply auditory problems to explain the language impairment in the elderly. PMID:25914528

  5. Characterization of cognitive and motor performance during dual-tasking in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wild, Lucia Bartmann; de Lima, Daiane Borba; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Rizzi, Luana; Giacobbo, Bruno Lima; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi; de Lima Argimon, Irani Iracema; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Rieder, Carlos R M; Bromberg, Elke

    2013-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dual-tasking on cognitive performance and gait parameters in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. The impact of cognitive task complexity on cognition and walking was also examined. Eighteen patients with PD (ages 53-88, 10 women; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 18 older adults (ages 61-84; 10 women) completed two neuropsychological measures of executive function/attention (the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Cognitive performance and gait parameters related to functional mobility of stride were measured under single (cognitive task only) and dual-task (cognitive task during walking) conditions with different levels of difficulty and different types of stimuli. In addition, dual-task cognitive costs were calculated. Although cognitive performance showed no significant difference between controls and PD patients during single or dual-tasking conditions, only the patients had a decrease in cognitive performance during walking. Gait parameters of patients differed significantly from controls at single and dual-task conditions, indicating that patients gave priority to gait while cognitive performance suffered. Dual-task cognitive costs of patients increased with task complexity, reaching significantly higher values then controls in the arithmetic task, which was correlated with scores on executive function/attention (Stroop Color-Word Page). Baseline motor functioning and task executive/attentional load affect the performance of cognitive tasks of PD patients while walking. These findings provide insight into the functional strategies used by PD patients in the initial phases of the disease to manage dual-task interference.

  6. Attentional focus influences postural control and reaction time performances only during challenging dual-task conditions in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Remaud, Anthony; Boyas, Sébastien; Lajoie, Yves; Bilodeau, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The dual-task paradigm has previously been used to investigate the attentional demands associated with postural control. Previous studies have identified both the focus of attention and the difficulty of a postural task as potential factors influencing dual-task performance. The aim of this study was to examine how the instructed focus of attention influences dual-task performance during quiet standing tasks of various levels of difficulty. Thirteen young adults participated in two testing sessions consisting of standing as still as possible on a force platform in different postural conditions, while simultaneously performing a simple reaction time (RT) task. Postural task difficulty was manipulated by various combinations of three bases of support (feet together, tandem and single leg) and two visual conditions (eyes opened and closed). Participants were instructed to focus on either their balance or their RT performance, depending on the testing session. When comparing postural control with respect to session focus, anterior-posterior sway velocity decreased with the addition of the simple RT task when the focus was on balance, but only during the more difficult dual-task conditions. In contrast, sway area and medial-lateral sway velocity did not change between the two instructed focus sessions. Participants responded faster in all dual-task conditions when focusing on RT performance than on balance. The modified attention allocation index indicated that participants' ability to modulate their allocation of attentional resources to respond positively to instruction was more pronounced in the most challenging postural condition. The present findings could have important implications for the interpretation of dual-task performance in both clinical and research settings.

  7. Practice Makes Improvement: How Adults with Autism Out-Perform Others in a Naturalistic Visual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Martin, Jolie M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit superior performance in visual search compared to others. However, most studies demonstrating this advantage have employed simple, uncluttered images with fully visible targets. We compare the performance of high-functioning adults with ASD and matched controls on a naturalistic luggage…

  8. A Longitudinal Study in Adults with Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Time Course for Individual Ear and Bilateral Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Ruth M.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Laura K.; Strube, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of progress in the 2nd implanted ear as it relates to the 1st implanted ear and to bilateral performance in adult sequential cochlear implant recipients. In addition, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to patient outcomes. Method: The authors performed a prospective…

  9. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.

  10. A study of serum cholesterol level in young adults and its relation to body mass index and waist-circumference.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumitra; Jahan, Wasima

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the serum total cholesterol (TC) level in young adults of Dibrugarh town of Assam and to find the association of serum cholesterol level with body mass index (BMI) and waist-circumference (WC). A cross-sectional study was done among 150 healthy young adults aged 20-30 years. TC was estimated by the enzymatic method. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as TC > 200 mg/dl. Cases were classified into different categories of BMI and WC according to the recommendations of WHO/IASO/IOTF (2000). The range of TC level in the study group was found to be (146-212) mg/dl. Mean cholesterol level in males and females were 169.5±3.6 and 172.3±15.09 mg/dl respectively. 7% of the cases had hypercholesterolemia. TC was significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.90, p<0.001) and WC (r=0.73, p<0.001 in males and r=0.86, p<0.001 in females). We conclude that young adults ≥20 years of age and especially who are overweight should be advised routine cholesterol testing so that preventive measures can be adopted to avoid hypercholesterolemia and it's complications in future life.

  11. Early interactions with mother and peers independently build adult social skills and shape BDNF and oxytocin receptor brain levels

    PubMed Central

    Branchi, Igor; Curley, James P.; D’Andrea, Ivana; Cirulli, Francesca; Champagne, Frances A.; Alleva, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The early social environment has a profound impact on developmental trajectories. Although an impoverished early environment can undermine the acquisition of appropriate social skills, the specific role played by the different components of an individual’s early environment in building social competencies has not been fully elucidated. Here we setup an asynchronous communal nesting paradigm in mice to disentangle the influence of maternal care and early peer interactions on adult social behavior and neural systems reportedly involved in the regulation of social interactions. The asynchronous communal nesting consists of three mothers giving birth three days apart, generating three groups of pups -- the Old, the Middle and the Young – all raised in a single nest from birth to weaning. We scored the amount of maternal and peer interactions received by these mice and by a fourth group reared under standard conditions. At adulthood, the four experimental groups have been investigated for social behavior in a social interaction test, i.e. facing an unfamiliar conspecific during five 20-min daily encounters, and for oxytocin receptor and BDNF levels. Results show that only individuals exposed to high levels of both maternal and peer interactions demonstrated elaborate adult agonistic competencies, i.e. the ability to promptly display a social status, and high BDNF levels in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus. By contrast, only individuals exposed to high levels of peer interactions showed enhanced adult affiliative behavior and enhanced oxytocin receptor levels in selected nuclei of the amygdala. Overall these findings indicate that early interactions with mother and peers independently shape specific facets of adult social behavior and neural systems involved in social interaction. PMID:22910688

  12. Early interactions with mother and peers independently build adult social skills and shape BDNF and oxytocin receptor brain levels.

