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Sample records for adult periodontitis patients

  1. [An interdisciplinary approach to complex orthodontic-periodontal clinical situations in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Zetu, Irina; Ogodescu, Emilia; Zetu, L; Stratul, S I; Rusu, D; Talpoş, S; Ogodescu, A

    2011-01-01

    Between orthodontics and periodontology there are many correlations, especially in the treatment of adults with already-damaged periodontal tissues and malocclusions. Aim of this paper was to emphasize that an interdisciplinary periodontal-orthodontic treatment could be beneficial even in a case that seemed hopelessly. A typical case of an adult patient with extensive bone loss due to periodontal disease, occlusal trauma caused by dental malpositions, spacing due to early loss of teeth in the lateral segments and pathologic tooth migration will be presented. The orthodontic treatment was initiated at 3 months after the stabilization of the periodontal therapy and was done with a fixed appliance. During the orthodontic stage periodontal maintenance visits continued at 2-month intervals. The therapy of"black triangles" occurred due to the loss of interdental gingiva was done by stripping followed by a space-closure procedure. A permanent retainer was applied. Benefits and problems of the comprehensive periodontal-orthodontic therapy and treatment protocols will be presented. In conclusion the interdisciplinary therapy of this patient, with a good compliance, was beneficial, improved esthetics, the periodontal status, the ability of the patient to clean the teeth and also led to best position of the abutments for optimal placement of prosthetic reconstructions.

  2. Orthodontics in the adult patient, with special reference to the periodontally compromised patient.

    PubMed

    Johal, A; Ide, M

    1999-04-01

    There is increasing demand from adult patients for orthodontic treatment, either purely for aesthetics, to improve aesthetics or function following previous disease, or to facilitate the stabilization, restoration or replacement of teeth. Orthodontics may have a major role in the rehabilitation of patients suffering the effects of advanced periodontal disease, but there are a number of important factors to be considered in the management of such patients if the optimal outcome is to be obtained. This paper summarizes important aspects of treatment and the potential complications and how to avoid them.

  3. Interdisciplinary treatment of a periodontally compromised adult patient with multiple missing posterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sachin; Gupta, Sumita; Chugh, Vinay K; Jain, Eety; Valiathan, Ashima; Nanda, Ravindra

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the comprehensive, interdisciplinary treatment of a 50-year-old periodontally compromised adult patient with multiple missing posterior teeth. After initial periodontal treatment, the maxillary first molars and right central incisor were intruded orthodontically. Miniscrews were used to intrude the maxillary first molars by 3 mm. The mandibular arch was restored with a tooth-supported overdenture. Root coverage of the maxillary right central incisor was performed using Alloderm (Biohorizons, Birmingham, Ala). At the end of the interdisciplinary therapy, the results were esthetically pleasing, with the patient's oral functions restored to the optimum. The emphasis of this report is to highlight the importance of integrating various specialties such as periodontics, orthodontics, endodontics, and restorative dentistry toward a common goal of improving the patient's oral health, function, and esthetics.

  4. Combined Periodontal, Orthodontic, and Prosthetic Treatment in an Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Sabatoski, Claudio Vinicius; Bueno, Regis Claret; Reyes Pacheco, Ariel Adriano; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    A 41-year-old man had a significant loss of bone and supporting tissues with pathologic migration of several teeth and several missing teeth. He was treated with an interdisciplinary therapeutic protocol that included nonsurgical periodontal therapy based on strict control of supragingival plaque, subgingival periodontal therapy, orthodontic and endodontic treatment, and replacement of restorations. The orthodontic therapy was performed in a severely reduced bone support and the presence of pathological tooth migration after periodontal disease control. The interdisciplinary treatment protocol was the key to achieve a significant improvement in his facial and dental esthetics, masticatory function, and quality of life. PMID:26587295

  5. Occurrence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Indian chronic periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vinayak Mahableshwar; Bhat, Kishore Gajanan; Kugaji, Manohar Suresh; Ingalgi, Preeti Shivaji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), an important primary periodontal pathogen, is known for its strong virulence characteristics that cause periodontal disease. We investigated Aa occurrence in Indian individuals using culture and 16 s rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with 100 participants each in the healthy and chronic periodontitis (CP) groups was conducted. The subgingival plaque was collected and immediately plated on selective media for Aa. The remaining plaque samples were used for DNA extraction. PCR was performed using specific primers for Aa. Statistical Analysis Used: The detection of bacteria and the clinical parameters between the groups were compared using the Mann–Whitney U-test. For assessing the agreement between the results of anaerobic culture and PCR, Kappa analyses were performed. Results: Aa levels using culture and PCR was 51% and 69% in the CP group and 12% and 30% in the healthy group, respectively. The two groups showed significant differences (P < 0.00001). The detection accuracy of culture and PCR was assessed, and the coefficient of accuracy (k) was highly significant in the healthy (0.3103; P < 0.0001) and CP groups (0.1536; P < 0.0497). Conclusions: Aa was predominantly found in the CP group compared with the healthy group, which is consistent with previous findings. Our results showed that both techniques can be used for detecting Aa. An ideal technique for detecting subgingival microorganisms should be carefully selected depending on the scope of the intended future work. PMID:27143824

  6. In adults: 47.2% have periodontitis! How about in orthodontic patients?

    PubMed

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease due to dental plaque in adults over 30 years of age was noticed in 47.2% of the 3,742 subjects studied, representing a 64.7 million people population in the 50 states of the U.S. and the District of Columbia. The methods used by the authors were uniquely precise and the results brought us to great insight on the correlation between orthodontic treatment and periodontal health, which is described below.

  7. Treatment of periodontal disease in older adults.

    PubMed

    Renvert, Stefan; Persson, G Rutger

    2016-10-01

    Within the next 40 years the number of older adults worldwide will more than double. This will impact periodontal treatment needs and presents a challenge to health-care providers and governments worldwide, as severe periodontitis has been reported to be the sixth most prevalent medical condition in the world. Older adults (≥ 80 years of age) who receive regular dental care retain more teeth than those who do not receive such care, but routine general dental care for these individuals is not sufficient to prevent the progression of periodontitis with the same degree of success as in younger individuals. There is a paucity of data on the efficacy of different periodontal therapies for older individuals. However, considering the higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions seen in older adults, it cannot be assumed that periodontal therapy will yield the same degree of success seen in younger individuals. Furthermore, medications can influence the status of the periodontium and the delivery of periodontal care. As an example, anticoagulant drugs are common among older patients and may be a contraindication to certain treatments. Newer anticoagulants will, however, facilitate surgical intervention in older patients. Furthermore, prescription medications taken for chronic conditions, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases, can affect the periodontium in a variety of ways. In summary, consideration of socio-economic factors, general health status and multiple-drug therapies will, in the future, be an important part of the management of periodontitis in older adults.

  8. Risk indicators for future clinical attachment loss in adult periodontitis. Patient variables.

    PubMed

    Grbic, J T; Lamster, I B; Celenti, R S; Fine, J B

    1991-05-01

    We studied patient-derived variables to identify individuals at risk for future clinical attachment loss (CAL). Seventy-five patients with chronic adult periodontitis were followed for 6 months and clinical and epidemiological parameters collected at baseline were related to CAL. Clinical parameters were obtained from 6 sites per tooth and whole-mouth averages were calculated. Epidemiologic parameters were obtained by questionnaire and interview. After the baseline examination, patients were treated with root planing and scaling. Thirty-one patients (41.3%) demonstrated greater than or equal to 1 site with CAL of greater than or equal to 2.5 mm, while 16 patients (21.3%) demonstrated CAL at greater than or equal to 2 sites. Epidemiological factors such as gender, health status, marital status, education, and occupation were not associated with CAL. In contrast, baseline mean attachment level, age, baseline mean probing depth, baseline mean recession, percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing, and the number of missing teeth were related to CAL. Using logistic modelling, we found that baseline attachment level was the primary risk indicator for post-treatment CAL. Nineteen percent of the patients with baseline attachment levels less than 4.0 mm, 50% of the patients with 4.0 to 4.9 mm, and 85% (P less than .005) of the patients with greater than or equal to 5.0 mm exhibited CAL. The age of the patient was also a major risk indicator for CAL, and was independent of baseline attachment levels. Eighty-nine percent of the 60 to 69 year old patients demonstrated CAL, compared to only 35% of patients between the ages of 30 and 59 (P less than or equal to .005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. [Orthodontic treatment in periodontal patients].

    PubMed

    Krausz, E; Einy, S; Aizenbud, D; Levin, L

    2011-07-01

    Orthodontic treatment poses a significant challenge in patients suffering from periodontal disease. Providing orthodontic treatment to periodontal patients should be carefully planned and performed in a tight collaboration between the orthodontist and periodontist. Resolution and stabilization of the periodontal condition is a pre-requisite for orthodontic treatment initiation. Careful oral hygiene performance and highly frequent recall periodontal visits are also crucial. Pre- or post- orthodontic periodontal surgery might help providing better treatment outcomes.

  10. Interdisciplinary Management of Patient with Advanced Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Kochar, Gagan Deep; Jayan, B; Chopra, S S; Mechery, Reenesh; Goel, Manish; Verma, Munish

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary management of an adult patient with advanced periodontal disease. Treatment involved orthodontic and periodontal management. Good esthetic results and dental relationships were achieved by the treatment.

  11. Assessment of Psychopatologic Traits in a Group of Patients with Adult Chronic Periodontitis: Study on 108 Cases and Analysis of Compliance during and after Periodontal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Laforgia, Alessandra; Corsalini, Massimo; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Pettini, Francesco; Di Venere, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although there is nowadays wide agreement on bacteria being the main etiologic agents of periodontal disease, their sole presence cannot damage periodontal tissues in all subjects. This suggests that an individual response and an adaptation to a certain quantity of bacterial biofilm can occur without the disease progressing and vice versa. Depression, stress and anxiety have not been confirmed yet as risk conditions but, in some observational studies, they have been identified as potential risk factors of periodontal disease. The current study aims at investigating the role which these psychological disorder have in the onset and progression of advanced stage periodontitis. Materials and methods: The case selection was carried out by means of clinical and radiological periodontal assessment involving a total of 108 subjects, both male and female, aged between 24 and 67. Patients were then divided in two groups of 54 patients each: the first group included patients with severe periodontal disease, the second group was formed by periodontally healthy subjects. Clinical assessment was performed by a sole examiner who selected and divided periodontopathic patients from non-periodontopathic ones. From the current study were excluded: patients with systemic pathologies; smokers; patients taking antidepressant drugs; pregnant women. Results: For what concerns depression, in the group of periodontopathic patients it was found that the 62.5% of them were depressed, against the 38.86% in the group of periodontally healthy subjects. For the other two psychological conditions taken into consideration, anxiety and stress, it emerged a different percentage of subjects with anxiety in the periodontal group (31.48%) against healthy controls (20.37%). Conclusions: For each of the psychological variables considered (depression, anxiety, stress), a significant correlation could be observed with periodontal disease, it can be therefore be suggested that the importance

  12. Evaluation of Periodontal Risk in Adult Patients using Two Different Risk Assessment Models – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Shruthi; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary; Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Devulapalli, Narasimha Swamy; Swarna, Chakrapani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal risk of individuals using periodontal risk assessment (PRA) model and modified PRA model. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients with chronic periodontitis, age 30-60 years were selected randomly and charting of the periodontal status was performed and those who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Parameters recorded were- percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP), number of sites with pocket depths (PD) ≥ 5mm, number of the teeth lost, bone loss (BL)/age ratio, Clinical attachment loss(CAL)/age ratio, diabetic and smoking status, dental status, systemic factors like diabetes were assessed. All the risk factors were plotted on the radar chart in (PRA) and (mPRA) models, using Microsoft excel and periodontal risk were categorized as low, moderate and high risk. Results: Among 50 patients 31 were in low risk, 9 in moderate risk, and 10 in high risk identified by modified (PRA) model, whereas 28 patients were in low risk, 13 in moderate risk and 9 in high risk identified by (PRA). Statistical analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the risk scores (X2 = 0.932 with degree of freedom = 2, P = 0.627). Conclusion: Both the periodontal risk models are effective in evaluating the risk factors and can be useful tool for predicting proper diagnosis, disease progression and therapeutic strategies during the supportive periodontal therapy. PMID:25859520

  13. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of a patient with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, David; Murthy, Varsha; Reddy, Vineela Katam; Pillai, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis previously termed as juvenile periodontitis is characterised by rapid destruction of the periodontium at a relatively young age. Rehabilitation of these patients is often challenging and difficult. Controlling the disease and restoring periodontal health is essential for successful prosthodontic rehabilitation. This clinical report describes an interdisciplinary approach in the rehabilitation of a young adult patient with generalised aggressive periodontitis. Treatment objectives included plaque control, prevention of further attachment loss, reduction/elimination of pockets, and prosthetic rehabilitation to enhance aesthetics and restore masticatory function. One year recall evaluation revealed stable periodontal support with no further loss of attachment and no other complications. PMID:25743856

  14. Combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment in a patient with aggressive periodontitis: a 9-year follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Closs, Luciane Quadrado; Gomes, Sabrina Carvalho; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Bertoglio, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment demands a detailed evaluation in both specialties, particularly when the periodontium is reduced. This is especially true for adult patients, but young patients can also suffer from advanced periodontitis. This article describes combined periodontal and orthodontic therapy in a young patient with severe localized and aggressive periodontitis, tooth crown abnormalities, and missing maxillary second premolars. Periodontal treatment was carried out. Once attachment gain and bone stability were confirmed, orthodontic therapy commenced. It lasted 32 months, during which segmented mechanics and only light forces were used. The result of this intervention was satisfactory, and long-term stability (9 years) with periodontal maintenance was achieved.

  15. Bacteriology of severe periodontitis in young adult humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Smibert, R M; Hash, D E; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1982-01-01

    A total of 78 bacteriological samples were taken from the supragingival tooth surface after superficial cleaning with toothpicks or from the periodontal sulci of 42 affected sites in 21 adolescents or young adults with severe generalized periodontitis. Of 190 bacterial species, subspecies, or serotypes detected among 2,723 isolates, 11 species exceeded 1% of the subgingival flora and were most closely associated with the diseased sulci. Eleven others were also sufficiently frequent to be suspect agents of tissue destruction. Many of these species are known pathogens of other body sites. In addition, 10 species of Treponema were isolated. One of these and the "large treponeme" were also more closely associated with severe periodontitis than they were with healthy sites or gingivitis. There were highly significant differences between the composition of the flora of the affected sulci and the flora of (i) the adjacent supragingival tooth surface, (ii) the gingival crevice of periodontally healthy people, and (iii) sites with a gingival index score of 0 or 2 in experimental gingivitis studies. The floras of different individuals were also significantly different. There was no statistically detectable effect of sampling per se upon the composition of the flora of subsequent samples from the same sites. The composition of the supragingival flora of the patients with severe generalized periodontitis that had serum antibody to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was significantly different from the supragingival flora of patients without this serum antibody. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the composition of their subgingival floras. PMID:7152665

  16. Epidemiological Survey on the Prevalence of Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus in Uyghur Adults from Rural Hotan Area in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Awuti, Gulinuer; Younusi, Kurexi; Li, Linlin; Upur, Halmurat; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims. This study was designed to explore the relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Uygur adults from Xinjiang. Methods and Results. Data were obtained using questionnaire and oral examination. Participants (48.87 ±13.72 yr) were categorized into periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups in accordance with the chronic periodontitis diagnostic criteria. Based on gum inflammation, bleeding on probing, periodontal pocket depth and attachment loss, patients were further divided into mild, moderate and severe periodontitis groups. Among 962 subjects, 453 (47.1%) suffered from chronic periodontitis with a prevalence of type 2 DM and impaired fasting glucose of 9.5% and 11.4%, respectively. In the periodontitis group, the prevalence of type 2 DM was 75.6% compared with 22.4% in the non-periodontitis group. Likewise, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 71.3% and 28.7% in periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups, respectively. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed moderate and severe periodontitis as risk factors for DM (OR = 3.4, OR = 2.9). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that moderate periodontitis is independently associated with DM (OR = 4). Conclusions. Our data revealed that prevalence of DM is overtly higher in periodontitis patients than in individuals without periodontitis. Furthermore, moderate periodontitis is considered an independent risk factor for type 2 DM. PMID:21826136

  17. Adults seeking orthodontic treatment: expectations, periodontal and TMD issues.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L; Luther, F

    2015-02-16

    The growth in adult orthodontics presents new challenges to both the general dental practitioner and the orthodontist. Although many of the main objectives of orthodontic treatment are similar for adults, young adults and children, adult patients frequently bring significant challenges in several areas not often seen in the younger patient group. In areas such as planning realistic treatment outcomes, it is paramount that the patient's expectations are identified, respected and managed where appropriate. The adult patient's dental health often dictates deviation from the ideal treatment plan and periodontal problems are a common example. Based on current evidence, this paper presents an overview of some of the difficulties in the management of these issues, as well as highlighting developments with regard to pain conditions and their relevance to orthodontic treatment and its effects on temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) management.

  18. Multidisciplinary management including periodontics, orthodontics, implants, and prosthetics for an adult.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Teresa; Neves, Manuel; Alves, Célia

    2012-08-01

    This article describes the complex dental treatment of an adult patient with multiple missing teeth, mild chronic periodontitis, and a malocclusion with a cant of the occlusal plane. After periodontal treatment, titanium implants and a miniscrew were placed to correct the occlusal plane canting with orthodontic treatment. Prosthodontic treatment was completed by using osseointegrated implants to replace the missing teeth.

  19. Periodontal disease in diabetic patients - clinical and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Corlan Puşcu, Dorina; Ciuluvică, Radu Constantin; Anghel, Andreea; Mălăescu, Gheorghe Dan; Ciursaş, Adina Nicoleta; Popa, Gabriel Valeriu; Agop Forna, Doriana; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Siloşi, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most frequent diseases affecting people all over the world. The relation between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus raised the interest both of dentists and doctors treating metabolic diseases, as the two conditions influence one another. In our study, we analyzed a number of 75 patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease that presented to the medical consultory for conditions of the dental maxillary system. The clinical study showed that periodontal disease and diabetes may affect young adults as well, still this pathological association more frequently appears after the age of 50. The disease was identified especially in the women living in urban area. The clinical examination of the dental maxillary system identified the presence of gingival ulcerations, dental calculus, gingival bleeding, radicular leftovers with anfractuous margins, fixed prostheses with an inappropriate cervical adjustment. Of the systemic diseases associated to periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, there was observed that 66.66% of the patients also suffered from cardiovascular diseases (high blood pressure, ischemic cardiopathy, heart failure), and 37.33% suffered from obesity. The histopathological and immunohistochemical tests highlighted the presence of an inflammatory chronic, intense reaction, mainly formed of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, heterogeneously disseminated and alteration of the structure of marginal and superficial periodontium. The inflammatory reaction in the patients with periodontal disease and diabetes was more intense than in the patients with periodontal disease without diabetes.

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Periodontitis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, A.Z.; Hasturk, H.; Mu, L.; Phillips, R.S.; Davis, R.B.; Halem, S.; Campos, H.; Goodson, J.M.; Van Dyke, T.E.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease initiated by bacteria, resulting in bone resorption, tooth loss, and systemic inflammation. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) reduce periodontitis in animals. We aimed to determine whether DHA supplementation with low-dose aspirin would reduce periodontitis in humans. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel trial lasting 3 mo. Fifty-five adults with moderate periodontitis were randomized to 2,000 mg of DHA or identical soy/corn oil capsules. All participants received 81 mg of aspirin but received no other treatments. We analyzed the primary outcome of per-pocket change in pocket depth using mixed models among teeth with pocket depth ≥5 mm. Secondary outcomes assessed with generalized estimating equations included gingival index, plaque index, and bleeding on probing. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were analyzed for changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukins 6 and 1β (IL-6 and IL-1β). Plasma was analyzed for changes in systemic inflammatory markers, including hsCRP. We confirmed adherence with erythrocyte fatty acid measurement. Forty-six participants completed the trial. While similar at baseline, the proportion of DHA in red blood cell plasma membranes increased from 3.6% ± 0.9% to 6.2% ± 1.6% in the intervention group but did not change among controls. DHA supplementation decreased mean pocket depth (–0.29 ± 0.13; p = .03) and gingival index (–0.26 ± 0.13; p = .04). Plaque index and bleeding on probing did not change. Significant adjusted differences were found between DHA and control for both gingival crevicular fluid hsCRP (–5.3 ng/mL, standard error [SE] = 2.4, p = .03) and IL-1β (–20.1 pg/mL, SE = 8.2, p = .02) but not IL-6 (0.02 pg/mL, SE = 0.71, p = .98) or systemic hsCRP (–1.19 mg/L, SE = 0.90, p = .20). In this randomized controlled trial, aspirin-triggered DHA supplementation significantly improved

  1. Periodontal management of patients with cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    Periodontists are often called upon to provide periodontal therapy for patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Safe and effective periodontal treatment requires a general understanding of the underlying cardiovascular diseases, their medical management, and necessary modifications to dental/periodontal therapy that may be required. In this informational paper more common cardiovascular disorders will be discussed and dental management considerations briefly described. This paper is intended for the use of periodontists and members of the dental profession.

  2. Orthodontic treatment for a patient with advanced periodontal disease: 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Carlos Alberto Estevanell; Allgayer, Susiane; Calvete, Ernani da Silva; Polido, Waldemar Daudt

    2013-09-01

    This case report demonstrates the interdisciplinary treatment of an adult patient with a Class II malocclusion, convex profile, incompetent lips, gummy smile, and advanced periodontal loss. Initial periodontal-endodontic treatment was followed by orthodontic and orthognathic surgical therapies. An esthetic facial profile, a pleasing smile, an appropriate occlusion, and overall good treatment outcomes, including the periodontal condition, remained stable 11 years after active orthodontic treatment.

  3. Collaborative management of a young patient with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Arunachalam; Raju, M A K V; Sunny, James; Cyriac, Rajesh; Bhat, Subraya; Mohandas, Ashil A; Divya, Beemavarapu

    2014-01-01

    What are the orthodontic treatment possibilities, limitations and risks inherent in patients with periodontal disorders, particularly active periodontal disease? This case report describes the interface between orthodontics, periodontics and restorative dentistry in the management of a 25-year-old young man with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

  4. Ghrelin levels in chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Gülin; Kırzıoğlu, Fatma Yeşim; Doğuç, Duygu Kumbul; Koçak, Havva; Orhan, Hikmet

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has modulatory effects on the immune system. This study was designed to evaluate plasma ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and to investigate if a relationship exists between ghrelin and periodontal parameters, serum cytokines, and bone turnover markers. Thirty-five chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and periodontal healthy individuals (C) were included in this study. Periodontal parameters were recorded. Blood samples were obtained to determine the levels of total and acylated ghrelin, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), the soluble receptor activator nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OSC). Plasma levels of total and acylated ghrelin were significantly elevated in the CP group compared with the C group (p < 0.05). The difference was significant only between males in the two groups (groups were compared with respect to gender) (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the groups regarding the levels of serum sRANKL, TNF-α, and ALP. A relative increase in the serum levels of IL-1β and a decrease in the serum levels of OSC of the CP group were observed (p < 0.05). In addition, positive correlations between total ghrelin/ALP and total ghrelin/acylated ghrelin were discovered. We found no direct correlation between ghrelin levels and periodontal parameters. Our results indicate an increase of total and acylated ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Further, studies in larger populations (which could include ghrelin levels in gingival tissue, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva) are needed in order to confirm the role of ghrelin in periodontal disease.

  5. Bacteriology of moderate (chronic) periodontitis in mature adult humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1983-01-01

    A total of 171 taxa was represented among 1,900 bacterial isolates from 60 samples of sites affected with moderate periodontitis in 22 mature adult humans. The composition of the subgingival sulcus flora was statistically significantly different from that of the adjacent supragingival flora and the subgingival flora of 14 people with healthy gingiva, but was not significantly different from that of sulci affected with severe periodontitis in 21 young human adults. The sulcus floras of moderate periodontitis and severe periodontitis shared many of their predominant bacterial species, but there were differences in the relative proportions of some of these species. Similar relationships were found for seven taxa of treponemes that were cultured from the samples. PMID:6642641

  6. MMP-8 Expression in Periodontal Tissues Surgically Removed from Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients with Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Douglas C.; Ross, Jonathan H.; Schuyler, Corinne A.; Leite, Renata S.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Huang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it is known that periodontal MMP-8 expression is associated with periodontal disease, the information concerning the periodontal MMP-8 expression in diabetic patients with periodontal disease is insufficient. Materials and Methods Periodontal tissue specimens were collected from 7 patients without periodontal disease and diabetes (Group 1), 15 patients with periodontal disease alone (Group 2) and 10 patients with both periodontal disease and diabetes (Group 3). The frozen sections were prepared and MMP-8 protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry and quantified. For in vitro study, human U937 mononuclear cells were pre-exposed to normal or high glucose and then treated with LPS. Results The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the difference in MMP-8 protein levels among the three groups were statistically significant (p = 0.003). Nonparametric analysis using Jonckheere-Terpstra test showed a tendency of increase in periodontal MMP-8 levels across Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 (p = 0.0002). In vitro studies showed that high glucose and LPS had a synergistic effect on MMP-8 expression. Conclusion Our current study showed an increasing trend in MMP-8 protein expression levels across patients without both periodontal disease and diabetes, patients with periodontal disease alone and patients with both diseases. PMID:22092744

  7. Periodontal condition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ishi, Eduardo de Paula; Bertolo, Manoel Barros; Rossa, Carlos; Kirkwood, Keith Lough; Onofre, Mirian Aparecida

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to investigate if periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are associated. The study included 39 RA patients (test group) and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals (control group). Questionnaires on general and oral health were applied and a complete periodontal exam, including visible plaque, marginal bleeding, attachment loss (AL) and number of teeth present, was also performed by a single calibrated examiner. Diabetes mellitus patients and smokers were excluded. RA patients had fewer teeth, higher prevalence of sites presenting dental plaque and a higher frequency of sites with advanced attachment loss. Although the prevalence of dental plaque was higher in the test group (Chi-square test, p = 0.0006), the percentage of sites showing gingival bleeding was not different (Fishers exact test, p > 0.05). Based on our results, we suggest that there is an association between periodontal disease and RA.

  8. Expression of periodontal interleukin-6 protein is increased across patients with neither periodontal disease nor diabetes, patients with periodontal disease alone and patients with both diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jonathan H.; Hardy, Douglas Crane; Schuyler, Corinne A.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Huang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives Epidemiological studies have established that patients with diabetes have an increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease. Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine, plays a role in the tissue inflammation that characterizes periodontal disease. Our recent study has shown a trend of increase in periodontal IL-6 expression at the mRNA level across patients with neither periodontal disease nor diabetes, patients with periodontal disease alone and patients with both diseases. However, the periodontal IL-6 expression at the protein level in these patients has not been investigated. Material and Methods Periodontal tissue specimens were collected from eight patients without periodontal disease and diabetes (group 1), from 17 patients with periodontal disease alone (group 2) and from 10 patients with both periodontal disease and diabetes (group 3). The frozen sections were prepared from these tissue specimens and IL-6 protein expression was detected and quantified. Results The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test showed that differences in IL-6 protein levels among the three groups were statistically significant (p = 0.035). Nonparametric analysis using Jonckheere-Terpstra test showed a tendency of increase in periodontal IL-6 protein levels across group 1 to group 2 to group 3 (p = 0.006). Parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) on IL-6 protein levels showed that neither age nor gender significantly affected the difference of IL-6 levels among the groups. Conclusion Periodontal IL-6 expression at the protein level is increased across patients with neither periodontal disease nor diabetes, patients with periodontal disease alone, and patients with both diseases. PMID:20682019

  9. Patterns of salivary analytes provide diagnostic capacity for distinguishing chronic adult periodontitis from health.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Schuster, Julie L; Stevens, Jason; Dawson, Dolph; Kryscio, Richard J; Lin, Yushin; Thomas, Mark V; Miller, Craig S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary biomarker discovery requires identification of analytes with high discriminatory capacity to distinguish disease from health, including day-to-day variations that occur in analyte levels. In this study, seven biomarkers associated with inflammatory and tissue destructive processes of periodontal disease were investigated. In a prospective cohort study design, analyte expression levels were determined in unstimulated whole saliva samples collected on multiple occasions from 30 healthy adults (i.e., orally and systemically) and 50 chronic adult periodontitis patients. Salivary levels of IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-8, and albumin were significantly elevated (5.4 to 12.6X) and levels of IFNα were consistently lower (8.7X) in periodontitis patients compared with the daily variation observed in healthy adults. ROC analyses of IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-8 yielded areas under the curves of 0.963-0.984 for discriminating periodontitis from health. These results demonstrate that levels of salivary bioanalytes of patients who have periodontitis are uniquely different from normal levels found in healthy subjects, and a panel consisting of IL-1β, MMP-8 and IL-6 shows particular diagnostic potential.

  10. Interdisciplinary orthodontic treatment for a patient with generalized aggressive periodontitis: Assessment of IgG antibodies to identify type of periodontitis and correct timing of treatment.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yoshihito; Tomikawa, Kazuya; Deguchi, Toru; Honjo, Tadashi; Suzuki, Koji; Kono, Takayuki; Kuboki, Takuo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a great challenge to clinicians when providing orthodontic treatment because of the potential for progression of periodontal disease. In this article, we report the successful comprehensive orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion and severe crowding in an adult with generalized aggressive periodontitis. A woman, aged 22 years 7 months, with a chief complaint of incisal crowding was diagnosed with a skeletal Class I malocclusion associated with severe anterior crowding, possibly worsened by generalized aggressive periodontitis. In addition to a periodontal examination, a blood IgG antibody titer analysis and microbiologic examination for periodontal pathogens were used to diagnose the type of periodontal disease and determine the proper timing to initiate orthodontic treatment. The total active treatment period was 28 months, followed by periodontal prostheses and regeneration therapy. Consequently, satisfactory facial profile, occlusion, and periodontal health were maintained for at least 36 months. These results indicate that efficient screening is important for providing successful orthodontic treatment in patients with advanced periodontal disease. This report also demonstrates the diagnostic importance of blood IgG antibody titer assays and microbiologic examinations to detect periodontal pathogens.

  11. Non-surgical periodontal management in scleroderma disease patients.

    PubMed

    Laforgia, A; Corsalini, M; Stefanachi, G; Tafuri, S; Ballini, A; Pettini, F; Di Venere, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the periodontal status of people with scleroderma and their response to non-surgical treatment protocol aimed at controlling the evolution of the disease. The response to non-surgical periodontal treatment was tested on patients belonging to a scleroderma group and a control group: the data show an improvement of the periodontal conditions of all these patients in response to treatment. When compared on the same diagram, a slight remission of the periodontal disease was obtained in both scleroderma and healthy patients. This highlights the benefit to soft tissues produced by non-surgical periodontal treatment also in patients affected by systemic diseases.

  12. Oral Chlamydia trachomatis in Patients with Established Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Susan G.; Lopatin, Dennis E.; Foxman, Betsy; Burt, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Periodontitis is considered a consequence of a pathogenic microbial infection at the periodontal site and host susceptibility factors. Periodontal research supports the association of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Bacteroides forsythus, and periodontitis; however causality has not been demonstrated. In pursuit of the etiology of periodontitis, we hypothesized that the intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, may play a role. As a first step, a cross-sectional study of dental school clinic patients with established periodontitis were assessed for the presence of C. trachomatis in the oral cavity, and in particular from the lining epithelium of periodontal sites. C. trachomatis was detected using a direct fluorescent monoclonal antibody (DFA) in oral specimens from 7% (6/87) of the patients. Four patients tested positive in specimens from the lining epithelium of diseased periodontal sites, one patient tested positive in healthy periodontal sites, and one patient tested positive in the general mucosal specimen. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary evidence of C. trachomatis in the periodontal sites. Planned studies include the use of a more precise periodontal epithelial cell collection device, the newer nucleic acid amplification techniques to detect C. trachomatis, and additional populations to determine the association of C. trachomatis and periodontitis. PMID:11218493

  13. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Rui V; Haas, Alex N; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    A decade has passed since we first reviewed the epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Latin America. At that time, lack of population-based studies was the norm and our conclusions were based on very limited evidence. The aim of the present comprehensive review was to update and expand our previous work by providing a broad overview of Latin America and its current social, economic and demographic status and by focusing on the epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Latin American adults published in the last 15 years. The amount of periodontal epidemiological data available has increased but is still restricted to a few countries only. The scope of the literature available has also broadened to include oral health-related quality of life and systemic interactions; however, most studies had methodological limitations that might have biased their results. In general, periodontitis was very prevalent, but severe periodontal destruction was localized. Besides being associated with well-established risk factors, periodontitis was associated with demographics and socio-economic factors in Latin American populations. To advance epidemiological knowledge, population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, using appropriate methodologies, should be the future focus of the research agenda of researchers and public health planners in Latin American countries.

  14. Effects of periodontal therapy on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tze-Fang; Jen, I-An; Chou, Chyuan; Lei, Yen-Ping

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported increased incidence, prevalence and acuity of periodontitis in adults with diabetes and some have also suggested that treating periodontal disease may improve glycemic control in diabetic patients. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of different periodontal therapies on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and periodontal disease. We searched the Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Library (Central) databases up to January 2014 for relevant studies pertaining to periodontal treatments and glycemic control in adults with T2DM. The search terms were periodontal treatment/periodontal therapy, diabetes/diabetes mellitus, periodontitis/periodontal and glycemic control. The primary outcome measure taken from the included studies was glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). We compared differences in patients' pre- and post-intervention HbA1c results between a treatment group receiving scaling and root planing (SRP) combined with administration of oral doxycycline (n=71) and controls receiving SRP alone or SRP plus placebo (n=72). Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta Analysis software. Nineteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. Four trials involving a total of 143 patients with T2DM and periodontal disease were determined to be eligible for analysis. Data of 1 study were not retained for meta-analysis because HbA1c results were recorded as median with IQR. Meta-analysis of the included 3 studies revealed no significant differences in HbA1c results between the periodontal treatment group (n=71) and control group (n=72) (HbA1c SMD=-0.238, 95% CI=-0.616 to 0.140; P=0.217). Systemic doxycycline added to SRP does not significantly improve metabolic control in patients with T2DM and chronic periodontitis. Current evidence is insufficient to support a significant association between periodontal therapy and metabolic control in this patient population. However, evidence

  15. Oral self-care and periodontal health indicators among adults with diabetes in Finland.

    PubMed

    Karikoski, A; Ilanne-Parikka, P; Murtomaa, H

    2001-12-01

    We assessed the effects of oral self-care on periodontal health indicators among adults with diabetes. The sample consisted of 120 dentate individuals, all of whom were regular patients at the Salo Regional Hospital Diabetes Clinic in southwest Finland. Clinical periodontal examination included identification of visible plaque, the presence of calculus, and use of the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). A questionnaire focused on self-treatment, self-prevention, and self-diagnosis of oral diseases, utilization of dental services, and patients' knowledge and attitudes towards oral health. The New Century model of oral health promotion was used as a theoretical framework for analysis of determinants of oral self-care. Although individuals aged 40 years or older were more frequent interdental cleaners, significantly better oral health indicators were found among younger patients. Women reported brushing their teeth more frequently, and differences in plaque and calculus indices were significantly lower than those of men. Self-reported good oral condition was strongly associated with frequent dental visits and less plaque and calculus. No missing teeth and age less than 40 years were predictors of lower plaque, calculus, and CPITN scores. A significant association was found only between frequent dental visits and reduced amount of calculus. Self-reported frequency of oral health habits among adults with diabetes seemed to have little effect on periodontal health indicators. Adults with diabetes should benefit from comprehensive oral self-care, and more attention is needed for improving the quality and outcome of these habits.

  16. Monocytic TNF alpha secretion patterns in IDDM patients with periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Salvi, G E; Collins, J G; Yalda, B; Arnold, R R; Lang, N P; Offenbacher, S

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify whether monocytic TNF alpha secretion patterns could serve as a potential phenotypic discriminator for periodontal disease susceptibility within insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients. In 32 IDDM individuals the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated monocytic TNF alpha secretion dose-response characteristics were analyzed and related to two different periodontal status categories. Diabetics were divided into group A (gingivitis or mild periodontal disease) and group B (moderate to severe periodontal disease). In addition, 17 non-diabetic individuals with various degrees of periodontal disease served as control patients. Diabetics as a group had a significantly higher monocytic TNF alpha production in response to increasing Porphyromonas gingivalis A 7436 lipopolysaccharide concentrations (0, 0.003, 0.03, 0.3 and 3.0 micrograms/ml) as compared to non-diabetic patients with gingivitis or adult periodontitis (p < 0.05). A significant difference in the dose response was also noted in the level of TNF alpha secreted as a function of P. gingivalis LPS concentrations between group A and B diabetics, as determined by two-way repeated measurements ANOVA (p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the mean HbA1C between the two diabetic groups, and the TNF alpha level was not significantly associated with the HbA1C level within diabetic patients. These data suggest that the diabetic state results in an upregulated monocytic TNF alpha secretion phenotype (4.6-fold increase) which, in the presence of Gram-negative bacterial challenge, is associated with a more severe periodontal disease expression. In addition, approximately 40% (10 of 24) IDDM periodontitis patients in group B demonstrated a 62-fold elevation in TNF alpha secretion relative to non-diabetic gingivitis or periodontitis patients and a 13.5-fold increase relative to IDDM group A (gingivitis or mild periodontitis) patients.

  17. Periodontitis patient and the spouse: periodontal bacteria before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    von Troil-Lindén, B; Alaluusua, S; Wolf, J; Jousimies-Somer, H; Torppa, J; Asikainen, S

    1997-12-01

    Suspected periodontal pathogens can be transmitted between spouses. The treatment response may be unsuccessful in periodontitis patients, if the spouse harbors these bacteria. The aim of the present 6-month follow-up study was to clarify whether the microbiological treatment outcome of periodontitis patients is related to the detection of suspected periodontal pathogens in the saliva of the spouse. 10 patients with advanced periodontitis and their spouses were included in the study. The patients received mechanical periodontal treatment and 500 mg metronidazole systemically 2x a day for 7 days. The presence of visible plaque, gingival bleeding after probing, suppuration, supragingival and subgingival calculus and pocket depths were assessed at baseline and 1 and 6 months after treatment. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia/Prevotella nigrescens, Campylobacter rectus and Peptostreptococcus micros were cultured from pooled subgingival samples from the patients and from salivary samples from the spouses at corresponding occasions. Periodontal conditions in the patients improved after treatment as determined by the significantly lower values of clinical variables 1 and 6 months after treatment compared to those at baseline. However, the re-emergence of periodontal bacteria after treatment of the patients was not related to the concurrent detection of the respective bacteria in the saliva of the spouses. In this study design, it seemed that the salivary bacterial load in the spouse was of minor importance for the microbiological treatment outcome of the patient.

  18. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis. PMID:27651883

  19. Periodontal treatment reduces chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn

    2014-06-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P < 0.01, periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P < 0.01). After completion of periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  20. Periodontitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... This is called gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontal disease. Ongoing inflammation eventually causes pockets to develop between ... you to a specialist in the treatment of periodontal disease (periodontist). Diagnosis of periodontitis is generally simple. Diagnosis ...

  1. Supportive periodontal therapy and periodontal biotype as prognostic factors in implants placed in patients with a history of periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Aisa, Francisco J.; Estefanía-Fresco, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate bone loss around implants placed in patients with a history of treated chronic periodontitis and who did or did not attend supportive periodontal therapy, after one year in function. Furthermore, the influence of periodontal biotype and level of plaque was also evaluated. Material and Methods: Forty-nine patients participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects had a history of chronic periodontitis, which had been previously treated. After the active treatment, 27 patients attended supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) and the rest did not (No SPT). The O’Leary plaque index and periodontal biotype were recorded for each subject and 246 Astra Tech® OsseospeedTM implants were radiographically analysed (123 placed in SPT patients and 123 in No SPT patients) at the time of loading and one year later, measuring marginal bone loss with the program Dental Studio NX 6.0®. The statistical analysis was performed with Windows SPSS, applying Pearson’s correlation index and the Kruskal-Wallis and U-Mann Whitney non-parametric tests. Results: Six patients were found to have periimplantitis and sixteen mucositis. The survival rate was 99.59% (100% SPT and 99.18% No SPT). Mean bone loss was 0.39 mm (range [-0.71 - 8.05]). Among SPT patients, 95% of the implants had losses less than or equal to the mean (mean bone loss of 0.16 mm) compared to 53.7% for the No SPT group (mean bone loss of 0.62 mm). A statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between bone loss around the implant and the patient’s periodontal biotype and plaque index. Conclusions: The marginal bone loss around implants in patients with treated chronic periodontitis is minimal if they are in a controlled SPT programme and there is individual control of plaque index. Moreover, the presence of a thin periodontal biotype represents a risk factor for additional bone loss. Key words:Peri-implantitis, chronic periodontitis, bacterial plaque, periodontal biotype. PMID:23722147

  2. Heterogeneity of IgG glycosylation in adult periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Novak, J; Tomana, M; Shah, G R; Brown, R; Mestecky, J

    2005-10-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of bacterial etiology. In many other chronic inflammatory diseases, IgG glycans are galactose-deficient and thus capable of complement activation through the lectin pathway. In this study, we examined whether IgG in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and IgG locally produced by plasma cells in gingiva of periodontal disease patients, display altered glycosylation. We developed a lectin-ELISA to measure levels of galactose-deficient IgG in the fluids and immunofluorescence staining to detect galactose-deficient IgG-producing cells in gingiva. Our results indicated higher levels of galactose-deficient IgG in sera and gingival crevicular fluid from periodontal disease patients, compared with levels in healthy controls. Furthermore, gingivae from periodontal disease patients exhibited infiltration of IgG-producing plasma cells; many of them contained galactose-deficient IgG in the cytoplasm. Analysis of our data suggests that IgG secreted by B-cells was aberrantly glycosylated, which resulted in the production of pro-inflammatory galactose-deficient IgG.

  3. Assignment of Dental School Patients Using Periodontal Treatment Need Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, Ala

    1990-01-01

    The validity of the Periodontal Treatment Need System and the Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need as screening tests for allocation of patients to dental students was assessed and compared. Sixty-one patients reporting to the Department of Periodontology at the University of Oslo were studied. (MLW)

  4. The oral cleanliness and periodontal health of UK adults in 1998.

    PubMed

    Morris, A J; Steele, J; White, D A

    2001-08-25

    Periodontal disease continues to be a major concern for dentists and patients. This paper reports the findings of the 1998 UK Adult Dental Health survey in relation to plaque, calculus, periodontal pocketing and loss of attachment. It is apparent from this study that moderate periodontal disease remains commonplace amongst UK adults and that the associated risk factors of plaque and calculus are in abundance, even amongst those who profess to be motivated about their oral health and attend the dentist regularly. The continued high prevalence of disease needs to be seen in the context of the far larger number of people who are now potentially at some risk, particularly in the older age groups, because of improvements in tooth retention. However, the cumulative effect of disease means that control of the periodontal diseases, even mild and slowly progressing disease, will be a key issue if large numbers of teeth are to be retained into old age. If that level of control is to be achieved we need a widespread improvement in our management of the disease, particularly in our ability to improve the oral cleanliness of the UK population.

  5. Utility of Periodontal exploration in patients with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Santos-García, Rocío; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Cordero, Mario D.; Rios-Santos, José V.; Jaramillo-Santos, María R.; Climent, Mariano H.

    2012-01-01

    Objetive: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with unknown etiology, which affects predominantly women. Mitochondrial alteration could have a role in the pathophysilogical mechanisms of inflammatory conditions as FM and periodontitis. The aim of the present study was assay the relationship between both diseases and mitochondrial dysfunction. Patient and Methods: We study the presence of periodontitis in twelve patients diagnosed of FM and mitochondrial dysfunction described. The diagnosis of FM was established according to ACR criteria and clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: Only one patients of twelve included and agreed to participate in the study were diagnosed with periodontitis. Conclusions: Pending studies with larger numbers of patients, we can conclude that mitochondrial dysfunction in FM is a itself event not related with periodontitis. Periodontitis could be considered a exclusion criterion in all studies about mitochondrial dysfunction in patients. Key words:Peridontitis, fibromyalgia, mitocondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress. PMID:24558523

  6. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Bagan, Leticia; Bagan, Jose V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontitis has been regarded as a potential risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A systematic review is made to determine whether nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with RA offers benefits in terms of the clinical activity and inflammatory markers of the disease. Material and Methods A search was made of the Medline-PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Scopus databases to identify studies on the relationship between the two disease processes, and especially on the effects of nonsurgical treatment in patients of this kind. The search was based on the following keywords: rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontitis (MeSH), rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontal treatment. Results Eight articles on the nonsurgical treatment of patients with periodontitis and RA were finally included in the study. All of them evaluated clinical (DAS28) and laboratory test activity (ESR, CRP, IL-6, TNFα) before and after treatment. A clear decrease in DAS28 score and ESR was recorded, while other parameters such as CRP, IL-6 and TNFα showed a non significant tendency to decrease as a result of treatment. Conclusions Nonsurgical treatment improved the periodontal condition of patients with periodontitis and RA, with beneficial effects upon the clinical and laboratory test parameters (DAS28 and ESR), while other inflammatory markers showed a marked tendency to decrease. However, all the studies included in the review involved small samples sizes and follow-up periods of no more than 6 months. Larger and particularly longitudinal studies are therefore needed to more firmly establish possible significant relations between the two disease processes. Key words:Periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal treatment. PMID:26946202

  7. A comparative study of combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and clear aligners in patients with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose With the increasing prevalence of orthodontic treatment in adults, clear aligner treatments are becoming more popular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic treatment on periodontal tissue and to compare orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances (FA) to clear aligner treatment (CAT) in periodontitis patients. Methods A total of 35 patients who underwent orthodontic treatment in the Department of Periodontology were included in this study. After periodontal treatment with meticulous oral hygiene education, patients underwent treatment with FA or CAT, and this study analyzed patient outcomes depending on the treatment strategy. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after orthodontic treatment, and the duration of treatment was compared between these two groups. Results The overall plaque index, the gingival index, and probing depth improved after orthodontic treatment (P<0.01). The overall bone level also improved (P=0.045). However, the bone level changes in the FA and CAT groups were not significantly different. Significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups in probing depth, change in probing depth, and duration of treatment (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups regarding the plaque index, changes in the plaque index, the gingival index, changes in the gingival index, or changes in the alveolar bone level. The percentage of females in the CAT group (88%) was significantly greater than in the FA group (37%) (P<0.01). Conclusions After orthodontic treatment, clinical parameters were improved in the FA and CAT groups with meticulous oral hygiene education and plaque control. Regarding plaque index and gingival index, no significant differences were found between these two groups. We suggest that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment can improve patients’ periodontal health irrespective of orthodontic techniques. PMID:26734489

  8. Periodontal disease in HIV-infected adults in the HAART era: Clinical, immunological, and microbiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Gonçalves, Barbara Mulatinho Lopo; Fontes, Tatiana Vasconcellos

    2013-10-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has decreased the incidence and prevalence of several oral manifestations such as oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, and Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected patients. Regarding periodontal disease the findings are not clear. This disease represents a group of chronic oral diseases characterized by infection and inflammation of the periodontal tissues. These tissues surround the teeth and provide periodontal protection (the gingival tissue) and periodontal support (periodontal ligament, root cementum, alveolar bone). Clinical, immunological, and microbiological aspects of these diseases, such as linear gingival erythema (LGE), necrotizing periodontal diseases (NPD) (necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis [NUG], necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis [NUP] and necrotizing stomatitis), and chronic periodontitis, have been widely studied in HIV-infected individuals, but without providing conclusive results. The purpose of this review was to contribute to a better overall understanding of the probable impact of HIV-infection on the characteristics of periodontal infections.

  9. Association between periodontal disease and endothelial dysfunction in smoking patients.

    PubMed

    Velosa-Porras, Juliana; Escobar-Arregoces, Francina; Latorre-Uriza, Catalina; Ferro-Camargo, María B; Ruiz, Álvaro J; Uriza-Carrasco, Luis F

    2016-04-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in the impact of oral health on cardiovascular disease, particularly regarding the effects of chronic infections such as periodontitis on the endothelium. The aim of this study was to evaluate in healthy smokers whether there are any significant differences in the frequency of endothelial dysfunction between subjects with chronic moderate to severe periodontal disease and periodontally healthy subjects. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted. The target population was adults older than 40 years of age. Blood tests were performed to determine values of CBC, glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDLC. Periodontal examinations and probing were conducted with a Florida Probe®, and standardized procedures were used to measure flow-mediated dilation. Out of 150 subjects [69 male (46%) and 81 female (54%)], 75 (50%) had chronic periodontitis. The mean value for baseline flow-mediated dilation was 4.04% and the mean value for final flow-mediated dilation was 4.66%, with a 0.62% mean difference showing a statistically significant increase (p<0.001).This study found no significant difference in the flow-mediated dilation values between periodontally healthy subjects and those with periodontitis, in contrast to the literature, which suggests a negative impact of periodontal disease on endothelial function.

  10. Histopathologic and histomorphometric studies and determination of IL-8 in patients with periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Koss, Myriam A.; Castro, Cecilia E.; Carino, Silvia; López, Maria E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone resorption. Objective: The aim of this study was to make a quantitative evaluation of the gingival tissue components in biopsies from patients with different clinical states of periodontal disease and to determine the relationship between the presence of interleukin-8 and the tissue destruction. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 33 biopsies from adult subjects. A total of 25 periodontal patients were sub-classified on the basis of the clinical and radiographic criteria in mild, moderate and advanced periodontitis. Gingival samples were obtained from patients in the course of basic periodontal surgeries as a muco-periostic collate. Data were analyzed by the SPSS system. Results: Collagen fibres decreased as non-specific chronic states increased. A lymphocyte inflammatory infiltrate changed to a lymphoplasmocytary form. Reactivity to interleukin-8 was detected with the severity of the histopathologic diagnoses; however there was no association with the clinical diagnoses. Conclusions: Histopathology and histomorphometry of gingival tissue changed with the degree of inflammation. No evidence of interleukin-8 as a biomarker for clinical diagnoses of periodontitis was obtained. PMID:24872619

  11. The impact of lifestyles on the periodontal health of adults in Udupi district: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nishu; Acharya, Shashidhar; Prabhakar, Ramprasad Vasthare; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Singhal, Deepak; Singla, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the impact of different lifestyle factors on periodontal health of adults. (2) To assess the impact of overall/combined lifestyle variable (calculated by health practice index [HPI]) on periodontal health of adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of a structured questionnaire on HPI, oral health-related behavior, and personal habits as well as sociodemographic variables was conducted on 800 subjects aged 20–50 years attending dental outreach set-ups of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Clinical examination for periodontal status was done by recording loss of attachment scores using community periodontal index (FDI/WHO-1982). Statistical analysis was done by bivariate analysis using Chi-square followed by multivariate analysis to obtain adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: After adjusting for all the confounding variables in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables that showed an independent association with periodontitis were age, location, marital status, smoking, hours of sleep per night, physical activity, and overall poor lifestyles. Conclusion: Our results support studying a combined approach using various lifestyle behaviors for controlling chronic periodontitis. Necessary public health action on conditions which determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviors across population is needed which is possible by patient's involvement in self-care by promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:27563209

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis among adults with or without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mihee; Kim, Hee Yeon; Seok, Hannah; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Young Soo; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Im; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Ko, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Chae, Hiun Suk; Sohn, Tae Seo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study examined prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis in representative samples of Korean adults, with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 4,477 adults (≥ 30 years old) were selected from 8,057 individuals who completed a nutrition survey, a self-reported general health behavior questionnaire, an oral examination, an oral hygiene behaviors survey, and laboratory tests. DM was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, or self-reported diagnosed diabetes, or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin. The community periodontal index was used to assess periodontitis status and comparisons between the periodontitis and the non-periodontitis group, were performed, according to the presence of DM. Risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM and without DM were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in adults with DM (43.7%) than in those without DM (25%, p < 0.001). In adults without DM, risk factors for periodontitis were older age, male, urban habitation, waist circumference, smoking, oral pain, and less frequent tooth brushing. Significant risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM were the smoking, oral pain, and not-using an oral hygiene product. Conclusions: Adults with DM have an increased risk of periodontitis than those without DM. Current smoking and oral pain increase this risk. Using an oral hygiene product can reduce risk of periodontal disease in adults with DM. PMID:27604799

  13. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  14. Personal exposure to particulate matter and inflammation among patients with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Masumi, Shin-Ichi; Weng, Shao-Ping; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2015-01-01

    The association between particulate air pollution and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been well documented in epidemiological studies. Periodontitis has been linked to elevated hs-CRP levels in recent studies. It is still unknown whether patients with periodontal infections are more susceptible to particulate air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate whether particles with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) had greater effects on increasing hs-CRP among patients with periodontal infections compared to periodontally healthy individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study on two panels of adult subjects, 100 adult patients with chronic periodontitis and 100 periodontally healthy adults, in order to evaluate the association between particulate matter (PM) and hs-CRP. We collected blood samples from each subject, measured hs-CRP and monitored average exposure to PM2.5 over 24h four times during 2010 to 2012. We used mixed-effects models to estimate the association between PM2.5 and hs-CRP and adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. We found that a 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 3.22% (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.21, 5.23; p<0.01) increase in hs-CRP among all adult subjects. The effect of PM2.5 in patients was significantly higher than the effect in healthy participants. In the healthy adult panel, a 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 1.17% (95% CI: 0.54, 1.80; p<0.01) increase in hs-CRP. For adults in the patient group, a 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 9.62% (95% CI: 7.05, 12.19; p<0.01) increase in hs-CRP. We concluded that personal exposure to PM2.5 was associated with increases in hs-CRP among adult subjects. The presence of periodontal disease led to a considerably increased effect magnitude by more than eight fold.

  15. Research on plasma and saliva levels of some bivalent cations in patients with chronic periodontitis (salivary cations in chronic periodontitis).

    PubMed

    Manea, A; Nechifor, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic periodontitis can stand behind modifications in the salivary and blood concentration of some bivalent cations (Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper). For this purpose, we formed a group of 30 adult patients with clinically onset chronic periodontitis, and another one of 30 healthy patients as control. Both groups were free from acute oral pathology and general illnesses. The groups were divided again according to the habit of smoking. Total saliva samples were obtained as "first time in the morning", then weighed and processed. Cations were read on Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and by Ion Chromatography (Magnesium). The same patients were required to undergo laboratory blood tests for Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc. Data obtained was normalised, then statistically interpreted using two-tailed heteroscedastic t-Student tests. Our data confirmed the existence of a connection between salivary calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper, and of blood magnesium, and chronic periodontitis. Salivary calcium and magnesium are affected by smoking.

  16. Application of transtheoretical model to assess the compliance of chronic periodontitis patients to periodontal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Shilpa; Thomas, Raison; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present cross-sectional survey study was conducted to assess whether the transtheoretical model for oral hygiene behavior was interrelated in theoretically consistent directions in chronic periodontitis patients and its applicability to assess the compliance of the chronic periodontitis patients to the treatment suggested. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 chronic periodontitis patients were selected for the proposed study. The selected patients were given four questionnaires that were constructed based on transtheoretical model (TTM), and the patients were divided subsequently into five different groups (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance groups) based on their answers to the questionnaires. Then, each patient was given four appointments for their periodontal treatment spaced with a time gap of 10 days. The patients visit for each appointments scheduled to them was documented. The results obtained were assessed using TTM. Results: Higher mean pro scores of decisional balance, self-efficacy, and process of change scores was recorded in maintenance group followed by action group, preparation group, contemplation group, and precontemplation group, respectively, whereas higher mean cons score was recorded in precontemplation group followed by contemplation group, preparation group, action group, and maintenance group, respectively. The difference scores of TTM constructs were statistically highly significant between all the five groups. Furthermore, the number of appointment attended in were significantly more than maintenance group followed by action group, preparation group, contemplation group, and precontemplation group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that transtheoretical model can be successfully applied to chronic periodontitis patients to assess their compliance to the suggested periodontal treatment. PMID:27307663

  17. [Clinical and microbiological study of adult periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Nogueira Moreira, A; Fernández Canigia, L; Furman, C; Chiappe, V; Marcantoni, M; Bianchini, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a microbiological evaluation of sites with and without clinical evidence of moderate and severe periodontitis and their correlation with clinical parameters. A total of 52 disease sites and 10 healthy sites were selected according to clinical criteria. The following clinical indexes were measured for all the sites: plaque index, gingival index, blood on probing, depth on probing and insertion level. Samples of subgingival plaque were collected for culture and for differential counts of microbial morphotypes. In disease sites the most frequently isolated were: Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens (65%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (23%), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (23%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (10%) and Peptostreptococcus sp. (31%). The aerobic gram-positive microflora was predominant in healthy sites. Significant differences were observed in microbial morphotypes between healthy and disease sites: cocci 18.71% and 78.90%, motile rods 46.12% and 16.70%, total spirochetes 26.48% and 2.80%, respectively. The presence of motile rods, spirochetes and P. intermedia/nigrescens were the parameters with most sensitivity to suspect periodontal disease. There were significant differences in the subgingival microflora between healthy and disease sites in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis.

  18. Framingham cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Juliana Rico; dos Santos, Isac Pinheiro; de Camargo, Lilian Flosi; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; de Toledo, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa; Monteiro, Sally Cristina Moutinho

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition that has been associated to a risk factor for the development of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship still needs to be clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk in obese patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 obese patients were evaluated for anthropometric data (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, body fat), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glycemia and periodontal parameters (visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL)). Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to the periodontal characteristics found: Group O-PD: Obese patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 45), 22 men and 23 women; and Group O-sPD: Obese patients without chronic periodontitis (n = 42), 17 men and 25 women. Patients had a BMI mean of 35.2 (±5.1) kg/m2 . Group O-PD showed a similarity between the genders regarding age, SBP, DBP, cholesterol, HDL, GBI, VPI, PPD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥4 mm. O-PD women showed greater glycemia level and smoking occurrence, but O-PD men presented a 13% - risk over of developing coronary artery disease in 10 years than O-PD women, 9% - risk over than O-sPD men and 15% - risk over than O-sPD women, by the Framingham Score. Conclusions: It was concluded that obesity and periodontal disease are cardiovascular risk factors and that the two associated inflammatory conditions potentially increases the risk for heart diseases. PMID:24744538

  19. Impaired neutrophil directional chemotactic accuracy in chronic periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Helen M; Ling, Martin R; Insall, Robert; Kalna, Gabriela; Spengler, Julia; Grant, Melissa M; Chapple, Iain LC

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the chemotactic accuracy of peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with chronic periodontitis compared with matched healthy controls, before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Material & Methods Neutrophils were isolated from patients and controls (n = 18) by density centrifugation. Using the Insall chamber and video microscopy, neutrophils were analysed for directional chemotaxis towards N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine [fMLP (10 nM), or CXCL8 (200 ng/ml)]. Circular statistics were utilized for the analysis of cell movement. Results Prior to treatment, neutrophils from patients with chronic periodontitis had significantly reduced speed, velocity and chemotactic accuracy compared to healthy controls for both chemoattractants. Following periodontal treatment, patient neutrophils continued to display reduced speed in response to both chemoattractants. However, velocity and accuracy were normalized for the weak chemoattractant CXCL8 while they remained significantly reduced for fMLP. Conclusions Chronic periodontitis is associated with reduced neutrophil chemotaxis, and this is only partially restored by successful treatment. Dysfunctional neutrophil chemotaxis may predispose patients with periodontitis to their disease by increasing tissue transit times, thus exacerbating neutrophil-mediated collateral host tissue damage. PMID:25360483

  20. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 – 2012

    PubMed Central

    Eke, Paul I.; Dye, Bruce A.; Wei, Liang; Slade, Gary D.; Thornton-Evans, Gina O.; Borgnakke, Wenche S.; Taylor, George W.; Page, Roy C.; Beck, James D.; Genco, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the US adult population using combined data from the 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods Estimates were derived for dentate adults 30 years and older from the civilian non-institutionalized population. Periodontitis was defined by combinations of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and periodontal probing depth (PPD) from six sites per tooth on all teeth, except third molars, using standard surveillance case definitions. For the first time in NHANES history, sufficient numbers of Non-Hispanic Asians were sampled in 2011–2012 to provide reliable estimates of their periodontitis prevalence. Results In 2009–2012, 46% of US adults representing 64.7 million people had periodontitis, with 8.9% having severe periodontitis. Overall, 3.8% of all periodontal sites (10.6% of all teeth) had PPD≥4 mm and 19.3% of sites (37.4% teeth) had CAL≥3 mm. Periodontitis prevalence was positively associated with increasing age and was higher among males. Periodontitis prevalence was highest in Hispanics (63.5%) and Non-Hispanic blacks (59.1%), followed by Non-Hispanic Asian Americans (50.0%), and lowest in Non-Hispanic whites (40.8%). Prevalence varied two-fold between the lowest and highest levels of socioeconomic status, whether defined by poverty or education. Conclusion(s) This study confirms a high prevalence of periodontitis in US adults aged 30 years and older. Prevalence was greater in Non-Hispanic Asians than Non-Hispanic whites, although lower than other minorities. The distribution provides valuable information for population-based action to prevent periodontitis in US adults. PMID:25688694

  1. Relationship between overall and abdominal obesity and periodontal disease among young adults.

    PubMed

    Amin, H El-Sayed

    2010-04-01

    To assess overall and abdominal obesity and their relation to periodontal disease among young adults, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured and clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival index (GI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were estimated. The sample comprised 380 adults (170 males and 210 females) aged 20-26 years. There was a significant correlation between both BMI and WC and CAL, GI and CPI in females. In males, a significant correlation was only recorded between WC and GI and CPI. Overall and abdominal obesity in young adult females and abdominal obesity in males were significantly associated with periodontal disease.

  2. Periodontal treatment in a generalized severe chronic periodontitis patient: A case report with 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction. PMID:26038666

  3. Periodontal treatment in a generalized severe chronic periodontitis patient: A case report with 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction.

  4. Microbiological and Clinical Effects of Sitafloxacin and Azithromycin in Periodontitis Patients Receiving Supportive Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Okui, Takafumi; Ito, Harue; Nakajima, Mayuka; Honda, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Yasuko; Tabeta, Koichi; Akazawa, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Sitafloxacin (STFX) is a newly developed quinolone that has robust antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic bacteria. We previously reported that oral administration of STFX during supportive periodontal therapy was as effective as conventional mechanical debridement under local anesthesia microbiologically and clinically for 3 months. The aim of the present study was to examine the short-term and long-term microbiological and clinical effects of systemic STFX and azithromycin (AZM) on active periodontal pockets during supportive periodontal therapy. Fifty-one patients receiving supportive periodontal therapy were randomly allocated to the STFX group (200 mg/day of STFX for 5 days) or the AZM group (500 mg/day of AZM for 3 days). The microbiological and clinical parameters were examined until 12 months after the systemic administration of each drug. The concentration of each drug in periodontal pockets and the antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates were also analyzed. The proportions of red complex bacteria, i.e., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, which are the representative periodontopathic bacteria, were significantly reduced at 1 month and remained lower at 12 months than those at baseline in both the STFX and AZM groups. Clinical parameters were significantly improved over the 12-month period in both groups. An increase in the MIC of AZM against clinical isolates was observed in the AZM group. These results indicate that monotherapy with systemic STFX and AZM might be an alternative treatment during supportive periodontal therapy in patients for whom invasive mechanical treatment is inappropriate. (This study has been registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network-Clinical Trials Registry [UMIN-CTR] under registration number UMIN000007834.) PMID:26729495

  5. Implant outcomes poorer in patients with history of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Keenan, James R

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesMedline and Embase databases and bibliographies of all included articles and relevant review articles were screened for possible inclusion.Study selectionLongitudinal studies were included reporting on implant survival, success, incidence of peri-implantitis, bone loss and periodontal status and on partially dentate patients with a history of treatment for periodontitis. There were no language restrictions for the included studies.Data extraction and synthesisAuthors independently and in duplicate assessed the studies for eligibility and data extraction. Disagreements were resolved by discussion and consensus. The methodological quality assessment of the included studies was done using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Confounding factors such as smoking, systemic disease influencing osseointegration, chemotherapy and radiation were assessed and adjusted in the analysis. Data were organised into tables and grouped in accordance with the study design.ResultsTwenty-four studies reported in 27 publications were included. Implant survival and success rate were higher in periodontally healthy patients.Twelve prospective cohort studies, five case series with a control group, four retrospective cohort studies and three studies with a sub group comparison were included.Bone loss and peri-implantitis were increased in patients with a history of treated periodontitis. More complications were reported in patients presenting with more severe forms of periodontitis. High heterogeneity among the studies in terms of study design, population, therapy, unit of analysis, inconsistent definitions of baseline and outcomes, inadequate reporting and confounding factors meant a meta-analysis could not be performed.Most of the studies showed better implant survival rates for the non-periodontitis group ranging from 91.67% to 100% compared to the treated periodontitis group 79.22% to 100% over a 1.2 to 16 year follow-up.ConclusionsImplants placed in patients treated for

  6. Orthodontic approach for patients with severe periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Arun, Tülin; Sayinsu, Korkmaz; Nalbantgil, Didem

    2005-01-01

    Although comprehensive orthodontic treatment cannot preclude the possibility of periodontal disease developing later, it can be a useful part of the overall treatment plan for a patient who already has periodontal involvement. A careful clinical examination must determine the patient's dental health status, including any existing destruction or deficiencies of the teeth and their support, as well as the patient's ability to achieve and maintain good overall oral hygiene. Two major criteria should be considered in the treatment of these patients: (1) the patient should be seen frequently for periodontal maintenance and (2) minimal orthodontic forces should be applied. Segmented archwires could be used for the treatment mechanics. After treatment, splinting of the teeth is necessary both short- and long-term. With this orthodontic approach, both dental esthetics and function improve and can be maintained. A male patient, 50 years of age, with severe periodontal involvement was referred to the authors' clinic, from the periodontal department, for treatment. The mandibular incisors were intruded by using segmental archwires. At the end of treatment, permanent retention was required due to the severe bone loss.

  7. Periodontitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your dentist if you have signs of gum disease. Prevention Good oral hygiene is the best way to prevent periodontitis. This includes thorough tooth brushing and flossing, and regular professional dental cleaning. Preventing and treating ... References Amsterdam JT. ...

  8. Periodontal and coronary heart disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Schmid, Peter; Krennmair, Gerald; Crouse, Stephen F; Green, John S; Sinzinger, Helmut; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal inflammation has been implicated in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary angiography (CA) is used in the assessment of CHD; only a few studies have evaluated periodontal disease (PD) and angiographic measures of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CHD and PD. In this prospective epidemiologic study, 466 patients underwent CA and were assessed for PD. All patients underwent physical, laboratory, cardiac, and dental examination including dental x-rays. Periodontal disease and coronary angiograms were evaluated blindly by a dentist and 2 cardiologists, respectively. A coronary stenosis greater than 50% was ruled as CHD. Periodontal disease was defined and measured with the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN); and if at least 2 sextants (segments dividing mandible and maxilla into 6) were recorded as having CPITN of at least 3 (signifying that sextant had periodontal pocket depth ≥ 3.5 mm), the patient was coded as having PD. Three-hundred forty-nine patients (74.9%) had CHD assessed by CA The CHD patients had PD in 55.6% vs 41.9% in the non-CHD patients (P < .01). The CPITN scores were significantly higher in patients with vs without CHD, 2.43 vs 2.16, respectively (P = .023). After adjusting for age, sex, and risk factors for atherosclerosis with additional inclusion of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PD remained significantly related to CHD (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.1). Other predictors for CHD were male sex, age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes. Our results demonstrate an increased odds ratio for angiographically determined CHD in patients with PD and that CHD and PD may cluster in particular groups of a population. Our data indicate that PD represents a potentially modifiable risk factor that is both preventable and treatable with predictable treatments that pose negligible risk.

  9. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the

  10. PDT in periodontal disease of HAART resistance patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovani, Elcio M.; Noro-Filho, Gilberto A.; Caputo, Bruno V.; Casarin, Renato; Costa, Claudio; Salgado, Daniela; Santos, Camila C.

    2016-03-01

    HIV/Aids patients present a change of microbiota associated with host immunodeficiency. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) showed as a promising and viable alternative in reducing microbiota. Present study evaluate effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in periodontal disease of AIDS patients with highly activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure, measuring the clinical periodontal parameters and periodontal microbiota. Twelve patients with HARRT resistance (R group) divided into two groups (control and PDT) and 12 patients with no HAART resistance (NR group) divided into two groups (control and PDT). The results show the difference in baseline of CD4 cells count, NR group 640.0 +/- 176.2 cells/mm3 R group and 333.3 +/- 205.8 cells / mm3 (p<0.05), and in 8.3% detectable viral load in NR group and 75% detectable (p <0.001) in R group. As clinical periodontal parameters (PD and CAL), PDT was more effective than the control group only in the NR group (p <0.05%), moreover, there was no difference in the evaluation of clinical periodontal parameters between the both R groups (p>0.05%). Microbiological evaluation in R group presents a general reduction in the Aa at 3 and 6 months. Furthermore, demonstrated a reduction of Pg in all groups at 6 months and in R group at 3 months. The impact assessment of photodynamic therapy in patients with different levels of immunosuppression determined that the combination of mechanical periodontal treatment with photodynamic therapy in patients with HAART failure did not cause additional benefits. Therefore, PDT in this study could not been indicated in HAART resistance patients.

  11. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-07-02

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  12. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  13. Relationship between diabetes and periodontal infection

    PubMed Central

    Llambés, Fernando; Arias-Herrera, Santiago; Caffesse, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a high prevalent disease. In the United States 47.2% of adults ≥ 30 years old have been diagnosed with some type of periodontitis. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, with more severe periodontal tissue destruction in diabetic patients and poorer glycemic control in diabetic subjects with periodontal disease. Periodontal treatment can be successful in diabetic patients. Short term effects of periodontal treatment are similar in diabetic patients and healthy population but, more recurrence of periodontal disease can be expected in no well controlled diabetic individuals. However, effects of periodontitis and its treatment on diabetes metabolic control are not clearly defined and results of the studies remain controversial. PMID:26185600

  14. Identification of multipotent stem cells from adult dog periodontal ligament.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhao, Yu-Ming; Lin, Bi-Chen; Yang, Jie; Ge, Li-Hong

    2012-08-01

    Periodontal diseases, which are characterized by destruction of the connective tissues responsible for restraining the teeth within the jaw, are the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontal regeneration mediated by human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) may offer an alternative strategy for the treatment of periodontal disease. Dogs are a widely used large-animal model for the study of periodontal-disease progression, tissue regeneration, and dental implants, but little attention has been paid to the identification of the cells involved in this species. This study aimed to characterize stem cells isolated from canine periodontal ligament (cPDLSCs). The cPDLSCs, like hPDLSCs, showed clonogenic capability and expressed the mesenchymal stem cell markers STRO-1, CD146, and CD105, but not CD34. After induction of osteogenesis, cPDLSCs showed calcium accumulation in vitro. Moreover, cPDLSCs also showed both adipogenic and chondrogenic potential. Compared with cell-free controls, more cementum/periodontal ligament-like structures were observed in CB-17/SCID mice into which cPDLSCs had been transplanted. These results suggest that cPDLSCs are clonogenic, highly proliferative, and have multidifferentiation potential, and that they could be used as a new cellular therapeutic approach to facilitate successful and more predictable regeneration of periodontal tissue using a canine model of periodontal disease.

  15. Is chronic periodontitis premature in systemic lupus erythematosus patients?

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Débora Cerqueira; Ferreira, Gilda Aparecida; Corrêa, Jôice Dias; Mendonça, Santuza Maria Souza; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Lúcio Teixeira, Antônio

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency and severity of chronic periodontitis (CP) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with individuals without rheumatic diseases. Seventy-five patients with SLE were compared to 75 individuals without rheumatic diseases (control group) matched for age, educational level, and income. The activity of SLE was assessed with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000. Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus evaluated SLE-related damage. Dental evaluation included measuring plaque index and parameters of periodontal disease (probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing). Fifty-one (68 %) SLE patients and 42 (56 %) control individuals had CP (p = 0.13). Periodontal status was similar in both groups. Considering only individuals with CP, SLE patients were younger than controls (40.7 ± 9.8 versus 46.14 ± 12.5 years of age, p = 0.02). CP was not associated with activity or therapeutics in SLE patients. Severity of periodontal parameters was similar in SLE patients and control subjects; however, CP occurred earlier in SLE patients.

  16. Prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vielkind, Paul; Jentsch, Holger; Eschrich, Klaus; Rodloff, Arne C; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in shallow, deep and very deep pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy controls and correlated the results with clinical status. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Clinical indices were recorded in a six-point measurement per tooth. From each patient samples of supra and subgingival plaque were taken separately from teeth with shallow, deep and very deep pockets. Samples of supragingival plaque and sulcular microflora were collected from the healthy subjects. All the samples were cultivated on different media at 37̊C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 7 days. All the suspect colonies were identified using a rapid ID 32 A system (bioMèrieux) and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis using an Autoflex II Instrument (Bruker Daltonics) together with in house developed identification software and a reference spectra database. A total of 977 strains were identified as Actinomyces. Actinomyces naeslundii/oris/johnsonii (430 isolates) was the most prevalent species and was found in all patients and in almost all of the healthy subjects. Significant differences (p=0.003) between the groups were found for Actinomyces odontolyticus/meyeri and Actinomyces israelii which were associated with periodontitis patients. Actinomyces dentalis was found in higher percentage (p=0.015) in the periodontitis group. Actinomyces gerencseriae and Actinomyces massiliensis were significantly more often found supragingivally than subgingivally (p=0.004, p=0.022, respectively) in the periodontitis group. Whether some Actinomyces species, definitely important plaque formers, are actively involved in the pathogenicity of chronic periodontitis needs further investigation.

  17. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  18. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  19. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus intermedius in chronic periodontitis patients by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    De La Garza-Ramos, Myriam A; Galán-Wong, Luis J; Caffesse, Raúl G; González-Salazar, Francisco; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito

    2008-01-01

    A Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus intermedius in chronic periodontitis is presented. A total of 180 samples from 65 adults with untreated periodontitis and 17 healthy volunteers were taken and processed in a simple boiling step. Cell lysates were used as DNA source for multiplex PCR assays. Primers were designed from 16S rRNA gene sequences from the GenBank-EMBL database showing specificity for target pathogens. This multiplex PCR system could detect 8.2 P gingivalis and S. intermedius cells. In untreated periodontitis patients, only 78.5% were positive for one or both bacteria; 37% were positive for P gingivalis only, 17% for S. intermedius and 24.5% for both. P. gingivalis was detected in 23.5% of healthy volunteers, while S. intermedius was not detected in the same patients. The distribution of these bacteria was related to the periodontal probing depth, while 95.23% of patients with pockets wih 6 to 7 mm deep were positive for either or both, only 70.45% of of them with 4 to 5 mm pockets were positive.

  20. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba Gingivalis in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian Ardakani, Ahmad; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Haerian Ardakani, Alireza; Zafarbakhsh, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are commensal protozoa which inhabit the human oral cavity. These parasites are found in patients with poor oral hygiene and might be a reason for progressive periodontal diseases. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the frequency of these protozoa in saliva and plaque samples. Materials and Method In this clinical trial, samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected from 46 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. The samples were assessed for the frequency of parasites. Results The frequency of Entamoeba gingivalis was reduced in saliva (p= 0.007) and plaque (p= 0.027) three weeks after the treatment. Likewise, the frequency of Trichomonas tenax reduced in saliva (p= 0.030); however, the decrease was not significant in plaque (p= 0.913). Trichomonas tenax frequency in dental plaque directly related to the severity of periodontitis (r= 0.565, p≤ 0.000). In contrast, the number of Entamoeba gingivalis in both saliva (r= -0.405, p≤ 0.005) and plaque (r= -0.304, p= 0.040) was inversely related with the severity of the periodontal disease. Conclusion Nonsurgical periodontal treatment could reduce the number of Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis in the oral environment of patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:27602391

  1. [Some aspects of the orthodontic-prosthetic approach for adult patients. A case report].

    PubMed

    Fábián, G; Gáspár, J; Fábián, T K

    2000-08-01

    Authors present a case report of an adult patient treated with the combination of orthodontic and prosthetic treatment methods. The importance of periodontal and psychological management of such patients is pointed out.

  2. Quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients associated with diabetes mellitus using real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Padmalatha, GV; Bavle, Radhika M; Satyakiran, Gadavalli Vera Venkata; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Makarla, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontal diseases, if left untreated, can lead to tooth loss and affect at least one tooth in 80% of adults worldwide, with the main cause being a bacterial plaque. Among subgingival plaque bacterial species, Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a major etiological agent causing tooth loss. Diabetics and smokers are two patient groups at high risk for periodontal disease. The increase in the number of this organism with the coexistence of other pathogenic microbes leads to rapid destruction of the periodontium, premature loss of teeth and also because of its virulence has implications in systemic pathology. Our aim was to observe the involvement of P. gingivalis in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients associated with periodontitis with and without tobacco-associated habits and to compare them with periodontitis patients having no other systemic pathologies. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples from a total of seventy subjects were included in the study. DNA was isolated from the collected sample and was quantified using spectrophotometer for standardizing the polymerase chain reaction. The quantity of the isolated DNA was checked in a ultraviolet-visible spectrophotomer. Statistics: One-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures were carried out. Results: The maximum score of P. gingivalis was seen in periodontitis patients having DM, whereas the least score was seen in periodontitis patients having DM with tobacco smoking habit compared to the other groups. Conclusion: P. gingivalis count is significantly reduced in periodontitis patients having DM with smoking habit; it is concluded that P. gingivalis might not be a key causative organism responsible for the periodontal destruction in case of smokers despite the DM condition. The decrease in counts may be attributed to change in the local environment like chemical (tobacco nitrosamines) and physical changes preventing the growth of P. gingivalis. PMID:27721606

  3. Association between oral health behavior and periodontal disease among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was performed to assess the association between oral health behavior and periodontal disease using nationally representative data. This study involved a cross-sectional analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis models using the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontal disease. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of periodontitis for the toothbrushing after lunch group and the toothbrushing before bedtime group were 0.842 (0.758, 0.936) and 0.814 (0.728, 0.911), respectively, after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, drinking, exercise, education, income, white blood cell count, and metabolic syndrome. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of periodontitis for the floss group and the powered toothbrush group after adjustment were 0.678 (0.588, 0.781) and 0.771 (0.610, 0.974), respectively. The association between oral health behavior and periodontitis was proven by multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding factors among Korean adults. Brushing after lunch and before bedtime as well as the use of floss and a powered toothbrush may be considered independent risk indicators of periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:28207558

  4. 16S rRNA based microarray analysis of ten periodontal bacteria in patients with different forms of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Topcuoglu, Nursen; Kulekci, Guven

    2015-10-01

    DNA microarray analysis is a computer based technology, that a reverse capture, which targets 10 periodontal bacteria (ParoCheck) is available for rapid semi-quantitative determination. The aim of this three-year retrospective study was to display the microarray analysis results for the subgingival biofilm samples taken from patient cases diagnosed with different forms of periodontitis. A total of 84 patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP,n:29), generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP, n:25), peri-implantitis (PI,n:14), localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP,n:8) and refractory chronic periodontitis (RP,n:8) were consecutively selected from the archives of the Oral Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory. The subgingival biofilm samples were analyzed by the microarray-based identification of 10 selected species. All the tested species were detected in the samples. The red complex bacteria were the most prevalent with very high levels in all groups. Fusobacterium nucleatum was detected in all samples at high levels. The green and blue complex bacteria were less prevalent compared with red and orange complex, except Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitas was detected in all LAP group. Positive correlations were found within all the red complex bacteria and between red and orange complex bacteria especially in GCP and GAP groups. Parocheck enables to monitoring of periodontal pathogens in all forms of periodontal disease and can be alternative to other guiding and reliable microbiologic tests.

  5. Periodontal treatment needs among Saudi Arabian adults and their relationship to the use of the Miswak.

    PubMed

    al-Khateeb, T L; O'Mullane, D M; Whelton, H; Sulaiman, M I

    1991-12-01

    The main aims of this study were, first, to estimate the need for periodontal care among adult residents of Saudi Arabia using the community periodontal index of treatment need (CPITN) and, second, to quantify the relationship between the frequency of using the 'Miswak' and the need for periodontal care. The Miswak is a stick made from the roots of the Arak tree (Salvadora persica) and is used for oral hygiene purposes by many cultures. A total sample of 480 adults aged 35 to 44 years and 65 years and older from the cities of Mecca and Jeddah was included in the study. The findings indicate that the level of need for periodontal care in the sample chosen is low when compared with the findings of similar studies undertaken in other countries. The frequent use of the 'Miswak' was associated with a lower need for treatment.

  6. Periodontal diseases in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Clerehugh, V

    2008-04-26

    Unlike in adults, currently there are no nationally agreed guidelines for the assessment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. This paper considers the range of periodontal diseases that can affect youngsters and documents a simple periodontal screening system for the younger age groups. It includes principles of periodontal diagnosis and management for the practitioner to apply to the young patient and considers when to treat in practice and when to refer to a specialist.

  7. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly.

  8. Dissolution of type I collagen fibrils by gingival fibroblasts isolated from patients of various periodontitis categories.

    PubMed

    Havemose-Poulsen, A; Holmstrup, P; Stoltze, K; Birkedal-Hansen, H

    1998-07-01

    The classification of periodontitis in various disease categories, including juvenile periodontitis, rapidly progressive adult periodontitis and slowly progressive adult periodontitis is based mainly on differences in disease progression and age group susceptibility. Because dissolution of collagen fibers is an integral part of periodontal attachment loss, we investigated whether the clinical differences among these periodontitis/control groups are reflected in the collagen-degrading activity of gingival fibroblasts isolated from affected tissues. All fibroblast strains isolated from the 4 groups (n = 48) displayed cell-associated collagenolytic activity when seeded in contact with a reconstituted film of type I collagen fibrils. Cells from the control group (n = 14) dissolved the collagen fibril film twice as fast as those from each of the 3 disease groups (juvenile periodontitis (n = 13), rapidly progressive adult periodontitis (n = 7), and slowly progressive adult periodontitis (n = 14)). Both interleukin-1 beta and phorbolester accelerated the rate of dissolution 2-4-fold, but even after cytokine or phorbolester stimulation control cells were still considerably more effective in dissolving the collagen fibrils than cells from the disease groups. The observation made in this study, that dissolution of collagen fibrils by gingival fibroblasts from periodontally diseased individuals is significantly slower than by cells from healthy control subjects, challenges disease paradigms based on a direct relationship between collagenolytic potential and disease activity.

  9. Gingival crevicular fluid periostin levels in chronic periodontitis patients following nonsurgical periodontal treatment with low-level laser therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, Dhanangchaayan; Balasundaram, Aruna; Naik, Vanaja Krishna; Appukuttan, Deva Priya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Periostin is a matricellular protein highly expressed in periosteum, periodontal ligament and is essential for tissue integrity and maturation. It plays a role in collagen fibrillogenesis and is downregulated in periodontal disease. Biostimulation utilizing low-level laser therapy (LLLT) influences periodontal ligament fibroblast proliferation. This study was conducted with the objective of estimating periostin levels in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients following LLLT as an adjunct to root surface debridement (RSD). Materials and Methods: Thirty periodontally healthy participants (Group I) and sixty CP participants were recruited. Based on the therapeutic intervention, CP patients were allocated to either RSD (Group II) or to RSD with LLLT (Group III) group. Clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) periostin levels were assessed at the baseline and at the 3rd month. Results: Periostin levels were significantly lower in CP patients when compared to healthy individuals at the baseline (P < 0.01). Following nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT), periostin levels significantly increased in both Group II and III, when compared to baseline values (P < 0.001). Comparison of mean periostin levels between both the treatment groups showed a significant increase in LLLT group than RSD at the 3rd month (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, LLLT application was found to have additional benefits over RSD with respect to clinical periodontal parameters and GCF periostin levels. Moreover, periostin may be used as a possible biomarker to evaluate the outcome following NSPT. PMID:28042273

  10. Use of the Arabic version of Oral Health Impact Profile-14 to evaluate the impact of periodontal disease on oral health-related quality of life among Jordanian adults.

    PubMed

    Al Habashneh, Rola; Khader, Yousef S; Salameh, Shatha

    2012-03-01

    We used the short-form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) to assess the impact of periodontal diseases on the quality of life of Jordanian adults. A systematic random sample of 400 individuals was selected from patients referred to the periodontics clinic at the Dental Teaching Center in Irbid, Jordan. Those willing to participate were examined by specifically trained dentists and requested to complete the Arabic short-form version of the OHIP-14 questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of differences in OHIP-14 subscales among the periodontal disease groups was conducted using the general linear model multivariate procedure. This study included 400 adults (164 men and 236 women) aged between 18 and 60 years, with a mean (SD) of 36.7 (11.9) years. Of the 400 participants, 41.8% had chronic gingivitis, 19.8% had mild periodontitis, 23.3% had moderate periodontitis, and 15.3% had severe periodontitis. "Fairly often" or "very often" was reported for one or more items of the OHIP-14 by fewer than one-third of patients with gingivitis (32.9%) or mild periodontitis (31.6%), by about one-half of patients with moderate periodontitis (53.8%), and by about two-thirds of those with severe periodontitis (63.9%). There was a statistically significant association between the severity of periodontal disease and OHIP-14 scores (P < 0.05). Severe chronic periodontitis had a significantly greater impact on quality of life, specifically with regard to physical pain and physical disability (P < 0.05). Physical pain and physical disability were the dimensions most affected, and all OHIP-14 scores were significantly associated with severity of periodontal disease after adjusting for common confounders.

  11. Periodontal disease: an overview for physicians.

    PubMed

    Fenesy, K E

    1998-01-01

    Periodontitis is now seen as resulting from a complex interplay of bacterial infection and host response, often modified by behavioral factors. There has been a fundamental change in the prevailing periodontal disease model of the 1960s, which suggested that the susceptibility to periodontitis increases with age, and that all individuals are susceptible to severe periodontal disease. More recent research has changed the belief in universal susceptibility to the current view that only some 5-20% of any population suffer from severe generalized periodontitis, and that only moderate disease affects a majority of adults. One major risk factor is smoking, as there is now a clear association between smoking and periodontal disease independent of oral hygiene, age, or any other risk factor. In human periodontitis, there is no simple, direct pathogen-disease link. There are three pathogens that have a strong association with progressive periodontal disease: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, spirochetes of acute necrotizing gingivitis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. These pathogens may be the cause of continued loss of periodontal attachment in all periodontal disease classifications despite diligent periodontal therapy. This loss of attachment, or destruction of the periodontal ligament and loss of adjacent supporting bone, is seen in adult periodontitis, as well as in early-onset periodontitis, which affects young persons who otherwise appear healthy. The three forms of early-onset periodontitis are prepubertal periodontitis, localized and generalized juvenile periodontitis, and rapidly progressive periodontitis. They are distinguished from adult periodontitis by the age of onset of the disease, the rapid rate of disease progression, manifestations of defects in host response, and the composition of the subgingival microflora. Prepubertal periodontitis is associated with attachment loss around teeth of the deciduous and/or permanent dentition, and is often associated

  12. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  13. Systemic Antibody Response of Clinically Characterized Patients with Antigens of Eubacterium brachy Initially and Following Periodontal Therapy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-21

    Iderity b, block numb.;_ Eubacterium brach a Gram (+) positive anaerobic rod, has been Implicated by cultura ~stu- es to be associated with the microflora...than V.’ did HS when reactivity with E. brachy artigeus was determined (P < .001). Juvenile perlodontitis (JP) and adult periodontlt is (AP) patients...there was uo specific pattern of bone loss. Forty-nlue patients were classified as juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients, a condition previously

  14. Occurrence of aggressive periodontitis in patients at a dental school in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Chirley Roberta; Baumhardt, Simone Glesse; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a rare, severe and rapidly progressing periodontal disease. Early diagnosis is of utmost importance for establishing treatment in order to stop periodontal destruction and prevent tooth loss. The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of aggressive periodontitis in patients at a Dental School in Brazil by means of a cross-sectional study. First, records from patients aged 15-36 years were consecutively scrutinized. Patients should not have systemic diseases. The search went up to 383 valid records. By means of periapical radiographs, the distance between the cement-enamel junction and the bone crest was measured. Records in which there was severe bone loss or periodontal destruction incompatible with the age of the patient were selected. Patients with bone loss > or = 3mm were called to answer a questionnaire and undergo periodontal examination, in order to confirm or dismiss the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis. From a total 383 records, 55.1% (211) were female and 44.9% (172) were male. In 3.9% (15) of the records, presumed diagnosis was aggressive periodontitis, and 12 out of those 15 eligible patients (80%) came in for clinical examination and confirmation or dismissal of the diagnosis. Aggressive periodontitis was diagnosed in 7 patients, corresponding to 1.8% of the total. Of these, 4 (1% of the total) presented generalized aggressive periodontitis and 3 (0.8% of the total) presented localized aggressive periodontitis. In 5 patients (1.3%) chronic periodontitis was diagnosed. It may be concluded, within the limits of the study, that aggressive periodontitis at this Dental School is compatible with world prevalence values, suggesting the need for periodontal diagnosis as from adolescence, considering the possible damage caused by this disease.

  15. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases. PMID:27418983

  16. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Wei, Liang; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; McGuire, Lisa C; Genco, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an

  17. Platelet-activating factor levels of serum and gingival crevicular fluid in nonsmoking patients with periodontitis and/or coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zheng, Pei; Zhu, Haihua; Zhu, Jianhua; Zhao, Lili; El Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Eberhard, Jörg; Lins, Markus; Jepsen, Søren

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate systemic and local levels of platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent proinflammatory mediator implicated in cardiovascular pathophysiology in adult nonsmoking patients with periodontitis with or without coronary heart disease (CHD). Eighty-seven volunteers, 25 periodontitis patients, 19 periodontitis with CHD patients, 19 CHD patients, and 24 healthy controls were included, and periodontal conditions were assessed. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and venous blood were collected, and PAF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PAF levels in serum (303.3 ± 204 pg/ml) and in GCF (26.3 ± 6 pg/μl) of the periodontitis group with CHD, the periodontitis group (serum, 302.4 ± 241 pg/ml and GCF, 26.3 ± 8 pg/μl) and the CHD group (serum, 284.7 ± 192 pg/ml and GCF, 20.8 ± 6 pg/μl) were significantly higher than the healthy control group (serum, 65.4 ± 35 pg/ml and GCF, 7.7 ± 3 pg/μl; p < 0.05). In summary, the present study could demonstrate that in patients with periodontitis, the inflammatory mediator PAF is released into serum at least in the same range as for patients with coronary heart disease. However, no additive effects were seen when both conditions were present.

  18. Reduction of Melatonin Level in Patients with Type II Diabetes and Periodontal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Ahmadi Motemayel, Fatemeh; Jazaeri, Mina; Feradmal, Javad; Zarabadi, Mahdiyeh; Hoseyni, Mostafa; Torkzaban, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It possesses antioxidant, free-radical scavenging, and immune-enhancing properties. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various diseases, including diabetes and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the possible links between salivary melatonin levels and type II diabetes and periodontal diseases. Materials and methods. A total of 30 type II diabetic patients, 30 patients with periodontal diseases, 30 type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease and 30 age- and BMI-matched controls were studied. The periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Salivary melatonin levels were determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. The mean of salivary melatonin level was significantly lower in patients with either periodontitis or diabetes compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Salivary melatonin concentration decreased in type II diabetic patients and periodontitis patients, and then decreased reaching the lowest levels in type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study, it can probably be concluded that salivary level of melatonin has an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontal diseases. It is also worth noting that this factor could probably be used as a pivotal biological marker in the diagnosis and possible treatment of these diseases, although further research is required to validate this hypothesis.

  19. [Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Maruchi, N; Miyajima, K; Iizuka, T; Inagaki, K; Noguchi, T; Sakai, M

    1990-12-01

    Adults with untreated malocclusions suffer from more periodontal disease than if their malocclusion had been corrected orthodontically. What orthodontists can offer in the management of patients with periodontal disease, how they can help the periodontists and the patients, and how the periodontists can help the orthodontist make treatment safe and purposefully are widely discussed. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to discuss how orthodontic patients with severe periodontitis could be treated and what we should do for these patients during the treatment as well as at their initial visit. One case is presented as an example of treatment for malocclusion with sever periodontitis: The patient was a 23 years 8 months female with a chief complaint of protrusion of upper incisors. Since clinical examination revealed severe periodontitis, periodontal treatment was undertaken for one year prior to orthodontic treatment. From these observations, we are conviced of the importance again of the global approach and the team treatment method in treating malocclusions with periodontitis.

  20. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is a biomarker in patients with diabetes and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Srikanth, Padma; Seshadri, Krishna G.; Barani, Ramya; Samanta, Maitreya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The role of serum Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) as a biomarker of periodontitis is well documented; however, its role in diabetic patients with periodontitis is unknown. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the presence and concentration of serum MCP-1 in diabetic patients with and without periodontitis and correlate it glycemic status with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Adult diabetic patients were enrolled and grouped into group I, II, and III based on their glycemic status and serum MCP-1 estimated by ELISA. Linear regression and correlation tests were performed using R statistical software, Medcalc software to observe correlation between the serum MCP-1 and glycated hemoglobin level among different groups. Results: Serum samples obtained from 37 patients tested positive for MCP-1. Mean serum MCP-1 concentration was highest (482.3 pg/ml) in group III, lowest (149.3 pg/ml) in group I, and intermediate 398.8 pg/ml in group II. Correlation and regression analysis was done between HbA1c and serum MCP-1. A significant positive correlation (P < 0.001) was observed. Serum MCP-1 increased by 37.278 pg/ml for every 1% rise in HbA1c, and the levels were raised in group II and group III than in group I irrespective of their glycemic status. With an HbA1c range of 6.5-6.9% (group II), the serum MCP-1 values cluster around 380-410 pg/ml. Elevated levels of serum MCP-1 (>500 pg/ml) in three subjects corresponded to HbA1c values more than 12.2% (group III). Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to document serum MCP-1 levels in diabetic patients with periodontitis. Glycemic status influences serum MCP-1, and lack of glycemic control contributes to increased serum MCP-1 levels. Serum MCP-1 may thus serve as a biomarker of inflammation and disease progression in diabetes with periodontitis. PMID:25143907

  1. Variability of the fimA gene in Porphyromonas gingivalis isolated from periodontitis and non-periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    León, Rubén; Blanc, Vanessa; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the genetic variability of the fimA gene in Porphyromonas gingivalis isolates from Spanish patients. Study Design: Pooled subgingival samples were taken, processed and cultured in non-selective blood agar medium. Pure cultures of one to six isolates per patient were obtained and PCR and PCR-RFLP were used for fimbrillin gene (fimA) type determination of the extracted genomic (DNA). Results: Two hundred and twenty four Porphyromonas gingivalis isolates from 65 patients were analyzed consisting of 15 non-periodontitis patients (66 isolates) and 50 with periodontitis (158 isolates). Genotype II was the most prevalent (50.9%), while the other types of fimbriae did not exceed fifteen percent of prevalence. Isolates with types II and IV of fimbriae were significantly more prevalent in periodontitis patients than isolates with genotype I. Co-infection was observed in 17.65% of the patients analyzed. Conclusion: The results suggest that in this population Porphyromonas gingivalis with type II of fimbriae are significantly more predominant in periodontitis patients than genotype I. Key words:Fimbriae, genotype, porphyromonas gingivalis, periodontitis. PMID:23229246

  2. Parameter on occlusal traumatism in patients with chronic periodontitis. American Academy of Periodontology.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on occlusal traumatism in patients with chronic periodontitis. Occlusal therapy is an integral part of periodontal therapy. Patients should be informed about the occlusal problem, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. Failure to treat occlusal traumatism appropriately in patients with chronic periodontitis may result in progressive loss of bone and an adverse change in prognosis, and could result in tooth loss. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.

  3. Subgingival dysbiosis in smoker and non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Coretti, Lorena; Cuomo, Mariella; Florio, Ermanno; Palumbo, Domenico; Keller, Simona; Pero, Raffaela; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Lembo, Francesca; Cafiero, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common oral inflammatory diseases, and results in connective tissue degradation and gradual tooth loss. It manifests with formation of periodontal pockets, in which anaerobic and Gram‑negative bacteria proliferate rapidly. Consequently, alteration of the subgingival microbiota is considered the primary etiologic agent of periodontitis. Previous studies have reported that smokers are at increased risk of periodontal disease, in both prevalence and severity, indicating that smoking is a risk factor for the onset and progression of the pathology. In the present study, 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to assess the subgingival microbiota in 6 smoker patients with chronic periodontitis, 6 non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis and 8 healthy controls. The results demonstrated significant alterations in the microbial structure of periodontitis patients. High relative abundance of Parvimonans, Desulfubulbus, Paludibacter, Haemophilus, and Sphaerochaeta genera characterized subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients, both smokers and non‑smokers. Due to the high precision and sensitivity of the 16S rRNA sequencing method, analysis for low‑abundant genera (including Pedobacter, Granulicatella, Paracoccus, Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Oridobacteriu, Peptococcus, Oscillospira and Akkermansia) was feasible, and revealed novel phylotypes associated with periodontitis. Of note, a major microbial community alteration was evident in smoker patients, suggesting an association between smoking and severity of subgingival dysbiosis. The present study confirmed that chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease where changes in the equilibrium of subgingival microbiota contribute to severity of pathology.

  4. DKK1 rescues osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligaments of patients with diabetes mellitus induced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Zhou, Cui-Hong; Cui, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Kun; Deng, Chao; Xia, Jia-Jia; Wu, Yan; Liu, Lu-Chuan; Jin, Yan

    2015-08-17

    Multiple studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for periodontitis. Recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) have been utilized to reconstruct tissues destroyed by chronic inflammation. However, impact of periodontitis with diabetes mellitus on PDLSCs and mechanisms mediating effects of complex microenvironments remain poorly understood. In this study, we found multiple differentiation potential of PDLSCs from chronic periodontitis with diabetes mellitus donors (D-PDLSCs) was damaged significantly. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling could rescue osteogenic potential of PDLSCs from simple chronic periodontitis patients (P-PDLSCs), whereas did not promote D-PDLSCs osteogenesis. In addition, we found expression of DKK1 in D-PDLSCs did not respond to osteogenic signal and decreased osteogenic potential of D-PDLSCs treated with DKK1 could be reversed. To further elucidate different character between P-PDLSCs and D-PDLSCs, we treated PDLSCs with TNF-α and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and find out AGEs which enhance effect of TNF-α in PDLSCs might mediate special personality of D-PDLSCs. The adverse effect of AGEs in PDLSCs could be reversed when PDLSCs were treated with DKK1. These results suggested DKK1 mediating WNT signaling might be a therapy target to rescue potential of PDLSCs in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus.

  5. Estimation and comparison of serum cortisol levels in periodontally diseased patients and periodontally healthy individuals: A clinical-biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Rohini, G.; Kalaivani, S.; Kumar, Vipin; Rajasekar, S. A.; Tuckaram, Jaishree; Pandey, Vinisha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Psychological conditions, particularly psychosocial stress have been implicated as risk indicators of periodontal disease. Stress increases cortisol production from the adrenal cortex by stimulating an increase in the release of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Increased cortisol production suppresses the immune response and increases the potential of periodontal tissue destruction. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare the serum cortisol levels in periodontally diseased patients and periodontally healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Total of 45 subjects were recruited for this study and were categorized into three groups. Group I - Comprised of aggressive periodontitis patients (n = 15), Group II - Chronic periodontitis patients (n = 15), and Group III - Healthy controls (n = 15). Serum samples were collected from each of the groups and cortisol levels were determined using cortisol immunoassay kit. Clinical examination covered probing depth, gingival index (GI), gingival recession, plaque index, and clinical attachment level. The statistical analysis was done using nonparameteric t-test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: With respect to cortisol, the levels were higher in Group-I compared to the other groups. On comparison of mean cortisol levels among the groups, the values were statistically significant between Group-I and Group-III. Group-I showed a significant negative correlation between cortisol levels and GI. Conclusion: Within the limits of the study serum cortisol levels was higher in the chronic periodontitis group compared to the other groups. Positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and other clinical parameters except for the GI. PMID:26538897

  6. Treatment of chronic periodontitis decreases serum prohepcidin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Eduardo Machado; Bastos, Jessica Amaral; Fernandes, Natalia; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Chaoubah, Alfredo; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of periodontal treatment on serum levels of prohepcidin (the prohormone of hepcidin) and systemic inflammation markers, as well as correlations among these markers, in patients with chronic periodontitis and chronic kidney disease who were not undergoing dialysis. METHODS: We included 56 chronic periodontitis patients, 36 with chronic kidney disease and 20 without systemic diseases and with normal renal function (control group). Chronic kidney disease was defined as suggested by the clinical practice guidelines in the National Kidney Foundation. Chronic periodontitis was defined through clinical attachment level and by probing pocket depth, according to the American Association of Periodontology. The inflammatory markers ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and prohepcidin were evaluated before and 3 months after periodontal treatment. RESULTS: The efficacy of periodontal treatment was confirmed by the improvement in clinical parameters of chronic periodontitis in the control and chronic kidney disease groups. Periodontal treatment resulted in significant reductions in ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and serum prohepcidin levels in both groups. Moreover, in multivariate linear regression, the reduction in prohepcidin after periodontal treatment was significantly and independently associated with interleukin-6 levels in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: By inducing a decline in the systemic inflammatory response and a decrease in serum prohepcidin, successful periodontal treatment may represent an important means of ameliorating the inflammatory burden seen in patients with chronic kidney disease. Trial registration: ISRCTN59866656. PMID:21655762

  7. Comparison of bone mineral density in the jaws of patients with and without chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk Tonguç, M; Ş Büyükkaplan, U; Fentoğlu, Ö; A Gümüş, B; S Çerçi, S; Y Kırzıoğlu, F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although several studies have addressed the relationship between systemic bone mineral status and the severity of periodontitis, there is little knowledge of the relationship between periodontal disease and locally detected bone mineral density. The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular bone mineral density of patients with chronic periodontitis with that of periodontally healthy subjects. Methods 48 systemically healthy subjects were included in the study and underwent a periodontal examination to determine their status. 24 subjects were periodontally healthy and the other 24 had moderate or severe chronic periodontitis. The mandibular bone mineral density of the subjects was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The region of interest on the body of the mandible was independently determined on the dual energy absorptiometry radiographs, and a computer calculated the bone mineral density of these regions. Results The mandibular bone mineral density of the subjects with periodontitis was significantly lower than that of the periodontally healthy subjects (p < 0.01). There were significant negative correlations between the mandibular bone mineral density values and parameters related to the amount of periodontal destruction. Conclusions Low bone mineral density in the jaw may be associated with chronic periodontitis. PMID:22241867

  8. [Clinical and microbiological rationale for laser removal of infected epithelia in patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify clinical microbiological criteria for the necessity of removal of infected epithelium in the periodontal pocket in patients with periodontitis. A total of 90 patients diagnosed with periodontal disease of varying severity were assessed. Clinical examination of the patients was performed, including the definition of index numbers and microbiological diagnosis of the content of periodontal pocket and periodontal tissues by biopsy culture seeding. Epithelial integration of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was established, indicating the need for a differentiated approach to the removal of gingival epithelium. Diagnostic criteria for deepitalization was identified: marked inflammatory response of periodontal tissues, characterized by performance indexes PMA > 50%, Mulleman > 1.5, Svrakov > 2.7, correlated with the degree of contamination biopsy 4IgKOE/ml and Candida spp. 2IgKOE/ml.

  9. Antigens of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans recognized by patients with juvenile periodontitis and periodontally normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, T J; Moncla, B J; Darveau, R P; Page, R C

    1991-01-01

    Most juvenile periodontitis patients respond to infection by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by producing serum antibodies. Specific antigens inducing the humoral immune response have not been identified, nor has the role of the resulting antibodies in disease progression been determined. Adsorbed and unadsorbed sera from juvenile periodontitis patients and normal subjects were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots (immunoblots), using digested and undigested bacterial sonicates and French pressure cell fractions to determine the biochemical class, cross-reactivity, and cellular location of the antigens in different A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. Antigens detected by using high-titer sera included the following: (i) serotype-specific nonprotein material located on the cell surface, (ii) soluble-fraction proteins showing highly variable antibody binding, (iii) cross-reactive proteins, and (iv) a protein present in soluble and cell wall fractions and immunopositive for all sera tested. In addition, one apparently nonprotein component that was enriched in the cell wall fraction was observed. Sera with high immunoglobulin G titers to one, two, three, or none of the three A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes were observed. There was a high degree of variation from one patient to another in the humoral immune response to serotype-specific and cross-reactive antigens. As demonstrated by whole-cell adsorption experiments, the serotype-specific surface antigen accounted for approximately 72 to 90% of the total antibody-binding activity for sera with titers greater than 100-fold above background, while cross-reactive antigen accounted for less than 28%. Antibody binding the whole-cell sonicate for high-titer sera was inhibited 90% by lipopolysaccharide from the same serotype, strongly suggesting that lipopolysaccharide is the immunodominant antigen class. Images PMID:1705243

  10. Virulence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotypes and DGGE subtypes isolated from chronic adult periodontitis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pahumunto, Nuntiya; Ruangsri, Praphansri; Wongsuwanlert, Mutita; Piwat, Supatcharin; Dahlen, Gunnar; Teanpaisan, Rawee

    2015-12-01

    A high proportion of non-serotypeable isolates of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans among Thai periodontitis cases has been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of leukotoxin and toxicity, cytolethal distending toxin (Cdts), and internalization and the killing effect on fibroblasts by A. actinomycetemcomitans subtypes from Thai chronic periodontitis cases. A total of 96 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains from 37 periodontitis cases, previously serotyped with PCR and subtyped with DGGE, were examined for the presence of the ltx gene and cdt genes (cdtBC), and tested for leukotoxin expression, leukotoxicity, internalization, and apoptosis of fibroblast cells. The ltx gene was present in all isolates, while 84.4% showed the cdtBC gene. Two strains with a JP2-like ltx gene with a deletion of 530 bp in the promoter region, serotyped as c, showed virulence of similar magnitude to the JP2 strain. Furthermore, a higher virulence was found in the two non-serotypeable DGGE subtypes, NS1 and NS2, compared with the serotypeable strains (serotype a-f, serotype b and d were absent). Generally, the virulence of strains obtained from deep periodontal pockets was higher than those isolated from shallow non-bleeding pockets. A. actinomycetemcomitans subtypes isolated from adult Thais with chronic periodontitis showed a highly variable virulence, leukotoxin expression, leukotoxicity, internalization and apoptosis of fibroblast, and are regulated both genetically and environmentally.

  11. Arterial Stiffness and Pulse Wave Reflection Are Increased in Patients Suffering from Severe Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Jockel-Schneider, Yvonne; Harks, Inga; Haubitz, Imme; Fickl, Stefan; Eigenthaler, Martin; Schlagenhauf, Ulrich; Baulmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Aim This single blind cross-sectional study compared the vascular health of subjects suffering from severe chronic periodontitis, severe aggressive periodontitis and periodontal healthy controls by evaluating pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx) and pulse pressure amplification (PPA). Material and Methods In a total of 158 subjects, 92 suffering from severe periodontitis and 66 matched periodontal healthy controls, PWV, AIx, central and peripheral blood pressure were recorded using an oscillometric device (Arteriograph). Results Subjects suffering from severe chronic or aggressive periodontitis exhibited significantly higher PWV (p = 0.00004), higher AIx (p = 0.0049) and lower PPA (p = 0.028) than matched periodontal healthy controls. Conclusions The results of this study confirm the association between periodontal inflammation and increased cardiovascular risk shown by impaired vascular health in case of severe periodontitis. As impaired vascular health is a common finding in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease a concomitant routine cardiovascular evaluation may be advised. PMID:25084111

  12. Periodontitis and Porphyromonas gingivalis in Preclinical Stage of Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Toru; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Morimoto, Takeshi; Yamori, Masashi; Asai, Keita; Isobe, Yu; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Fujii, Takao; Terao, Chikashi; Mori, Masato; Matsuo, Takashi; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Wataru; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the presence of periodontitis (PD) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) in the subgingival biofilm associates with the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in treatment naïve preclinical stage of arthritis patients. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 72 consecutive patients with arthralgia who had never been treated with any anti-rheumatic drugs or glucocorticoids. Periodontal status at baseline was assessed by dentists. PD was defined stringently by the maximal probing depth≧4 mm, or by the classification by the 5th European Workshop in Periodontology (EWP) in 2005 using attachment loss. Up to eight plaque samples were obtained from each patient and the presence of Pg was determined by Taqman PCR. The patients were followed up for 2 years and introduction rate of methotrexate (MTX) treatment on the diagnosis of RA was compared in patients with or without PD or Pg. Results Patients with PD (probing depth≧4mm) had higher arthritis activity (p = 0.02) and higher risk for future introduction of MTX treatment on the diagnosis of RA during the follow up than patients without PD (Hazard ratio 2.68, p = 0.03). Arthritis activity and risk for MTX introduction increased with the severity of PD assessed by EWP, although not statistically significant. On the other hand, presence of Pg was not associated with arthritis activity (p = 0.72) or the risk for MTX introduction (p = 0.45). Conclusion In treatment naïve arthralgia patients, PD, but not the presence of Pg, associates with arthritis activity and future requirement of MTX treatment on the diagnosis of RA. PMID:25849461

  13. Subgingival microbial profiles of Sudanese patients with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Elabdeen, H. R. Z.; Mustafa, M.; Hasturk, H.; Klepac-Ceraj, V.; Ali, R. W.; Paster, B. J.; Dyke, T. Van; Bolstad, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is prevalent and shows a rapid course in African individuals. Although a strong focus has been placed on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, new methods support the existence of a complex subgingival microflora in AgP. The purpose of the present study was to map the subgingival microbiota as well as explore the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans and the JP2 clone in a group of Sudanese individuals with AgP, using different analytical methods. Material and Methods A study population consisting of 19 patients with AgP was recruited from patients seeking treatment at University of Science and Technology (UST) in Khartoum. Fifteen healthy subjects were included as controls. Plaque samples were analyzed for 272 taxa using human oral microbe identification microarrays and for 26 periodontal taxa using DNA-DNA hybridization checkerboard. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied for the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans and the JP2 clone in plaque. Saliva from patients with AgP was analyzed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Results Eubacterium yurii was detected more frequently in patients with AgP than in controls, and E. nodatum was found in patients with AgP only. A. actinomycetemcomitans was found in plaque samples of two (12%) patients by human oral microbe identification microarrays and in five (29%) patients with AgP by conventional PCR, as well as in six (32%) of the AgP saliva samples by qPCR. The JP2 clone was identified in only one patient. Conclusion The classical periodontal pathogens were not present in high amounts in AgP in the population studied here. Species of Eubacterium, which are not typically associated with AgP, were often detected in individuals with disease. Using laboratory methods with different sensitivities and detection levels allowed identification of variances in microbial communities. The findings reported in this

  14. Serum ferritin level and red blood cell parameters in healthy controls and chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Latha, S; Thirugnanamsambandan, S; Arun, R T; Masthan, K M K; Malathi, L; Rajesh, E

    2015-04-01

    Periodontitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease causes reduction in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin. It is found to be caused by specific pathogenic subgingival plaque bacteria. Periodontitis is host mediated through release of pro inflammatory cytokines by local tissues and immune cells in response to bacterial flora and its products, especially lipopolysacharides. Periodontitis is found to have systemic effect and the cytokines produced inhibit proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes leading to anaemia. This study evaluate level of hemoglobin erythrocytes, hematocrit and serum ferritin levels in healthy subjects and periodontitis patient.

  15. THE ROLE OF STRESS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE PROGRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Christian R

    2013-11-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gingiva (gum tissues) caused by infection with anaerobic bacteria. In older adults, progression of disease can lead to tooth loss, inadequate nutritional intake, and a higher risk of other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. As the proportion of older adults continues to grow over time and rates of tooth loss decline, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease will increase. While much is known about risk factors for disease onset, gaps remain in our understanding of factors that could influence disease progression. Over the past few decades, stress has been implicated as a contributory factor. This review critically examines the epidemiological and laboratory evidence and describes a conceptual framework that could help move the research forward.

  16. [Clinical and clinico-histological markers in chronic destructive adult periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Hernández Vallejo, G; García Rodríguez, M D; Tejerina Lobo, J M; López Sánchez, A F; De la Roca, C

    1989-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the significance and interrelationship of clinical parameters and their association with histologic changes in advanced destructive periodontitis. 158 patients with PDI greater than 4 (Ramfjord) were selected, evaluating the size, contouring, bleeding, consistency, colour and gingival pain. Epithelial ulceration of soft periodontal pockets were also evaluated. The results showed a statistically significant association between purplish colour and gingival fibrosis and advanced stage of the disease. Gingival bleeding on probing was the most important clinical parameter in advanced phases of the disease, either alone or in association with other parameters such as the presence of epithelial ulcerations. The Periodontal Disease Index (Ramfjord) has proven effective in the evaluation of generalized patterns of disease.