    PubMed

    Branchi, Igor; Curley, James P; D'Andrea, Ivana; Cirulli, Francesca; Champagne, Frances A; Alleva, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The early social environment has a profound impact on developmental trajectories. Although an impoverished early environment can undermine the acquisition of appropriate social skills, the specific role played by the different components of an individual's early environment in building social competencies has not been fully elucidated. Here we setup an asynchronous communal nesting paradigm in mice to disentangle the influence of maternal care and early peer interactions on adult social behavior and neural systems reportedly involved in the regulation of social interactions. The asynchronous communal nesting consists of three mothers giving birth three days apart, generating three groups of pups - the Old, the Middle and the Young - all raised in a single nest from birth to weaning. We scored the amount of maternal and peer interactions received by these mice and by a fourth group reared under standard conditions. At adulthood, the four experimental groups have been investigated for social behavior in a social interaction test, i.e. facing an unfamiliar conspecific during five 20-min daily encounters, and for oxytocin receptor and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Results show that only individuals exposed to high levels of both maternal and peer interactions demonstrated elaborate adult agonistic competencies, i.e. the ability to promptly display a social status, and high BDNF levels in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus. By contrast, only individuals exposed to high levels of peer interactions showed enhanced adult affiliative behavior and enhanced oxytocin receptor levels in selected nuclei of the amygdala. Overall these findings indicate that early interactions with mother and peers independently shape specific facets of adult social behavior and neural systems involved in social interaction.

  13. Income level and chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions in adults: a multicity population-based study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A relationship between quality of primary health care and preventable hospitalizations has been described in the US, especially among the elderly. In Europe, there has been a recent increase in the evaluation of Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) as an indicator of health care quality, but evidence is still limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether income level is associated with higher hospitalization rates for ACSC in adults in a country with universal health care coverage. Methods From the hospital registries in four Italian cities (Turin, Milan, Bologna, Rome), we identified 9384 hospital admissions for six chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma) among 20-64 year-olds in 2000. Case definition was based on the ICD-9-CM coding algorithm suggested by the Agency for Health Research and Quality - Prevention Quality Indicators. An area-based (census block) income index was used for each individual. All hospitalization rates were directly standardised for gender and age using the Italian population. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between income level (quintiles) and hospitalization rates (RR, 95% CI) separately for the selected conditions controlling for age, gender and city of residence. Results Overall, the ACSC age-standardized rate was 26.1 per 10.000 inhabitants. All conditions showed a statistically significant socioeconomic gradient, with low income people being more likely to be hospitalized than their well off counterparts. The association was particularly strong for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (level V low income vs. level I high income RR = 4.23 95%CI 3.37-5.31) and for congestive heart failure (RR = 3.78, 95% CI = 3.09-4.62). With the exception of asthma, males were more vulnerable to ACSC hospitalizations than females. The risks were higher among 45-64 year olds than in younger

  14. Performance pay improves engagement, progress, and satisfaction in computer-based job skills training of low-income adults.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training program for low-income, unemployed adults. Participants worked on typing and keypad programs for 7 months. Participants randomly assigned to Group A (n = 23) earned hourly and productivity pay on the typing program (productivity pay), but earned only equalized hourly pay on the keypad program (hourly pay). Group B (n = 19) participants had the opposite contingencies. Participants worked more on, advanced further on, and preferred their productivity pay program. These results show that monetary incentives can increase performance in a job-skills training program, and indicate that payment in adult education programs should be delivered contingent on performance in the training program instead of simply on attendance.

  15. The effect of performing a dual-task on postural control and selective attention of older adults when stepping backward

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William Wai-Nam; Chan, Vito Wai-Lok; Wong, Henry Hei; Yip, Tony Wai-Cheong; Lu, Xi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the postural control and cognitive performance of older adults when stepping backward with and without a concurrent cognitive task. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty young adults and twenty-eight older adults (mean age=21.3 ± 1.2 and 72.2 ± 5.7 years, respectively) were recruited. Participants were asked to step backward and then maintain a single-leg stance for 10 seconds with and without a concurrent auditory response task. The reaction time and error rate while performing the cognitive task were recorded. Postural stability after stepping back was measured in terms of total sway path and total sway area. [Results] The older subjects had significantly longer reaction times and higher error rates in both single- and dual-tasking. When dual-tasking, both groups had significantly longer reaction times than when single-tasking. Only the older adults showed significantly higher error rates. The older adults also had significantly longer total sway paths and larger total sway areas of single-leg stance after stepping back. Neither group showed a significant difference in total sway path and sway area between single- and dual-tasking. [Conclusion] Older adults have poorer cognitive performance and postural stability during both single- and dual-tasking. They tend to prioritize postural control over cognition in dual-tasking. PMID:27821940

  16. Maternal isobutyl-paraben exposure alters anxiety and passive avoidance test performance in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Maiko; Irie, Kaoru; Morohoshi, Kaori; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Morita, Masatoshi; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Imai, Hideki; Himi, Toshiyuki

    2009-10-01

    Isobutyl-paraben (IBP), one of the most widely used preservatives, exhibits estrogenic activity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of maternal IBP treatment on the emotional behavior and learning performance in mature offspring. Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with IBP via a subcutaneous Silastic capsule. Consequently, the offspring were exposed to IBP during gestation through the placentae, and before weaning through the milk. Male and female offspring were tested for emotional behavior in an open field and in an elevated plus maze at five and six weeks old, respectively. IBP-exposed male (but not female) rats spent less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. At 11 weeks old, all females were gonadectomized and treated chronically with 17beta-estradiol or cholesterol by Silastic capsules; all males were kept intact. They were tested for learning performance in a passive avoidance test and a Morris water maze. IBP exposure impaired the performance of males in the passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that male rats are more affected by early exposure to IBP than female rats. IBP affects their adult behavior including anxiety and learning abilities.