  17. Quantification of Epstein-Barr Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus in Chronic Periodontal Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khosropanah, Hengameh; Karandish, Maryam; Ziaeyan, Mazyar; Jamalidoust, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although studies focused mainly on the identification of periopathogenic bacteria, recent reports have suggested that various herpes viruses may also be involved in the occurrence and progression of different forms of periodontal diseases. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the prevalence and load of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in subgingival tissue specimens between chronic periodontitis and healthy sites. Patients and Methods: A total of 60 samples from the systematically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis participated in this study (mean age, 35 ± 7). Clinical periodontal evaluation included the plaque index (PI) (Loe and Silness), bleeding on probing (BOP) (O’Leary), bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level measurement. Tissue specimens harvested from > 6 mm periodontal pockets and from ≤ 3 mm sulcus depth in a quadrant of the same patient using periodontal curettes. Moreover, the unstimulated whole saliva was gathered as a shedding medium. A Taq-man Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was used to identify genomic copies of periodontal HCMV and EBV. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon-signed ranks and Friedman tests using the SPSS 16 software. Results: Out of 60 samples of subgingival tissues taken from the patients with chronic periodontitis, EBV count was the highest in saliva and the least in the tissue sample with PD < 3 mm (P < 0.05). The highest HCMV count was in saliva and tissue samples with PD > 6 mm (P < 0.05). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, quantification of HCMV and EBV observed in this study is high in periodontal tissue samples of severe chronic periodontitis. PMID:26322203

  18. Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Prevalence of Key Periodontal Pathogens, Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Bone Remodeling Markers in Sudanese Adults with and without Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hasaan Gassim; Idris, Shaza Bushra; Mustafa, Manal; Ahmed, Mutaz Faisal; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah Osman

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the influence of type 2 diabetes on the occurrence of six periodontal pathogens in plaque samples of patients with and without chronic periodontitis. Levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, RANKL, and OPG were also investigated. The study enrolled 31 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (DM + CP), 29 with chronic periodontitis (CP), and 20 with type 2 diabetes (DM). Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted and plaque index, bleeding on probing, and pocket depth were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to determine the prevalence of the bacteria. The levels of salivary molecules were determined by enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CP group had the highest prevalence of P. gingivalis (81.5%), followed by the DM + CP (59.3%) and DM (55.0%) groups (P > 0.05). Similar trends were observed for P. intermedia and T. denticola. The prevalence of T. forsythia was 100% in both periodontitis groups compared to 90% in the DM group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the concentrations of MMP-8, MMP-9, or OPG. RANKL concentrations were below the detection limit. Our data show that type 2 diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of the investigated periodontal pathogens, or the levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, and OPG. PMID:26989414

  19. Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Prevalence of Key Periodontal Pathogens, Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Bone Remodeling Markers in Sudanese Adults with and without Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hasaan Gassim; Idris, Shaza Bushra; Mustafa, Manal; Ahmed, Mutaz Faisal; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah Osman

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the influence of type 2 diabetes on the occurrence of six periodontal pathogens in plaque samples of patients with and without chronic periodontitis. Levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, RANKL, and OPG were also investigated. The study enrolled 31 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (DM + CP), 29 with chronic periodontitis (CP), and 20 with type 2 diabetes (DM). Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted and plaque index, bleeding on probing, and pocket depth were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to determine the prevalence of the bacteria. The levels of salivary molecules were determined by enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CP group had the highest prevalence of P. gingivalis (81.5%), followed by the DM + CP (59.3%) and DM (55.0%) groups (P > 0.05). Similar trends were observed for P. intermedia and T. denticola. The prevalence of T. forsythia was 100% in both periodontitis groups compared to 90% in the DM group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the concentrations of MMP-8, MMP-9, or OPG. RANKL concentrations were below the detection limit. Our data show that type 2 diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of the investigated periodontal pathogens, or the levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, and OPG.

  20. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Status in Saliva of Periodontitis Patients in Relation to Bacterial Load

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Taowen; Andrukhov, Oleh; Haririan, Hady; Müller-Kern, Michael; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Zhonghao; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response. PMID:26779448

  1. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Status in Saliva of Periodontitis Patients in Relation to Bacterial Load.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Taowen; Andrukhov, Oleh; Haririan, Hady; Müller-Kern, Michael; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Zhonghao; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response.

  2. Periowave demonstrates bactericidal activity against periopathogens and leads to improved clinical outcomes in the treatment of adult periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Cale N.; Andersen, Roger; Loebel, Nicolas G.

    2009-02-01

    Periodontitis affects half of the U.S. population over 50, and is the leading cause of tooth loss after 35. It is believed to be caused by growth of complex bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface below the gumline. Photodynamic therapy, a technology used commonly in antitumor applications, has more recently been shown to exhibit antimicrobial efficacy. We have demonstrated eradication of the periopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro using PeriowaveTM; a commercial photodisinfection system. In addition, several clinical studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of this treatment. A pilot study in the U.S. showed that 68% of patients treated with PeriowaveTM adjunctively to scaling and root planing (SRP) showed clinical attachment level increase of >1 mm, as opposed to 30% with SRP alone. In a subsequent larger study, a second PeriowaveTM treatment 6 weeks after initial treatment led to pocket depth improvements of >1.5 mm in 89% of patients. Finally, in the most recent multicenter, randomized, examiner-blinded study conducted on 121 subjects in Canada, PeriowaveTM treatment produced highly significant gains in attachment level (0.88 mm vs. 0.57 mm; p=0.003) and pocket depth (0.87 mm vs. 0.63 mm; p=0.01) as compared to SRP alone. In summary, PeriowaveTM demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against known periopathogens, and treatment of periodontitis using this system produced significantly better clinical outcomes than SRP alone. This, along with the absence of any adverse events in patients treated to date demonstrates that PDT is a safe and effective treatment for adult chronic periodontitis.

  3. Qualitative assessment of red blood cell parameters for signs of anemia in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nubesh S.; Luke, Roji; Soman, Rino Roopak; Krishna, Praveen M.; Safar, Iqbal P.; Swaminathan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Anemia of chronic disease is defined as anemia occurring in chronic infections and inflammatory conditions that is not caused by marrow deficiencies or other diseases and in the presence of adequate iron stores and vitamins. The present case control study was aimed to assess the red blood cell parameters for signs of anemia in patients with mild, moderate, and severe chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A simple random sampling method was used to select 80 healthy male patients, who were divided into four groups based on full mouth periodontal examination as follows: group I patients comprised the control group (n = 20), which included patients with a clinically healthy periodontium, group II patients (n = 20) were diagnosed with mild chronic periodontitis, group III (n = 20) included moderate chronic periodontitis patients, and patients with severe chronic periodontitis formed group IV (n = 20). Laboratory blood investigations included total number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Results: Data analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in red blood cell parameters with increase in different grades of periodontitis. Conclusion: Results of the present study show a substantial decrease in red blood cell parameters with increase in the severity of periodontal destruction. PMID:26759801

  4. Orthodontic-periodontics interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Vinod, K; Reddy, Y Giridhar; Reddy, Vinay P; Nandan, Hemant; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    In this present era, when a significant number of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults, importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach cannot be overemphasized. Higher susceptibility of plaque accumulation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment makes involvement of periodontist almost unavoidable. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes which require immediate attention. More recently, orthodontics has been used as an adjunct to periodontics to increase connective tissue support and alveolar bone height. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal tissues and to discuss the mutually beneficial relationship shared between the two specialties.

  5. Orthodontic–periodontics interdisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.; Reddy, Y. Giridhar; Reddy, Vinay P.; Nandan, Hemant; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    In this present era, when a significant number of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults, importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach cannot be overemphasized. Higher susceptibility of plaque accumulation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment makes involvement of periodontist almost unavoidable. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes which require immediate attention. More recently, orthodontics has been used as an adjunct to periodontics to increase connective tissue support and alveolar bone height. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal tissues and to discuss the mutually beneficial relationship shared between the two specialties. PMID:22628956

  6. Are cardiac transplant patients more likely to have periodontitis? A case record study.

    PubMed

    Lessem, Jan; Drisko, Connie; Greenwell, Henry; Persson, Rutger; Newman, Hubert; Smart, Graham; Hopkins, Lydia; Parameshwar, Jayan; Fishbein, Daniel; Partridge, C; Bhat, G; Goldsmith, J

    2002-07-01

    In several large epidemiological studies chronic periodontitis has been implicated as an additional risk factor, independent of other risk factors, for the development of ischaemic heart disease. The underlying mechanism is thought to be a localised infection giving rise to an inflammatory host response, and some experimental data agree with this hypothesis. Recently, however, some studies have questioned the post dated relationship between the two diseases. The current case-record study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of chronic periodontitis and the severity of such periodontal disease in a heart transplant population, assuming the latter represented a relatively severely compromised cardiovascular patient population. The study demonstrated that 76% of the patients had various degrees of periodontal disease prior to undergoing a heart transplant. Thus, it is possible that a relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontal disease exists, but further, large intervention studies will be needed to confirm such a conclusion.

  7. Access to Interdental Brushing in Periodontal Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Julie; Bravo, Manuel; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interdental diameter space is largely undefined in adults, which compromises the decision support for daily interdental cleaning during routine practice in individual oral prophylaxis. This study assesses the distribution of diameter access of interdental spaces in an 18- to 25-year-old adult population free of periodontal disease. Methods In March-April 2015, a cross-sectional study using random sampling was performed at the University Lyon 1, France. The interproximal dental spaces of 99 individuals were examined using a colorimetric calibrated probe associated with the corresponding calibrated interdental brush (IDB). Results Of the 2,408 out of 2,608 sites, the overall accessibility prevalence of any interdental brushing was 92.3%. In total, 80.6% of the sites required interdental brushes with smaller diameters (0.6–0.7 mm). In anterior sites, the diameter of the interdental brushes used was smaller (55.8% of IDB with 0.6 mm) than the diameter of the interdental brushes used in posterior sites (26.1% of IDB with 0.6 mm) (p < 0.01). The adjusted ORs indicate a significant association with the location of the sites (approximately doubling the risk of bleeding, i.e., OR = 1.9, in posterior sites). Conclusions Most interdental sites can be cleaned using interdental brushes. Even in healthy people, interdental hygiene requirements are very high. Strengthening the oral hygiene capacity by specifically using interdental brushes can have an effect on the health of the entire population. Screening of the accessibility of the interdental space should be a component of a routine examination for all patients. PMID:27192409

  8. Serum γ-glutamyltransferase level is associated with periodontal disease independent of drinking habits in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Morita, Toyoko; Yamazaki, Yoji; Fujiharu, Chika; Ishii, Takanori; Seto, Misae; Nishinoue, Norihide; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Kawato, Takayuki; Motohashi, Masafumi; Maeno, Masao

    2014-10-31

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Periodontal disease is a mild chronic inflammatory disease with systemic effects, and many studies have indicated an association between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between periodontitis and liver biochemical parameters according to alcohol drinking habits through a cross-sectional study based on data from Japanese people in occupational settings. Material and Methods The subjects were 1510 employees (1218 males, 292 females, mean age 50.4 years) who underwent dental and medical checkups in 2012. Associations between the presence of periodontal pockets and serum levels of liver biochemical parameters were assessed. Results Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were higher in subjects with than without periodontal pockets. Multiple logistic regression analysis (adjusting for age, gender, cigarette smoking, and alcohol drinking habits, and components of metabolic syndrome) with GGT or ALT as the dependent variable revealed that there was a significant association between periodontal pockets and GGT (odds ratio, OR=1.48), but not ALT. Similar associations were observed when an analysis was performed according to the presence or absence of alcohol drinking habits; the OR was higher in subjects without (OR=1.84) than with drinking habits (OR=1.41). Conclusions The presence of periodontal pockets was associated with serum levels of GGT, a liver biochemical parameter, in Japanese adults with no drinking habit, suggesting that periodontal disease is associated with liver function, independent of alcohol ingestion.

  9. Association between oral health behavior and periodontal disease among Korean adults: The Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to assess the association between oral health behavior and periodontal disease using nationally representative data.This study involved a cross-sectional analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis models using the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontal disease.Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of periodontitis for the toothbrushing after lunch group and the toothbrushing before bedtime group were 0.842 (0.758, 0.936) and 0.814 (0.728, 0.911), respectively, after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, drinking, exercise, education, income, white blood cell count, and metabolic syndrome. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of periodontitis for the floss group and the powered toothbrush group after adjustment were 0.678 (0.588, 0.781) and 0.771 (0.610, 0.974), respectively.The association between oral health behavior and periodontitis was proven by multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding factors among Korean adults. Brushing after lunch and before bedtime as well as the use of floss and a powered toothbrush may be considered independent risk indicators of periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  10. Prevention and Periodontal Treatment in Down Syndrome Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; de Resende, Maria Lúcia Rubo; Sant’Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Damante, Carla Andreotti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate which type of periodontal preventive and therapeutic approaches presents superior outcomes in patients with Down syndrome (DS). Studies reporting different methods of periodontal care from DS patients were considered eligible. Included clinical studies should indicate at least two periodontal parameters in different periods of assessment. Screening of the articles, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently and in duplicate. Electronic search according to the PICO search, with both Key-words and MESH terms were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases until March 2016. Manual search was conducted in four journals, namely Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontal Research and Special Care in Dentistry and their electronic databases were searched. Electronic and manual search resulted in 763 papers, and of them 744 were excluded after title/abstract assessment. The full text of 19 potentially eligible publications was screened and 9 studies met inclusion criteria. The results demonstrated the importance to introduce youngest DS patients in preventive programs, as well as participation of parents, caregivers or institutional attendants in supervising/performing oral hygiene. In studies with higher frequency of attendance, all age groups presented superior preventive and therapeutic results, irrespective of the therapeutic approach used (surgical/nonsurgical/periodontal care program). The important factors for reducing periodontal parameters were the frequency of the appointments and association with chlorhexidine/plaque disclosing agents as adjuvant treatment. This systematic review demonstrated that early introduction in periodontal care, participation of parents/caregivers/institutional attendants, frequency of attendance and association with chemical adjuvants (independently of the periodontal treatment adopted) seems to

  11. An Evaluation of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Torres, Caio V.G; Neto, José S; Souza, Marcio A; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto O; Brandt, William C; Diniz, Ricardo E.A.S

    2015-01-01

    aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of periodontal scaling and oral hygiene instruction for patients with mild chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis through clinical periodontal parameters and laboratory tests for CRP (C- reactive protein) and ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Twelve individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and 12 healthy individuals were evaluated, with a mean age of 45.38 and 46.75 respectively, all female and with mild, chronic periodontitis. The participants were evaluated clinically and periapical radiographs were taken (T1), after which periodontal treatment was instituted. After ninety days (T2), new clinical and laboratory data were obtained. Probing depth, bleeding index, and plaque indexes were observed in both groups, and the results demonstrated reductions but no statistical differences. Laboratory tests for CRP and ESR produced higher values for the rheumatoid arthritis group with T1- T2 reductions on the average, but the values were still higher than in the health group. We conclude that periodontal therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and mild chronic periodontitis showed a improvement in the periodontal clinical parameters and laboratory tests that were evaluated. PMID:26140059

  12. Evaluation of metronidazole nanofibers in patients with chronic periodontitis: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Thakur Prasad; Srivastava, Ruchi; Srivastava, Anand Kumar; Gupta, Varun; Verma, Pushpendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Prevention of periodontal disease progression is the primary goal of periodontal therapy. When conventional therapy is found to be inadequate in achieving periodontal health in chronic periodontitis, local antimicrobial agents are used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP), which produces encouraging results. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a low-dose controlled-release delivery system for the treatment of periodontal infections. A new sustained release drug system of poly e-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers containing metronidazole (MET) was successfully electrospun and evaluated clinically for periodontal diseases. The retentive nanofibres were shown to provide a controlled delivery of the drugs. Materials and Methods: Nanofibers were prepared with MET in PCL by electrospinning technique. The drug-coated nanofibers provided sustained effect up to a period of 11 days (264 h) and followed first-order release. Forty sites in seven patients (four females and three males) with chronic periodontitis (5–8 mm probing depth) were allocated in two experimental treatment groups: Group A treated with SRP + MET nanofibers and Group B treated with SRP alone (control group). All these patients were evaluated clinically for probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI). Results: Both the treatment groups were found to be efficacious in the treatment of periodontal disease as demonstrated by improvement in PD, PI, and GI. Conclusion: Combination of SRP + MET nanofibers (Group A) resulted in added benefits, compared to the control group. PMID:23580938

  13. Periodontal status in an urban adult population in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Söder, P O; Jin, L J; Söder, B; Wikner, S

    1994-04-01

    The purpose was to describe the current periodontal status in a Swedish urban population aged 31-40 yr. 1681 individuals, 840 men and 841 women, participated in the study. 68.5% of the subjects had low amount of plaque, 82.8% low level of calculus and 28.9% healthy gingiva or mild gingivitis. 82.8% of the subjects had no pockets with probing depth (PD) > or = 5 mm. 4.9% of the subjects had one tooth with PD > or = 5 mm, 6.7% 2-5 teeth, 2.4% 6-9 teeth and 3.2% > or = 10 teeth with pockets. 55.8% of the subjects had no missing teeth, third molars excluded. 16.5% had one tooth missing, 23.8% 2-5 teeth, 2.7% 6-9 teeth and 1.2% > or = 10 teeth. 8.6% of the subjects had at least one front tooth missing, 28.7% one premolar and 24.1% one molar missing. Men had significantly higher scores than women for plaque (DI-S), calculus (CI-S), gingivitis (GI-M), and number and percent of remaining teeth with PD > or = 5 mm. Smokers had significantly higher scores than non-smokers for DI-S, CI-S, GI-M, number and percent of remaining teeth with PD > or = 5 mm, and number of missing teeth. The individuals who visited the dentist every year had better oral hygiene and gingival status than those who attended for > 3 yr. The multiple regression analysis showed that calculus (P = 0.0001) smoking (P = 0.001), and dental visits (P = 0.0284) were significantly correlated to the number of teeth with PD > or = 5 mm.

  14. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors

  15. Detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions amenable to prevention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases. Gingivitis affects the majority of people, and advanced periodontitis is estimated to affect 5-15% of adults. The detection and diagnosis of these common diseases is a fundamentally important component of oral health care. All patients should undergo periodontal assessment as part of routine oral examination. Periodontal screening using methods such as the Basic Periodontal Examination/Community Periodontal Index or Periodontal Screening Record should be performed for all new patients, and also on a regular basis as part of ongoing oral health care. If periodontitis is identified, full periodontal assessment is required, involving recording of full mouth probing and bleeding data, together with assessment of other relevant parameters such as plaque levels, furcation involvement, recession and tooth mobility. Radiographic assessment of alveolar bone levels is driven by the clinical situation, and is required to assess bone destruction in patients with periodontitis. Risk assessment (such as assessing diabetes status and smoking) and risk management (such as promoting smoking cessation) should form a central component of periodontal therapy. This article provides guidance to the oral health care team regarding methods and frequencies of appropriate clinical and radiographic examinations to assess periodontal status, to enable appropriate detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions. PMID:26390822

  16. The effect of conventional mechanical periodontal treatment on red complex microorganisms and clinical parameters in Down syndrome periodontitis patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M H; Rodrigues, T O; Finoti, L S; Teixeira, S R L; Mayer, M P A; Scarel-Caminaga, R M; Giro, E M A

    2015-03-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is induced by a complex microbiota, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola (together called the red complex), which triggers intense inflammatory reaction. Down syndrome (DS) individuals demonstrate a high prevalence of PD compared with those who are otherwise chromosomally normal (euploids). This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment in DS chronic periodontitis patients on clinical and microbiological parameters. Patients with chronic periodontitis, 23 DS and 12 euploids (control group), were submitted to non-surgical mechanical periodontal treatment, followed by maintenance for 45 days. Clinical parameters after periodontal treatment were similar in diseased and healthy sites, independent of the genetic background. Diseased sites of DS and control patients harbored similar levels of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia at baseline, but significantly higher levels of T. denticola were found in DS patients. Increased levels of P. gingivalis at healthy sites were found in DS individuals. Non-surgical periodontal therapy decreased the levels of red complex microorganisms and improved the tested clinical parameters of diseased sites in both groups. However, the levels of red complex bacteria were higher in diseased sites of DS patients after the periodontal treatment. We conclude in this pilot study that, although the mechanical periodontal treatment seemed to be effective in DS subjects over a short-term period, the red complex bacteria levels did not decrease significantly in diseased sites, as occurred in controls. Therefore, for DS patients, it seems that the conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy should be improved by utilizing adjuvants to reduce the presence of periodontopathogens.

  17. Arterial stiffness in periodontitis patients and controls. A case–control and pilot intervention study.

    PubMed

    Houcken, W; Teeuw, W J; Bizzarro, S; Alvarez Rodriguez, E; Mulders, T A; van den Born, B-Jh; Loos, B G

    2016-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness (AS) is an important indicator for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Epidemiologically, periodontitis and ACVD are associated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate AS in periodontitis patients and controls. In addition, we explored the effect of periodontal therapy on AS in a sub-group of cases. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive chair-side function test for AS, was measured in periodontitis patients (n=57; mean age 46.6 years) and compared with a reference group (n=48; mean age 45.5 years). In addition, 45 cases (mean age 46.9 years) were 6 months followed after periodontal treatment, to explore a possible effect on arterial function. Periodontitis patients showed a significantly increased PWV compared with the reference group (8.01±0.20 vs. 7.36±0.22 m s(-1) respectively; P=0.029) and this remained significant after adjustments for ACVD risk factors (P=0.019). After periodontal therapy, no significant reduction in PWV was seen (8.00±1.8 to 7.82±1.6 m s(-1); P=0.13), but systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly reduced (119.8±14.6 to 116.9±15.1 mm Hg; P=0.040). It can be concluded that periodontitis is associated with increased AS. This confirms with a new parameter the association of periodontitis with ACVD. Although periodontal treatment did not lower AS significantly, a modest reduction of SBP after 6 months was observed.

  18. Clinical characteristics of destructive periodontitis in a risk group of Swedish urban adults.

    PubMed

    Söder, B; Jin, L J; Söder, P O; Wikner, S

    1995-01-01

    An initial screening investigation of 1681 Swedish urban adults aged 31-40 years with untreated periodontitis showed that 17.2% (289) had at least one site with probing depth > or = 5 mm. The 289 subjects were offered a complete clinical examination and treatment. 144 subjects, 85 men and 59 women, agreed to participate and 145 were non-responding subjects and used as a drop out sample. The results from the screening data showed that the attendants had poorer oral hygiene status and more severe periodontitis than the drop out subjects. The present report describes clinical data of this representative sample with adult periodontitis. Clinical indices were recorded and bone height (BH%) for all teeth was measured with a computer digitizing system. In the 144 attendants, Plaque Index was > 1 in 56.2%, Calculus Index was > 1 in 57.0%, Gingival Index was > 1 in 97.2% and bleeding on probing was found in 89.1% of the sites. 11.1% of the subjects had 1-3 teeth with probing depth > or = 5 mm, 59.0% 4-10 teeth, 25.7% 11-20 teeth and 4.2% > 20 teeth. 47.9% of the subjects had mean BH% less than 80. 45.1% of the subjects had at least one site with an intrabony defect, of which 20% had 3-4 sites and 27.7% > or = 5 sites. It is concluded that advanced generalized periodontitis exists in a limited number of 31-40 year-olds in Sweden. Specific risk factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  19. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Adverse Respiratory Events in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of periodontal diseases has been associated with benefit outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no population-based cohort study has been conducted. We evaluated this relationship by retrospective cohort study using a large population data. Using the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 5562 COPD patients with periodontal diseases who had received periodontal treatment as the treatment group. The comparison group was selected at a 1:1 ratio matched by the propensity score estimated with age, sex, date of COPD diagnosis and periodontal treatment, and comorbidities. Both groups were followed up for 5 years to compare risks of acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. The incidence rates of adverse respiratory events were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the comparison group: 3.79 versus 4.21 per 100 person-years for emergency room visits, 2.75 versus 3.65 per 100 person-years for hospitalizations, and 0.66 versus 0.75 per 100 person-years for intensive care unit admissions. The treatment group also had a 37% reduced risk of deaths (1.81 vs 2.87 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.52–0.62). Periodontal treatment for COPD patients could reduce the risk of adverse respiratory events and mortality. The adequate periodontal health care is important for COPD patients with periodontal diseases. PMID:27196497

  20. Periodontal disease in HIV seropositive patients and its relation to lymphocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Canut, P; Guarinos, J; Bagán, J V

    1996-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the type of periodontal pathology found in a group of HIV+ patients and its relation to serum levels of CD4. The sample consisted of 101 individuals: intravenous drug users (84%), homosexuals (7%), and heterosexuals (10%). Each patient was examined clinically and radiographically. Periodontal clinical parameters included gingival index and probing depth and loss of attachment on four sites per tooth. Severity of disease was defined as the most severe lesion found: gingivitis, or early, moderate, or advanced periodontitis. CD4 counts were determined on 64 of these patients. Associations between severity of the disease and gender and CD4 counts were analyzed using the Mantel Haenszel chi square test, while associations between severity and age and CD4/CD8 ratio were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. No disease was found in 14.8% of the sample, gingivitis was found in 21.8%, early periodontitis in 43.6%, moderate periodontitis in 10.9%, and advanced periodontitis in 8.9%. Linear gingival erythema (LGE) was seen in 17.8% of all patients and necrotizing periodontitis (NUP) in 4.9%. No statistically significant differences were observed between the severity of the disease and CD4 counts.

  1. Low density lipoprotein levels linkage with the periodontal status patients of coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nafisah Ibrahim; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Studies found an association between periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD), but relationship between periodontal status CHD patients with LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) levels, as risk factors for atherosclerosis, has not been studied. Objective: To analyze relationship between LDL and periodontal status CHD. Methods: Periodontal status of 60 CHD, 40 controls were examined (PBI, PPD, CAL) and their blood was taken to assess levels of LDL. Result: Found significant differences LDL (p=0.005), correlation between LDL with PPD (p=0.003) and CAL CHD (p=0.013), and PPD (p=0.001), CAL (p=0.008) non-CHD, but no significant correlation between LDL with PBI CAD (p=0.689) and PBI non-CHD (p=0.320). Conclusion: There is a correlation between the LDL levels with periodontal status.

  2. [Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids].

    PubMed

    Lăcătuşu, St; Ghiorghe, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Patients treated with adrenal glucocorticoids may run a higher risk of dental caries, both as a result of their medical condition and of the physical and physiological effects of their pharmacotherapy. Our clinical study reports about patients treated with glucocorticoids who were also having an odonto-periodontal condition. They were examined and we found rampant caries and periodontal diseases. The slow evolution of asymptomatic periodontal disease encouraged destruction of teeth in root caries. The rampant caries were correlated with immunodeficiency and treatment of these caries must take into account the general treatment.

  3. Periodontitis and Porphyromonas gingivalis in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mikuls, Ted R.; Payne, Jeffrey B.; Yu, Fang; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Reynolds, Richard J.; Cannon, Grant W.; Markt, Jeffrey; McGowan, David; Kerr, Gail S.; Redman, Robert S.; Reimold, Andreas; Griffiths, Garth; Beatty, Mark; Gonzalez, Shawneen; Bergman, Debra A.; Hamilton, Bartlett C.; Erickson, Alan R.; Sokolove, Jeremy; Robinson, William; Walker, Clay; Chandad, Fatiha; O’Dell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the degree to which shared risk factors explain the relationship of periodontitis (PD) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to examine associations of PD and Porphyomonas gingivalis (Pg) with disease features. Methods RA cases (N=287) and controls (N=330) underwent a standardized periodontal examination. HLA-DRB1 status was imputed using SNPs from the extended MHC. Circulating anti-Pg antibody was measured using ELISA and subgingival plaque was assessed for the presence of Pg using PCR. Associations of PD with RA were examined using multivariable regression. Results PD was more common in RA (35%, p = 0.022) and aCCP positive RA (n=240; 37%; p = 0.006) vs. controls (26%). There were no RA-control differences in anti-Pg or the frequency of Pg positivity by PCR. Anti-Pg antibody showed weak but statistically significant associations with both anti-CCP (r=0.14, p=0.022) and RF (r=0.19, p=0.001). PD was associated with increased swollen joint counts (p=0.004), DAS-28-CRP (p=0.045), total Sharp scores (p=0.015), aCCP (p=0.011), and RF (p<0.001). Select anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA; including antibody to citrullinated filaggrin) were higher in patients with subgingival Pg and higher anti-Pg antibody levels irrespective of smoking. Associations of PD with established seropositive RA were independent of all covariates examined including evidence of Pg infection. Conclusions Both PD and Pg appear to shape RA-related autoreactivity in RA. In addition, PD demonstrates an independent relationship with established seropositive RA. PMID:24782175

  4. Relationship of Clinical and Microbiological Variables in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sakalauskiene, Jurgina; Kubilius, Ricardas; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Ivanauskiene, Egle; Šaferis, Viktoras

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to analyze how metabolic control of type 1 diabetes is related to clinical and microbiological periodontal parameters. Material/Methods The study involved 56 subjects aged from 19 to 50 years divided into 2 groups: healthy subjects (the H group), and diabetic (type 1 diabetes) patients with chronic untreated generalized periodontitis (the DM group). The glycosylated hemoglobin value (HbA1c) was determined using the UniCel DxC 800 SYNCHRON System (Beckman Coulter, USA), and the concentration in blood was measured by the turbidimetric immunoinhibition method. A molecular genetic assay (Micro-IDent plus, Germany) was used to detect periodontopathogenic bacteria in plaque samples. Periodontitis was confirmed by clinical and radiological examination. Results Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga species, and Eikenella corrodens were the most frequently found bacteria in dental plaque samples (77.8%, 66.7%, and 33.4%, respectively), whereas Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was identified 40.7% less frequently in the DM group than in the H group. The strongest relationship was observed between the presence of 2 periodontal pathogens – F. nucleatum and Capnocytophaga spp. – and poorer metabolic control in type 1 diabetes patients (HbA1c) and all clinical parameters of periodontal pathology. Conclusions Periodontal disease was more evident in type 1 diabetic patients, and the prevalence of periodontitis was greatly increased in subjects with poorer metabolic control. PMID:25294115

  5. Long noncoding RNA related to periodontitis interacts with miR-182 to upregulate osteogenic differentiation in periodontal mesenchymal stem cells of periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Wu, F; Song, Y; Li, X; Wu, Q; Duan, Y; Jin, Z

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis impairs the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal mesenchymal stem cells (hPDLSCs), but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to have significant roles under both physiologic and pathological conditions. In this study, we performed comprehensive lncRNA profiling by lncRNA microarray analysis and identified a novel lncRNA, osteogenesis impairment-related lncRNA of PDLSCs from periodontitis patients (lncRNA-POIR), the expression of which was significantly decreased in PDLSCs from periodontitis patients (pPDLSCs) and was upregulated by osteogenic induction. To study the functions of lncRNA-POIR, we prepared cells with overexpression and knockdown of lncRNA-POIR and found that lncRNA-POIR positively regulated osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs and pPDLSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Using quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCRs) and luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that lncRNA-POIR may act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-182, leading to derepression of its target gene, FoxO1. In this process, lncRNA-POIR and miR-182 suppress each other and form a network to regulate FoxO1. FoxO1 increased bone formation of pPDLSCs by competing with TCF-4 for β-catenin and inhibiting the canonical Wnt pathway. Finally, inflammation increases miR-182 expression through the nuclear factor-κB pathway, and the miR-182 overexpression in the inflammatory microenvironment resulted in an imbalance in the lncRNA-POIR-miR-182 regulatory network. In conclusion, our results provide novel evidence that this lncRNA-miRNA (microRNA) regulatory network has a significant role in osteogenic differentiation of pPDLSCs and that it has potential as a therapeutic target in mesenchymal stem cells during inflammation. PMID:27512949

  6. Low-Level Lasers as an Adjunct in Periodontal Therapy in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kesić, Ljiljana; Mihailović, Dragan; Jovanović, Goran; Antić, Slobodan; Brkić, Zlata

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of periodontitis, and severe periodontitis often coexists with severe DM. The proposed dual pathway of tissue destruction suggests that control of chronic periodontal infection and gingival inflammation is essential for achieving long-term control of DM. The purpose this study is to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by exfoliative cytology in patients with DM and gingival inflammation. Subjects and Methods Three hundred patients were divided in three equal groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with periodontitis and type 1 DM, Group 2 of patients with periodontitis and type 2 DM, and Group 3 of patients with periodontitis (control group). After oral examination, smears were taken from gingival tissue, and afterward all of the patients received oral hygiene instructions, removal of dental plaque, and full-mouth scaling and root planing. A split-mouth design was applied; on the right side of jaws GaAlAs LLLT (670 nm, 5 mW, 14 min/day) (model Mils 94; Optica Laser, Sofia, Bulgaria) was applied for five consecutive days. After the therapy was completed, smears from both sides of jaws were taken. The morphometric analysis was done using the National Institutes of Health Image software program and a model NU2 microscope (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany). Results Investigated parameters were significantly lower after therapy compared with values before therapy. After therapy on the side subjected to LLLT, there was no significantly difference between patients with DM and the control group. Conclusions It can be concluded that LLLT as an adjunct in periodontal therapy reduces gingival inflammation in patients with DM and periodontitis. PMID:22928615

  7. Patient-Specific Variations in Biomarkers across Gingivitis and Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Miller, Craig S; Dawson, Dolph; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the use of saliva, as an emerging diagnostic fluid in conjunction with classification techniques to discern biological heterogeneity in clinically labelled gingivitis and periodontitis subjects (80 subjects; 40/group) A battery of classification techniques were investigated as traditional single classifier systems as well as within a novel selective voting ensemble classification approach (SVA) framework. Unlike traditional single classifiers, SVA is shown to reveal patient-specific variations within disease groups, which may be important for identifying proclivity to disease progression or disease stability. Salivary expression profiles of IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, and MIP-1α from 80 patients were analyzed using four classification algorithms (LDA: Linear Discriminant Analysis [LDA], Quadratic Discriminant Analysis [QDA], Naïve Bayes Classifier [NBC] and Support Vector Machines [SVM]) as traditional single classifiers and within the SVA framework (SVA-LDA, SVA-QDA, SVA-NB and SVA-SVM). Our findings demonstrate that performance measures (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of traditional classification as single classifier were comparable to that of the SVA counterparts using clinical labels of the samples as ground truth. However, unlike traditional single classifier approaches, the normalized ensemble vote-counts from SVA revealed varying proclivity of the subjects for each of the disease groups. More importantly, the SVA identified a subset of gingivitis and periodontitis samples that demonstrated a biological proclivity commensurate with the other clinical group. This subset was confirmed across SVA-LDA, SVA-QDA, SVA-NB and SVA-SVM. Heatmap visualization of their ensemble sets revealed lack of consensus between these subsets and the rest of the samples within the respective disease groups indicating the unique nature of the patients in these subsets. While the source of variation is not known, the results presented clearly elucidate the

  8. A histological evaluation of a low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to periodontal therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Radmila; Kesić, Ljiljana; Mihailović, Dragan; Antić, Slobodan; Jovanović, Goran; Petrović, Aleksandar; Peševska, Snežana

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic periodontitis are common chronic diseases in adults in the world population. DM has a strong influence on the oral cavity and represents a risk factor for gingivitis and periodontitis. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has proven effective in the reduction of inflammation and swelling. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of LLLT in diabetic periodontitis through histological analysis. A total of 300 diabetics with chronic periodontal disease and teeth indicated for extraction were assigned into six equal groups. In the groups 1 and 4, indicated teeth were extracted before treatment, and in the rest of the groups upon completion of the entire treatment. All patients received oral hygiene instructions and full-mouth conservative periodontal treatment. In groups 3 and 6, LLLT was applied (670 nm, 5 mW, 2 J/cm(2), 16 min, 5 days). Histologic findings of gingival tissue treated with LLLT showed expressed healing, as is evident by the absence of inflammatory cells. Tissue edema could not be seen, and the number of blood vessels was reduced. In the gingival lamina, propria pronounced collagenization and homogenization were present. It can be concluded that LLLT has shown efficacy in the treatment of periodontitis in diabetics. Because of more pronounced alterations of periodontium in diabetics, the use of LLLT is of particular importance.

  9. Alkaline phosphatase levels in patients with coronary heart disease saliva and its relation with periodontal status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunita, Dina Suci; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Tadjoedin, Fatimah M.; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease that causes narrowing of the coronary arteries. Currently, there is a hypothesis regarding periodontal infection that increases risk for heart disease. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a marker of inflammation will increase in atherosclerosis and periodontal disease. The objective of this research is analyzing the relationship between the levels of alkaline phosphatase in saliva with periodontal status in patients with CHD and non CHD. Here, saliva of 104 subjects were taken, each 1 ml, and levels of Alkaline Phosphatase was analyzed using Abbott ci4100 architect. We found that no significant difference of Alkaline Phosphatase levels in saliva between CHD patients and non CHD. Therefore, it can be concluded that Alkaline Phosphatase levels in patients with CHD saliva was higher than non CHD and no association between ALP levels with periodontal status.

  10. In vitro adherence of Candida albicans isolated from patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, Adriana Gadotti; KOMIYAMA, Edson Yukio; dos SANTOS, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; BRIGHENTI, Fernanda Lourenção; KOGA-ITO, Cristiane Yumi

    2011-01-01

    Adherence is considered an extremely important virulence factor in yeast. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the adherence to epithelial cells of C. albicans isolated from patients with chronic periodontitis in comparison to healthy patients. Material and methods Candida albicans cells isolated from individuals with chronic periodontitis (n=25) and healthy controls (n=25) were included in this study. Suspensions of C. albicans (106 cells/mL) and epithelial cells (105 cells/mL) were mixed and incubated at 37ºC for 1 h. The number of yeasts adhered to 25 epithelial cells was counted. Results The number of C. albicans cells adhered to epithelial cells was statistically higher in the chronic periodontitis group than in the control group (Student's t-test, p=0.000). Conclusion The results of the present study suggest a higher Candida adherence of samples isolated from patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:21710096

  11. Inflammatory cytokine levels in patients with periodontitis and/or coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haihua; Lin, Xiaolong; Zheng, Pei; Chen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate systemic and local levels of four classic inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, MCP-1, VEGF, PDGF) in patients with periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD). 109 volunteers were enrolled and the condition of their periodontal tissue and coronary artery were assessed. The patients were then divided into four distinct groups: periodontitis only, CHD only, periodontitis with CHD, and healthy controls. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and venous blood were collected. The concentrations of cytokines were detected meanwhile by specific ELISA. The IL-1β and MCP-1 concentrations in the serum and GCF of the three disease groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Serum VEGF concentrations of the patients with existing disease was lower than that of the controls. VEGF levels in the GCF of all disease groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (P ≤ 0.05).

  12. Quantitative Molecular Detection of 19 Major Pathogens in the Interdental Biofilm of Periodontally Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carrouel, Florence; Viennot, Stéphane; Santamaria, Julie; Veber, Philippe; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18–35 years-old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green, and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum. The red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola) was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The genome counts for Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, T. denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis), the green complex (E. corrodens, Campylobacter gracilis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, A. actinomycetemcomitans), the purple complex (Veillonella parvula, Actinomyces odontolyticus) and the blue complex (A. viscosus) are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important

  13. Evaluation of Salivary Leptin Levels in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Afshin; Bayani, Mojtaba; Torabi, Sepehr; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadnejhad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Leptin is a hormone-like protein produced by the adipose tissue. It plays an important role in protection of host against inflammation and infection. Some studies have reported changes in leptin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva and blood serum of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary leptin levels in patients with advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the salivary samples of healthy individuals and patients with advanced periodontitis with clinical attachment loss >5mm were obtained using a standardized method and the leptin levels were measured in the salivary samples by means of ELISA. The effects of the periodontal status and sex on the salivary leptin levels of both groups were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Results: The means ± standard deviation (SD) of salivary leptin levels in healthy subjects and patients with advanced periodontitis were 34.27±6.88 and 17.87±5.89 pg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of sex on the salivary leptin levels was not significant (P=0.91), while the effect of advanced periodontitis on the salivary leptin levels was significant compared to healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Conclusions: In patients with advanced periodontitis, the salivary leptin levels were significantly lower compared to healthy individuals. Thus, assessment of salivary leptin can be done as a non-invasive and simple method to determine the susceptibility of patients to advanced periodontitis. PMID:27536322

  14. Relative abundance of total subgingival plaque-specific bacteria in salivary microbiota reflects the overall periodontal condition in patients with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Shinya; Takeshita, Toru; Asakawa, Mikari; Shibata, Yukie; Takeuchi, Kenji; Yamanaka, Wataru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2017-01-01

    Increasing attention is being focused on evaluating the salivary microbiota as a promising method for monitoring oral health; however, its bacterial composition greatly differs from that of dental plaque microbiota, which is a dominant etiologic factor of oral diseases. This study evaluated the relative abundance of subgingival plaque-specific bacteria in the salivary microbiota and examined a relationship between the abundance and severity of periodontal condition in patients with periodontitis. Four samples (subgingival and supragingival plaques, saliva, and tongue coating) per each subject were collected from 14 patients with a broad range of severity of periodontitis before periodontal therapy. The bacterial composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using Ion PGM. Of the 66 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing the mean relative abundance of ≥ 1% in any of the four niches, 12 OTUs corresponding to known periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, were characteristically predominant in the subgingival plaque and constituted 37.3 ± 22.9% of the microbiota. The total relative abundance of these OTUs occupied only 1.6 ± 1.2% of the salivary microbiota, but significantly correlated with the percentage of diseased sites (periodontal pocket depth ≥ 4 mm; r = 0.78, P < 0.001), in addition to the abundance of subgingival plaque microbiota (r = 0.61, P = 0.02). After periodontal therapy, the total relative abundance of these 12 OTUs was evaluated as well as before periodontal therapy and reductions of the abundance through periodontal therapy were strongly correlated in saliva and subgingival plaque (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). Based on these results, salivary microbiota might be a promising target for the evaluation of subgingival plaque-derived bacteria representing the present condition of periodontal health.

  15. Effect of Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum C-reactive Protein Levels Using ELISA in Both Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bharat; Patil, Neha; Yadav, Manoj; Tripathi, Shashank; Sinha, Saurabh; Sharma, Saurabh; Gupta, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Background Periodontitis can be defined as a local inflammatory process which mediates destruction of periodontal tissues & is triggered by bacterial insult. In periodontal infections, the levels of C reactive proteins are elevated as compared to the levels in a periodontally healthy individual. The study was done to determine the relative levels of serum CRP in aggressive, chronic and periodontally healthy subjects and to evaluate the effect of surgical periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein levels. Materials and Methods Serum samples were collected from 150 participants (50 healthy control patients (non-periodontitis), 50 patients with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. Serum C- reactive protein levels were assessed by means of immunoturbidimetric assay at baseline for subjects in all the 3 groups and 3 months after completion of surgical therapy. Results The mean baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the Groups I, II and III were 1.65±0.57 mg/L, 3.03±2.14 mg/L and 3.09±2.27 mg/L respectively. After treatment, the mean C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in Groups II and III reduced from 3.03±1.67 mg/L to 1.46±1.67 mg/L and from 3.09±1.21 to 1.43±1.21 mg/L respectively. Similar results were found for probing depth and all indexes in Group II and III after treatment. Also, the mean attachment loss in Groups II and III reduced, so the results were highly significant. Conclusion Successful periodontal treatment results in significant decrease in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:26557605

  16. Relative abundance of total subgingival plaque-specific bacteria in salivary microbiota reflects the overall periodontal condition in patients with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Shinya; Takeshita, Toru; Asakawa, Mikari; Shibata, Yukie; Takeuchi, Kenji; Yamanaka, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Increasing attention is being focused on evaluating the salivary microbiota as a promising method for monitoring oral health; however, its bacterial composition greatly differs from that of dental plaque microbiota, which is a dominant etiologic factor of oral diseases. This study evaluated the relative abundance of subgingival plaque-specific bacteria in the salivary microbiota and examined a relationship between the abundance and severity of periodontal condition in patients with periodontitis. Four samples (subgingival and supragingival plaques, saliva, and tongue coating) per each subject were collected from 14 patients with a broad range of severity of periodontitis before periodontal therapy. The bacterial composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using Ion PGM. Of the 66 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing the mean relative abundance of ≥ 1% in any of the four niches, 12 OTUs corresponding to known periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, were characteristically predominant in the subgingival plaque and constituted 37.3 ± 22.9% of the microbiota. The total relative abundance of these OTUs occupied only 1.6 ± 1.2% of the salivary microbiota, but significantly correlated with the percentage of diseased sites (periodontal pocket depth ≥ 4 mm; r = 0.78, P < 0.001), in addition to the abundance of subgingival plaque microbiota (r = 0.61, P = 0.02). After periodontal therapy, the total relative abundance of these 12 OTUs was evaluated as well as before periodontal therapy and reductions of the abundance through periodontal therapy were strongly correlated in saliva and subgingival plaque (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). Based on these results, salivary microbiota might be a promising target for the evaluation of subgingival plaque-derived bacteria representing the present condition of periodontal health. PMID:28369125

  17. Relationship of periodontal infection to serum antibody levels to periodontopathic bacteria and inflammatory markers in periodontitis patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Honda, T; Domon, H; Okui, T; Kajita, K; Amanuma, R; Kudoh, C; Takashiba, S; Kokeguchi, S; Nishimura, F; Kodama, M; Aizawa, Y; Oda, H

    2007-09-01

    Several reports have demonstrated a possible association of periodontal infections with coronary heart disease (CHD) by elevated antibody titre to periodontopathic bacteria in CHD patients compared with non-diseased controls. Although each periodontopathic bacterium may vary in virulence for periodontitis and atherosclerosis, antibody response to multiple bacteria in CHD patients has not been understood fully. Therefore, serum levels of antibody to 12 periodontopathic bacteria together with other atherosclerotic risk markers were compared among 51 patients with CHD, 55 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals. The antibody response was the most prevalent for Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major causative organism, in CHD as well as periodontitis patients. However, antibody positivity was different between CHD and periodontitis if the response was analysed for two different strains of P. gingivalis, namely FDC381 and Su63. While periodontitis patients were positive for both P. gingivalis FDC381 and Su63, a high frequency of antibody positivity for P. gingivalis Su63 but not for FDC381 was observed in CHD patients. The results indicate that the presence of particular periodontopathic bacteria with high virulence may affect atherogenesis. Identifying the virulence factors of P. gingivalis Su63 may gain insight into the new therapeutic modality for infection-induced deterioration of atherosclerosis.

  18. Ultra-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (US-CRP) in Patients With Periodontal Disease and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Uriza, Catalina Latorre; Arregoces, Francina Escobar; Porras, Juliana Velosa; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Ferro; Morales, Alvaro Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine if the US-CRP values associated with periodontal disease are risk markers for Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and to determine if the US-CRP levels associated with recent AMI are higher in patients with Periodontal disease. Methods In order to meet the goal of the study, a case control study design was conducted. The analysis sample consisted of 401 adults (30 - 75 years old), living in Bogota D.C., Colombia, from the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, the Faculty of Dentistry at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, and the Fundacion Cardio Infantil. Patients with current infections, antibiotic use in the last 3 months, periodontal treatment at least six months before the baseline of this study, mouth ulcerations caused by any type of prosthesis, candidiasis, stomatitis, or less than 7 teeth in mouth were excluded. Periodontal examination for the case group and the control group was conducted by three previously calibrated examiners. Periodontal disease was diagnosed by the presence of bleeding on probing and attachment loss. The Chronic Periodontitis diagnosis was confirmed with these clinical signs, according to the 1999 Armitage classification. The assessment of the US-CRP was performed using the IMMULITE method containing one monoclonal and one polyclonal anti-CRP antibody. This method provides a measurement range of 0.1 - 500 mg/L. Statistical analysis of variables was performed with OR and confidence intervals. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the association between the US-CRP increase, periodontal disease and acute myocardial infarction, adjusting for smoking and other confounding factors identified in the analysis. Results The study population was constituted by 401 patients, 56.1% (225) males, with a mean age of 52.6. When groups were compared it was observed that, in those patients with AMI and chronic severe or moderate periodontitis, 24.2% had HDL-C values lower than 40 mg

  19. The tobacco-using periodontal patient: role of the dental practitioner in tobacco cessation and periodontal disease management.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Couch, Elizabeth T; Ryder, Mark I

    2016-06-01

    Although the prevalence of tobacco use has declined in some parts of the world, tobacco use remains a persistent and, in some cases, growing problem that will continue to be a fundamental challenge facing dental practitioners in the decades ahead. Dental practitioners have a unique opportunity and professional obligation to be a positive influence in reducing the economic and social burden inflicted by tobacco use on dental and general health. In this article, the current noninvasive, evidence-based approaches are presented for dental practitioners to help patients avoid initiating tobacco use, to encourage and assist patients in ceasing tobacco use and to address tobacco-induced damage to periodontal supporting tissues.

  20. Effects of 980 diode laser treatment combined with scaling and root planing on periodontal pockets in chronic periodontitis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Alireza

    2010-02-01

    Objective: This study compared the effect of 980 Diode laser + scaling and root planing (SRP) versus SRP alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Method: 21 healthy patients with moderate periodontitis with a probing depth of at least 5mm were included in the study. A total of 42 sites were treated during 6weeks with a combination of 980 Diode laser and SRP (21 sites) or SRP alone (21 sites). The gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were examined at the baseline and after 6 weeks after the start of treatment. Results: Both groups showed statistically significant improvements in GI, BOP and PPD after treatment. The results also showed significant improvement from laser+ SRP group to SRP alone group. Conclusion: The present data suggest that treatment of chronic periodontitis with either 980 Diode laser + SRP or SRP alone results in statistically significant improvements in the clinical parameters. The combination of 980 Diode laser irradiation in the gingival sulcus and SRP, was significantly better as compared to SRP alone.

  1. Immediate, Early, and Conventional Implant Placement in a Patient with History of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Alessandro; Scognamiglio, Fabio; Femiano, Felice; Lanza, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a case of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in a patient with periodontitis, focusing on the different timing of implant placement. After initial periodontal treatment, teeth with advanced mobility degree and severe bone resorption were extracted. At different healing time oral implants were placed in a prosthetic-guided position. After osseointegration period the implants were loaded and the results at one year of follow-up are presented. PMID:25949833

  2. Immediate, early, and conventional implant placement in a patient with history of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Alessandro; Scognamiglio, Fabio; Femiano, Felice; Lanza, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a case of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in a patient with periodontitis, focusing on the different timing of implant placement. After initial periodontal treatment, teeth with advanced mobility degree and severe bone resorption were extracted. At different healing time oral implants were placed in a prosthetic-guided position. After osseointegration period the implants were loaded and the results at one year of follow-up are presented.

  3. High incidence and severity of periodontitis in patients with Marfan syndrome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Imai, Yasushi; Aoki, Mieko; Fujita, Daishi; Aoyama, Norio; Tada, Yuko; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei; Nagai, Ryozo; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2015-09-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin-1. While it is known that patients with MFS are at high risk of dental disorders and cardiovascular diseases, little information has been provided to date. To clarify the prevalence of periodontitis in patients with MFS, their oral condition and cardiovascular complications were evaluated. The subjects were patients with MFS (n = 40) who attended the University of Tokyo hospital; age- and gender-matched healthy individuals (n = 14) constituted a control group. Cardiovascular complications and full-mouth clinical measurements, including number of teeth, probing of pocket depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and community periodontal index (CPI) were recorded. MFS patients had more frequent cardiovascular complications (95 %) compared with the controls (0 %). MFS patients had periodontitis (CPI 3 and 4) more frequently (87.5 %) than the age- and gender-matched control subjects (35.7 %). Furthermore, MFS patients had significantly more severe periodontitis (CPI 2.90 ± 0.12 vs 1.64 ± 0.32) and fewer remaining teeth (26.7 ± 0.4 vs 28.4 ± 0.4) compared with the controls. However, PD and BOP were comparable between MFS patients and the control group. A high incidence of periodontitis and cardiovascular complications was observed in Japanese MFS patients.

  4. Evaluation of oral and periodontal status of leprosy patients in Dindigul district

    PubMed Central

    Jacob Raja, S. A.; Raja, J. Johnson; Vijayashree, R.; Priya, B. Meena; Anusuya, G. Sai; Ravishankar, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: After the introduction of the multidrug therapy, the incidence of leprosy is decreasing every year. However, periodontal complaints are commonly seen in these patients due to compromised immunity and impaired oral hygiene. The aim of the present study is to assess the oral and periodontal status of the leprosy patients in Dindigul district. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 62 patients treated in a leprosy center at Dindigul district. Among these, 22 (35.5%) were female patients and 40 were male patients (64.5%). Age ranges between 40 and 70 with the mean age being 52. Facial changes, periodontal status, dental caries, attrition, tooth loss, plaque index (Silness and Loe), and calculus component of oral hygiene index-simplified were assessed. Results: Majority of the patients presented with loss of eyebrows and eyelashes, saddle nose, ocular involvement, and leonine facies. Gingival recession (54.8%) was a predominant finding followed by tooth loss (69.5%), mobility (60.86%), attrition (56%), chronic pulpitis (34.7%), and dental caries (26%). Most of the patients had severe periodontitis. Conclusions: Compromised immunity and altered autonomy pave way for many dental complaints such as periodontitis and deposits in tooth with poor oral hygiene. Awareness about the oral health problems and reinforcement of oral hygiene should be insisted to the leprosy patients to prevent further morbidity. PMID:27829761

  5. Management of localized advance loss of periodontal support associated Grade II furcation and intrabony defect in chronic periodontitis patient through amalgamation of platelet-rich fibrin and hydroxyapatite bioactive glass composite granules

    PubMed Central

    Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Ghuman, Simrat Kaur; Kumar, Saurabh; Sharma, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is infectious, complex, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disease of supporting periodontal tissues that not only alters the bone morphology but also leads to the reduction in bone height. Different types of bony deformities such as horizontal, vertical, craters, and furcation result from periodontal disease, but vertical and Grade II furcation defects are more amenable to regenerative periodontal therapy. The present case report describes the current concept of periodontal diagnosis and the clinical radiographical efficiency of platelet-rich fibrin and hydroxyapatite bioactive glass composite granules graft combination in the management of localized advance osseous defects with respect to tooth number 36 in chronic periodontitis patient at 1 year postoperatively. PMID:27630511

  6. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis four rag locus genotypes in patients of orthodontic gingivitis and periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yang; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a major etiological agent in periodontal diseases and implied to result in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. rag locus is a pathogenicity island found in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Four rag locus variants are different in pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Moreover, there are different racial and geographic differences in distribution of rag locus genotypes. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genotypes in 102 gingival crevicular fluid samples from 57 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 25 cases of periodontitis patients and 20 cases of periodontally healthy people through a 16S rRNA-based PCR and a multiplex PCR. The correlations between Porphyromona.gingivalis/rag locus and clinical indices were analyzed. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genes in periodontitis group was the highest among three groups and higher in orthodontic gingivitis than healthy people (p<0.01). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis/rag locus and gingival index. rag-3 and rag-4 were the predominant genotypes in the patients of orthodontic gingivitis and mild-to-moderate periodontitis in Shandong. Porphyromonas.gingivalis carrying rag-1 has the strong virulence and could be associated with severe periodontitis.

  7. Distribution of biotypes and leukotoxic activity of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans isolated from Brazilian patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Wahasugui, Thais Cristiane; Tomazinho, Paulo Henrique; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nakano, Viviane; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    2008-10-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an important etiologic agent of the periodontitis and is associated with extra-oral infections. In this study, the detection of the ltxA gene as well as the ltx promoter region from leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans isolated from 50 Brazilian patients with periodontitis and 50 healthy subjects was performed. The leukotoxic activity on HL-60 cells was also evaluated. Leukotoxic activity was determined using a trypan blue exclusion method. The 530 bp deletion in the promoter region was evaluated by PCR using a PRO primer pair. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected by culture and directly from crude subgingival biofilm by PCR using specific primers. By culture, A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in nine (18%) of the periodontal patients and one (2%) healthy subject. However, by PCR, this organism was detected in 44% of the periodontal patients and in 16% of the healthy subjects. It was verified a great discrepancy between PCR detection of the ltx operon promoter directly from crude subgingival biofilm and from bacterial DNA. Only one periodontal sample harbored highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans. Moreover, biotype II was the most prevalent and no correlation between biotypes and leukotoxic activity was observed. The diversity of leukotoxin expression by A. actinomycetemcomitans suggests a role of this toxin in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and other infectious diseases.

  8. Distribution of biotypes and leukotoxic activity of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans isolated from Brazilian patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gaetti-Jardim Jr., Elerson; Wahasugui, Thais Cristiane; Tomazinho, Paulo Henrique; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nakano, Viviane; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    2008-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an important etiologic agent of the periodontitis and is associated with extra-oral infections. In this study, the detection of the ltxA gene as well as the ltx promoter region from leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans isolated from 50 Brazilian patients with periodontitis and 50 healthy subjects was performed. The leukotoxic activity on HL-60 cells was also evaluated. Leukotoxic activity was determined using a trypan blue exclusion method. The 530 bp deletion in the promoter region was evaluated by PCR using a PRO primer pair. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected by culture and directly from crude subgingival biofilm by PCR using specific primers. By culture, A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in nine (18%) of the periodontal patients and one (2%) healthy subject. However, by PCR, this organism was detected in 44% of the periodontal patients and in 16% of the healthy subjects. It was verified a great discrepancy between PCR detection of the ltx operon promoter directly from crude subgingival biofilm and from bacterial DNA. Only one periodontal sample harbored highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans. Moreover, biotype II was the most prevalent and no correlation between biotypes and leukotoxic activity was observed. The diversity of leukotoxin expression by A. actinomycetemcomitans suggests a role of this toxin in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and other infectious diseases. PMID:24031284

  9. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis Four rag Locus Genotypes in Patients of Orthodontic Gingivitis and Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yang; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a major etiological agent in periodontal diseases and implied to result in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. rag locus is a pathogenicity island found in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Four rag locus variants are different in pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Moreover, there are different racial and geographic differences in distribution of rag locus genotypes. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genotypes in 102 gingival crevicular fluid samples from 57 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 25 cases of periodontitis patients and 20 cases of periodontally healthy people through a 16S rRNA-based PCR and a multiplex PCR. The correlations between Porphyromona.gingivalis/rag locus and clinical indices were analyzed. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genes in periodontitis group was the highest among three groups and higher in orthodontic gingivitis than healthy people (p<0.01). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis/rag locus and gingival index. rag-3 and rag-4 were the predominant genotypes in the patients of orthodontic gingivitis and mild-to-moderate periodontitis in Shandong. Porphyromonas.gingivalis carrying rag-1 has the strong virulence and could be associated with severe periodontitis. PMID:23593379

  10. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease. PMID:28298818

  11. Cell-mediated and humoral immune response in diabetic patients with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Anil, S; Remani, P; Vijayakumar, T; Hari, S

    1990-07-01

    Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed in 50 patients with type II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 50 nondiabetic patients with periodontitis. The values were compared with those of 50 age and sex-matched control subjects. The cell-mediated immunity assessed by enumerating the total and high-affinity rosette-forming cells of the patient did not show any significant variation from that of the normal control subjects. The humoral immune response was assessed by estimating serum immunoglobulins G, A, M, D, and E by single radial immunodiffusion. Except IgD, all other immunoglobulins were found to be elevated significantly in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. The alteration in humoral immune response may be the cause or the effect of periodontitis. The defective host response reported in diabetic patients may be responsible for the increased incidence of periodontitis in diabetic patients as compared to nondiabetic patients.

  12. Periodontal disease status and associated risk factors in patients attending a Dental Teaching Hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, Syed Akhtar Hussain; Suhail, Agha Mohammad; Malik, Abdul Razzaq; Imran, Mian Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigators have identified an association of socio-demographic and medical factors with periodontal risk. This study observed status and association of periodontal disease and associated risk factors/indictors. Materials and Methods: All patients attending a dental teaching hospital were interviewed for socio-demographic and medical information through a structured questionnaire. Participants were examined for periodontal status using the community periodontal index (CPI), by a single examiner during September to November 2012. An association of age, gender, smoking habit, systemic conditions, and oral hygiene measures with periodontal status ([periodontitis CPI score ≥3]/nonperiodontitis [CPI score ≤2]) was analyzed by applying Chi-square test and forward selection stepwise regression analysis. Results: One thousand nine hundred and eighteen patients were examined during the study period. The findings revealed that 63.5% of the subjects had CPI score ≤2 (nonperiodontitis), while 34.5% were found with CPI score ≥3 (periodontitis). Age, gender, occupation, smoking, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, stress, medications, and oral hygiene habits of using tooth powder or tooth brushing were significantly (P ≤ 0.037) associated with periodontal status. Regression analysis showed a significant association of age, occupation, and smoking with periodontitis. Conclusion: This study observed prevalence of periodontitis in one-fourth of study sample. The study confirmed various socio-demographic risk factors/indictors associated with increased risk of periodontitis. PMID:26941520

  13. Autophagy in periodontitis patients and gingival fibroblasts: unraveling the link between chronic diseases and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periodontitis, the most prevalent chronic inflammatory disease, has been related to cardiovascular diseases. Autophagy provides a mechanism for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. The aim of this research was to study the role of autophagy in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with periodontitis and gingival fibroblasts treated with a lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Autophagy-dependent mechanisms have been proposed in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders and in other diseases related to periodontitis, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus it is important to study the role of autophagy in the pathophysiology of periodontitis. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with periodontitis (n = 38) and without periodontitis (n = 20) were used to study autophagy. To investigate the mechanism of autophagy, we evaluated the influence of a lipopolysaccharide from P. gingivalis in human gingival fibroblasts, and autophagy was monitored morphologically and biochemically. Autophagosomes were observed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Results We found increased levels of autophagy gene expression and high levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with periodontitis compared with controls. A significantly positive correlation between both was observed. In human gingival fibroblasts treated with lipopolysaccharide from P. gingivalis, there was an increase of protein and transcript of autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha LC3. A reduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species induced a decrease in autophagy whereas inhibition of autophagy in infected cells increased apoptosis, showing the protective role of autophagy. Conclusion Results from the present study suggest that autophagy is an important and shared

  14. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.

  15. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  16. Measurement of the nonlinear optical response of low-density lipoprotein solutions from patients with periodontitis before and after periodontal treatment: evaluation of cardiovascular risk markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Andréa M.; Jardini, Maria A. N.; Giampaoli, Viviana; Alves, Sarah; Figueiredo Neto, Antônio M.; Gidlund, Magnus

    2012-11-01

    The Z-Scan (ZS) technique in the thermal regime has been used to measure the nonlinear optical response of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The ZS technique is carried out in LDL from 40 patients with chronic periodontitis before and after three, six, and 12 months of periodontal treatment. Clinical parameters such as probing depths, bleeding on probing, total and differential white blood cells counts, lipid profiles, cytokine levels, and antibodies against oxidized LDL are also determined and compared over time. Before the treatment, the ZS experimental results reveal that the LDL particles of these patients are heavily modified. Only after 12 months of the periodontal treatment, the ZS results obtained reveal behavioral characteristics of healthy particles. This conclusion is also supported by complementary laboratorial analysis showing that the periodontal treatment induces systemic changes in several inflammatory markers.

  17. Risk factors for development of chronic periodontitis in Bulgarian patients (pilot research)

    PubMed Central

    Stoykova, Maria; Musurlieva, Nina; Boyadzhiev, Doychin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the risks and analyse the risk factors for development of chronic periodontitis in Bulgarian patients. The quality of life was investigated in a cohort of 228 patients with chronic periodontitis. Within the frame of this study, pilot research (a case-control study) was conducted among 80 patients (20 cases and 60 control patients without periodontitis) to evaluate the risk for development of chronic periodontitis. The minimum sample size of patients was determined based on power analysis for sample-size calculation. The mean age of participants in the control group was 31.33 ± 9.38 years and in the case group, 33.00 ± 11.52. Data were accumulated by clinical and sociological methods. Descriptive statistics and multi-factor logistic regression analysis (Backward Conditional procedure) were used. One-factor dispersion analysis showed that, of the 12 studied risk factors, the following variables were significant: stress, diabetes, presence of calculus, overlapping and misaligned teeth (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regressions were applied to evaluate the association between the variables. Three predictors were selected in the final logistic regression equation: diabetes (B = 4.195; P = 0.001), crooked and overlapping teeth (B = 3.022; P = 0.010) and stress (B = 2.882; P = 0.014). The logistic risk assessment model for development of periodontitis has a predictive value of 93.80% (χ2 = 63.91; P = 0.000). Our results confirmed some proven risk factors for periodontal disease. In the studied population, diabetes was the single, most important predictor for development of periodontitis. PMID:26019602

  18. Association of -1082 interleukin-10 gene polymorphism in Peruvian adults with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Chambrone, Leandro; Ascarza, Amilcar; Guerrero, Maria E.; Pannuti, Claudio; de la Rosa, Manuel; Salinas-Prieto, Elmer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess association of the -1082 IL-10 gene polymorphism with chronic periodontitis CP in a Peruvian population. Study Design: Samples of venous blood and DNA were obtained from 106 Peruvian subjects: a) 53 periodontally healthy; and b) 53 with CP. The association of the -1082 IL-10 promoter sequences was assessed by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorfism (PCR-RFLP). Student’s t test were used to assess the clinical parameters, as well as the χ2 test and the odds ratio (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI) used performed for estimates regarding genotype and allele frequencies. Results: There were statistically significant differences between groups regarding the mean bleeding on probing, mean attachment level and mean probing depth (p < 0.00001) indicating that the matching based on the evaluated groups was adequate. The χ2 test found a statistically significant imbalance of genotypes between groups (p = 0.0172). The prevalence of CP was significantly higher in subjects harboring at least one A allele at position -1082 (AA and GA genotypes) in comparison to patients with the GG genotype (OR = 2.96; CI: 0.52; 5.41; p = 0.0099). Equally, subjects with the AA genotype were significantly associated to a diagnosis of CP (OR = 2.71; CI: 0.38; 5.04; p = 0.0231). On the other hand, subjects presenting a healthy periodontal status presented at least one G allele in comparison with the AA genotype (OR = 0.37; CI: 0.05, 0.69; p = 0.0231). For subjects with the GG genotype, the same positive association was observed (OR = 0.34; CI: 0.06, 0.62; p = 0.0099). There were no significant differences between groups amongst subjects with the GA genotype (OR = 1.19; CI: 0.22, 2.16; p = 0.6774). Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, IL-10 gene polymorphism at position -1082 does not appear to be associated to CP. Conversely, subjects with AA genotype seem to be at an increased risk of developing CP. Key

  19. Periodontal Health among Non-Hospitalized Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Mangaluru City-India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rashmi; Kota, Keshava Pai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A substantial section of society constituting the mentally ill and psychiatric patients deserve special attention. Evidence has suggested that psychological factors have contributed to an increase in the susceptibility to periodontal disease. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the gingival and periodontal health of chronically non-hospitalized psychiatric patients in Mangaluru city, India. Materials and Methods Forty one psychiatric patients having chronic psychiatric illness and on neuroleptic medications for a minimum of 2 years were included in the study. The control group consisted of 41 healthy dental patients who were selected to match the study group by age and gender, and for both groups 20 teeth excluding the third molars should be present. Demographic characteristics, dental examination including gingival index and periodontal health according to the community periodontal index were recorded for each patient in both the groups. Results In the psychiatric patient group (Group A) 47.1% subjects were suffering from schizophrenia and 17.6% subjects were having mood disorder. Gingivitis varied from mild to severe among the patients of both the groups. Bleeding on probing (CPI 1) was recorded in 23.5% in Group A and 14.6% in Group B. Dental calculus (CPI 2) in 38.2% in Group A and 58.5% in Group B of the subjects, 20.6% with at least one 4mm to 5mm pocket (CPI 3), and 17.6% with at least one 6mm pocket (CPI 4). Conclusion The present study underlines a considerable need for prevention and treatment of periodontal disease among chronic psychiatric patients in Mangaluru city. Every effort should be made to increase the awareness of this cohort regarding the importance of oral hygiene practices and on the early diagnosis of periodontal problems. PMID:27656561

  20. Risk of Periodontal Diseases in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have reported an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal diseases. However, a large-scale population-based cohort study was previously absent from the literature. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of periodontal diseases in patients with COPD in a nationwide population. From the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 22,332 patients with COPD who were newly diagnosed during 2000 to 2010. For each case, two individuals without COPD were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up till the end of 2011. The overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.19-fold greater in the COPD group than in the comparison group (32.2 vs 26.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.24). Compared with non-COPD patients, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD increased with the number of emergency room visits (from 1.14 [95% CI 1.10–1.19] to 5.09 [95% CI 4.53–5.72]) and admissions (from 1.15 [95% CI 1.10–1.20] to 3.17 [95% CI 2.81–3.57]). In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD treated with inhaled corticosteroids (1.22, 95% CI 1.11–1.34) and systemic corticosteroids (1.15, 95% CI 1.07–1.23) were significantly higher than those of patients not treated with corticosteroids. Patient with COPD are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases than the general population. Our results also support that the risk of periodontal diseases is proportional to COPD control. In addition, patients who receive corticosteroid treatment are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases. PMID:26579813

  1. Activity of neutrophil β-glucuronidase in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic generalized periodontitis and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Surna, Algimantas; Sakalauskienė, Jurgina; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Ivanauskienė, Eglė; Saferis, Viktoras

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to establish the dynamics of β-glucuronidase activity in subjects suffering from type 1 diabetes and chronic untreated generalized periodontitis, subjects suffering from chronic untreated generalized periodontitis only, and control subjects not suffering from generic diseases with healthy periodontal tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study involved 165 19-50-year-old subjects who were divided into three groups: healthy subjects (n=55), subjects with chronic untreated generalized periodontitis (n=55), and subjects with type 1 diabetes and chronic untreated generalized periodontitis (n=55). Neutrophilic leukocytes of peripheral venous blood were exposed to bacterial stimuli: opsonized zymosan, nonopsonized Staphylococcus aureus, and prodigiosan. The activity of β-glucuronidase was determined by the spectrofluorimetry method. RESULTS. The diagnostic value of changes in β-glucuronidase activity of neutrophilic leukocytes markedly increased in all study groups after stimulation of neutrophilic leukocytes by opsonized zymosan, nonopsonized Staphylococcus aureus, and prodigiosan as compared to control media not exposed to any stimulus (P<0.001). The strongest relationship (canonical correlation coefficient eta, 0.993) between the intensity of periodontal pathology markers and the activity of β-glucuronidase of neutrophilic leukocytes in incubated media in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and periodontitis was found under the effect of nonopsonized Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS. If periodontal impairment is severe, diabetes mellitus possibly causes a faster destruction of the periodontal tissue and presents a higher risk of periodontitis for patients with diabetes.

  2. Identification of Microbial Pathogens in Periodontal disease and Diabetic patients of South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Chiranjeevi, Tikka; Prasad, Osuru Hari; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Kumar, Avula Kishor; Chakravarthi, Veeraraghavulu Praveen; Rao, Paramala Balaji; Sarma, Potuguchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna; Reddy, Nagi reddy Raveendra; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis have been referred to as the sixth complication of diabetes found in high prevalence among diabetic patients than among healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal disease status among collected dental plaque samples. Chromosomal DNA was isolated and amplified by universal primers. The DNA was sequenced for bacterial confirmation and phylogenetic analysis performed for the evolutionary relationship with other known pathogens. No amplification products were observed in groups labeled non periodontal and non Diabetes (NP&ND) and non Periodontal and Diabetes (NP&D). But in the case of Periodontal and non Diabetes (P&ND) groups 22 amplified products were observed. In case of Periodontal and Diabetes (P&D), 32 amplified products were positive for microbes. Among the four microbial groups, Treponemadenticola, and Tannerella forsythia were found to be prevalent in P&D. The phylogenetic analysis of 16s rRNA of Treponemadenticola showed the relationship with other Treponema oral pathogen species and with the Spirochaetazuelaera. Tannerella forsythia shows its evolutionary relationship only with four oral pathogens (Macellibacteroidesfermentans, Porphyromadaceae bacterium, Parabacteroidesmeredae and Bacillus fosythus). Prevotellaintermedia also showed its evolutionary relationship only with Prevotella Spcs while Fusobacterium revealed close evolutionary relationship only with Porpiromonasgingivalis. PMID:24966528

  3. Inhibition of peripheral blood neutrophil oxidative burst in periodontitis patients with a homeopathic medication Traumeel S

    PubMed Central

    žilinskas, Juozas; žekonis, Jonas; žekonis, Gediminas; Šadzevičienė, Renata; Sapragonienė, Marija; Navickaitė, Justina; Barzdžiukaitė, Ingrida

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The anti-inflammatory effects of a homeopathic remedy, Traumeel S, have been observed in experimental and clinical studies; however, its antioxidant properties have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods The study was performed using venous blood of 22 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 21 healthy subjects. The antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on the production of reactive oxygen species by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli neutrophils were investigated using luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Results Polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients produced higher levels (p<0.01) of light output of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and significantly reduced (p<0.01) light output of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence than analogous cells of healthy subjects. Highly diluted (10−4 of the stem solution) Traumeel S significantly (by approximately 50%) reduced superoxide-induced oxidation of lucigenin by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients and had a tendency to intensify luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Preincubation of the unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of healthy subjects with Traumeel S exerts no inhibitory action on the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of the above-mentioned cells. Conclusions This study indicates that Traumeel S may significantly reduce production of superoxide anion by unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils of periodontitis patients. PMID:21525811

  4. Use of dietary supplements in patients seeking treatment at a periodontal clinic.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Bryan D; Fritz, Peter C; Ward, Wendy E

    2013-04-02

    Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376) attending a periodontal clinic-information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05) number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05) females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05) calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31-50 years) had the highest (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities-anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity-that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.

  5. Periodontal disease: a covert source of inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Gener; Dumitriu, Horia Traian; Dumitriu, Anca Silvia; Ismail, Fidan Bahtiar

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerotic complications (myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death) is increased in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, especially in haemodialysis patients. Increasing evidence suggests that both in general population and in dialysis patients, systemic inflammation plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic complications. In general population, also, evidence shows that moderate to severe periodontitis can contribute to inflammatory burden by increasing serum CRP levels and may increase the prevalence of atherosclerotic events. Moreover, the results of some new interventional studies reveal that effective phase I periodontal therapy may decrease serum CRP levels, the most important acute phase protein, monitored as a systemic marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction as well, used as an initial predictor of atherosclerotic events. Considering that moderate to severe periodontal diseases have a higher prevalence in CKD and in dialysis population and that periodontal examination is not part of the standard medical assessment, destructive periodontitis might be an ignored source of systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease patients and may add to the chronic inflammatory status in CKD.

  6. Periodontal status of adult Sudanese habitual users of miswak chewing sticks or toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Darout, I A; Albandar, J M; Skaug, N

    2000-02-01

    Miswak chewing sticks are prepared from the roots or twigs of Salvadora persica plants. They are widely used as a traditional oral hygiene tool in several African and Middle Eastern countries. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the periodontal status of adult Sudanese habitual miswak and toothbrush users. The study population comprised male miswak users (n = 109) and toothbrush users (n = 104) with age range 20-65 years (mean 36.6 years) having 18 or more teeth present. They were recruited among employees and students at the Medical Sciences Campus in Khartoum, Sudan. One examiner used the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) to score gingival bleeding, supragingival dental calculus, and probing pocket depth of the index teeth of each sextant. In addition, the attachment level was measured, which, along with the CPI, was used to assess the periodontal status of the two test groups. Gingival bleeding and dental calculus were highly prevalent in the study population. Approximately 10% of the subjects had > or =4 mm probing depth and 51% had > or =4 mm attachment loss in one or more sextants. Subjects in the age group 40-65 years had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of sextants with gingival bleeding and with > or =4 mm probing depth and attachment loss than the 30-39 years group. Miswak users had significantly (p < 0.05) lower dental calculus and > or =4 mm probing depth and higher > or =4 mm attachment loss as well as a tendency (p = 0.09) to lower gingival bleeding in the posterior sextants than did toothbrush users. These differences were not significant in the anterior sextants. It is concluded that the periodontal status of miswak users in this Sudanese population is better than that of toothbrush users, suggesting that the efficacy of miswak use for oral hygiene in this group is comparable or slightly better than a toothbrush. Given the availability and low cost of miswak, it should be recommended for use in motivated persons in developing

  7. Characterization of cellular infiltrate, detection of chemokine receptor CCR5 and interleukin-8 and RANTES chemokines in adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gamonal, J; Acevedo, A; Bascones, A; Jorge, O; Silva, A

    2001-06-01

    Leukocyte migration is essential for immune surveillance of tissues by focusing immune cells to sites of antigenic challenge. The control of leukocyte migration depends on the combined actions of adhesion molecules and a vast array of chemokines and their receptors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the involvement of Interleukin-8 (IL-8), RANTES, the associated infiltrating cells and expression of CCR5 chemokine receptors in periodontitis; furthermore, the effect of periodontal therapy on these parameters was evaluated. Patients included in the study had moderate to advanced periodontal disease with at least 5-6 teeth with probing depth > 6 mm, attachment loss > or =3 mm and extensive radiographic bone loss. The inflammatory infiltrate was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in gingival biopsies obtained from subjects at the beginning of the study and 2 months after periodontal treatment. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected for 30 seconds using periopaper strips, and chemokines were quantified by ELISA. The cellular components of the inflammatory infiltrate included B (CD19) and T (CD3, CD4+ and CD8+) lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages (CD11c). CCR5 chemokine receptor expressing cells were exclusively found in periodontitis gingiva. IL-8 and RANTES were detected in the periodontitis group, obtaining a total amount of 212.5 pg and 42.0 pg, respectively. However, IL-8 was also detectable in the GCF of the healthy group (total amount of 44.8 pg). Periodontal therapy reduced the cell number in the infiltrate and the levels of IL-8 and RANTES, suggesting a relationship between these chemokines and periodontal status. We propose that the presence of these chemokines and the expression of chemokine receptors may represent a marker of lymphocyte subsets with the ability to migrate to inflammatory sites.

  8. Effect of 1% Phenytoin Muco-Adhesive Paste on Improvement of Periodontal Status in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Blinded Controlled Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian-Ardakani, Ahmad; Nabi-Maybodi, Mohsen; Nasrabadi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Phenytoin (PHT) has been known to promote wound healing in some medical conditions owing to its proliferative as well as anti-inflammatory effects. Yet, its application in oral lesions was less investigated. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in periodontal indices following the topical use of phenytoin in chronic periodontitis. Materials and Method: In this doubled-blind, randomized, split-mouth controlled clinical study, 20 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis referred to Periodontology Department of Shahid Sadoughi Medical University of Yazd in 2014 were selected consecutively. After initial therapy (scaling and root planning and oral hygiene instructions), periodontal indices including bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and modified gingival index (MGI) were recorded. Gingival facial surface of two posterior sextants with at least two teeth with similar conditions, were selected randomly. Then one surface received PHT paste whereas the other side had placebo as control. Patients were received the mucoadhesive pastes under strict control by an examiner, twice a day for a week. Periodontal indices were measured 3 weeks after treatment. Data was analyzed with t-test and paired t-test by using SPSS 21 software. Results: It was observed that periodontal pocket depth was significantly more decreased in phenytoin side in comparison with placebo one (p< 0.05). In addition, inflammatory indices including bleeding on probing and modified gingival index declined more in the phenytoin group (p= 0.001 and p< 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These encouraging results support the use of 1% phenytoin mucoadhesive paste as an adjunctive in periodontal treatment. PMID:27840838

  9. Inflammation Biomarkers of Advanced Disease in Nongingival Tissues of Chronic Periodontitis Patients.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Thiago Alvares; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa; Alves, Polyanna Miranda; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Barcelos, Emilio Zorzo; Giani, Max Antonio Alves; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; da Silva, João Santana; Rodrigues Júnior, Virmondes; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that affects supporting structures of the teeth. Although the gingival response is largely described, little is known about the immune changes in the alveolar bone and neighboring tissues that could indicate periodontal disease (PD) activity. Then, in this study we identified the ongoing inflammatory changes and novel biomarkers for periodontitis in the tissues directly affected by the destructive disease in PD patients. Samples were collected by osteotomy in 17 control subjects during extraction of third molars and 18 patients with advanced PD, in which alveoloplasty was necessary after extraction of teeth with previous extensive periodontal damage. Patients presented mononuclear cells infiltration in the connective tissue next to the bone and higher fibrosis area, along with increased accumulation of IL-17(+) and TRAP(+) cells. The levels of TNF-α and MMP-2 mRNA were also elevated compared to controls and a positive and significant correlation was observed between TNF-α and MMP-2 mRNA expression, considering all samples evaluated. In conclusion, nongingival tissues neighboring large periodontal pockets present inflammatory markers that could predict ongoing bone resorption and disease spreading. Therefore, we suggested that the detailed evaluation of these regions could be of great importance to the assessment of disease progression.

  10. Inflammation Biomarkers of Advanced Disease in Nongingival Tissues of Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Thiago Alvares; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa; Alves, Polyanna Miranda; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Barcelos, Emilio Zorzo; Giani, Max Antonio Alves; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; da Silva, João Santana; Rodrigues Júnior, Virmondes; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that affects supporting structures of the teeth. Although the gingival response is largely described, little is known about the immune changes in the alveolar bone and neighboring tissues that could indicate periodontal disease (PD) activity. Then, in this study we identified the ongoing inflammatory changes and novel biomarkers for periodontitis in the tissues directly affected by the destructive disease in PD patients. Samples were collected by osteotomy in 17 control subjects during extraction of third molars and 18 patients with advanced PD, in which alveoloplasty was necessary after extraction of teeth with previous extensive periodontal damage. Patients presented mononuclear cells infiltration in the connective tissue next to the bone and higher fibrosis area, along with increased accumulation of IL-17+ and TRAP+ cells. The levels of TNF-α and MMP-2 mRNA were also elevated compared to controls and a positive and significant correlation was observed between TNF-α and MMP-2 mRNA expression, considering all samples evaluated. In conclusion, nongingival tissues neighboring large periodontal pockets present inflammatory markers that could predict ongoing bone resorption and disease spreading. Therefore, we suggested that the detailed evaluation of these regions could be of great importance to the assessment of disease progression. PMID:26063981

  11. Prevention: Reducing the risk of CVD in patients with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Genco, Robert J; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2010-09-01

    The association between periodontitis and other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, could be related to systemic inflammation initiated by a local inflammatory challenge. Oliveira et al. have added lack of oral hygiene, and its link with systemic inflammation, to the spectrum of risk factors for CVD.

  12. Occurrence of porphyromonas gingivalis and its antibacterial susceptibility to metronidazole and tetracycline in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Fredy; Acosta, Adriana; García, Dabeiba-Adriana; Velosa, Juliana; Araya, Natalia; Ledergerber, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease associated with Gram-negative strict anaerobes which are immersed in the subgingival biofilm. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, is frequently detected in patients with chronic periodontitis. Although isolates of P. gingivalis tend to be susceptible to most antimicrobial agents, relatively little information is available on its in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of P. gingivalis in patients with chronic periodontitis and to assess antimicrobial susceptibility in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clinical isolates to metronidazole and tetracycline. A descriptive, observational study was performed including 87 patients with chronic periodontitis. Samples were taken from the periodontal pocket using paper points, which were placed in thioglycollate broth. Samples were incubated for 4 hours at 37°C in anaerobic conditions and finally replated on Wilkins-Chalgren anaerobic agar (Oxoid). Bacteria were identified using the RapIDTMANAII system (Remel) and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined with the M.I.C. Evaluator test (MICE, Oxoid). P. gingivalis was identified in 30 of the 87 patients with chronic periodontitis, which represents a frequency of 34.5%. All 30 isolates (100%) were sensitive to metronidazole, with MIC values ranging from 0015-4ug/ml. Regarding tetracycline, 27 isolates (90%) were sensitive, with MIC values ranging from <0.015 to 4 ug /ml, the remaining three isolates (10%) were resistant to tetracycline with MIC values of 8ug/ ml. There was no statistically significant difference in age, gender, pocket depth, clinical attachment level and severity of periodontitis between the group of patients with chronic periodontitis and P. gingivalis and the group of patients with chronic periodontitis without P. gingivalis. In conclusion, P. gingivalis was found at a frequency of 34.5% in patients

  13. Effect of oral administration involving a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus reuteri on pro-inflammatory cytokine response in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Szkaradkiewicz, Anna K; Stopa, Janina; Karpiński, Tomasz M

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of pro-inflammatory cytokine response (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17) in patients with chronic periodontitis administered per os with a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus reuteri. In the 38 adult patients with moderate chronic periodontitis, professional cleaning of teeth was performed. Two weeks after performing the oral hygienization procedures, clinical examination permitted to distinguish a group of 24 patients (Group 1) in whom treatment with probiotic tablets containing L. reuteri strain, producing hydrogen peroxide (Prodentis), was conducted. In the remaining 14 patients, no probiotic tablet treatment was applied (the control group; Group 2). From all patients in two terms, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was sampled from all periodontal pockets. Estimation of TNF-α, IL-lβ and IL-17 in GCF was performed using the ELISA method. After completion of the therapy with probiotic tablets, 18 (75%) of the patients of Group 1 have manifested a significant decrease in levels of studied pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17). In parallel, we have detected an improvement of clinical indices [sulcus bleeding index (SBI), periodontal probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL)]. At individuals of Group 2 levels of studies, pro-inflammatory cytokines and clinical indices (SBI, PPD, CAL) were significantly higher than in Group 1. Results obtained in this study indicate that application of oral treatment with tablets containing probiotic strain of L. reuteri induces in most patients with chronic periodontitis a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine response and improvement of clinical parameters (SBI, PPD, CAL). Therefore, such an effect may result in a reduced activity of the morbid process.

  14. Cytokine genotype distribution in patients with periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis or diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Crincoli, V; Ballini, A; Fatone, L; Di Bisceglie, M B; Nardi, G M; Grassi, F R

    2016-01-01

    The association between oral and systemic health has highlighted the importance of periodontal health and treatment, with the consequence that dental assessment and attention to oral hygiene have assumed an increasingly important part in the clinical management of patients with diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this work was to assess genotype frequencies in polymorphisms of genes of IL-1α-889 and IL-1β-511 in a case-controlled study population of patients affected by periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis or diabetes mellitus.

  15. The presence of phage-infected Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in localized juvenile periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Preus, H R; Olsen, I; Namork, E

    1987-11-01

    Electron microscopy revealed 2 different types of bacteriophages isolated from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans colonizing exclusively diseased sites in 4 patients with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP). All sites infected with phage were undergoing periodontal destruction, as judged from consecutive routine radiographs. The phages isolated had a wide host range as assessed from their ability to infect a series of reference strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. A 5th patient harboured non-infected A. actinomycetemcomitans in a surgically treated site which had undergone no bone destruction during the last 12 months. The present findings suggested that the pathogenic potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans in LJP may increase due to phage infection.

  16. Prevalence of fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis and other periodontal bacteria in a Spanish population with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Silla, Miriam; Dasí-Fernánde, Francisco; Montiel-Company, José-María

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the different fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in adult Spanish patients with chronic periodontitis, patients with gingivitis and periodontally healthy subjects, and the relationship between these genotypes and other periodontopathogenic bacteria. Study design: Samples of subgingival plaque were taken from 86 patients (33 with chronic periodontitis, 16 with gingivitis, and 37 periodontally healthy) in the course of a full periodontal examination. PCR was employed to determine the presence of the 6 fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis (I-V and Ib) and of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes II and Ib were present in significantly higher percentages in periodontal patients (39.4% and 12.1% respectively) than in healthy or gingivitis subjects. The prevalence of Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotype IV was significantly higher in the group that presented bleeding greater than 30%. A positive correlation was found between Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotype IV and Treponema denticola. Conclusions: A strong association between Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes II and Ib and chronic periodontitis exists in the Spanish population. The most prevalent genotype in periodontal patients is II. Key words:Periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, fimA genotype, periodontal bacteria, polymerase chain reaction. PMID:22549664

  17. Levels of common salivary protein 1 in healthy subjects and periodontal patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human saliva, as a vital part of the immune defense system, contains a number of distinct proteins and peptides. Recently human common salivary protein 1 (CSP1) has been identified as an abundant salivary protein and may play a role in promoting the binding of cariogenic bacteria to salivary pellicles. However, nothing else is known regarding the role of CSP1 in periodontology. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare CSP1 levels between healthy subjects and periodontal patients. Methods This controlled clinical study was conducted in periodontally healthy individuals and patients with chronic periodontitis Chonbuk National University Hospital, with Institutional Review Board approval. Whole saliva samples were collected from 36 healthy subjects and 33 chronic periodontitis patients and analyzed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immune blotting were conducted to ensure that anti-CSP1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) binds to CSP1 in human saliva. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was house-fabricated using mAb-hCSP1#14 and mAb-hCSP1#4 as a capture and a detector mAb, respectively. The CSP1 concentrations in saliva from 36 healthy subjects and 33 periodontal patients were quantified using the CSP1 sandwich ELISA system, and the results were analyzed using the Student’s t-test. Results Immunoblot analysis using mAb-hCSP1 as a probe confirmed that CSP1 in human saliva existed as a single band with a molecular weight of approximately 27-kDa. The quantification of CSP1 concentrations by CSP1 ELISA showed that the median values (25th to 75th percentiles) of periodontal patients and healthy subjects were 9,474 ng/mL (range, 8,434–10,139 ng/mL) and 8,598 ng/mL (range, 7,421–9,877 ng/mL), respectively. The Student’s t-test indicated the presence of a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P=0.024). Conclusions The presence of a significant difference in CSP1 levels between healthy

  18. A novel species of torque teno mini virus (TTMV) in gingival tissue from chronic periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Fei; Shan, Tong-Ling; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A new species of torque teno mini virus, named TTMV-222, was detected in gingival tissue from periodontitis patients using a viral metagenomics method. The 2803-nucleotide genome of TTMV-222 is closely related to TTMV1-CBD279, with 62.6% overall nucleotide similarity. Genetic analyses of the new virus genome revealed a classic genomic organization but a weak identity with known sequences. The prevalence of TTMV-222 in the periodontitis group (n = 150) was significantly higher than that in the healthy group (n = 150) (p = 0.032), suggesting that the new virus may be associated with inflammation in chronic periodontitis patients. However, this finding requires further investigation. PMID:27221159

  19. Hydroxyl-platelet-activating factor exists in blood of healthy volunteers and periodontal patients.

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Tsoupras, Alexandros; Baltas, George; Kotsifaki, Helen; Mantzavinos, Zacharias; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2003-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are localized chronic inflammatory conditions of the gingival and underlying bone and connective tissue. Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory phospholipid mediator that has been previously detected in elevated levels in inflamed gingival tissues, in gingival crevicular fluid and in saliva, is implicated in periodontal disease. Our results from previous studies showed that the biologically active phospholipid detected in gingival crevicular fluid is a hydroxyl-PAF analogue. In this study, hydroxyl-PAF analogue was detected for the first time in human blood derived from patients with chronic periodontitis as well as from periodontally healthy volunteers. The hydroxyl-PAF analogue was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography, detected by biological assays and identified by electrospray analysis. In addition, the quantitative determination of PAF and hydroxyl-PAF analogue (expressed as PAF-like activity) showed a statistically significant increase in the ratio of hydroxyl-PAF analogue levels to PAF levels in periodontal patients, suggesting that this bioactive lipid may play a role in oral inflammation. PMID:14514473

  20. Microbial Diversity Similarities in Periodontal Pockets and Atheromatous Plaques of Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Serra e Silva Filho, Wagner; Casarin, Renato C. V.; Nicolela Junior, Eduardo L.; Passos, Humberto M.; Sallum, Antônio W.; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective The immune and infectious alterations occurring in periodontitis have been shown to alter the development and severity of cardiovascular disease. One of these relationships is the translocation of oral bacteria to atheroma plaques, thereby promoting plaque development. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess, by 16s cloning and sequencing, the microbial diversity of the subgingival environment and atheroma plaques of patients concomitantly suffering from periodontitis and obstructive coronary artery atherosclerosis (OCAA). Methods Subgingival biofilm and coronary balloons used in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were collected from 18 subjects presenting with generalized moderate to severe periodontitis and OCAA. DNA was extracted and the gene 16S was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Results Significant differences in microbial diversity were observed between both environments. While subgingival samples mostly contained the phylum Firmicutes, in coronary balloons, Proteobacteria (p<0.05) was predominant. In addition, the most commonly detected genera in coronary balloons were Acinetobacter, Alloprevotella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingomonas and Moraxella, while in subgingival samples Porphyromonas, Filifactor, Veillonella, Aggregatibacter and Treponema (p<0.05) were found. Interestingly, 17 identical phylotypes were found in atheroma and subgingival samples, indicating possible bacterial translocation between periodontal pockets and coronary arteries. Conclusion Periodontal pockets and atheromatous plaques of cardiovascular disease patients can present similarities in the microbial diversity. PMID:25329160

  1. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on vascular endothelial function in hypertensive patients after intensive periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Rubio, María C; Lewin, Pablo G; De la Cruz, Griselda; Sarudiansky, Andrea N; Nieto, Mauricio; Costa, Osvaldo R; Nicolosi, Liliana N

    2016-04-01

    There is a relation between vascular endothelial function, atherosclerotic disease, and inflammation. Deterioration of endothelial function has been observed twenty-four hours after intensive periodontal treatment. This effect may be counteracted by the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, which improve endothelial function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vascular endothelial function after intensive periodontal treatment, in hypertensive patients treated with angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors. A prospective, longitudinal, comparative study involving repeated measurements was conducted. Fifty-two consecutive patients with severe periodontal disease were divided into two groups, one comprising hypertensive patients treated with converting enzyme inhibitors and the other comprising patients with no clinical signs of pathology and not receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring postischemic dilation of the humeral artery (baseline echocardiography Doppler), and intensive periodontal treatment was performed 24h later. Endothelial function was re-assessed 24h and 15 days after periodontal treatment.

  2. Interdisciplinary approach for esthetic management of an adult patient with reverse articulation.

    PubMed

    Bidra, Avinash S; Uribe, Flavio; Askalsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Prosthodontic methods to correct anterior reverse articulation (also known as anterior cross-bite) can be extremely challenging. This clinical report describes the interdisciplinary management of an adult female patient with a history of chronic periodontitis who presented with reverse articulation in the left canine region. While the patient desired a quick, highly esthetic solution, she was counseled to first undergo orthodontic treatment. After completion of orthodontics, prosthodontic treatment comprised of bleaching therapy, porcelain veneers, and all-ceramic crowns. Periodontal maintenance therapy was also performed during the treatment period. The case portrays the significance of interdisciplinary care and discusses the importance of close communication among specialties.

  3. Effect of Supragingival Irrigation with Aerosolized 0.5% Hydrogen Peroxide on Clinical Periodontal Parameters, Markers of Systemic Inflammation, and Morphology of Gingival Tissues in Patients with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Žekonis, Gediminas; Žekonis, Jonas; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Noreikienė, Viktorija; Balnytė, Ingrida; Šadzevičienė, Renata; Narbutaitė, Julija

    2016-01-01

    Background Various studies have shown that non-surgical periodontal treatment is correlated with reduction in clinical parameters and plasma levels of inflammatory markers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term weekly supragingival irrigations with aerosolized 0.5% hydrogen peroxide as maintenance therapy followed by non-surgical periodontal treatment on clinical parameters, plasma levels of inflammatory markers, and morphological changes in gingival tissues of patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods In total, 43 patients with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated to long-term maintenance therapy. The patients’ periodontal status was assessed using clinical parameters of approximal plaque index, modified gingival index, bleeding index, pocket probing depth, and plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and white blood cell count) at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years. The morphological status of gingival tissues (immediately after supragingival irrigation) was assessed microscopically. Results Complete data were obtained on 34 patients. A highly statistically significant and consistent reduction was observed in all long-term clinical parameters and plasma levels of inflammatory markers. Morphological data showed abundant spherical bubbles in gingival tissues. Conclusions 1. The present study showed that non-surgical periodontal treatment with long-term weekly supragingival irrigations with aerosolized 0.5% hydrogen peroxide improved clinical periodontal status and plasma levels of inflammatory markers and may be a promising method in periodontology. 2. We found that supragingival irrigation with aerosolized 0.5% hydrogen peroxide created large numbers of spherical bubbles in gingival tissues. PMID:27743448

  4. Betacellulin in Chronic Periodontitis Patients With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalburgi, Nagaraj B.; Bilichodmath, Shivaprasad; Warad, Shivaraj B.; Ugale, Mahesh S.; Koregol, Arati C.; Bijjargi, Shobha C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The host immune response to bacterial dental plaque determines periodontal disease susceptibility by increasing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The Epidermal Growth Factor family cytokines stimulate proliferation and keratinization of cells in dermis and oral epithelium. Epidermal Growth Factor family consists of Amphiregulin, Betacellulin, Epiregulin, Epigen, Heparin binding Epidermal Growth Factor like growth factor and transforming Growth Factor-alpha. Aim The current study aimed to investigate expression of Betacellulin in chronic periodontitis patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and thereby assessing role of betacellulin in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods Present study comprised of 90 participants, age ranges from 18 to 60-year-old, for the period of March 2010 to May 2011. Participants were categorized into three groups based Gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CA Loss). Group 1 consisted 30 individuals with clinically healthy periodontium, Group-2 consisted 30 individuals with GI>1, PD≥5 mm, and CA Loss>3 mm. Group-3 (Chronic Periodontitis with type 2 diabetes mellitus) consisted 30 with GI >1, PD≥5 mm, and CA Loss>3 mm. Immunohistochemical localization and quantification of Betacellulin was done in gingival tissue samples from all groups. Results Data showed expression of Betacellulin were higher in chronic periodontitis as compared to healthy. A positive correlation found in Betacellulin expression and Probing Depth in chronic periodontitis. Conclusion This footmark study impacts the role of Betacellulin in pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease which will help in exploration of novel immunotherapeutic strategies and immunological research activity in this field. PMID:26673371

  5. Periodontal Diseases among the Adult Population of Georgia and the Impact of Socio-behavioral Factors on Their Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    TSITAISHVILI, Lela; KALANDADZE, Manana; MARGVELASHVILI, Vladimer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Georgia is a country with a Human Development Index (HDI) score of 0.733. Significant deterioration in socio-economic conditions in the 1990s caused serious health problems in the population including oral health. Since then, there has not been an epidemiological survey of dental diseases among the adult population in Georgia. Methods: The pathfinder survey- cluster- stratified method derived by WHO was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men in nine regions of Georgia including the residents of a city, town and village in each region and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. Four age groups were investigated including: I- (20–34), II-(35–44), III-(45–64), IV- (65–74). Results: Unhealthy periodontal tissues were observed in 66.9% of men and in 57.5% of women. Bleeding on probing occurred in 44.9% of men and 37.2% of women, with periodontal pockets in 46.8% of men and 40.6% of women. Inflammation was seen in 61.2% of men and 54.8% of women. Healthy periodontal tissues were most common (59.2%) in the first age group (20–34); periodontal pockets (0–3mm) were least common (9.8%) at this age. Pockets of ≥4–5mm depth were observed mostly in the 3rd (9.4%) and 4th (10%) age groups. Conclusion: The high prevalence of periodontal diseases in the adult population of Georgia is explained by a low socio-economic status and low medical education background with a negative attitude towards oral hygiene skills and low levels of dental service accessibility. PMID:25905053

  6. Opsonic antibody activity against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sjöström, K; Darveau, R; Page, R; Whitney, C; Engel, D

    1992-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been closely associated with early-onset, severe periodontitis, and such patients often have serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies reactive with antigens of this gram-negative pathogen. We examined the functionality and potential importance of these antibodies. The opsonic activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans of sera from 30 patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) and from 28 periodontally normal subjects was tested by using polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemiluminescence and bactericidal assays. Peak chemiluminescence values correlated strongly with killing observed in the PMN-dependent bactericidal assay (r = 0.88; P < 0.001). Neither the mean IgG titer nor the mean peak chemiluminescence differed significantly between the two groups. However, when the relationship between chemiluminescence and titer was examined, regression analysis showed that antibodies present in low-titer normal sera were significantly more effective at opsonizing A. actinomycetemcomitans than antibodies present in low-titer RPP patient sera (P = 0.04). Thus, periodontally normal individuals may be better able than RPP patients to clear A. actinomycetemcomitans in early stages of colonization, and anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans antibodies in RPP patients may be relatively ineffective in preventing infection by this organism. PMID:1398993

  7. Periodontal maintenance.

    PubMed

    Tan, A E S

    2009-09-01

    The main goal of periodontal therapy is to establish an oral environment compatible with periodontal health by the physical disruption of the plaque biofilm and adjunctive chemical means if required. Implicit in this objective is the ongoing requirement of detection and interception of new and recurrent disease, which continues at selected intervals for the life of the dentition after the initial ("active") phase of periodontal treatment. This concept of ongoing periodontal maintenance therapy has been embraced as the mandatory requirement for favourable periodontal outcomes based on institutional clinical trials and in practice-based studies in various parts of the world. This review examines the ramifications of periodontal maintenance therapy based upon a multi-level assessment of logistic issues and risk factors at three levels: (1) The patient level - treatment time; patient attendance compliance; and homecare measures, antiseptics/antibiotics and smoking. (2) The level of the individual tooth - tooth loss; and evaluation of success versus survival. (3) The level of each tooth surface ("site") - probing depth, loss of attachment and bleeding on probing; and changes in clinical attachment levels. In spite of the diversity of studies conducted, there is agreement on the efficacy of periodontal maintenance therapy when compared with studies on untreated populations and in treated cases that were not maintained.

  8. Periodontal diseases of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Califano, Joseph V

    Children and adolescents are subject to several periodontal diseases. Although there is a much lower prevalence of destructive periodontal diseases in children than in adults, children can develop severe forms of periodontitis. In some cases, this destructive disease is a manifestation of a known underlying systemic disease. In other young patients, the underlying cause for increased susceptibility and early onset of disease is unknown. These diseases are often familial, suggesting a genetic predisposition for aggressive disease. Current modalities for managing periodontal diseases of children and adolescents may include antibiotic therapy in combination with non-surgical and/or surgical therapy. Since early diagnosis ensures the greatest chance for successful treatment, it is important that children receive a periodontal examination as part of their routine dental visits.

  9. Prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia in Japanese patients with generalized chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Komiya-Ito, Akiyo; Imamura, Kentaro; Kita, Daichi; Ota, Koki; Takayama, Saori; Makino-Oi, Asako; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Ota, Mikio; Saito, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and levels of major periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia in subgingival plaque samples of a group of Japanese patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and chronic periodontitis (CP). A total of 40 patients with clinical diagnosis of AgP or CP and 10 periodontally healthy volunteers were subjected to clinical and microbiological analysis. Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and T. forsythia with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The prevalence of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia was relatively high in patients with periodontitis: over 60% of AgP or CP patients harbored these pathogens whereas they were not detected in the subgingival plaque samples from periodontally healthy individuals. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were relatively frequently detected together in AgP and CP patients. No significant differences in the prevalence or level of the 3 pathogens were found between periodontitis groups. The proportion of T. forsythia was approximately 4-fold higher in CP group than in AgP group (P = 0.02). In periodontitis patients, a significant positive correlation was found between periodontal parameters (probing depth and clinical attachment level) and the numbers of total bacteria, P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. No distinct pattern of the subgingival profile of these pathogens was discerned between the two disease entities, except for the difference in the proportion of T. forsythia. The red complex bacteria, P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were highly prevalent in this population of Japanese AgP and CP patients, collaborating their roles in periodontitis.

  10. Twelve-year results of a direct-bonded partial prosthesis in a patient with advanced periodontitis: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hiroyuki; Minesaki, Yoshito; Suzuki, Shiro; Tanaka, Takuo

    2012-08-01

    Prosthodontic treatment for patients with advanced periodontitis is a therapeutic challenge. A minimally invasive technique is preferred to preserve the remaining mobile abutment teeth. This report describes the initial clinical treatment and 12-year follow-up of a direct-bonded prosthesis reinforced with a cast metal framework, used as a conservative treatment option to replace periodontally involved maxillary lateral incisors.

  11. Referring periodontal patients: clinical decision making by dental and dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karen B; Burgardt, Grayson J; Rapley, John W; Bray, Kimberly K; Cobb, Charles M

    2014-03-01

    Referral of periodontal patients requires development of a complex set of decision making skills. This study was conducted to determine criteria used by dental and dental hygiene students regarding the referral of periodontal patients for specialty care. Using mixed methods, a thirteen-item survey was developed to elicit the students' perceptions of their knowledge, confidence regarding managing patients, and clinical reasoning related to periodontal patients. The instrument was administered during the summer prior to (T1) and at the end of the students' final year (T2) of training. Seventy-nine dental students (81 percent of total class) and thirty dental hygiene students (83 percent of total class) completed T1. At T2, forty-two dental (44 percent of total class) and twenty-six dental hygiene students (87 percent of total class) completed the questionnaire. While 90 percent of dental and 96 percent of dental hygiene respondents reported a willingness to refer patients with active disease to specialists, only 40 percent of dental and 36 percent of dental hygiene respondents reported confidence in diagnosing, treating, and appropriately referring such patients. The students' ability to recognize critical disease and risk factors influencing referral was good; however, clinical application of that knowledge indicated a gap between knowledge and applied reasoning. The students' attitudes about the importance of periodontal disease and their perceived competence to identify critical disease risk factors were not significantly related (p>0.05) to correct clinical decisions in the case scenarios. The study concludes that dental and dental hygiene curricula should emphasize both the acquisition and application of knowledge regarding criteria for referral of periodontal patients.

  12. Association between Periodontal Status, Oral Hygiene Status and Tooth Wear among Adult Male Population in Benin City, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umoh, AO; Azodo, CC

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and severity of tooth wear lesion varies from community to community and also from occupation to occupation. Aim: To determine the association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and tooth wear among the adult male population in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted among 65 male drivers, aged 25-64 years, with a mean age of 48.6 (9.1) years in an organized private motor park in Benin City between November 2011 and January 2012. The data collected through interview and clinical oral examination were age, educational status, driving experience, oral hygiene status, periodontal status and severity of tooth wear. Results: In this study, 13.8% (9/65) and 1.5% (1/65) of the participants had 4-5 mm and ≥6 mm periodontal pockets, respectively. A total of 15.4% (10/65) of the participants had poor oral hygiene status and 58.5% (38/65) of the participants had tooth wear lesion, with 15.8% (9/65) being severe tooth wear lesions (score 3). Participants with poorer oral hygiene and more severe tooth wear lesions significantly exhibited poorer periodontal status. There also existed a significant association between oral hygiene status and the severity of tooth wear lesion among the participants in this study. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed a statistically significant association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and severity of tooth wear lesion among the participants. PMID:23919180

  13. Comparison of Salivary Beta Glucuronidase Activity in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    ND, Jayakumar; Varghese, Sheeja

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to estimate the salivary beta glucuronidase (β) activity in patients with chronic periodontitis with and without diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the relationship between Beta Glucuronidase activity and Periodontal clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 80 patients of both sexes with age ranging from 20-60 years and they were divided into four groups. Clinical parameters such as Gingival index, Probing depth and Clinical attachment loss were measured. Salivary Beta Glucuronidase activity was measured using spectrophotometer with reagents like phenolphthalein glucuronic acid, phosphate and glycine buffer. Results: The mean BG activity of Group IV (1.17 ± 0.27) was significantly higher than mean BGA levels of Group I, II, III. The p-value was < 0.05. The mean BGA levels of Group III (0.78 ± 0.17) was significantly higher than mean BGA levels of Group I, Group II at 5 % level. There was a significant positive linear relationship between salivary β Glucuronidase level and Probing Depth, clinical attachment level in the experimental Groups. Conclusion: The salivary β Glucuronidase level was higher in Diabetic patients with periodontitis than nondiabetic periodontitis patients. PMID:25121058

  14. Enhancing periodontal health through regenerative approaches: a commentary on the need for patient-reported outcomes.

    PubMed

    Inglehart, Marita R

    2015-02-01

    Starting in the 1970s, social scientists have discussed the importance of assessing subjective indicators of well-being and quality of life. Medical researchers followed this line of reasoning since the 1990s, emphasizing the significance of understanding how disease and its treatment affect patients' quality of life. Since the start of the 21(st) century, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) received increasingly more attention. While research concerning the effects of periodontal disease and its surgical and non-surgical treatment on patients' lives has been considered in numerous studies, research including patient-reported outcomes when assessing how periodontal health can be enhanced through regenerative approaches is largely missing. This commentary proposes to consider 1) OHRQoL and 2) patients' treatment satisfaction as patient-reported outcomes in conjunction with objectively measured patient-centered factors, and discusses the value of such an approach.

  15. Association between Smoking and Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010 and 2012)

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ah-Young; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Lee, Hae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease in Korean adults. Methods The data were collected from 8,336 participants, aged between 20 and 64 years, who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (2010 and 2012). Smoking status was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Periodontal disease was defined as a community periodontal index ≥3 points. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, sex, education, monthly income, diabetes, obesity, alcohol intake, and frequency of tooth brushing. Results The risk of periodontal disease was higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.83) than never smokers. Among current smokers, the risk of periodontal disease was increased in smokers of ≥10 cigarettes/d, ≥20 years duration, and >10 pack-years compared with never smokers (P<0.05). Among former smokers, the risk of periodontal disease after 10 years since cessation declined to 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with current smokers and was indistinguishable statistically from never smokers. Conclusion Periodontal disease is significantly associated with smoking status in Korean adults. PMID:27073611

  16. Diabetes Screening at the Periodontal Visit: Patient and Provider Experiences with Two Screening Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rosedale, Mary T.; Strauss, Shiela M.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examined patient and dental provider experiences during the periodontal visit of a novel diabetes screening approach using gingival crevicular blood (GCB) compared with finger stick blood (FSB) for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods At a large Periodontics and Implant clinic, FSB samples from 120 patients and GCB samples from 102 of these patients were collected on special blood collection cards and sent to a laboratory for HbA1c testing, with test results sent to the patients from the laboratory. Quantitative and qualitative data collection and analyses of patients and providers were conducted. Results Quantitative and qualitative data support the feasibility and acceptability of the novel approach described. Themes that arose from the interviews with providers and patients include “a good chance to check,” “patient choice,” “FSB versus GCB testing,” and “a new way of interacting and viewing the dental visit.” Conclusions Periodontal patients and dental providers believe that the dental visit is an opportune site for diabetes screening and generally prefer GCB to FSB collection. GCB testing is well-tolerated, convenient and acceptable to patients and reduces time and liability obstacles for dental providers to conduct diabetes screening. PMID:22284167

  17. Relationship between quantitative measurement of Porphyromonas gingivalis on dental plaque with periodontal status of patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwiyanti, Stephani; Soeroso, Yuniarti; Sunarto, Hari; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a narrowing of coronary artery due to plaque build-up. [1] Chronic periodontitis increases risk of cardiovascular disease. P.gingivalis is linked to both diseases. Objective: to analyse quantitative difference of P.gingivalis on dental plaque and its relationship with periodontal status of CHD patient and control. Methods: Periodontal status of 66 CHD patient and 40 control was checked. Subgingival plaque was isolated and P.gingivalis was measured using real-time PCR. Result: P.gingivalis of CHD patient differs from control. P.gingivalis is linked to pocket depth of CHD patient. Conclusion: P.gingivalis count of CHD patient is higher than control. P.gingivalis count is not linked to any periodontal status, except for pocket depth of CHD patient.

  18. Association of Periodontal Diseases and Liver Fibrosis in Patients With HCV and/or HBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Yumiko; Kawahigashi, Yuji; Sata, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease and systemic health are closely associated. However, there is no data supporting the association between periodontal disease and patients with liver diseases associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between periodontitis and progression of liver diseases in patients with HCV and/or HBV infection. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, 351 patients with HCV- and/or HBV-related liver diseases underwent screening for periodontal disease using the Salivaster® salivary occult blood test from February 2010 to June 2014. Furthermore, we examined the prevalence of fimbrillin (fimA) genotype of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) in 28 HCV-infected patients visited at our hospital between January 2013 and June 2014. P. gingivalis with fimA genotype with types I to V was further detected using a PCR method. Results: Of 351 patients, 76 patients (group 1) had a strong positive result for salivary occult blood test and 275 patients (group 2) had weak positive or negative test results. Significant factors between the groups were obesity, level of AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, Alb, D.Bil, T.cho, AFP, platelets (Plt), IRI, HOMA-IR, current interferon (IFN) treatment and the daily frequency of tooth brushing. Between-groups analysis indicated that total protein (T.pro) level and liver fibrosis were significant factors. According to multivariate analysis, five factors were associated with periodontal disease as Plt count below 80000, brushing teeth only once a day, current IFN treatment, aged 65 years or older and obesity. The adjusted odds ratios for these five factors were 5.80, 3.46, 2.87, 2.50 and 2.33, respectively, and each was statistically significant. Twenty-eight saliva specimens had positive results for P. gingivalis with fimA genotype types I to V. The prevalence of fimA genotype II was higher in 14 patients with liver

  19. Systemic inflammatory responses in patients with type 2 diabetes with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Mesia, Ruben; Gholami, Fatemeh; Huang, Hong; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Wallet, Shannon M; Shaddox, Luciana M

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this case–control study was to quantify the immune responsiveness in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) as compared with patients without diabetes (NT2D) diagnosed with periodontitis. Research Design and Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 20 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis (10 T2D, 10 NT2D). Blood samples were stimulated with ultrapure Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 hours. 14 cytokines/chemokines were quantified in culture supernatants using multiplex technology. Results T2D individuals demonstrated higher unstimulated levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, IL-10, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α), and 1β (MIP1β), and higher stimulated levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MIP1α and MIP1β, along with lower unstimulated and stimulated levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) when compared with NT2D (p<0.05). Importantly, the LPS-induced levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and MIP1α strongly correlated with severity of disease, measured by pocket depths (PD), within the T2D group (r2≥0.7, p<0.05), but not within NT2D. Conclusions Among patients with chronic periodontitis, patients with T2D seem to have an enhanced LPS-induced immune responsiveness than individuals without diabetes, which correlates with periodontal disease severity, concomitant with a less robust GM-CSF response. This data may in part explain the higher predisposition to periodontitis in this population. PMID:27651910

  20. The relationship between acute myocardial infarction and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi Samani, Mahmoud; Jalali, Farzad; Seyyed Ahadi, Seyyed Masud; Hoseini, Seyyed Reza; Dabbagh Sattari, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is common in adults and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of adult death in the world. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CVD and periodontitis. Methods: Sixty patients with myocardial infarction (MI) as case and 63 subjects with periodontitis without MI as control were studied. Periodontitis was assessed according to Ramfjord periodontal diseases index and the number of missing teeth besides classic risk factors of MI were recorded. Results: The patients who lost more than 10 teeth were at more risk of myocardial infarction (OR=2.73). There was a significant relationship between mean attachment loss and MI (p=0.0001). There was also a relation between attachment loss more than 3 mm and MI with OR of 4. Significant difference between mean PDI (periodontal disease index) was seen in case and control groups (p=0.0001). Subjects with PDI>4 were at more risk of periodontal diseases (OR=7.87). Conclusion: The results show the presence of significant relation between periodontitis and MI which could serve as an alarm to treat periodontitis carefully. PMID:24009957

  1. National Economic Burden Associated with Management of Periodontitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Dom, Tuti Ningseh; Ayob, Rasidah; Abd Muttalib, Khairiyah; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit) using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010) data to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and 2010 national census data to estimate the adult population at risk for periodontitis. Results. The economic burden of managing all cases of periodontitis at the national level from the societal perspective was approximately MYR 32.5 billion, accounting for 3.83% of the 2012 Gross Domestic Product of the country. It would cost the nation MYR 18.3 billion to treat patients with moderate periodontitis and MYR 13.7 billion to treat patients with severe periodontitis. Conclusion. The economic burden of periodontitis in Malaysia is substantial and comparable with that of other chronic diseases in the country. This is attributable to its high prevalence and high cost of treatment. Judicious application of promotive, preventive, and curative approaches to periodontitis management is decidedly warranted.