  17. Assessing Articulatory Speed Performance as a Potential Factor of Slowed Speech in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Corder, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To improve our understanding about the underlying factors of aging-related speaking rate decline, the authors sought to determine if lip and jaw speeds are physiologically constrained in older adults. Method: Thirty-six female--10 young adults (ages 22-27 years), 9 middle-aged adults (ages 45-55 years), 10 young-old adults (65-74 years),…

  18. Bone lead levels are associated with measures of memory impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Campbell, James R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2009-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a link between lead exposure and memory impairment but assessments based on predictive and validated measures are lacking. We conducted a pilot study of 47 healthy subjects 55-67 years of age to examine associations between bone lead levels and 4 tests sensitive to the natural history of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These include three subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (delayed match-to-sample, paired associates learning and spatial recognition memory) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test. Bone lead concentrations were measured at the mid-shaft of the tibia and the calcaneus with K X-ray fluorescence. Higher tibial and calcaneal bone lead values were significantly (p<0.05) associated with lower performance levels on delayed match-to-sample and paired associates learning in unadjusted analyses with Spearman rank correlation coefficients of about 0.4. Multiple linear regression analyses (i.e., least-squares means of cognitive test scores across tertiles of lead exposure) adjusted for age, education and smoking status continued to show an association of higher calcaneal lead levels with increasing memory impairments on delayed match-to-sample (p=0.07). As might be expected, additional adjustment for history of hypertension reduced the strength of this association (p=0.19). Given the demonstrated impact of lead exposure on hypertension and the vascular etiology of certain dementias, we speculate that hypertension could play a mediating role in the association between lead exposure and memory impairment.

  19. Academic Performance and the Practice of Self-Directed Learning: The Adult Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khiat, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The practice of self-directed learning is important to adult students as it allows them to learn effectively while juggling work, family and other commitments. This study set out to examine the self-directed learning characteristics present in the adult students' study process at the case university. The relationship between the adult students'…

  20. Territory of Guam Adult Education Programs. Performance Report. Fiscal Year 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Community Coll., Agana. Office of the State Agency for Vocational and Adult Education.

    The 1992 activities in support of the goals described in the Guam State Plan for Adult Education focused on curriculum development and evaluation. Three major programs offered 48 daytime and 101 evening classes for students at 6 sites. The primary components of the adult education instructional programs were adult high school, General Educational…

  1. Choline in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional Formula by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/ Tandem mass spectrometry: AOAC First Action 2012.18.

    PubMed

    Martin, Frederic; Gimenez, Catherine; Fontannaz, Patric; Kilinc, Tamara; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The method described below is for the determination of choline in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The single-laboratory validation data were submitted to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Expert Review Panel (ERP) for review at the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Annual Meeting held September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, NV. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the standard method performance requirements set by SPIFAN, and the method was approved as AOAC Official First Action. The analytical range was found to be between 0.16 and 3.2 microg/mL. The recovery rates were within 80-120% at 50 and 100% of native levels for all samples. Repeatability precision (RSDr) was < 3%, with intermediate reproducibility (RSDir) no higher than 4%.

  2. Effect of Indoor Temperature on Physical Performance in Older Adults during Days with Normal Temperature and Heat Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Stotz, Anja; Beyer, Nina; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A.; Becker, Clemens; Rapp, Kilian; Klenk, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Indoor temperature is relevant with regard to mortality and heat-related self-perceived health problems. The aim of this study was to describe the association between indoor temperature and physical performance in older adults. Eighty-one older adults (84% women, mean age 80.9 years, standard deviation 6.53) were visited every four weeks from May to October 2015 and additionally during two heat waves in July and August 2015. Indoor temperature, habitual gait speed, chair-rise performance and balance were assessed. Baseline assessment of gait speed was used to create two subgroups (lower versus higher gait speed) based on frailty criteria. The strongest effect of increasing temperature on habitual gait speed was observed in the subgroup of adults with higher gait speed (−0.087 m/s per increase of 10 °C; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.136; −0.038). The strongest effects on timed chair-rise and balance performance were observed in the subgroup of adults with lower gait speed (2.03 s per increase of 10 °C (95% CI: 0.79; 3.28) and −3.92 s per increase of 10 °C (95% CI: −7.31; −0.52), respectively). Comparing results of physical performance in absentia of a heat wave and during a heat wave, habitual gait speed was negatively affected by heat in the total group and subgroup of adults with higher gait speed, chair-rise performance was negatively affected in all groups and balance was not affected. The study provides arguments for exercise interventions in general for older adults, because a better physical fitness might alleviate impediments of physical capacity and might provide resources for adequate adaptation in older adults during heat stress. PMID:28216585

  3. Persistence and level of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium in larval and adult darkling beetles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alphitobius diaperinus is a common litter pest in broiler houses. Both adults and larvae are regularly ingested by broilers and could serve as a vector of Salmonella to the current and subsequent broiler flocks. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the persistence of a marker S. Typhimuri...

  4. Adult Basic Education for the Disadvantaged; Procedures used to Raise the Basic Educational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    In working with a disadvantaged population, such as the young adult prisoners at Draper Correctional Center, one of the first considerations in motivating them to acquire academic skills is to aid them in establishing reasonable and attainable education goals. After a meaningful goal has been accepted, the learner's specific deficiencies must be…

  5. Physical Fitness Profile in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Differences between Levels of Sport Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Rodriguez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular and aerobic capacity can be reduced in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous studies suggest these individuals might be particularly susceptible to losing basic functions because of poor physical fitness. The aim of this study is to describe the physical fitness profile of adult athletes with ID and identify whether…

  6. Relationships between Recreation and Levels of Self-Determination for Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Jayne; McDonnell, John

    2008-01-01

    Self-determination continues to be a focus for secondary students who have intellectual disabilities. This study examined the relationship between recreation and self-determination for adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities. Students from secondary and post-high school special education programs tracked their involvement in…

  7. Predictors of Urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Levels in 50 North Carolina Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited data are available on the non-chemical stressors that impact adult exposures to pyrethroid insecticides based on urinary biomonitoring. The urinary metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), is commonly used to assess human exposure to a number of pyrethroids. In a furthe...

  8. An Examination of Student Writing Self-Efficacy across Three Levels of Adult Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderman, Rodney L.

    2015-01-01

    Adults in today's society do not possess the necessary writing skills required to be successful in postsecondary education and in employment. Writing is an essential skill for college and the workplace. Society also expects college graduates to be critical thinkers and to utilize higher-order thinking skills. Perceived self-efficacy may impact…

  9. Adult Students' Open Interactions with Technology: Mediating Higher-Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Lauretta

    2014-01-01

    Examining the actions taken during a teaching experiment can provide insight into practices applicable to the use of mathematics technology to assist adult learners. A case study in the form of a teaching experiment was conducted with a small number of subjects to allow for detailed examination of the influence of technology on student thinking.…

  10. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  11. Mass spectral determination of phenylacetonitrile (PAN) levels in body tissues of adult desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Wings and legs of the gregarious desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria have been shown to be release sites of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), the major adult male-produced pheromone. However, there is limited information on the distribution of PAN within the locust. Here we show, using gas chromatograph...

  12. Preparing Adult Educators: The Need to Develop Communicative Language Teaching Skills in College-Level Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines why communicative language teaching (CLT) fails to improve student learning in certain contexts by assessing two adult educators' communicative and noncommunicative practices through qualitative case studies, interviews, and participant observations. Results show no inherent CLT problems that prevent teachers from grasping…

  13. Pay attention to impulsivity: modelling low attentive and high impulsive subtypes of adult ADHD in the 5-choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) in female rats.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Anneka; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Harte, Michael K; Barnes, Samuel A; Marshall, Kay M; Neill, Joanna C

    2014-08-01

    Varying levels of attention and impulsivity deficits are core features of the three subtypes of adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, little is known about the neurobiological correlates of these subtypes. Development of a translational animal model is essential to improve our understanding and improve therapeutic strategies. The 5-choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) in rats can be used to examine different forms of attention and impulsivity. Adult rats were trained to pre-set 5C-CPT criterion and subsequently separated into subgroups according to baseline levels of sustained attention, vigilance, premature responding and response disinhibition in the 5C-CPT. The behavioural subgroups were selected to represent the different subtypes of adult ADHD. Consequently, effects of the clinically used pharmacotherapies (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) were assessed in the different subgroups. Four subgroups were identified: low-attentive (LA), high-attentive (HA), high-impulsive (HI) and low-impulsive (LI). Methylphenidate and atomoxetine produced differential effects in the subgroups. Methylphenidate increased sustained attention and vigilance in LA animals, and reduced premature responding in HI animals. Atomoxetine also improved sustained attention and vigilance in LA animals, and reduced response disinhibition and premature responding in HI animals. This is the first study using adult rats to demonstrate the translational value of the 5C-CPT to select subgroups of rats, which may be used to model the subtypes observed in adult ADHD. Our findings suggest that this as an important paradigm to increase our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of adult ADHD-subtypes and their response to pharmacotherapy.

  14. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  15. Effects of underwater treadmill training on leg strength, balance, and walking performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Sandra L.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the effects of underwater treadmill training (UTT) on leg strength, balance, and walking performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Design Pre-test and post-test design. Setting Exercise physiology laboratory. Participants Adult volunteers with iSCI (n = 11). Intervention Participants completed 8 weeks (3 × /week) of UTT. Each training session consisted of three walks performed at a personalized speed, with adequate rest between walks. Body weight support remained constant for each participant and ranged from 29 to 47% of land body weight. Increases in walking speed and duration were staggered and imposed in a gradual and systematic fashion. Outcome measures Lower-extremity strength (LS), balance (BL), preferred and rapid walking speeds (PWS and RWS), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and daily step activity (DSA). Results Significant (P < 0.05) increases were observed in LS (13.1 ± 3.1 to 20.6 ± 5.1 N·kg−1), BL (23 ± 11 to 32 ± 13), PWS (0.41 ± 0.27 to 0.55 ± 0.28 m·s−1), RWS (0.44 ± 0.31 to 0.71 ± 0.40 m·s−1), 6MWD (97 ± 80 to 177 ± 122 m), and DSA (593 ± 782 to 1310 ± 1258 steps) following UTT. Conclusion Physical function and walking ability were improved in adults with iSCI following a structured program of UTT featuring individualized levels of body weight support and carefully staged increases in speed and duration. From a clinical perspective, these findings highlight the potential of UTT in persons with physical disabilities and diseases that would benefit from weight-supported exercise. PMID:24969269

  16. Prenatal choline supplementation increases NGF levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Noah J; Loy, Rebekah; Williams, Christina L

    2002-08-23

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats received approximately 300 mg/kg per day of choline chloride through their drinking water on days 11 of pregnancy through birth and the level of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of their male offspring was measured at 20 and 90 days of age. Prenatal choline supplementation caused significant increases in hippocampal NGF levels at 20 and 90 days of age, while levels of NGF in the frontal cortex were elevated in choline-supplemented rats at 20 days of age, but not 90 days of age. These results suggest that increases in NGF levels during development or adulthood may be one mechanism underlying improvements in spatial and temporal memory of adult rats exposed to elevated levels of choline chloride perinatally.

  17. Temporal changes in the level of neurotrophins in the spinal cord and associated precentral gyrus following spinal hemisection in adult Rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Tian; Gao, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Yi-Zhao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2008-12-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) appear to be crucial for the survival and potential regeneration of injured neurons. However, their temporal changes and remote regulations following spinal cord injury (SCI) have been only partially determined, especially in primates. In this study, ELISA was performed on the extracts of injured spinal cord and the associated precentral gyrus contralateral to the site of spinal cord hemisection to investigate the temporal changes in the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) in adult rhesus monkeys subjected to T8 spinal hemisection. Animals were allowed to survive 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90 days post-operation (dpo). In the spinal cord, the levels of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 sharply decreased between 3 and 7dpo. Thereafter, the levels of NGF and BDNF were transiently elevated while NT-3 level continuously increased and recovered to normal level at 30dpo. In the contralateral precentral gyrus (cPG), only the NT-3 level was altered and in fact elevated above the normal value. No obvious changes were observed in NT-4 level in any of the regions studied. Taken together, the present findings indicated that intrinsic NGF, BDNF and NT-3 may play a local role in the responses to the SCI in primates. Especially, the increase of NT-3 level occurred continuously in both the cPG and the spinal cord pointed to a possible transportation of NT-3 to the cord following SCI.