  2. Evaluation of Salivary and Serum Antioxidant and Oxidative Stress Statuses in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Jamshidi, Zohreh; Kebriaei, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Local bacteria stimulate polymorphonuclear neutrophils to release reactive oxygen species in periodontitis. Increased levels of oxidative stress play a significant role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate total salivary and serum antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods: Fifty-five healthy subjects and 55 patients with chronic periodontitis, with an age range of 30–50 years, were evaluated. After clinical examination and case selection, unstimulated whole saliva was collected in the morning. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein. Total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde levels were evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with t-test, using Stata.11 software program. Results: The periodontitis group exhibited lower salivary (0.16) and serum (0.36) total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.11) compared to the control group. Mean salivary malondialdehyde levels in the case and control groups were 0.80 ± 0.09 and 0.42 ± 0.08, respectively. The results showed significantly higher levels of salivary and serum malondialdehyde in the periodontitis group. Gender did not have any effect on antioxidant and oxidative stress levels. Conclusion: This study indicated increased levels of salivary and serum oxidative stresses in patients with chronic periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity was mildly lower in the saliva and serum of these patients. Higher malondialdehyde levels with no changes in antioxidant status can result in systemic and local complications in these patients.

  3. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  4. Doxycycline Poly E-Caprolactone Nanofibers in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis – A Clinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, T.P.; Srivastava, Ruchi; Srivastava, A.K.; Gupta, Varun; Verma, Pushpendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To develop a low-dose controlled-release delivery system for the treatment of periodontal infections. A new sustained release drug system of Poly e-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers containing doxycycline (DOX) was successfully electrospun and evaluated clinically for periodontal diseases. The retentive doxycycline nanofibres were shown to provide a controlled delivery of the drug. Material and Methods: Nanofibers were prepared with DOX in PCL by electrospinning technique. The drug-coated nanofibres provided sustained effect up to a period of 11 days (264 h) and followed first order release. Forty sites in 7 patients (4 females and 3 males) with chronic periodontitis (5-8mm probing depth) were allocated in 2 experimental treatment groups, Group A-SRP (Scaling and Root Planing) + DOX nanofibers and Group B –SRP (Scaling and Root Planing) alone (control group). All these patients were evaluated clinically for probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI). Results: Both the treatment groups were found to be efficacious in the treatment of periodontal disease as demonstrated by improvement in PD, PI and GI. Conclusion: Combination of SRP (Scaling and Root Planing) + DOX nanofibers (Group A) resulted in added benefits compared to the control group. PMID:24298524

  5. Periodontal materials.

    PubMed

    Darby, I

    2011-06-01

    Periodontics is more associated with debridement of periodontal pockets and not generally thought of as using dental materials in the treatment of patients. However, the last 30 years have seen the development of materials used in regeneration of the periodontal tissues following periodontal disease, guided tissue regeneration, and the use of these materials in bone regeneration more recently, guided bone regeneration. The materials used include bone grafts and membranes, but also growth factors and cells-based therapies. This review provides an overview of the materials currently used and looks at contemporary research with a view to what may be used in the future. It also looks at the clinical effectiveness of these regenerative therapies with an emphasis on what is available in Australia.

  6. A survey on the effects of metabolic syndrome on the periodontal indices of hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mohammad; Izadi, Mozhgan; Yaghini, Jaber; Rastegari, Abdolah; Abed, Ahmad Moghareh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome and periodontitis coincide with systemic inflammation and glucose tolerance disorder, which indicate the common pathophysiologic pathway of these diseases. The main goal of this study was to determine the effects of the metabolic syndrome on the periodontal indices of hemodialysis (HD) patient. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 75 persons were selected by the simple method, 50 of them were HD patients, and 25 of them were healthy people. They were divided into three groups each of which included 25 persons. The periodontal conditions of the selected persons were determined by radiography, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and bleeding index. Then, the periodontal indices of the patients suffering from metabolic syndrome and the persons not affected by metabolic syndrome were compared. At the end, the data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 20) using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests at the meaningful level of α = 0.05. Since the condition of the unilateral variance test could not be provided for this study, the Kruskal–Wallis test was used. To complete the test, the Mann–Whitney test was used in the binary form among the groups being studied. Results: The obtained results showed a meaningful difference among the groups under study (P < 0.001). The results of the test showed a meaningful difference among the obtained indices of the groups being studied in the binary form (P < 0.001) too. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed when the severity of chronic systemic disease increased the health of the periodontal tissues would decrease. PMID:27605991

  7. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients: A comparative polymerase chain reaction study

    PubMed Central

    Kumawat, Ramniwas M.; Ganvir, Sindhu M.; Hazarey, Vinay K.; Qureshi, Asifa; Purohit, Hemant J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The detection frequency of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is not explored well in Indian population. Aim: The study was undertaken to detect P. gingivalis and T. denticola in CP as well as in AgP patients using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and to determine the relationship between the frequency of these two microorganisms and the severity of clinical periodontal parameters. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from ninety participants (thirty CP patients, thirty AgP patients, and thirty healthy participants) and the aforementioned two microorganisms were detected using PCR. Results: However, when CP and AgP were compared for the detection frequency of two microorganisms, no statistically significant difference was noted. A statistically significant increase in the number of bacteria-positive sites increased as the score of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and clinical attachment level of CP and AgP patients increased. Coexistence of P. gingivalis and T. denticola was frequently observed in deep periodontal pockets. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that P. gingivalis and T. denticola are significantly associated with the severity of periodontal tissue destruction. Statistically significant association exists between clinical periodontal parameters such as PI, GI, periodontal pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss and presence of both the microorganisms. PMID:27994415

  8. Validity of Partial Protocols to Assess the Prevalence of Periodontal Outcomes and Associated Sociodemographic and Behavior Factors in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marco A.; Peres, Karen G.; Cascaes, Andreia M.; Correa, Marcos B.; Demarco, Flávio F.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Gigante, Denise P.; Menezes, Ana B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies comparing prevalence of periodontal disease and risk factors by using partial protocols were performed in adult populations, with several studies being conducted in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of partial protocols in estimating the prevalence of periodontal outcomes in adolescents and young adults from two population-based birth cohorts from Pelotas, Brazil, and to assess differences in the estimation and strength of the effect measures when partial protocols are adopted compared to full-mouth examination. Methods Gingival bleeding at probing among adolescents (n = 339) and young adults (n = 720) and dental calculus and periodontal probing depth among young adults were assessed using full-mouth examinations and four partial protocols: Ramfjord teeth (RT), community periodontal index (CPI), and two random diagonal quadrants (1 and 3, 2 and 4). Socioeconomic, demographic, and periodontal health-related variables were also collected. Sensitivity, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratio for each periodontal outcome for the risk factors was estimated. Results Two diagonal quadrants showed better accuracy; RT had the worst, whereas CPI presented an intermediate pattern when compared to full-mouth examination. For bleeding assessment in adolescence, RT and CPI underestimated by 18.4% and 16.2%, respectively, the true outcome prevalence, whereas among young adults, all partial protocols underestimated the prevalence. All partial protocols presented similar magnitude of association measures for all investigated periodontal potential risk factors. Conclusion Two diagonal quadrants protocol may be effective in identifying the risk factors for the most relevant periodontal outcomes in adolescence and in young adulthood. PMID:21859320

  9. Comparison of various risk indicators among patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis in davangere population

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, Kharidhi Laxman; Nadkarni, Rahul Dilip; Guddada, Kaveri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to compare various risk indicators of chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AP) among patients of Davangere population. Materials and Methods: Totally, 89 CP and 90 AP patients were selected from outpatient Department of Periodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere. Various clinical parameters proven to be risk indicators were determined for each patient such as age, gender, occupation, oral hygiene habits, personal habits, income, level of education, place of residence, frequency of dental visits, various oral hygiene indices, gingival status, wasting diseases, malocclusion, laboratory investigations, and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: This study demonstrated that AP is manifested early in life in susceptible individuals. Proven risk indicators for AP and CP in the present study population included young age, place of residence, income and education levels, frequency of dental visits. Patients with AP had better oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index results than patients with CP. Paan chewing and smoking could be considered as risk factors, both in CP and AP cases. The similar association of plaque scores but higher bleeding tendency in AP patients supported the fact of higher susceptibility of AP patients to periodontal breakdown. Malocclusion being present in the majority of cases could also be put forth as a risk factor for AP and CP. Conclusion: This study identifies the different risk indicators for CP and AP and demonstrates the need for constructing nationwide oral health promotion programs to improve the level of oral health awareness and standards in Indian population. PMID:26392693

  10. Biofilm Formation by Drug Resistant Enterococci Isolates Obtained from Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Manjula; Sood, Shaveta; Sharma, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Enterococci are an important cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections and several multidrug resistant strains have emerged. The severity of periodontal diseases is managed by reduction in the pathogenic bacteria. There is a need to assess the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of enterococci colonizing the periodontal pocket and correlate its biofilm formation ability because oral biofilms provide a protective environment and are a reservoir of bacterial colonization of the gingival crevice. Aim To investigate possible association between antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation in enterococci isolates from chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh from January 2015 to October 2015. Sterile paper points were inserted in the periodontal pocket of 100 subjects and put in a transport media. Forty -six isolates were identified as enterococci. The isolates were further examined for their ability to form biofilm by microtitre plate assay and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method for clinically relevant antibiotics. Results Significant relationship (p<0.001) was found between biofilm production with antibiotic resistance to Vancomycin, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Tiecoplanin, Amoxycillin and Gentamycin. Conclusion The study demonstrates a high propensity among the isolates of Enterococci to form biofilm and a significant association of biofilm with multiple drug resistance. PMID:28273964

  11. Periodontal health and caries prevalence evaluation in patients affected by Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cicciù, Marco; Risitano, Giacomo; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder related to the loss or absence of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These deficits result in slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity, and dysfunction of behaviour. These symptoms negatively influence the patient's capability to carry out the daily oral hygiene manoeuvres. The aim of this work is to record the oral health condition of PD patients evaluated at the IRCSS Bonino-Puleio in Messina. The oral health of 45 consecutive PD patients (study group) with neurologic diagnosis based on United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria has been compared with that of another 45 no PD patients of the same age (control group). The evaluation of the general oral condition was recorded underlining tooth loss, active periodontal disease, and presence of untreated caries. The frequency of untreated caries, periodontal diseases, and missing teeth of the study group was significantly higher than in control group. Based on the data results, clinicians should direct high attention to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, above all at the early stages of the caries or periodontal disease, in order to prevent serious evolution of those pathologic dental conditions that may finally result in the tooth extraction event.

  12. Diabetes and periodontitis: How well are the patients aware about an established relation?

    PubMed Central

    Ummadisetty, Teja; Chava, Vijay Kumar; Bhumanapalli, Venkata Ramesh Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to assess the levels of awareness about the mutual relationship between diabetes and periodontitis among high-risk age group of the general population and to assess the attitude of general physicians in suggesting diabetic patients to visit a dentist. Materials and Methods: A structured, closed-ended questionnaire either in English or in local language (Telugu) was distributed and collected from 203 patients who were willing to participate in the study attending the Department of Periodontics, Narayana Dental College & Hospital, Nellore, AP. Data were statistically analyzed and represented in percentages and number. Results: Only 49.8% of the sample population knew about the mutual relationship between diabetes and periodontitis and only 46% of the diabetic study population was suggested to visit a dentist by the physician. Conclusion: There is an insufficient knowledge among the diabetic population regarding the mutual relationship. Only few physicians have suggested their diabetic patients to visit a dentist. As diabetic patients tend to visit a physician earlier than a dentist, it is their responsibility to educate and motivate their patients to seek dental treatment. PMID:28298834

  13. Periodontal Health and Caries Prevalence Evaluation in Patients Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cicciù, Marco; Risitano, Giacomo; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder related to the loss or absence of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These deficits result in slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity, and dysfunction of behaviour. These symptoms negatively influence the patient's capability to carry out the daily oral hygiene manoeuvres. The aim of this work is to record the oral health condition of PD patients evaluated at the IRCSS Bonino-Puleio in Messina. The oral health of 45 consecutive PD patients (study group) with neurologic diagnosis based on United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria has been compared with that of another 45 no PD patients of the same age (control group). The evaluation of the general oral condition was recorded underlining tooth loss, active periodontal disease, and presence of untreated caries. The frequency of untreated caries, periodontal diseases, and missing teeth of the study group was significantly higher than in control group. Based on the data results, clinicians should direct high attention to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, above all at the early stages of the caries or periodontal disease, in order to prevent serious evolution of those pathologic dental conditions that may finally result in the tooth extraction event. PMID:23320249

  14. Gender Differences in Periodontal Status and Oral Hygiene of Non-Diabetic and Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Antina; Busse, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated gender dependent differences by the comparison of periodontal status and oral hygiene between diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects. Methods: 517 mostly obese subjects (171 non-diabetic, 205 type 2 diabetic with oral and 141 with insulin therapy; mean: 59 years) completed an oral hygiene questionnaire and had a clinical examination, including periodontal screening and recording (PSR), percentage of bleeding teeth (PBT), probing pocket depth (PD), gingivitis index (GI), and number of teeth (Tn). Main parameters were “periodontitis” and “oral hygiene behaviour”, each defined by 5 sub-parameters. For a comparison of all results, each sub-parameter was set 0.2. The “low performance index“ (LoP) was the sum of significantly worse sub-parameters in the compared groups (maximum of low performing = 1.0). Results: Gender comparison: In non-diabetic and diabetic patients with oral medication, males performed worse (LoP: periodontitis 0.6 - 0.8; oral hygiene 0.4 - 0.6). The male insulin group performed worse oral hygiene (LoP: 0.4) than females with insulin therapy, whereas the periodontal status showed no difference. Diabetic and non-diabetic groups: Females: Diabetic groups performed worse than non-diabetics (LoP: periodontitis 0.2 - 1.0; oral hygiene 0.4). Insulin patients had worse periodontal status and showed no difference in oral hygiene when compared to diabetic patients with oral medication (LoP: 0.2). Males: Diabetic group with oral medication had worse periodontal status than non-diabetics (LoP: 0.6). Conclusions: The periodontal status was mainly due to oral hygiene behaviour, which was worse in men. Apparently behaviour and not diabetes is the major determinant of periodontitis. Men apparently need much more advise than women. PMID:27347232

  15. The microbial community shifts of subgingival plaque in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis following non-surgical periodontal therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wang, Peng; Ge, Shaohua

    2017-02-07

    The object of this study is to characterize the bacterial community of subgingival plaque of two subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) pre- and post-treatment. We picked two patients with GAgP and used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing. V4 hypervariable region was picked for PCR amplification of subgingival samples. Then, the PCR products were sequenced through Illumina MiSeq platform. One month after therapy, both the clinical features and periodontal parameters improved obviously. Moreover, the composition and structure of subgingival bacterial community changed after initial periodontal therapy. Also, the composition of the subgingival microbiota was highly individualized among different patients. Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes and Fusobacteria were related to pathogenicity of GAgP while Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria seemed associated with clinical symptoms resolution. In this study, we found the subgingival bacterial community was high in species richness but dominated by a few species or phylotypes, with significant shifts of microbiota that occurred after treatment. This study demonstrated the shift of the subgingival bacterial community before and after treatment by high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, and provided a concise method for analysis of microbial community for periodontal diseases.

  16. Comprehensive treatment in a case with advanced chronic periodontitis: a 15-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zafiropoulos, Gregory-George; Rebbe, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the comprehensive treatment of generalized, advanced periodontal disease and full-mouth rehabilitation in an adult patient. Given the extensive periodontal tissue destruction, a systematic approach was needed to determine restoration possibilities and patient expectations. Subsequent oral rehabilitation was accomplished with fixed dentures in the mandible and a removable denture in the maxilla. In the maxilla, strategically important anchor teeth were replaced with implants and a palate-free horseshoe-shaped removable denture was fabricated, using telescopic crowns as abutments. This case indicates that long-term post-treatment periodontal stability can be ensured only by full patient cooperation and consistent periodontal maintenance.

  17. Efficacy of CPITN sextant scores for detection of periodontitis disease activity.

    PubMed

    Rams, T E; Listgarten, M A; Slots, J

    1996-04-01

    The relationship between CPITN sextant scores and periodontitis recurrence at individual tooth sites was evaluated in a longitudinal study in 83 treated adult periodontitis patients receiving systematic 3-month maintenance care. At baseline and semi-annual examinations over 36 months, CPITN scores were assigned to each dentition sextant using probing depths and gingival index scores, and relative periodontal attachment level was assessed at individual tooth sites using an occlusal reference stent. Periodontitis recurrence was defined as any periodontal site exhibiting either a probing depth increase of > or = 3 mm from baseline, or a probing depth increase of > or = 1 mm from baseline together with a loss of relative periodontal attachment of > or = 2 mm from baseline. 49 (59.0%) subjects developed periodontitis recurrence in 147 (29.8%) sextants at 181 (2.2%) individual periodontal sites during the 36-month study period. Baseline CPITN scores of 4 were more common in disease-active subjects than clinically-stable subjects (p = 0.003, t-test), and were associated with a statistically significant 1.66 relative risk of periodontitis recurrence within 36 months. CPITN sextant scores of 3 or 4 showed low specificity and low positive predictive values as indicators of periodontitis recurrence at > or = 1 individual sites within the affected sextant. In comparison, low CPITN sextant scores (0-2) provided high specificity (96.2-100%), high positive predictive values (99.5-100%), and a summary odds ratio of 24.2 as an indicator of clinical stability at all periodontal sites within a given dentition sextant. Changes in sextant scores for CPITN over 6-month periods showed no relationship with periodontitis recurrence at individual periodontal sites. This study suggests that while CPITN is inadequate for detection of periodontitis recurrence, low CPITN scores provide rapid presumptive identification of clinically-stable sextants in adult periodontitis patients on maintenance

  18. Mia-assisted orthodontic treatment for dental malocclusion secondary to periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi-miao; Fang, Bing; Xia, Yun hui; Shu, Rong; Hans, Mark Guenther

    2009-01-01

    In contemporary dental care, an increasing number of adult patients with periodontal disease are seeking orthodontic treatment. Achieving optimal results in such adult patients is difficult because decreased posterior tooth anchorage is risky. This case report demonstrates the use of miniscrew implant anchorage (MIA) in a Chinese male 21 years 5 months of age with maxillary and mandibular anterior dental spacing, bimaxillary protrusion, and severe bone loss caused by periodontal disease. Prior to orthodontic treatment, the patient underwent treatment to control his periodontitis. The patient was treated with 0.022-in straight-wire orthodontic appliances. After 17 months of active orthodontic treatment, the patient had healthier periodontal tissue with increased bone support, as well as improved facial esthetics and a functional occlusion. The results demonstrate that MIA is useful in enhancing anchorage in patients with bone loss associated with severe periodontal disease.

  19. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Drisko, C H

    2001-01-01

    reports, however, would indicate that, when daily irrigation with water was added to a regular oral hygiene home regimen, a significant reduction in probing depth, bleeding on probing and Gingival Index was observed. A significant reduction in cytokine levels (interleukin-1beta and prostaglandin E2, which are associated with destructive changes in inflamed tissues and bone resorption also occurs. If patient-applied antimicrobial therapy is insufficient in preventing, arresting, or reversing the disease progression, then professionally applied antimicrobial agents should be considered including sustained local drug delivery products. Other, more broadly based pharmacotherapeutic agents may be indicated for multiple failing sites. Such agents would include systemic antibiotics or host modulating drugs used in conjunction with periodontal debridement. More aggressive types of juvenile periodontitis or severe rapidly advancing adult periodontitis usually require a combination of surgical intervention in conjunction with systemic antibiotics and generally are not controlled with nonsurgical anti-infective therapy alone. It should be noted, however, that, to date, no home care products or devices currently available can completely control or eliminate the pathogenic plaques associated with periodontal diseases for extended periods of time. Daily home care and frequent recall are still paramount for long-term success. Nonsurgical therapy remains the cornerstone of periodontal treatment. Attention to detail, patient compliance and proper selection of adjunctive antimicrobial agents for sustained plaque control are important elements in achieving successful long-term results. Frequent re-evaluation and careful monitoring allows the practitioner the opportunity to intervene early in the disease state, to reverse or arrest the progression of periodontal disease with meticulous nonsurgical anti-infective therapy.

  20. [THE MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES OF DIAGNOSTIC OF GINGIVITIS AND PERIODONTITIS IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Tsarev, V N; Nikolaeva, E N; Iagodina, E V; Trefilova, Yu A; Ippolitov, E V

    2016-01-01

    The examination was carried out in the Moscow clinical infectious hospital No 2 concerning 102 patients with verified diagnosis "AIDS-infection" and seropositive according results of detection of anti-HIV-antibodies in blood serum. The study was organized to analyze rate ofcolonization of gums with virulent anaerobic bacteria in HIV-infected (polymerase chain reaction) and antibodies to HIV in gingival fluid (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). It is established that in HIV-infected patients, in scrape from gingival sulcus dominate anaerobic bacteria P. gigngivalis and A. ctinomycetemcomitans and in case of periodontitis--P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. The received data permits recommending the test-system "Multident-5" for polymerase chain reaction diagnostic. The reagents kit "Calypte®HIV-1/2"--for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gingival fluid. The results of polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have no impact of concomitant stomatological (periodontitis, gingivitis) and somatic pathology.

  1. Does the periodontal health of thalassemia major patients have an impact on the blood lipid profiles? A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ay, Zuhal Yetkin; Oruçoğlu, Aslihan; Kilinç, Gizem; Oztürk, Mine; Kilbaş, Aynur; Uskun, Ersin; Bozkurt, Fatma Yeşim; Canatan, Duran

    2007-10-01

    Cardiac symptoms and premature death from cardiac causes are still suggested to be a major problem in thalassemic patients. One of the main reasons for the cardiovascular events in thalassemia major (TM) patients has suggested having iron overload, in addition to other reasons such as hypoxia, abnormal lipoproteins levels, atherosclerotic conditions, etc. This study aims to investigate whether the periodontal health has an impact on the blood lipid levels. Twenty-four TM patients and sex-matched controls (C) enrolled to this study. The measurements of the periodontal parameters (gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level) were recorded. Besides, in venous blood samples the lipid profile was investigated. All of the periodontal parameters were significantly higher in TM group than in C group (P<0.05). Triglyceride and cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio had significant positive correlations with the periodontal parameters (P<0.05). Multiple regression analyses present significant associations between gingival index, plaque index scores, and the cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio (P<0.001). Our study results showed that the lipid profile of TM patients might be affected by their periodontal health. Further studies are needed to determine the lipid profile involvement magnitude and the cardiovascular disease risk caused by the periodontal health of TM patients.

  2. The effect of tongue scraper on mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in patients with caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Almas, Khalid; Al-Sanawi, Essam; Al-Shahrani, Bander

    2005-03-01

    Tongue cleaning is an ancient habit. Recent literature has shown that tongue cleaning leads to healthy oral environment. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of tongue scraper among male adult patients with caries and periodontal disease, on Mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (Lb) bacteria and secondly to assess the effect on self perceived oral malodour. Sixty male patients completed the study. The age ranged from 20-55 years (32 +/- 9.53). Fifty percent of the subjects were with university education level. Mean DMFT score was 9.17 (+/-5.46), while 88% of the subjects were with early to moderate periodontitis assessed by CPITN. Thirty one percent of the subjects were smoker, while 86.7% had tea/coffee drinking habit and tooth brushing. Only 28% claimed of using miswak (chewing stick). All patients were advised to use a tongue scraper twice daily for at least 2 minutes per day for 7 days. No effort was made to change tooth brushing or dietary habits of patients. Self perceived oral malodour was reported by 41.7% at baseline and 30% after use of tongue scraper. Salivary count of Mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli had significant decrease 3.37 (+/- 0.71) to 2.27 (+/- 0.80) and 3.22 (+/- 0.85) to 2.32 (+/- 0.87) respectively (P = 0.000). It was concluded that tongue scraping twice daily for 7 days had significant effect on MS and Lb bacteria and also decreased oral malodour

  3. Caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults in Australia: a case of limited and non-contemporary data.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Andrea M; Martin-Kerry, Jacqueline M; McKee, Katherine; Cole, Deborah

    2016-08-29

    Objective The aim of the present study was to identify all evidence about the prevalence and severity of clinically measured caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults in Australia published in peer-reviewed journals and to summarise trends over time. In addition, we examined whether the studies investigated associations between putative risk factors and levels of caries and periodontal disease.Methods PubMed was searched in September 2014, with no date limitations, for published peer-reviewed articles reporting the prevalence rates and/or severity of caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults living in Australia. Articles were excluded if measurement was not based on clinical assessment and if oral disease was reported only in a specific or targeted sample, and not the general population.Results The search identified 18 papers (reporting on 10 primary studies) that met the inclusion criteria. The studies published clinical data about dental caries and/or periodontal disease in Australian Indigenous adults. The studies reported on oral health for Indigenous adults living in rural (40%), urban (10%) and both urban and rural (50%) locations. Included studies showed that virtually all Indigenous adults living in rural locations had periodontal disease. The data also showed caries prevalence ranged from 46% to 93%. Although 10 studies were identified, the peer-reviewed literature was extremely limited and no published studies were identified that provided statistics for a significant proportion of Australia (Victoria, Tasmania, Queensland or the Australian Capital Territory). There were also inconsistencies in how the data were reported between studies, making comparisons difficult.Conclusions This review highlights a lack of robust and contemporary data to inform the development of policies and programs to address the disparities in oral health in Indigenous populations living in many parts of Australia.What is known about the topic? Many studies

  4. [Fixed restorations of a dentition with reduced periodontal support in partially edentulous patients].

    PubMed

    De Boever, J A

    1990-05-01

    Placing restorations in patients who have a limited number of teeth and reduced periodontal support is no longer controversial, given careful selection of patients, preprosthetic periodontal treatment, and a thorough maintenance program. In this paper, attention is drawn to general prosthetic planning, including the use of long-span bridges. Because of increased tooth mobility, cross-arch stabilization of the bridges with interlocks or with postsolder connections is advocated. The framework should be rigid enough to avoid deflection of the bridges. Preparation of the vital and nonvital abutment teeth needs much attention. To avoid using a removable prosthesis, a cantilever bridge can be used, but it makes the construction more prone to fracture. A number of periodontal-prosthetic patients demonstrate a "posterior collapsed bite." Rehabilitation requires the restoration at a "new" vertical dimension of occlusion. This can be done, without functional hazards, in a one-step clinical procedure. A long functional adaptation period is unnecessary. The treatment outcome of furcations is not always predictable. Therefore, hemisection or amputation are often the treatments of choice. On these hemisected roots, bridges can be made and successfully maintained. Finally, it should be stressed that not all teeth have to be replaced: a premolar, shortened-arch occlusion is often sufficient for adequate function.

  5. Mast cells stimulate lymphangiogenesis in the gingiva of patients with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Raica, Marius; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Popovici, Ramona Amina; Balica, Amalia Raluca; Vladau, Mircea; Gaje, Pusa Nela

    2015-01-01

    The presence and distribution of lymphatic vessels and mast cells in the gingiva under normal and pathological conditions have been reported by several studies, but the relationship between them during inflammatory lymphangiogenesis is virtually unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) and mast cell density (MCD) in the gingiva of patients with periodontal disease compared to normal-like gingiva. Gingival punch biopsies from 51 patients with periodontal disease were investigated. MCs and LVs were detected by double-immunohistochemistry, using primary antibodies against mast cell tryptase and D2-40. The inflammatory infiltrate was evaluated on a scale from 0 (absent) to +3 (severe inflammation). MCs and LVs were counted in the same microscopic field for each case at ×200 magnification. We found a significant increase in the number of both MCs and LVs in cases with mild and moderate inflammatory changes, followed by a slight decrease in cases with severe inflammation. We have shown a particular association between MCs and LVs that may support the contribution of MCs to the development of the lymphatic vasculature in inflammatory conditions. MCD correlated with LMVD in all cases with mild and moderate inflammatory changes, but not in cases with severe inflammation. No correlation was found between MCD/LMVD and the density of the inflammatory infiltrate. Our results suggest the potential involvement of MCs in the induction and maintenance of lymphangiogenesis in the gingiva of patients with periodontal disease in the early steps of evolution.

  6. Efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy as an adjuvant in periodontal treatment in Down syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fabiana; Simões, Alyne; Oliveira, Marcio; Luiz, Ana Claudia; Gallottini, Marina; Pannuti, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) has characteristics that include mental retardation, a characteristic phenotype, congenital heart defects, immune disorders, and increased risk of periodontal disease (PD). Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is the combined use of photosensitizers associated with low-level laser (LLL) and oxygen, leading to singlet oxygen formation, which contributes to the antibacterial activity of the phagocytes, killing bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of aPDT as an adjuvant to conventional periodontal treatment of PD in DS patients. A double-blinded, controlled, randomized, split-mouth study was conducted. A total of 13 DS subjects who were 18 years or older and who presented at least one tooth in each quadrant of the mouth with probing pocket depth (PPD) equal to or greater than 5 mm were included. The patients were evaluated at three different times: at the baseline, PPD were obtained. After 1 week, conventional scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed, and two randomly selected quadrants also received aPDT. One month after SRP, all the patients were reevaluated. Periodontal conditions were improved among all the participants. The PDT-with-SRP group presented a nonsignificant reduction in PPD (mean = 1.27 mm, median = 1.17 mm) relative to that of the SRP group (mean = 1.00 mm, median = 0.95 mm). Changes over time were compared using the Wilcoxon test. A significant reduction in median PPD was observed in both groups (p = 0.001). Both types of periodontal treatment, with and without PDT, were similarly effective and were associated with good clinical response.

  7. Differentiation and characteristics of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells originating from adult premolar periodontal ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae-Woo; Im, Insook; Kim, Yong-Deok; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Holliday, L Shannon; Donatelli, Richard E; Son, Woo-Sung; Jun, Eun-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the isolation and characterization of multipotent human periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells and to assess their ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and adipose tissue. Methods PDL stem cells were isolated from 7 extracted human premolar teeth. Human PDL cells were expanded in culture, stained using anti-CD29, -CD34, -CD44, and -STRO-1 antibodies, and sorted by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). Gingival fibroblasts (GFs) served as a positive control. PDL stem cells and GFs were cultured using standard conditions conducive for osteogenic, chondrogenic, or adipogenic differentiation. Results An average of 152.8 ± 27.6 colony-forming units was present at day 7 in cultures of PDL stem cells. At day 4, PDL stem cells exhibited a significant increase in proliferation (p < 0.05), reaching nearly double the proliferation rate of GFs. About 5.6 ± 4.5% of cells in human PDL tissues were strongly STRO-1-positive. In osteogenic cultures, calcium nodules were observed by day 21 in PDL stem cells, which showed more intense calcium staining than GF cultures. In adipogenic cultures, both cell populations showed positive Oil Red O staining by day 21. Additionally, in chondrogenic cultures, PDL stem cells expressed collagen type II by day 21. Conclusions The PDL contains multipotent stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. This adult PDL stem cell population can be utilized as potential sources of PDL in tissue engineering applications. PMID:23323245

  8. Periodontal disease and inflammatory blood cytokines in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    KAMPITS, Cassio; MONTENEGRO, Marlon M.; RIBEIRO, Ingrid W. J.; FURTADO, Mariana V.; POLANCZYK, Carisi A.; RÖSING, Cassiano K.; HAAS, Alex. N

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periodontal disease has been associated with elevations of blood cytokines involved in atherosclerosis in systemically healthy individuals, but little is known about this association in stable cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal disease (exposure) and blood cytokine levels (outcomes) in a target population of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Material and Methods This cross-sectional study included 91 patients with stable CAD who had been under optimized cardiovascular care. Blood levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were measured by Luminex technology. A full-mouth periodontal examination was conducted to record probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment (CA) loss. Multiple linear regression models, adjusting for gender, body mass index, oral hypoglycemic drugs, smoking, and occurre:nce of acute myocardial infarction were applied. Results CAD patients that experienced major events had higher concentrations of IFN-γ (median: 5.05 pg/mL vs. 3.01 pg/mL; p=0.01), IL-10 (median: 2.33 pg/mL vs. 1.01 pg/mL; p=0.03), and TNF-α (median: 9.17 pg/mL vs. 7.47 pg/mL; p=0.02). Higher numbers of teeth with at least 6 mm of CA loss (R2=0.07) and PD (R2=0.06) were significantly associated with higher IFN-γ log concentrations. Mean CA loss (R2=0.05) and PD (R2=0.06) were significantly related to IL-10 concentrations. Elevated concentrations of TNF-α were associated with higher mean CA loss (R2=0.07). Conclusion Periodontal disease is associated with increased systemic inflammation in stable cardiovascular patients. These findings provide additional evidence supporting the idea that periodontal disease can be a prognostic factor in cardiovascular patients. PMID:27556206

  9. Rheumatoid Arthritis among Periodontitis Patients in Baddi Industrial Estate of Himachal Pradesh, India: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dev, Yash Paul; Khuller, Nitin; Basavaraj, Patthi; G, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there is a relationship between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: A total of 1520 (852 - periodontal group; 668 - general group) individuals of 30-70 years age group and residents of Baddi industrial estate in Himachal Pradesh, India, were assessed for the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis and Periodontal Disease (PD). The prevalence and severity of periodontitis were determined by recording the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) with loss of attachment, based on WHO guidelines (1997). The criteria considered for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis were as those given by American Rheumatism Association -1988. Frequency distributions for bivariate analysis and logistic regression for multivariate analysis were used for assessment of statistical association between variables. Results: In patients referred for periodontal treatment, the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis was 4.4%. Females (3.2%) and subjects aged above 50 years (3.5%) showed a significantly higher prevalence in comparison to their counterparts (p<0.001). The odds of rheumatoid arthritis in females were nearly three times (OR=2.813) higher than those in males, which was also statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: The findings provide evidence of a relationship, suggesting that individuals with moderate to severe periodontal disease are at higher risk of suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and vice versa. PMID:24298523

  10. Presence and antimicrobial profile of gram-negative facultative anaerobe rods in patients with chronic periodontitis and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Fredy; García, Dabeiba-Adriana; Acosta, Adriana; Mizrahi, Deborah; Paz, Andreína; Martínez, Diana; Arévalo, Azucena; Aristizabal, Fabio; Abba, Martín

    2013-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease associated with Gram-negative anaerobes which are part of the subgingival microflora. In recent years, studies have been conducted to assess the presence of Gram-negative facultative anaerobes (Enterobacteriaceae) and their participation in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Enterobacteriaceae in patients with chronic periodontitis and gingivitis and to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates. A descriptive, observational study was performed including 64 patients with chronic periodontitis and 22 patients with gingivitis. Microbiological samples were taken from the gingival sulcus using paper points, which then were placed in thioglycollate broth. Samples were incubated for 4 hours at 37 degrees C and finally replated on MacConkey agar Bacteria were identified using the API-20E system (Biomerieux, France) and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion method. The evaluation of samples showed presence of 29 enterobacterial species distributed as follows: 7 in the group with gingivitis and 22 in the group with chronic periodontitis. In the chronic periodontitis group the most common species were: K. oxytoca n = 5, S. liquefaciens n = 4 and K. pneumoniae and E. coli with n = 3. The gingivitis group had the highest frequency of Erwinia sp. (n = 2). Clinical isolates showed very low sensitivity levels to beta-lactam ampicillin and amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, 17.2% and 27.6% respectively, and higher sensitivity levels to ciprofloxacin (96.6%), amikacin (79.3%), gentamicin (68.9%) and ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, kanamycin and trimethoprimsulfa (65.5%). In conclusion, the existence of a high frequency of enterobacteria in patients with chronic periodontitis and gingivitis shows that periodontologists should pay greater attention to prevention protocols, and develop mechanical and antimicrobial

  11. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Isolates from Patients Suffering from Caries and Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    De-la-Torre, Janire; Ortiz-Samperio, María Esther; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Eraso, Elena; Echebarria-Goicouria, María Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2017-01-25

    Caries and chronic periodontitis are common oral diseases where a higher Candida colonization is reported. Antifungal agents could be adjuvant drugs for the therapy of both clinical conditions. The aim of the current study has been to evaluate the in vitro activities of conventional and new antifungal drugs against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from caries and/or chronic periodontitis. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, nystatin, posaconazole and voriconazole against 126 oral Candida isolates (75 Candida albicans, 18 Candida parapsilosis, 11 Candida dubliniensis, six Candida guilliermondii, five Candida lipolytica, five Candida glabrata, four Candida tropicalis and two Candida krusei) from 61 patients were tested by the CLSI M27-A3 method. Most antifungal drugs were highly active, and resistance was observed in less than 5% of tested isolates. Miconazole was the most active antifungal drug, being more than 98% of isolates susceptible. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and the new triazoles, posaconazole and voriconazole, were also very active. Miconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole have excellent in vitro activities against all Candida isolates and could represent suitable treatment for a hypothetically adjunctive therapy of caries and chronic periodontitis.

  12. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults: The 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data.Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years' old) who participated in the 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥ 3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90  mg/dL), NFG 2 (90-99  mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100-110  mg/dL), IFG 2 (111-125  mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126  mg/dL).Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3-26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG 2 group

  13. Microbiological effects of periodontal therapy plus azithromycin in patients with diabetes: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hincapié, Juan P; Castrillón, Cesar A; Yepes, Fanny L; Roldan, Natalia; Becerra, María A; Moreno, Sandra M; Consuegra, Jessika; Contreras, Adolfo; Botero, Javier E

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that periodontal infection may aggravate diabetes control. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the frequency with which Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected in patients with diabetes with the use of non-surgical therapy plus azithromycin in a randomized clinical trial. One hundred and five (105) patients with diabetes and chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: subgingival mechanical therapy with azithromycin, subgingival mechanical therapy with placebo and supragingival prophylaxis with azithromycin. Complete periodontal clinical examinations and detection of periodontal pathogens using polymerase chain reaction were carried out at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months after periodontal therapy. The frequency with which Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponemadenticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected decreased at 3 months in all groups. Tannerella forsythia increased after3 months in all groups. All organisms had similar frequencies at 9 months in all groups. Subgingival mechanical therapy with adjunctive azithromycin had no additional effect on the frequency with which the periodontal pathogens investigated were detected in patients with diabetes.

  14. Caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss in patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Patiño Marín, Nuria; Loyola Rodríguez, Juan P; Medina Solis, Carlo E; Pontigo Loyola, América P; Reyes Macías, Juan F; Ortega Rosado, Jenny C; Aradillas García, Celia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the frequency of caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss in patients affected by diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. It was a cross-sectional study involving 175 subjects distributed in the following groups: (1) 35 patients with diabetes type 1 (glycosylated hemoglobin values from 6.5%-7%), (2) 35 patients with diabetes type 1 (values of glycosylated hemoglobin higher than 7%), (3) 35 subjects without diabetes mellitus type 1, (4) 35 patients with diabetes type 2 and (5) 35 subjects without diabetes mellitus type 2. The following clinical parameters were evaluated for all the subjects who participated in the study: frequency of caries, filled teeth, missing teeth, prosthetic restoration, bacterial dental plaque, calculus index, probing depth and attachment level. On comparing the groups of patients with diabetes type 1 to the control group, there were no statistically significant differences among any of the study variables. On comparing the group of patients with diabetes type 2 to the control group, there were statistically significant differences in the variables missing teeth (p=0.0134), calculus (p=0.0001), probing depth (p=0.0009) and attachment level (p=0.0093). The variable periodontal disease showed statistically significant dIfferences in the group of patients with diabetes type 2. Prevention, supervision and review of the oral health of patients with diabetes (types 1 and 2) are needed in order to prevent oral alterations.

  15. Compliance to recall visits by patients with periodontitis — Is the practitioner responsible?

    PubMed Central

    Fenol, Angel; Mathew, Simi

    2010-01-01

    Context: Compliance to recall visit is directly related to the medium and long-term success of active periodontal therapy. Aims: To determine the percentage of patients who were compliant to recall visits by the practitioner and to find out the reasons for noncompliance by noncompliant patients. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Periodontology, Amrita School of Dentistry. The study participants were former patients of the Department of Periodontology. Patients and Methods: A total of 216 patients were selected for the study — 116 males and 100 females. They were divided according to their socioeconomic status — professionals and nonprofessionals. Nonprofessionals were divided into those who had completed high school education and those who had not. They were followed up to find out how many were compliant to recall visits and the reasons for noncompliance by noncompliant patients. Statistical Analysis: The data was entered into SPSS version 11.5. Descriptive statistics were used. The frequencies of responses were calculated. Result: Of the total study population, 48.1% was compliant, of which 58.6% and 37.6% of males and females were compliant, respectively. In terms of percentage, 60.6% of professionals, 52.4% of those who had completed high school education and 31.3% of those who had not completed high school education were compliant. Conclusion: Compliance to recall visits by the periodontitis patients depends largely on the practitioner. Inadequate motivation by the practitioner and inadequate education in general are responsible for noncompliance to periodontal treatment. PMID:21691547

  16. TNF-α and antibodies to periodontal bacteria discriminate between Alzheimer’s disease patients and normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kamer, Angela R.; Craig, Ronald G.; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Dasanayake, Ananda P.; Norman, Robert G.; Boylan, Robert J.; Nehorayoff, Andrea; Glodzik, Lidia; Brys, Miroslaw; de Leon, Mony J.

    2009-01-01

    The associations of inflammation/immune responses with clinical presentations of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remain unclear. We hypothesized that TNF-α and elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria would be greater in AD compared to normal controls (NL) and their combination would aid clinical diagnosis of AD. Plasma TNF-α and antibodies against periodontal bacteria were elevated in AD patients compared with NL and independently associated with AD. The number of positive IgG to periodontal bacteria incremented the TNF-α classification of clinical AD and NL. This study shows that TNF-α and elevated numbers of antibodies against periodontal bacteria associate with AD and contribute to the AD diagnosis. PMID:19767111

  17. Immediately loaded fixed maxillary implant treatment for a patient with advanced periodontal disease: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Binon, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Patients with a failing maxillary dentition typically require an extended treatment sequence that involves extractions, interim prosthesis wear, grafting and subsequent implant placement, and restoration with an implant-supported fixed or bar-retained prosthesis. Established maxillary implant protocols can take up to 15 or more months to complete. The purpose of this report is to describe a treatment sequence using zygomatic implants in a patient with advanced periodontal disease. A fixed prosthesis was fabricated without grafting, resulting in a shortened treatment time.

  18. Identification of Tannerella forsythia antigens specifically expressed in patients with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyeong Chan; Zhu, Weidong; Kim, Seon-Mi; Sabet, Mojgan; Handfield, Martin; Hillman, Jeffrey; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Lee, Seok-Woo

    2007-10-01

    Molecular pathogenesis of Tannerella forsythia, a putative periodontal pathogen, has not yet been adequately elucidated due to limited information on its virulence factors. Here, identification of in vivo expressed antigens of T. forsythia is reported using in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT). Among 13 000 recombinant clones screened, 16 positive clones were identified that reacted reproducibly with sera obtained from patients with periodontal disease. DNA sequences from 12 of these in vivo-induced genes were determined. IVIAT-identified protein antigens of T. forsythia include: BspA, a well-defined virulence factor of T. forsythia; enzymes involved in housekeeping functions (tRNA synthetases, glycine hydroxymethyltransferase, and glucoside glucohydrolase); enzymes implicated in tissue destruction (dipeptidyl peptidase IV); a DNA mismatch repair protein; and putative outer membrane proteins of unknown function. The in vivo gene expression of these IVIAT-identified antigens was confirmed by a quantitative real-time PCR analysis. This is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first report using IVIAT in T. forsythia. It is anticipated that detailed analysis of the in vivo-induced genes identified by IVIAT in this study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating periodontal infection by T. forsythia.

  19. The effect of Bacillus subtilis mouth rinsing in patients with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Tsubura, S; Mizunuma, H; Ishikawa, S; Oyake, I; Okabayashi, M; Katoh, K; Shibata, M; Iizuka, T; Toda, T; Iizuka, T

    2009-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an effective probiotic product for prevention of enteric infections both in humans and animals. We hypothesized that a mouth rinse containing Bacillus subtilis should adhere to and colonize part of the oral bacteria on periodontal tissue. The rinsing ability of Extraction 300E (containing Bacillus subtilis: E-300) was compared with that of a mouth wash liquid , Neosteline Green (benzethonium chloride; NG) that is commonly used in Japan. Compared with NG rinsing, E-300 rinsing resulted in a marked change in the BANA-score. The mean BANA values (score +/- SD) over the course of the study from 0 to 30 days were 1.52 +/- 0.51 (p < or = 0.1) and 0.30 +/- 0.47 (p < or = 0.01) for E-300, and 1.56 +/- 0.51 and 0.93 +/- 0.68 for NG, respectively. Gingival Index also had improvement, while probing pocket depth and bleeding on probing showed small improvements. Mouth rinsing with E-300 significantly reduced periodontal pathogens compared with NG. These results suggest that Bacillus subtilis is an appropriate mouth rinse for patients with periodontitis.

  20. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Periodontitis in Arab Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Manal; Rahman, Betul; Hasan, Haidar; Ali, Houssam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our study sought to evaluate the association between periodontitis and body mass index (BMI) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  Methods In this cross-sectional case control study analysis of 186 diabetic patients, 112 patients had a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and 74 control patients had BMI <30kg/m2. All participants underwent oral examinations including a full mouth recording of clinical attachment level (CAL). Information regarding HbA1c levels and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were also gathered.  Results Over half (61%) of patients had a BMI ≥30. Of these 52% had CAL less than 2mm. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that there was no association between BMI and CAL. In addition, hs-CRP levels were significantly and positively associated with CAL (OR:1.06, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.12; p=0.007).  Conclusion Among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, there was no association between periodontitis and BMI. More studies are needed to further explore this relationship taking into consideration additional lifestyle factors. PMID:25829999

  1. Serum antibody in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-infected patients with periodontal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, J L; Sandoval, M N; Steffen, M J; Cappelli, D

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to (i) delineate the characteristics of serum antibody responses to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in patients with periodontitis who are infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans; irrespective of disease classification; (ii) assess the relationship of the elevated antibody levels to colonization of the oral cavity by A. actinomycetemcomitans; and (iii) describe the serotype distribution of A. actinomycetemcomitans and antibodies to the microorganism in infected patients with various clinical classifications. To compare the levels of various isotype-specific antibodies to the different antigens, studies were performed that allowed quantitation of each isotype-specific antibody in a human reference standard. By using this reference standard, it was shown that the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA responses to A. actinomycetemcomitans were similar among the infected patients, irrespective of disease classification. Also, we demonstrated that the serum antibody response to serotype b was quantitatively greater in all isotypes. Our findings indicate that b was the most frequent A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype detected in the patients and appears to be capable of initiating a substantial serum IgG antibody response that may contain cross-reactive antibodies to other serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Generally, in cases in which the response to a single serotype was elevated, only that type of A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in the plaque. Individuals exhibiting elevated antibodies to multiple serotypes were most consistently colonized by the serotype b microorganism. This study represents the first report detailing the distribution of IgG subclass antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans in periodontal disease. The results demonstrated that the primary responses of patients with periodontitis to A. actinomycetemcomitans were of the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses, which is consistent with elicited responses to protein antigens

  2. Pathologic migration of anterior teeth in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Towfighi, P P; Brunsvold, M A; Storey, A T; Arnold, R M; Willman, D E; McMahan, C A

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of pathologic migration of anterior teeth in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis. The correlation between pathologic migration of anterior teeth and attachment loss (AL) was investigated, and an attempt was made to identify the most common early form of pathologic migration. Prevalence of tooth migration was studied in a group of 343 patients with moderate to severe periodontitis before treatment. The presence of pathologic migration was determined from the chief complaint and patient awareness o tooth movement in the last 5 years. Forty-four patients (age range 18 to 69; mean = 48.75) with 75 pairs of migrated and non-migrated teeth were studied further to determine if there is a correlation between severity of periodontal AL and pathologic migration. Migrated teeth were compared to control contralateral teeth that did not have migration. In addition, tooth mobility of the anterior teeth on 36 of the 44 patients was measured using the mobility meter. It was anticipated that tooth mobility would follow the same pattern as AL in relation to pathologic migration. The type and severity of displacement was recorded for each tooth affected by migration. The types of pathologic migration recorded were diastema, extrusion, rotation, facial flaring, and drifting into edentulous spaces. Pathologic migration prevalence was 30.03% +/- 2.5 (103/343 subjects). The mean AL of migrated teeth (4.79 +/- 0.28 mm) was significantly greater (P < 0.0001) than control teeth (3.21 +/- 0.18 mm). The numeric values (called PTV) of migrated teeth (17.6 +/- 1.5) were significantly greater (P < 0.0001) than control teeth (9.4 +/- 1.1). It was difficult to identify a primary form of displacement, as most patients demonstrated a combination of movements. The percentage of the 44 patients who presented with a specific type of movement was: facial flaring (90.9 +/- 4.4%), diastema (88.6 +/- 4.8%), rotation (72.7 +/- 6

  3. Effectiveness of a diode laser in addition to non-surgical periodontal therapy: study of intervention

    PubMed Central

    Crispino, Antonio; Figliuzzi, Michele Mario; Iovane, Claudio; Del Giudice, Teresa; Lomanno, Simona; Pacifico, Delfina; Fortunato, Leonzio; Del Giudice, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Chronic periodontitis affects 47% of adult population over the age of 30. The first phase of periodontal treatment is always represented by scaling and root planning (SRP), that is a causal, non-surgical therapy that recognizes as primary aims the control of bacterial infection and the reduction of periodontal plaque-associated inflammation. Yet, another innovative causal therapy is represented by the irradiation of periodontal pockets with laser. Aim To evaluate the effect of a 940-nm diode laser as an adjunct to SRP in patients affected by periodontitis. Materials and methods Sixty-eight adult patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis were sequentially enrolled and undergone to periodontal examination (V1) in order to detect gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and probing depth (PD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the first (n=34) received SRP treatment alone, the control group (n=34) received SRP and 940-nm diode laser therapy. Results Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test, with two tails; for all clinical parameters, both groups reported statistically significant differences compared to basal values (p<0.0001). Both procedures were effective in improving GI, PI and PD, but the use of diode laser was associated with more evident results. Conclusions Considered the better clinical outcomes, diode laser can be routinely associated with SRP in the treatment of periodontal pockets of patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis. PMID:26161248

  4. Three-D imaging of dental alveolar bone change after fixed orthodontic treatment in patients with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhi-Gui; Yang, Chi; Fang, Bing; Xia, Yun-Hui; Mao, Li-Xia; Feng, Yi-Miao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to radiographically quantify bone height and bone density in patients with periodontitis after fixed orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: A total of 81 patients including 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (group 1) and 41 patients with normal periodontal tissues (group 2) were selected. CBCT scanning for anterior teeth were taken before and after orthodontic treatment. Measurements of bone height and bone density were performed using CBCT software. Results: The group 1 presented a statistically lesser bone density and bone height when compared to group 2 before treatment. There was a significant loss of bone density for both groups after orthodontic treatment, but bone density loss was significantly greater in the group 1. There was no statistically significant bone height change in two groups after treatment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that orthodontic treatment can preserve bone height but not capable of maintaining bone density, especially for patients with periodontitis. It is indicated that the change of bone density may be more susceptible than that of bone height when radiographically evaluating bone status under this combined periodontal and orthodontic therapy. PMID:25932177

  5. Influence of smoking and race on immunoglobulin G subclass concentrations in early-onset periodontitis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, S M; Zhang, J B; Gunsolley, J C; Schenkein, J G; Schenkein, H A; Tew, J G

    1996-01-01

    Recent data indicate that smoking is an important risk factor for the development of periodontitis. Smoking is also known to reduce serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels. Interestingly, patients with the localized form of early-onset periodontitis (LJP) have elevated levels of serum IgG2, and those who smoke are not clinically different from nonsmoking LJ subjects. In contrast, patients with the generalized form of early-onset periodontitis (G-EOP) who smoke have more extensive destruction than their nonsmoking counterparts. Given the effects of smoking on EOP and the association of IgG2 with less severe disease, we hypothesized that smoking might reduce serum IgG2 and that this might be most apparent in G-EOP. We therefore examined the effects of smoking on serum IgG subclass concentrations in race-matched groups: LJP, G-EOP, and age-matched periodontally healthy controls (NPs). Smoking status was established from serum cotinine levels, and serum IgG subclass concentrations were determined by using radial immunodiffusion. The data indicated that the effects of smoking were remarkably selective with respect to both IgG subclass and race. Smoking did not appear to have any effect on the concentration of IgG1 or IgG3 in either black or white subjects. In contrast, smoking was associated with depressed serum IgG2 concentrations in both white NP and G-EOP subgroups. Serum IgG2 levels in black subjects did not appear to be depressed by smoking, with the single striking exception of the black G-EOP subgroup which also had depressed serum IgG4 levels. The results here confirm that smoking has effects on serum immunoglobulin levels, but the effects were both race and serum IgG subclass specific. Furthermore, the periodontal diagnosis of EOP subjects appeared to be important, as indicated by the fact that IgG2 and IgG4 levels were reduced in smoking black G-EOP subjects whereas the IgG2 and IgG4 levels in black LJP and NP subjects were not reduced by smoking. PMID:8698472

  6. Systemic lycopene as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Panthula Veerendra Nath; Ambati, Manasa; Koduganti, Rekharani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased prevalence of periodontitis and, in turn, periodontitis adversely affects the diabetic status. Oxidative stress plays a key role in affecting the pathophysiology of both the diseases and adjunctive systemic antioxidant therapy may have beneficial effect on the treatment outcome. This study was planned to compare the efficacy of systemic antioxidant therapy with lycopene as an adjunct to scaling and root planing versus scaling and root planing alone in chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 40 diabetic subjects with periodontitis, attending the OP wing of the Department of Periodontics of a tertiary referral care hospital were randomized and equally divided into group A and group B. Diabetes status was recorded as per ADA guidelines and the periodontitis status as per American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) guidelines. Group A patients underwent scaling and root planing with administration of lycopene 8 mg and group B patients were treated with scaling and root planing alone. Clinical parameters like gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. Serum markers, i.e. malondialdehyde (MDA) (TBARS assay) and C reactive protein (CRP) (ELISA), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were assessed at baseline and at 2 months and 6 months post-therapy. Results: Inter-group comparison showed group A giving statistically significant results in reducing mean serum MDA levels at 2 months and 6 months, and in reducing mean PD (mm) and mean HbA1c (%) levels at 2 months (P < 0.005). Conclusion: Lycopene as an adjunctive treatment was effective in reducing oxidative stress and restoring altered glycemic levels. Further longitudinal studies with a larger sample size are required to establish the role of lycopene in the management of chronic periodontitis. PMID:25984464

  7. Efficacy of irrigation with different antimicrobial agents on periodontal health in patients treated for chronic periodontitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Abullais, Shahabe Saquib; Dani, Nitin; Hamiduddin; Priyanka, N.; Kudyar, Nitin; Gore, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontitis is inflammation of supporting tooth structure. Most individuals get affected by this disease if oral hygiene is not maintained. There are various mechanical and chemical methods for oral hygiene maintenance. In recent past, interest has been diverted toward the herbal/traditional product in oral hygiene maintenance as they are free from untoward effect. Aim: To assess the efficacy of subgingival irrigation with herbal extract (HE) as compared with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) on periodontal health in patients who have been treated for chronic periodontitis, and still have residual pocket of 3–5 mm. Materials and Methods: This was a controlled, single-blind, randomized study for 3 months. Patients were allocated in two groups (n = 15 each): (1) 0.2% CHX (control group); (2) HE consisting of Punica granatum Linn. (pomegranate), Piper nigrum Linn. (black pepper), and detoxified copper sulfate (test group). Solutions were used for the irrigation using pulsated irrigating device, WaterPik. Clinical outcomes evaluated were plaque index (PI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), probing depth at baseline, 15th, 30th, 60th, and 90th day. Microbiologic evaluation was done at baseline and 90th day. Results: Significant reduction in PI was seen in the group of irrigation with HE. While comparing SBI, irrigation with CHX shows a better result. Other parameters such as probing pocket depth and microbiological counting were similar for both groups. Conclusion: Irrigation with HE is a simple, safe, and noninvasive technique with no serious adverse effects. It also reduces the percentage of microorganism in periodontal pocket. PMID:27833365

  8. Periodontal Disease Part IV: Periodontal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist. PMID:21253201

  9. Position paper: periodontal diseases of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Califano, Joseph V

    2003-11-01

    Children and adolescents are subject to several periodontal diseases. Although there is a much lower prevalence of destructive periodontal diseases in children than in adults, children can develop severe forms of periodontitis. In some cases, this destructive disease is a manifestation of a known underlying systemic disease. In other young patients, the underlying cause for increased susceptibility and early onset of disease is unknown. These diseases are often familial, suggesting a genetic predisposition for aggressive disease. Current modalities for managing periodontal diseases of children and adolescents may include antibiotic therapy in combination with non-surgical and/or surgical therapy. Since early diagnosis ensures the greatest chance for successful treatment, it is important that children receive a periodontal examination as part of their routine dental visits.

  10. Risk of Periodontal Diseases in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Nationwide Population-based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have reported an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal diseases. However, a large-scale population-based cohort study was previously absent from the literature. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of periodontal diseases in patients with COPD in a nationwide population.From the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 22,332 patients with COPD who were newly diagnosed during 2000 to 2010. For each case, two individuals without COPD were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up till the end of 2011.The overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.19-fold greater in the COPD group than in the comparison group (32.2 vs 26.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.24). Compared with non-COPD patients, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD increased with the number of emergency room visits (from 1.14 [95% CI 1.10-1.19] to 5.09 [95% CI 4.53-5.72]) and admissions (from 1.15 [95% CI 1.10-1.20] to 3.17 [95% CI 2.81-3.57]). In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD treated with inhaled corticosteroids (1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34) and systemic corticosteroids (1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23) were significantly higher than those of patients not treated with corticosteroids.Patient with COPD are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases than the general population. Our results also support that the risk of periodontal diseases is proportional to COPD control. In addition, patients who receive corticosteroid treatment are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases.

  11. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype e--biotypes, genetic diversity and distribution in relation to periodontal status.

    PubMed

    Doğan, B; Saarela, M H; Jousimies-Somer, H; Alaluusua, S; Asikainen, S

    1999-04-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolates from 356 individuals were screened for identification of serotype e in order to investigate its distribution in relation to periodontal status. From subjects with serotype e, 1-6 isolates per subject (n = 61) were genotyped using arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) and apaH gene polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis to determine the genetic heterogeneity within the serotype. Furthermore, one serotype e strain per subject was tested for fermentation of 8 carbohydrates for biotyping. Among patients with adult periodontitis (n = 219), localized juvenile periodontitis (n = 55) and other forms of early-onset periodontitis (n = 18) serotypes b, a and c, respectively, were the most frequently detected serotypes. Non-periodontitis subjects (n = 64) were predominantly colonized with serotype c. Serotype e was found in 30 (14%) adult periodontitis patients, 2 (11%) early-onset periodontitis patients and in 5 (8%) non-periodontitis individuals, but in none of the 55 localized juvenile periodontitis patients. AP-PCR distinguished 3 and apaH gene PCR-RFLP analysis 2 genotypes among the 61 A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype e isolates, one genotype per subject. The AP-PCR genotypes 1 and 3 represented the apaH genotype 1 and the AP-PCR genotype 2 the apaH genotype 2. On the basis of variable fermentation of galactose and xylose, 3 biotypes among A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype e were established. Contrary to the absence of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype e in localized juvenile periodontitis patients, its detection frequency was comparable among other forms of periodontitis and periodontal health. Clinical serotype e isolates form at least 2 genetic types and 3 biotypes.

  12. Influence of glycemic control on the levels of subgingival periodontal pathogens in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    MIRANDA, Tamires Szeremeske; FERES, Magda; RETAMAL-VALDÉS, Belén; PEREZ-CHAPARRO, Paula Juliana; MACIEL, Suellen Silva; DUARTE, Poliana Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study evaluated the influence of glycemic control on the levels and frequency of subgingival periodontal pathogens in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and generalized chronic periodontitis (ChP). Material and Methods Fifty-six patients with generalized ChP and type 2 DM were assigned according to the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) into one of the following groups: HbA1c<8% (n=28) or HbA1c≥8% (n=28). Three subgingival biofilm samples from sites with probing depth (PD)<5 mm and three samples from sites with PD≥5 mm were analyzed by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the presence and levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Eubacterium nodatum, Parvimona micra, Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. and Prevotella intermedia. Results The mean counts of F. nucleatum ssp. were statistically significantly higher in the sites with PD≥5 mm of the HbA1c≥8% group (p<0.05). Frequencies of detection of T. forsythia, E. nodatum, P. micra and F. nucleatum ssp. were all higher in the sites with PD≥5 mm of the patients with HbA1c≥8%, compared with those of patients with HbA1c<8% (p<0.05). Frequency of detection of P. intermedia was higher in the sites with PD<5 mm of the patients with HbA1c≥8% than those of the patients with HbA1c<8% (p<0.05). Conclusions Poor glycemic control, as indicated by HbA1c≥8%, is associated with increased levels and frequencies of periodontal pathogens in the subgingival biofilm of subjects with type 2 DM and ChP. PMID:28198980

  13. [The clinical and etiological study on juvenile periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Matsue, M; Masunaga, H; Ogata, Y; Miyamoto, M; Endo, H; Tawara, H; Yamaguchi, S; Matsue, I

    1990-03-01

    Seven juvenile periodontally diseased patients were evaluated for clinical, microbiologic and local or systemic host factors. Three patients showed the localized from of periodontitis clinically and radiographically and by deep periodontal pockets associated with the molars and incisors. Four were in the generalized froms, in which in most cases all teeth were affected. The results in both diseased froms on the predominant cultivable subgingival microflora, the composition of which was not different from that in adult periodontitis, consisted of significantly increased proportions of Gram-negative anaerobic rods, Bacteroides sp. and B. gingivalis, Haemophilus sp. and H. actinomycetemcomitans were detected in 1/3 of the localized and 2/4 of the generalized periodontitis. They were of no value in distinguishing activity that enhanced disease in the generalized from. Elevated serum IgG responses were noted with B. gingivalis. No markedly functional abnormalities of neutrophils from peripheral blood have been demonstrated, however it might function with systemic factors, like an insulin-dependent diabetes. Morphologic characteristics of the oral and periodontal tissue in localized periodontitis were that the pattern of destruction was confined to specific teeth groups characterized by extensive the bucco-lingual width ratio of the dental crown to alveolar bone width. These observations indicate that the generalized form of juvenile periodontitis lesions were associated not only with the presence of subgingival bacteria, but also with conditions such as local morphologic and systemic or constitutional factors, individual variation in relation to destructive and protective aspects of the defense mechanisms.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yorimasa; Nakayama, Yohei; Tatsumi, Junichi; Kubota, Takehiko; Sato, Shuichi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Onitsuka, Tokuya; Sakagami, Ryuji; Nozaki, Takenori; Murakami, Shinya; Matsubara, Naritoshi; Tanaka, Maki; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ota, Junya; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Ishihara, Yuichi; Ito, Taichi; Saito, Atsushi; Yamaki, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Hidaka, Toshirou; Sasaki, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Takashi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Shibutani, Toshiaki; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Araki, Hisao; Ikumi, Noriharu; Aoyama, Yukihiko; Kogai, Hideki; Nemoto, Kenji; Deguchi, Shinji; Takiguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Inokuchi, Keita; Ito, Takatoshi; Kado, Takashi; Furuichi, Yasushi; Kanazashi, Mikimoto; Gomi, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yukie; Kubokawa, Keita; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Tetsushi; Sase, Toshinaga; Arita, Hirokazu; Kodama, Toshiro; Shin, Kitetsu; Izumi, Yuichi; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2017-03-31

    We investigated the prevalences and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients attending a follow-up visit at dental hospitals or clinics as part of their maintenance program. This cross-sectional multicenter study enrolled patients with dental implants who attended regular check-ups as part of a periodontal maintenance program during the period from October 2012 through September 2013. Patients with implants with at least 3 years of loading time were included in the study. The condition of peri-implant tissue was examined and classified into the following categories: healthy, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis. Patients were also evaluated for implant risk factors. A total of 267 patients (110 men, 157 women; mean age: 62.5 ± 10.7 years) were analyzed. The prevalence of patient-based peri-implant mucositis was 33.3% (n = 89), and the prevalence of peri-implantitis was 9.7% (n = 26). Poor oral hygiene and a history of periodontitis were strong risk factors for peri-implant disease. The present prevalences were lower than those previously reported. The quality of periodontal therapy before and after implant installation and patient compliance and motivation, as indicated by plaque control level, appear to be important in maintaining peri-implant tissue health.

  15. Evaluation of oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis patients following systemic antioxidant supplementation: A clinical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Manasa; Rani, Koduganti Rekha; Reddy, Panthula Veerendranath; Suryaprasanna, Jammula; Dasari, Rajashree; Gireddy, Himabindu

    2017-01-01

    Context: Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of many systemic diseases including chronic periodontitis. Periodontal pathogen activated neutrophils liberate the reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes the destruction of periodontal tissues. Antioxidants modulate the ROS production and inhibit the tissue destruction. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in chronic periodontitis patients following scaling and root planing (SRP) after systemic lycopene supplementation. Materials and Methods: This was an interventional single arm study. Twenty systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Clinical parameters modified gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment loss were recorded, and serum MDA levels were assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. Patients were supplemented with 8 mg lycopene daily for 2 months following SRP treatment. All the parameters were assessed at pretreatment and 2 months and 6 months posttreatment. Results: From pretreatment to posttreatment at 2 months, the mean values of all parameters were reduced. While from 2 to 6 months when lycopene was not administered, an increase in the mean values of all the parameters was observed; however, these values were still below baseline values. Conclusion: There was a reduction in oxidative stress and improvement in clinical parameters following systemic antioxidant therapy along with SRP, which was maintained up to 4 months after discontinuation of lycopene treatment. PMID:28250683

  16. Assessment of oral self-care in patients with periodontitis: a pilot study in a dental school clinic in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Momomi; Ueshima, Fumie; Matsumoto, Shinya; Hayakawa, Hiroki; Masuda, Hitomi; Makiishi, Takemi

    2009-01-01

    Background Oral hygiene education is central to every stage of periodontal treatment. Successful management of periodontal disease depends on the patient's capacity for oral self-care. In the present study, the oral self-care and perceptions of patients attending a dental school clinic in Japan were assessed using a short questionnaire referring to existing oral health models. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used. The study population consisted of sixty-five patients (age range 23-77) with chronic periodontitis. The pre-tested 19-item questionnaire comprised 3 domains; 1) oral hygiene, 2) dietary habits and 3) perception of oral condition. The questionnaire was used as a part of the comprehensive assessment. Results Analyses of the assessment data revealed no major problems with the respondents' perceived oral hygiene habits, although their actual plaque control levels were not entirely adequate. Most of the respondents acknowledged the importance of prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases, but less than one third of them were regular users of the dental care system. Twenty-five percent of the respondents were considered to be reluctant to change their daily routines, and 29% had doubts about the impact of their own actions on oral health. Analyzing the relationships between patient responses and oral hygiene status, factors like 'frequency of tooth brushing', 'approximal cleaning', 'dental check-up' and 'compliance with self-care advice' showed statistically significant associations (P < 0.05) with the plaque scores. Conclusion The clinical utilization of the present questionnaire facilitates the inclusion of multiple aspects of patient information, before initiation of periodontal treatment. The significant associations that were found between some of the self-care behaviors and oral hygiene levels document the important role of patient-centered oral health assessment in periodontal care. PMID:19874626

  17. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in patients with localized juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Anil, S; Hari, S; Remani, P; Vijayakumar, T; Ankathil, R

    1990-03-01

    Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed in 21 patients with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP), and in an equal number of control subjects. The cell-mediated immunity, assessed by enumeration of total rosette forming cells [TRFC] and high affinity rosette forming cells [HARFC], was found to be depressed in LJP patients compared to controls. Estimation of serum immunoglobulins G,A,M,D and E levels were done using single radial immunodiffusion. All the immunoglobulins except IgD were found to be elevated significantly in LJP patients. The defective immune response found in LJP patients may be the cause or effect of the disease process. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether these defects are genetically controlled.

  18. Juvenile Hyaline Fibromatosis: Impact of Periodontal Care on Quality of Life and a Patient Perspective.

    PubMed

    Yonel, Zehra; Parma, Sabrina; Chapple, Iain L C

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited condition presenting early in life and characterized by the accumulation of hyaline-like tissue in the skin as well as various organs. Gingival overgrowth is a significant oral manifestation. This paper highlights how early and essential periodontal intervention may be necessary to improve mastication and subsequent weight gain, and to eliminate pain and improve the patient's quality of life. Here we highlight the key features of this condition and demonstrate how appropriate surgical management can have a significant impact on a patient's wellbeing. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis has a significant impact on patient wellbeing and it is therefore important that clinicians are able to recognize the condition and ensure that patients receive appropriate care and management.

  19. Exploring salivary microbiota in AIDS patients with different periodontal statuses using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; He, Shenghua; Jin, Jieqi; Dong, Guangyan; Wu, Hongkun

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at high risk of opportunistic infections. Oral manifestations have been associated with the level of immunosuppression, these include periodontal diseases, and understanding the microbial populations in the oral cavity is crucial for clinical management. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary bacterial diversity in patients newly admitted to the AIDS ward of the Public Health Clinical Center (China). Saliva samples were collected from 15 patients with AIDS who were randomly recruited between December 2013 and March 2014. Extracted DNA was used as template to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA. Sequencing of the amplicon library was performed using a 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing platform. Reads were optimized and clustered into operational taxonomic units for further analysis. A total of 10 bacterial phyla (106 genera) were detected. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were preponderant in the salivary microbiota in AIDS patients. The pathogen, Capnocytophaga sp., and others not considered pathogenic such as Neisseria elongata, Streptococcus mitis, and Mycoplasma salivarium but which may be opportunistic infective agents were detected. Dialister pneumosintes, Eubacterium infirmum, Rothia mucilaginosa, and Treponema parvum were preponderant in AIDS patients with periodontitis. Patients with necrotic periodontitis had a distinct salivary bacterial profile from those with chronic periodontitis. This is the first study using advanced sequencing techniques focused on hospitalized AIDS patients showing the diversity of their salivary microbiota. PMID:26191508

  20. Reaction of Human Sera from Juvenile Periodontitis, Rapidly Progressive Periodontitis, and Adult Periodontitis Patients with Selected Periodontopathogens,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-13

    Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Y-4) serving as antigens. Increased i ii ~. DD I 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 6 , IS OBSOLETE...Bacteroides ging1valis, Capnocytophaga (Bacteroides) ochraceus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Y-4) serving as...thio-dependent collagenolytic activity has been identified in the culture filtrate of B. gingivalis. 3’ Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) has

  1. Cytokine Profile in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and without Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Abu Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim; Vohra, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cytokine profile as biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with and without obesity, MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and SCOPUS databases were combined with handsearching of articles published from 1977 up to May 2016 using relevant MeSH terms. Meta-analyses were conducted separately for each of the cytokines: resistin, adiponectin, TNF-α, leptin, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β. Forest plots were produced reporting standardized mean difference of outcomes and 95% confidence intervals. Eleven studies were included. Three studies showed comparable levels of leptin among obese and nonobese patients with CP. Four studies reported comparable levels of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and resistin whereas five studies reported comparable levels of adiponectin. Two studies reported similar levels of CRP in patients with periodontitis with and without obesity. One study showed higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese patients with CP. One study showed higher levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in obese patients with CP. The level of localized periodontal inflammation may have a greater influence on the GCF proinflammatory biomarker levels as compared to systemic obesity. Whether patients having chronic periodontitis with obesity have elevated proinflammatory GCF biomarkers levels compared to nonobese individuals remains debatable. PMID:27795608

  2. Composite resin restorations of non-carious cervical lesions in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Carlos A; Nassar, Patrícia O; Secundes, Mayron B; Busato, Priscilla do Monte Ribeiro; Camilotti, Veridiana

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a set of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion by the pancreas and/or impaired insulin action in target tissues. Oral health maintenance through health care, as well as metabolic control are important measures for the overall health of diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between biocompatibility of composite resin restorations with different nanoparticles, polishing in abfraction lesions in anterior and posterior teeth with periodontal tissues in patients with diabetes mellitus. We selected 20 patients--10 patients with diabetes mellitus and 10 patients without diabetes mellitus-, but with a total of 30 restorations in each group receiving composite resin restorations, who were evaluated for periodontal purposes: Plaque Index, Gingival Index; Probing Depth, Clinical Attachment Level and Bleeding on Probing. In addition, the restorations will receive assessments according to criteria for Marginal Adaptation, Anatomical Shape, Marginal Discoloration, ormation of caries, Post-operative Sensitivity and Retention. The total period was 90 days. The results showed a significant improvement in periodontal parameters assessed (p < 0.05) in both groups. With regard to assessments of the restorations, it was observed that there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) among all criteria evaluated within the 90-day period. Thus, we conclude that in a short period (90 days) there is clinical biocompatibility of composite resin with nanoparticles restorations in abfraction lesions and periodontal tissues of patients with diabetes mellitus, regardless the type of polish these restorations receive.

  3. Production of immunoglobulins in gingival tissue explant cultures from juvenile periodontitis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.R.; Falkler, W.A. Jr.; Suzuki, J.B. )

    1990-10-01

    B lymphocytes and plasma cells are histologically observed in granulomatous periodontal tissues of juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Local immune processes may participate in protective or immunopathologic roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. An in vitro explant culture system was utilized to demonstrate the production of immunoglobulins by diseased JP tissues. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma, alpha, or mu chain serum revealed IgG to be the major immunoglobulin present in 92% of the day 1 supernatant fluids (SF) of the 47 JP gingival tissue explant cultures. IgA was present in 15% of the SF; however, no IgM was detected. Staph Protein A isolated 14C-labeled IgG from the SF, when allowed to react with goat anti-human gamma chain serum, formed lines of precipitation. Positive autoradiographs confirmed the biosynthesis of IgG by the explant cultures. The in vitro gingival tissue explant culture system described provides a useful model for the study of localized immunoglobulins produced by diseased tissues of JP patients.

  4. Immunoglobulin G subclass response of localized juvenile periodontitis patients to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M E; Hamilton, R G

    1992-01-01

    Sera from patients with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) often contain markedly elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers to serospecific determinants of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. The objective of the present study was to define the subclass distribution of the IgG antibody response of LJP patients to this key cell envelope antigen. IgG subclass antibody responses to A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS were quantified in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with human IgG subclass-restricted monoclonal antibodies. Serum antibody concentrations were calculated by heterologous interpolation of a dose-response curve constructed by using human-mouse chimeric antibodies. Sixteen of 17 LJP serum samples tested contained significantly greater concentrations of IgG2 than IgG1 antibodies reactive toward A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS. Geometric mean antibody concentrations of IgG1 and IgG2 were 7.8 and 136.5 micrograms/ml, respectively, among LJP patients with elevated IgG titers to LPS (94% of whom were black). However, both IgG1 and IgG2 antibody concentrations were significantly greater than the corresponding values obtained from sera from LJP patients with low IgG titers to LPS. Among LJP patients with elevated IgG titers to A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS, serum IgG2 concentration and total IgG concentration were also significantly elevated compared with both low-titered LJP sera and sera from periodontally healthy race-matched controls. The results of this study indicate that the humoral response of a predominantly black population of LJP patients to A. actinomycetemcomitans includes the production of LPS-reactive IgG antibodies which are primarily of the IgG2 subclass. PMID:1563768

  5. Periodontal Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Small Text Medium Text Large Text Periodontal Diseases Periodontal diseases are disorders of the gums, or gingiva, and other tissues around the teeth. Periodontal diseases vary in severity, from the reversible, recurring mild ...

  6. Psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics on periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices in young adults.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Deborah; Katz, Ralph V; Bush, Anneke C; Farley, Victoria K; McGerr, Trevor J; Min, Hoon; Carbonella, Anthony M; Kayne, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether the self-perceived image of a young adult's anterior dental esthetics is linked with periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices. Two hundred subjects were assessed via a clinical examination, including intraoral photographs. The subjects were questioned about their demographics and oral hygiene practices and given the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) to measure their self-perceived variables related to dental esthetics. A high PIDAQ score indicates a negative image of one's own dental esthetics, while a low PIDAQ score indicates a positive outlook. A self-perceived negative psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics was detected in subjects with higher levels of dental caries and visible gingival inflammation in the anterior region of the mouth.

  7. The effect of systemic metronidazole after non-surgical treatment in moderate and advanced periodontitis in young adults.

    PubMed

    Söder, P O; Frithiof, L; Wikner, S; Wouters, F; Engström, P E; Rubin, B; Nedlich, U; Söder, B

    1990-05-01

    The effect of adjunctive systemic metronidazole was studied in patients with moderate and advanced periodontitis recalcitrant to comprehensive non-surgical treatment. The material originated from a randomly selected part of the population aged 31 to 40 years. After non-surgical treatment of 149 patients, 98 with persisting pathological pockets greater than or equal to 5 mm (52 men and 46 women) became the subjects for the study. Clinical parameters were registered and pocket contents subjected to laboratory analysis. The subjects were randomized into two groups according to a code list known only by the manufacturer and the statistician. The test group took three 400 mg metronidazole tablets daily for 1 week and the control group took placebo tablets. Reassessment 6 months later showed statistically significant clinical improvement, with a reduction in the number of sites greater than or equal to 5 mm in both test and control groups. Complete healing, with no pockets greater than or equal to 5 mm, was noted in 30% of the test group and 9% of the control group. The difference is statistically significant and shows the supplementary effect of adjunctive metronidazole in non-surgical treatment of moderate and advanced periodontitis.

  8. Immediate implants and immediate loading in periodontally compromised patients-a 3-year prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Alves, Celia Coutinho; Correia, Andre Ricardo; Neves, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    To avoid the necessity of a removable provisional prosthesis, and therefore preserve the patient's functional outcome, esthetics, and quality of life, a clinical protocol was developed to approach periodontally compromised patients presenting a full-arch irreversibly lost dentition: full-arch extraction and immediate replacement with a provisional acrylic resin implant-supported fixed partial denture (FPD). A total of 23 periodontally compromised patients (11 women, 12 men; 4 smokers, 4 controlled diabetics) were included in this study. Pretreatment casts were taken and vertical dimension of occlusion was determined. In most patients, 6 Straumann implants were distributed along the arch according to the surgical guide or bone availability, with the most distal ones in the maxilla slightly tilted so they could emerge more distally. A total of 168 implants (146 Straumann, 10 Nobel Biocare, 8 Biomet 3i, and 4 Lifecore) were placed (83 in the maxilla, 85 in the mandible). Of those in the maxilla, 74 were loaded immediately (implant stability quotient mentor [ISQm] > 70) and 9 placed with delayed loading (ISQm =/< 70). Of the 85 implants placed in the mandible, all were loaded immediately (ISQm > 70). If an FPD had not been fabricated already, impressions were taken during surgery to do so. The prosthesis was then adapted (cemented or screwed) to the 6 implants within the first 48 hours postsurgery. After 2 months, definitive impressions were taken, and a definitive porcelain-fused-to-metal implant-supported 12-element FPD was fabricated and cemented or screwed to all 6 implants. Of the 168 implants, 108 were immediate implants and 159 immediately loaded. Only 2 implants (1 in the mandible, 1 in the maxilla) did not osseointegrate. This yields a 3-year cumulative survival rate of 98.74% (98.65% in the maxilla, 98.82% in the mandible). From a total of 26 immediately loaded prostheses (12 in the maxilla, 14 in the mandible), 6 were cemented and 20 screw-retained. The 3

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Clinical Isolates of Tannerella forsythia Isolated from Subgingival Plaque from Periodontitis Patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Graham P; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Haraszthy, Violet; Friedrich, Valentin; Schäffer, Christina; Ruscitto, Angela; Honma, Kiyonobu; Sharma, Ashu

    2016-12-01

    We report the genome sequences of three clinical isolates of Tannerella forsythia from the subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients attending clinics at the School of Dental Medicine, University at Buffalo. The availability of these genome sequences will aid the understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Clinical Isolates of Tannerella forsythia Isolated from Subgingival Plaque from Periodontitis Patients in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Graham P.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Haraszthy, Violet; Friedrich, Valentin; Schäffer, Christina; Ruscitto, Angela; Honma, Kiyonobu

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of three clinical isolates of Tannerella forsythia from the subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients attending clinics at the School of Dental Medicine, University at Buffalo. The availability of these genome sequences will aid the understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontitis. PMID:27908987

  11. Periodontal disease progression in type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients (NIDDM). Part I--Probing pocket depth and clinical attachment.

    PubMed

    Novaes, A B; Gutierrez, F G; Novaes, A B

    1996-01-01

    Periodontal disease progression of 30 type II diabetic patients (NIDDM) and 30 patients in whom diabetes was not detected was evaluated. Age ranged from 30 to 77 years. To determine the periodontal condition, probing pocket depth and periodontal attachment loss were measured; to determine the metabolic control of the patients, glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting glucose were measured. At the end of the study, the diabetic group was divided into three subgroups, according to the metabolic state of the patients: controlled patients, moderately controlled patients, and poorly controlled patients. Comparing the diabetic and the control groups as a whole, there was no statistically significant difference in probing pocket depth, but significance (P < 0.01) was observed for attachment loss. When diabetic patients were divided into subgroups, significant differences were observed between the poorly controlled and the control groups (P < 0.01) for both the probing pocket depth and periodontal attachment. The glycosylated hemoglobin test was more reliable than the fasting glucose analysis.

  12. [The effects of grape seed and coriander oil on biochemical parameters of oral fluid in patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Nikolaishvili, M; Gogua, M; Franchuki, Q; Tufinashvili, T; Zurabashvili, D

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical changes that are taking place in patients with periodontitis 1 and 2 the quality of the individuals place in a laqtatdegidrogenazis, alkaline phosphatase activity increase and reduced activity amilazais. Therefore we can conclude that, there is an increase in superoxide substances, which causes an increase in the oral cavity patobakteriebis and quality of periodontitis. The grape seed and coriander oil is of vegetable origin and antioxidant drugs. Their action causes a statistically significant increase in the amilazis, alkaline phosphatase and laqtatdegidrogenazis reduction, while the latter leads pH - rate of return to oral fluid. It should be noted that the positive effect of coriander oil, but less effective.

  13. Videoscope-Assisted Minimally Invasive Periodontal Surgery: One-Year Outcome and Patient Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Harrel, Stephen K; Abraham, Celeste M; Rivera-Hidalgo, Francisco; Shulman, Jay D; Nunn, Martha E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the 1-year clinical outcomes from videoscope-assisted minimally invasive surgery (V-MIS). A sample of 18 patients having sites with residual pocket probing depth (PPD) of at least 5 mm and 2 mm loss in clinical attachment level (CAL) following initial nonsurgical therapy were treated with V-MIS. At 12 months postsurgery, there was a statistically significant improvement (P < .001) in mean PPD (4.11 ± 0.98 mm) and CAL (4.58 ± 1.19 mm) in all surgical sites. A mean improvement in soft tissue height (0.48 ± 0.65 mm, P = .006) was also observed. In most cases, patients reported no postoperative discomfort. The improvements associated with V-MIS appear to be favorable when compared with previously reported results of periodontal regenerative surgery. The lack of postsurgical recession following V-MIS has not been reported with traditional regenerative surgery.

  14. Inverse Association of Plasma IgG Antibody to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and High C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Thanakun, Supanee; Pornprasertsuk-Damrongsri, Suchaya; Gokyu, Misa; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The association between clinically diagnosed periodontitis, a common chronic oral infection, and metabolic syndrome has been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma IgG levels against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, C-reactive protein, and periodontal status with metabolic syndrome. Plasma IgG levels and C-reactive protein were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and salivary levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Among 127 individuals aged 35-76 years, 57 participants had metabolic syndrome and severe periodontitis, 25 had metabolic syndrome and an absence of severe periodontitis, 17 healthy individuals had severe periodontitis, and 28 healthy individuals were without severe periodontitis. Patients with metabolic syndrome had reduced humoral immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.008), regardless of their salivary levels or periodontitis status compared with healthy participants. The IgG antibody response to P. gingivalis, regardless of their salivary levels or participants' health condition, was significantly higher in severe periodontitis patients (p<0.001). Plasma IgG titers for P. intermedia were inconsistent among metabolic syndrome or periodontal participants. Our results indicate that the presence of lower levels of IgG antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 0.1; 95%CI 0.0-0.7), but not P. gingivalis, a severe periodontitis status (OR = 7.8; 95%CI 1.1-57.0), high C-reactive protein levels (OR = 9.4; 95%CI 1.0-88.2) and body mass index (OR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.7-5.2), are associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. The role of the decreased IgG antibody response to A. actinomycetemcomitans, increased C-reactive protein levels on the association between periodontal disease and metabolic syndrome in a group of Thai patients is suggested.

  15. Estimation of prevalence of periodontal disease and oral lesions and their relation to CD4 counts in HIV seropositive patients on antiretroviral therapy regimen reporting at District General Hospital, Raichur

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Jagganatha Rao; Rao, Tuthipat Ramachandra Gururaja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a condition in which the body becomes susceptible to a host of opportunistic infections. This syndrome is a culmination of infection with a lenti virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particularly HIV 1. A cross section of the population including adults and children are affected by HIV infection with estimate of 36.1 million affected by the end of 2014. HIV infection affects the T lymphocytes especially cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count reducing it drastically jeopardizing the acquired immunity. The advent of Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) has proved as a ray of hope, at least reducing the misery and suffering although not permanently. This study attempts to understand the prevalence of periodontal disease and other oral lesions, further examining their relationship with CD4 counts in the HIV seropositive patients on ART. Materials and Methods: A total of 72 HIV positive patients on ART reporting at ART centre at Raichur District hospital were screened in the study for periodontal status, oral manifestations. The latest CD4 count values were obtained from the hospital records. Results: The study showed a 36.11% of prevalence of periodontal disease; however no statistically significant association was seen with its relation to CD4 counts. Other oral manifestations were seen in 46% of patients with a high prevalence of Oral Candidiasis lesions and a positive association with CD 4 counts was seen. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study no significant association was seen between CD4 counts and prevalence of periodontal disease however candiasis showed a stronger association. As HIV infection gradually becomes a chronic disease the features and course of chronic periodontal disease and other oral manifestations in HIV infected patients require more careful and extensive investigation. PMID:26392694

  16. Comparison of Frequency and Duration of Periodontal Disease With Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients With and Without Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Groves, Daniel W; Krantz, Mori J; Hokanson, John E; Johnson, Lonnie R; Eckel, Robert H; Kinney, Gregory L; Rewers, Marian; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Alman, Amy C

    2015-09-15

    People with type 1 diabetes mellitus manifest a greater burden of both periodontal disease and coronary artery disease (CAD); however, little is known about their interrelation. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) measures subclinical atherosclerosis and predicts major adverse coronary events. The relation between periodontal disease and CAC progression in individuals with type 1 diabetes has not been previously described. We determined the prevalence and progression of CAC in relation to self-reported periodontal disease. Multivariate logistic and tobit regression models were used to examine the relation between periodontal disease duration and CAC progression and whether this relation differs by diabetes status after controlling for age, gender, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, and baseline CAC. A total of 473 patients with type 1 diabetes and 548 without diabetes were followed for a mean of 6.1 years. At baseline, the prevalence and duration of periodontal disease did not differ between subjects with and without diabetes (14.5% vs 13.4%, p = 0.60; 6 vs 9 years, p = 0.18). Duration of periodontal disease was not significantly associated with baseline CAC prevalence. In patients with type 1 diabetes, periodontal disease duration was significantly related to CAC progression (p = 0.004) but not in subjects without diabetes (p = 0.63). In conclusion, this study suggests that periodontal disease is an independent predictor of long-term progression of CAC in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  17. Low Bone Mass Is a Risk Factor in Periodontal Disease-Related Tooth Loss in Patients with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Numoto, Yoko; Mori, Takayuki; Maeda, Shigeru; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Egusa, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    Teeth are fundamental to maintaining good quality of life, but are often lost prematurely in individuals with intellectual disability. Furthermore, since bone mass decreases in menopausal women, women with intellectual disability have an augmented risk of losing their teeth. However, the relationship between periodontal disease-related tooth loss and bone mass has never been studied specifically in patients with intellectual disability. This study evaluated this relationship in a retrospective cohort study. Participants were female dental patients aged between 20 and 50 years and with an intellectual disability, who were treated in the Special Needs Dentistry unit of the Okayama University Hospital from January 2009 to March 2010. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze which factors affect periodontal disease-related tooth loss. Information relating to 12 predictor variables, including age and bone mass level, was derived from medical records. The 27 subjects had a total of 704 teeth at the time of initial examination, but 20 teeth (2.8%) had been lost owing to periodontal disease by the time bone mass measurements were recorded. Results of the multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated a significant odds ratio for three items: number of missing teeth at the time of initial examination, bone mass, and living environment. This result suggests that low bone mass is an independent risk factor in tooth loss secondary to periodontal disease in patients with intellectual disability. Dentists should thus take account of this heightened risk of tooth loss when caring for post-menopausal women with intellectual disability. PMID:24358063

  18. Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth Index and Periodontal Health in Osteoporotic Patients Affected by BRONJ: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Oteri, Giacomo; Nigrone, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the incidence of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and periodontal disease in 32 osteoporotic patients affected by bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Moreover, an investigation between the obtained data and 20 patients treated with bisphosphonate drugs and with no evidence of ONJ has been performed. Osteonecrosis of the jaws is a rare complication in a subset of patients receiving bisphosphonate drugs. Based on a growing number of case reports and institutional reviews, this kind of therapy can cause exposed and necrotic bone specifically in the jawbones. From April 2009 to June 2012, 32 osteoporotic patients treated with oral or intravenous (I.V.) bisphosphonates have been recorded. The patients' oral health has been compared with 20 bisphosphonates patients with no ONJ. The incidence of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and periodontal disease was recorded in all patients and student's t-test was applied for comparing the two investigated groups data. Data demonstrated how the poor dental hygiene and periodontal disease of the BRONJ patients' are connected with the occurrence of jawbone necrosis. PMID:24455411

  19. Periodontal therapy for severe chronic periodontitis with periodontal regeneration and different types of prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Kinumatsu, Takashi; Umehara, Kazuhiro; Nagano, Kyosuke; Saito, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with severe chronic periodontitis requiring regenerative periodontal surgery and different types of prosthesis in the maxillary and mandibular regions. The patient was a 57-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of occlusal pain. An initial clinical examination revealed that 73% of sites had a probing depth of ≥4 mm, and 60% of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing. Radiographic examination revealed vertical bone defects in the molar region and widening of the periodontal ligament space around teeth #17 and 24. Initial periodontal therapy was implemented based on a clinical diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis. Surgical periodontal therapy was subsequently performed at selected sites. Periodontal regenerative therapy using enamel matrix derivative was performed on #14, 15, and 35-37. Tunnel preparation was performed on #46 as it had a 2-wall vertical bony defect and Degree 3 furcation involvement. Other sites with residual periodontal pockets were treated by modified Widman flap surgery. After a re-evaluation, functional rehabilitation was implemented with a removable maxillary partial denture and a fixed mandibular bridge. No further deterioration was observed in the periodontal condition of most of the teeth during a 2-year period of supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). The patient is currently still undergoing SPT and some minor problems remain. However, the results suggest that treatment and subsequent maintenance for severe periodontitis with traumatic occlusion can be successful as long as the appropriate periodontal and prosthodontic treatment is planned and careful SPT carried out.

  20. Systematic review and assessment of systematic reviews examining the effect of periodontal treatment on glycemic control in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Shinya; Suzuki, Daigo; Kawano, Eisuke; Sato, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Objetives There have been several systematic reviews(SRs) on whether periodontal treatment for an individual with both periodontal disease and diabetes can improve diabetes outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a systematic review (SR) of previous meta-analyses, and to assess the methodological quality of the SRs examining the effects of periodontal treatment and diabetes. (PROSPERO Registration # CRD 42015023470). Study Design We searched five electronic databases and identified previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials published through July 2015. In cases where the meta-analysis did not meet our criteria, the meta-analyses were recalculated. General characteristics of each included trial were abstracted, analyzed, and compared. The mean difference, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the I2 statistic were abstracted or recalculated. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews Instrument (AMSTAR) was used to assess methodological quality. Results Of the 475 citations screened, nine systematic reviews were included. In total, 13 meta-analyses included in nine SRs were examined. In comparability analyses, meta-analyses in four SRs did not meet our criteria, and were recalcuated. Of these 13 meta-analyses, 10 suggested significant effects of periodontal treatment on HbA1c improvement. Mean differences found in the 13 meta-analyses ranged from -0.93 to 0.13. AMSTAR assessment revealed six SRs with moderate and three with high overall quality. Conclusions We can conclude that there is a significant effect of periodontal treatment on improvement of HbA1c in diabetes patients, although the effect size is extremely small. In addition to the small effect size, not all SRs could be considered of high quality. Key words:Periodontal treatment, diabetes, HbA1c, systematic review, systematic review of systematic reviews, evidence-based medicine, AMSTAR. PMID:28160589

  1. The effect of health beliefs on the compliance of periodontal patients with oral hygiene instructions.

    PubMed

    Kühner, M K; Raetzke, P B

    1989-01-01

    Problems of patient compliance in periodontics are evident. This study explored factors which may contribute to the degree of adherence. Using the "Health Belief Model" a questionnaire was constructed and administered to 120 patients of the Department of Periodontology, University of Frankfurt Dental School. Compliance of these patients during the hygienic phase was assessed using a bleeding index. The data set for statistical evaluation comprised 96 patients. The loss was due to missing of appointments and incomplete questionnaires. There was no significant correlation between patient compliance on the one hand and sociodemographic variables (age, sex, family status), disease parameters, and the health beliefs "susceptibility," "barriers," "dentist-patient-relationship," and "experience with therapy" on the other hand. "Motivation," "seriousness," "benefits," "experience with affected organ," and tooth-loss-index were significant predictors with Spearman correlation coefficients running from 0.17 to 0.32. When the predictor variables were combined the coefficient was 0.59. This study further supports the assumption that health beliefs play a significant role in the determination of health related behavior.

  2. Efficacy of curcumin as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in chronic periodontitis patients: A clinical and microbiological study

    PubMed Central

    Nagasri, M.; Madhulatha, M.; Musalaiah, S. V. V. S.; Kumar, P. Aravind; Krishna, C. H. Murali; Kumar, P. Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Curcumin is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent with various biologic and medicinal properties. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, but only few studies have evaluated the efficacy of curcumin as local drug delivery agent and in the treatment of periodontitis. The present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the adjunctive use of curcumin with scaling/root planing as compared with scaling/root planing alone in the treatment of the chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with two sites in the contralateral quadrants having probing pocket depths (PPDs) of ≥5 mm were selected. Full mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed followed by application of curcumin gel on a single side. Assessment of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), PPD, and clinical attachment levels (CALs) were done at baseline and at 4th week. Microbiologic assessment with polymerase chain reaction was done for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tanerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola by collection of plaque samples. Results: The results revealed that there was a reduction in PI, GI, probing depth, CAL, and microbiologic parameters in test sites following SRP and curcumin gel application, when compared with SRP alone in control group. Conclusion: The local application of curcumin in conjunction with scaling and root planing have showed improvement in periodontal parameters and has a beneficial effect in patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:26538916

  3. PDT in non-surgical treatment of periodontitis in kidney transplanted patients: a split-mouth, randomized clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, Kelly C. T.; Giovani, Elcio M.

    2016-03-01

    This study was to evaluate clinical and microbiological effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of periodontal disease in kidney-transplanted patients. Eight kidney transplanted patients treated at Paulista University were arranged in two groups: SRP performed scaling and root planning by ultrasound; SRP+PDT- in the same patient, which was held to PDT in the opposite quadrant, with 0.01% methylene blue and red laser gallium aluminum arsenide, wavelength 660 nm, power 100 mW. There was reduction in probing pocket depth after 45 days and 3 months regardless the group examined; plaque and bleeding index showed improvement over time, regardless the technique used, and bleeding index in the SRP+PDT group was lower when compared with the baseline the other times. There was no difference in the frequency of pathogens. Photodynamic therapy may be an option for treatment of periodontal disease in renal-transplanted patients and its effectiveness is similar to conventional therapy.

  4. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A.; Zugck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  5. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Adverse Respiratory Events in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of periodontal diseases has been associated with benefit outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no population-based cohort study has been conducted. We evaluated this relationship by retrospective cohort study using a large population data.Using the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 5562 COPD patients with periodontal diseases who had received periodontal treatment as the treatment group. The comparison group was selected at a 1:1 ratio matched by the propensity score estimated with age, sex, date of COPD diagnosis and periodontal treatment, and comorbidities. Both groups were followed up for 5 years to compare risks of acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure.The incidence rates of adverse respiratory events were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the comparison group: 3.79 versus 4.21 per 100 person-years for emergency room visits, 2.75 versus 3.65 per 100 person-years for hospitalizations, and 0.66 versus 0.75 per 100 person-years for intensive care unit admissions. The treatment group also had a 37% reduced risk of deaths (1.81 vs 2.87 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.62).Periodontal treatment for COPD patients could reduce the risk of adverse respiratory events and mortality. The adequate periodontal health care is important for COPD patients with periodontal diseases.

  6. Integrins in periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Larjava, Hannu; Koivisto, Leeni; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari

    2014-07-15

    Cell surface integrin receptors mediate cell adhesion, migration and cellular signaling in all nucleated cells. They are activated by binding to extracellular ligands or by intracellular proteins, such as kindlins that engage with their cytoplasmic tails. Cells in the periodontal tissues express several integrins with overlapping ligand-binding capabilities. A distinct phenotype in the periodontium has only been described for knockouts or mutations of three integrin subunits, α11, β6 and β2. Integrin α11β1 appears to have some regulatory function in the periodontal ligament of continuously erupting incisors in mice. Integrin αvβ6 is expressed in the junctional epithelium (JE) of the gingiva. Animals deficient in this receptor develop classical signs of periodontal disease, including inflammation, apical migration of the JE and bone loss, suggesting that it plays a role in the regulation of periodontal inflmmation, likely through activation of transforming growth factor-β1. Lack of integrin activation in the JE is also associated with periodontitis. Patients with kindlin-1 mutations have severe early-onset periodontal disease. Finally, patients with mutations in the leukocyte-specific β2 integrin subunit have severe periodontal problems due to lack of transiting neutrophils in the periodontal tissues.

  7. Periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ivanovski, S

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the tissues destroyed as a result of periodontal disease. Currently, two clinical techniques, based on the principles of "guided tissue regeneration" (GTR) or utilization of the biologically active agent "enamel matrix derivative" (EMD), can be used for the regeneration of intrabony and Class II mandibular furcation periodontal defects. In cases where additional support and space-making requirements are necessary, both of these procedures can be combined with a bone replacement graft. There is no evidence that the combined use of GTR and EMD results in superior clinical results compared to the use of each material in isolation. Great variability in clinical outcomes has been reported in relation to the use of both EMD and GTR, and these procedures can be generally considered to be unpredictable. Careful case selection and treatment planning, including consideration of patient, tooth, site and surgical factors, is required in order to optimize the outcomes of treatment. There are limited data available for the clinical effectiveness of other biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and platelet concentrates, and although promising results have been reported, further clinical trials are required in order to confirm their effectiveness. Current active areas of research are centred on tissue engineering and gene therapy strategies which may result in more predictable regenerative outcomes in the future.

  8. Granulocyte elastase activity and PGE2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in relation to the presence of subgingival periodontopathogens in subjects with untreated adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, L J; Söder, P O; Leung, W K; Corbet, E F; Samaranayake, L P; Söder, B; Davies, W I

    1999-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between the levels of granulocyte elastase and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in GCE and the concomitant presence of periodontopathogens in untreated adult periodontitis (AP). GCF and subgingival plaque were sampled by paper strips and paper points respectively, from various periodontal sites in 16 AP subjects. Granulocyte elastase activity in GCF was analyzed with a low molecular weight substrate specific for granulocyte elastase, pGluProVal-pNA, and the maximal rate of elastase activity (MR-EA, mAbs/min/site) was calculated. PGE2 levels in GCF were determined by radioimmunoassay. 5 species-specific DNA probes were used to detect the presence of A. actinomyceterncomitans (A.a., ATCC 43718), B. forsythus (B.f, ATCC 43037), P. gingivalis (P.g., ATCC 33277), P. intermedia (P.i., ATCC 33563), and T. denticola (T.d., ATCC 35405), with a sensitivity of 10(3) cells/paper point. No A.a. was detectable from all sites sampled. The predominant combination of species detected was B.f., P.g., P.i. & T.d. and it was significantly higher at periodontitis sites (68%) than at healthy (7%) or gingivitis sites (29%) (p<0.05). Overall, MR-EA values were strongly correlated with PGE2 levels (r=0.655, p<0.001), especially at these periodontitis sites co-infected by B.f., P.g., P.i. & T.d. (r=0.722, p<0.001). The periodontitis sites co-infected by the 4 species were observable from 15 subjects. These sites were sub-grouped into 8 subjects with a high MR-EA and 7 subjects with a low MR-EA. The PGE2 levels in the high MR-EA group were significantly higher than in the low MR-EA group (p<0.05). No significant differences in clinical or bacterial data were found between the two groups. While within the high MR-EA group, similar results were found between the paired periodontitis sites in each subject with highest and lowest MR-EA values. This study shows that the local host response to bacterial challenge in untreated periodontal pockets is diverse in

  9. A modified orthodontic protocol for advanced periodontal disease in Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Murillo-Goizueta, Oscar Edwin Francisco

    2011-04-01

    An interdisciplinary approach is often the best option for achieving a predictable outcome for an adult patient with complex clinical problems. This case report demonstrates the combined periodontal/orthodontic treatment for a 49-year-old woman presenting with a Class II Division 1 malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, a 9-mm overjet, and moderate to severe bone loss as the main characteristics of the periodontal disease. The orthodontic treatment included 2 maxillary first premolar extractions through forced extrusion. Active orthodontic treatment was completed in 30 months. The treatment outcomes, including the periodontal condition, were stable 17 months after active orthodontic treatment. The advantages of this interdisciplinary approach are discussed. Periodontally compromised orthodontic patients can be satisfactorily treated, achieving most of the conventional orthodontic goals, if a combined orthodontic/periodontic approach is used.

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of Serum Magnesium in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Patients with and without Periodontitis - A Clinico-biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhandary, Rahul; Thomas, Biju; Ramesh, Amitha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Magnesium is an essential cation playing a crucial role in many physiological functions and its imbalance is associated with greater number of pathological situations. Oxidative stress is usually increased due to decreased essential nutrients. Hence, any imbalance of essential nutrients like serum magnesium can significantly play a role in the pathobiology of periodontitis in the presence of diabetes, as diabetes and chronic periodontitis are two chronic diseases that have been biologically linked. Aim To evaluate the association of serum magnesium in type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis patients, also to evaluate and associate the influence of serum magnesium on periodontal health. Materials and Methods A single blinded, randomized study was conducted that comprised of 120 subjects divided into four groups. Individuals with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus formed the test group. Subjects with chronic periodontitis diagnosed clinically according to 1999 American Academy of Periodontology classification, without any medical history and drug history were included as the study subjects. Gingival Index and Plaque Index were scored for all the groups at baseline and after 21 days of scaling and root planing. Scaling and root planing was done only in the test group. Blood was drawn from the patients at baseline and 21 days after scaling and root planning and estimation of serum magnesium level was done using semi-autoanalyzer. Data obtained was statistically analyzed using the paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, post-hoc test. Results The result of the present study showed that mean serum magnesium among healthy was 1.40±0.565mmol/l as compared to 1.01±0.287mmol/l among subjects with periodontitis, 0.920±0.23mmol/l among diabetics with periodontitis and 0.93±0.29mmol/l among diabetics without periodontitis. Serum magnesium was significantly decreased in chronic periodontitis and diabetic patients with and without chronic periodontitis

  11. Evaluation of TLR2 and 4 in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Arulpari; Parthasarathy, Harinath; Katamreddy, Vineela; Subbareddy, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is the major cause of adult tooth loss and is commonly characterized by a chronic inflammation caused by infection due to oral bacteria. Members of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) family recognize conserved microbial structures, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides and activate signalling pathways that result in immune responses against microbial infections. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the mRNA expression of Toll-Like Receptor 2 and 4 in tissues with or without chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue samples were collected from controls (30 subjects with healthy periodontal tissues) and experimental group (30 subjects with chronic periodontitis). Total RNA was extracted and RT-PCR was done for evaluation of TLR-2 and TLR-4. Mann Whitney U-test, Pearson Chi-square Test was used for statistics. Results The results showed that there is a significant (p-value= 0.004) association between TLR-4 and the experimental group comprising of chronic periodontitis patients in comparison to the insignificant (p-value= 0.085) TLR-2 expression. Conclusion This study concludes that TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressed in the gingival tissues recognize different bacterial cell wall components thus helping us to associate its potential in diagnosing periodontal disease. Hence, in the future, these scientific findings can pave the way in using TLR as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal disease. PMID:27504418

  12. Cystic fibrosis lung disease in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Vender, Robert L

    2008-04-01

    As the longevity of all patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) continues to increase (median 2005 survival=36.8 years), more adult patients will be receiving their medical care from nonpediatric adult-care providers. Cystic fibrosis remains a fatal disease, with more than 80% of patients dying after the age of 18 years, and most deaths resulting from pulmonary disease. The changing epidemiology requires adult-care providers to become knowledgeable and competent in the clinical management of adults with CF. Physicians must understand the influence of specific genotype on phenotypic disease presentation and severity, the pathogenic factors determining lung disease onset and progression, the impact of comorbid disease factors such as CF-related diabetes and malnutrition upon lung disease severity, and the currently approved or standard accepted therapies used for chronic management of CF lung disease. This knowledge is critical to help alleviate morbidity and improve mortality for the rapidly expanding population of adults with CF.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Periodontal Pathogens in the Oral Cavity and Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Patients: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Rivas Caldas, Rocio; Le Gall, Florence; Revert, Krista; Rault, Gilles; Virmaux, Michèle; Gouriou, Stephanie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Barbier, Georges; Boisramé, Sylvie

    2015-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent lethal genetic disease in the Caucasian population. Lung destruction is the principal cause of death by chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization. There is a high prevalence of oropharyngeal anaerobic bacteria in sputum of CF patients. This study was carried out due to the lack of results comparing subgingival periodontal pathogenic bacteria between the oral cavity and lungs in patients with CF in relation with P. aeruginosa presence. Our first goal was to detect P. aeruginosa in oral and sputum samples by culture and molecular methods and to determine clonality of isolates. In addition, subgingival periodontal anaerobic bacteria were searched for in sputum. A cross-sectional pilot case-control study was conducted in the CF Reference Center in Roscoff, France. Ten CF patients with a ΔF508 homozygous mutation (5 chronically colonized [CC] and 5 not colonized [NC]) were enrolled. P. aeruginosa was detected in saliva, sputum, and subgingival plaque samples by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Subsequently, periodontal bacteria were also detected and quantified in subgingival plaque and sputum samples by qPCR. In CC patients, P. aeruginosa was recovered in saliva and subgingival plaque samples. Sixteen P. aeruginosa strains were isolated in saliva and sputum from this group and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Subgingival periodontal anaerobic bacteria were found in sputum samples. A lower diversity of these species was recovered in the CC patients than in the NC patients. The presence of the same P. aeruginosa clonal types in saliva and sputum samples underlines that the oral cavity is a possible reservoir for lung infection.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Periodontal Pathogens in the Oral Cavity and Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Patients: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, Florence; Revert, Krista; Rault, Gilles; Virmaux, Michèle; Gouriou, Stephanie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Barbier, Georges; Boisramé, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent lethal genetic disease in the Caucasian population. Lung destruction is the principal cause of death by chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization. There is a high prevalence of oropharyngeal anaerobic bacteria in sputum of CF patients. This study was carried out due to the lack of results comparing subgingival periodontal pathogenic bacteria between the oral cavity and lungs in patients with CF in relation with P. aeruginosa presence. Our first goal was to detect P. aeruginosa in oral and sputum samples by culture and molecular methods and to determine clonality of isolates. In addition, subgingival periodontal anaerobic bacteria were searched for in sputum. A cross-sectional pilot case-control study was conducted in the CF Reference Center in Roscoff, France. Ten CF patients with a ΔF508 homozygous mutation (5 chronically colonized [CC] and 5 not colonized [NC]) were enrolled. P. aeruginosa was detected in saliva, sputum, and subgingival plaque samples by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Subsequently, periodontal bacteria were also detected and quantified in subgingival plaque and sputum samples by qPCR. In CC patients, P. aeruginosa was recovered in saliva and subgingival plaque samples. Sixteen P. aeruginosa strains were isolated in saliva and sputum from this group and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Subgingival periodontal anaerobic bacteria were found in sputum samples. A lower diversity of these species was recovered in the CC patients than in the NC patients. The presence of the same P. aeruginosa clonal types in saliva and sputum samples underlines that the oral cavity is a possible reservoir for lung infection. PMID:25854483

  15. Effect of Bisphosphonates on the Levels of Rankl and Opg in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Patients With Periodontal Disease and Post-menopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Verde, María E; Bermejo, Daniela; Gruppi, Adriana; Grenón, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    The Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/RANK/Osteoprotegerine (OPG) system has been proposed as essential for osteoclast biology and identified as key part in regulating the physiology and pathology of the skeletal system. The study of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system has increased the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the bone remodeling process, especially in postmenopausal osteoporosis and periodontal disease. Bisphosphonates have become the mainstay of the treatment and prevention of post-menopausal osteoporosis. They inhibit the formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate crystals in bone and also osteoclasts, thus reducing bone turnover.Current investigations relate osteoporosis with the appearance and progression of periodontal disease. Although the etiology of both is different, the bone loss present in both shares several characteristics. Thus, therapy used for osteoporosis can be considered of value in the treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of RANKL, OPG and their relationship in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with periodontal disease and postmenopausal osteoporosis/ osteopenia in relation to consumption of bisphosphonates. We studied 66 periodontal active sites obtained from 17 post- menopausal women patients aged between 45-70 years old with osteoporosis/osteopenia and periodontal disease. GCF samples were collected using sterile filter paper strips. To determine the concentration of RANKL and OPG, a commercial ELISA assay was used. The values of RANKL, OPG and their ratio (RANKL/ OPG) were compared with Mann-Whitney U Test. The values of RANKL, OPG and their ratio obtained in patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia and periodontal disease with or without bisphosphonates treatment showed no differences. Bisphosphonates do not alter the concentration of RANKL and OPG and their ratio in the GCF of patients with osteoporosis/ osteopenia and periodontal disease

  16. Differential diagnosis and treatment planning for the adult nonsurgical orthodontic patient.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R G; Sinclair, P M; Goates, L J

    1986-02-01

    Increasing numbers of adult patients are seeking orthodontic care and some, despite significant skeletal malocclusions, elect not to have combined orthodontic-surgical treatment. The purpose of this article is to outline some of the diagnostic and therapeutic principles that can be used in the adult nonsurgical orthodontic patient. The importance of realistic goal setting in the face of compromised occlusions is emphasized. Diagnosis should include evaluation of all three dimensions and recognize the limitations of therapy in each dimension for the nongrowing patient. Periodontal considerations, extraction decisions, and retention regimens are of vital importance to the achievement and maintenance of an optimum result. Clinical records will demonstrate four commonly seen problems and their resolution.

  17. Gene cloning of an Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 antigen which reacts with peripheral blood sera in patients with advanced destructive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, S; Hata, S; Ishikawa, I; Tsuchida, N

    1990-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been implicated in the aetiology of juvenile periodontitis and advanced destructive periodontitis. Levels of IgG antibody against A. actinomycetemcomitans in peripheral blood sera of patients with advanced destructive periodontitis are high, as are those against Bacteroides gingivalis. To clone the genes of antigens reactive with sera of such patients, a library of the A. actinomycetemcomitans strain Y4 DNA in lambda L47 was constructed and then screened, using an immunochemical detection method, with serum from a patient with the advanced disease. Six clones from among nearly 1000 reacted with the serum and also with that of another patient. They were designated 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Restriction enzyme and Southern blot analyses indicated that clones 8 and 9 were identical and that all the clones were overlapping because they shared in common the 4 and 5 kbp HincII DNA fragments of A. actinomycetemcomitans. The cloned DNA fragment hybridized to the DNA of two other strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans but not to those of six periodontopathic bacteria examined. These findings suggest that a DNA sequence encoding an A. actinomycetemcomitans strain Y4 antigen strongly reactive with sera of patients with advanced destructive periodontitis was cloned. This sequence is present specifically in A. actinomycetemcomitans but not in other bacteria isolated from patients with periodontal diseases. Thus, the cloned DNA could serve as a probe for the diagnosis of periodontitis.

  18. The secretome of periodontal ligament stem cells from MS patients protects against EAE

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Diomede, Francesca; Ballerini, Patrizia; Paolantonio, Michele; Marchisio, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of stem cells or stem cells-derived secretome has emerged as a novel alternative therapeutic option for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs)-derived conditioned medium (hPDLSCs-CM) and purified exosomes/microvesicles (hPDLSCs-EMVs) obtained from Relapsing Remitting (RR)-MS patients and healthy donors block experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by inducing anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in spinal cord and spleen, and reverse disease progression by restoring tissue integrity via remyelination in the spinal cord. We show that hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and induce anti-inflammatory IL-10. In addition, apoptosis related STAT1, p53, Caspase 3, and Bax expressions were attenuated. Our findings unravel the immunosuppressive effects of hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs in EAE mice, and suggest simple alternative autologous source for patient-customized cell-free targeting treatment in MS patients. PMID:27924938

  19. The secretome of periodontal ligament stem cells from MS patients protects against EAE.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Diomede, Francesca; Ballerini, Patrizia; Paolantonio, Michele; Marchisio, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana

    2016-12-07

    Manipulation of stem cells or stem cells-derived secretome has emerged as a novel alternative therapeutic option for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs)-derived conditioned medium (hPDLSCs-CM) and purified exosomes/microvesicles (hPDLSCs-EMVs) obtained from Relapsing Remitting (RR)-MS patients and healthy donors block experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by inducing anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in spinal cord and spleen, and reverse disease progression by restoring tissue integrity via remyelination in the spinal cord. We show that hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and induce anti-inflammatory IL-10. In addition, apoptosis related STAT1, p53, Caspase 3, and Bax expressions were attenuated. Our findings unravel the immunosuppressive effects of hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs in EAE mice, and suggest simple alternative autologous source for patient-customized cell-free targeting treatment in MS patients.