  18. Prenatal immune activation leads to multiple changes in basal neurotransmitter levels in the adult brain: implications for brain disorders of neurodevelopmental origin such as schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christine; Djodari-Irani, Anais; Sohr, Reinhard; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Feldon, Joram; Juckel, Georg; Meyer, Urs

    2009-05-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy enhances the offspring's risk for severe neuropsychiatric disorders in later life, including schizophrenia. Recent attempts to model this association in animals provided further experimental evidence for a causal relationship between in-utero immune challenge and the postnatal emergence of a wide spectrum of behavioural, pharmacological and neuroanatomical dysfunctions implicated in schizophrenia. However, it still remains unknown whether the prenatal infection-induced changes in brain and behavioural functions may be associated with multiple changes at the neurochemical level. Here, we tested this hypothesis in a recently established mouse model of viral-like infection. Pregnant dams on gestation day 9 were exposed to viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyI:C, 5 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle treatment, and basal neurotransmitter levels were then compared in the adult brains of animals born to PolyI:C- or vehicle-treated mothers by high-performance liquid chromatography on post-mortem tissue. We found that prenatal immune activation significantly increased the levels of dopamine and its major metabolites in the lateral globus pallidus and prefrontal cortex, whilst at the same time it decreased serotonin and its metabolite in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and lateral globus pallidus. In addition, a specific reduction of the inhibitory amino acid taurine in the hippocampus was noted in prenatally PolyI:C-exposed offspring relative to controls, whereas central glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was largely unaffected by prenatal immune activation. Our results thus confirm that maternal immunological stimulation during early/middle pregnancy is sufficient to induce long-term changes in multiple neurotransmitter levels in the brains of adult offspring. This further supports the possibility that infection-mediated interference with early fetal brain development may predispose the developing organism

  19. Health literacy and medication administration performance by caregivers of adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Steven R.; LeRoy, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To measure health literacy (HL) of caregivers of adults with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDDs); to determine the association between HL and a medication administration task (MAT) assessment; and to identify caregiver characteristics associated with higher HL and MAT scores. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Southeastern Michigan. Participants Caregivers, aged 18 years or older, who provided supportive care of adults with IDDs. Interventions Survey and demonstration. Main Outcome Measures Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA); a MAT assessment consisting of interpretation of five sets of medication instructions followed by demonstration of understanding using a pill box; and a survey of caregivers' demographics, medication-related experiences, education, characteristics of persons for whom they provide care, and care-related activities performed. Results A total of 47 caregivers provided data. Caregivers had a mean age of 45.7 ± 14.6 years; 41 (87.2%) were women and 38 (80.9%) had education beyond high school. Caregivers were involved in obtaining medication from pharmacies, reminded the person with IDD to take medications and/or administered them to the person, documented medication and health information, and accompanied persons with IDD to physician offices. Most did not conduct monitoring procedures. The STOFHLA mean score was 34.5 ± 2.5 (median, 35; range, 22–36), while the MAT mean score was 12.0 ± 2.2 (median, 12; range, 6–15). Compared with family caregivers, direct support staff more frequently had undergone some medication training and had other people with whom they could discuss medication questions, but they had worked with the person with IDD a significantly shorter amount of time. No significant differences in STOFHLA and MAT scores between the family caregivers and direct support staff were observed. Caregiver education was significantly correlated with the STOFHLA score. MAT scores were not

  20. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with social participation of older adults: association with quality of life and best correlates

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Johanne; Whiteneck, Gale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to (1) explore whether quality of life (QOL) is more associated with satisfaction with social participation (SP) than with level of accomplishment in SP and (2) examine respective correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 155 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 60% women) having various levels of activity limitations. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP (dependent variables) were estimated with the social roles items of the assessment of life habits. Potential correlates were human functioning components. Results Correlations between QOL and accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP did not differ (P = 0.71). However, best correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP were different. Higher accomplishment level of SP was best explained by younger age, activity level perceived as stable, no recent stressing event, better well-being, higher activity level, and fewer obstacles in “Physical environment and accessibility” (R2 = 0.79). Greater satisfaction with SP was best explained by activity level perceived as stable, better self-perceived health, better well-being, higher activity level, and more facilitators in “Social support and attitudes” (R2 = 0.51). Conclusion With some exceptions, these best correlates may be positively modified and thus warrant special attention in rehabilitation interventions. PMID:20237957

  1. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, D.R.; Brown, R.S.; Cullinan, V.I.; Mesa, M.G.; VanderKooi, S.P.; McKinstry, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rates of adult spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha increased with swim speed and, depending on temperature and fish mass, ranged from 609 mg O2 h-1 at 30 cm s-1 (c. 0.5 BLs-1) to 3347 mg O2 h-1 at 170 cm s -1 (c. 2.3 BLs-1). Corrected for fish mass, these values ranged from 122 to 670 mg O2 kg-1 h-1, and were similar to other Oncorhynchus species. At all temperatures (8, 12.5 and 17??C), maximum oxygen consumption values levelled off and slightly declined with increasing swim speed >170 cm s-1, and a third-order polynomial regression model fitted the data best. The upper critical swim speed (Ucrit) of fish tested at two laboratories averaged 155 cm s -1 (2.1 BLs-1), but Ucrit of fish tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were significantly higher (mean 165 cm s-1) than those from fish tested at the Columbia River Research Laboratory (mean 140 cm s-1). Swim trials using fish that had electromyogram (EMG) transmitters implanted in them suggested that at a swim speed of c. 135 cm s-1, red muscle EMG pulse rates slowed and white muscle EMG pulse rates increased. Although there was significant variation between individual fish, this swim speed was c. 80% of the Ucrit for the fish used in the EMG trials (mean Ucrit 168.2 cm s-1). Bioenergetic modelling of the upstream migration of adult chinook salmon should consider incorporating an anaerobic fraction of the energy budget when swim speeds are ???80% of the Ucrit. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently.

  3. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised.

  4. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  5. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics.

  6. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain.

    PubMed

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-11-26

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur.

  7. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11290.001 PMID:26609811

  8. Effects of Role Conflict on Counselor Trainees' Self-Statements, Anxiety Level, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated if and how role conflict affects counselor trainees' self-statements, anxiety level, and performance. Results suggested role conflict may produce few adverse effects on beginning trainees' self-evaluations, affect, or behavior. Trainee performance was inversely related to anxiety level, and anxiety was inversely related to strength of…

  9. 40 CFR 57.302 - Performance level of interim constant controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance level of interim constant... Performance level of interim constant controls. (a) Maximum feasible efficiency. Each NSO shall require: that the smelter operate its interim constant control systems at their maximum feasible...