  20. Long-term effects of orthodontic treatment on periodontal health.

    PubMed

    Sadowsky, C; BeGole, E A

    1981-08-01

    The periodontal health of a group of ninety-six patients who had received comprehensive fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment during adolescence between 12 and 35 years previously was evaluated. Comparisons were made with a group of 103 adults who were similar with regard to race, sex, age, socioeconomic status, dental awareness, and oral hygiene status but had malocclusions that had not been orthodontically treated. There were no statistically significant differences in the general prevalence of periodontal disease between the two groups. However, more detailed analysis revealed that the orthodontic group had a greater prevalence of mild to moderate periodontal disease in the maxillary posterior and mandibular anterior regions of the mouth, as compared to the control group. The results suggested that orthodontic treatment in adolescence is not a major factor in determining the long-term periodontal health status. No significant amount of either damage or benefit to the periodontal structures could be directly attributed to orthodontic therapy. Conversely, the lack of orthodontic therapy in adolescence does not appear to influence subsequent development or nondevelopment of periodontal disease in adults.

  1. Effect of (1→3),(1→6)-β-glucan on in vitro production of cytokines by leukocytes of patients with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Akramas, Laimis; Akramienė, Dalia; Sakalauskienė, Jurgina; Kubilius, Ričardas; Gleiznys, Alvydas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of (1→3), (1→6)-β-glucan on the production of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in vitro by peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS. In total, 20 patients suffering from untreated severe chronic generalized periodontitis were enrolled in this study. Periodontitis was confirmed by clinical and radiologic examination. Besides, 20 periodontally healthy patients served as a control group. Peripheral venous blood was sampled from the patients, and isolated leukocytes were treated with (1→3),(1→6)-β-glucan from yeast at different concentrations. The levels of IL-10 and TNF-α secreted by the leukocytes unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli in vitro were determined by the enzyme amplified sensitivity immunoassay method. RESULTS. Our data showed that (1→3),(1→6)-β-glucan induced a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the TNF-α level and a significant increase (P<0.001) in the IL-10 level in the media of unstimulated and stimulated leukocytes of the patients with periodontitis in comparison with those of the healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS. The present in vitro study showed that (1→3),(1→6)-β-glucan modulated the response of leukocytes of the patients with periodontitis differently in comparison with those of the healthy subjects. It increased the release of IL-10, which is protective of the tooth-supporting tissues in patients with periodontal disease, but decreased the release of TNF-α, which is mainly responsible for the destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues during periodontal disease.

  2. Treatment of intrabony defects with anorganic bone matrix/p-15 or guided tissue regeneration in patients with aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Adriana C; Nóbrega, Priscila Brasil da; Oliveira, Fabíola S; Novaes, Arthur B; Taba, Mário; Palioto, Daniela B; Grisi, Márcio F M; Souza, Sergio L S

    2013-01-01

    Intrabony periodontal defects present a particular treatment problem, especially in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP). Regenerative procedures have been indicated for this clinical situation. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes of intrabony periodontal defects with either anorganic bone matrix/cell binding peptide (ABM/P-15) or guided tissue regeneration (GTR) in patients with G-AgP. Fifteen patients, with two intrabony defects ≥3 mm deep, were selected. Patients were randomly allocated to be treated with ABM/P-15 or GTR. At baseline and at 3 and 6 months after surgery, clinical and radiographic parameters and IL-1β and IL-6 gingival fluid concentrations were recorded. There was a significant probing pocket depth reduction (p<0.001) for both groups (2.27 ± 0.96 mm for ABM/P-15 group and 2.57 ± 1.06 mm for GTR group). Clinical attachment level gain (1.87 ± 0.94 mm for ABM/P-15 group and 2.09 ± 0.88 mm for GTR group) was also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical parameters between the groups. The radiographic bone fill was more expressive in ABM/P-15 group (2.49 mm) than in GTR group (0.73 mm). In subtraction radiographs, the areas representing gain in density were 93.16% of the baseline defect for ABM/P-15 group versus 62.03% in GRT group. There were no statistically significant differences in inter-group and intra-group comparisons with regards to IL-1β and IL-6 quantification. Treatment of intrabony periodontal defects in patients with G-AgP with ABM/P-15 and GTR improved significantly the clinical outcomes. The use of ABM/P-15 promoted a better radiographic bone fill.

  3. Critical Discussion of Essentials of Diagnosis and Recording in Periodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellen, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Issues to be addressed before writing standards of care for the diagnosis of adult periodontal disease are discussed. These include considerations in screening and examination; arriving at diagnosis and prognosis, informing the patient, and referral; monitoring outcomes using diagnostic signs and tests; and new technology for and approaches to…

  4. Impact of periodontal disease on quality of life: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M C; Dias-Pereira, A C; Branco-de-Almeida, L S; Martins, C C; Paiva, S M

    2017-02-08

    The diagnosis of periodontal disease is commonly based on objective evaluations of the patient's medical/dental history as well as clinical and radiographic examinations. However, periodontal disease should also be evaluated subjectively through measures that quantify its impact on oral health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of periodontal disease on quality of life among adolescents, adults and older adults. A systematic search of the literature was performed for scientific articles published up to July 2015 using electronic databases and a manual search. Two independent reviewers performed the selection of the studies, extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality. Thirty-four cross-sectional studies involving any age group, except children, and the use of questionnaires for the assessment of the impact of periodontal disease on quality of life were included. Twenty-five studies demonstrated that periodontal disease was associated with a negative impact on quality of life, with severe periodontitis exerting the most significant impact by compromising aspects related to function and esthetics. Unlike periodontitis, gingivitis was associated with pain as well as difficulties performing oral hygiene and wearing dentures. Gingivitis was also negatively correlated with comfort. The results indicate that periodontal disease may exert an impact on quality of life of individuals, with greater severity of the disease related to greater impact. Longitudinal studies with representative samples are needed to ensure validity of the findings.

  5. Diagnosis of Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nick, Jerry A; Nichols, David P

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is being made with increasing frequency in adults. Patients with CF diagnosed in adulthood typically present with respiratory complaints, and often have recurrent or chronic airway infection. At the time of initial presentation individuals may appear to have clinical manifestation limited to a single organ, but with subclinical involvement of the respiratory tract. Adult-diagnosed patients have a good response to CF center care, and newly available cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor-modulating therapies are promising for the treatment of residual function mutation, thus increasing the importance of the diagnosis in adults with unexplained bronchiectasis.

  6. Necrotising periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Fenoll, Ambrosio; Sánchez-Pérez, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    Necrotizing gingivitis (NG) or necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is considered to be an acute opportunistic gingival infection caused by bacterial plaque. It appears more frequently in undernurished children and young adults as well as patients with immunodeficiency. In its pathogenesis, there are factors related to the oral microbiota with invasion processes on the one hand, and on the other hand, factors associated with the host, such as signs of capillary and immunological disorders as well as undernurishment. The disease is characterized by pain, bleeding and papillary necrosis with tendency to relapse. Diagnosis is made by a simple clinical examination. However, complementary tests ought to be performed in order to eliminate the possibility of illnesses systemic or immunodeficiency. Early and sustained treatment is strongly recommended. Lesions of the gums (craters in the interdental papillae) as an aftermath of the disease is a possibility, or if there is necrotizing periodontitis there will be loss of attachment tissue.

  7. Systemic Antibiotics in Periodontal Treatment of Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Caroline Moura Martins Lobo; Lira-Junior, Ronaldo; Fischer, Ricardo Guimarães; Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Oliveira, Branca Heloisa

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of systemic antibiotics in combination with scaling and root planing (SRP) on periodontal parameters, tooth loss and oral health-related quality of life in diabetes patients. Materials and Methods Two independent reviewers screened for controlled clinical trials with at least 6-month follow-up in six electronic databases, registers of clinical trials, meeting abstracts and four major dental journals. After duplicates removal, electronic and hand searches yielded 1,878 records; 18 full-text articles were independently read by two reviewers. To evaluate the additional effect of antibiotic usage, pooled weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a fixed effects model. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria, four of which were included in meta-analyses. The meta-analyses showed a significant effect favouring SRP plus antibiotic for reductions in mean probing depth (PD) (-0.22 mm [-0.34, -0.11]) and mean percentage of bleeding on probing (BoP) (4% [-7, -1]). There was no significant effect for clinical attachment level gain and plaque index reduction. No study reported on tooth loss and oral health-related quality of life. Conclusion Adjunctive systemic antibiotic use in diabetic patients provides a small additional benefit in terms of reductions in mean PD and mean percentage of BoP. Registration PROSPERO: CRD42013006389. PMID:26693909

  8. A brief review on the periodontal health in metabolic syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, H; Yaylak, F; Gungor, Y

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (METs) and periodontal diseases are emerging worldwide community health problem. These common health problems may result with significant complications and increase community health expenses. METs is defined with the presence of hypertension, increased triglyceride levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, abdominal obesity and elevated fasting glucose levels. The term "periodontal diseases" defines pathological inflammatory conditions of the gingiva and supporting tooth structures. In this review, basic clinical features and associations between metabolic syndrome and periodontal diseases have been underlined. In addition, basic research topics have been noted.

  9. [Morphological study of periodontal tissues in the initial stage of periodontal disease. Part 2. Analysis of morphological measurement and status of periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Tawara, H; Yamaguchi, S; Lee, J H; Ishikawa, I; Masunaga, H; Nishibori, M; Hirota, Y; Matsue, M; Matsue, I

    1989-06-01

    The morphological characteristics of periodontal tissue in periodontal disease have been interpreted differently by a number of clinical observers. Many have reported that the malposition and functional malocclusion of teeth is injurious to the periodontium. We reported in Part I that a system for evaluating periodontal status was developed for the diagnosis and management of the interproximal area at the initial stage of bone resorption. The patient group consisted of 36 adults, from 21 to 55 years of age. The severity score represented the calculated loss of periodontal support tissues: loss of alveolar bone, evaluated roentgenologically, bone level and pattern in vertical and horizontal form, periodontal pocket and gingival inflammation. Because poor oral hygiene and other factors caused swelling by gingival inflammation, we obtained study specimens from patients with chronic periodontal disease after a few tooth brushing instructions, and scalings during initial therapy in order to detect initial and established pathological changes in periodontal tissue. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between periodontal disease status and morphological diagnostic indicators and different degrees of harmony and disharmony in the lower jaw. In all age groups the average percentage of bone loss and intraosseous defects tended to be higher in the groups categorized as Type III and Type F, and in the area that showed a very deep concave Spee curve to the occlusal plane in Pattern D. We considered that these morphological characteristics might be of secondary importance for diagnosis. Oral local factors were the primary extrinsic factor in the pathogenesis of horizontal and vertical interproximal bone absorption in the area of the premolars and molars.

  10. Comparative bacteriology of juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Palcanis, K G; Ranney, R R

    1985-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of the floras associated with juvenile periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and moderate periodontitis indicated that differences in the bacterial compositions of affected sites in these populations were not statistically significant. The subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was statistically significantly different from the adjacent supragingival flora and from the subgingival floras of people with healthy gingiva and of children with developing (experimental) gingivitis. However, the subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was not significantly different from the flora of sites with gingival index scores of 1 or 2 in adults with developing (experimental) gingivitis. Of 357 bacterial taxa among over 18,000 isolates, 54 non-treponemal species, 2 treponemal species, and mycoplasma were most associated with diseased periodontal sulci. These species comprised an increasing proportion of the flora during developing gingivitis and constituted over half of the cultivable flora of diseased sites. PMID:3988344

  11. Ascorbic acid: new role of an age-old micronutrient in the management of periodontal disease in older adults.

    PubMed

    Alagl, Adel S; Bhat, Subraya Giliyar

    2015-03-01

    To review the new role of an age-old micronutrient - ascorbic acid - in the management of periodontal disease. Articles pertaining to the topic were searched in PubMed and other search engines from year 1974 to April 2014 with the following key words: "ascorbic acid," "ascorbate," "vitamin C," "periodontal disease," "gingivitis," "periodontitis," "anti-oxidants" and "elderly." Balanced nutrition is an essential factor in the elderly. Modification of nutritional requirement is important to overcome the effect of an unbalanced diet in older individuals as a result of several external and internal host-associated factors. Micronutrient requirements as aging advances could change, and require due attention. Ascorbic acid and its relationship with periodontal disease are very well known. However, recent changes in the concept of understanding the pathogenicity has led to a new path of therapeutic intervention with ascorbic acid in many chronic diseases. Oxidative stress with its associated burden might alter the disease process. In the era of "periodontal medicine," the impact of remote tissue changes on systemic disease has to be taken into serious consideration. Deficiency of nutritional impact on the host, with micronutrient vitamin C detailed in this review with sources, absorption, interaction and its relationship with systemic disease, and thereby the impact on periodontal disease. Ascorbic acid plays an important role in the aging process, and in the maintenance of periodontal health in the elderly.

  12. The Use of Different Irrigation Techniques to Decrease Bacterial Loads in Healthy and Diabetic Patients with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Mai; Saber, Shehab ElDin; El-Badry, Tarek; Obeid, Maram; Hassib, Nehal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a multisystem disease which weakens the human’s immunity. Subsequently, it worsens the sequelae of apical periodontitis by raising a fierce bacterial trait due to the impaired host response. AIM: This study aimed to estimate bacterial reduction after using different irrigation techniques in systemically healthy and diabetic patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enterococcus faecalis, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Fusobacterium necleatum bacteria were chosen, as they are the most common and prevailing strains found in periodontitis. Bacterial samples were retrieved from necrotic root canals of systemically healthy and diabetic patients, before and after endodontic cleaning and shaping by using two different irrigation techniques; the conventional one and the EndoVac system. Quantitive polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilised to detect the reduction in the bacterial count. RESULTS: The EndoVac irrigation system was effective in reducing bacteria, especially Peptostreptococcus micros in the diabetic group when compared to conventional irrigation technique with a statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: The EndoVac can be considered as a promising tool in combination with irrigant solution to defeat the bacterial colonies living in the root canal system. Additional studies ought to be done to improve the means of bacterial clearance mainly in immune-compromised individuals. PMID:28028421

  13. Patient-specific Analysis of Periodontal and Peri-implant Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, S.M.; Tsigarida, A.A.; Kumar, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Periodontally involved teeth have been implicated as ‘microbial reservoirs’ in the etiology of peri-implant diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to use a deep-sequencing approach to identify the degree of congruence between adjacent peri-implant and periodontal microbiomes in states of health and disease. Subgingival and peri-implant biofilm samples were collected from 81 partially edentulous individuals with periodontal and peri-implant health and disease. Bacterial DNA was isolated, and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced by pyrotag sequencing. Chimera-depleted sequences were compared against a locally hosted curated database for bacterial identification. Statistical significance was determined by paired Student’s t tests between tooth-implant pairs. The 1.9 million sequences identified represented 523 species. Sixty percent of individuals shared less than 50% of all species between their periodontal and peri-implant biofilms, and 85% of individuals shared less than 8% of abundant species between tooth and implant. Additionally, the periodontal microbiome demonstrated significantly higher diversity than the implant, and distinct bacterial lineages were associated with health and disease in each ecosystem. Analysis of our data suggests that simple geographic proximity is not a sufficient determinant of colonization of topographically distinct niches, and that the peri-implant and periodontal microbiomes represent microbiologically distinct ecosystems. PMID:24158341

  14. Treatment of an Erratic Extraction Socket for Implant Therapy in a Patient with Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Srividya

    2016-01-01

    As implant therapy becomes more commonplace in daily practice, preservation and preparation of edentulous sites are key. Many times, however, implant therapy may not be considered at the time of tooth extraction and additional measures are not taken to conserve the edentulous site. While the healing process in extraction sockets has been well investigated and bone fill can be expected, there are cases where even when clinicians perform thorough debridement of the sockets, connective tissue infiltration into the socket can occur. This phenomenon, known as “erratic healing,” may be associated with factors that lead to peri-implant disease and should be appropriately managed and treated prior to surgical implant placement. This case report describes the successful management of an erratic healing extraction socket in a 62-year-old Caucasian male patient with chronic periodontitis and the outcomes of an evidence-based treatment protocol performed prior to implant therapy. Careful preoperative analysis and cone beam computed tomography imaging can help detect signs of impaired healing in future implant sites and prevent surgical complications. PMID:27807485

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of micafungin in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Gumbo, Tawanda; Hiemenz, John; Ma, Lei; Keirns, James J; Buell, Donald N; Drusano, George L

    2008-03-01

    We performed population pharmacokinetic analysis of micafungin in adult patients treated with doses between 12.5 and 200 mg/day. Our analysis identified a breakpoint patient weight of 66.3 kg above which serum clearance increased by approximately 50%. Patients with weight >66.3 kg may need larger doses to achieve similar exposures to those <66.3 kg. However, the clinical implications are still unknown.

  16. Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Nichols, C; Laster, L L; Bodak-Gyovai, L Z

    1978-02-01

    A sample of 54 patients with diabetes mellitus were subjects to detailed assessment of periodontal disease levels using standard indices. In order to determine whether the severity of periodontal disease was related to the severity of diabets mellitus, a series of parameters of the diabetes mellitus population was simultaneously studied. There were no significant relationships between the levels of periodontal disease and the duration of diabetes, the type of treatment and the frequency of systemic complications. Periodontal disease in the diabetic appeared to the affected by the same etiologic factors [plaque, calculus, neglect] as would be expected in nondiabetic patients. Further studies with larger population samples would be appropriate.

  17. The Adult Diabetic Patient: An Education Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    finding that he/she, too, must care for sicker patients. To better prepare these patients for life after discharge, patient education must be initiated as...admitted, patient education often begins at the physicians’ office. This paper explores diabetes mellitus in relation to concepts of self-care and adult...betting foj.L eduuation and iio.w, wore ofteni, patient education and follow-up sercvices- a:leL beiny p~rovided on ani outpatient bcdtsis" (p. 36) . Thet

  18. Periodontal health status in patients treated with the Invisalign® system and fixed orthodontic appliances: A 3 months clinical and microbiological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Mangano, Alessandro; Montanari, Paola; Margherini, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto; Abbate, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the periodontal health and the microbiological changes via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances and Invisalign® system (Align Technology, Santa Clara, California). Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups (Invisalign® group, fixed orthodontic appliances group and control group). Plaque index, probing depth, bleeding on probing were assessed. Total biofilm mass and periodontal pathogens were analyzed and detected via real-time PCR. All these data were analyzed at the T0 (beginning of the treatment) T1 (1-month) and T2 (3 months); and statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney test for independent groups. Results: After 1-month and after 3 months of treatment there was only one sample with periodontopathic anaerobes found in patient treated using fixed orthodontic appliances. The Invisalign® group showed better results in terms of periodontal health and total biofilm mass compared to the fixed orthodontic appliance group. A statistical significant difference (P < 0.05) at the T2 in the total biofilm mass was found between the two groups. Conclusion: Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with the Invisalign® System show a superior periodontal health in the short-term when compared to patients in treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Invisalign® should be considered as a first treatment option in patients with risk of developing periodontal disease. PMID:26430371

  19. Association of dental and periodontal disease with chronic kidney disease in patients of a single, tertiary care centre in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Ausavarungnirun, R; Wisetsin, S; Rongkiettechakorn, N; Chaichalermsak, S; Udompol, U; Rattanasompattikul, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown an association between oral diseases and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and regular oral care may be an important strategy for reducing the burden of CKD. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the association between dental and periodontal diseases in Thai patients with various stages of CKD. Methods This was designed as a cross-sectional study and was performed between 2011 and 2012. The inclusion criteria were age >20 years and a diagnosis of CKD for at least 90 days. Data from medical records were collected, clinical oral examination was performed, and data were statistically analysed. Results A total of 129 patients with different stages of CKD were included. Ninety-eight (76%) were men. The age range was 30–86 years. The Decay, Missing and Filling Tooth Index and the number of missing teeth were higher in the group with moderate CKD than in the control group (21 vs 17.5, p=0.045, 13 vs 8 p=0.01, respectively). Serum albumin levels decreased when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was in decline (γ=0.33; p=0.002). Severe periodontitis was significantly higher in the ‘more severe CKD group’ (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) than in the ‘less severe CKD group’ (eGFR 60–90 mL/min/1.73 m2; 24% vs 9%, p=0.03). Severe periodontitis, eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and brushing teeth more than once a day were associated with hypoalbuminaemia (defined as <3.8 g/dL) (OR (95% CI) 5.88 (1.64 to 21.11), 5.80 (1.58 to 21.35) and 0.16 (0.05 to 0.60), respectively). Conclusions Severe periodontal diseases were more prevalent in patients with more severe CKD than in those with less severe CKD. The novel association of serum albumin levels with periodontal status was demonstrated in progressive stages of CKD. Dental intervention may be beneficial from the early stages of CKD. PMID:27466240

  20. Randomized controlled clinical trial of 2 types of hydroxyapatite-coated implants on moderate periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the peri-implant tissue conditions and prospective clinical outcomes associated with 2 types of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated implants: (1) fully HA-coated implants and (2) partially HA-coated implants with resorbable blast medium on the coronal portion of the threads. Methods Forty-four partially edentulous patients were randomly assigned to undergo the placement of 62 HA-coated implants, and were classified as the control group (partially HA-coated, n=30) and the test group (fully HA-coated, n=32). All patients had chronic periodontitis with moderate crestal bone loss around the edentulous area. The stability and clinical outcomes of the implants were evaluated using the primary and secondary implant stability quotient (ISQ), as well as radiographic, mobility, and peri-implant soft tissue assessments around the implants. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann-Whitney test were used to evaluate differences between and within the 2 groups, with P values <0.05 considered to indicate statistical significance. Results The fully HA-coated implants displayed good retention of crestal bone, and insignificant differences were found in annual marginal bone loss between the 2 types of HA-coated implants (P>0.05). No significant differences were found in the survival rate (group I, 100%; group II, 100%) or the success rate (group I, 93.3%; group II, 93.8%). The fully HA-coated implants also did not significantly increase the risk of peri-implantitis (P>0.05). Conclusions The fully HA-coated implants did not lead to an increased risk of peri-implantitis and showed good retention of the crestal bone, as well as good survival and success rates. Our study suggests that fully HA-coated implants could become a reliable treatment alternative for edentulous posterior sites and are capable of providing good retention of the crestal bone. PMID:27800216

  1. Body mass index as a predictive factor of periodontal therapy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Suvan, J; Petrie, A; Moles, D R; Nibali, L; Patel, K; Darbar, U; Donos, N; Tonetti, M; D'Aiuto, F

    2014-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and obesity are associated with the prevalence, extent, and severity of periodontitis. This study investigated the predictive role of overweight/obesity on clinical response following non-surgical periodontal therapy in patients with severe periodontitis. Two hundred sixty adults received an intensive course of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Periodontal status at baseline and 2 months was based upon probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment levels (CAL), and whole-mouth gingival bleeding (FMBS) as assessed by two calibrated examiners. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to estimate the impact of BMI and overweight/obesity on periodontal treatment response while controlling for baseline status, age, smoking status (smoker or non-smoker), and full-mouth dental plaque score. BMI (continuous variable) and obesity (vs. normal weight) were associated with worse mean PPD (p < .005), percentage of PPD > 4 mm (p = .01), but not with FMBS (p > .05) or CAL (p > .05) at 2 months, independent of age, smoking status, or dental plaque levels. The magnitude of this association was similar to that of smoking, which was also linked to a worse clinical periodontal outcome (p < .01). BMI and obesity appear to be independent predictors of poor response following non-surgical periodontal therapy.

  2. Periodontitis and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Straka, Michal; Straka-Trapezanlidis, Michaela; Deglovic, Juraj; Varga, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Today's knowledge and studies show a firm correlation between osteoporosis and periodontitis, particularly in postmenopausal women. This review study deals with epidemiological and etiopathogenetic association between chronic periodontitis and an osteoporosis. A special emphasis is put on explanation of possible relations between a premature tooth loss and decrease of length and density of jaw bones, particularly their alveolar prolongations. The second part of the paper deals with principles of treatment in patients suffering of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis reduces density of jaw bones and decreases a number of teeth in jaws, but it does not affect other clinical signs and markers of periodontitis such as inflammation, bleeding and the depth of periodontal pockets and microbial plaque.

  3. Clinical efficacy of subgingivally delivered simvastatin gel in chronic periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Swati; Chaubey, Krishna Kumar; Chaubey, Abhinav; Agarwal, Vikas; Madan, Ellora; Agarwal, Manvi Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Simvastatin (SMV), a new locally delivered drug of class statins, is a specific competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Statins, besides having lipid-lowering abilities, also have pleiotropic effects like host modulation and bone regeneration. The present study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of SMV, 1.2 mg, in an indigenously prepared biodegradable controlled-release gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Materials and Methods: A total of 60 sites, with pocket depth ≥5 mm, two from each of 30 patients after SRP, were categorized into two treatment groups, for subgingival placement of placebo (Gp 1) or SMV (Gp 2). Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months comprising plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). The osseous changes were evaluated radiographically by measuring vertical gain, INFRA 1 and angle of the defect, INFRA 2 from baseline to 6 months. Results: All subjects tolerated the drug, without any post-application complication. The treatment improved the periodontal condition in both the groups but significant reductions in PPD (p= 0.04), and INFRA 1 (p= 0.000), along with gain in CAL (p= 0.02) and INFRA 2 (p= 0.000) were observed in Gp 2. In one site, an unexpected 5 mm decrease in INFRA 1 was found. Conclusion: Local drug delivery of SMV enhanced the beneficial effect of SRP, in pocket reduction, gain in CAL and bone fill. PMID:28298823

  4. The Effect of Periodontal Treatment on Hemoglobin A1c Levels of Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingxing; Han, Xu; Guo, Xiaojing; Luo, Xiaolong; Wang, Dalin

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that periodontal treatment may affect glycemic control in diabetic patients. And several systematic reviews have been conducted to assess the effect of periodontal treatment on diabetes outcomes. Researches of this aspect are widely concerned, and several new controlled trials have been published. The aim of this study was to update the account for recent findings. Methods A literature search (until the end of January 2014) was carried out using various databases with language restriction to English. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was selected if it investigated periodontal therapy for diabetic subjects compared with a control group received no periodontal treatment for at least 3 months of the follow-up period. The primary outcome was hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and secondary outcomes were periodontal parameters included probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Results Ten trials of 1135 patients were included in the analysis. After the follow-up of 3 months, treatment substantially lowered HbA1c compared with no treatment after periodontal therapy (–0.36%, 95%CI, −0.52% to −0.19%, P<0.0001). Clinically substantial and statistically significant reduction of PPD and CAL were found between subjects with and without treatment after periodontal therapy (PPD −0.42 mm, 95%CI: −0.60 to −0.23, P<0.00001; CAL −0.34 mm, 95%CI: −0.52 to −0.16, P = 0.0002). And there is no significant change of the level of HbA1c at the 6-month comparing with no treatment (–0.30%, 95%CI, −0.69% to 0.09%, P = 0.13). Conclusions Periodontal treatment leads to the modest reduction in HbA1c along with the improvement of periodontal status in diabetic patients for 3 months, and this result is consistent with previous systematic reviews. And the effect of periodontal treatment on HbA1c cannot be observed at 6-month after treatment. PMID:25255331

  5. Detection of Periodontal Markers in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Åsa; Carlén, Anette; Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to compare the detection frequency of periodontopathogens by using the Pado Test 4.5 and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique in chronic periodontitis patients. Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis were tested cross-sectionally with DNA/RNA oligogenomic probe method (IAI Pado Test 4.5) and DNA/DNA whole genomic probe (checkerboard) method. Samples were taken by two paper points at the deepest site in each of the four quadrants and pooled into one sample for each of the two methods. The samples were sent to the two laboratories (IAI, Zuchwil, Switzerland, and Oral Microbiology Laboratory, University of Gothenburg, Sweden) and were analyzed in a routine setting for the presence and amount of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. While Pado Test 4.5 detected the four periodontal pathogens in 11 (36.7%) of the patients, the checkerboard method showed presence in all patients (100%) using the lower score (Score 1 corresponding to 104 bacterial cells) and 16 (53.3%) using a higher treshold (score 3 corresponding to between >105 and 106 cells). The results of the present study showed low agreement for a positive microbiological outcome using the two diagnostic methods. It was also concluded that microbiological analysis in practice should include a larger number of bacterial species to better serve as markers for a diseased associated flora in chronic periodontitis cases. PMID:21769304

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of a Mass Media Campaign on Periodontal Knowledge among Iranian Adults: A Three-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mahdia; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Montazeri, Ali; Virtanen, Jorma I.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a national media campaign to promote oral health and periodontal knowledge among adults after a three-month follow-up. Methods We conducted a population-based study of adults aged 18 to 50 years using a stratified multi-stage sampling method in Tehran, Iran in 2011. The campaign included an animation clip about periodontal health and disease telecast on national TV for ten consecutive days. We used an instrument to assess the effect of the campaign at baseline, immediately after the campaign and after a three-month follow-up. A total of 543 participants responded at baseline and immediately after the intervention, and 294 were interviewed at the three-month follow-up assessment (response rate: 54.1%). We assessed each participant’s periodontal knowledge score, calculated as a sum of correct answers, and the change in their score following the campaign. We then used a five-item questionnaire to evaluate the participants’ opinion of the success of the campaign. We used descriptive statistics and generalised estimating equations (GEE) analysis to conduct the statistical analysis. Results The mean score for knowledge improvement from baseline to immediate post-intervention evaluation was higher among those who saw the campaign (0.61) than among those who did not (0.29); the corresponding figures from immediate evaluation to three-month follow-up were -0.17 and 0.15, respectively. Adjusting for baseline values, the GEE analysis demonstrated that improvement in the mean score of post-campaign knowledge associated significantly with age, education and seeing the campaign. Significant interaction between the time since seeing the campaign and whether the participant saw it (p < 0.001) revealed that the mean difference in the knowledge score between the groups who did and did not see the campaign was 0.4 at the immediate evaluation and -0.04 at the three-month follow-up. The participants received the campaign well in

  7. The Effect of IL-4 Gene Polymorphisms on Cytokine Production in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Bartova, Jirina; Janatova, Tatjana; Svobodova, Kazi; Fassmann, Antonin; Belacek, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the teeth-supporting tissues in which genetic predisposition, dental plaque bacteria, and immune mechanisms all play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of IL-4 gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis and to investigate the association between polymorphisms and cytokines production after bacterial stimulation. Sixty-two subjects (47 CP patients and 15 healthy controls) with detected two polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene (-590C/T and intron 3 VNTR) were examined. Production of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, and VEGF) was studied after in vitro stimulation of isolated peripheral blood by mitogens (Pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A), dental plaque bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia), and Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70 by the Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis system. The results were correlated with IL-4 genotypes in patients with CP and healthy controls. The mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of CP patients with selected IL-4 polymorphisms significantly altered the production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-1α, TNFα, and IL-6 after stimulation by HSP 70 or selected bacteria (from P < 0.001 to P < 0.05). IL-4 gene polymorphisms may influence the function of mononuclear cells to produce not only interleukin-4 but also other cytokines, especially in patients with CP. PMID:25530681

  8. Detection of fusobacterium nucleatum and fadA adhesin gene in patients with orthodontic gingivitis and non-orthodontic periodontal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jianning; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Yujie; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2014-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most abundant gram-negative bacilli colonizing the subgingival plaque and closely associated with periodontal disease. However it is unclear whether F. nucleatum is involved in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. A novel adhesin, FadA, which is unique to oral Fusobacteria, is required for F. nucleatum binding and invasion to epithelial cells and thus may play an important role in colonization of Fusobacterium in the host. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of F. nucleatum and its virulence factor FadA adhesion gene (fadA) in 169 subgingival biofilm samples from 55 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 49 cases of gingivitis patients without orthodontic treatment, 35 cases of periodontitis patients and 30 cases of periodontally healthy people via PCR. The correlations between the F. nucleatum/fadA and gingivitis index(GI)was also analyzed. The detection rate of F. nucleatum/fadA in periodontitis group and non-orthodontic gingivitis group was higher than the other two groups (p<0.01) while it was higher in orthodontic gingivitis group than in health people (p<0.05). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of F. nucleatum/fadA and GI. F. nucleatum carrying fadA may be more closely related to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease compared with orthodontic gingivitis.

  9. Microbiological changes after periodontal therapy in diabetic patients with inadequate metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Silva-Boghossian, Carina Maciel; Orrico, Silvana Regina Perez; Gonçalves, Daniela; Correa, Fernanda Oliveira Bello; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment (SRP) on the composition of the subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis (CP) in individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2) with inadequate metabolic control and in systemically healthy (SH) individuals. Forty individuals (20 DM2 and 20 SH) with CP underwent full-mouth periodontal examination. Subgingival plaque was sampled from 4 deep sites of each individual and tested for mean prevalence and counts of 45 bacterial taxa by the checkerboard method. Clinical and microbiological assessments were performed before and 3 months after SRP. At baseline, those in the DM2 group presented a significantly higher percentage of sites with visible plaque and bleeding on probing compared with those in the SH group (p<0.01). Those in the DM2 group presented significantly higher levels of C. rectus and P. gingivalis, and lower prevalence of P. micra and S. anginosus, compared with those in the SH group (p≤0.001). At the 3-month visit, both groups showed a significant improvement in all clinical parameters (p<0.01). Those in the DM2 group showed significantly higher prevalence and/or levels of A. gerencseriae, A. naeslundii I, A. oris, A. odontolyticus, C. sputigena, F. periodonticum, and G. morbillorum compared with those in the SH group (p≤0.001). However, those in the DM2 group showed a significant reduction in the levels of P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola (p≤0.001) over time. Those in the SRP group showed improved periodontal status and reduced levels of putative periodontal pathogens at 3 months' evaluation compared with those in the DM2 group with inadequate metabolic control.

  10. A retrospective cohort study on the association between periapical abscess, advanced periodontal disease, and the national oral health screening program among Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Eun; Jung, Se-Hwan; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Lee, Byoung-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2013-09-01

    The National Oral Health Screening Program (NOHSP) is a general population-based program in Korea. The objective of this study was to assess the association between participation in the NOHSP and dental visit for periapical abscess (PA) and advanced periodontal disease (APD) among Korean adults. Data were obtained for subjects from the National Health Insurance database. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of 9358 randomly selected subjects who were between 40 and 64 years old in 2002. The outcomes of dental visit for PA or APD from the years 2003 to 2007 were compared between the screening and nonscreening groups. The nonscreening group had 19% higher risk of PA and 15% higher risk of APD. This study suggests that the NOHSP may decrease the risk of dental visit because of PA and APD by preventing the progress of lesion to the advanced stage among Korean adults.

  11. Occurrence of yeasts, enterococci and other enteric bacteria in subgingival biofilm of HIV-positive patients with chronic gingivitis and necrotizing periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson; Nakano, Viviane; Wahasugui, Thais C; Cabral, Fátima C; Gamba, Rosa; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric bacteria and yeasts in biofilm of 80 HIV-positive patients with plaque-associated gingivitis or necrotizing periodontitis. Patients were subjected to extra, intra oral and radiographic examinations. The oral hygiene, bleeding on probing, gingival conditions, and attachment loss were evaluated. Clinical specimens were collected from gingival crevices or periodontal pockets, transferred to VMGA III, diluted and transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose agar with 100 μg/ml of chloramphenicol, peptone water, EVA broth, EMB agar, SS agar, Bile esculin agar and Brilliant green agar. Isolation of yeasts was carried out at room temperature, for 3-7 days; and for the isolation of enteric microorganisms plates were incubated at 37°C, for 24-48 h. The yeasts identification was performed according to the carbon and nitrogen assimilation, fermentation of carbohydrates and germ tube formation. Bacteria were identified according to their colonial and cellular morphologies and biochemical tests. Yeasts were identified as Candida albicans and its occurrence was more common in patients with CD4+ below 200/mm(3) and was affected by the extension of periodontal involvement (P = 0.0345). Enteric bacteria recovered from clinical specimens were identified as Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterococcus sp. Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were detected in 32.5% of clinical samples from patients with necrotizing periodontitis. In conclusion, non-oral pathogenic bacteria and C. albicans were more prevalent in periodontal sites of HIV-positive patients with necrotizing periodontitis and chronic gingivitis.

  12. Occurrence of yeasts, enterococci and other enteric bacteria in subgingival biofilm of HIV-positive patients with chronic gingivitis and necrotizing periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson; Nakano, Viviane; Wahasugui, Thais C.; Cabral, Fátima C.; Gamba, Rosa; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric bacteria and yeasts in biofilm of 80 HIV-positive patients with plaque-associated gingivitis or necrotizing periodontitis. Patients were subjected to extra, intra oral and radiographic examinations. The oral hygiene, bleeding on probing, gingival conditions, and attachment loss were evaluated. Clinical specimens were collected from gingival crevices or periodontal pockets, transferred to VMGA III, diluted and transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose agar with 100 μg/ml of chloramphenicol, peptone water, EVA broth, EMB agar, SS agar, Bile esculin agar and Brilliant green agar. Isolation of yeasts was carried out at room temperature, for 3-7 days; and for the isolation of enteric microorganisms plates were incubated at 37°C, for 24-48 h. The yeasts identification was performed according to the carbon and nitrogen assimilation, fermentation of carbohydrates and germ tube formation. Bacteria were identified according to their colonial and cellular morphologies and biochemical tests. Yeasts were identified as Candida albicans and its occurrence was more common in patients with CD4+ below 200/mm3 and was affected by the extension of periodontal involvement (P = 0.0345). Enteric bacteria recovered from clinical specimens were identified as Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterococcus sp. Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were detected in 32.5% of clinical samples from patients with necrotizing periodontitis. In conclusion, non-oral pathogenic bacteria and C. albicans were more prevalent in periodontal sites of HIV-positive patients with necrotizing periodontitis and chronic gingivitis. PMID:24031212

  13. Congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors: functional and periodontal aspects in patients treated with implants or space closure and tooth re-contouring.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Hayacibara, Roberto Massayuki; Silva, Rafael Santos; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate functional and periodontal aspects in patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors, treated with either implants or space closure and tooth re-contouring. The sample consisted of 68 volunteers, divided into 3 groups: SCR - space closure and tooth re-contouring with composite resin (n = 26); SOI - implants placed in the area of agenesis (n = 20); and CG - control group (n = 22). A modified Helkimo questionnaire and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used by a single, previously calibrated evaluator to assess signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder. The periodontal assessment involved the following aspects: plaque index, bleeding upon probing, pocket depth greater than 3 mm, gingival recession, abfraction, periodontal biotype and papilla index. The data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=.05). No differences in periodontal status were found between treatments. None of the groups were associated with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder. Both treatment alternatives for patients with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors were satisfactory and achieved functional and periodontal results similar to those of the control group.

  14. Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Functional and Periodontal Aspects in Patients Treated with Implants or Space Closure and Tooth Re-Contouring

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Hayacibara, Roberto Massayuki; Silva, Rafael Santos; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate functional and periodontal aspects in patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors, treated with either implants or space closure and tooth re-contouring. The sample consisted of 68 volunteers, divided into 3 groups: SCR - space closure and tooth re-contouring with composite resin (n = 26); SOI – implants placed in the area of agenesis (n = 20); and CG - control group (n = 22). A modified Helkimo questionnaire and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used by a single, previously calibrated evaluator to assess signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder. The periodontal assessment involved the following aspects: plaque index, bleeding upon probing, pocket depth greater than 3 mm, gingival recession, abfraction, periodontal biotype and papilla index. The data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=.05). No differences in periodontal status were found between treatments. None of the groups were associated with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder. Both treatment alternatives for patients with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors were satisfactory and achieved functional and periodontal results similar to those of the control group. PMID:23346262

  15. A comparative evaluation of whole blood total antioxidant capacity using a novel nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test in patients with periodontitis and healthy subjects: A randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Konuganti, Kranti; Seshan, Hema; Zope, Sameer; Silvia, Wilma Delphine

    2012-10-01

    The investigation of disease-related oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is difficult due to the limited availability of specific biomarkers of oxidative stress, and the fact that measurement of individual antioxidant may give misleading picture because antioxidants work in concert through chain breaking reactions. Therefore, analysis of total antioxidant capacity may be the most relevant investigation. As the total blood is continuously exposed to oxidative stress, the aim of the current study was to investigate total blood antioxidant capacity in healthy and periodontitis patients by using novel Nitroblue Tetrazolium reduction test. The study was conducted on 30 non-smoking volunteers with age ranging between 18-40 years. They were categorized into two groups; chronic periodontitis group and healthy group, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity in whole blood was assessed using Nitroblue Tetrazolium reduction test. Results of the present study has shown that the total antioxidant capacity in whole blood in patients with periodontitis was significantly (P<0.005) lower than in control subjects. The reduced total blood antioxidant status in periodontitis subjects warrants further investigation as it may provide a mechanistic link between periodontal disease and several other free radical-associated chronic inflammatory diseases.

  16. Periodontal Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Harvey, John D

    2017-04-01

    This article provides a review of current information about periodontal bacteria, their activities within dental plaque biofilm, their interactions with the host immune system, and the infections with which they are associated. Periodontal disease, plaque formation, and the host immune response are also discussed, as are antimicrobial measures used to control the bacteria and the disease.

  17. A multidisciplinary approach for the management of pathologic tooth migration in a patient with moderately advanced periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Jeom-Il; Park, Soo-Byung

    2012-04-01

    The physiologic tooth position is determined by interactions between the periodontal tissue and occlusal, tongue, and lip forces. Bone destruction resulting from chronic periodontal disease disturbs the equilibrium of these interactive balances, leading to pathologic tooth migration, often requiring multidisciplinary treatment approaches. The present case demonstrates a systematic periodontal-orthodontic-prosthetic treatment for achieving the optimal structural, functional, and esthetic outcomes.

  18. A patient with meningeal melanomatosis treated for periodontal disease with a bone regeneration procedure and dental implants: clinical and behavioral management to support medical compliance

    PubMed Central

    TIZZONI, R.; VENERONI, L.; CLERICI, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background. During the last three decades dental implants have become increasingly used in partially edentulous periodontally compromised patients. The type of bacteria in the peri-implant sulcus is influenced by the periodontal bacteria present on the surfaces of the remaining teeth. Peri-implant sulci of partially edentulous individuals harbour more motile rods and spirochetes than those of fully edentulous individuals. If Peri-implantitis arises, it may lead to implant failure. This complication occurs more frequently in patients with poor oral hygiene. This is a site-specific bacterial infection similar to that caused by periodontal bacteria around teeth and it should be prevented. Aim. This study was conducted to radiographically evaluate hard tissue response around 6 implants, over a 2-year period, in a previously surgically treated patient affected by severe chronic periodontitis. Psychological considerations and behavioral management of the patient are described. Materials and methods. A complex implant-perio-prosthodontic case of a 54-year-old man affected by meningeal melanomatosis with a history of generalized severe chronic periodontitis was recruited. A comprehensive periodontal examination around teeth was accomplished before periodontal and implant treatment. After diagnostic work-up, compromised teeth from 1.3 to 2.3 and from 3.2 to 4.2 were extracted. Tooth 1.7 was also extracted. Afterwards fixed provisional restoration rehabilitated all the natural dentition and the missing teeth. Endodonthic therapies were conducted on all the teeth due to high dentinal sensitivity and pre-prosthodontic crown reconstructions performed. Periodontal surgery with modified Widman flaps were then accomplished on all the teeth. Three months later four maxillary implants in position 1.3,1.1,2.1,2.3 and two mandibular implants in position 4.2,3.2 were inserted. During mandibular implants positioning, the mental mussels were isolated and detached to achieve

  19. Prepubertal periodontitis affecting the deciduous and permanent dentition in a patient with cyclic neutropenia. A case report and discussion.

    PubMed

    Prichard, J F; Ferguson, D M; Windmiller, J; Hurt, W C

    1984-02-01

    Neutropenia is a transient or chronic blood disorder characterized by a decrease in the number of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Neutrophils are a major cellular defense against infection, and depletion of these cells is potentially fatal. Stomatitis and gingivitis frequently are seen in patients with neutropenia. Therefore, the diagnosis of severe oral pathoses of obscure origin must include a differential white blood cell count. The importance of the dentist's role is dramatically illustrated in the rare case reported here, since the oral condition was the reason for this patient's definitive blood work-up. The report illustrates the importance of the laboratory assessment in dental patients with unusual periodontal destruction or other inexplicable oral changes.

  20. [Sensitivity and resistance of aerobic bacteria isolated from patients with periodontitis towards antibiotics and bacteriophages (comparative analysis)].

    PubMed

    Nemsadze, T D; Mshvenieradze, D D; Apridonidze, K G

    2006-03-01

    In order to examine sensitivity and resistance of isolated aerobic bacteria from periodontitis materials towards antibiotics and bacteriophages, there has been studied exudations taken from 737 patients' periodontic pockets or the tissue taken from curettage. According to the rate of identified microorganisms, they have been arranged as follows: S. epidermidis 39,34+/-1,56%; S. pyogenes 18,84+/-1,25%; M. catarrhalis 17,09+/-1,2%; S. aureus 10,71+/-0,99%; E.coli-5,66+/-0,74%; Diphtheroids in 1,13+/-0,33%; S. Mucilaginosus 1,02+/-0,32%, proteus vulgaris - 0,72+/-0,27%; H. parainfluenzae - 0,72+/-0,27%; S. intermedium 0,61+/-0,24%; P. aeruginosa - 0,61+/-0,24%; H. influenzae - 0,51+/-0,22%, S. saprophiticus - 0,51+/-0,22%; S. viridans - 0,51+/-0,22%; S. pneumoniae - 0,41+/-0,2%; K. pneumoniae - 0,41+/-0,22%; S. haemoliticus - 0,41+/-0,2%; B. adolescentics - 0,3+/-0,17%; L. acidophilus -0,3+/-0,17%; S. salivarius-0,1+/-0,1%. It has been stated that percentage of polyresistant strains is growing. While having aerobic infections of periodontitis, kefzol, cephazolin, cephamezin, zinaceph, klaphoran, cephdazidim (cephalosporins I, II, II generation); tetracycline, doxycycline, (tetracyclines); 5-noks, cyprophloxacyne (chinolons I, II generation); ryphamphcyne (rymphamicynes); but standby medicines may be also considered: penicillin G, procaine penicillin (penicillines); streptomycin, kanamicin, gentamicin (aminoglycosides); lincomycin, clindamycin, (lincosamides); eritromycin, macropen (macrolides); chloramphenicol. Since the resistance of microbial strains was not developed towards bacteriophages during the treatment it is considerable to apply simultaneously the bacteriophages and standby antibiotics.

  1. Lack of Correlation between Periodontitis and Renal Dysfunction in Systemically Healthy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brotto, Renata Squariz; Vendramini, Regina Célia; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chierici; Ramos, Adriana Pelegrino Pinho; Pepato, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess a suggested association between periodontitis and renal insufficiency by assaying kidney disease markers. Methods: Variables used to diagnose periodontitis were: (i) probing pocket depth (PPD), (ii) attachment loss (AL), (iii) bleeding on probing (BOP), (iv) plaque index (PI) and (v) extent and severity index. Blood and urine were collected from 60 apparently healthy non-smokers (men and women), consisting of a test group of 30 subjects with periodontitis (age 46±6 yrs) and a control group of 30 healthy subjects (age 43±5 yrs). Kidney function markers (urea, creatinine, uric acid and albumin contents) were measured in the serum and urine. Also, the glomerular filtration rate was estimated from creatinine clearance, from the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula and from the albumin : creatinine ratio in a 24–h sample of urine. Results: It was found that the control group had a greater mean number of teeth than the test group and that the two groups also differed in PPD, AL, BOP and PI, all these variables being higher in the test group (P=0.006). For the extent and severity index of both PPD and AL, the test group had much higher medians of both extent and severity than the control group (P=0.001). With regard to kidney function, none of the markers revealed a significant difference between the control and test groups and all measured values fell within the reference intervals. Conclusions: It is proposed that severe periodontitis is not associated with any alteration in kidney function. PMID:21228952

  2. Ab interno trabeculectomy in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient.

  3. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Seibold, Leonard K.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient. PMID:25624670

  4. Trauma injury in adult underweight patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ching-Hua; Lai, Wei-Hung; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the injury characteristics, severity, and outcome between underweight and normal-weight patients hospitalized for the treatment of all kinds of trauma injury. This study was based on a level I trauma center Taiwan. The detailed data of 640 underweight adult trauma patients with a body mass index (BMI) of <18.5 kg/m2 and 6497 normal-weight adult patients (25 > BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2) were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014. Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test were performed to compare the differences. Propensity score matching with logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of underweight on mortality. Underweight patients presented a different bodily injury pattern and a significantly higher rate of admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU) than did normal-weight patients; however, no significant differences in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), in-hospital mortality, and hospital length of stay were found between the two groups. However, further analysis of the patients stratified by two major injury mechanisms (motorcycle accident and fall injury) revealed that underweight patients had significantly lower GCS scores (13.8 ± 3.0 vs 14.5 ± 2.0, P = 0.020), but higher ISS (10.1 ± 6.9 vs 8.4 ± 5.9, P = 0.005), in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.69–11.35; P = 0.006), and ICU admittance rate (24.1% vs 14.3%, P = 0.007) than normal-weight patients in the fall accident group, but not in the motorcycle accident group. However, after propensity score matching, logistic regression analysis of well-matched pairs of patients with either all trauma, motorcycle accident, or fall injury did not show a significant influence of underweight on mortality. Exploratory data analysis revealed that underweight patients

  5. [Periodontitis and systemic diseases: from science to clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Thomas, R Z; Loos, B G; Teeuw, W; Kunnen, A; van Winkelhoff, A J; Abbas, F

    2015-10-01

    The evidence for an association between systemic diseases and periodontitis is strongest with diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease. There is a moderate association of periodontitis with adverse pregnancy outcomes and rheumatoid arthritis. Periodontal treatment has, on average, a positive effect on reducing systemic infection and improving the condition of the vascular system. For diabetes patients, periodontal treatment can also have a positive effect on metabolic regulation. There is insufficient evidence that periodontal treatment prevents adverse pregnancy outcomes and rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Greenwell, Henry; Fiorellini, Joseph; Giannobile, William; Offenbacher, Steven; Salkin, Leslie; Townsend, Cheryl; Sheridan, Phillip; Genco, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Untreated periodontal disease leads to tooth loss through destruction of the attachment apparatus and tooth-supporting structures. The goals of periodontal therapy include not only the arrest of periodontal disease progression,but also the regeneration of structures lost to disease where appropriate. Conventional surgical approaches (e.g., flap debridement) continue to offer time-tested and reliable methods to access root surfaces,reduce periodontal pockets, and attain improved periodontal form/architecture. However, these techniques offer only limited potential towards recovering tissues destroyed during earlier disease phases. Recently, surgical procedures aimed at greater and more predictable regeneration of periodontal tissues and functional attachment close to their original level have been developed, analyzed, and employed in clinical practice. This paper provides a review of the current understanding of the mechanisms, cells, and factors required for regeneration of the periodontium and of procedures used to restore periodontal tissues around natural teeth. Targeted audiences for this paper are periodontists and/or researchers with an interest in improving the predictability of regenerative procedures. This paper replaces the version published in 1993.

  7. [Periodontitis and tissue regeneration].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuhisa

    2005-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a destructive disease that affects the supporting structures of the teeth including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. If left untreated, patients may lose multiple teeth and extensive prosthetic treatment will be required. In order to re-engineer lost tooth-supporting tissues, various therapeutic modalities have been used clinically. Periodontal regeneration procedures including guided tissue regeneration have achieved substantial effects. However, there are several issues to be solved. They are highly technique-sensitive, applicable to limited cases which are susceptible to treatment, and supposed to have relatively low predictability. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new approaches to improve the predictability and effectiveness of regenerative therapies for periodontal tissues. Recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been introduced to restore lost tissues more effectively where the biological process of healing is mimicked. To achieve this, integration of three key elements is required: progenitor/stem cells, growth factors and the extracellular matrix scaffold. Although it has been shown that implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into periodontal osseous defects induced regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in dogs, further extensive preclinical studies are required. On the other hand, application of growth factors, particularly basic fibroblast growth factor in the treatment of human periodontitis, is promising and is now in clinical trial. Furthermore, the rate of release of growth factor from the scaffold also can profoundly affect the results of tissue engineering strategies and the development of new materials is expected. In addition, as tissue regenerative potential is negatively regulated by aging, the effects of aging have to be clarified to gain complete regeneration.

  8. Serum immunoglobulin G subclass concentrations in periodontally healthy and diseased individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, H; Wang, M; Gunsolley, J C; Schenkein, H A; Tew, J G

    1994-01-01

    Patients with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) often have high titers of antibody reactive with the serotype-specific immunodominant carbohydrate antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype b. The vast majority of this A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype b-specific antibody is immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2). The present study was undertaken to determine whether the overall total levels of IgG2 in the sera of LJP patients are elevated. LJP patients and nonperiodontitis (NP) controls matched for age, race (black and white), and gender were studied. Additional controls included patients with adult periodontitis (AP) and patients similar in age to LJP patients but with the more-severe, generalized form of early-onset periodontitis (SP). Sera from over 700 periodontally characterized subjects were examined by using radial immunodiffusion to quantitate IgG2 as well as IgG1, -3, and -4, which were included for comparison. Serum IgG2 levels increased with age, and this was most dramatic around puberty. Black subjects in all periodontal groups had nearly 1 mg more IgG2 per ml than their white counterparts. Serum IgG2 levels were elevated (about 30 to 40%) in LJP patients of both races compared with their age- and race-matched NP controls (P < 0.01). In contrast, SP patients and AP patients had IgG2 levels comparable to their age- and race-matched NP controls. No other IgG subclass concentration correlated with periodontal diagnosis except for IgG3, which was elevated in white LJP patients. We reason that the high levels of serum IgG2 in LJP may be helpful in localizing periodontal destruction. PMID:8168929

  9. Response to Proximal Restorations Placed Either Subgingivally or Following Crown Lengthening in Patients with No History of Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Gomes, Sabrina Carvalho; Cavagni, Juliano; Cayana, Ezymar Gomes; Conceição, Ewerton Nocchi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of resin restorations placed supragingivally or impinging periodontal biologic width (PBW). Ten patients (aged 19 to 35 years) with at least two contralateral teeth (premolars and molars) in need of proximal subgingival restorations participated. Test group (TG) (impingement of PBW with transsurgical restorations) and control croup (CG) (supragingival restorations after crown lengthening) were randomly assigned. Visible plaque (VP), bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were evaluated at baseline and at 45, 90, and 180 days, and by transperiodontal probing at baseline and 180 days. Generalized estimating equations, Wald test, and t test were used (P ≤ .05). VP and BOP were reduced and maintained at low levels (less than 10% from day 45 on). PPD initially reduced in the TG. At day 180, no intra- or intergroup differences were observed (P > .05). CAL was higher in the CG after surgery (P < .05) and remained stable for both groups throughout the study. In conclusion, proximal bonded restorations infringing on the PBW may not require clinical crown lengthening.

  10. Surgical orthodontic treatment for a patient with advanced periodontal disease: evaluation with electromyography and 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kan; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro

    2009-09-01

    We report here the case of a woman with Class III malocclusion and advanced periodontal disease who was treated with surgical orthodontic correction. Functional recovery after orthodontic treatment is often monitored by serial electromyography of the masticatory muscles, whereas 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography can provide detailed structural information about, for example, periodontal bone defects. However, it is unclear whether the information obtained via these methods is sufficient to determine the treatment goal. It might be useful to address this issue for patients with advanced periodontal disease because of much variability between patients in the determination of treatment goals. We used detailed information obtained by 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography to identify periodontal bone defects and set appropriate treatment goals for inclination of the incisors and mandibular surgery. Results for this patient included stable occlusion and improved facial esthetics. This case report illustrates the benefits of establishing treatment goals acceptable to the patient, based on precise 3-dimensional assessment of dentoalveolar bone, and by using masticatory muscle activity to monitor the stability of occlusion.

  11. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene and chronic periodontitis in patients with atherosclerotic and aortic aneurysmal vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Armingohar, Zahra; Jørgensen, Jørgen J.; Kristoffersen, Anne K.; Schenck, Karl; Dembic, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic periodontitis (CP), atherosclerotic and aortic aneurysmal vascular diseases (VD) are chronic inflammatory conditions with multifactorial etiologies, including involvement of predisposing genetic factors. In a previous study, polymorphisms in the gene for the anti-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were associated with CP in patients with VD. Objective This study investigates whether polymorphisms in the gene for the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL10) could be related to CP in the same manner. Methods Seventy-two patients with VD of whom 35 had CP were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL10 −592 (rs1800872), −819 (rs1800871), and −1,082 (rs1800896) gene by Taqman rtPCR method and by DNA sequencing. Results The C alleles and C/C genotypes of IL10 −592 and IL10 −819 frequencies were significantly higher, while the frequencies of the IL10 −592 (C/A) and IL10 −819 (C/T) heterozygote genotypes were significantly lower in the VD group with CP compared to those without CP. The IL10 haplotype ATA frequency (−1,082, −819, −592) showed a trend to a significant difference between the two groups indicating protection against CP. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest an independent association of genetic polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene locus with CP in patients with VD. Development of CP and the implications on vascular disease emphasize the importance of early detection and adequate treatment of periodontitis among these patients. PMID:25700628

  12. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell-Mediated Treatment for Periodontitis in Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Gang; Fang, Dianji; Zhang, Chunmei; Bartold, Peter Mark; Gronthos, Stan; Shi, Songtao; Wang, Songlin

    2009-01-01

    Periodontitis is a periodontal tissue infectious disease and the most common cause for tooth loss in adults. It has been linked to many systemic disorders, such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and diabetes. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure periodontitis and achieve optimal periodontal tissue regeneration. In this study, we explored the potential of using autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to treat periodontal defects in a porcine model of periodontitis. The periodontal lesion was generated in the first molars area of miniature pigs by the surgical removal of bone and subsequent silk ligament suture around the cervical portion of the tooth. Autologous PDLSCs were obtained from extracted teeth of the miniature pigs and then expanded ex vivo to enrich PDLSC numbers. When transplanted into the surgically created periodontal defect areas, PDLSCs were capable of regenerating periodontal tissues, leading to a favorable treatment for periodontitis. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat periodontal diseases. PMID:18238856

  13. Parameter on periodontal maintenance. American Academy of Periodontology.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on Periodontal Maintenance. Periodontal maintenance is an integral part of periodontal therapy for patients with a history of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Patients should be informed of the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. Failure to comply with a periodontal maintenance program may result in recurrence or progression of the disease process. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.