  10. Job Literacy and Job Performance among Nurses at Varying Employment Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry

    In a study designed to analyze differences between job performance and level of experience, 27 nurses from three different employment levels (in training, experienced, and supervisory) were observed, interviewed, tested, and rated for job performance. An observation checklist recorded job behavior in terms of the type of activity observed, the…

  11. Arm Coordination and Performance Level in the 400-m Front Crawl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Index of Coordination (IdC) and the propulsive phase durations can differentiate performance level during a maximal 400-m front crawl swim trial. Sixteen male swimmers constituted two groups based on performance level (G1: experts; G2: recreational). All participants swam the 400-m front crawl…

  12. 20 CFR 666.120 - What are the procedures for negotiating annual levels of performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the procedures for negotiating annual levels of performance? 666.120 Section 666.120 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Plan. (g) Levels of performance for the additional indicators developed by the Governor,...

  13. Ordinary Level as Results Predictors of Students' Academic Performance in Chemistry in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolawole, E. B.; Oginni, O. I.; Fayomi, E. O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined ordinary level result as predictors of students' academic performance in chemistry in South-west Nigeria universities. It also examined the relationship between the academic performance of students in each level of the university examinations and their corresponding secondary school certificates examination. The sample of the…

  14. An Ordinary Level as Predictors of Students' Academic Performance in Chemistry in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolawole, E. B.; Oginni, O. I.; Fayomi, E. O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined an ordinary level as predictors of students' academic performance in chemistry in South-west Nigeria universities. It also revealed the relationship between the academic performance of students in each level of the university examinations and their corresponding secondary school certificates examination. The sample of the study…

  15. 34 CFR 379.53 - What are the minimum performance levels for each compliance indicator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the minimum performance levels for each... Funding? § 379.53 What are the minimum performance levels for each compliance indicator? (a) Primary... week over the average earnings of all individuals at the time of project entry. (ii) For projects...

  16. 34 CFR 379.53 - What are the minimum performance levels for each compliance indicator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What are the minimum performance levels for each... Funding? § 379.53 What are the minimum performance levels for each compliance indicator? (a) Primary... week over the average earnings of all individuals at the time of project entry. (ii) For projects...

  17. Individualized Testing System: Performance Checks, ISCS Level III, WW-CP Form A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one form of three performance checks booklets (A, B, and C) for two texts of Level III of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). These two texts are Winds and Weather (WW), and Crusty Problems (CP). The 12 performance checks booklets for Level III are considered one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized…

  18. Individualized Testing System: Performance Checks, ISCS Level III, WW-CP Form C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one form of three performance checks booklets (A, B, and C) for two texts of Level III of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). These two texts are Winds and Weather (WW), and Crusty Problems (CP). The 12 performance checks booklets for Level III are considered one of four subdivisions of a set of individualized evaluation…

  19. Individualized Testing System: Performance Checks, ISCS Level III, WW-CP Form B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is one form of three performance checks booklets (A, B, and C) for two texts of Level III of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS). These two texts are Winds and Weather (WW), and Crusty Problems (CP). The 12 performance checks booklets for Level III are considered one of four major subdivisions of a set of individualized…

  20. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  1. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels. PMID:28212346

  2. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-03-16

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults.

  3. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J.; Jacobs, David R.; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20–32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90–1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults. PMID:26980156

  4. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  5. Dose-Response Relationship between Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within the Reference Interval and Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peipei; Chen, Qicai; Chen, Lili; Zhang, Pengpeng; Xiao, Juan; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels is a biomarker for metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the relationship has not been fully investigated within the reference interval of ALT levels. Our objective was to explore the relationship between serum ALT levels within the reference interval and MS in Chinese adults. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 16028 adults, who attended routine health check-ups at Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital from January 2006 to March 2012. The reference interval of serum ALT level was defined as less than 40 U/L. Logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline were used to evaluate the association of ALT with MS. Results The prevalence of MS in the total population was 13.7% (6.4% for females and 18.4% for males). Multiple logistic regression showed that ALT levels were positively associated with MS after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The odds ratio of MS in the top quartile was 4.830 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.980–7.829] in females and 3.168 (95% CI: 2.649–3.790) in males, compared with the ALT levels in the bottom quartile. The restricted cubic spline models revealed a positive non-linear dose-response relationship between ALT levels and the risk of MS in women (p for nonlinearity was 0.0327), but a positive linear dose-response relationship in men (p for nonlinearity was 0.0659). Conclusion Serum ALT levels within the reference interval are positively associated with MS in a dose-response manner. Elevated ALT levels, even within the reference interval, may reflect early dysmetabolic changes. PMID:27873509

  6. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  7. Associations between parental educational/occupational levels and cognitive performance in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA study.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ruth; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Chillón, Palma; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Esperanza-Díaz, Ligia; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B

    2011-08-01

    We examined the associations between parental educational/occupational levels and cognitive performance in Spanish adolescents. Cognitive performance was measured by a validated Scholar Aptitudes test in 2,162 participants. Parental educational and occupational levels were positively associated with all specific cognitive abilities and the overall score (p<001 to .04). The odds ratios of having a high cognitive performance (top quartile) in adolescents with high parental educational level were 1.6 to 1.7 times higher than for those with a low parental educational level. Similarly, the odds ratios were 1.9 to 2.4 times higher for adolescents with high parental occupational level. These findings suggest an association between parental educational/occupational levels and cognitive performance in Spanish adolescents and support the parents' role in the creation of a stimulating intellectual environment.

  8. Particle-Associated Ambient Benzo[a]pyrene and Levels of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in a Non-occupationally Exposed Population of Adults and Children in Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunjiang; Wang, Qiong; Li, Liangzhong; Liu, Zien; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Yanping; Lin, Haipeng; Xiang, Mingdeng; Li, Hui; Lin, Bigui

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in ambient air from different areas in Lanzhou city in northwest of China, and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in the urine of resident children and adults were determined by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the atmospheric environmental concentration of B[a]P varied significantly from one part of the city to another with levels of 150 ng/m(3) in the industrial area of Xigu and 73.8 ng/m(3) in the agricultural area of Yuzhong. The geometric mean urinary 1-OHP concentration was 0.42 µmol/mol-creatinine, with a range of means between 0.067 and 2.05 for the various population sub-groups. The non-occupationally exposed populations' age, gender and area of residence were the major factors that influenced urinary 1-OHP levels. The health risks of B[a]P for adults and children in Xigu and for children in Yuzhong exceeded the acceptable level (1 × 10(-4)) of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  9. The Association between Unilateral Heel-Rise Performance with Static and Dynamic Balance in Community Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D.; Wang, Man-Ying; Yu, Sean S-Y; Salem, George J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As a measure of both strength and muscle endurance of the plantar flexors, the unilateral heel rise (UHR) test has been suggested as a method to evaluate balance capabilities in older adults. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between UHR performance with biomechanical measures of balance in seniors. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-two older adults completed two testing sessions. The first visit included UHR performance; the second visit included dynamic and static motion analysis. RESULTS UHR performance was significantly associated with dynamic balance capability as measured by medial-lateral inclination angle during gait. As indicated by an analysis of center of pressure, there were significant associations between UHR performance and measures of static balance. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Balance is influenced by plantar flexor performance as measured by the UHR test. We therefore suggest incorporating the UHR test in analyses of balance in seniors. PMID:25457285

  10. Anaerobic cycling performance characteristics in prepubescent, adolescent and young adult females.

    PubMed

    Doré, E; Bedu, M; França, N M; Van Praagh, E

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relationships between short-term power and body dimensions in young females were similar whatever the age of the individuals. A cohort of 189 prepubescent (mean age 9.5 years), adolescent (mean age 14.4 years) and young adult (mean age 18.2 years) females performed three all-out sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer against three braking forces corresponding to applied loads of 25, 50 and 75 g.kg-1 body mass (BM). For each sprint, peak power including flywheel inertia was calculated. Results showed that a braking load of 75 g.kg-1 BM was too high for prepubescent and adolescent girls. Therefore, when measuring short-term cycling performance in heterogeneous female populations, a braking load of 50 g.kg-1 BM (0.495 N.kg-1 BM) is recommended. During growth, cycling peak power (CPP; defined as the highest peak power obtained during the three sprints) increased, as did total BM, fat-free mass (FFM) and lean leg volume (LLV) (P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance revealed that the slopes of the linear relationships between CPP and biometric characteristics were similar in the three groups (P > 0.7 for the CPP/BM and CPP/FFM relationships, and P > 0.2 for the CPP/LLV relationship). However, the adjusted means were always significantly higher in young women (P < 0.001) compared with both of the other groups. Although differences in performance during anaerobic cycling in growing females are primarily dependent upon body dimensions, other as yet undetermined factors may be involved during late adolescence.

  11. Methoprene effects on survival and reproductive performance of adult female and male Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Brabant, Peter Joseph; Dobson, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    Methoprene is a juvenile hormone analog commonly used for the control of mosquito larvae. It acts through interference with normal metamorphosis, resulting in mortality prior to and during adult emergence. Methoprene is not commonly used for the control of adult mosquitoes, due to an absence of acute effects. Here, we have evaluated for chronic effects caused by the exposure of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to methoprene. We applied methoprene to adults, both through 1) topical application to the abdomen and 2) as an aerosol, examining for treatment effects on ovary development, adult longevity, and fecundity. The results demonstrate that relatively high doses are required to affect adult survivorship. In contrast, significant impacts on both fecundity and egg hatch were observed in females treated at the lower dosages. We discuss the results in relation to autocidal strategies for mosquito control in which the release of fecund females is to be avoided.

  12. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile.

  13. A Novel Analytic Technique to Measure Associations Between Circulating Biomarkers and Physical Performance Across the Adult Life Span.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew J; Thompson, Dana K; Pieper, Carl F; Morey, Miriam C; Kraus, Virginia B; Kraus, William E; Sullivan, Patrick; Fillenbaum, Gerda; Cohen, Harvey J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding associations between circulating biomarkers and physical performance across the adult life span could aid in better describing mechanistic pathways leading to disability. We hypothesized that high concentrations of circulating biomarkers would be associated with lower functioning across study populations representing the adult life span. The data were from four intervention and two observational studies with ages ranging 22-89 years. Biomarkers assayed included inflammatory, coagulation, and endothelial function markers. Physical performance was measured either by VO2peak (studies of young and middle-aged adults) or usual gait speed (studies of older adults). Partialled (by age, body mass index, race, and sex) and weighted common correlations were calculated between biomarkers and physical performance. Homogeneity of the associations was also assessed. Interleukin-6 (weighted r = -.22), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (weighted r = -.19), D-dimer (weighted r = -.16), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (weighted r = -.15), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (weighted r = -.14), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (weighted r = -.10) were all significantly inversely correlated with physical performance (p < .05). All significant correlations were homogeneous across studies. In summary, we observed consistent inverse associations between six circulating biomarkers and objective measures of physical performance. These results suggest that these serum biomarkers may be broadly applicable for detection, trajectory, and treatment monitoring of physical function across the life span or possibly for midlife predictors of functionally deleterious conditions.

  14. Correlation of C-reactive protein level and obesity in Chinese adults and children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Lv, G

    2013-09-01

    This meta-analysis evaluated the correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and obesity in Chinese adults and children. We searched three Chinese databases [Wanfang, WEIPU, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)] in addition to PubMed. The search was restricted to only Chinese studies published online before January 9, 2013. Data from 28 articles were independently abstracted by two reviewers. The articles' characteristics were abstracted as follows: 1) first author name; 2) year of publication; 3) study population; 4) sample size; 5) sex, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and CRP level of the study population; 6) Pearson correlation coefficients, Spearman correlation coefficients, or odds ratios between CRP level and obesity. The metaanalysis was conducted to pool the Pearson correlation coefficients using a random-effects model. The pooled Pearson correlation coefficient between CRP and BMI was 0.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.56] in Chinese adults and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.31-0.62) in Chinese children, and the pooled Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.24-0.40) in the general Chinese population and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.42-0.64) in the obese Chinese population. Significant correlation was thus found between CRP and obesity in Chinese adults and children.