  14. Impact of scaling and root planing on C-reactive protein levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in chronic periodontitis patients with or without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of scaling and root planing (SRP) on the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-CP) or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (NDM-CP). Methods Forty-eight human participants were divided into two groups: an experimental (T2DM-CP) group (group I, n=24) comprising chronic periodontitis patients with random blood sugar ≥200 mg/dL and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and control (NDM-CP) group (group II, n=24) of those with chronic periodontitis and random blood sugar <200 without T2DM for the study. All subjects underwent nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) including complete SRP and subgingival debridement. Periodontal health parameters, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), GCF volume (GCF vol), GCF-CRP, random blood glucose (RBS), glycated hemoglobin, and systemic inflammatory markers, serum CRP, total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil count (Neutr) and lymphocyte count (Lymph), were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after SRP. Results NSPT resulted in statistically significant improvement in periodontal health parameters (PI, GI, PPD, CAL, GCF vol), CRP levels in serum as well as GCF of both groups I and II. The mean improvement in periodontal health parameters (PI, GI, PPD, CAL, GCF vol), CRP levels in serum and GCF was greater in group I than group II after NSPT. There was nonsignificant increase in GCF-CRP, TLC, Lymph, and RBS, and a significant increase in Neutr and Serum CRP in group II at 1 month. The Serum CRP level of 20 out of 24 group II patients had also increased at 1 month. Conclusions The CRP levels in both GCF and serum were higher in T2DM-CP patients than in NDM-CP patients. Although there was a significant improvement in both the groups, greater improvement was observed in both GCF and serum samples of T2DM

  15. Critical issues in clinical periodontal research.

    PubMed

    Preshaw, Philip M

    2012-06-01

    As periodontal researchers and clinicians, we are challenged every day to make decisions relating to the clinical management of our patients and about how best to conduct clinical periodontal research. This volume of Periodontology 2000 addresses some of the critical issues in contemporary clinical periodontics and periodontal research that are of direct relevance to clinicians, researchers, teachers and students. The 11 review articles in this volume of Periodontology 2000 focus on aspects of periodontal research methodology and clinical periodontology. In terms of research methodology, the articles aim to inform the reader on topics relating to randomized controlled trials in periodontal research, evidence-based dentistry, calibration of clinical examiners and statistics relevant to periodontal research. The clinical periodontology articles address issues relating to decisions on retaining periodontally compromised teeth or replacing them with implants, periodontal management in the patient with osteoporosis, surgical approaches for root coverage and the emerging science of advanced regenerative technologies, including the use of stem cells, for periodontal regeneration. It is hoped that these critical reviews will address many of the dilemmas that confront us on a regular basis and provide practical guidance to those engaged in both clinical periodontology and clinical periodontal research.

  16. Parameter on periodontitis associated with systemic conditions. American Academy of Periodontology.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on periodontitis associated with systemic conditions. Patients affected by periodontal disease with concomitant systemic factors should be informed about the significance of the systemic condition(s) to the periodontal disease process. Patients should also be informed of the periodontal disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibilities in treatment. Consequences of no periodontal treatment should be explained. Failure to treat periodontitis appropriately can result in progressive loss of periodontal supporting tissues, an adverse change in prognosis, tooth loss, and compromise of the dentition. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility and pathogenic genes of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the oral cavity of patients with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to characterize the patterns of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in samples of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from periodontitis patients. Methods From July 2015 to August 2015, oral saliva was collected from a total of 112 patients diagnosed with periodontitis, including 80 outpatients in dental hospitals and 32 patients in dental clinics located in Seoul and Cheonan. The samples were subjected to a susceptibility test to evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, and the pathogenic factors and antimicrobial resistance factors in the DNA of S. aureus were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. Results A susceptibility test against 15 antimicrobial agents showed that 88% of cultures were resistant to ampicillin, 88% to penicillin, and 2% to oxacillin. Resistance to at least two drugs was observed in 90% of cultures, and the most common pattern of multidrug resistance was to ampicillin and penicillin. Enterotoxins were detected in 65.9% of samples. The cell hemolysin gene hld was detected in 100% of cultures and hla was detected in 97.6% of samples. All strains resistant to penicillin and ampicillin had the blaZ gene. The aph(3′)IIIa gene, which encodes an aminoglycoside modifying enzyme, was detected in 46.3% of samples. Conclusions In the treatment of oral S. aureus infections, it is important to identify the pathogenic genes and the extent of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, it is necessary to study patterns of antimicrobial resistance and cross-infection in the context of periodontological specialties in which antimicrobials are frequently used, such as maxillofacial surgery, where the frequency of antimicrobial use for minor procedures such as implant placement is increasing. PMID:26734493

  18. Parameter on chronic periodontitis with advanced loss of periodontal support. American Academy of Periodontology.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on the treatment of chronic periodontitis with advanced loss of periodontal supporting tissues. Patients should be informed of the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. Failure to appropriately treat chronic periodontitis can result in progressive loss of periodontal supporting tissues, an adverse change in prognosis, and could result in tooth loss. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.

  19. Parameter on chronic periodontitis with slight to moderate loss of periodontal support. American Academy of Periodontology.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on the treatment of chronic periodontitis with slight to moderate loss of periodontal supporting tissues. Patients should be informed of the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. Failure to appropriately treat chronic periodontitis can result in progressive loss of periodontal supporting tissues, an adverse change in prognosis, and could result in tooth loss. Given this information, patients should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.

  20. Effect of Nadir CD4+ T Cell Count on Clinical Measures of Periodontal Disease in HIV+ Adults before and during Immune Reconstitution on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Lance T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Babineau, Denise C.; Wang, Xuelei; Toossi, Zahra; Weinberg, Aaron; Rodriguez, Benigno

    2013-01-01

    Background The contribution of HIV-infection to periodontal disease (PD) is poorly understood.  We proposed that immunological markers would be associated with improved clinical measures of PD. Methods We performed a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected adults who had started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) <2 years. PD was characterized clinically as the percent of teeth with ≥1 site with periodontal probing depth (PPD) ≥5.0mm, recession (REC) >0mm, clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥4.0mm, and bleeding on probing (BOP) at ≥4 sites/tooth and microbiologically as specific periodontopathogen concentration. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between immune function and PD. Results Forty (40) subjects with median 2.7 months on HAART and median nadir CD4+ T-cell count of 212 cells/μl completed a median 3 visits. Over 24 months, CD4+ T-cell count increased by a mean 173 cells/µl (p<0.001) and HIV RNA decreased by 0.5 log10 copies/ml (p<0.001); concurrently, PPD, CAL and BOP decreased by a mean 11.7%, 12.1%, and 14.7% respectively (all p<0.001). Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with worse baseline REC (-6.72%; p=0.04) and CAL (9.06%; p<0.001). Further, lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with a greater relative longitudinal improvement in PPD in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p=0.027), and BOP in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola (p=0.001 and p=0.006 respectively). Longitudinal changes from baseline in CD4+ T-cell count and level of HIV RNA were not independently associated with longitudinal changes in any clinical markers of PD. Conclusion Degree of immunosuppression was associated with baseline gingival recession. After HAART initiation, measures of active PD improved most in those with lower nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and higher baseline levels of specific periodontopathogens. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count

  1. Periodontal Stain Test Diagnosis Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    inflammatory loss of attachment and bone in adolescents ; lesions are often associated with incisors and first molars; no evidence of systemic disease . RISK...FACTORS: When determining susceptibility to periodontal disease , patients in the previous classifications should be considered high risk patients if...AD-A247 28411i 11111l l l1113111! Eilli UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL PERIODONTAL STAIN TEST DIAGNOSIS PROGRAM D T IC Prof. E.J. Burkes

  2. A comparative evaluation of topical and intrasulcular application of coenzyme Q10 (Perio Q™) gel in chronic periodontitis patients: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sale, Srinivasa Tenka; Parvez, Humera; Yeltiwar, Ramreddy Krushna Rao; Vivekanandan, Gopinath; Pundir, Aena Jain; Jain, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Coenzyme Q10 is a well-studied antioxidant in the medical literature, but studies regarding its efficacy in periodontal diseases are few. coenzymeoenzyme Q10 serves as an endogenous antioxidant and its increased concentration in the diseased gingiva effectively suppresses advanced periodontal inflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 (Perio Q™) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 patients were enrolled for the study. The selected subjects were treated in three different quadrants randomly. The control quadrant was treated by scaling and root planing only, while the other two test quadrants were treated by intra-pocket application of gel combined with scaling or root planing and topical applications combined with scaling and root planning, respectively. Clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, gingival bleeding index and probing pocket depth were assessed at baseline and at the 2nd week and 4th weeks. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant improvement in all clinical parameters in the test sites seen at the end of the 4-week period. Sites with bleeding on probing were reduced more in the test group than in the control group. Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 can be said to have a beneficial effect on periodontitis when used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing. PMID:25210260

  3. Periodontal disease epidemiology - learned and unlearned?

    PubMed

    Baelum, Vibeke; López, Rodrigo

    2013-06-01

    The notion of periodontal disease being the major cause of tooth loss among adults was rooted in the focal infection paradigm that dominated the first half of the 20th century. This paradigm was established largely by personal opinions, and it was not until the development of periodontal indices in the mid-1950s that periodontal epidemiology gained momentum. Unfortunately, the indices used suffered from a number of flaws, whereby the interpretation of the research results took the form of circular reasoning. It was under this paradigm that therapeutic and preventive intervention for periodontal diseases became entirely devoted to oral hygiene, as poor oral hygiene and older age were understood to explain nearly all the variation in disease occurrence. In the early 1980s, studies appeared that contradicted the concepts of poor oral hygiene as the inevitable trigger of periodontitis and of linear and ubiquitous periodontitis progression, whereby periodontal epidemiology was led into a relatively short-lived high-risk era. At this time, it became evident that old scourges continue to haunt periodontology: the inability to agree in operational clinical criteria for a periodontitis diagnosis and the inability to devise both a meaningful and a useful classification of periodontal diseases based on nominalist principles. The meager outcome of the high-risk era led researchers to resurrect the focal infection paradigm, which is now dressed up as periodontal medicine. Unfortunately, these developments have left the core of periodontology somewhat disheveled and deserted.

  4. Clinical phenotypes in adult patients with bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Stefano; Lonni, Sara; Dore, Simone; McDonnell, Melissa J; Goeminne, Pieter C; Dimakou, Katerina; Fardon, Thomas C; Rutherford, Robert; Pesci, Alberto; Restrepo, Marcos I; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Chalmers, James D

    2016-04-01

    Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous disease. This study aimed at identifying discrete groups of patients with different clinical and biological characteristics and long-term outcomes.This was a secondary analysis of five European databases of prospectively enrolled adult outpatients with bronchiectasis. Principal component and cluster analyses were performed using demographics, comorbidities, and clinical, radiological, functional and microbiological variables collected during the stable state. Exacerbations, hospitalisations and mortality during a 3-year follow-up were recorded. Clusters were externally validated in an independent cohort of patients with bronchiectasis, also investigating inflammatory markers in sputum.Among 1145 patients (median age 66 years; 40% male), four clusters were identified driven by the presence of chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosaor other pathogens and daily sputum: "Pseudomonas" (16%), "Other chronic infection" (24%), "Daily sputum" (33%) and "Dry bronchiectasis" (27%). Patients in the four clusters showed significant differences in terms of quality of life, exacerbations, hospitalisations and mortality during follow-up. In the validation cohort, free neutrophil elastase activity, myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin-1β levels in sputum were significantly different among the clusters.Identification of four clinical phenotypes in bronchiectasis could favour focused treatments in future interventional studies designed to alter the natural history of the disease.

  5. Effects of scaling and root planing on gingival crevicular fluid vascular endothelial growth factor level in chronic periodontitis patients with and without diabetes mellitus: A clinicobiochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Pannicker, Jayaraj Jishnu; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in periodontally healthy controls and chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) and also to investigate the effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) on the GCF VEGF level. Materials and Methods: One hundred and five patients were divided into three groups: Healthy (Group 1), CP (Group 2), and CP with DM (Group 3). Group 2 and Group 3 patients underwent SRP planning, and the cases were followed for 6 weeks. Periodontal clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline and 6-week posttherapy. GCF samples collected from each patient were quantified for VEGF level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean GCF VEGF level was increased in CP patients with and without DM compared to healthy patients and SRP therapy caused a statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in GCF VEGF level. Conclusion: VEGF is increased in GCF of CP patients with and without DM and that SRP substantially reduces its level in GCF. PMID:27563195

  6. Transcriptome analysis of periodontitis-associated fibroblasts by CAGE sequencing identified DLX5 and RUNX2 long variant as novel regulators involved in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masafumi; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Saito, Akira; Nagase, Takahide; Lizio, Marina; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Suzutani, Tatsuo; Kappert, Kai; Micke, Patrick; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is affecting over half of the adult population, and represents a major public health problem. Previously, we isolated a subset of gingival fibroblasts (GFs) from periodontitis patients, designated as periodontitis-associated fibroblasts (PAFs), which were highly capable of collagen degradation. To elucidate their molecular profiles, GFs isolated form healthy and periodontitis-affected gingival tissues were analyzed by CAGE-seq and integrated with the FANTOM5 atlas. GFs from healthy gingival tissues displayed distinctive patterns of CAGE profiles as compared to fibroblasts from other organ sites and characterized by specific expression of developmentally important transcription factors such as BARX1, PAX9, LHX8, and DLX5. In addition, a novel long non-coding RNA associated with LHX8 was described. Furthermore, we identified DLX5 regulating expression of the long variant of RUNX2 transcript, which was specifically active in GFs but not in their periodontitis-affected counterparts. Knockdown of these factors in GFs resulted in altered expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. These results indicate activation of DLX5 and RUNX2 via its distal promoter represents a unique feature of GFs, and is important for ECM regulation. Down-regulation of these transcription factors in PAFs could be associated with their property to degrade collagen, which may impact on the process of periodontitis. PMID:27645561

  7. Evaluation of clinical and metabolic changes after non surgical periodontal treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: A clinico biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Praveen; Tabasum, Syeda Tawkhira; Garg, Nidhi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical and metabolic changes following nonsurgical periodontal therapy of type-2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Fifteen nondiabetics and fifteen type-2 diabetics with moderate to severe periodontitis were selected after meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Periodontal pocket probing was performed using a Williams graduated periodontal probe and comparisons of the clinical and biochemical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein) were done between and within two groups at baseline and 3 month. Results: A correlation was observed between clinical and biochemical parameters between and within two groups at baseline and 3 month. The P value of diabetic group was<0.001 in all clinical parameters (plaque index PI, Gingival index GI, and Probing Pocket Depth PPD) in diabetic and nondiabetic group, showed statistically highly significant difference in GI, PI, PPD, <.01 in Glycated Hemoglobulin (HbAlc1) in test group and<0.05 in control group showed statistically significant difference. The P value of test group was >0.05 in Lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, serum triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein) that showed no significant difference and in control group<0.05 in total Cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and <0.01 in Low density lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoprotein, and Serum Triglyceride, respectively, showed statistically significant in Total cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoprotein, and Serum Triglyceride, not significant in high density lipoprotein. The P value >0.05 showed no statistical significance of correlation between the test and control groups. Conclusion: Both groups of patients showed an improvement in clinical and metabolic

  8. Low-cost periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Slots, Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease that affects low-income individuals disproportionately. Periodontitis is associated with specific bacterial species and herpesviruses, and successful prevention and treatment of the disease is contingent upon effective control of these pathogens. This article presents an efficacious, highly safe, minimally invasive, practical and low-cost periodontal therapy that involves professional and patient-administered mechanical therapy and antimicrobial agents. The major components are scaling for calculus removal, periodontal pocket irrigation with potent antiseptics, and treatment with systemic antibiotics for advanced disease. Povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite have all the characteristics for becoming the first-choice antiseptics in the management of periodontal diseases. Both agents show excellent antibacterial and antiviral properties, are readily available throughout the world, have been safely used in periodontal therapy for decades, offer significant benefits for individuals with very limited financial resources, and are well accepted by most dental professionals and patients. Four per cent chlorhexidine applied with a toothbrush to the most posterior part to the tongue dorsum can markedly reduce or eliminate halitosis in most individuals. Systemic antibiotics are used to treat periodontopathic bacteria that are not readily reached by topical therapy, such as pathogens within gingival tissue, within furcation defects, at the base of periodontal pockets, and on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosae. Valuable antibiotic therapies are amoxicillin-metronidazole (250 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of metronidazole, three times daily for 8 days) for young and middle-aged patients, and ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (500 mg of each, twice daily for 8 days) for elderly patients and for patients in developing countries who frequently harbor enteric rods subgingivally. Scaling to remove dental calculus and the prudent

  9. Assisting sexually abused adults. Practical guide to interviewing patients.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.

    1996-01-01

    Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817

  10. Associations of Toll-Like Receptor and β-Defensin Polymorphisms with Measures of Periodontal Disease (PD) in HIV+ North American Adults: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Catherine M.; Weinberg, Aaron; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Vernon, Lance T.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor (TLR) and β-defensin (DEFB) genes have been recognized as potential genetic factors that can influence susceptibility to and severity of periodontal diseases (PD). However, data regarding associations between these polymorphisms and PD are still scarce in North American populations, and are not available in HIV+ North American populations. In this exploratory study, we analyzed samples from HIV+ adults (n = 115), who received primary HIV care at 3 local outpatient HIV clinics and were monitored for PD status. We genotyped a total of 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 TLR genes and copy number variation (CNV) in DEFB4/103A. We performed regression analyses for levels of 3 periodontopathogens in subgingival dental plaques (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Treponema denticola [Td], and Tannerella forsythia [Tf]) and 3 clinical measures of PD (periodontal probing depth [PPD], gingival recession [REC], and bleeding on probing [BOP]). In all subjects combined, 2 SNPs in TLR1 were significantly associated with Td, and one SNP in TLR2 was significantly associated with BOP. One of the 2 SNPs in TLR1 was significantly associated with Td in Caucasians. In addition, another SNP in TLR1 and a SNP in TLR6 were also significantly associated with Td and Pg, respectively, in Caucasians. All 3 periodontopathogen levels were significantly associated with PPD and BOP, but none was associated with REC. Instrumental variable analysis showed that 8 SNPs in 6 TLR genes were significantly associated with the 3 periodontopathogen levels. However, associations between the 3 periodontopathogen levels and PPD or BOP were not driven by associations with these identified SNPs. No association was found between DEFB4/103A CNV and any periodontopathogen level or clinical measure in all samples, Caucasians, or African Americans. Our exploratory study suggests a role of TLR polymorphisms, particularly TLR1 and TLR6 polymorphisms, in PD in HIV+ North

  11. [Modern approaches to periodontal microcirculatory parameters assessment].

    PubMed

    Krechina, E K; Smirnova, T N

    2017-01-01

    The article presents comprehensive functional study of periodontal tissues in 62 patients aged 20-45 with periodontal disease by laser Doppler flowmetry, Doppler ultrasound and computer capillaroscopy. All patients were divided into 5 groups depending on the severity of inflammation in the periodontium (chronic gingivitis, light, moderate and severe chronic periodontal disease). The relationship between microcirculatory indexes was evaluated by Pearson Product Moment Correlation or PPMC. The study shows high correlation between blood flow velocity measurement, diameter of microvessels and oxygen saturation in periodontal tissues that establish a direct relationship between studied parameters.

  12. Translating personality psychology to help personalize preventive medicine for young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-03-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by health care reform will soon increase demands on primary care physicians. Physicians will face more young adult patients, which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the present study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults' personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the cohort of 1,000 individuals from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (Moffitt, Caspi, Rutter, & Silva, 2001), we show that very brief measures of young adults' personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for health care professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing health care electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient

  13. Use of lasers in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Bader, H I

    2000-10-01

    Although lasers have been used in periodontal therapy for 10 or more years, clinicians have barely begun to tap the enormous potential of this form of therapy. The relative lack of pain, ease of use, and site specificity of the laser make it an ideal addition to the periodontist's armamentarium. Applications now are being developed for a broader range of wavelengths that will offer useful, predictable, and comfortable therapy for managing the periodontal patient.

  14. PGE2, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha responses in diabetics as modifiers of periodontal disease expression.

    PubMed

    Salvi, G E; Beck, J D; Offenbacher, S

    1998-07-01

    upregulated monocytic secretion of PGE2 (4.2-fold), IL-1 beta (4.4-fold), and TNF-alpha (4.6-fold) when compared to non-diabetic controls. Within diabetics, LPS dose-response curves demonstrated that monocytes from group B patients secreted approximately 3 times more PGE2 and 6.2 times more TNF-alpha than those from group A; however, there was no significant difference in monocytic IL-1 beta secretion between the 2 diabetic groups. This upregulated monocytic trait is thought to exist independently of the presence of severe periodontal disease since, in non-diabetic patients with adult periodontitis, Gram-negative bacterial infections alone are not sufficient to elicit a systemic hyperresponsive monocytic trait. Between group A and group B diabetics, there was no significant difference in metabolic control as expressed by mean level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In conclusion, our data suggest that diabetic patients have exaggerated inflammatory responses when compared to non-diabetic controls. Furthermore, within diabetics, individuals with moderate to severe periodontitis (group B) have significantly elevated monocytic secretion of PGE2 and TNF-alpha upon LPS challenge and significantly higher GCF levels of PGE2 and IL-1 beta when compared to patients with gingivitis or mild periodontal disease (group A). Thus, we suggest that insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for more severe periodontal disease because, as compared to non-diabetics, diabetic subjects react with an abnormally high degree of inflammation to an equivalent bacterial burden.

  15. Understanding the pathogenesis of periodontitis: a century of discovery.

    PubMed

    Williams, R C; Paquette, D W

    2000-07-01

    The twentieth century was an especially notable time for research advances into the understanding of the aetiology and the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Beginning in 1900, using dark-field preparations, investigators began to implicate certain microorganisms, such as amoebae, as causing periodontitis. Today, using modern molecular techniques, we believe we have identified the primary causative agents of adult periodontitis. In 1900, histological sections of periodontal tissues at autopsy provided clues as to how periodontal pockets probably formed. Today there is a wealth of cellular and molecular data that suggest the actual pathways that the susceptible host uses to initiate periodontal tissue destruction. We now also appreciate that periodontitis may be a significant risk factor for systemic disease. A very exceptional 'century of discovery' into the nature of periodontal diseases should now lead to a new era of better diagnosis, prevention and treatment for this ubiquitous disease.

  16. Bacteria and bacterial DNA in atherosclerotic plaque and aneurysmal wall biopsies from patients with and without periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Armingohar, Zahra; Jørgensen, Jørgen J.; Kristoffersen, Anne Karin; Abesha-Belay, Emnet; Olsen, Ingar

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported an association between chronic periodontitis (CP) and cardiovascular diseases. Detection of periodontopathogens, including red complex bacteria (RCB), in vascular lesions has suggested these bacteria to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Objective In this study, we investigate bacteria and their DNA in vascular biopsies from patients with vascular diseases (VD; i.e. abdominal aortic aneurysms, atherosclerotic carotid, and common femoral arteries), with and without CP. Methods DNA was extracted from vascular biopsies selected from 40 VD patients: 30 with CP and 10 without CP. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rDNA (V3-V5) was polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified, and the amplicons were cloned into Escherichia coli, sequenced, and classified (GenBank and the Human Oral Microbiome database). Species-specific primers were used for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In addition, 10 randomly selected vascular biopsies from the CP group were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for visualization of bacteria. Checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization was performed to assess the presence of RCB in 10 randomly selected subgingival plaque samples from CP patients. Results A higher load and mean diversity of bacteria were detected in vascular biopsies from VD patients with CP compared to those without CP. Enterobacteriaceae were frequently detected in vascular biopsies together with cultivable, commensal oral, and not-yet-cultured bacterial species. While 70% of the subgingival plaque samples from CP patients showed presence of RCB, only P. gingivalis was detected in one vascular biopsy. Bacterial cells were seen in all 10 vascular biopsies examined by SEM. Conclusions A higher bacterial load and more diverse colonization were detected in VD lesions of CP patients as compared to patients without CP. This indicated that a multitude of bacterial species both from the gut and the

  17. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  18. Levels of interleukin-1β in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with coronary heart disease and its relationship to periodontal status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenggogeny, Putri; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Tadjoedin, Fatimah M.; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Periodontitis is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Both diseases are an inflammatory diseases and have the same potential pathogenic mechanisms. Interleukin-1β as a pro-inflammatory main cytokine, can be found in this both diseases. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) derived from the serum of gingival sulcus, affected by inflammatory mechanism and the amount of this fluid will increase in that situation. Objective: To analyze the relationship of interleukin-1β levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of CHD and non-CHD patients with periodontal status. Methods: Oral clinical examination (plaque index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss) for 35 subjects with CHD and 35 non CHD were checked, laboratory test to measure the levels of Interleukin-1β was checked with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: There was no significant differences between interleukin-1β levels in CHD and non-CHD patients (p>0.05); there was no significant difference between the level of Interleukin-1β with periodontal status in CHD and control (non CHD) patients (p>0.05). Conclusions: levels of Interleukin-1β in CHD patients do not have a relationships with plaque index, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss, but has a relationships with bleeding on probing.

  19. Isolated cleft lip with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care. PMID:25810600

  20. Periodontal Considerations for the Child and Adolescent. A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guo-Hao; Boynton, James R

    2015-01-01

    The primary etiology of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque and its byproducts in a susceptible host. Although the prevalence of plaque-induced periodontal disease is relatively low for the child and adolescent, destructive periodontal disease may be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. In some cases, childhood periodontal destruction may be the first sign of systemic disease, making appropriate recognition and determination of etiology critical in this population. Therefore, this literature review discusses the periodontal considerations for the child and adolescent patient, aiming to offer a guide for differential diagnosis and oral management of periodontal disease in the young population.

  1. Effect of the use of snuff on the levels of interleukin-1 β and interleukin-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vijayendra; Salam, Sharib Abdus; Moda, Aman; Agarwal, Preeti; Nath, Sonia; Pulikkotil, Shaju Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of smokeless tobacco in the form of moist snuff placed in the oral cavity is popular in rural India. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the effect of snuff on periodontitis by assessing interleukin (IL)-1 β and IL-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects were selected for this study. 40 subjects presented with periodontitis, which included 20 snuff users (SP) and 20 nonsnuff users (NS). 20 periodontally healthy patients formed the controls (healthy control: HC). The clinical parameters recorded were gingival index (GI), plaque index, calculus index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), recession (RC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). The IL-1 β and IL-8 levels were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Quantikine®). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), post-hoc Tukey's, Kruskal-Walli's ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison among groups and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: No significant difference was seen in levels of IL-1 β and IL-8 between SP and NS groups (P = 0.16, 0.97). However, both the periodontitis groups (SP and NS) had increased IL-β levels when compared to HC group (P = 0.01, 0.001). The snuff users showed significant increase in GI, BOP, RC, and CAL when compared with NS (P = 0.002, 0.001, 0.012, 0.002) whereas NS group had significant increase in PD (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, use of snuff does not affect the host inflammatory response associated with periodontitis and leads to RC and increased CAL due to local irritant effect. PMID:26604961

  2. Managing the maxillary partially edentulous patient with extensive anterior tooth loss and advanced periodontal disease using a removable partial denture: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Ma, Polly S; Brudvik, James S

    2008-10-01

    The treatment modality, a continuous occlusal rest removable partial denture, not only restored missing teeth but also stabilized the remaining dentition in a patient with advanced periodontal attachment loss. By engaging the guiding planes at the mesial surfaces of the abutments anteriorly and also the distal surfaces of the abutments posteriorly, the remaining teeth, with varying amounts of mobility, were splinted together by the framework. This conservative treatment option allows flexibility for easy repair during the life span of the prosthesis.

  3. Clinical considerations in the management of inflammatory periodontal diseases in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cabanilla, Leyvee; Molinari, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Periodontal diseases and conditions, as defined by The 1999 International Workshop for Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions presented some significant paradigm shifts based on evidence that the transition from plaque-associated reversible gingival diseases to periodontitis can occur in children and adolescents with characteristics which were previously thought to be typical of adult periodontitis. The purposes of this paper are to present the periodontal diseases and conditions described in the 1999 workshop sponsored by the American Academy of Periodontology, review the risk factors for the development of periodontal diseases in the pediatric and adolescent populations, and present appropriate clinical periodontal assessment and management for these age groups.

  4. Using risk assessment in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Alan J

    2014-08-01

    Risk assessment has become a regular feature in both dental practice and society as a whole, and principles used to assess risk in society are similar to those used in a clinical setting. Although the concept of risk assessment as a prognostic indicator for periodontal disease incidence and activity is well established in the management of periodontitis, the use of risk assessment to manage the practical treatment of periodontitis and its sequelae appears to have less foundation. A simple system of initial risk assessment - building on the use of the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), clinical, medical and social factors - is described, linked to protocols for delivering care suited to general dental practice and stressing the role of long-term supportive care. The risks of not treating the patient are considered, together with the possible causes of failure, and the problems of successful treatment are illustrated by the practical management of post-treatment recession.

  5. Clinical, laboratory, and immunological studies of a family with a high prevalence of generalized prepubertal and juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed

    López, N J

    1992-05-01

    A study of a consanguineous family with a high prevalence of localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) and generalized prepubertal periodontitis (GPP) was done over a 7-and-a-half year period. The parents had adult periodontitis, while 2 daughters, aged 13 and 15, had LJP. Furthermore, 2 other daughters, ages 14 and 10, and a son, aged 9, were affected by GPP. Two remaining siblings were not affected. Clinical and radiographic examinations on all family members were done, and chemotaxis for blood neutrophils was assessed. Laboratory tests, immunological examinations, and evaluation for neutrophil functions were done on the GPP patients. Microbiological cultures were performed on 2 of the GPP patients, as well as in the mother. The mother, the 2 LJP patients, and 1 of the unaffected siblings had depressed PMN chemotaxis. The other family members, including the 3 GPP patients, had normal PMN chemotaxis. GPP patients did not have any systemic disease, and evidence of major defects in the immunological functions was not detected. LJP patients were successfully treated with root planing, subgingival curettage, and tetracycline therapy. Intensive periodontal therapy, combined with systemic administration of antibiotics, was not effective in halting periodontal tissue destruction in the 3 GPP patients. Results indicate that the underlying cause of GPP is not always related to leukocyte dysfunction. Since Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was the most frequent pathogen found in subgingival microflora of 2 of the GPP patients, it is assumed that it may play a key role in the etiology of GPP.

  6. Design of a protocol for obtaining genomic DNA from saliva using mouthwash: Samples taken from patients with periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Ángel Chávez; Volante, Beatriz Buentello; Hernández, María Esther Ocharán; Mendoza, Claudia Camelia Calzada; Pliego, Arturo Flores; Baptista Gonzalez, Héctor A.; Juárez, Higinio Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Background Obtaining high quality genomic DNA safely and economically is vital for diverse studies of large populations aimed at evaluating the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to disease. Aim This study was to test a protocol for the extraction of high quality genomic DNA from saliva samples obtained with mouthwash and taken from patients with periodontal disease. Methods Saliva samples were taken from 60 patients and then stored at room temperature. DNA extraction was carried out at distinct post-sampling times (10, 20 and 30 days). Evaluation of genomic DNA was performed with spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and PCR genotyping and sequencing. Results The greatest concentration of DNA obtained was 352 μg at 10 days post-sampling, followed by 121.025 μg and 19.59 μg at 20 and 30 days, respectively. When determining the purity of DNA with the spectrophotometric ratio of 260/230, the relations of 1.20, 1.40 and 0.781 were obtained for 10, 20 and 30 days, respectively. In all samples, it was possible to amplify the product of 485 bp and the sequence of the amplicons showed 95% similarity to the reference sequence. Conclusion The present protocol represents an easy, safe and economical technique for obtaining high quality genomic DNA. PMID:27195211

  7. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Emdogain as a regenerative material in the treatment of interproximal vertical defects in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Vandana, K L; Shah, Kinnari; Prakash, Shobha

    2004-04-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Emdogain enamel matrix proteins as a regenerative material in interproximal vertical defects both clinically and radiographically. Patients aged 18 to 45 years and diagnosed with chronic or aggressive periodontitis were included. Sixteen intrabony defects in eight patients were surgically treated using a split-mouth design. Emdogain placement was done at experimental sites. Since both chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients were included, an attempt was made to interpret results between the two types of cases. Postsurgical measurements at 9 months revealed no significant difference in mean pocket depth reduction, clinical attachment level gain, amount of defect fill, or defect resolution between control and experimental groups. Mean pocket depth reduction and amount of defect fill were significant in both groups. The results were interpreted separately for chronic and aggressive periodontitis cases. This study demonstrated no added advantage of using Emdogain compared to surgical debridement alone. Further long-term and large-sample-size evaluation is required to prove Emdogain's consistent efficacy.

  8. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Gum (Periodontal) Disease What Is Gum (Periodontal) Disease? An Infection of the Gums and Surrounding Tissues Gum (periodontal) disease is an infection of the gums and surrounding ...

  9. Low levels of serum Vitamin D in chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rosamma; Nagrale, Amol Vijay; Joseraj, Manaloor George; Pradeep Kumar, Kotha Muttathu; Kaziyarakath, Jaishid Ahadal; Chandini, Radhakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Vitamin D is associated with inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of our study was to find out the level of serum Vitamin D in chronic periodontitis patients (CHP) with and without type 2 DM. Materials and Methods: This study consists of 141 subjects, including 48 controls. Case groups consisted of 43 chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 DM (CHPDM) and 50 CHP. pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), modified gingival index (MGI), plaque index (PI), and calculus index (CI) were taken. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) level in ηg/ml was estimated by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay with Elecsys and cobase e immunoassay analysers(cobase e 411). Other laboratory investigations including fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum calcium were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean serum 25(OH) D level was 22.32 ± 5.76 ηg/ml, 14.06 ± 4.57 ηg/ml and 16.94 ± 5.58 ηg/ml for control, CHPDM and CHP groups respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean value of FBS was significantly high in CHPDM group as compared to CHP group. Periodontal parameters like MGI, PI, PD, and CI showed significant difference between groups (P < 0.05) and higher score was found in CHP group, while CAL and PI showed no statistically significant difference between CHP and CHPDM group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: This study observed a low level of serum Vitamin D level in patients with CHP and CHPDM. Low Vitamin D level was observed in case groups may be due to the diseases process rather than low Vitamin D acting as a cause for the disease. PMID:26644714

  10. Severe periodontal destruction in alpha-mannosidosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Jagdip S; Auplish, Gita; Johnson, Adele R; Darbar, Ulpee R

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Severe periodontal breakdown in alpha-mannosidosis patients has not previously been reported in the literature. The purposes of this paper are to: present the cases of 2 siblings diagnosed with alpha-mannosidosis, each of whom had varying severity of periodontal destruction; and provide an overview of alpha-mannosidosis, the possible reasons for the periodontal destruction, and the periodontal management in the 2 affected siblings. Both had preventive and nonsurgical periodontal therapy followed by a 5-year period of supportive therapy. Their pattern of bone loss was consistent with those with periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases, with the extent of periodontal destruction being related to the severity of the alpha-mannosidosis. Alpha-mannosidosis patients present with social disfigurements and, to prevent tooth loss that can add to this, early periodontal diagnosis is important to optimize management and intervention.

  11. Impact of the severity of chronic periodontal disease on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Meusel, Dayse R D Z; Ramacciato, Juliana C; Motta, Rogério H L; Brito Júnior, Rui B; Flório, Flávia M

    2015-06-01

    We examined the impact of the severity of periodontal disease on quality of life in adults with chronic periodontitis. One hundred patients (age, 30-58 years) who were assisted at the Basic Health Care Unit in the city of Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil underwent clinical examination of all standing teeth, including gingival bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level, and were divided into those with mild/moderate (n = 49; group G1) and severe (n = 51; group G2) chronic periodontitis. The participants were then interviewed, using a structured questionnaire. The Brazilian Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14Br) questionnaire was used to assess oral health-related quality of life. Associations were investigated, and those with a P value of less than 0.2 were tested using multiple logistic regression models. Those with a P value of 0.05 or less were considered significant. There was a significant association between G2 and education level (P = 0.00051). OHIP-14Br score was higher for G2 (24.1) than for G1 (18.2) (P = 0.0455). Severe chronic periodontitis was associated with low education level (≤8 years) (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-7.3) and pronunciation difficulties (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0-9.3). In conclusion, periodontal disease severity was inversely associated with quality of life among Brazilian adults.

  12. Exploring Adult Care Experiences and Barriers to Transition in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bemrich-Stolz, CJ; Halanych, JH; Howard, TH; Hilliard, LM; Lebensburger, JD

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adults with sickle cell anemia are at high risk for increased hospitalization and death at the time of transition to adult care. This may be related to failure of the transition system to prepare young adults for the adult healthcare system. This qualitative study was designed to identify factors related to transition that may affect the health of adults with sickle cell anemia. Procedure Ten patients currently treated in an adult hematology clinic participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews to describe their experience transitioning from pediatric to adult care and differences in adult and pediatric healthcare systems. Results Participants were generally unprepared for the adult healthcare system. Negative issues experienced by participants included physician mistrust, difficulty with employers, keeping insurance, and stress in personal relationships. Positive issues experienced by participants included improved self efficacy with improved self care and autonomy. Conclusions In the absence of a formalized transition program, adults with sickle cell anemia experience significant barriers to adult care. In addition to medical history review and identification of an adult provider, transition programs should incorporate strategies to navigate the adult medical system, insurance and relationships as well as encouraging self efficacy. PMID:26900602

  13. [Bacterial parotitis in an immunocompromised patient in adult ICU].

    PubMed

    Vassal, O; Bernet, C; Wallet, F; Friggeri, A; Piriou, V

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial parotitis is a common childhood disease with a favorable outcome. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently involved pathogen. Clinical presentation in adult patients can be misleading, Onset occurs in patients with multiple comorbidities, making diagnosis difficult--particularly in ICU. Different pathogens are found in adults with worse outcomes observed. We report here the case of a critically ill patient and discuss diagnosis and management of bacterial parotitis.

  14. Steroidal and non-steroidal cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor anti-inflammatory drugs as pre-emptive medication in patients undergoing periodontal surgery.

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Santos; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Ruiz, Karina Gonzalez Silvério; Nociti-Jr, Francisco Humberto; Sallum, Enilson Antônio; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the pre-emptive use of a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor with a well established steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for pain and edema relief following periodontal surgery for crown lengthening. Thirty patients requiring periodontal surgery were randomly assigned to receive one of the following medications: selective COX-2 inhibitor or steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, 60 min before the surgical procedure. To examine patient anxiety, a Corah's dental anxiety scale was applied before surgery. Using a visual analog scale, the extent of pain/discomfort during the trans-operative period and immediately after the surgery was measured. Additionally, intensity of pain/discomfort and edema were examined 4, 8, 12 and 24 h postoperatively. With regard to anxiety, no statistical differences between the groups were observed (p>0.05). With respect to the extent of pain/discomfort during the trans-operative, immediate and late postoperative period, data demonstrated no significant differences (p>0.05) between the COX-2 inhibitor and steroidal groups. With regard to edema, intragroup analysis did not reveal any statistically significant difference (p>0.05) during the 24 h following surgery in either group. In conclusion, both anti-inflammatory drugs presented a similar potential for pain and edema relief following periodontal surgery.

  15. Detection of (Leu-7)-positive cells with NK activity in human gingival tissues from patients with periodontitis

    SciTech Connect

    Komiyama, K.; Hirsch, H.Z.; Mestecky, J.; Moro, I.

    1986-03-05

    Natural killer (NK) cells have been identified in peripheral blood, lymphoid tissue and more recently in gut mucosa and may be involved in the regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis. They have assayed gingival tissues obtained from 25 periodontitis patients, for the presence and activity of NK cells. Routine histological techniques demonstrated an inflammatory infiltrate dominated by plasma cells and B lymphocytes. Indirect staining procedures with a biotin-labeled mouse anti-human, Leu-7 antibody revealed the presence of numerous positive cells accompanying the inflammatory cellular infiltrate in perivascular areas. Several specimens demonstrated positive-staining cells in the epithelium as well. Few cells were observed in histologically uninflammed areas. Single cell suspension obtained by collagenase digestion of 5 gingival samples were used in /sup 51/Cr release cytotoxicity assay against K562 cells. Three of the five samples were positive in this assay. The finding of Leu-7-positive cells in areas of intense plasma cell foci but not in uninflammed areas, may support a role for these cells in the regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis in oral mucosal tissues.

  16. [Incidence and quantification of mycoplasma in saliva in patients with periodontal disease and subjects with healthy gingiva].

    PubMed

    Mazzali de Ilja, R

    1990-01-01

    The ecological niche of oral mycoplasmas are both gingival pockets in patients suffering periodontitis (PP) and gingival sulci in individuals with healthy gingiva (HG). The mycoplasmas migrate from these anatomical sites to the saliva and to entire oral cavity. The purpose of this report was to examine whether differences exist in the incidence and concentration of mycoplasma as determined in the saliva of thirty (30) PP and fifty (50) individuals with HG. Saliva samples were obtained from both groups, with capillary tubes and cotton swabs, and used for mycoplasma isolation and quantification. The methods employed were those recommended by the Centers for Diseases Control (CDC Atlanta, Georgia). The results showed an 80% mycoplasma incidence in group PP and 50% HG, with the following concentrations: 5.0 x 10(3) to 8.0 x 10(6) Colony Forming Units/ml (CFU/ml) in PP, and 3.0 x 10(3) to 4.5 x 10(4) UFC/ml in the HG (P less than 0.001). We conclude the both mycoplasma incidence and concentration were higher in PP than in HG individuals.

  17. Microbiological Effect of Essential Oils in Combination with Subgingival Ultrasonic Instrumentation and Mouth Rinsing in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Takehiko; Abe, Daisuke; Shimizu, Taro; Nohno, Kaname; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2013-01-01

    Thirty chronic periodontitis patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control, saline, and essential oil-containing antiseptic (EO). Subgingival plaque was collected from a total of 90 pockets across all subjects. Subsequently, subgingival ultrasonic instrumentation (SUI) was performed by using EO or saline as the irrigation agent. After continuous mouth rinsing at home with EO or saline for 7 days, subgingival plaques were sampled again. Periodontopathic bacteria were quantified using the modified Invader PLUS assay. The total bacterial count in shallow pockets (probing pocket depth (PPD) = 4-5 mm) was significantly reduced in both saline (P < 0.05) and EO groups (P < 0.01). The total bacterial count (P < 0.05) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P < 0.01) and Tannerella forsythia (P < 0.05) count in deep pockets (PPD ≥6 mm) were significantly reduced only in the EO group. In comparisons of the change ratio relative to baseline value of total bacteria counts across categories, both the saline and EO groups for PPD 4-5 mm and the EO group for PPD 6 mm showed a significantly low ratio (P < 0.05). The adjunctive use of EO may be effective in reducing subgingival bacterial counts in both shallow and deep pockets. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000007484. PMID:24171000

  18. Effect of topical application of melatonin on serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Cutando, Antonio; Montero, Javier; Gómez-de Diego, Rafael; Ferrera, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Background The present clinical trial study was designed to assess the effect of topical application of melatonin on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with diabetes and periodontal disease in comparison with healthy controls. Material and Methods Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and CRP by nephelometry by using the proper commercial kits in 30 patients with diabetes and periodontal disease, and also in a control group of 30 healthy subjects. Periodontograms were performed using the Florida Probe®. Patients with diabetes were treated with a topical application of melatonin (1% orabase cream formula) once daily for 20 days. Healthy subjects were treated with a placebo orabase cream. Results Patients with diabetes and periodontal disease had significantly higher mean levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP than healthy subjects (P < 0.001). Following topical melatonin application, there was a statistically significant decrease in the gingival index and pocket depth (P < 0.001) as well as a significant decrease in IL-6 and CRP serum levels (P < 0.001). Local melatonin application in patients with diabetes and periodontal disease resulted in a significant decrease in CRP and IL-6 serum levels as well as an improvement in the gingival index and pocket depth. Patients with periodontal disease had significantly higher serum CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α values by comparison with healthy subjects. Conclusions We conclude that melatonin can modulate the inflammatory action of these molecules in periodontal patients. Key words:Melatonin, periodontal disease, diabetes mellitus, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, inflammatory markers. PMID:26644840

  19. Relation between periodontitis and helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei; Zhou, Weiying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The correlation between periodontitis and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the mouth was analyzed. Method: 70 elderly patients with periodontitis treated at our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were recruited. Dental plaques and gargle were collected for H. pylori detection using PCR technique. Periodontal health status of the patients was recorded. 70 control cases with healthy periodontium were also included. The symptoms of H. pylori infection in the mouth were compared between the two groups, and the results were analyzed statistically. Results: The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the periodontitis group was 71.4%; the positive rate of cagA gene was 35.7%. The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the control group was 34.3% and that of cagA gene was 12.9%. The two groups did not show significant differences in these two indicators (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in subgingival plaques was higher than that in supragingival plaques, and the difference was of statistical significance (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of H. pylori in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was obviously higher than that of patients with mild periodontitis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal health status of elderly people with periodontitis correlated with H. pylori infection in the stomach. PMID:26629215

  20. Trauma from occlusion. Periodontal concerns.

    PubMed

    Burgett, F G

    1995-04-01

    Application of the chronic disease model to IPD suggests that to be most effective, programs of prevention and treatment include measures to address as many of the identified risk factors as is possible. It remains to be determined if TO is involved in the initiation of IPD, for example, if individuals with TO are at greater risk for the development of IPD. There is evidence that TO is a risk factor in the progression of IPD. Tooth mobility is associated with and is a risk factor for increased attachment loss and increased bone loss in patients with periodontitis. Tooth mobility can be reduced by occlusal treatment. Clinical trials involving patients with periodontitis clearly establish that a better clinical periodontal attachment level response to treatment is obtained when occlusal adjustment is included as part of the treatment plan. Patients with advanced periodontal involvement benefit from occlusal treatment in terms of increased stability for the teeth and also in terms of oral comfort. Finally, There is no evidence that without occlusal treatment, periodontal patients who are in careful maintenance programs are more likely to suffer recurrence of IPD.

  1. Physical and psychosocial challenges in adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    duTreil, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Numerous challenges confront adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors, including difficulty in controlling bleeding episodes, deterioration of joints, arthritic pain, physical disability, emotional turmoil, and social issues. High-intensity treatment regimens often used in the treatment of patients with inhibitors also impose significant scheduling, economic, and emotional demands on patients and their families or primary caregivers. A comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment of the physical, emotional, and social status of adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors is essential for the development of treatment strategies that can be individualized to address the complex needs of these patients. PMID:25093002

  2. The Role of Nutrition in Periodontal Health: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Almas, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal health is influenced by a number of factors such as oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic factors, systemic health, and nutrition. Many studies have observed that a balanced diet has an essential role in maintaining periodontal health. Additionally, the influences of nutritional supplements and dietary components have been known to affect healing after periodontal surgery. Studies have attempted to find a correlation between tooth loss, periodontal health, and nutrition. Moreover, bone formation and periodontal regeneration are also affected by numerous vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the currently available data on diet and maintenance of periodontal health and periodontal healing. The effects of nutritional intervention studies to improve the quality of life and well-being of patients with periodontal disease have been discussed. PMID:27589794

  3. Impact of Chronic Periodontitis on Levels of Glucoregulatory Biomarkers in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hasaan G.; Idris, Shaza B.; Mustafa, Manal; Ahmed, Mutaz F.; Åstrøm, Anne N.; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah O.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease is bidirectional, but information about the effect of chronic periodontitis on the levels of the glucoregulatory biomarkers locally in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of 10 glucoregulatory biomarkers in GCF, firstly in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) presenting with and without chronic periodontitis and secondly, in subjects without diabetes, with and without chronic periodontitis. The material comprised a total of 152 subjects, stratified as: 54 with T2DM and chronic periodontitis (G1), 24 with T2DM (G2), 30 with chronic periodontitis (G3) and 44 without T2DM or periodontitis (G4). The levels of the biomarkers were measured using multiplex biometric immunoassays. Periodontal pocket depths were recorded in mm. Subsets G1 and G2 and subsets G3 and G4 were compared independently. Among T2DM subjects, GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon were significantly up-regulated in G1 compared to G2. Moreover, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding C-peptide, insulin, ghrelin, leptin and PAI-1. Comparisons among individuals without T2DM revealed significantly lower amounts of C-peptide and ghrelin in G3 than in G4. The number of sites with pocket depth ≥ 4mm correlated negatively with C-peptide (Spearman’s correlation co-efficient: -0.240, P < 0.01) and positively with GIP and visfatin (Spearman’s correlation co-efficient: 0.255 and 0.241, respectively, P < 0.01). The results demonstrate that chronic periodontitis adversely influences the GCF levels of glucoregulatory biomarkers, as it is associated with disturbed levels of biomarkers related to the onset of T2DM and its medical complications. PMID:25993052

  4. Impact of Chronic Periodontitis on Levels of Glucoregulatory Biomarkers in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hasaan G; Idris, Shaza B; Mustafa, Manal; Ahmed, Mutaz F; Åstrøm, Anne N; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah O

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease is bidirectional, but information about the effect of chronic periodontitis on the levels of the glucoregulatory biomarkers locally in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of 10 glucoregulatory biomarkers in GCF, firstly in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) presenting with and without chronic periodontitis and secondly, in subjects without diabetes, with and without chronic periodontitis. The material comprised a total of 152 subjects, stratified as: 54 with T2DM and chronic periodontitis (G1), 24 with T2DM (G2), 30 with chronic periodontitis (G3) and 44 without T2DM or periodontitis (G4). The levels of the biomarkers were measured using multiplex biometric immunoassays. Periodontal pocket depths were recorded in mm. Subsets G1 and G2 and subsets G3 and G4 were compared independently. Among T2DM subjects, GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon were significantly up-regulated in G1 compared to G2. Moreover, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding C-peptide, insulin, ghrelin, leptin and PAI-1. Comparisons among individuals without T2DM revealed significantly lower amounts of C-peptide and ghrelin in G3 than in G4. The number of sites with pocket depth ≥ 4mm correlated negatively with C-peptide (Spearman's correlation co-efficient: -0.240, P < 0.01) and positively with GIP and visfatin (Spearman's correlation co-efficient: 0.255 and 0.241, respectively, P < 0.01). The results demonstrate that chronic periodontitis adversely influences the GCF levels of glucoregulatory biomarkers, as it is associated with disturbed levels of biomarkers related to the onset of T2DM and its medical complications.

  5. Interdisciplinary treatment of an adult patient with old extraction sites.

    PubMed

    Taner, Tülin Ugur; Germec, Derya; Er, Nuray; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim

    2006-11-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary treatment of a 31-year-old female patient showing a protrusive profile, maxillary constriction, mandibular crowding, a Class III canine relationship complicated with multiple missing teeth, old atrophic extraction sites, and periodontal defects. The lower dental arch irregularity was eliminated by air-rotor stripping (ARS). The upper extraction site was opened for prosthetic rehabilitation, whereas closure of the lower extraction space was preferred. The narrow alveolar crest of the atrophic bone was augmented with the use of autogenous bone, beta-tricalcium phosphate (Cerasorb), and autogenous platelet-rich plasma. A functional and esthetic occlusion in an improved facial profile was established at the end of orthodontic treatment combined with ARS technique, surgery, and prosthodontics.

  6. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  7. Periodontal management and restoration of an amelogenesis imperfecta patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Robert A; Gautam, D K; Karol, Suneet; Kumari, Bindiya

    2014-02-01

    This report describes the treatment of a young male patient diagnosed with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), a hereditary disorder that affects the enamel of both primary and permanent dentition. For management and rehabilitation, it is crucial to determine the type of AI-hypoplastic, hypomaturation, or hypocalcified. As with this patient, who presented with tricho-dento osseous syndrome, patients may present with associated expression of a syndrome (partial or full) and secondary changes in the periodontium. AI is a serious problem; therefore extensive treatment using a multidisciplinary approach must be instituted, especially if the patient is syndrome-associated.

  8. Prevalence of periodontal pathogens as predictor of the evolution of periodontal status.

    PubMed

    Puig-Silla, Miriam; Montiel-Company, José María; Dasí-Fernández, Francisco; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel

    2016-11-25

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, its fimA genotypes, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola and the evolution of periodontal health. In a longitudinal prospective study, samples of subgingival plaque were taken from 114 patients (37 with chronic periodontitis, 17 with gingivitis, and 60 periodontally healthy) in the course of a full periodontal examination. PCR was employed to determine the presence of the periodontopathogenic bacteria. Four years later, a second examination and sample collection were performed in 90 of these patients (20 with chronic periodontitis, 12 with gingivitis, and 58 periodontally healthy). T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, and T. denticola are the most prevalent bacteria in patients with chronic periodontitis (78.4%, 62.2 y 56.8%, respectively). The P. gingivalis bacterium and its fimA genotypes I, II, and IV showed the highest correlation between the baseline and follow-up assessments. P. gingivalis fimA genotype II and T. forsythia were associated to a significant degree with unfavourable periodontal evolution. Of the variables studied, P. gingivalis fimA genotype II and T. forsythia increase the risk of an unfavourable evolution of periodontal status.

  9. Translating Personality Psychology to Help Personalize Preventive Medicine for Young-Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 individuals, we show that very brief measures of young adults’ personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness-to-Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health-risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for healthcare professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing healthcare electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient outcomes. PMID:24588093

  10. A randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate a novel noninjectable anesthetic gel with thermosetting agent during scaling and root planing in chronic periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Dayakar, MM; Akbar, SM

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the efficacy of a noninjectable anesthetic gel with a thermosetting agent in the reduction of pain during scaling and root planing (SRP) in untreated chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized, double-masked, split-mouth, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty patients were enrolled who underwent SRP in a split-mouth (right side/left side) manner. Before commencement of SRP, both quadrants on each side were isolated and had a randomized gel (either placebo or test gel) placed in the periodontal pockets for 30 s. The pain was measured using numerical rating scale (NRS) and verbal rating scale (VRS). Results: The median NRS pain score for the patients treated with the anesthetic test gel was 1 (range: 0-4) as opposed to 5 (range: 3-7) in the placebo treated patients. The mean rank of pain score using NRS in test gel was 16.18 as compared to 44.82 in placebo treated sites. Hence, significant reduction in pain was found in test gel as compared to placebo using NRS (P < 0.001). The VRS showed that the majority of patients reported no pain or mild pain with a median of 1 as compared to placebo treated sites with a median of 2 suggestive of moderate pain. Conclusions: The NRS and VRS pain scores showed that the side treated with anesthetic gel was statistically more effective than the placebo in reducing pain during SRP. PMID:27051372

  11. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Han Chinese patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Lin, Mei; Wang, Xuejin; Wang, Songling; Wang, Zuomin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Han Chinese patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Six candidate SNPs of TLR4-rs10759930, rs10983755, rs11536879, rs1927907, rs11536889 and rs7873784-and 18 haplotype-tagging SNPs (tagSNPs) were genotyped in 339 patients with chronic periodontitis only (CP group), and 373 CP patients with COPD (CP with COPD group). The genotype distribution and allele frequencies of TLR4 rs1927907 among the CP (AA: 26, 8.5%, AG: 109, 35.5%, GG: 172, 56.0%) and CP with COPD (AA: 41, 12.0%, AG: 143, 41.7%, GG: 159, 46.4%) groups were significantly different (P = 0.039). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and oral hygiene habits, CP patients carrying the AG polymorphism in TLR4 rs1927907 were found to be more susceptible to concomitant COPD than those carrying the GG genotype (P = 0.005, OR = 1.94, 95% CI for OR: 1.22-3.03). In conclusion, TLR4 gene polymorphism plays a role in the common pathophysiology of CP and COPD, indicating that CP patients with TLR4 gene rs1927907 polymorphism may be more susceptible to COPD.(J Oral Sci 58, 555-560, 2016).

  12. Evaluation of the effect of hydrogen peroxide as a mouthwash in comparison with chlorhexidine in chronic periodontitis patients: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Hazem Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a mouthwash in comparison with chlorhexidine (CHX) in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients suffering from localized mild to moderate chronic periodontitis were chosen. The subjects were divided equally into three groups. Group A patients were treated only with scaling and root planning (SRP). Group B were treated with SRP in combination with 0.2% CHX gluconate mouthwash twice daily for 10 days. Group C were treated with SRP in combination with 1.5% H2O2 mouthwash twice daily for 10 days. Gingival index, plaque index, pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded for patients of all groups on day 0 (Baseline), 15, 30, and 90, respectively. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22.0. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess the differences in the abovementioned indices because of time and groups. Results: Both CHX gluconate and H2O2 mouthwashes significantly reduced the gingival in