  15. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  16. Investigation of Remedial Education Course Scores as a Predictor of Introduction-Level Course Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Ward; Means, Darris R.; Cawthon, Tony W.; Kristensen, Sheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether performance in remedial English and remedial math is a predictor of success in a college-level introduction English or college-level math class; and whether demographic variables increase the likelihood of remedial English and remedial math as a predictor of success in a college-level introduction English or…

  17. Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kieron P; Lavoie, Marc E; Stip, Emmanuel; Borgeat, François; Laverdure, Anick

    2008-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of 55 patients with TD were recruited at baseline from participants in a behavioural management programme. A comparison group of 55 patients suffering from a variety of habit disorders (HD) involving complex manual movements, were matched on age and level of education to 34 non-psychiatric controls. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-treatment and post-waitlist with a neuropsychological evaluation focusing on executive function (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) and skilled motor performance (Purdue Pegboard, Hole Steadiness Test, and the Groove Test). Results revealed WCST scores in the normal range, while motor performance differed significantly on the Purdue Pegboard Tests in both TD and HD as compared to the control group. Cognitive-behavioural treatment selectively improved motor performance in both clinical groups compared to waitlist control, and this improvement related to clinical outcome measures.

  18. Effect of Anti-Sclerostin Therapy and Osteogenesis Imperfecta on Tissue-level Properties in Growing and Adult Mice While Controlling for Tissue Age

    PubMed Central

    Sinder, Benjamin P.; Lloyd, William R.; Salemi, Joseph D.; Marini, Joan C.; Caird, Michelle S.; Morris, Michael D.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    Bone composition and biomechanics at the tissue-level are important contributors to whole bone strength. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a candidate anabolic therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis that increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in animal studies, but its effect on bone quality at the tissue-level has received little attention. Pre-clinical studies of Scl-Ab have recently expanded to include diseases with altered collagen and material properties such as Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Scl-Ab on bone quality by determining bone material composition and tissue-level mechanical properties in normal wild type (WT) tissue, as well as mice with a typical OI Gly→Cys mutation (Brtl/+) in type I collagen. Rapidly growing (3-week-old) and adult (6-month-old) WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated for 5 weeks with Scl-Ab. Fluorescent guided tissue-level bone composition analysis (Raman spectroscopy) and biomechanical testing (nanoindentation) were performed at multiple tissue ages. Scl-Ab increased mineral to matrix in adult WT and Brtl/+ at tissue ages of 2–4wks. However, no treatment related changes were observed in mineral to matrix levels at mid-cortex, and elastic modulus was not altered by Scl-Ab at any tissue age. Increased mineral-to-matrix was phenotypically observed in adult Brtl/+ OI mice (at tissue ages >3wk) and rapidly growing Brtl/+ (at tissue ages > 4wk) mice compared to WT. At identical tissue ages defined by fluorescent labels adult mice had generally lower mineral to matrix ratios and a greater elastic modulus than rapidly growing mice, demonstrating that bone matrix quality can be influenced by animal age and tissue age alike. In summary, these data suggest that Scl-Ab alters the matrix chemistry of newly formed bone while not affecting the elastic modulus, induces similar changes between Brtl/+ and WT mice, and provides new insight into the interaction between tissue age

  19. Effect of anti-sclerostin therapy and osteogenesis imperfecta on tissue-level properties in growing and adult mice while controlling for tissue age.

    PubMed

    Sinder, Benjamin P; Lloyd, William R; Salemi, Joseph D; Marini, Joan C; Caird, Michelle S; Morris, Michael D; Kozloff, Kenneth M

    2016-03-01

    Bone composition and biomechanics at the tissue-level are important contributors to whole bone strength. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a candidate anabolic therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis that increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in animal studies, but its effect on bone quality at the tissue-level has received little attention. Pre-clinical studies of Scl-Ab have recently expanded to include diseases with altered collagen and material properties such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Scl-Ab on bone quality by determining bone material composition and tissue-level mechanical properties in normal wild type (WT) tissue, as well as mice with a typical OI Gly➔Cys mutation (Brtl/+) in type I collagen. Rapidly growing (3-week-old) and adult (6-month-old) WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated for 5weeks with Scl-Ab. Fluorescent guided tissue-level bone composition analysis (Raman spectroscopy) and biomechanical testing (nanoindentation) were performed at multiple tissue ages. Scl-Ab increased mineral to matrix in adult WT and Brtl/+ at tissue ages of 2-4wks. However, no treatment related changes were observed in mineral to matrix levels at mid-cortex, and elastic modulus was not altered by Scl-Ab at any tissue age. Increased mineral-to-matrix was phenotypically observed in adult Brtl/+ OI mice (at tissue ages>3wks) and rapidly growing Brtl/+ (at tissue ages>4wks) mice compared to WT. At identical tissue ages defined by fluorescent labels, adult mice had generally lower mineral to matrix ratios and a greater elastic modulus than rapidly growing mice, demonstrating that bone matrix quality can be influenced by animal age and tissue age alike. In summary, these data suggest that Scl-Ab alters the matrix chemistry of newly formed bone while not affecting the elastic modulus, induces similar changes between Brtl/+ and WT mice, and provides new insight into the interaction between tissue age and

  20. Dynamics of vitellogenin and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone levels in adult and subadult whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: relation to molting and eyestalk ablation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Jung; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Shinji, Junpei; Bae, Sun-Hye; Wilder, Marcy N

    2014-01-01

    Levels of vitellogenin (VG) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in relation to the molting cycle and ovarian maturation induced by eyestalk ablation. During the molt cycle, VG mRNA expression levels and VG concentrations showed similar patterns of fluctuation. VG levels increased significantly at early intermolt (stage C0) in adults, but not in subadults. Unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation increased VG levels in adults, whereas only bilateral eyestalk ablation affected subadults. VIH levels showed contrasting patterns between adults and subadults. In adults, levels were high in late postmolt adults (stage B) and then low thereafter, whereas they increased from postmolt (stage A) to intermolt (stage C0) in subadults and remained high. Unilateral eyestalk ablation increased VIH levels 10 days following ablation in adults, after which levels decreased at 20 days. VIH levels decreased from 10 to 20 days after bilateral ablation. Both unilateral and bilateral ablation led to increased VIH levels in subadults. Eyestalk ablation induced ovarian maturation, but did not reduce VIH concentrations in the hemolymph. This phenomenon was perhaps due to other crustacean hyperglycemic hormone peptides having cross-reactivity with VIH antibodies. This is the first report to quantify concentrations of VG and VIH together in L. vannamei hemolymph, and to examine their relative dynamics.